• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Map of South America showing the...
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Advertising
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: From New York to the...
 Chapter II: First day on the isthmus...
 Chapter III: Over the isthmus.-...
 Chapter IV: "The place of fish"...
 Chapter V: From Panama to Guayaquil...
 Chapter VI: The paradise of earthquakes...
 Chapter VII: Description of Quito...
 Chapter VIII: From Guayaquil to...
 Chapter IX: Equestrians and their...
 Chapter X: Railways over the Andes...
 Chapter XI: Puno and Lake Titicaca...
 Chapter XII: Coati Island and the...
 Chapter XIII: Leaving Puno - Crossing...
 Chapter XIV: Over the eastern Andes...
 Chapter XV: Down the river - Arrival...
 Chapter XVI: Down the Beni - Products...
 Chapter XVII: Hunting the Tapir...
 Chapter XVIII: Slow transit - Passing...
 Chapter XIX: From the Madeira to...
 Chapter XX: Para - Its business...
 Chapter XXI: Bahia and its industries...
 Chapter XXII: The sights of Rio...
 Chapter XXIII: Railways in Brazil...
 Chapter XXIV: Return to the capital...
 Chapter XXV: Visiting a cattle...
 Chapter XXVI: Return to Buenos...
 Chapter XXVII: Incidents of a ride...
 Chapter XXVIII: Down the western...
 Chapter XXIX: Strait of Magellan...
 Chapter XXX: Mutiny at Sandy Point...
 Advertising
 Physical map of South America showing...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Boy travellers in South America : adventures of two youths in a journey through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili, with descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and voyages upon the Amazon and La Plata rivers
Title: The boy travellers in South America
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054747/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy travellers in South America adventures of two youths in a journey through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili, with descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and voyages upon the Amazon and La Plata rivers
Physical Description: 510, 2 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Richardson & Cox ( Engraver )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1886, c1885
Copyright Date: 1885
 Subjects
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Volcanoes -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sugar -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Rivers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- South America   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1886   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1886
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas W. Knox ; illustrated.
General Note: Maps on end-papers; Illustrations engraved by Richardson-Cox.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054747
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469908
notis - AMH5419
oclc - 02167861
lccn - 01021713

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Map of South America showing the political divisions and routes of the boy travellers
        Plate
        Plate
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Advertising
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    Chapter I: From New York to the Isthmus of Panama - Incidents of the voyage - Old times and the present - Aspinwall - A tropical city - The teredo - Entrance of the Panama Canal
        Page 13
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    Chapter II: First day on the isthmus - The Panama Canal - History of the canal enterprise - Plans of Balboa and others - The various routes proposed - Strain's survey of Darien - Visiting the works at Panama
        Page 27
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    Chapter III: Over the isthmus.- A profitable railway.- Isthmus fever.- Tropical trees, flowers, and animals.- Sights in Panama.- The cathedral.- A stroll on the beach.- The paradise of conchologists
        Page 43
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    Chapter IV: "The place of fish" - An excursion to old Panama - Visiting a hermit - Drinking chichi - Ruins of the city - Morgan the buccaneer - His history and exploits - How he captured Panama
        Page 65
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    Chapter V: From Panama to Guayaquil - Vasco Nunez de Balboa - His adventures and death - Scenes in Guayaquil - First experience with South American earthquakes
        Page 85
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    Chapter VI: The paradise of earthquakes - From Guayaquil to Quito - A ride over the mountains - All climates united in one - The plains of Ecuador - Chimborazo and Cotopaxi
        Page 105
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    Chapter VII: Description of Quito - Visit to the volcano of Pichincha - The deepest crater in the world - Route over the Andes to the Amazon - Return to the coast
        Page 122
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    Chapter VIII: From Guayaquil to Callao - Landing at Paita - The site of Old Callao - Arrival at Lima - Sights of the Peruvian capital - General description of the city and its inhabitants
        Page 141
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    Chapter IX: Equestrians and their costumes - Ladies of Lima - Excursions among ruins - Pachacamac, a holy city - The ancient Peruvians - Origin of the Inca government
        Page 160
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    Chapter X: Railways over the Andes - From Lima to Mollendo, Arequipa and Lake Titicaca - The Chincha Islands and the Soda Deserts - Up the Andes by steam - In a railway carriage fourteen thousand feet above the sea
        Page 177
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    Chapter XI: Puno and Lake Titicaca - Coca and its properties - The llama and his kindred - Excursion to the Sacred Island of the Incas
        Page 193
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    Chapter XII: Coati Island and the ruins of Tiahuanaco - Return to Puno - Cuzco, and the temples, palaces, and fortresses of the Incas - Plans for departure
        Page 212
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    Chapter XIII: Leaving Puno - Crossing Lake Titicaca - Resources of Bolivia - Silver mining - Primitive lodgings - Beginning the journey to the eastward
        Page 229
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    Chapter XIV: Over the eastern Andes into the Amazon Valley - An exciting journey - Adventures by the way - Troubles of travelling with a tiger
        Page 243
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    Chapter XV: Down the river - Arrival on the Beni - Birds of the Amazon Valley - Building a hut - Hunting with poisoned arrows - Turtles, and turtle-hunting
        Page 258
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    Chapter XVI: Down the Beni - Products of the valley - Plans for developing commerce - Obstructions to navigation - Voyage on the Mamore
        Page 275
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    Chapter XVII: Hunting the Tapir - Among the Caripuna Indians - Arrival at the falls of the Madeira - Making India-rubber
        Page 290
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    Chapter XVIII: Slow transit - Passing around the falls - Ancient inscriptions - The Madeira to the Amazon - The January River - The Amazon forest
        Page 306
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    Chapter XIX: From the Madeira to the Rio Negro - Other tributaries of the Amazon - Notes on the Great River - Manaos - Down the Amazon to Para
        Page 322
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    Chapter XX: Para - Its business and characteristics - The island of Marajo - Down the coast - Pernambuco - The sugar industry
        Page 337
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    Chapter XXI: Bahia and its industries - Rio Janeiro - The bay and the city - Sights of the capital - Emperor Dom Pedro II
        Page 354
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    Chapter XXII: The sights of Rio - Public buildings, aqueduct, churches, miracles, and funerals - Visit to Tijuca and Petropolis - The Serra
        Page 373
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    Chapter XXIII: Railways in Brazil - Coffee plantations - Mandioca and its culture - Terrible famines - Slavery and emancipation
        Page 390
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    Chapter XXIV: Return to the capital - Intrudo sports - Museum at Rio - Montevideo and Buenos Ayres - The Argentine Republic - Ascending the river plate
        Page 404
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    Chapter XXV: Visiting a cattle estate - The lasso and bolas - Ascending the Paraguay and Parana rivers - Rosario and Asuncion - Paraguayan war - Industries of the country - Mate
        Page 420
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    Chapter XXVI: Return to Buenos Ayres - Dividing the party - Two routes to Valparaiso - Frank's journey over the Pampas - Mendoza - At the foot of the Andes
        Page 437
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    Chapter XXVII: Incidents of a ride over the Andes - Contract with the Arriero - Passes between Chili and the Argentine Republic - Night scenes - Dangers of the road - A perilous position - Uspallata - At the crest of the Andes
        Page 453
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    Chapter XXVIII: Down the western slope of the Andes - A long imprisonment in the snow - "The soldier's leap"- Santa Rosa - Santiago - Arrival at Valparaiso
        Page 469
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    Chapter XXIX: Strait of Magellan - Falkland Islands - A penguin city - Sandy point - Hunting the ostrich and guanaco - Patagonian giants
        Page 485
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    Chapter XXX: Mutiny at Sandy Point - Tierra Del Fuego - Missionary enterprises there - Captain Gardiner - Cruise of the "Wateree" - Side-wheel ducks - Up the Pacific coast - The meeting at Valparaiso - The end
        Page 498
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    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Physical map of South America showing the plains, plateaus, mountains, and principal rivers
        Plate
        Plate
    Back Cover
        Cover
    Spine
        Spine
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THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN




SOUTH AMERICA



ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH

ECUADOR, PERU, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, PARAGUAY, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, AND CHILI
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF PATAGONIA AND TIERRA DEL FUEGO, AND
VOYAGES UPON THE AMAZON AND LA PLATA RIVERS




BY

THO1MAS W. KNOX
AUTHOR OF
"THE YOUNG NIMRODS IN NORTH AMERICA" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND THE WORLD"
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST: ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN
A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CHINA-TO SIAM AND JAVA-TO CEYLON AND
INDIA-TO EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND-TO CENTRAL AFRICA"
"THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN" ETC., ETC.






Jilustrateb








NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN* SQUARE
1886












BY THOMAS W. KNOX.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Vol-
umes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $8 00 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
L ADVENTUs or Two YoTHs IN A JouRnEx To JAPAN AND CHINA.
II. ADvrunUsR or Two YOUTHs IN A JouRNEY TO SIA AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
IIL ADVENTURES or Two YOUTHs IN A JOURNEY TO CZYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
IV. ADVENTURES or Two YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO EGYPT AND PALESTINE.
V. ADVEURES or TWO YOUTHs IN A JOURNEY THROUGH AFRICA.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adven-
tures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with
Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages
upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth.

THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE
AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open
Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.

HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two
Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. THE YoMNG NInRODs IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. Tan YOUNG NIMRODs AROUND THE WORLD.

PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.

Mr Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage preaid, to any part of the United
States or Canada, on receipt of the price.











Copyright, 1885, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All Tights reserved.













PREFACE.


THE plan of this volume is almost identically that of The Boy Travel-
lers in the Far East." Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson, with their accom-
plished mentor, Doctor Bronson, have traversed the length and breadth of
the South American Continent from the Isthmus of Panama to the Strait
of Magellan. Twice have they crossed the Andes; they have descended
the Madeira and the Amazon rivers; navigated the La Plata and the
Paraguay; visited the principal cities of the continent, and studied the
manners and customs of the many people whom they encountered on their
way. For the information of their friends and schoolmates at home they
recorded the results of their travels and observations, and it is the author's
pleasure to tell the story of their journey.
The characters of the story are fictitious, but the descriptions of every-
thing coming under the observation of the Boy Travellers, or learned in
their wanderings, are intended to be as nearly exact as possible. The
author has not relied alone upon his personal knowledge of South
America, but has drawn from the narratives of others who preceded or
have followed him. It has been his earnest endeavor to present a realistic
picture of South America; its lofty mountains, magnificent rivers, luxuriant
forests, and fertile pampas, together with the many varieties of people that
form its populations; their governments as we find them to-day, and an
epitome of their history from ancient times. He earnestly hopes for the
same kindly reception by press and public that was accorded to his volumes
of a similar nature concerning Asia and Africa.
Many works of travel have been examined in the preparation of this
book. Some of these are mentioned in the narrative, but it has not been
practicable to refer to all. The author acknowledges his great indebtedness
to that prince of travellers, Alexander Von Humboldt, whose graphic
description was the first adequate picture of the South American conti-
nent ever presented to the world. He is specially indebted to the
admirable work of the Hon. E. George Squier, upon "Peru and the Land
of the Incas," not alone for information about the country and people, but





6 PREFACE.
for several illustrations which have been kindly loaned for this volume.
He is also under obligations to the following books: "The Andes and
the Amazon," by Professor James Orton; Brazil and the Brazilians,"
by J. C. Fletcher and D. P. Kidder; "Life in Brazil," by Thomas
Ewbank; "Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon," by Brown and
Lidstone; "Brazil, Amazons, and Coast," by H. H. Smith; "Wanderings
in Patagonia," by J. Beerbohm; "Across Patagonia," by Lady Florence
Dixie; and, "The War between Peru and Chili," by Clements R. Mark-
ham. The reports of the surveys and explorations of the various proposed
routes for an interoceanic canal have supplied important data, and the
officers of the company engaged in cutting the Panama Canal have cheer-
fully answered the author's interrogatories concerning that enterprise.
The publishers have kindly allowed the use of illustrations from their
previous publications on South America, in addition to those specially pre-
pared for this work, or obtained from Mr. Squier's "Peru." As a conse-
quence of their courtesy the author has been able to present a "copiously
illustrated" book, which is always a delight to the youthful eye.

T. W. K.
NEW YoRx, eJuly, 1885.
















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I. PAGn
FROM NEW YORK TO THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA. INCIDENTS OF THE VOYAGE.- OLD
TIMES AND THE PRESENT.-ASPINWALL.-A TROPICAL CITY.-THE TEREDO.-E-N-
TRANCE OF THE PANAMA CANAL.............................................. 13

CHAPTER IL
FIRST DAY ON THE ISTHMUS.-THE PANAMA CANAL.-HISTORY OF THE CANAL ENTER-
PRISE.- PLANS OF BALBOA AND OTHERS.-- THE VARIOUS ROUTES PROPOSED. -
STRAIN'S SURVEY OF DARIEN.-VISITING THE WORKS AT PANAMA ................ 27

CHAPTER I.
OVER THE ISTHMUS.-A PROFITABLE RAILWAY. --ISTHMUS FEVER. -TROPICAL TREES,
FLOWERS, AND ANIMALS.-SIGHTS IN PANAxA. -THE CATHEDRAL.--A STROLL ON
THE BEACH.-THE PARADIE OF CONCHOLOGISTS. ............................... 43

CHAPTER IV.
"THE PLACE OF FISH."--AN EXCURSION TO OLD PANAMA.--VISITING A HERMIT.-
DRINKING CHICHI.-RUINS OF THE CITY.-MORGAN THE BUCCANEER.-HIS HISTORY
AND EXPLOITS.-HOW HE CAPTURED PANAMA ............ ..................... 65

CHAPTER V.
FROM PANAMA TO GUAYAQUIL.--VASCO NUNEZ DE BALBOA.-HIs ADVENTURES AD
DEATH. SCENES IN GUAYAQUL. --FIRST EXPERIENCE WITH SOUTH AMERICA
EARTHQUAKES ................................. ......................... ..... 85

CHAPTER VL
THE PARADISE OF EARTHQtUAES. --FRO GUAYAQUIL TO QUITO.-A RIDE OVER THE
MOUNTAINS.-ALL CLIMATES UNITED IN ONE.-THE PLAINS OF ECUADOR.-CHIBO-
RAZO AND COTOPAXI ......................................................... 105

CHAPTER VII.
DESCRIPTION OF QUITO.-VISIT TO THE VOLCANO OF PICHINCHA.-THE DEEPEST CRATER
IN THE WORLD.-RouTE OVER THE ANDES TO THE AMAZON.-RETURN TO THE COAST, 122

CHAPTER VIII.
FROM GUAYAQUIL TO CALLAo.-LAxDING AT PAITA.-THE SITE OF OLD CALLAo.-AR-
RIVAL AT LIA.- SIGHTS OF THE PERUVIAN CAPITAL.-GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF
THE CITY AND ITS INHABITANTS ............................................... 141

CHAPTER IX.
EQUESTRIANS AND THEIR COSTUMES.-LADIES OF LIMA. EXCURSIvONS AMONG RuINS.-
PACHACAMAC, A HOLY CITY. THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS.- ORIGIN OF THE INCA
GOVERNMENT .......................... ....................... ........... ..... 160






viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER X. PAGE
RAILWAYS OVER THE ANDES. -FROM LIMA TO MOLLENDO, AREQUIPA, AND LAKE TITI-
CACA.-THE CHINCHA ISLANDS AND THE SODA DESERTS.-UP THE ANDES BY STEAM.
-IN A RAILWAY CARRIAGE FOURTEEN THOUSAND FEET ABOVE THE SE.A........... 177

CHAPTER XI.
PUNO AND LAKE TITICACA.-COCA AND ITS PROPERTIES.-THE LLAMA AND HIS KINDRED.
-EXCURSION TO THE SACRED ISLAND OF THE INCAS ............................. 193

CHAPTER XII.
COATI ISLAND AND THE RUINS OF TIAHUANACO.-RETURN TO PUNO.-CUzCO, AND THE
TEMPLES, PALACES, AND FORTRESSES OF THE INCAS.-PLANS FOR DEPARTURE. ...... 212

CHAPTER XIII.
LEAVING PUNO.-CRossING LAKE TITICACA.-RESOURCES OF BOLIVIA.-SILVER MINING.
-PRIMITIVE LODGINGS.-BEGINNING THE JOURNEY TO THE EASTWARD ............. 229

CHAPTER XIV.
OVER THE EASTERN ANDES INTO THE AMAZON VALLEY.-AN EXCITING JOURNEY.-AD-
VENTURES BY THE WAY.-TROUBLES OF TRAVELLING WITH A TIGER. ............. 243

CHAPTER XV.
DOWN THE RIVER.-ARRIVAL ON THE BENI.-BIRDS OF THE AMAZON VALLEY.-BUILD-
ING A HUT.-HUNTING WITH POISONED ARROWS.-TURTLES, AND TURTLE-HUNTING.. 258

CHAPTER XVI.
DOWN THE BENI.-PRODUCTS OF THE VALLEY.-PLANS FOR DEVELOPING COMMERCE.-
OBSTRUCTIONS TO NAVIGATION.-VOYAGE ON THE MAMORd ....................... 275

CHAPTER XVII.
HUNTING THE TAPIR.-AMONG THE CARIPUNA INDIANS.-ARRIVAL AT THE FALLS OF THE
MADEIRA.-MAKING INDIA-RUBBER. ....................... ................... 290

CHAPTER XVIII.
SLOW TRANSIT.-PAssING AROUND THE FALLS.-ANCIENT INSCRIPTIONS.-THE MADEIRA
TO THE AMAzoN.-THE JANUARY RIVER.-THE AMAZON FOREST .................. 306

CHAPTER XIX.
FROM MADEIRA TO THE DEI TRIO NEGRo.-OTHER TRIBUTARIES OF THE AMAZON.-NOTES
ON THE GREAT RIVER.-MANAOS.-DOWN THE AMAZON TO PARA................... 322

CHAPTER XX.
PARA.-ITS BUSINESS AND CHARACTERISTICS.-THE ISLAND OF MARAJO.-DOWN THE
COAST.-PERNAMBUCO.-THE SUGAR INDUSTRY.................................... 337

CHAPTER XXL
BAHIA AND ITS INDUSTRIES.-RIO JANEIRO.-THE BAY AND THE CITY.-SIGHTS OF THE
CAPITAL.-ExPEROR Dox PEDRO II ............................................ 354

CHAPTER XXII.
THE SIGHTS OF RIO.-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, AQUEDUCT, CHURCHES, MIRACLES, AND FUNER-
ALS.-VISITTO TOIJUCA AND PETROPOLIS.-THE SERRA. .......................... 373

CHAPTER XXIII.
RAILWAYS IN BRAZIL.-COFFEE PLANTATIONS.-MANDIOCA AND ITS CULTURE.-TERRIBLE
FAMINES.-SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION. ........................................ 390







CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER XXIV. PAGn
RETURN TO THE CAPITAL. -INTRUDO SPORTS. -MUSEUM AT RIO.-MONTEVIDEO AND
BUENOS AYRES.-THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.-ASCENDING THE RIVER PLATE. ..... 404

CHAPTER XXV.
VISITING A CATTLE ESTATE.-THE LASSO AND BOLAS.-ASCENDING THE PARAGUAY AND
PARANA RIVERS.-RosARIO AND ASUNCION.-PARAGUAYAN WAR.-INDUSTRIES OF
THE COUNTRY.-MAT ........................................................ 420

CHAPTER XXVI.
RETURN TO BUENOS ATYES.-VIDIDING THE PARTY.-TWO ROUTES TO VALPARAISO.-
FRANK'S JOURNEY OVER THE PAMPAS.-MENDOZA.-AT THE FOOT OF THE ANDES... 437

CHAPTER XXVII
INCIDENTS OF A RIDE OVER THE ANDES.-CONTRACT WITH THE ARRIERO.-PASSES BE-
TWEEN CHILI AND THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.-NIGHT SCENES.-DANGERS OF THE
ROAD.-A PERILOUS POSITION.-USPALLATA.-AT THE CREST OF THE ANDES. ...... 453

CHAPTER XXVIII.
DOWN THE WESTERN SLOPE OF THE ANDES.-A LONG IMPRISONMENT IN THE SNOW.-
"THE SOLDIER'S LEAP."-SANTA ROSA.-SANTIAGO.-ARRIVAL AT VALPARAISO. .... 469

CHAPTER XXIX.
STRAIT OF MAGELLAN.-FALKLAND ISLANDS.-A PENGUIN CITY.-SANDY POINT.-HUNT-
ING THE OSTRICH AND GUANACO.-PATAGONIAN GIANTS .......................... 485

CHAPTER XXX.
MUTINY AT SANDY POINT.-TIERRA DEL FUEGO.-MISSIONARY ENTERPRISES THERE.-
CAPTAIN GARDINER.-CRUISE OF THE "WATEREE."-SIDE-WHEEL DUCKS.-UP THE
PACIFIC COAST.-THE MEETING AT VALPARAISO.-THE END ......................... 498







































































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a*






























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ILLUSTRATIONS.


At the Foot of the Andes.... ...................... .. ....... ....... .... .. rontispiece.
PAGE PAGE
On the Sea Again....................... 13 Station at Panama..................... 57
The Fog Clearing away.................. 14 Cathedral at Panama ................... 58
Sandy Hook Light-ship..................... 15 Ramparts, with Old Cannon............. 59
A Stranded Ship ................... 17 Water-carrier and Native Woman......... 60
Weighing Bagggage.................... 18 Gate of the Monks .... ........... 61
The Shipworm and his Work ........... 19 Ruins of Church of San Domingo......... 62
The Donkey's Descent .................. 21 A Remarkable Archway..... ......... 63
The Wharf at Aspinwall................ 22 Ruined Church ........................ 64
Departure for Panama.................. 23 View from the Ramparts at Panama ...... 65
Native Market, Aspinwall ................ 25 On the Northeastern Beach.............. 66
Preparing for a Boat Excursion ............. 26 Watch-tower of San Jerome ............. 68
Balboa taking Possession of the Pacific.... 28 A Hermit at Home ..................... 70
The Isthmus of Darien.................. 29 Making Chichi......................... 71
Rescue of the Survivors of Strain's Expedi- Bridge at Old Panama.................. 72
tion.................................. 30 Slaughter of Priests by Buccaneers........ 74
Strain's Arrival at the Coast............. 31 Pirates' Rendezvous.................... 75
View on the Chagres River............. 32 Buccaneers Embarking on an Expedition.. 76
Beach near Aspinwall .................. 34 Morgan's Reception at Chagres............ 78
In the Rainy Season...................... 85 Morgan's Men Dining on Leather......... 79
A Hand-car Journey on the Panama Railway 86 Death of the Indian Chief ............... 80
Surveying under Difficulties.............. 87 Moving Through the Forest.............. 81
Native Village on the Isthmus .......... 38 Capture of Old Panama by Morgan. (Fac-
Native Idea of the Locomotive .......... 39 simile of an old print) ............... 83
The Espiritu Santo Flower .............. 40 The Lucky Arrow........................ 84
Gatun Station ......................... 41 Bay of Panama, from the Southeastern Ram-
A Tropical Harbor................ ... 42 part............................ 85
Map of the Panama Railway ............. 43 Coast Scene Below Panama............. 86
Crossing the Isthmus in 1849............ 45 Cave Near Limon River .................. 87
A Bongo.............................. 46 Vasco Nnnez De Balboa................. 89
Bridge Across the Chagres River at Barbacoas 47 Balboa Carried on Shipboard............. 90
Meeting a Train ........................ 48 Balboa Makes his Appearance........... 91
The Humming-bird at Work............. 49 Village on a River of Darien............. 93
The Singing Hummer..... ............. 49 Balboa and the Indian Princess........... 94
The Iguana ........................... 49 Quarrel for the Gold................... 95
A Centipede................ .. .... 50 Marching Through the Forest............ 97
A Scorpion......................... 50 Discovery of the Pacific ............... 98
Exhibiting a Tarantula................ 51 Cutting Timber for the Ships.............. 99
Hills near the Railway ................. 52 Death of Balboa ..................... 100
Map Showing how Ocean Routes are Short- Cathedral of Guayaquil..................... 102
ened by the Panama Canal............ 53 Street Scene and Ruins.................. 103
Basaltic Cliff......................... 55 In the Land of the Earthquake .......... 104
Panama in the Distance................... 56 The Central Part of Ecuador................ 106







Xii ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Las Bodegas, Guayas River.............. 107 Silver Vase... .......................... 168
A House in the Tropics................. 108 Peruvian Idol.......................... 168
Cacao................................. 109 Peruvian Copper Knives................. 169
Arriero and Traveller .................. 110 Ruins on Titicaca Island ................ 169
In Holiday Costume ................... 111 Part of Temple of the Sun, Cuzco......... 170
A Pack-train Under Way................. 112 Outer Wall of Fortress of Cuzco.......... 171
A Mountain Cascade....................... 115 Stones in the Wall of Cuzco............. 171
Baron von Humboldt in 1802........... 116 Part of Wall of Fortress................ 172
Native Huts Near Guaranda ............. 117 Peruvian Vases......................... 173
Among the Lava Beds ..................... 118 Ornaments of Peruvian Walls ........... 174
View of Cotopaxi...................... 119 Ancient Palace at Huanco............... 175
View of Quito and the Volcano of Pichincha 120 Doorway Cut Through a Single Stone...... 175
Inca Gateway and Fortress in the Andes... 121 Central Figure over Doorway.............. 176
Crossing the Mountains ................ 122 Deep Cutting on a Railway............... 177
A Street in Quito.................... ..... 123 Among the Foot-hills.................. 178
Palacio de Gobierno (Government House), Guano Islands................. ........ 181
Quito.. ............ .... .......... .124 Sea-birds at Home.... .... ............ 182
Water-carriers........ ....... ....... 125 Scene on a Coolie Ship.. ............... 188
Priests and Monks.... .... ............. 126 On the Edge of the Desert............... 185
Laundresses of Quito................... 128 Indians of Arequipa ....... ..... .. ..... 186
Balcony View of the Andes.............. 130 Arequipa, and the Volcano of Misti....... 187
The Crater of Pichincha................ 11 The Old Way of Travel.................... 189
El Altar, Volcano, Ecuador ............. 133 View of Lake Titicaca. ................. 190
View of Ibarra, Ecuador............... 135 The Nevada de Sorata, Crown of the Andes. 191
Napo Indian Porter........................ 137 View on Lake Titicaca ................. 193
Descending the Napo .................... 138 Peruvian Heads, Ancient and Modern...... 194
Mountain Pass in the Andes.............. 139 Cathedral of Puno....................... 195
Rapids in a Mountain Stream of South Quichua Woman (from a photograph)..... 196
America .. ......................... 140 Coca Plant ............................ 197
Water-carrier and Donkeys.............. 141 Llama................................ 199
Desert Scene..... .................... ........ 142 Ancient Gateway near Puno............. 200
A Wolf Emigrating. ................... 143 The Vicuna.................. ....... 201
Ships in a Fog......................... 145 Indians and Llama Among the Ruins...... 202
A Garden on the Rimac .................. 147 Cattle Feeding on Rushes, Lake Titicaca... 203
A Claimant for the Sidewalk ................ 148 Tortora Bridge Over the Outlet of Lake Ti-
View of Lima from the Steps of the Ca- ticaca .............................. 204
thedral............................. 149 Head-dress of Aymara Women........... 205
Lima and the Surrounding Country.. ..... 150 Aymara Men, Puno........ ... ........... 205
Wearing the "Saya y Manto"............. 151 Aymara Woman, Puno........... ........ 206
A Lady of Lima ........................ 152 A Ride on a Balsa, Lake Titicaca ......... 207
Interior Court, Lima. .................... 154 Closed Doorway, Titicaca Island .......... 207
Bridge over the Rimac, Lima............. 155 Palace of the Inca...................... 208
One Use for Chickens. ................. 156 Bath of the Inca....................... 209
Ladies of Lima at Home ................ 157 Room in the Inca's Palace............... 210
Peruvian Infantry and Cavalry........... 1.58 The Sacred Rock of Manco Capac......... 210
A Passage of Politeness................. 159 Ground-plan of "Palace of the Inca," Titi-
A Peruvian Cavalier.................. 160 caca Island.......................... 211
Horse-breakers at Work... ........... 161 Bridge and Custom-house at the Frontier... 212
Native Women of Lima ................. 163 Ruins on Coati Island................... 213
Ruins of Pachacamac ................... 164 Indians Celebrating the Chuno, or Potato
Head of Peruvian Statue.............. 165 Festival............................. 214
Terraced Space on a Hill-top............. 165 Head-dress of Indian Female Dancers..... 15
Peruvian Mummies.................... 166 Plan of Part of Ruins of Tiahuanaco ...... 216
Sepulchral Tower....................... 167 The American Stonehenge............... 216
Golden Vase Found in a Tomb........... 167 Front View of Monolithic Doorway........ 217





ILLUSTRATIONS. xiii

PAGE PAGE
Symbolical Slab.. ...................... 218 Hunting with the Blow-gun.............. 271
Terrace Walls and Scattered Blocks of Stone 219 A Giant of the Forest ................ 272
Remains of Palace at Cuzco............ 220 Turtle-shooting in South America........ 273
Inca Doorway, Cuzco.................. 221 Turtle-turning........................ 274
Old Bridge at Cuzco .................... 221 South American River Scene............. 276
Court of Convent, with Ancient Fountain... 222 South American Monkey with Prehensile Tail 277
Church and Convent of Santo Domingo, Howling Monkey......................... 278
Cuzco ............... .............. 223 A Monkey Robbing Birds'-nests.......... 279
Terra-cotta Figures, Cuzco............... 224 Hunting the Monkey................... 280
Ancient Stone Sculpture, Cuzco........... 224 Amazonian Mosquitoes at Home ......... 282
Section of Walls of the Fortress.......... 225 An Indian of Northern Bolivia .......... 288
Salient Angle of Fortress............... 225 Breakfast Scene on the River Bank....... 285
Road Leading to Fortified Hill.......... 226 Plaza and Church at Exaltacion .......... 287
Ancient Dwelling-house ................. 227 Mojos Indians Celebrating Mass.......... 288
Specimen of Cyclopean Wall........... 227 The Cherimbita ..................... 289
Ancient Sun Circle, Sillustani, Peru.... 228 A Mojos Indian........................ 289
Tanatero (ore-carrier) .................. 229 The Agouti ........................... 290
Section of a Silver Mine................. 230 Hunting the Tapir..................... 292
A Primitive Mill........................... 231 Water-snakes at Home................. 294
Arastra, with Mule-power.. .......... 232 Rattlesnake Disturbed by a Wildcat.... 295
Breaking Ore .......................... 233 Visiting the Caripunas.................. 296
Indians Extracting Silver from Ore........ 234 A Caripuna Indian ....... ............. 298
Galleries in a Silver Mine.............. 235 A Walk in the Forest ................. 299
Caving in........................... 236 Branch of the India-rubber Tree.......... 300
Wild Indian of Bolivia ................ 237 India-rubber Making on the Madeira...... 301
Limited Accommodations ................ 239 Leaves, Fruit, and Flowers of the Cow-tree.. 303
Aymara Skull.......................... 240 Milking the Cow-tree.................... 304
Turf House near Lake Titicaca........... 241 Dragging a Boat Around Teotonio........ 307
Chulpas, or Burial-towers............... 241 Inscriptions on the Rocks at Ribeirao..... 308
Ancient Sepulchre ....... ....... .. 242 Cuttings on Stones near the Rapids....... 308
Manuel.. ............ ................ 243 Buried in the Tropical Forest .... ... ... 310
Loading the Mules ..................... 244 Banana in Blossom..................... 311
The Start ............................. 245 Rubber Tree and Parasites.............. 312
A Mountain Trail........... .. 247 Station of a Rubber Collector............ 313
Hacienda among the Mountains........... 248 A River Town....................... 315
Travelling by Silla.......... ........ .... 250 Pira-rucf, a Fish of the Amazon.......... 317
Dead Whale on Shore .................. 251 Deposits in the Amazon Valley.......... 318
Shot at a Condor ................... 252 Wasp-nest, Showing Interior Construction.. 319
Puma, Cougar, or American Lion......... 252 Leaves, Nut, and Flowers of Sapucaya, an
Capybara ............................ 253 Amazon Tree...................... 320
Jaguar ............................. 254 Ferns, Trees, and Creepers.............. 321
Game for the Jaguar................... 255 Natives on the Middle Amazon........... 323
Steamer Leaving Para.................. 256 In an Igarip6......................... 825
Head of Navigation..................... 257 Fruit Pedlers .............................. 326
A Chance Acquaintance................. 258 Arrival at Manaos...................... 327
A Landing-place ....................... 260 Giant Fig-tree......................... 328
Humming-birds of the Andes ............. 261 Natives of the Banks of the Ucayali...... 329
Humming-bird's Nest................... 262 A Brazilian Landing-place............... 331
Pair of Toucans and their Nest........... 263 The Ant-eater Asleep....................... 334
Tanagers and Nest..................... 264 The Mouths of the Amazon............... 335
Toucan ............................... 265 Para, from the Riyer................... 336
Parrots...................... .. .......... 265 Environs of Para....................... 337
An Amazonian Dwelling ................ 266 A Tropical Plant ....................... 338
Near the Village....................... 267 A Dealer in Monkeys................... 339
Agave, or Sisal Hemp .................. 269 Street in Para with Silk-cotton Trees...... 340






xiv ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Nazareth Square, Para .................. 841 Dying for Lack of Food.............. 895
A Para Belle .......................... 842 A Tropipal Railway Station.............. 896
The Market at Para.................... 848 Mandioca Plant ........................ 897
Theatre of Our Lady of the Peace......... 844 Plantation Negro...................... 898
The Government Palace at Para............. 34 Punishment ................. ........ 399
Sourr4 and Salvaterra. ................... 347 In the Fields......................... 400
A Snake Merchant.. ................... 348 Slaves with Collars .................... 400
Going Ashore in.a Jaganda.............. 849 Slave with Mask....................... 401
Street Scene in Pernambuco .............. 350 Mask. ................................ 401
Pernambuco........................... 351 Shackles .. ....................... 401
Pack Horses Laden with Sugar........... 852 Household Servant ..................... 402
Ox-cart............................... 858 Slaves Gathering Sugar-cane............. 408
View of Bahia............................ 854 At Home with the Sugar-cane............ 404
Diamond-washing in Brazil................ 855 Intrudo Sports Thirty Years Ago......... 406
"Star of the South".. ....... ........ 356 Intrudo Balls and Bottles............... 407
Porters Asleep....................... 857 Wooden Cannon....................... 407
Brazilian Humming rds.... ........ 858 The Condor and the Bull................ 408
Market Scene, BahiaY.................. 859 Embalmed Head.......................... 408
Porters and Cask........................... 859 Ancient Musical Instruments............. 409
Sedan Chair............... ............ 860 Ancient Comb .......................... 409
Frame of Sedan...................... 860 Brazilian Basin........................ 409
Entrance to the Harbor of Rio............ 361 Montevideo from the Sea................ 410
View of Rio Janeiro from the Sea ....... 862 View in the Capital of Uruguay.......... 411
Front View of the City.................. 864 Ox-cart of Buenos Ayres ............... 412
Coffee-carriers ... ..................... 865 Soldiers of the Argentine Republic......... 41
Coal-carriers........................... 366 A Guacho............................. 414
Modern Innovations .................... 866 A Guacho on Horseback... ............ 415
Pedlers of Dry-goods....................... 67 Post-station on the Pampas.. .......... .. 417
Poultry Dealer.......................... 367 A Steamer on the River Plate............ 418
Fruit Vender.......................... 868 A Refuge from Mosquitoes.............. 419
View in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro........ 869 Branding Cattle on an Estancia............. 421
An Imperial Palace.. .. .... ............. 870 Use of the Lasso and Bolas.............. 422
Statue of Pedro I....................... 871 Costumes of Paraguay.................. 424
Scene in a Brazilian Suburb. ............ 872 Indians of the "Gran Chaco".. ........ 425
Votive Offerings in a Church at Rio....... 874 Battle with Chaco Indians ................. 427
View in the Bay....................... 374 Indians of the Lenqua, River Plate ....... 428
Alms-box ............................. 375 Indians Shooting Fishes ................. 429
Religious Festival in Front of a Church.... 376 A River Port during the War ............ 430
Monk in a Procession................... 877 Headquarters of General Lopez........... 431
The Aqueduct.......................... 378 Paraguayan Mother and Daughters........ 482
A Brazilian Forest, with Characteristic Mam- A Landed Proprietor.. .......... ..... 433
malia............................... 879 Cups and Tubes for Mat6......... ...... 484
Coffin Closed .......................... 880 Paraguayan Cart ............... ........ 435
Coffin Opened ........................... 880 Carlo Antonio Lopez, former President of
Cemetry of the Paula Church........... 81 Paraguay ........................ 436
View of Rio from Boa Vista .............. 82 Olive Branch from the Banks of the Parana 437
Hotel at Tijuca, near Rio ..... ......... 883 Map of Chili, Argentine Confederation, and
Cascade at Tijuca.................. ... 385 Uruguay......................... .... 439
The Armadillo...... ....... ....... .... 386 In the Strait of Magellan.... ........... 440
Road over the Serra, near Petropolis...... 387 Arrival of Travellers at a Guacho Village.. 442
The Palace at Petropolis................. 88 A Dance at San Luis de la Punta........ .. 444
Religious Procession in Brazil ............ 89 The Police-office at Mendoza............. 446
Negro Hut near the Railway............. 391 The Birlocha......................... 448
Entrance to a Coffee Plantation............. 392 The Pampa Coach........... ............ 449
Victims of the Famine................ 394 Ox-carts near Mendoza. ............... 450





ILLUSTRATIONS. xv

PAGE PAGE
Coming to Town...................... 451 Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego .......... 487
Exercising the Mules................... 452 The Penguin ......................... 488
A Start under Disadvantages................ 454 The Home of the Sea-birds .............. 489
Pass of Uspallata...................... 455 The Cormorant........................ 489
Near the Base of the Andes................. 457 A Steamer Entering the Strait of Magellan. 490
A Dangerous Road in the Mountains ...... 459 Chilian Settlement at Sandy Point........... 491
Peons at Rest.......... ............... 460 Patagonian Dress...................... 492
A Mountain Caflon..................... 462 A Patagonian Belle..................... 493
Snow-slide on the Trail.................. 468 The Guanaco.......................... 494
Hanging Bridge in the Andes ............ 465 Seeking Safety............................ 495
Deep Chasm in the Mountains............... 466 The Ostrich and his Hunters................ 496
A Victim of the Storm.................... 467 Skeleton of the Ostrich..................... 497
A Chilian Ox-cart..................... 468 Captain Smiley......................... 498
The Condor.............................. 469 Mountains and Glaciers in Magellan's Strait 499
Travelling in the Snow.................. 470 Jemmy Button's Sound.................. 500
A Natural Highway...................... 471 Fuegians Visiting a War Steamer......... 501
Cutting Steps Along the Mountain ........ 472 The "Allen Gardiner" at Banner Cove .... 502
Bridge of the Apurimac.................... 474 Starvation Beach .................. 503
Looking Across the Bridge............... 475 A Fuegian and his Food................. 504
By the Roadside ..................... 476 A Fuegian Feast....................... 505
Court-yard of the Posada................. 477 Ruins at Port Famine.................... 506
A Pedler of Forage..................... 478 Borgia Bay............................ 507
The Alameda......................... 480 Inscriptions at Borgia Bay............... 507
A Street Scene......................... 481 "H" Cliff, Wateree Bay................. 508
Customs Guard-house, Valparaiso ........ 483 The Yankee Wood-dealer... .. .......... 509
Spanish-American Costumes ............ 484 Near the Coast of Patagonia.............. 509
Seal of the Falkland Islands ........... 486
Map of South America, with Route of the Boy Travellers....................... .ot Coer.
Physical Map of South America.. ......... .............Back Cover.














THE BOY TRAVELLERS

IN

SOUTH AMERICA.


CHAPTER I.
FROM NEW YORK TO 'THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA.-INCIDENTS OF THE VOYAGE.-
OLD TIMES AND THE PRESENT.-ASPINWALL.-A TROPICAL CITY.-THE TE-
REDO.-ENTRANCE OF THE PANAMA CANAL.
"IS everything ready?"
-_ "Yes," was the reply. "The trunks are packed and strapped, and
the carriage will be at the door at ten o'clock."














ON THE SEA AGAIN.

"That is quite early enough. The steamer leaves the dock at noon,
and we can easily be settled on board by eleven o'clock."
Quite easily," was the response. And here comes Frank, who has
been to see the porter about the heavy baggage."





14 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
"It's all arranged," said the latter; "the baggage-wagon will take our
trunks, chairs, and other heavy things, and have them ready at the pier, so
that we shall have only our satchels and rugs for the carriage."
."An excellent plan," was the reply; "and the next business before
us is to go to breakfast."
The conversation recorded above took place not many months ago in
the corridor of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, in New York. The parties to
the dialogue were Dr. Bronson, his nephew, Fred Bronson, and Frank
Bassett, a cousin of Fred. Some of our readers have met this trio of
travellers, or, at all events, have read of their wanderings in Asia and
Africa. When we last saw them they were on their homeward journey
from Zanzibar, after making the ascent of the Nile, visiting the equatorial



















THE FOG CLEARING AWAY.
lakes'of the Dark Continent, and reaching the Indian Ocean at Bagamoya.
Those who have perused the narrative of the travels of Frank and
Fred with the amiable doctor will need no further introduction.*
The Doctor and his young friends had planned a journey to South
America, and at the time our present story begins they were just starting
on their new adventure. With their experience in former travels they
realized the wisdom of going to the steamer in ample season to take
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East." Adventures of Two Youths in Japan, China, Siam,
Java, Burmah, Sumatra, the Philippine Islands, Borneo, the Malay Archipelago, and Central
Africa. Five Volumes. Published by Harper & Brothers, New York.





FROM NEW YORK TO THE ISTHMUS. 15

everything leisurely, and be comfortably settled before the hour of de-
parture.
Promptly at the advertised time the steamer left the dock, followed by
the cheers of the crowd that had come to witness her departure or say fare-
well to friends on board. As she moved slowly into the river there were
dozens of handkerchiefs fluttering over her rail, and other dozens waving
answer from the shore. Steadily the distance between ship and pier in-
creased, and it soon became impossible to distinguish friends from one to
the other, even with the aid of glasses. With her engines at half speed
the great vessel moved majestically down the channel, passed the Narrows,
and entered the lower bay. A fog blowing in from seaward compelled
the pilot to order the anchor dropped, and the chain rattled through the
hawse-hole with a vehemence that seemed to threaten the safety of the
steamer's bows.
For two hours the fog continued; then it lifted, and the way to the
ocean was revealed. Up came the anchor, round went the ponderous
screw, the outer bar was passed, the pilot, his pocket filled with letters,
the last messages to friends on shore, descended to his boat and was safely
deposited on the light-ship at Sandy Hook, and then the steamer took her
course for more southern waters.



















SANDY HOOK LIGHT-SHIP.

The flag of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company fluttered at the main-
truck, and it needed little observation to show that the craft on which our




16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
friends had embarked belonged to that famous organization. When the
project for visiting South America was first discussed, the Doctor told his
young friends that their best plan would be to proceed from New York
to Aspinwall by one of the Pacific Mail Steamers. We will then," said
he, "have the whole of the continent before us; we can go down the
western coast to any point we choose to visit, or we can travel along the
northern and eastern coast, and make our way westward by one of the
overland routes, or through the Strait of Magellan. We can ascend the
Amazon, or descend it, or we may cross the Andes in the vicinity of
Santiago. We will leave our plans incomplete till we reach Panama, and
there be guided by circumstances."
As our friends were by no means novices in ocean travel they speedily
dropped into the ways of the ship and made acquaintance with the pas-
sengers and officers. The passengers were a polyglot collection, numbering
some fifty or more, and including about a dozen nationalities. There were
Americans, on their way to California or Central America; Englishmen,
with similar destinations, or bound for Callao and Valparaiso; Frenchmen,
who were interested in the work on the Panama Canal; Peruvians, Chili-
ans, Nicaraguans, and other natives of Central and South America;
Germans, commercially engaged in the republics beyond the Equator;
besides, as Fred expressed it in his note-book, several districts to hear
from." But in spite of their difference of nationality they were entirely
harmonious, and the voyage proved a most agreeable one.
Things are not now what they were before the overland railways
were built," said one of the officers in conversation with Frank; in those
days we carried three or four hundred passengers in the first cabin, and
twice or three times as many in the steerage. Now, the travel between
the east and west goes by railway, and comparatively few persons make
the sea trip between New York and San Francisco. But it's as pleasant
as it ever was, and if people would only think they could spare the addi-
tional time there would be more of them going by steamer than by rail.
'There's no more delightful voyage in the world than from Panama to
San Francisco. You are.in sight of the coast nearly all the way; the ocean
is so calm that you might suppose yourself on an inland lake, except on
rare occasions; and before you begin to be weary of the trip you are
entering the Golden Gate, and making fast to the dock, at your
journey's end."
Dr. Bronson confirmed the assertion of this ancient mariner, as he had
made the voyage to California in the manner described; "and we used
to think," said he, that we were getting along finely when we went from





INCIDENTS OF THE VOYAGE. 17

New York to San Francisco in twenty-three days. Now we can go in a
week by the railway, and it is contrary to the American temperament to
make the longer journey."
Frank and Fred were agreeably disappointed in the expectation of a
storm before reaching the Caribbean Sea. In looking up the accounts of
previous travellers they had found an old couplet:
If the Bermudas let you pass,
You must beware of Hatteras."
They questioned the captain on the subject, and found that the poet-
ical assertion was not without basis, as many a ship sailing on her course
had encountered a gale in the neighborhood either of Cape Hatteras or
the Bermuda Islands. But in marine verses, as in every other sort,"
the captain continued, you must allow for the poet's license, which often
requires a very large margin to include it."
Hatteras and the vexed Bermoothes" permitted them to pass with-
out a semblance of a gale. They sighted one of the islands of the Bahama
group, and there was great excitement on board the steamer when it was
discovered that a ship was stranded on the shore. Fred and Frank rushed





















A STRANDED SHIP.

below to tell the Doctor, and that worthy ran on deck as soon as lie could
don his hat and coat. The captain scanned with his glass the unfortunate
2





18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
craft, and relieved the .general anxiety with the information that she
had sent a line to the land, and there was no danger to the lives of her
people, whatever might be the risk to the property. "If anybody was in
peril," said he, I would do all I could to save him ; but when it comes to
a mere question of ship and cargo, none of us care to take any risk, or
even go out of our course for a minute. It is a serious matter to stop a
great steamer like this, and, besides, it is a peril to her passengers and
crew. We will save life always, and the property of our own company,
but when it comes to the ships of other people, who would, quite likely,
























WEIGHING BAGGAGE.

refuse to pay anything for the service without a lawsuit, we mind our own
business and keep on our way."
The correctness of his reasoning was apparent to all the listeners, and
before the day was over the stranded ship was well-nigh forgotten.
They passed the eastern end of Cuba, and then steered between that
island and Jamaica. The sight of the palm-trees that fringed parts of the
shores reminded the youths of their journeyings in Ceylon and the Malay
Archipelago, and increased their eagerness to be once more in tropical
lands. In -tle Caribbean Sea they renewed their acquaintance with the





THE TEREDO. 19
flying-fishes, that darted from wave to wave, and were sometimes so
numerous that hundreds of them could be seen at once. On the seventh
day of the voyage the heavy baggage was brought from below and piled'
on deck, each piece being carefully weighed, and checked off on the pur-
ser's books. The Doctor explained to the youths that each passenger was
entitled to free transportation of one hundred pounds of baggage across
the Isthmus, but all above that amount was subject to an extra charge.
At daybreak the next morning the steamer entered the harbor of
Aspinwall and made fast to her dock. The city was named in honor of
William H. Aspinwall, of New York, but the French persist in calling it
Colon, which was its appellation before the Panama Railway was thought
of. It was a place of little consequence until the discovery of gold in
California, in 1848, called attention to the necessity. for a route of speedy
travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of our continent.
Frank and Fred were up early on the morning of their arrival at
Aspinwall, and as soon as the gang-plank was out they hurried on
shore, accompanied by the Doctor. Tropical verdure greeted their eyes
as they looked inland, and the open sheds and slightly built houses told
very plainly that they had reached a region where frosts were unknown.
The wharf where the steamer lay was more than a thousand feet in
length, and, on inquiry, they learned that it was built on a coral reef,
which formed an excellent foundation. "You observe," said Dr.Bronson,
"that the piles resting in the water are covered with copper, to resist the
teredo, a tropical worm which is very destructive to wood. Perhaps you
would like to know something about him.
"Well," the Doc-
tor continued, the _
teredo is better known
as the ship-worm, a __...
name hle has obtained __ -- _---
from his habits of __---- AND___--RK
attacking the timber _-_
of ships in tropical P-
countries, and also in ,t-
the warmer parts of -
the temperate zones.-i
He is a long wormn
with a boring head;
imagine an auger en-
dowed with life, and THE SHIPWORM AND HIS WORK.




20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
you have a very good idea of what the teredo is. He enters the wood
when young, and keeps on boring all' his life; he goes in the direction
of the grain of the wood, and only turns aside for hard knots or for a
fellow-worm, whose presence he seems to detect by the sound of his work.
The teredo attacks wood immersed in salt water, and hence his destruc-
tiveness to ships and to the piles that support docks and other marine
structures. The timber is perforated and riddled so much that it crumbles
to pieces in the course of time, and not a very long time either. Millions
of dollars have been lost in consequence of the worm's performance, and
not a few human lives. Ships lying in tropical harbors have been
ruined by the teredo, and the injury has remained unknown until the
vessels went to sea and were lost in the first gale that blew.
But he has not been without his uses," said the Doctor, with a smile.
"It was the teredo that gave Brunel his idea of a machine for tunnelling
under the Thames River, and since his time most of the machines for tun-
nelling in soft earth have been made on the teredo principle. The head
of the worm has a series of cutting disks that eat away the wood; Brunel
made a gigantic worm with windows in front, and each window was occu-
pied by a man who removed the earth before him and thus made way for
the machine to be pushed forward. The progress of Brunel's worm un-
der the bed of the Thames was exactly like that of the teredo ini a piece
of wood."
The Doctor delivered his improvised lecture amid the rattle of boxes
that were sliding down the sloping gangway from the side of the steamer,
as the process of unloading began almost immediately on her arrival. The
lecture was suddenly terminated by the inattention of thie audience, the
antics of a donkey in a portable stall having caught their eyes. The animal
did not relish the rapid descent along the gangway, as his progress easily
averaged a mile a minute, and the momentum acquired in the slide carried
him far out upon the wharf. He reared and plunged as lie was going
downwards, and in his struggles one of the upper slats of his cage was
torn off. But at this point he became discreet, and carried his protests
no further than to lift up his voice in its loudest tones.
Threading their way through the mass of bales and boxes that covered
the wharf, our friends were soon on solid earth at the end of the coral
reef already mentioned. Here the tropical forest was visible in all its
luxuriance, and not very far away, as the city does not cover a large area,
and the trees grow luxuriantly wherever they are not kept down by the
hand of man. Dr. Bronson explained to the youths that Aspinwall is
built upon the island of Manzanillo, which is about three miles long by a





UNLOADING AT ASPINWALL. 21

mile in width; the harbor was formerly known as Navy Bay, and is said
to have been discovered by Columbus on his third voyage.







































THE DONKEY'S DESCENT.

In spite of the commercial importance of the place, Aspinwall contains
little to interest the. ordinary sight-seer. You observe," said the Doctor,
"that everything is designed for use, and not for ornament; the buildings
are of a practical character, and many of them are not even intended to




22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
be permanent. There are only a few hundred houses in the city, most of
them of wood, and very loosely constructed. Some of the buildings of
the railway company are of iron or brick, partly as a precaution against
fire, and partly to secure immunity from tropical insects and the rapid
deterioration of wood in the damp climate of the Isthmus. The canal
company has followed the same plan in the construction of its shops and
sheds, but as these structures will be of no further use when the canal is
completed there is no attempt to make them ornamental. In the ordinary
parlance of the tourist, Aspinwall can be done' in half an hour."
























THE WHARF AT ASPINWALL.

Following the Doctor's suggestion, they strolled along the street of
hotels and shops near the head of the wharf, passed in front of the stone
church, the first Protestant edifice ever erected in New Granada, gave a
hasty glance at the iron buildings of the Panama Railway, and then
returned to the steamer for breakfast. After that meal was concluded
they went on shore again, arranged for temporary quarters in one of the
hotels, and immediately transferred, their baggage to it.
As soon as -they were settled at the hotel a carriage was ordered for a
drive around the island by the Paseo Coral," as the encircling road is





SCENES IN ASPINWALL. 23

termed. For much of the way the drive was through, or close upon,
the tropical forest, and the youths were more than once reminded of their
excursion in Singapore, and the ride in Ceylon from Point de Galle to
Colombo. On one side of the island there was a view of the ocean, while
on the other the scene included the dense swamp and series of islands
lying between them and the mainland, with an occasional glimpse of the
mountains that form the dividing ridge between the Atlantic and Pacific.
The Doctor's scientific ardor was roused by the numerous shells with
which the beach was strewn, and several times he stepped from the
carriage to gather specimens for his cabinet of conchology. The youths
looked longingly at the bananas and other fruits which grew in abundance,
but they heeded the advice of their mentor, and abstained from indulging.
Aspinwall is not a healthy place at best, and the dangers of a stay there
are greatly increased by an intimate acquaintance with the products of its
gardens, when one has freshly arrived from a sea-voyage.
On returning from their excursion our friends went to deliver letters
to one of the officials connected with the canal company's works, but, not
finding him, they went to the railway terminus to witness the departure of
























DEPARTURE FOR PANAMA.





24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
the train for Panama. The passengers, mails, express matter, and "fast"
freight had been loaded as expeditiously as possible into a train of eight
or nine cars, and when all was ready the usual signals were given, and the
locomotive moved off with its burden. One of the officers of the steamer
had joined our friends, and explained that it was the custom of the com-
pany to despatch a special train on the arrival of a steamer, whether from
Europe or America, in addition to the regular trains that were sent each
way daily. Sometimes five or six trains were sent off in a single day, but
such occurrences were unusual.
"In the old times," he continued, "when this was the principal route
of travel between New York and San Francisco, the arrival of a steamer
made a busy scene. Several hundred passengers were to be transferred,
together with a large amount of mail and express matter; the passengers
were packed into the cars as closely as possible, and when there was an
unusual rush it took two or perhaps three trains to carry them all. In
such cases the steerage passengers were sent away ahead of the others,
while the cabin passengers and mails followed an hour or two later. Most
of the passengers were encumbered with several articles of hand-baggage,
together with oranges, bananas, and other fruits bought from the natives
that swarmed around the station; you would have thought they were
setting out for a journey of a week or more, and provisioning themselves.
accordingly, instead of a continuous ride of three or four hours over a
railway. There was often a contest for places in the carriages, and many
an impromptu fight has occurred on the spot where we are so peacefully
standing."
Soon after the departure of the train Dr. Bronson and the youths re-
turned to the hotel, where they found the official from the canal company
awaiting them. He was accompanied by Mr. Coln6, the secretary of tilhe
American committee of thle company, and after the formalities of intro-
duction were completed the party set out for the Atlantic entrance to tlhe
promised waterway from the Caribbean Sea to the Bay of Panama.
The entrance to the canal is on the mainland, just behind the island
on which Aspinwall is" situated. The island has been enlarged in this
direction, and, when the great ditch is completed, Aspinwall will be its
Atlantic terminus in much the same way that Suez is the Red Sea ter-
minus of the Suez Canal.
Our friends were surprised at the magnitude of the works of the canal
company, as they walked through the miniature city which has sprung up
since the work of cutting the waterway was undertaken. There were
acres and acres of warehouses and workshops, dwellings for the laborers,





WORKING MANY CHANGES. 25
and residences of the officers, together with other edifices connected with
the enormous enterprise. There was a scene of activity around the
machine-shops, where engines and dredges were undergoing repairs, and it
was difficult to believe that all this life had been infused into the tropical
languor of the Istlhmus in the past few years.
Mr. Colne told the strangers that the new town had received the
name of Christopher Columbus, in honor of the great navigator, who was
believed to have visited the spot on his third voyage, at the time he dis-
covered the bay in which Aspinwall is situated. And here," said ho, as
they reached a row of neat cottages, "is the street called Charles de Les-





















NATIVE MARKET, ASPINWALL.

seps; these houses were made in New York and then brought here and
put together, and we have houses at other places of the same character.
Most of our dredges were made in the United States, and an American
company has taken the contract for a large part of our excavating. Part
of the land on which the city is built was reclaimed from the bay by fill-
ing in with the earth dredged out for the canal and its approaches. Be-
fore we get through with the work we shall have changed the' appearance
of this part of the coast so that its friends will hardly know it.
"When we came here," he continued, "one of the first things we
determined upon was the deepening of the harbor of Aspinwall up to the








26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.

point where the canal is entered. As soon as the dredges were ready they
went to work and made a channel that permits the largest ships to come
up to the shore. We might have left it till the end of the enterprise, but
it was better to have it done at the outset, as it facilitates the landing of
our material."
At the suggestion of Mr. Coln6 the party entered a boat, and spent a


























PREPARING FOR A BOAT EXCURSION.

lalf-hour or more in an excursion around the harbor. While they were
being propelled by the strong arms of six negro boatmen from the West
Indies, their entertainer told them about the history of the canal enter-
prise. Frank and Fred listened eagerly to the narration, and the former
made notes of its most important points. With the aid of these memo-
randa we will endeavor to repeat the story.

NOTE.-This book was Written and in the hands of the publishers previous to the burning of
Aspinwall by insurgents, in March, 1885.





THE INTEROCEANIC CANAL. 27








CHAPTER II.
FIRST DAY ON THE ISTHMUS.-THE PANAMA CANAL.-HISTORY OF THE CANAL
ENTERPRISE.-PLANS OF BALBOA AND OTHERS.-THE VARIOUS ROUTES PRO-
POSED.-STRAIN'S SURVEY OF DARIEN.-VISITING THE WORKS AT PANAMA.
rHE idea of a waterway across the narrowest part of the American
.L Continent, or, rather, of the isthmus connecting North and South
America," said Dr. Bronson, "is almost as old as the discovery of the
New World."
Quite right," replied their host. "In 1513, or twenty-one years after
the discovery of America by Columbus, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, having
taken possession of the Pacific Ocean, proposed making a passage through
the rivers of Darien, but his death shortly afterwards caused the project
to be dropped.
Ten years afterwards, or in 1523, Fernando Cortez had conquered
Mexico, and proposed a waterway through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
He employed Gonzalo Sandoval to make a very careful survey of the
route, and continued to urge his proposition after the Emperor Charles
V. had removed the government of Mexico from his control. But the
emperor was not favorably impressed with the scheme, which con-
templated the expenditure of a vast amount of money, and, besides, he
was more interested in obtaining a revenue from Mexico than in doing
exactly the reverse. The proposal of Cortez was rejected as emphatically
as was that of Balboa, but it is a remarkable circumstance that these two
routes are the northern and southern extremes of the lines proposed for
inter-oceanic canals.
By reference to a book by a celebrated Portuguese navigator of the
sixteenth century, Antonio Galvao, it appears that, up to the year 1550,
four routes had been discovered and examined, though none of them had
been surveyed with care. Galvao states in his book that a maritime canal
can be cut in four different places: First, between the Gulf of Uraba and
the Gulf of San Juan; second, through the Isthmus of Panama; third,
along the San Juan River, and through Lake Nicaragua; and, fourth,
through the Mexican Isthmus. Several explorers were sent to examine






28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
these routes, but they encountered many difficulties, and none of them
brought back any exact information. So, you perceive, the principal
routes for an inter-oceanic canal were known to the geographical world
three hundred years ago."
There was a pause to enable Frank and Fred to examine the map
which was spread before them, showing the routes which Mr. Colnd had




























-- - -


BALBOA TAKING POSSESSION OF THE PACIFIC.

mentioned. When the examination was completed their entertainer con-
tinued:
Very little attention was given to the subject for about two hundred
years from the time I have mentioned. In the latter part of the
eighteenth century the idea was revived again; England thought it
would be of great value to her if she could obtain control of a passage





SURVEY OF THE DARIEN ROUTE. 29
S- 790 78 -
ne .V: .--,. THE ISTHMUS

SAspijiwak r'K--.'. ...." DARIEN.







-e-e




from ocean to ocean, __
and in 1778 she sent ,
an expedition against


obtain possession of -
./ o









the country. The enterprise was
unsufrom cean to cessful, and the co, manner, "



Lord Nelson narrowly escaped t-0 ,.,_
anwith his life.on against '





made of the Panama and Nica- oct' __"
ragna routes, the former by order o _r
of King Cpoarles III. of Spain, and
the latter by Antonio de Bucareli,

Viceroy of Mexico. These were the first technical surveys of the routes,
all previous examinations having been made without the aid of engineer-
ing instruments, and unaccompanied by calculations as to the amount of
earth to be removed, and the probable cost of the work.
"In 1804, Alexander Von Humboldt ard Admiral Fitzroy, the former
having made a personal examination of the Darien route, declared in its
favor. This route has had many adherents, and a large amount of money
has been expended in its examination. I will not weary you with the
names of all the explorers and engineers who have examined the various
Isthmus routes. The catalogue is a long one; many valuable lives have
been sacrificed moved, this work, and the most of those who returned alive
were able to present only unsatisfactory reports. The climate was fear-
havfully unhealthy the natives were either hostile to the enterprise or indif-
futlly unhealthy; the natives were either hostile to the enterprise or -indif-






30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
ferent, and would rarely give assistance; and though the governments
through whose territory the routes lay were generally well disposed, they
could not always control their subjects."
"Probably the most thorough explorations," remarked Dr. Bronson,
" were those ordered by the government of the United States in 1870.
Several ships were fitted out, and the ,Darien, Nicaragua, Tehuantepec,
and Panama routes were examined. Commodore Shufeldt went to the
'Isthmus of Tehuantepec; Commanders Hatfield and Lull went to Nicara-
gua, the latter visiting Panama, to complete the exploration of that route.
























RESCUE OF THE SURVIVORS OF STRAIN'S EXPEDITION.

Commander Selfridge and Lieutenant Collins examined the Darien route,
and also some of the rivers entering the ocean a little farther to the north.
The whole exploration occupied about three years, and the reports are very
voluminous. They are more interesting to the engineer than to the gen-
eral reader, and I did not bring them along as part of my baggage."
I have read," said Fred, about the expedition of Lieutenant Strain.
Please tell us what route he examined."
"Strain's expedition was to survey the Darien route," replied the Doc-






STRAIN'S EXPEDITION. 31

tor. "It ended disastrously, as the party lost its way, and also its instru-
ments and provisions, and wandered for many days in a dense forest where
the men were obliged to cut their path at nearly every step. More than
half the party perished in the wilderness, and Lieutenant Strain died soon
after his return to the United States.
The misfortunes of Strain's expedition were due in great measure to'
information which proved to have been almost entirely false. An English
engineer, named Gisborne, had published a book containing a pretended
survey of the country, which he claimed to have surveyed; in consequence























STRAIN'S ARRIVAL AT THE COAST.

of this report the governments of England, France, New Granada, and the
United States of America sent expeditions, all of which failed disastrously.
Strain's was the only one of the number that succeeded in crossing from
ocean to ocean, the rest having turned back on account of the many un-
expected difficulties, and the hostility of the Indians, who attacked them
repeatedly. It turned out that Gisborne had never crossed the Isthmus,
and his map of the Darien region was almost wholly imaginary.
"Several companies have been formed at different times," the Doctor
continued, for the construction of a canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific,





32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
but the most of them have existed only on paper. The first of these com-
panies was based on Gisborne's imaginary surveys, and was organized in
England, with a capital of seventy-five million dollars. Sir Charles Fox
and other heavy capitalists were the promoters of thllis company, and they
confidently expected to complete their work before the year 1860. The
preliminary operations showed that the canal, if built at all, would cost
several times that amount, and the enterprise was abandoned.
Concessions have also been granted on other routes, but no serious
work has been performed; the concessions were limited in the time of
commencing and completing the work, and one after another the limit of





















VIEW ON THE CHAGRES RIVER.

time expired without anything having been accomplished. The Panama
route is the only one on which there has been an attempt to make a canal;
the government of the United States has made a treaty with Nicaragua for
the construction of a canal through that country, but, up to the present
time, the scheme has not gone beyond the surveys and the reports of the
engineers."
"We are confident," said Mr. Coln6, with a smile, that our canal from
Aspinwall. to Panama will be completed, and that large ships will pass
through it before the 1st of January, 1890. Indeed, some of our engi-
neers promise it for the New Year of 1889. Thus far the work has pro-





THE COST OF MAKING THE CANAL. 33
gressed quite as fast as we expected at the outset, and if no unforeseen
difficulties arise, we shall have the canal completed before 1890."
One of the youths asked how much the canal was likely to cost, and
how it would compare with the Suez Canal, which they had visited on their
return from the Far East.
"Not to trouble you with details," replied the Doctor, "the estimate
of the cost was originally six hundred millions of francs, or one hundred
and twenty millions of dollars. Very few enterprises come within the
original estimates, and it is probable that not less than thirty millions of
dollars, and perhaps another hundred millions, must be added to these
figures, and some engineers say three hundred millions will be required.
The cost of the Suez Canal was about one hundred millions, and the work
at Suez was very light compared with that at Panama."
"I remember," said Fred, "that the Suez Canal is practically a great
ditch through a sandy country, with no elevation of more than sixty feet,
and but very little rock to be cut away. Nearly half the length of the
canal was made by filling up depressions in the desert, which were turned
into lakes by allowing the water to run into them. Is there anything of
the kind here ?"
Not by any means," was the reply; the Panama Canal is being cut
through a region where the difficulties are enormous by comparison with
those at Suez. Instead of a waste of sand, there is a tropical forest for
the greater part of the way, and in place of the depressions which were
converted into lakes to form part of the Suez Canal, we have a chain of
hills which are nearly three hundred feet high at the lowest points. The
summit level of the Panama Railway is two hundred and sixty-three feet
above the level of tide-water on the Atlantic coast, and the canal must
have the enormous depth of three hundred feet, and at some points more
than that."
That is quite correct," replied their host. "It will be the deepest
canal cutting in the world when it is completed. On the section of Cule-
bra, in a distance of little more than a mile, we must remove twenty-five
million cubic metres of earth and pile it up elsewhere. Fortunately, our
work is rendered easy in this respect, as there are many valleys close to the
canal where the earth can be disposed of. Do you know how much is
represented by twenty-five million cubic metres ?"
Fred made a calculation on a slip of paper, roughly converting metres
into yards by adding one fifth. Then he reduced the yards into cubic feet,
and announced that, with the earth to be removed from the Culebra sec-
tion of the canal they could build a wall nine feet thick and twenty feet
3





34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
high for a distance of twenty-eight miles, and have a good many car-loads
to spare.
This will give you an idea of the work to be performed here," replied
Mr. Colne, "and you must remember that it is only one single section of
the entire line. Then, too, there are great difficulties in the way on
account of the rains, and the sudden overflows of the Chagres River, which
crosses the line of the canal. Instead of being a depression to be filled
with water, it is liable to pour out at any moment much more water than
we want."

























BEACH NEAR ASPINWALL.

"The average rainfall of this part of the Isthmus," said Dr. Bronson,
"according to the official reports, is over twelve feet. This is not distrib-
uted through the year, but is confined to about seven months. During
a single rain-storm six and a half inches of water have fallen.
"The consequence is that there are excessive floods in the rivers; the
Chagres River, which you see represented on the map as crossing the canal,
is, in the dry season, a stream about two hundred and fifty feet wide and
two feet deep. During a heavy flood it is fifteen hundred feet wide, and





A GREAT RESERVOIR. 35

over forty feet deep, and it has been known to rise thirty or forty feet in
a few hours. In these floods it brings down trees, rocks, and earth, and
sometimes houses, and the sides of hills. In one freshet, an iron tank,
that stood seventeen feet above the railway track, was washed away, and on
several occasions considerable portions of the road have been destroyed."


























IN THE RAINY SEASON.

"We get over that difficulty," said Mr. Colne, "by making a barrage,
or dam, across the river, and between two hills, to retain the waters during
the freshets, and let them out gradually by lateral sluices. The capacity
of the reservoir formed by the darn will be much more than enough to
hold all the water coming down in the greatest rise that has ever been
known since the railway was completed, in 1855. Mr. De Lesseps says
that there are three reservoirs in the world of greater capacity than this:
one is at St. Etienne, France; one at La Gillappe, Belgium; and one
at Alicante, in Spain. They have stood for three centuries, and are as
good and strong as they ever were. Science has improved since the great
retaining walls of Alicante were erected, and the dam of the Chagres





36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
River will be perfectly safe, and do justice to the science which con-
structs it."
By this time the boat had reached the line of the breakwater which
was being constructed to protect the harbor from the strong northers"
that sometimes blow at Aspinwall, and make anchorage unsafe. The earth
dredged from the canal and from the shallow portions of the bay was
partly used for forming the ground already mentioned, and partly for con-
structing the breakwater. For the latter purpose it was piled between





































A HAND-CAR JOURNEY ON THE PANAMA RAILWAY.





NEAR ASPINWALL. 37

walls of rock, and it was expected that the work would be completed long
before the canal was ready for use.
From the breakwater they were taken to the entrance of the channel
opened by the dredges for the canal, and the location of the proposed new
port was pointed out. Then they proceeded up the great ditch for two
or three miles, and landed where the canal and railway were close together.



























.SURVEYING UNDER DIFFICULTIES.

Two hand-cars were standing on the track and evidently waiting for them.
The gentleman to whom they had brought the letter was there, and also
one of the officials of the railway. At the invitation of the latter, the
party was soon distributed on the vehicles, three on one and three on the
other. Comfortably seated on the front of the hand-cars, which were pro-
pelled by natives in very scanty dress, our friends rolled easily over the
level track, in the direction of the high ground, and also of Panama.
Frank and Fred thought they had never taken a more delightful ride.
The air was delicious; there was the luxuriant vegetation of the tropics





38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
all around them; birds were abundant in the trees; monkeys occasionally
chattered above them, or swung from the limbs, as if inviting the strangers
to stop and visit their relatives; the speed was just enough for comfort;
their vision was unimpeded, and there was no locomotive in front of them
to poison the air with fumes of burning coal or shower them with cinders.
Then, too, their guide was a cyclopedia of knowledge, as he had been for






--7:




















NATIVE VILLAGE ON THE ISTHMUS.

a long time connected with the railway and was thoroughly conversant
with its history.
It was one of the most difficult roads to build that I ever heard of,"
said he, "and three times the work was suspended on account of the im-
possibility of getting enough laborers or bringing forward the necessary
material. Everything had to be brought from New York or some other
American or European city, as there was no labor worth having to be
found on the Isthmus itself. Between Aspinwall and Monkey Hill the
engineers had sometimes to wade up to their waists while laying out





THE STEAM MONSTER. 39

the line, and after the road was completed the track repeatedly sank down
out of sight. It happened several times that two or three hundred feet of
road would thus disappear in a single night, and then the whole force of
the road was put to work to fill up the cavities. There are some places
that were filled two or three times before the road-bed was solid enough
to stay. Since the canal company began operations here it has built
some new tracks, and occasionally meets with the same trouble, but the
old part of the line is all right now.
"There is a good story of how the natives of the country arotmd
Gatun had their first view of a locomotive. The track was completed to
that point, and a day was set for running an engine over it. People came
for long distances; they had heard wonderful stories of the witchcraft of
the strangers, and there was great curiosity to know about it. There was
an immense crowd, and at the appointed time the locomotive came in
sight, puffing vigorously, and emitting clouds of steam and smoke. There
was great excitement, which reached the pitch of terror when the creature
came into the midst of the crowd, and the whistle was blown. The whole
crowd fled to the river, and many of them jumped in, expecting they
would be pursued, and possibly devoured.
Finding the monster did not follow them, they gathered courage and
reassembled, but stood at a safe distance, ready to run again if necessary.
They sent forward their priest to
examine the animal; lie surveyed --
it carefully, and then informed his
followers that it was not an animal,
but a machine, in which there was a
veritable demon chained, and com-
pelled to work the crank which pro-
pelled it. The explanation was suf-
ficient; the good priest knew it was
hopeless to attempt to enlighten them -
on the uses of steam, and found the
demon story the shortest way out of
the difficulty. It is just possible,
though, that he was not versed in
natural philosophy, and his explana -
tion may have been the honest result
of his observation." --
At several points, as they passed -- -
along, Fred observed men cutting NATIVE IDEA OF THE LOCOMOTIVE.





40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
away the bushes by the roadside, and, in reply to a question, he learned
that the growth of the tropical forest was so rapid that men were kept
busy all along the route in keeping it down, so that it would not touch the
passing trains. But it is not without its advantages," said their inform-
a'nt; "what it costs to keep down the rapid vegetation is more than com-
pensated by the interlacing of the roots through the road-bed so that it
makes a powerful resistance to the water which rushes down the slopes
after the heavy rains. Many a serious injury to the road has been pre-
vented by this mass of roots."
Their attention was called to the flowers that grew in the forest, and
the eyes of the youths were con-
stantly occupied with the varieties
of trees and plants that they passed
in their ride. There were palms and
mangroves, canes, ferns, orchids,
and creeping, climbing, and hanging
,/ plants almost without number. There
/ was hardly a tree without a parasite,
and many trees were covered from
the base to the topmost limb with
foliage that was not their own. In
some cases the trees were actually
killed by the parasites that clung to
them, and reminded our friends of
the picture of a deer strangled by a
serpent.
Fred asked for the famous prod-
ict of the Isthmus, a member of
tlhe orchid family, Peristera Elata,
known as Flor del Espiritu Santo,"
or Flower of the Holy Spirit." It
was pointed out to them, and, at the
youth's request, they stopped long
THE ESPIRITU SANTO FLOWER. enouOgh to gather a few specimens.
The youths greatly admired the
flower, and when they saw it neither of them wondered at its name nor the
reverence with which it is regarded in Central American countries. It
has a white blossom resembling the tulip, and in the inside of the blossom
is the figure of a dove. It needs no imagination to show the form of the
bird ; there it rests, with its wings dirooping at its sides and its head bent






FLOWER OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 41

forward so that the bill almost touches the breast; the body of the dove is
of a snowy white, while the bill is tipped with red. The flower has a
perfume resembling that of the magnolia, and it blooms in the latter part
of the summer months.
Frank wanted to send home some of the plants, and was told that lie
could do so with ease, but the bulbs would not live unless they were pro-
cured in May or June, when the stalks had been sufficiently developed to
produce the flower. It is said that the early Spanish explorers of the
Isthmus bowed before this flower and worshipped it, and the reverence
that was then developed has never been lost. Down to quite recently
it was very difficult to procure specimens of the Espiritu Santo flower,
owing to this reverential feeling, and it is only since the colonization of
the Isthmus by Americans that the stranger has been able to obtain all lie
wants. The flower is now cultivated in hot-houses, and has been trans-
ported to other tropical countries, where it is successfully grown.
Fred called attention to several trees resembling some they had seen in
Java and Ceylon, and Frank picked out three or four varieties of mahogany


























GATUN STATION.





42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
which he could recognize. Occasionally there was a clearing devoted to
bananas and other fruits, and at Gatun Station, where the road was close
to the bank of the Chagres River, several natives offered the fruits for sale.
The old village of Gatun was on the opposite shore of the river, and con-
sisted of a group of huts half concealed by the foliage. In the old days
of California travel, before the construction of the railway, the inhabitants
of Gatun drove a prosperous trade with the gold-seekers; according to
one writer, "eggs were sold for twenty-five cents apiece, and the ground-
rent for a hammock was two dollars a night."
An excavating machine was in operation not far from the railway, and
huge mounds of earth had been thrown up on either side of the line of
the canal. Hundreds of laborers were at work, and the scene was, in many
respects, a repetition of what they had encountered at Aspinwall, or, rather,
at the new city which has risen near it. This is an American machine,"
said their guide, as he pointed to the excavator, and it will interest you
to know that the excavators and dredges from New York have proved
more satisfactory than those of French construction. They are very
effective, and rarely get out of order; the French machines were admira-
bly adapted to the Suez Canal, but the soil here is much harder than that
at Suez, and requires a more powerful engine for its removal."
From Gatun the party returned to the canal entrance, and thence to
their hotel in Aspinwall. Later they dined with their new friends, and
when they retired for the night they felt that they had crowded a good
deal of sight-seeing into their first day on the Isthmus.
















A TROPICAL HARBOR.







ON THE PANAMA RAILWAY. 43










CHAPTER III.

OVER THE ISTHMUS. -- A PROFITABLE RAILWAY.-ISTHMUS FEVER.-TROPICAL
TREES, FLOWERS, AND ANIMALS.-SIGHTS IN PANAMA.-THE CATHEDRAL.-
A STROLL ON THE BEACH.-THE PARADISE OF CONCHOLOGISTS.

TEXT morning our friends arranged to leave for Panama by the regular
L train. Just as they were about starting from the hotel they were met

by the manager of the railway, who invited them to occupy the directors'


^.p uinwaZ1









Gl stLion o n
DWIz, --
-^J)os .BuenaffaB c ueo
















SFimncciI.
MAP OF THE PANAMA RAILWAY.


car, which was to be drawn by a special locomotive, and would follow the
train an hour or more later. They accepted the invitation, sending their
'.*A .vsxs^ -^w ^ ... ________________ __ ________^) ~amc co'^ iI





44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
baggage by the train, with the assurance that it would be found at the
station at Panama on their arrival. The directors' car afforded superior
facilities for seeing the objects of interest along the route, and, besides,
they were to l6e accompanied by the manager, and also by the official who
had been of such practical assistance on the previous day.
They were joined by some of the officials connected with the construc-
tion of the canal, and altogether the party was a most agreeable one. Dr.
Bronson explained to the youths that when the canal company was organ-
ized it was deemed advisable to have command of the.railway in order to
facilitate the work. A controlling interest in the line was bought by the
canal company, and it is fair to suppose that the owners of the shares re-
ceived a good price for their property.
The Panama Railway has been the most profitable thing of the kind
in the world," said the Doctor, "or, at any rate, one of the most profit-
able I ever heard of. The managers have generally kept their affairs as
much as possible to themselves, and would, doubtless, assure you that they
had lost money by their investment, which is often the case with men
who have a remunerative business of any kind. The local fare over the
line between Aspinwall and Panama was established at twenty-five dollars,
and remained at that figure for nearly twenty years. Twenty-five dollars
for a ride of forty-eight miles, or more than fifty cents a mile! Thousands
of passengers were carried over the road every month, and every thousand
passengers meant twenty-five thousand dollars to the railway. At one
time the steamships were carrying steerage passengers from New York to
San Francisco for eighty dollars, including the transit of the Isthmus;
the steamship company thus received fifty-five dollars for carrying a pas-
senger five thousand five hundred miles, including his board and lodging
for twenty-three days, while the railway company received almost half as
much for carrying him forty-eight miles, lodging him four hours in rickety
cars, and giving him no board whatever.
"But bygones are bygones," continued the Doctor, "and if any trav-
eller disliked the price of the railway journey he had the privilege of
going by the old route. This involved a tedious journey up the Chagres
River by bongoes or native boats as far as Gorgona, and a ride thence over
the hills and through the mud to Panama. The riding was done on the
backs of mules, as there was no wagon-road ; travellers were often obliged
to pass the night in the open air, as there were very scanty accommodations"
in the few villages along the road; a week or more was generally con-
sumed in the trip; the prices of everything were exorbitant; and the
tourist generally reached the end of his journey feeling very much as if







THE OLD WAY TO CALIFORNIA. 45

he had been passed through a patent wringing-machine. Not a few fell
ill and died on the way, and many a fevered sufferer in California, years
afterwards, could trace the beginning of his ills to his exposure on the
Isthmus. 'Isthmus fever' became known almost as a distinct malady,
and it was often very difficult of cure. It is pretty well forgotten now,

-_ I -4-" _" -' T



























CROSSING THE ISTHMUS IN 1849.

thanks to the rapid transit afforded by the railway. Under all the circum-
stances, the enterprising men who constructed this road deserve every cent
they received from it; it has saved thousands of lives to the population of
the United States and other countries, and has added materially to the
commercial facilities of the world. It was built under many discourage-
ments, and the energy displayed in its construction was worthy of a liberal
reward."
They rolled merrily over the track and in a little while had passed
Gatun Station, and the point they visited in their excursion to inspect the





46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
work on the canal. They wound among the low hills and along the bank
of the Chagres River, catching pretty views here and there, and passing
several unimportant stations without stopping. One of the officials pointed
out the cottage which was the favorite residence of Mr. John L. Stephens
during his connection with the railway, and also a gigantic tree which has
long been known as Stephens's tree." Other objects of interest were
indicated, and there was not an idle moment in the whole journey.
























A BONGO.

The railway crosses the Chagres River at Barbacoas, where there is a
fine bridge, which has withstood the shocks of that capricious stream in a
manner that reflects creditably upon its builders. A little beyond Barba-
coas they met a train bound eastward, and waited a short time on a siding
to enable the locomotive and its burden to get out of the way. The delay
gave an opportunity for a brief excursion into the tropical forest, which
came close up to the railway, as it does for the greater part of the distance
between Aspinwall and Panama.
Frank and Fred were accompanied by one of their new friends, who
seemed to be well versed in the botany of the country. The first tree to






THE BOTANY OF THE ISTHMUS. 47






~--:


















BRIDGE ACROSS THE CHAGRES RIVER AT BARBACOAS.

meet their gaze was a palm, and while they were noting its peculiarities
their guide told them there was no place in the world where so many
varieties of the palm could be found together as on the Isthmus. "There
are," said he, twenty-one different species of palm-trees; I am informed
that three or four more have been found in the vicinity, but I have not
seen them. From one of the well-known varieties is extracted the palm-
oil of commerce; another produces a sweet sap from which the natives
distil a wine they use freely as a beverage; there is the sugar palm,' from
which sugar is made; the 'sago palm,' which produces sago, but of a
quality inferior to that of the Malay Archipelago; the ivory palm,' which
supplies vegetable ivory; the cabbage palm,' whose stalks resemble the
cabbage in appearance and taste; and tlie 'glove palmn,' from which bags
for holding grain or kindred things are readily obtained. Houses, weapons,
domestic utensils, and many other things are made from the leaves, stalks,
fruit, bark, or wood of the palm, and the tree is quite as necessary to the
existence of the natives of tlhe Isthmus as is the bamboo to the inhabit-
ants of tropical Asia."





48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.































MEETING A TRAIN.

It was impossible to penetrate far into the forest, owing to the network
of hanging and creeping plants that blocked the way, and the youths were
not long in realizing the difficulties encountered by the surveyors who laid
out the line of the railway. Their guide described many of the vegetable
growths that were visible, and the number was so great that Frank was
fairly bewildered with them. So lie called attention to the birds darting
among the thick foliage, and asked about the animal kingdom of the
country.
There are birds, beasts, reptiles, and insects here in great number,"
was the reply. There are parrots of several kinds, some of which will
learn to talk while others will not; there are toucans, with enormous beaks
especially designed for the disposal of fruits; humming-birds of gorgeous
hues and hardly bigger than bees; and there are orioles, trogons, tanagers,





BIRDS AND MONKEYS. 49

and other birds whose names are only known
locally or in scientific works. There are wild
turkeys and grouse among the hills; the lat-
ter are shy and not easily taken, and the
hunter is always at a disadvantage on account
of the thickness of the shrubbery ; the tapir
I. THE SINGING HUMMER.
abounds in the low ground and marshes near
the rivers, and his flesh is not unlike
pork in taste and appearance. You
have already seen monkeys, and if
you could go into the forest a dozen
miles from the settlements you might
see hundreds of them in a single day.
They go in large parties oftentimes,
and whenever they make a raid on a
banana plantation they destroy in a
Sfew hours the labor of a whole sea-
son. There is a tradition that in the
old days the natives used to serve up
THE HUMMING-BIRD AT WORK. monkey flesh to the California emi-























THE IGUANA.
4





50 THE BOY .TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. .
k grants under the name of 'opossum.'
( The opossum.is found here, but he is
/ Lnot easily taken, and a man from the
i, a iStates would have no hesitation in -eat-
ing its flesh, though he might seriously
object to dining on monkey.
S"Besides the animals I have men-
tioned," he continued, "we have the
ant-eater, peccary, sloth, deer, cougar,
bear, and tiger-cat; the peccary is also
known as the wild hog,' and is closely
allied to the tapir. There is a lizard
called the iguana, which is sometimes
five or six feet long, and is as delicious
as lobster or chicken ; its eggs are much
prized by the natives, and frequently
seen in the markets. Americans who
come here are generally chary of eating
iguana, because it is a lizard; we have
got- over this difficulty by naming it
S Panama lobster,' and thus silencing all
objections. There's a great deal in a
/ Ilame.
SThe youths admitted the evident
A CENTIPEDE. truth of the assertion. Suddenly, Frank
espied almost under his feet a crab about
the size of a half-grown chicken, and asked if it was a Panama beetle."
"Not exactly," replied their guide, with a smile. "It is a land-crab,
which is very abundant on the
Isthmus, and considered an
excellent article of food. It
is rapacious, like the crab gen-
erally, and comes fearlessly
into the presence of man in
search of a breakfast. These
crabs devour the flesh of ani- 2 .
mals, and will often reduce a
horse or ox to a heap of pol-
ished bones in a few hours. It
will be well for you to tread A SCORPION.





POISONOUS INSECTS. 51

carefully on the ground in the vicinity, as you never know when you will
encounter a scorpion, tarantula, or centipede, or even a venomous snake.
Occasionally we find large serpents of the constrictor species, but they
are not as dangerous as the smaller reptiles and insects. The tarantula is
a sort of hairy spider, quite pretty to look at, but so venomous that his
bite causes death in a few hours. The natives have a belief that if a ta-
rantula simply walks over the flesh without biting there is left a poison-
ous trail which causes rheumatic and other pains, lasting for years or. per-
haps for a lifetime. Catch one of these spiders and show it to a group of
natives, and they will run shrieking away from you."


























EXHIBITING A TARANTULA.

The whistle of the locomotive put an end to the conversation, and re-
called the young naturalists to the train. Fred observed a native with one
foot bandaged across the toes, and asked what was the matter with him.
Probably jiggers," was the reply.
"And please tell us what jiggers are ?"
Its native name is chigoe," answered their guide, "and this has been





52 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
anglicized into jigger.' Its scientific name is Pulex penetrans8 it is a
species of flea which deposits its eggs in the human body, especially un-
der the skin of the foot or the nails of the toes. Its presence is indicated
by a slight itching and subsequently by a membranous sac, like the head
of a pin. This sac can be removed with a needle or by washing the feet
with tobacco juice; if allowed to remain it causes an ulcer, and the victim
will quite likely lose his toes. It is necessary to keep close watch to
one's feet, and wash them frequently with strong soap or decoction of
tobacco."
Natural history gave place to more immediate matters as the train
passed one of the points where excavations for the canal were going on.
The scene was a repetition of that at Gatun, and needs no special descrip-
tion, but it naturally led to further conversation upon the great enter-
prise which was intended to unite the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Fred asked how it happened that a canal through the Isthmus con-
necting North and South America was being constructed by Frenchmen
and with French capital?

























HILLS NEAR THE RAILWAY.

















IRELAND p
VANCOUVER I. RANCE




-::: NE)
A AAD c A


-- ---.---- ----.- ..------------------------------------U .,,",

------------- L
ii-,~-- t,. "" _o. i..- "" ,,,"<.. ,, ". ", ,, # ,-









V B A Z 1- L



MAP SHOWING HOW OCEAN ROUTES ARE SHORTENED BY THE PANAMA CANAL.



\ NEWntALAND






MAP SHOWING HOW OCEAN ROUTES ARE ShORTENED BY THE PANAMA CANAL.





54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
For the very simple reason," the Doctor answered, that Americans
were unwilling to risk their money in the work and the French were
ready to do so. The final surveys were made by Lieutenant Bonaparte
Wyse of the French navy, and the expense was paid by French capital-
ists. M. De Lesseps, whose name has become known throughout the
world for his energy in miakirig the Suez Canal, caused an international
congress to be assembled at Paris in 1879; this congress decided in favor
of the present location, and for a canal without locks. Under his leader-
ship the company was formed, and the work is going on as you see it.
It is quite likely that diplomatic questions will arise concerning the
use of the canal by the great nations of the globe; meantime, we need
not disturb ourselves about it, but wait patiently for the day when ships
will be able to pass from ocean to ocean. To understand the advantages
to commerce which will result from the construction of the canal you
have only to look at this map and observe the difference between the
proposed routes for ships and those which are at present followed."
The Doctor unfolded a map which we give on page 53. While Frank
and Fred were glancing at the routes marked upon it, Dr. Bronson read
the following array of figures:
Miles.
The distance from New York to Sydney, Australia, via Cape Horn, is...... 12,870
ii" via Panama........... 9,950
In favor of Panama...... ... .... .... .... .......... ... 2,920
The distance from New York to Honolulu, Sandwich Isl., via Cape Horn.... 13,560;
via Panama...... 6,800.
In favor of Panama.................................. 6,760.
The distance from New York to Hong Kong, via Cape Horn................. 17,420.
via Panama.. ....... .... 11,850:
In favor of Panama............ .......... ............ 5,570
The distance from New York to Yokohama, Japan, via Cape Horn............ 16,710
i" via Panama. ......... 10,220
In favor of Panama............. ... ............... 6,490
The distance from Englan)d to Sydney, Australia, via Cape of Good Hope... 12,828
via Panama...... . 12,730
In favor of Panama .................................. 98

"Between England and Sydney they don't save much distance," Fred
remarked; but on all the other routes there is a great difference in the
figures. We will all hope for the speedy completion of the canal, and
on the opening.day we'll fling our hats in the air and cheer as loudly as
possible in honor of Ferdinand De Lesseps."
Meantime the train had left the valley of the Chagres River and was
ascending among the hills towards the summit level, two hundred and sixty-






CROSSING THE RIDGE. 55

eight feet above the ocean. Many of the hills were sharply conical and
showed that they were of volcanic origin; high embankments and heavy
cuttings followed each other. in rapid succession, and at one point the road
wound round the side of a hill composed of basaltic crystals about twelve
inches in diameter and eight or ten feet long. It was explained that this








.-- __ -- _~ __























BASALTIC CLIFF.

was one of the few instances in the world where basaltic columns were
found in any but upright positions: at Fingal's Cave, in Staffa, the Giant's
Causeway, in Ireland, and the Palisades of the Hudson they are upright,
but on this hill of the Panama Isthmus they are in all sorts of positions,
and indicate very clearly that there has been a great convulsion of nat-
ure since their formation.
The Cerro de Los Bucaneros, or Hill of The Buccaneers," was




56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.

pointed out. It receives the name from the fact that from its summit
the buccaneer, Morgan, had his first view of ancient Panama in 1668,
and he encamped at the base of the hill on the night before his attack
upon the city.
Soon after passing this memorable hill the city of Panama was visible
in the distance. Entering the railway station, they came to a halt, and in























PANAMA IN THE DISTANCE.

a few moments Frank and Fred were gazing on the waters breaking on
the beach just outside the spacious building. A long pier jutted into the
bay at the end of the station; a steamboat was being laden there with
freight, intended for one of the large steamers grouped together two or
three miles away. Dr. Bronson explained that the bay of Panama is quite
shallow for a long way out, and only boats of light draft can come close to
shore. The canal company is dredging a channel from the deep parts of
the bay up to the shore, which will form an approach to the mouth of the
canal, when that work is completed. The tide rises and falls about fif-
teen feet on the average, varying with the season and the phases of the
moon; and consequently a lock will be necessary at Panama to prevent
the formation of a current through the canal.





THE PACIFIC END OF THE CANAL. 57

The mouth of the canal is at La Boca, some distance from the railway
station. Engineering reasons caused the selection of this spot, as it
possessed considerable advantages over the railway terminus. It is the
intention of the company to dredge out a large basin near La Boca, where
ships can lie in safety while waiting their turn to pass through to the At-
lantic Ocean. Until this basin is completed, the anchorage for large ships
will be in the vicinity of the islands where the Pacific Mail, and other large
companies, have their docks and coaling-stations.













~~-- B L ^ ^--S : ^ -^











STATION AT PANAMA.

Our friends found their baggage at the station; they had telegraphed
for accommodations in the principal hotel of Panama, and the runner of
the house was waiting to meet them. Confiding their baggage to his
care, they proceeded at once to the establishment; breakfast had been
served in the directors' car during the ride from Aspinwall, and conse-
quently they were ready to start at once to look through the city. We
are permitted to make the following extract from Frank's note-book:
"Panama contains about eleven thousand inhabitants, and is very sub-
stantially built of stone. There is nothing particularly attractive about




58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH 'AMERICA.















---- ~--*-- _















CATHEDRAL AT PANAMA.

it, but it is quaint and interesting; the houses are built with courtyards,
in the Spanish style, and you might easily imagine yourself in a part of
Cordova or Cadiz, or even in Madrid. The cathedral is a fine building
for this part of the world, though it would not be regarded as of much
account in any prominent city of Europe. The bells are old and not
very tuneful; they are rung at frequent intervals, beginning at an early
hour of the morning, and it is not advisable for a nervous traveller to
take lodgings in the immediate vicinity of the venerable building.
"The city is in north latitude 8 57', and received a royal charter from
King Charles I. of Spain, in 1521. Panama' is an Indian.word which
means a place abounding in fish ;' the old city was about six miles north-
east of the present one, which dates from 1670. Old Panama was de-
stroyed in 1668, by Morgan, the buccaneer, and for a long time the pres-





THE WALLS OF PANAMA. 59

ent city was known as New Panama,' to distinguish it from its prede-
cessor.
The builders of the new city surrounded it with strong walls as a de-
fence against invaders, but these walls have been allowed to go to ruin.
They would be of no use against modern artillery, as a few cannon could
batter them down in half a dozen hours. In many places, bushes and trees
grow among the stones; at one time the inhabitants were allowed to help
themselves to building material from the walls, but the practice was.not
long continued. Originally the walls were from twenty to forty feet high,
with battlements and towers at frequent intervals; they cost so much
that the Spanish government wrote to the commander of the city, and
wished to know whether the walls were builded of silver or of gold.'
We saw some of the cannon that were sent from Spain for the defence of
the walls; they have not been fired for many years, and would probably
explode at the first attempt to use them.
We went along the principal street, looking into the cathedral, which
is probably two hundred feet long by a hundred and fifty in width, and
is divided in the interior by four rows of massive columns which support

























RAMPARTS, WITH OLD CANNON.





60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.




































WATER-CARRIER AND NATIVE WOMAN.

the roof. It contains numerous shrines and altars; the floor is of brick,
and when we entered it was being swept by half a dozen dark-skinned
natives, one of whom offered to show us through the building. We de-
clined the proposal, as there did not appear to be much worth seeing, and
our time was limited.
In the plaza or square in front of the cathedral there were little
groups of people, a few on horseback, but the most of them on foot.
There were a few women whose veils of rich lace showed that they be-
longed to the upper classes, and others, more numerous, who wore the





STREET SCENES IN PANAMA. 61

reboza or mantle of the descendants of the aborigines. There were
water-carriers mounted on mules, and on each side of every mule was a
couple of kegs of water, with a sprig of grass or a bunch of leaves stuck
into the opening on top. Panama has no system of public water-works,
and the inhabitants are supplied from house to house, in the manner of
two hundred years ago. The occupation of a water-carrier is said to de-
scend from father to son; nobody gets rich at the business, but it af-
fords a living to a good many people.
There were many natives riding, or leading mules laden with garden
produce from the neighborhood, and also other natives who were their
own beasts of burden, and carried baskets or bags on their heads. There
were priests in flowing robes and shovel-shaped hats, some hurrying along
as if on important business, while others were idling among the people,
and evidently enjoying themselves. The cathedral is on the western side
of the plaza, and on the southern side is the cabildo or Government
House, corresponding to our City Hall. It is a plain building of stone,
two stories high, and with wide porticoes or balconies on both stories.
Here all the business of the city is conducted.
























GATE OF THE MONKS.




62 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
"On the other side of the square there were several plain -looking
buildings, with dwellings on the upper stories and stores below; some of
them were old, while others were new, and there were two or three gaps
where nothing but ruins was visible. Panama has suffered severely from
fires. It was almostt entirely destroyed in 1737, but was quickly rebuilt,
as its business was then prosperous. In 17841 there was another serious
fire, and since 1864 there have been three extensive conflagrations whose
traces are still visible. The gaps around the plaza are the result of these
later disasters.
"We crossed the plaza and continued on to the Postiga de las Monas,
or 'Gate of the Monks,' which is crowned by a watch-tower, and leads
through the ruined wall to the beach. A woman and child were sitting























RUINS OF CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO.

under the shadow of the gateway, and people were coming and going, on
foot or in the saddle. When we reached the beach the tide was out and
there was a large expanse of coral reef visible; it was alive with crabs,
shrimps, cuttle-fishes, and other marine products, and we picked up lots
and lots of shells of curious form and color. It is a splendid place for
conchologists, and if the sun had not been so hot we would have stayed
there an hour or two.





THE CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO. 63

"We came back through the gateway, and met one of our late com-
panions of the train. He took us to see the ruins of the Church of San
Domingo, which was built soon after the founding of the city, and burned
more than a hundred years ago. In its time, it was the finest church in
Panama, and was said to possess a great store of silver and gold images
and other treasures.







,w i




I



















A REMARKABLE ARCHWAY.

Dr. Bronson was anxious to see a remarkable arch which was said to
exist in the ruins of the church, and our friend offered to point it out.
We passed among the walls, which were thickly overgrown with vines and
bushes, and finally came to the archway. It is forty feet long, and has a
perpendicular radius at the keystone of only two feet; it is made of brick,
and is said to be a wonderful piece of work. Our friend said he had never




64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
heard of anything like it, and that many architects passing through
Panama in the last twenty years had seen and admired it.
Some of the bells of the church were lying where they fell at the
time of the fire, and others were hung upon timbers a few feet from the
ground, where they could be rung as in the olden time. Our guide told
us an interesting story about the way these bells were made and given to
the church.
Soon after Panama was founded, the Queen of Spain invited the
ladies of her court to come and bring whatever money they could afford,
for the founding of the Church of San Domingo. She gathered a large
amount, which was used for building the church. When the time came to
prepare the bells, people of all classes were invited to make donations,
and witness the operation of casting. They came in great crowds; the
queen threw in handfuls of gold, the ladies and gentlemen of the court
did likewise ; the poor contributed silver or copper, and so the amount of
metal in the crucibles increased. Then the queen threw in the golden
ornaments that she wore; her ladies did the same; the excitement became
great; rings, bracelets, and other valuables-many of them precious relics
or family heirlooms-were contributed to the pious work, and thus the
bells for the church in the New World were made. Their tone was said
to be of the purest, and they are held in great reverence by the priests
who have them in charge. High prices have been offered for these bells,
but invariably refused."



















RUINED CHURCH.






THE BAY OF PANAMA. 65









CHAPTER IV.
"THE PLACE OF FISH."-AN EXCURSION TO OLD PANAMA.-VISITING A HERMIT.-
DRINKING CHICHI.- RUINS OF THE CITY.-MORGAN THE BUCCANEER. HIS
HISTORY AND EXPLOITS.-HOW HE CAPTURED PANAMA.

FROM the ruins of the church the youths and their companions
strolled to the ramparts of the city, where they watched the sunset
gilding the distant hilltops and lighting up the waters of the beautiful
































5
VIEW FROM THE RAMPARTS OF PANAMA.

Bay of Panama. The wall is here enlarged into a wide promenade, which
overlooks a level space containing the arsenal, the military barracks, and
the prisons of the city government. The Esplanade is the favorite loung-
ing-place of the people at the close of the day, and our friends had an
5





66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
excellent opportunity to study the local dress and manners. Nobody
appeared to be in a hurry, and there was a tendency to divide into groups
and couples, very much as in other lands and under other skies. Some
sauntered slowly up and down the promenade, while others leaned over the
parapet, or reclined on the grass which covered a considerable part of the
Esplanade. Ships and steamers were anchored in the distance, while the
foreground of the bay was dotted with native boats, which seemed to be
drifting aimlessly in the gentle breeze. Altogether, the picture was de-
lightful, and long to be remembered.
























ON THE NORTHEASTERN BEACH.

On the next morning our friends were up early for an excursion to
Old Panama, which we have already mentioned. As we drew on Frank's
note-book for the modern city, we will rely upon Fred for our information
about the ancient one.
We had a delightful ride on horseback," said Fred; leaving Panama
by the northwestern gate, which brought us to the fish-market on the
beach. To judge by what we saw, Panama is justly named 'a place of
fish,' as there seemed to be a supply three times as large as could possibly
be wanted for the use of the inhabitants. There were Spanish mackerel,





RUINS OF OLD PANAMA. 67
oysters, bonito, and a good many other fishes, and all of the very best
quality, with the possible exception of the oysters. We asked if these
oysters were the ones from which pearls are obtained, and they told us
the pearl-fisheries were about a hundred miles down the bay, and the oys-
ters not at all like those sold in the market. There was formerly a fine
revenue from the pearl-fisheries, but the beds are practically exhausted,
and of late years very little attention has been given to the business.
From the market we galloped along the beach for a couple of miles,
and then turned inland. We came out to the shore again, after winding
among rocks and thick foliage, and followed along the bay till we reached
the ancient city.
"Everything is in the most complete ruin; what was left by Morgan
has been vigorously attacked by the tooth of time. And I remark, by the
way, that the tooth of time is much more effective in its work in the tropics
than in the colder north, where the vegetation is less rapid and aggressive.
Walls and towers are so overgrown with mosses and creepers that, in many
instances, the structures are completely hidden from sight, -and their posi-
tions are only indicated by their shape. Seeds carried by the birds, or
wafted by the winds, fall into crevices between the stones; they are
warmed into life by the temperature, and nourished by the moisture that
prevails at all seasons of the year. They grow and flourish in spite of the
inconveniences of their position, and after a time they force the stones
apart, and the structure is weakened, and hastened to its overthrow.
Everywhere in Old Panama you can see evidences of this great force
of nature. Much of the stonework of the city has been thrown down by
the roots of the trees and plants, and in several places we saw stones of
great weight resting entirely upon the roots of the trees that had lifted
them up. Evidently the city was built to last, and it is a sad commentary
upon the work of its founders that it was so soon destroyed. The walls
were massive, and the stones carefully cut. The old Spaniards came to
America to plant colonies,.and make a permanent home, if we may judge
by the way they constructed this important city, which was intended to
command the commerce of the Pacific seas.
"One of the most interesting relics of Old Panama is the watch-tower
of San Jerome, which is said to have been built only six years before the
city's capture and destruction. It is a square tower, and we estimated its
height to be about eighty feet; it is covered with mosses and vines, and
there are trees and bushes growing on its top. The staircase on the inside
has been thrown down by the roots of the trees, as far as we could judge
from the position of the stones, though it may have been destroyed by the






68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.

famous buccaneer. The whole of the inside space was full of roots, and

we could not have climbed to the top even if the stairs had remained.





















WAC---E OF SA-


WEE
--A











































WATCH-TOWER OF SAN JEROME.





A TROPICAL HERMIT. 69
"The tower was intended as a signal-station, from which vessels ap-
proaching Panama could be described, and tradition says a light was burned
there at night. It is now the only visible part of the old city as you look
from the beach or from a boat on the water; everything else is covered up
with the tropical forest, which has been undisturbed for two hundred
years. The only way to see the ruins is by clambering through the mass
of vegetation; we did so, and were thoroughly wearied with our exertions,
though amply repaid for them.
"Not the least interesting part of the sights were the fantastic shapes
which the trees and vines had taken ; in some places the trees were on the
tops of walls thirty or forty feet high, and had thrown down roots on each
side reaching into the ground. At every crevice in the walls little twigs
were thrown off to hold the roots in place, and it almost seemed as though
these vegetable growths had been endowed with human intelligence. Two
or three times we were deceived by the appearance of the roots, and mis-
took them for snakes. Even when assured of their harmless character,
Frank paused and deliberated before moving nearer, and I'm free to con-
fess that I followed his example.
"We were accompanied on our excursion by a gentleman who lives in
Panama, but had not been in the old city for two or three years. He said
the place had two or three inhabitants, or, rather, there were that number
of negroes who lived there, and acted as guides to visitors. With some
difficulty he found the hut of one of them, and luckily for us its owner
was at home. His only clothing was a strip of cloth around the -waist
and a pair of sandals on his feet, and. the entire furniture of the place
would have been dear at ten dollars. He had a few baskets and earthen
jars, an old hammock, a rough bench to sleep on, an iron pot for cooking
purposes, and a pair of rollers for crushing sugar-cane. He had a small
patch of sugar-cane, another of bananas; the bay supplied him with fish,
the beach afforded plenty of oysters, shrimps, and mussels, and the money
obtained from visitors was enough for buying his tobacco and a few other
trifles which made up the sum of his necessities, and were procured in a
semi-annual trip to Panama. He declared that he was perfectly satisfied
with his way of life, and as he had been there for twenty years and more,
I have no doubt he spoke the truth.
A prince in his palace could not have been more polite than was this
dark-skinned hermit. He had no chairs to offer, but asked us to sit down
on his bench; we accepted the invitation, and after handing us a gourd of
water, which we found very refreshing, he put on his hat in order to be
more fully dressed. Then, with true Spanish politeness, he told us that the





70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
house and all it contained were ours, but we couldn't see that we should
have been much richer if we had taken him and his belongings at his
word. We rested perhaps a quarter of an hour, talking with him about
his solitary life, and then asked him to guide us through the old city.
"' Si, Senores,' he replied, touching his hat in a most dignified man-
ner, 'but would we drink some chichi before starting.'









/J I,





















A HERMIT AT HOME.

Ohichi is the juice of the sugar-cane, and is a favorite beverage in
this region; of course we consented, and he immediately picked up his
machete (hatchet) and went out. In a little while he returned with an
armful of sugar-cane, which he proceeded to pass through the rollers, after
first bruising the canes with a mallet to make the work of crushing easier.
Our Panama friend took one end of the machine, and got himself into
quite a perspiration before the job was finished ; I fancy hlie did not relish





THE JUICE OF THE SUGAR-CANE. 71

it, but our entertainer did not seem to mind it in the least. The machine
was a rude construction, and not to be compared with the polished rollers
that are to be found in sugar-manufactories on a large scale, but it was
entirely adequate to the wants of our sable host.


































MAKING CHICHI.

We drank the chichi, which was most refreshing, and then were
shown through what is left of the city. Here and there we found por-
tions of paved streets, and it was only by following the lines of the streets
that we were able to get around at all. Then there were two or three
groves with very little undergrowth, which are thought to have been pub-
lic squares; evidently they were not paved, but macadamized, and trodden
so hard that the undergrowth has obtained no hold, though the trees have
not been so easily restrained. Our guide showed us a bridge over a
AlI


41t
































not been so easily restrained. Our guide showed us a bridge over a





72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS .IN SOUTH AMERICA.


*-





































BRIDGE AT OLD PANAMA.

stream in the southern part of the city; it is called the Punta de Em-
barcadero, and is said to have been the point where boats came to dis-
charge or receive their cargoes, and the stream it crosses is about thirty
feet wide. It is full only at high tide, and is more an arm of the sea
than a flowing river. The bridge is of hewn stone, and was constructed
with a single arch.
When we had finished our wanderings among the ruins we went





MORGAN THE BUCCANEER. 73
back to the hut, drank some more chichi, then mounted our horses, and
returned to modern Panama by the way we went. We were thoroughly
tired, but we voted unanimously that the day was well spent."
The excursion to Old Panama naturally roused the curiosity of the
youths to know something of Morgan the buccaneer, and his exploits.
The readers of this narrative may have a similar interest in the events of
two hundred years ago, and we will briefly give them.
The rumors of the abundance of gold in the New World, which
reached Spain after the discovery of America by Columbus, led to the
conquest and settlement of the islands of the West Indies, and also of the
mainland for a considerable distance north and south of the Isthmus.
Within the fifty years following the first voyage of Columbus many
colonies were planted, forts were built, soldiers were brought out in great
numbers, and many ships laden with treasure were sent home from the
New World. The stories grew with each repetition, and in a little while
it was currently believed that there was sufficient gold in the cities of
Mexico, Peru, and the other countries of South and Central America to
enrich the entire population of Europe.
The Spanish conquerors were relentlessly cruel, and subjected the
rulers and people of the conquered countries to all manner of tortures, in
order to obtain their gold. The rumors of the vast treasures of the New
World passed beyond Spain and reached England and France. Piracy
was fashionable in those times, and it was not long after the Spanish
treasure-ships began to traverse the ocean that the waters of the Carib-
bean Sea were thronged with piratical craft. Their crews were known as
buccaneers, freebooters, pirates, or sea-robbers, and one name is as good"
as another. We will follow the example of the .old historians and call
them buccaneers, out of respect for their descendants, who dislike the
word "pirate."
They had plenty of hiding-places among the islands and along the
coast of the mainland, and their numbers increased so rapidly that they
formed colonies, tilled the soil, and in many cases established something
like local government, though it was not always very orderly. In some
of their colonies the more peaceably inclined buccaneers lived on shore,
raised crops, hunted for wild cattle or other game, and not infrequent-
ly they brought their families from the Old World or found wives
among the natives. The rest of the community roved the seas in search
of plunder, returning occasionally to the colony to refit their vessels, and
deliver their proper share to the settlers on land, from whom provisions
were obtained.





74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
Sometimes prisoners were brought to the colonies and kept as slaves,
but this was not the general practice, as it was not altogether safe; an
escaping slave might reveal the rendezvous of the buccaneers, and, in spite







































SLAUGHTER OF PRIESTS BY BUCCANEERS.

of the greatest vigilance, escape was possible. Consequently, it was the
custom to release prisoners on payment of a heavy ransom, or to sell them
to be carried into slavery, where they could do no harm to their captors.





THE BUCCANEERS AND OTHER ROBBERS. 75

If they could not be disposed of in either of these ways, or made useful
in some manner, they were generally put to death. Sometimes a chief
released his prisoners unconditionally, and without obtaining anything for
them, but such action was not favorably received by his followers, as they
considered it a loss of property and an indication of weakness totally in-
appropriate to his proper character. Human life was held at little value
in those days, not only by freebooters, but by kings and princes in all
parts of the world.
After all, there was little difference between the buccaneers, or pirates,
and the people against whom their exploits were directed. Cortez, Bal-
boa, Pizarro, and other leaders in the Spanish conquest of the New
World were simply the heads of legitimate marauding expeditions, di-
rected against the inhabitants of the countries they invaded. The bucca-


























PIATES- RENDEZVOUS.





PIRATES' RENDEZVOUS.





76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
neers endeavored to rob these legalized marauders; they stole what had
been already stolen, and their thievery was directed against thieves. They
adopted the same practices of torture and cruelties that had been used to
extort gold from the rulers and people of the conquered countries; the
buccaneers felt that the condemnation of their practices was unjust, and
their sensibilities were wounded when they saw that the conquerors of
the New World were sustained and honored by their king, whose treasury
was enriched by their plunderings.























BUCCANEERS EMBARKING ON AN EXPEDITION.
Sometimes there was a period of war between Spain and England, and
then the king of the latter country would give commission to a well-
known buccaneer, and exalt him to the dignity of a privateer. He was
to fit out an expedition at his own expense, enlist his own men, and do
pretty much as he pleased; in return for the royal protection lie was to
give a certain part of his gains into the king's treasury; though quite
often this condition was not exacted, since the destruction of the enemy's
commerce was considered a sufficient compensation for his commission.
This was the character of Morgan's enterprise against Panama.
.Morgan had obtained an excellent reputation as a buccaneer; he had





MORGAN'S CRUELTIES. 77
captured several cities, murdered many people, often under circumstances
of great cruelty, and had been almost universally successful in his expedi-
tions. Priests, women, and children were indiscriminately slaughtered
along with his other prisoners, when they could not find a market as
slaves; and the stories of his barbarities would fill a volume. At one
time he had two thousand men and a fleet of thirty-seven ships under his
command. His piracies were directed against the Spaniards; the English
looked upon his performances with a kindly eye; and when he organized
his expedition which ended with the capture of Panama the governor of
Jamaica ordered an English ship of thirty-six guns to assist him, and gave
him authority to act in English interest. There was a French ship in
the harbor of Jamaica, also carrying thirty-six guns, which Morgan de-
sired; and he soon found reason enough, to his mind, for her capture.
A short time before, this French ship had stopped an English vessel
at sea and taken provisions from her without paying for them. Morgan
made this a pretext for seizing her; accordingly, he invited her officers
on board the English ship and there made them prisoners. Then he
seized their craft, but, unfortunately for his plans, she blew up a few hours
afterwards and was totally destroyed. It was not known how the acci-
dent occurred, but Morgan said it was caused by the 'French prisoners,
who set the ship on fire.
The fleet sailed away a week after this incident and proceeded to
capture Maracaibo, Saint Catherine's, and one or two other places, before
proceeding to Panama. From Saint Catherine's Morgan sent four ships
to capture the fort at the mouth of the Chagres River; the expedition
was successful, and when Morgan arrived and saw the English flag.flying
over the fort he fired all his cannon in honor of the victory. When he
landed he was carried into the fort on the shoulders of his fellows amid
many demonstrations of delight.
An old nursery song has it that Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a
thief." Substitute "Morgan" for "Taffy and the description is exact,
as the hero of this story was born in Wales. Many of his followers were
from that country or from other parts of the British Isles, and his second,
who captured the fort at Chagres, was. Captain Brodely, an officer of
English birth.
Morgan repaired the fort, gave it a garrison of five hundred men, left
a hundred and fifty to take care of the ships, and with twelve hundred
men started across the Isthmus for Panama. They ascended the Chagres
River in boats as far as they could go, and then marched overland
through the forest. All the boats but one were sent back; a guard





78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.





























MORGAN'S RECEPTION AT CHAGRES.

remained with this single boat, with orders never to leave it for a
moment.
The journey to Panama was a terrible one, and showed the power of
the commander over his men. They had expected to find plenty of pro-
visions in the country, and consequently did not burden themselves with
any on their departure from Chagres. At the first landing-place they
found the people had fled, leaving nothing behind them, and this was the
case at nearly every other point. For three entire days the men were
without food, and many of them wanted to turn back; partly by persua-
sion and partly by threats Morgan kept them together, though they were
so much reduced that they were forced to eat some leather sacks found at
an abandoned plantation on the way.
The manner of preparing this food is interesting, but it is to be hoped
none of our readers will ever be obliged to put it in practice. Some of





A FRUGAL REPAST. 79

the men devoured the leather raw, cutting it into small pieces, and swal-
lowing it with water. Others, more fastidious, cut it into strips, moistened
it with water, and then rubbed it between two stones until it was flexible.





































-
--_ -------

MORGAN'S MEN DINING ON LEATHER.

Then they scraped off the hair with their knives and broiled the strips
over the fire. When the leather was thoroughly done it was cut into
small pieces and washed down with water. After this frugal meal the





80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
men fasted two days, till they reached a plantation where they found a
storehouse full of corn. All order and discipline were lost until the
fellows had eaten all they wanted and loaded themselves with as much. as
they could carry. When they were assembled again they cheered their
commander, and shouted To Panama !"






























DEATH OF THE INDIAN CHIEF.

Their plenty did not last long, as they soon encountered a small force
of Indians who had been sent out to intercept them. The men threw
away their loads of corn and prepared to fight. The battle was a short
one, as the Indians were overpowered by the superior weapons of the
buccaneers, though the latter lost several of their number. The chief of
the Indians fought bravely, and thrust a spear through one of his assail-
ants before they succeeded in conquering him.





IN SIGHT OF THE CITY. 81

They were starving again, but as they came near Panama they found
a herd of cattle, which supplied excellent material for food. Here Morgan
ordered a halt till the men were fed, and their strength was restored ; the
camp was full of joy at the prospect of a speedy termination of their suf-
ferings, and on the next morning the attack was ordered; the invaders
had seen the city from the "Hill of the Buccaneers," and were now in
front of it.







































MOVING THROUGH THE FOREST.
6





82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
Morgan captured some Indians, and forced them to act as guides, under
the penalty, often exacted in war, of being shot if they gave false informa-
tion. Morgan had ordered the inarch to be taken directly to the city, but
his guides told him the road was lined with artillery, and the whole
Spanish force was concentrated there. Satisfied that the information was
correct, he turned into the forest, and endeavored to move to the right
without being discovered. The Spanish commander found out what the
buccaneers were doing; lie could not move his artillery, but he marched
his soldiers, and drew them up on the open plain in front of the position
for which his assailants were aiming.
When the invaders came in view of the plain they found three thou-
sand soldiers ready to meet them, while their own number was little over
a thousand. They were disheartened with the prospect, but Morgan told
them it would be certain death in the wilderness to turn back, while a
well-fought battle would give them the city with all its riches. Thus
doubly induced, they determined to fight; the battle was begun by the
buccaneers, and, certainly to the surprise of the Spaniards, it resulted in the
dispersal of the defenders, and the possession of the city by Morgan and
his followers, within three hours after firing the first shot.
The buccaneers plundered the churches and the houses of the mer-
chants, and they tortured many of the priests, and other inhabitants, to
compel them to tell where their treasures were concealed. In anticipation
of disaster, much of the treasure of the churches, and also of the wealthi-
est merchants, had been sent on board a ship which sailed for Spain a few
hours after the surrender of the city. It might have been captured with
ease, but a party which Morgan had sent to intercept any departing vessel
did not do their duty, and so the richest of all the prizes slipped through
their hands.
Morgan and his party remained in Panama for three weeks, and then
returned to Chagres. Before leaving they burned the city, and carried
away six hundred prisoners, and one hundred and seventy-five beasts of
burden laden with plunder. The division of the spoils was made at Cha-
gres ; it amounted to only two hundred dollars apiece, very much to the
disappointment of the men. Morgan was openly accused of keeping very
much more than belonged to him; the accusations became so serious as to
threaten open revolt; and Morgan secretly embarked for Jamaica, and
sailed away, with two ships besides his own.
He reached Jamaica in safety, and as the war between England and
Spain was then over, his occupation as a legal freebooter was at an end.
His services were promptly recognized by the British government, and lie
















IN -_ 7 _( 2'
















CA OF oL P B OG (c-siile of a old pri)






CAPTURE OF OLD PANAMA BY MORGAN. (Futc-sin tile of an old print.)





84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.

was appointed a marine commissary, and knighted by King Charles II.
It is to be hoped that he led a less disreputable life as Sir Henry Morgan
than when he was simply known as Morgan the buccaneer.
A curious incident is narrated by Morgan's biographer in the account
of the capture of Chagres. The fort was surrounded by a palisade which
the assailants repeatedly tried to set on fire, but each time failed. Just as
they were about to give up the attack and retire, an arrow from the fort
passed completely through the body of one of their number and protruded


















R-- _---






THE LUCKY ARROW.

from his breast. The man was mad with pain; he seized the arrow and
pulled it through, then wrapped it with cotton, rammed it into his gun,
and fired it back again at the fort. The powder ignited the cotton, and
this in turn set fire to the leaves with which the fort was thatched. Tlhe
Spaniards were so busy in beating back their assailants that they did not
discover the fire until too late to stop it. The flames spread to a barrel of
powder, which blew a great hole in the side of the fort, and made an en-
trance for the buccaneers; meantime they took advantage of the confusion
to open the palisade, and soon had the fort in their possession.






A SAIL ON THE BAY. 85








CHAPTER V.
FROM PANAMA TO GUAYAQUIL. VASCO NUNEZ DE BALBOA.-HIS ADVENTURES
AND DEATH.-SCENES IN GUAYAQUIL.-FIRST EXPERIENCE WITH SOUTH AMER-
ICAN EARTHQUAKES.

O UR friends spent another day in Panama, devoting part of the time
to arrangements for their departure, and the rest to strolling around
the city, and taking a short sail on the bay. They visited the island where


























BAY OF -PANAMA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN RAMPART.

the Pacific Mail Steamship Company has its coaling-station, and its wharves
for receiving and discharging freight, and saw the docks where ships need-
ing repairs can be accommodated. Fred made the following notes con-
cerning the steamship connections from Panama:





86 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.

There are two American lines of steamers running northward to
California, and to Mexican and Central American ports, and there are
English, French, German, Chilian, and Peruvian lines reaching to all the
ports of the west coast of South America. The most important of all
these lines are the Pacific Mail (American), running northward, and the
Pacific Steam Navigation Company (English), running to the south.
When the Isthmus route was the favorite way of travel between the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States there were sometimes two
or three American lines between Panama and California, but at present
there is only one.


















_----g _. .





COAST SCENE BELOW PANAMA.

There was formerly a line between Panama and Australia, but it was
discontinued long ago, and a line from here to the Sandwich Islands, Japan,
and China has been talked of, but never established. When the Panama
Canal is completed it is probable that the business of this port will be
greatly increased, and the number of daily arrivals and departures will far
exceed those of the most active times of the rush for California."
Dr. Bronson and the youths left the hotel about two o'clock in the





TRICKS OF CALIFORNIA TRAVELLERS. 87

afternoon, and proceeded to the dock whence the tender was to carry them
to their steamer. The ships of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company
run in connection with the Royal Mail Line from England to Aspinwall;
the arrival of the English steamer at Aspinwall had been announced by
telegraph, and the train with the passengers and mails was due in Panama
about half-past two. While they were seated on the tender, and engaged
in studying the beautiful panorama of the bay, the whistle of the loco-
motive was heard, and soon the train rolled into the station, and its burden
was transferred to the boat. The passage to the steamer was quickly made,
and by four o'clock the great craft was on her southerly course.
As our friends leaned over the rail, Dr. Bronson gave the youths some
reminiscences of the old days of California travel.
"On the voyage from New York to Aspinwall," said he, "passengers
became pretty well acquainted with each other; and it generally happened
that there were some practical jokers among them, who indulged in tricks
for creating amusement. One of the standing jokes of the departure from
Panama was, to create alarm among those who were making the voyage
for the first time, by spreading a report that they had embarked on the
wrong steamer, and were being carried to Callao."
"How could they do that ?" Fred inquired.






















CAVE NEAR LIMON RIVER.





88 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
"By looking at the map, you will see that the Bay of Panama is en-
closed between the mainland and the Peninsula of Azuero, the latter ex-
tending to the southward about seventy-five miles; consequently a steamer
going to California must proceed in that direction, until she can turn the
point of the peninsula. Most of the novices were not aware of this; the
rumor was started, and, if incredulous, they were told to look at the com-
pass and be convinced. The compass corroborated the assertion of the
jokers, and many a traveller was seriously disturbed in mind until the joke
was explained."
"He was probably more careful in his study of geography after that
experience," Frank remarked.
"Sometimes," continued the Doctor, "the California steamers sailed
at the same time as the ships of the English line for South America, and
occasionally there was an international race as long as their courses were
nearly the same. The routes diverge very soon, so that the races were
brief, but, with a large number of passengers on board of each steamer,
there would be great excitement while the competition lasted, and much
money was wagered on the result. On one occasion, owing to the careless-
ness of somebody, one steamer ran into another, but no serious damage
was done; at another time a steamer hugged the shore too closely in order
to shorten her running distance and get an advantage over her rival.
These accidents called attention to the racing, and the managers of the
different companies issued a very stringent order against any more trials
of speed. I have not heard of a repetition of these affairs for a good
many years, and there is rarely any opportunity for rivalry, if we may judge
by the time-tables of the various lines running from Panama. When
steamers are to leave on the same day there is generally an hour or two
between their departures, and the later one does not attempt to over-
haul her predecessor."
As the great ship moved steadily through the blue water of the Bay
of Panama our young friends regarded with close attention the beautiful
panorama that passed before their eyes. The land was on both sides of
their course, the peninsula on the right, and the mainland of South
America on the left; the horizon to the eastward was filled with the chain
of the Cordilleras, which increase in height farther to the south, and form
the lofty line of the Andes. One of the passengers who was familiar with
the coast indicated to our friends the Gulf of San Blas, and other inden-
tations which have come into prominence during the discussions about an
interoceanic canal, and a good deal of geographical knowledge was im-
bibed in the first few hours of the voyage.





THE DISCOVERER OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 89

The Bay of Panama is about one hundred and ten miles long, and its
width at the mouth is a little more than that distance. The course of the
steamer carried her away from the peninsula, and before they had been
long under way the latter was only dimly visible. It vanished with the sun,
and by the following morning was far behind them. The placid waters
of the Pacific Ocean filled the horizon, south, north, and west, but the
mountains on the east were in full view. Smoke issuing from some of
these mountains showed that they were volcanic, and the youths readily
understood that they were approaching the region of eruptions and earth-
quakes.
Guayaquil, in Ecuador, was the first stopping-place of the steamer,
four days from Panama. Frank suggested that it was a good time to
refresh their memories, or add to their knowledge, of the history of this
part of the world; Fred agreed with him, and thought they would do
well to begin with Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the discoverer of the Pacific


V-~



















VASCO NUNEZ DE BALBOA.

Ocean. The Doctor gave his approval, and the principal part of the
second day at sea was devoted to that enterprising explorer. While Frank
read from Balboa's biography, Fred took notes of the most important
parts of the story, which were as follows:





90 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa was a Spanish nobleman, who dissipated his
fortune, and ran away from home to avoid imprisonment for debt. He
was born in 1475, and sailed for the New World soon after the return of
Columbus from his fourth voyage.





















BALBOA CARRIED ON SHIPBOARD.

"In 1510, Martin Fernandez De Enciso sailed for the colony of Car-
tliagena, which had been established a few years earlier. He found in its
harbor a brigantine which contained the remnants of a colony established
farther down the coast, but abandoned in consequence of the hostility of
the natives and the difficulty of procuring food. The leader of this party
was Francisco Pizarro, whose name is known to every reader of South
Amierican history, in connection with the conquest of Peru.
"After a short delay in Carthagena, Enciso sailed for St. Sebastian,
accompanied by Pizarro's brigantine. An hour or two before the vessel
was to leave port some men brought a cask on board, and it was lowered
into the hold with the rest of the provisions. When the ship was fairly
out at sea the end of the cask was pushed out, and, instead of edibles for
the crew, there appeared the form and figure of a man !
The man was Balboa, who had been living in Carthagena. He had
so loaded himself with debts in his new home that his creditors were
about to arrest him and lie was closely watched to prevent his running





AN UNEXPECTED PASSENGER. 91







/11/




































BALBOA MAKES HIS APPEARANCE.

away. He determined to sail with Enciso, and caused himself to be
headed up in a cask and carried on board in the manner described."
Frank and Fred had a hearty laugh over this part of the story. One
of them asked the Doctor if this mode of travel was in fashion at the
present time.
Not often," was the reply, but it is sometimes practised by those





92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
who wish to do exactly like Balboa, escape from their creditors. I have
known of a man being carried on board a steamer at New York in a
large trunk, which was ostensibly the baggage of his wife, and there have
been instances of criminals escaping from prison by being shut up in
boxes and carried out as merchandise.
"In the days of slavery the friends of freedom used to assist slaves to
escape from bondage in a variety of ways. One of the favorite modes
for a fugitive to cross the line from south to north was to be shut up in a
box and sent as a freight or express package. I once knew a negro in
Philadelphia who was sent in this way from Richmond to the Quaker
City; he was about thirty hours on the way, and almost dead from suffo-
cation when his prison was opened. Though his conveyance was con-
spicuously labelled, 'This side up with care!' lihe was twice left standing
on his head for two or three hours. His name was Henry Brown; in
memory of his adventures, and to distinguish him from other Henry
Browns, he was ever afterwards known as Henry Box Brown.
"And now let us return to Balboa," said the Doctor. The hint was
sufficient, and the narrative was resumed.
"Enciso was angry at the deception practised by Balboa in securing
passage as a stowaway, but soon had reason to be glad he had such a bold
adventurer on his ship. At first he threatened to leave Balboa on a des-
ert island, but when the latter offered his services and promised to be a
good soldier the leader relented. Expeditions like those of the Spaniards
are not made up of the best materials of society, and events afterwards
proved that Balboa was more than the average adventurer of the six-
teenth century.
"On the way to St. Sebastian Enciso's ship ran upon the rocks and
was lost, with all its cargo, only the crew escaping to the brigantine of
Pizarro. Enciso did not know where to go; and while he was pondering
upon the best course to pursue Balboa came before him and said he knew
of an Indian village on the bank of a river called Darien; the country
near the village was fertile, and the natives had plenty of gold.
Enciso sailed for the village, which he captured with ease, and com-
pelled the inhabitants to deliver up fifty thousand dollars' worth of gold
ornaments. He established a colony there, and forbade any one to traffic
with the natives for gold, under penalty of death. This arbitrary order
was opposed by Balboa, who remembered the threat to leave him on a
desert island; as the followers of Enciso were quite as covetous as their
leader, the prohibition was easily made the basis of a revolt.
"Balboa managed matters so well that Enciso was forced to leave for




BALBOA AND CARETA. 93

Spain, while the former became governor, with absolute authority over all
the colony. He immediately sent Pizarro to explore a neighboring prov-
ince, but the expedition was unsuccessful; Pizarro was driven back by
the Indians, who attacked him in great force. Balboa then headed an
expedition in person, and while sailing along the coast he picked up two
Spaniards in the dress of natives. They were deserters from another
colony, and had been living with Careta, the chief of the province of
Coyba; they had been kindly treated by this chief, but promptly offered
to pilot Balboa to his village, which was said to contain great quantities
of the precious metal desired by the Spaniards.
























VILLAGE ON A RIVER OF DARIEN.
Balboa accepted their offer and started for Careta's capital, accom-
panied by tlhe deserters and one hundred and fifty soldiers. Careta re-
ceived him kindly, and after a short stay Balboa pretended to leave. In
the night he attacked the village and made prisoners of the chief, to-
gether with his family, and many of his people. Careta made peace with
tlie Spaniards by giving up a large amount of gold, and offering the hand
of his daughter in marriage to Balboa. The historians say she had much
influence over Balboa, and on one occasion saved his life.





94 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.



i^ r- ---- -" -
























"' - -- "-- ... ,,-




BALBOA ANP THE INDIAN PRINCESS.

"Balboa promised to help Careta against his enemies, and in compli-
ance with his promise he took eighty men and went on an expedition
against Ponca, who was an enemy of Careta, and, what was more to the
point with Balboa, was said to have a great amount of treasure. Ponca was
attacked and his village was burned, but the victors obtained very little
gold. Then they went to the neighboring province of Comagre, whose
chief was friendly with Careta, and received them kindly. The chief
came out to meet the strangers and escort them to the village, where he
gave them food and comfortable lodgings, and did everything lie could to
make their stay agreeable.
"The people at this village were the most advanced in civilization
that the Spaniards had thus far found in America. The chief's palace




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