• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map of Indus Basin
 Letter to Mr. Ghulam Ishaq
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Background
 Engineer's operations
 Project works
 Construction history
 Contract contruction
 WAPDA construction
 Cost
 Operation of the project
 Photographs
 Appendix A: Development loan fund...
 Appendix B: Organizations and key...
 Appendix C: Summaries of tenders,...
 Appendix D: A review of project...






Group Title: Completion report
Title: Salinity control and reclamation project. Project no. 1
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054715/00001
 Material Information
Title: Salinity control and reclamation project. Project no. 1
Series Title: Completion report
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.
Publisher: Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
Publication Date: December 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- Pakistan -- West Pakistan
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054715
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Map of Indus Basin
        Page ii
    Letter to Mr. Ghulam Ishaq
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Background
        Page 4
        Conception and planning
            Page 4
            Page 5
        External financing
            Page 6
        Technical appraisal of the project
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Target, programs and estimates
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
    Engineer's operations
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 13a
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Project works
        Page 17
        Page 17a
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 19a
        Page 19b
        Page 19c
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Construction history
        Page 28
        General
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Contract contruction
        Page 33
        General
            Page 33
        Organization and plant
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 35a
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 37a
            Page 37b
            Page 37c
            Page 37d
            Page 37e
            Page 37f
            Page 37g
            Page 37h
            Page 37i
            Page 37j
            Page 37k
            Page 37l
            Page 38
        Permanent equipment
            Page 39
        Construction methods
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Construction progress
            Page 42
            Gravel processing and transportation
                Page 43
                Page 44
            Pipe slotting
                Page 45
            Site preparation
                Page 45
            Drilling
                Page 46
            Development and testing
                Page 47
            Concreting
                Page 48
            Equipment installation, testing and cleanup
                Page 49
                Page 49a
                Page 49b
        Overall progress
            Page 50
            Page 51
    WAPDA construction
        Page 52
        General
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Organization and plant
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Permanent equipment
            Page 57
        Construction methods
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Construction progress
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Overall progress
            Page 63
    Cost
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Operation of the project
        Page 70
        General
            Page 70
        Motor failures
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Tubewell incrustation
            Page 74
            Page 75
    Photographs
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Appendix A: Development loan fund agreement DLF no. 25
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
        Page A 6
        Page A 7
        Page A 8
    Appendix B: Organizations and key personnel
        Page B 1
        Page B 2
        Page B 3
        Page B 4
    Appendix C: Summaries of tenders, change orders, and related matters
        Page C 1
        Page C 2
        Page C 3
        Page C 4
        Page C 5
        Page C 6
        Page C 7
        Page C 8
        Page C 9
        Page C 10
        Page C 11
        Page C 12
        Page C 13
        Page C 14
        Page C 15
    Appendix D: A review of project no. one
        Page D 1
        Page D 2
        Page D 3
        Page D 4
        Page D 5
        Page D 6
        Page D 7
        Page D 8
        Page D 9
        Page D 10
Full Text


Dr. P. E. HILDEBRAND
Chicf Economist



WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAHORE, PAKISTAN







SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION PROJECT

PROJECT NO. ONE










COMPLETION REPORT
















TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS


DENVER, COLORADO


LAHORE, PAKISTAN


DECEMBER 1962









West Pakistan
Water and Power Development Authority
Lahore, Pakistan








SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION PROJECT

PROJECT NO. ONE












COMPLETION REPORT























Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
Engineers


Denver, Colorado


Lahore, Pakistan


December 1962





FRONTISPIECE


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WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTONP AND IALMBACH INC- ENGINEERS

SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I

MAP OF INDUS BASIN


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TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
300 INSURANCE BUILDING
831-14TH STREET
DENVER 2, COLORADO CABLES:
R.J. TIPTON, PRESIDENT
OLIN KALMBACH,VICE-PRES. PHONE CHERRY 4-2944 ARTIP DENVER
JINCY HUNT, TREASURER TIPCOL BOGOTA
F. L.KIRGIS. SECRETARY
March 5 1963 TIPVEN CARACAS
March 5, 1963 TIPERU LIMA
TIPERU LIMA
ARTDOR- QUITO
TIPAK LAHORE
Mr. Ghulam Ishaq, Chairman
West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
Sunny View Estate
Kashmir Road
Lahore, Pakistan

Dear Chairman:


We are transmitting herewith a Completion Report on Salinity Control
and Reclamation Project No. One. This report is intended to provide a per-
manent record of the construction of the tubewell features of the project, which
were substantially completed in 1962. It is understood that a separate report
covering the electric features of the project will be prepared by Miner & Miner
International, Inc. when those works have been substantially completed. We
believe that the material contained in this report, together with the individual
tubewell data sheets covering each of the 1796 tubewells constructed under the
auspices of the Authority, which are on file in the offices of the Ground Water
and Reclamation Division, will provide all the information that anyone may
seek in the future concerning the tubewells of Salinity Control and Reclamation
Project No. One.

The accompanying report contains a resume of the background leading
to the conception and implementation of the project, a description of the tube-
well features of the project as constructed, and a history of the construction
carried out by WAPDA and that carried out under contract. At the back of the
report there are several appendices containing statistical data and other infor-
mation of interest. One appendix contains a summary of the experience gained
in the construction of Project No. One. It is hoped that this material will be
of value in connection with planning and executing future reclamation schemes.



Sincerely yours,

TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.




By
T T..NPon










CONTENTS


Page

Frontispiece Indus Basin Map .................

INTRODUCTION . .... . . . .. 1

BACKGROUND . . .. .. . 4

Conception and Planning . . . . 4
External Financing . . . . . 6
Technical Appraisal of the Project . . . 6
Target, Programs and Estimates . . . 8

ENGINEERS OPERATIONS ................... 12

PROJECT WORKS . . . . . 17

CONSTRUCTION HISTORY ................... 28

General . . . . . .. .28

CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION .................. 33

General . . . . . . 33
Organization and Plant . .. .. . 34
Permanent Equipment .................. 39
Construction Methods . . . . 40
Construction Progress . . . . 42
Gravel Processing and Transportation . .. 43
Pipe Slotting . . . . . 45
Site Preparation . . . . 45
Drilling . . . . . 46
Development and Testing . . . .. 47
Concreting . . . . . 48
Equipment Installation, Testing and Cleanup . 49
Overall Progress . . . . . 50

WAPDA CONSTRUCTION .................... 52

General . . . . . . 52
Organization and Plant . . . . 54
Permanent Equipment .................. 57
Construction Methods . . . . 57
Construction Progress . . . . 60
Overall Progress . . . .... 63










Page

CO ST . . . . . . .. 64

OPERATION OF THE PROJECT ................ .70

General . . . . . . 70
M otor Failures . . . . . .. 71
Tubewell Incrustation . . . . .. 74

PHOTOGRAPHS . .. . .. .. .. 76




APPENDICES

Number Title

A Development Loan Fund Agreement DLF No. 25

B Organizations and Key Personnel

C Summaries of Tenders, Change Orders and
Related Matters

D A Review of Project No. One










TABLES


Page

1. Preliminary Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells and
Appurtenant Power Facilities . . . 9

2. Target Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells
(Abstracted from estimate prepared in August 1960) .. 10

3. Distribution of Engineering Activities by Principal
Functions . . . . . .. .14

4. Numbers of Tubewells and Construction Methods . .. 21

5. Characteristics of Tubewells Part I . . .. 22

6. Characteristics of Tubewells Part II . . .. 23

7. Characteristics of Tubewells Part III . . ... 24

8. Project Areas . . . . . .. .26

9. W ater Supplies . . . . . .27

10. Summary of Personnel Employed by Contractor ...... .35

11. Estimated Construction Cost of Base Camp provided by
Contractor near Sukheki . . . . 36

12. Principal Items of Construction Equipment used by
Contractor . . . . . 37

13. Principal Items of Construction Equipment used by
WAPDA forces . . . . . 56

14. Summary of Permanent Equipment and Materials
Installed in WAPDA Constructed Tubewells .. .. . 58

15. Summary of Expenditures ............... .. 65

16. Comparison of Estimate and Final Cost . ... .66

17. Cost of Tubewells Constructed under Contract and by
W APDA . . . . . .. .68

18. Summary of Disbursements under DLF Loan No. 25 .... 69










FIGURES


Number


Title

Map of Indus Basin

Project Area

Organization of WAPDA and the Engineer

Typical Tubewell Installation

Typical Discharge Box

Typical Pumphouse

Typical Operator's Quarters

Tubewell Data Sheet

Construction Program

Construction Progress

Contractor's Camp

Progress of Contract Construction

Progress of WAPDA Construction


Following
Page

Frontispiece

5

13

17

19

19

19

24

32

32

35

49

49







- I-


West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project
PROJECT NO. ONE
COMPLETION REPORT
December 1962


INTRODUCTION


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One consists of
approximately 1800 tubewells and their appurtenant electric supply facili-
ties which have been provided by the West Pakistan Water and Power
Development Authority to improve drainage conditions and permit recla-
mation of about 1. 2 million acres of waterlogged and saline lands in the
Central portion of Rechna Doab in West Pakistan. The construction of these
works was initiated in 1959, and, with the exception of certain features of
the electric power supply systems, was substantially completed in 1962.
This report has been prepared to provide a permanent record of the history
of the construction of the tubewell features of the project, the manner in
which the work was carried out, its cost, and other relevant information
which may be of interest to those seeking information concerning the project
in the future. This history of the construction of the project has been pur-
posely made as brief as possible in the belief that those seeking detail
information regarding specific features of the works constructed will want
to refer to the more comprehensive reports and record data referred to
hereinafter which are on file in the offices of the Groundwater and Recla-
mation Division of the Authority.

For purposes of general orientation the background leading to the
conception and implementation of the project is first discussed. This section
of the report describes also the manner in which the foreign exchange portion
of the cost of the project was financed as well as the evolution of the plans
and programs developed from time to time for carrying out the construction
of the project features and the engineering work in connection therewith.
The background information is followed by a description of the works con-
structed and a history of the tubewell construction, including under separate
categories the works constructed primarily by the Authority's own forces
and those constructed under contracts by others. There then follows a
section covering the cost of the works and a number of appendices containing
tables of statistical information summarizing the works constructed. Some
of the information contained in these tables, as well as the parameters which
have been derived therefrom, may be useful in connection with the planning
of similar projects in the future. All of the information contained in this
Completion Report pertains exclusively to the tubewell features of the project,
it being planned that a similar report covering the electric power supply
features will be prepared by others when that work has been substantially
completed.







-2-


As noted above, the reader seeking more detail information on
specific subjects than is contained in this Completion Report may find it
useful to refer to certain other documents and data, the more important of
which are listed under various categories of subjects below:


Subjects

History of reclamation in
West Pakistan, conception
of the project, basic design
of project features, original
program and estimates of
cost, and analysis of project
feasibility.

Supplemental information
relating primarily to techni-
cal aspects of the project,
its program, cost and
feasibility.

Detail analysis of ground
water hydrology





Financing










Details of typical tubewell
construction




Construction programs
and details of construction
progress


Source Material

The basic Project Report prepared by
the West Pakistan Water and Power
Development Authority in January 1959
entitled, "Project No. One Salinity
Control Program in West Pakistan"
consisting of one volume of text and a
separate folio of plates and maps.

"A Review of Project No. One Salinity
Control Program in West Pakistan"
by Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., dated
June 1959.


Supplement to the above review report
prepared by Dr. C.E. Jacob, Ground-
water Consultant, consisting of
Volume I, Text, and Volume II Appen-
dices, dated December 1960.

Various documents prepared for sub-
mission to the Government by the West
Pakistan Water and Power Development
Authority, and the Loan Agreement
between the Government of Pakistan and
the Development Loan Fund, the per-
tinent portions of which appear in one
of the appendices to this report.

The "Construction Specifications and
Drawings" prepared by Tipton and
Kalmbach, Inc., in June 1959, with
subsequent revisions and addenda.

Periodic Progress Reports Nos. 1
through 42 inclusive, submitted to the
Authority by Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.,
covering the period from March 1959
through November 1962.







-3-


Detail characteristics of Tubewell data sheets containing the
individual tubewells information shown by the sample data
sheet included herein as Figure No.
These data are assembled in files
which list each tubewell under each of
the eight scheme areas which form
the project constructed under the
auspices of the Authority.


While the files of the Ground Water and Reclamation Division of the
Authority contain voluminous additional memoranda and correspondence
relating to the project, it is believed that the information contained in the
above documents and the summaries contained in this Completion Report
will supply most of the information others may seek in the future concerning
the project and its construction. In this connection, it should be noted that,
while this document is called a "Completion Report, a project composed of
some 1800 individual tubewells is in a true sense never fully completed.
As of this date, the operating equipment has not been installed in some of
the tubewells within a saline water zone of one of the reclamation schemes
pending resolution of the best manner of utilizing and disposing of saline
ground water in this area. Many of the tubewells which ultimately will
require multi-stage pumping units as the water table descends have only one
or two stages installed as a part of the initial construction. Thus in effect
the project will be more or less continually modified by the installation of
additional pump stages and other work which will be carried out from time
to time as required in the future. It is planned that a continuous record of
the addition of pump stages and other modifications made from time to time
during the course of its operation of the project will be maintained on the
tubewell data sheets referred to above.

One other caution should be noted for the reader who has occasion
to refer to the cost data contained in this report. While these data represent
approximately the actual costs of the works constructed, a portion of such
costs consists of estimates of the cost of completing certain works which are
still underway at the writing of this report, as well as works that have been
completed but for which final accounts have not yet been fully liquidated.
Thus the estimates, while believed to be realistic in an engineering sense,
are not to be construed as representing audited amounts. Further, certain
construction equipment and other materials and supplies used in the project
were derived from stores which existed in Pakistan at the outset of the
work, or were made available from sources such as the Colombo Plan, for
which no detail information on original costs or value at time of incorpora-
tion in the project are available. For this reason some of the cost data con-
tained herein should not be construed as representing valid parameters of
cost of similar tubewell projects to be constructed under future programs.







-4-


BACKGROUND


Conception and Planning

From the time the first of the large canal systems which supply
water for irrigation of vast areas of lands of the former Punjab in West
Pakistan was constructed more than 60 years ago, groundwater tables in
areas under irrigation have been steadily rising. The gradual rise in water
table, caused principally by leakage from canals and deep percolation of
water applied for irrigation, had no particularly adverse effect during the
early years when water tables were at depths varying up to 80 to 90 feet
below the ground surface. Nevertheless the Government recognized that
inevitably it would be necessary to take measures to provide adequate
drainage for lands under irrigation when it created a Drainage Board in
1917 to study the problem and devise remedial measures. With the passing
of time, salinization of lands was also taking place, due primarily to the
fact that the river supplies available for irrigation were spread so thinly
over such large areas of land that very little water remained to leach salts
downward beyond the root zone of the crops. This condition was accentu-
ated in some areas because of salts originally contained in the arid climate
soils and more significantly during the past two decades as a direct conse-
quence of waterlogging as evaporation from the rising water table took place
leaving continually increasing accumulations of salt in.the surface soils.
Thus the problem, which by the late 1930's and early 1940's had affected
several million acres of land, and was continuing to spread at an alarming
rate, required not only the providing of drainage works but also a means
of reclaiming lands which had gone out of production. It was apparent that
virtually all of the irrigated lands of West Pakistan would inevitably suffer
the same fate unless drastic measures were taken.

The original Drainage Board was followed by a succession of
similar Committees and Boards, each progressively vested with more powers
and responsibilities, culminating with the creation of the Soil Reclamation
Board in 1952. While much work of value was carried out by the Soil
Reclamation Board and its predecessors in the collection of data and carry-
ing out remedial measures in isolated areas, the effectiveness of early
attempts at reclamation were hindered to various degrees because of lack
of sufficient resources and sufficient technical data regarding the nature of
the problem and feasible means of its solution. Accordingly, in 1954 the
Irrigation Branch of the Public Works Department with the assistance of
the former International Cooperation Administration (ICA) initiated a com-
prehensive investigation of ground water, waterlogging and salinity in the
former Punjab area.







-4-


BACKGROUND


Conception and Planning

From the time the first of the large canal systems which supply
water for irrigation of vast areas of lands of the former Punjab in West
Pakistan was constructed more than 60 years ago, groundwater tables in
areas under irrigation have been steadily rising. The gradual rise in water
table, caused principally by leakage from canals and deep percolation of
water applied for irrigation, had no particularly adverse effect during the
early years when water tables were at depths varying up to 80 to 90 feet
below the ground surface. Nevertheless the Government recognized that
inevitably it would be necessary to take measures to provide adequate
drainage for lands under irrigation when it created a Drainage Board in
1917 to study the problem and devise remedial measures. With the passing
of time, salinization of lands was also taking place, due primarily to the
fact that the river supplies available for irrigation were spread so thinly
over such large areas of land that very little water remained to leach salts
downward beyond the root zone of the crops. This condition was accentu-
ated in some areas because of salts originally contained in the arid climate
soils and more significantly during the past two decades as a direct conse-
quence of waterlogging as evaporation from the rising water table took place
leaving continually increasing accumulations of salt in.the surface soils.
Thus the problem, which by the late 1930's and early 1940's had affected
several million acres of land, and was continuing to spread at an alarming
rate, required not only the providing of drainage works but also a means
of reclaiming lands which had gone out of production. It was apparent that
virtually all of the irrigated lands of West Pakistan would inevitably suffer
the same fate unless drastic measures were taken.

The original Drainage Board was followed by a succession of
similar Committees and Boards, each progressively vested with more powers
and responsibilities, culminating with the creation of the Soil Reclamation
Board in 1952. While much work of value was carried out by the Soil
Reclamation Board and its predecessors in the collection of data and carry-
ing out remedial measures in isolated areas, the effectiveness of early
attempts at reclamation were hindered to various degrees because of lack
of sufficient resources and sufficient technical data regarding the nature of
the problem and feasible means of its solution. Accordingly, in 1954 the
Irrigation Branch of the Public Works Department with the assistance of
the former International Cooperation Administration (ICA) initiated a com-
prehensive investigation of ground water, waterlogging and salinity in the
former Punjab area.







-5-


It was out of the investigations carried out by the above group that
the project later to be known as Salinity Control and Reclamation Project
No. One was conceived. No entity existed, however, with the powers and
resources necessary to undertake such a major undertaking until creation
of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority in October
1958. One of the first acts of the Authority was to create a Ground Water
and Reclamation Division into which were integrated the Irrigation
Department representatives which, with the assistance of the ICA, had
been carrying out comprehensive investigations of the problem in the former
Punjab area. This group immediately undertook the completion of the
investigations of the first phase of the reclamation program entrusted to
the Authority, which culminated in the publication of a report in January
1959 entitled, "Project No. One, Salinity Control Program in West Pakistan.
The implementation of this project was linked with two other projects then
under construction, these being the West Pakistan High Tension Grid, linking
major power generation facilities of the north-western part of the province
and the West Pakistan Secondary Transmission Project for the distribution
of electric energy to secondary grid sub-stations in the area encompassed
by Project No. One.

The project as envisioned at the time the Project Report was
prepared embodied a total of Z242 tubewells, consisting of 2083 tubewells
within an area of 1.37 million acres in the Central portion of Rechna Doab
and a smaller scheme of 159 tubewells to benefit an area of 0. 2 million
acres in Chaj Doab. Figure 1 shows the thirteen scheme areas forming
the project described in the Project Report. Of the 2083 tubewells in Rechna
Doab, 195 tubewells had been provided within four of the scheme areas of
the Central Rechna Doab project by the Irrigation Department prior to 1959.
The remaining 2047 new tubewells were estimated to cost approximately
67. 8 million rupees, exclusive of the cost of power supply facilities, of
which approximately 29.3 million rupees (6.1 million dollars) were esti-
mated to represent expenditures in foreign exchange. It was proposed at
the time the report was published that 1200 to 1400 of the new tubewells
would be constructed through departmental agencies by the West Pakistan
Water and Power Development Authority and that the balance of 600 to 800
tubewells would be constructed by tubewell contractors under contract with
the Authority.

As described in greater detail later, the project as actually
constructed consists of approximately 1800 tubewells with their appurtenant
electric power supply facilities, all of which are situated within the 8 scheme
areas in Rechna Doab shown in green on Figure 1 which, together with the
195 tubewells constructed by the Irrigation Department, form what is now
designated as Project No. One in Central Rechna Doab. The balance of the
tubewells embodied in the project described in the Project Report comprise
those situated in the Lalian area of Chaj Doab, the construction of which is
currently being undertaken by the Authority under a barter arrangement
between the Governments of Pakistan and Yugoslavia.







-6-


External Financing

On the basis of the presentation contained in the Project Report,
the Authority initiated negotiations early in 1959 to secure a loan from
the Development Loan Fund (DLF) of Washington, D.C. These negoti-
ations were culminated with the signing of a Loan Agreement on
February 18, 1959, between the Authority as the Borrower, the Govern-
ment of Pakistan as the Guarantor, and the Development Loan Fund. This
loan in the amount of 15. 2 million dollars was to cover expenditures in
foreign currencies for equipment, materials and services required for
construction of the project. This amount was intended to cover the foreign
currency cost of both the tubewell features and the power supply features
of the projects, but the Loan Agreement itself does not specifically divide
the total amount of the loan between the two categories of works. It
restricted the use of funds to the costs of procurement, importation and
installation of equipment, materials and services from so-called "free
world" sources other than Pakistan. The loan is repayable over a period
of 20 years with interest at 3. 5 per cent.

For convenience of reference, certain of the technical provisions
and other sections of interest of the Loan Agreement are presented in
abstract form in Appendix A. Soon after the Loan Agreement was perfected,
the Authority retained Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., referred to herein as the
Engineer, as engineering consultants in connection with the tubewell pro-
gram, under an agreement dated March 5, 1959.


Technical Appraisal of the Project

One of the first actions undertaken by the Engineer was to carry
out a new technical review and appraisal of the project which had been
conceived by the Groundwater and Reclamation Division of the Authority.
This review had the two-fold purpose of providing an independent appraisal
of the technical feasibility of the undertaking as well as affording a means
of familiarizing the engineering organization that would technically super-
vise the project on behalf of the Authority with the program and the prior
investigations carried out by others. To carry out this review the Engineer
sent a mission to West Pakistan composed of specialists in groundwater
hydrology, geology, electric transmission and other fields. The members
of the mission spent approximately two weeks in West Pakistan discussing
the program with WAPDA officials, visiting the project areas, and reviewing
the Project Report and much of the background data that had been obtained
through earlier studies made by the Irrigation Department, ICA and others.
The results of the technical review of the program are embodied in a report
entitled, "A Review of Project No. One Salinity Control in West Pakistan,"
dated June 1959. In all of its major aspects this review endorsed the pro-
gram which had been conceived and developed by the Groundwater and







-6-


External Financing

On the basis of the presentation contained in the Project Report,
the Authority initiated negotiations early in 1959 to secure a loan from
the Development Loan Fund (DLF) of Washington, D.C. These negoti-
ations were culminated with the signing of a Loan Agreement on
February 18, 1959, between the Authority as the Borrower, the Govern-
ment of Pakistan as the Guarantor, and the Development Loan Fund. This
loan in the amount of 15. 2 million dollars was to cover expenditures in
foreign currencies for equipment, materials and services required for
construction of the project. This amount was intended to cover the foreign
currency cost of both the tubewell features and the power supply features
of the projects, but the Loan Agreement itself does not specifically divide
the total amount of the loan between the two categories of works. It
restricted the use of funds to the costs of procurement, importation and
installation of equipment, materials and services from so-called "free
world" sources other than Pakistan. The loan is repayable over a period
of 20 years with interest at 3. 5 per cent.

For convenience of reference, certain of the technical provisions
and other sections of interest of the Loan Agreement are presented in
abstract form in Appendix A. Soon after the Loan Agreement was perfected,
the Authority retained Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., referred to herein as the
Engineer, as engineering consultants in connection with the tubewell pro-
gram, under an agreement dated March 5, 1959.


Technical Appraisal of the Project

One of the first actions undertaken by the Engineer was to carry
out a new technical review and appraisal of the project which had been
conceived by the Groundwater and Reclamation Division of the Authority.
This review had the two-fold purpose of providing an independent appraisal
of the technical feasibility of the undertaking as well as affording a means
of familiarizing the engineering organization that would technically super-
vise the project on behalf of the Authority with the program and the prior
investigations carried out by others. To carry out this review the Engineer
sent a mission to West Pakistan composed of specialists in groundwater
hydrology, geology, electric transmission and other fields. The members
of the mission spent approximately two weeks in West Pakistan discussing
the program with WAPDA officials, visiting the project areas, and reviewing
the Project Report and much of the background data that had been obtained
through earlier studies made by the Irrigation Department, ICA and others.
The results of the technical review of the program are embodied in a report
entitled, "A Review of Project No. One Salinity Control in West Pakistan,"
dated June 1959. In all of its major aspects this review endorsed the pro-
gram which had been conceived and developed by the Groundwater and







-7-


Reclamation Division of the Authority. It found that the basic concept of
the project, including the overall layout of the tubewells, their total number
and locations, and the capacities of individual tubewells, was logically
determined to provide the most economic facilities for the purposes intended.
It confirmed the suitability of the design of the tubewells, the technical and
economic feasibility of the undertaking, and its justification. Only a few
relatively minor modifications in the program and its various works were
suggested as a result of the independent appraisal of the project, one being
the recommendation that the turbine pumps be set at somewhat lower levels
in the tubewells to permit unwatering of the aquifer to greater depths, thereby
improving drainage conditions as well as exploiting a greater volume of
ground water in storage. This modification was subsequently incorporated
in the design of the tubewell features.

During the course of the review it was concluded that the foreign
currency expenditures required to construct all of the 2047 new tubewells
envisioned in the Project Report would likely exceed the amount of the Loan
Agreement. On the other hand, the estimate prepared at that time did not
take into account the then unknown amount of equipment and materials,
particularly electrical supplies such as transformers, conductors, etc.,
available in various stores within the country and available for use in the
construction of the project. It was therefore planned that as soon as an
inventory of stores available within the country could be obtained and when
sufficient data were available upon which to predicate more accurate esti-
mates, the scope of the works to be constructed would be adjusted as
necessary to stay within the limits of the foreign currency funds available
under DLF Loan No. 25. As described in the section on cost, it developed
that with the greatest possible utilization of existing stores and certain
equipment and supplies derived through the Colombo Plan as well as the
procurement of a substantial number of pumps and other equipment from
sources within West Pakistan, it was possible to construct approximately
1800 tubewells with their power supply facilities. This corresponds to the
scope of the project as set forth in the Loan Agreement between the Authority
and the Development Loan Fund.

Of interest in connection with the technical appraisal of the project
is the fact that Section 4. 07 of the Loan Agreement (set forth in full in
Appendix A) required the Borrower to furnish to the DLF evidence that
the project would be capable of accomplishing its intended objectives before
the whole of the project was completed. This condition was originally
interpreted as requiring that no more than about 400 tubewells be con-
structed and placed in operation and the results of their operation ascertained
prior to undertaking the construction of the remaining approximately 1400
tubewells. This condition was totally incompatible with the technical require-
ment that a large number of tubewells situated over a large area must be
operated for an appreciable period of time before any marked improvement
in drainage and reclamation of saline lands can be achieved. Upon







-8-


recommendations of the Engineer, WAPDA undertook to have this require-
ment of the Loan Agreement waived on the grounds that the entire program
would be jeopardized and its cost increased considerably if it were required
to be carried out under separate phases with a longer intervening period
to appraise the results of the first stage. This waiver was granted by the
DLF and the beneficial results that have been attained over the relatively
short period since a significant number of the tubewells have been in
operation provide ample assurance that the objectives sought by construction
of the project are attainable.


Target Programs and Estimates

Under the program described in the basic Project Report it was
planned to take steps early in 1959 to accelerate the pace at which tubewells
were being constructed by WAPDA forces, to award a contract or contracts
for the construction of 600 to 800 tubewells by May 1959 and to complete
all construction by the end of 1960. During the course of the technical review
of the project it was realized that this program was too optimistic and a new
program was prepared based on the best information available at that time.
This program envisioned that up to 1000 tubewells would be constructed under
contract, with the balance being constructed by WAPDA forces, and that the
program would be so scheduled as to substantially complete all tubewell
construction prior to the monsoon season of 1961 or by the end of June of
that year. This was considered to be a desirable target to be achieved if
possible but, as noted in the review report, to meet such a program would
require the construction of tubewells at a rate greater than had ever been
accomplished on a similar scale before. As it developed, those tubewells
which were constructed under contract totaling 1014 were completed in
essential conformity to this target program. The balance of 775 tubewells
constructed by WAPDA forces required much longer to complete and, while
as of this date the tubewell features of the entire project are substantially
complete, certain of the sub-stations and other features of the electric power
supply facilities will not be completed till mid-1963. Notwithstanding the
fact that various portions of the work suffered numerous delays for reasons
that are set forth in more detail under the discussion of history of construc-
tion, it is still considered that the completion of a project embodying
approximately 1800 tubewells spread over an area of some 1900 square
miles within an approximately 4-year period from the date of the Loan
Agreement was a remarkable undertaking. Various charts and tables
included under the section on history of construction portray the progress
actually achieved in completion of the tubewell features of the project.

As noted earlier, the estimate of cost prepared at the time the
review report was made did not take into account certain equipment and
supplies available in the country that might be utilized in the construction of
the project. In September 1959 revised estimates of cost were prepared,







-9-


taking into account the availability of those existing stores as well as
other items of equipment which it was believed might possibly be procured
in local currencies. On the basis of those estimates it was estimated
that it would be possible to construct, within the limit of foreign currency
funds available under DLF Loan No. 25, approximately 1800 tubewells
with their appurtenant power facilities. A resume of the estimated cost
of the program made at that time is indicated below:

Table No. 1
Preliminary Estimate of Cost
of 1, 800 Tubewells and Appurtenant Power Facilities
(all values in millions)

Foreign Local Total in
Currency Currency Equivalent
(Dollars) (Rupees) Rupees

Cost of 1,800 tubewells 11.79 33.90 90.02
Cost of power facilities 7.72 23.17 59.91
Sub Total 19.51 57.07 149.93
Adjustments for tubewell and
electric stores -4.31 20.51 -0-
Total Estimated Cost 15.20 77.58 149.93


In August 1960 after all major contracts for the construction of
tubewells had been awarded, and orders had been placed for most of the
construction equipment and other facilities required for the WAPDA con-
struction operations, a comprehensive re-appraisal of the status of
tubewell construction was undertaken and new target programs as well
as revised estimates of cost were developed. At that time the target date.
for the completion of all project features was extended to the end of 1961.
The earlier estimate of cost was modified slightly to reflect a re-appor-
tionment of the total cost between the tubewell and the electrical facilities
and between foreign and local currency expenditures. The estimate of cost
of the project prepared at that time is summarized in Table No. 2.







-10-


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 2
Target Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells
(Abstracted from estimate prepared in August 1960)


Estimated Cost


Foreign
Currency
Description $ U.S.


1. Construction by Contract
(a) Contract No. 1 (600 tubewells)
(b) Contract No. 2 (400 tubewells)


4, 100,000
2,600,000


Local
Currency
Rupees


6, 100,000
3,700,000


Total in
Equivalent
Rupees


25, 616,000
16, 076,000


(c) Subtotal Contract Construction 6,700,000 9,800,000 41, 692, 000

Construction by WAPDA (800 tubewells)
(a) Construction Equipment 510,000 5,100,000 7,527,600
(b) Permanent Equipment
(1) Casing pipe 52,000 6,500,000 6,747,520
(2) Pumps, motors & controls 163,000 8,200,000 8,975,880
(c) Construction 0 8,000,000 8,000,000
(d) Subtotal WAPDA Construction 725,000 27, 800, 000 31, 251,000

Appurtenant Facilities by WAPDA
(a) Pumphouses (1800) 0 2, 700, 000' 2, 760, 000
(b) Operators Quarters (450) 0 2, 025,000 2, 025, 000
(c) Camps and Shops 0 375,000 375,000
(d) Subtotal Appurtenant Facilities 0 5, 100,000 5,100,000

Contingencies 75,000 1,500,000 1,857,000

Construction Cost (1800 tubewells) 7,500,000 44, 200,000 79,900,000

Administration and Engineering
(a) WAPDA Administration 0 2,025,000 2, 025,000
(b) Accounting and Auditing 0 730,000 730,000
(c) Office Equipment 0 300,000 300,000
(d) Engineering 1,450,000 2,245,000 9,147,000
(e) Subtotal Administration and
Engineering 1,450,000 5,300,000 1Z, 202,000


7. Total Estimated Cost of 1800
Tubewells


8. Power Facilities

9. Total Estimated Cost


8, 950,000

6, 250,000


49, 500,000

22, 500,000


92, 102, 000

52, 250,000


72,000,000 144,352,000


Item
No.


15, 200, 000







- 11 -


The estimates and programs prepared in August of 1960 represent
the last revisions of programs and estimates made during the course of the
construction of the project and are included herein as a basis for compari-
son with actual costs of the work and progress attained.

The balance of this report describes under separate chapters a
resume of the Engineer's operations, the tubewell features of the project
as constructed, and a history of the construction of the tubewell features.
The latter section is sub-divided into the work constructed under contract and
that constructed by WAPDA. There then follows a resume of the cost of the
project works and a section on the operation of the project in which is discussed
the procedures for turning over the completed tubewells to the operating
agency and initial difficulties encountered in placing the tubewells in operation.
At the end of the report, in appendices, are additional details of the DLF Loan
Agreement, lists of key personnel from WAPDA, the Engineer and the Con-
tractor, summaries of change orders and related matters, and a commentary
review of the project.







- 12 -


ENGINEER'S OPERATIONS


As originally visualized and as set forth in the agreement with the
Authority dated March 5, 1959, the functions of the Engineer were to be
primarily of a technical nature in the development of detail plans and speci-
fications for the work and technical supervision of the construction. In
brief the Engineer's functions as set forth in the mentioned agreement
comprise:

1. A review and appraisal of the technical and economic
feasibility of the proposed project.

2. The development of detail plans and specifications for
the construction of tubewells, and for the equipment and
materials to be incorporated in the permanent works, and
assistance to the Authority in the calling for tenders and
award of contracts for the construction of tubewells and
procurement of equipment.

3. The technical supervision and inspection of all construction
work including, where necessary, the inspection by the
Engineer, or through others, of the shop manufacture of
equipment and materials incorporated in the work.

As it developed, the Engineer was also called upon to furnish a
number of construction specialists to assist in the direction of construction
work undertaken by WAPDA's forces and in the training of those forces
in tubewell construction. Thus, in addition to purely engineering functions,
the Engineer's operations were intimately tied to and made a part of the
construction operations undertaken by WAPDA. This aspect of the
Engineer's operations should be recognized in appraising the costs incur-
red under the heading of "Engineering. While under the section on cost,
an attempt has been made to allocate approximately that portion of the
expenditures incurred by the Engineer which pertains to true engineering
functions and those which pertain to construction and other non-technical
operations, no distinction was made in the accounts of engineering expendi-
tures between these two phases during the course of the work.

Under the original Agreement with the Authority, it was planned
that the Engineer would perform all engineering work in connection with the
electric power supply facilities as well as for the tubewell features,
although it was agreed that, if deemed desirable, the Engineer would
retain a competent engineering firm to design the secondary transmission
system. For this purpose the Engineer retained the electrical engineering
firm of Miner & Miner, Inc., of Greeley, Colorado, in July 1959. This







- 13 -


firm was assigned the task of carrying out all of the functions described
above relating to the electric power supply features of the project.
Shortly thereafter Miner & Miner, Inc., entered into separate agree-
ments directly with the Authority covering engineering services in con-
nection with the Secondary Grid System and the Village Electrification
Program. In order to consolidate all of the electrical engineering
activities under one operation, it was concluded desirable by all con-
cerned that the work being done by Miner & Miner, Inc., on the tubewell
electrification work should be carried out under a separate contract directly
with the Authority. This was accordingly accomplished with the Engineer
retaining a general supervisory function with respect to the electrification
work under a Tripartite Agreement between the Engineer, the Authority
and Miner & Miner, Inc., dated August 4, 1959.

Because of the separation of the electrical work from the tubewell
features in the manner described above, this report covers only the history
of construction and engineering work related to the tubewell features of
the project. It is planned that a similar report covering the electric
features of the project will be prepared by Miner & Miner, Inc., when
those works have been substantially completed.

The engineering staff resident in Pakistan carrying out the functions
described above consisted of two groups; (1) the expatriate staff employed
directly by the Engineer, and (2) the Pakistani staff, the bulk of which were
employed directly by the Authority and deputed to work under the direction
of the Engineer. Except for certain administrative and payroll matters,
these two groups operated as a single organization.

Figure 2 portrays graphically the general form of the engineering
organization and its principal sub-divisions. The chart on the figure
portrays graphically the number of expatriate personnel engaged on each
of the major functional divisions of the work during the course of the project's
construction. While this chart shows only the distribution of expatriate
personnel, the Pakistani side of the engineering organization was, insofar
as engineering activities are concerned, distributed in about the same pro-
portions as those indicated throughout the course of the work. It may be
noted that up to about mid-1961, the expatriate personnel in the Engineer's
organization were about equally divided between engineering functions
related to the supervision of construction and non-technical functions
related to the construction undertaken by WAPDA forces. During the
entire course of the work the man-months of work by expatriate personnel
were distributed among various operations and in approximately the
following percentages:











W.A.P.D.A.
(WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY)


CHIEF ENGINEER
G.W.R.D.
(PROJECT DIRECTOR)


0 SECRETARY
0 0 TYPISTS
000 CLERKS


1959 1960


W.A.P.D.A. CONSTRUCTION
SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER
(CONSTRUCTION)


---------------------------------------1


ADMINISTRATIVE AND
SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(ASST. PROJECT ENGINEER)


EXPATR I


ASST. PROJECT ENGR.
00 TYPISTS
000 CLERKS


TRANS PORTATION
AND MOTOR POOL


CONSTRUCTION ENGR.
00 DRILLERS
00 DRILLERS
00 DRILLERS
WELDER


I


Note Subordinate staff of W.A.P.D.A.
and Pakistani construction
forces not indicated.


OFFICE ENGINEER
ASST. OFFICE ENGR.
EQUIPMENT ENGR.
TECH. SUPER.-W.ARD.A. CONSTR.
00 ASST. ENGINEERS
00 ASST. ENGINEERS
000 DRAFTSMEN
000 TRACERS
00 TYPISTS
000 CLERKS


0
0
0
0
00
000
0
000
000
000
00
000
000
00
(3 6)


TRANSPORT OFFICER
CHIEF MECHANIC
M. P. OFFICER
TRANSP. SUPER.
DISPATCHER
MECHANIC
ELECTRICIAN
ASST. MECHANIC
ASST. MECHANIC
ASST. MECHANIC
TYPISTS
CLERKS
PEONS
PEONS
DRIVERS


SUPPLY OFFICER 0 ACCOUNTANT FIELD ENGINEER
000 CLERKS ASST. ACCOUNTANT
000 CLERKS 000 ACCOUNTANTS ASST.
0 TYPISTS 00 ACCOUNTANTS ASST.
00 TYPISTS
000 CLERKS


0 CIVIL ENGINEER
0 CIVIL ENGINEER
000 ASSISTANTS
000 ASSISTANTS


00
0
000
000
000
000
00
000
000
0


CONSTRUCTION ENGR.
GEOLOGIST
CIVIL ENGINEER
MECHANICAL ENGR.
GEOLOGIST
ASST. GEOLOGIST
ASST. GEOLOGIST
ASST. GEOLOGIST
ASST. GEOLOGIST
SUPERVISOR
SUPERVISOR
OVERSEER


00
000
000
00
000
000


0. 8 T. ENGINEER
HYDROLOGIST
CIVIL ENGINEER
MECHANICAL ENGR.
MECHANICAL ENGR.
SUPERVISOR
OVERSEER


EQUIPMENT
INSTALLATION


EQUIPMENT El
000 MECHANICAL I
000 ELECTRICAL E
0 SUPERVISOR
0 OVERSEER


I


I







- 14 -


Table No. 3
Distribution of Engineering Activities
by Principal Functions

Percentage of Total Time
Function of Expatriate Personnel

Administration, including
ac counting 18.4
Engineering, including
siting of tubewells 15.1
Construction supervision 26.0
Subtotal technical functions 59.5

Construction operations 28. 2
Support operations (supply and
motor pool) 12.3
Subtotal non-technical functions 40.5
Total 100.0


Appendix B contains a list of some of the key personnel employed
by WAPDA and the Engineer during the course of construction of the project.

The engineering organization resident in Pakistan under the charge
of the Project Engineer was responsible, under the general direction of the
Denver office of the Engineer, for all engineering work in connection with
the project. The Denver office was called upon to assist in preparation of
detail plans and specifications, for special technical studies, liaison with
the Development Loan Fund, and for assistance in review of tenders and
other similar technical matters. It also carried out the inspection of pumps
furnished by the Contractor for the work under contract which were produced
at the Worthington Plant in Denver, Colorado. Under separate arrangements
the Robert W. Hunt Company of Chicago, Illinois, was called upon to
inspect certain equipment and materials supplied for the work by the con-
struction contractor as well as by the suppliers of certain equipment for
work constructed by WAPDA forces.

In the field the engineering organization performed the usual
engineering functions including the laying out of the tubewell site and
inspection of all construction work. On the work performed under contract
inspection of drilling operations was carried out from the start of drilling
until the approval of the final verticality and bailing of the hole to consoli-
date the gravel shroud. Three or four inspectors, depending upon the
availability of personnel, were assigned to each drill rig. Geologists and
assistant geologists were generally used for this work, but when 6 rigs







- 15 -


were operating it was necessary to use civil engineers as inspectors on
drilling operations. The inspectors supervised the taking of samples, and
prepared a lithologic log; they instructed the drillers the depth to which
the hole should be drilled; they prepared a pipe tally sheet which listed
the lengths of the joints of the various types of pipe at site. With the help
of one of the Engineer's expatriate staff, the inspector inspected and
interpreted the electric log for anamolous features, and by use of the
lithologic log, the electric log, and the formation samples, prepared a
casing schedule. This casing schedule was given to the driller and he ran
the casing according to the casing schedule. During the running of the
casing the inspector checked the welds, and saw that the casing was run
according to the casing schedule. The inspector passed upon the gravel and
also checked and passed on the verticality of the pump housing casing.

The development of the tubewell, under the terms of the Contracts,
was the responsibility of the Contractor and was not, as a rule, witnessed
by the inspection staff. Spot checks of tubewell development were made
by the expatriate staff of the Engineer to insure that proper development
procedures were being used.. Testing of the tubewell was witnessed by,
and done under, the supervision of the inspectors.

Two Pakistani civil engineers were used to inspect the concrete
construction work. At times during the progress of the work the concrete
inspection work was drastically curtailed because of a lack of inspection
personnel and/or lack of transportation. It was felt, however, that the
inspection of concrete work could be more readily deferred until a later
date than could the inspection of work which was "buried." The inspection
of each punrp installed was the responsibility of inspectors who were
generally mechanical engineers. The Contractor used a maximum of 2
pump setting rigs on this work and, depending upon the number of shifts
working, 2 or 3 men were assigned to each rig.

No separate inspection staff, other than that required for tubewell
siting and logging operations, was assigned to the construction of tubewells
done by WAPDA forces as that work was generally carried out under the
supervision of expatriate drillers. Inspection of all other operations,
however, including the installation of equipment and its testing, was
carried out on the WAPDA constructed tubewells in much the same manner
as described for the tubewells constructed by the Contractor.

The engineering staff resident in Pakistan also performed all
necessary office engineering functions including the recording of progress
and the preparation of periodic estimates for payments to the contractors
and suppliers of equipment and materials. It also inspected all equipment
produced in Pakistan for incorporation in the WAPDA constructed tubewells
at manufacturers plants situated in Lahore, Karachi and at Wah, West
Pakistan.







- 16 -


A small office in the headquarters building of the Authority situ-
ated at the Pipals House in Lahore was utilized as headquarters for the
engineering organization. These facilities were later supplemented by
space in a separate building at Faridikot Road which became available in
April 1960. In the field the Engineer's forces responsible for supervision
of the work being done under contract were headquartered at a tent camp
near Sukheki during the period from March 1960 to July 1961. As no
other suitable camp facilities were available, all of the other supervisory
personnel working in the field including all of those associated with WAPDA
construction operations commuted daily from Lahore to the site of the work
which involved round trip distances varying from 60 to 150 miles. This
requirement in itself imposed an exceptionally heavy burden on transporta-
tion facilities which seldom during the course of the work were adequate
in number or condition to meet fully the requirements for efficient prose-
cution of the work. For more than two years the maintenance and repair
of vehicles was handled through arrangements with commercial establish-
ments in Lahore until the requirements for such services became so critical
that WAPDA authorized the Engineer to establish and operate a motor pool
for the repair and servicing of project vehicles in March 1961. From that
time onward, the Engineer was responsible for maintaining transportation
equipmentand, although many problems were encountered in procuring and
maintaining an adequate supply of spare parts for the repair of vehicles
which had been in use far beyond their normal serviceable life, it was
possible to maintain the available vehicles in service until the work was
completed.







- 17 -


PROJECT WORKS


A total of 1984 tubewells are embodied in Project No. One, as
constructed, of which 188 were constructed prior to 1959 by the Irrigation
Department and 1796 were constructed by the Authority under DLF
Loan No. 25. All of the tubewells are situated in the Indus Valley alluvium
which consists in general of fine to medium grain sand of much greater
depth than the depth of penetration of the tubewell installations. In general,
the uppermost part of the formation is composed of the finer sands, silts and
clays, with the coarser sands being more commonly found at increasing
depths. The entire formation within the depths of the tubewells constructed
is interspersed with occasional layers or lenses of finer silts and clays.

This report describes only the tubewells constructed since 1959
under the auspices of the Authority. Reference should be made to other
publications for details of the 188 tubewells constructed prior to 1959 by
the Irrigation Department.

Figure No. 3 shows a typical tubewell installation. It consists of
a hole drilled to depths varying from approximately 200 up to 300 feet
depending on the formations encountered and the design capacity of the tube-
well. The diameter of the hole is related to the method used for construction
of the tubewell. All of the tubewells constructed with reverse rotary drilling
rigs, which include all of those constructed under contract and certain of the
larger capacity tubewells constructed within areas assigned to WAPDA
forces, were drilled with a 22 inch diameter bit which produced a hole
approximately 24 inches in diameter. All of the tubewells constructed by
percussion methods, which includes most of those constructed by WAPDA
forces, were sunk through casing having an outside diameter of 18 inches,
which when withdrawn left a hole of approximately the same diameter.

Pump housing casing, 14 inches in diameter for tubewells having
a capacity of 3.0 cusecs or less and 16 inch in diameter for.tubewells with
a capacity of 3. 5 cusecs or larger, extends from the surface to a level
5 to 10 feet below the maximum anticipated depth of drawdown. The bottom
of the pump housing casing connects through a conical reducer to the
10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing which extends to, or within a few feet
of, the bottom of the drilled hole. In the typical installation the 10-3/4
inch diameter pipe is slotted opposite the coarser or more permeable forma-
tions, as determined from an examination of the log obtained during the
drilling, supplemented in a number of cases by information obtained from
the electric logs. These slots which are 1/16 inch wide and approximately
2-1/2 inches long are arranged in groups of three around the periphery of


















--- Tubewell


-Discharge pipe


Construction joint"


Motor starter
control cabinet- -


SECTION B-B


Structural steel frame for
support of control cabinet-,


Pump house floor slab-


Ground rod-._ -
I1


Gravel
shrouding.


--Pump motor
*Surface discharge head


-Original ground surface


r-12"-


-Pump housing casing

Water surface in well
when pumping
-A ~


Bowl assembly


Grovel shrouding No 16 to !"


Concentric reducer


--10o"0 Slotted tubewell casing, 180 slots
g" by2"to 3' to provide 30 square inches
of slotted opening per foot of closing



- Non- yielding formation

-10T'O0.. Plain sections as required


10 0 D. Plain section
each tubewell


," Seal plate


SECTION A-A

I 0 I 2 3
SCALE OF FEET


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH,INC-ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB


TYPICAL TUBEWELL
INSTALLATION


Surface of tubewell
casing in contact
with concrete to
be pointed before
concrete is placed


PLAN


VARIABLE DIMENSIONS
PUMP CAPACITIES
2.0, 2.5 AND 3.0 CUSECS I 3.5,4 0 AND 4.5 CUSECS
TOTAL HEAD IN FEET
50 60 70 80 60 70 80
Length of pump
column A (feet) 50 60 70 80 60 70 80
Nominal dio of pump
column B (inches) 8 8 8 8 10 10 10
Minimum o.D. of pump 14 14 14 16 16 16
housing casing c (inches)
Nominal dia of pump
discharge pipe D (inches) 8 8 8 8 10 10 10o







- 18 -


the pipe in such a manner as to provide 30 square inches of slot opening
per linear foot of tubewell casing. The annular space between the hole and
the casing is shrouded with gravel to provide a well graded filter between
the formation and the slotted area of the tubewell casing.

Most of the tubewells were constructed to depths varying from
about 230 feet up to 360 feet, the average depth of all the tubewells being
about 260 feet. The length of slotted pipe provided for each tubewell was
dependent on the formations encountered and the tubewell capacity, varying
from a minimum of about 110 feet for a 2.0 cusec tubewell up to about
160 feet for the 4.0 and 5.0 cusec tubewells.

In order to determine the appropriate depth of pump setting and
hence length of pumphousing pipe account was taken of the position of the
tubewell within the doab and the lowest probable level to which the ground-
water table might be lowered during the projected life of the tubewells, which
for this purpose was assumed to be on the order of 30 to 40 years. It was
assumed that within such a period it will be feasible to lower the ground-
water table to depths on the order of those which existed prior to the time
irrigation of the doab caused the water table to rise. This resulted in an
assumed future groundwater table configuration varying in depth from a
minimum of about 30 feet below the ground surface for tubewells situated in
the vicinity of the rivers on either side of the doab, to maximum depths of
50 to 60 feet in the central portion of the doab. The pumphousing pipe was
generally set at least 15 to 30 feet deeper than the presumed depths to the
future groundwater table to accommodate drawdown in the tubewell while
maintaining the suction of the pump submerged.

All of the tubewell pumps are of the vertical turbine type with
enclosed impellers driven by electric motors. All of the pumps installed
in tubewells constructed under contract and certain of the larger pumps installed
in WAPDA constructed tubewells are of the oil lubricated type. The smaller
capacity turbine pumps installed in WAPDA constructed tubewells are of the
water lubricated type with rubber bearings. To date both types of pumps
have given generally satisfactory service. While the oil lubricated pump is
a higher class installation, it is somewhat more vulnerable to damage due to
inadequate maintenance, lack of oil, or failure of the oil feed mechanism.
Since relatively little difficulty was experienced during construction of the
project in developing tubewells which will produce virtually sand-free water,
the water lubricated pump makes a satisfactory installation and has the
advantage that it requires less maintenance and attention than the oil
lubricated pump.

All of the electric motors driving the pumps are vertical, hollow
shaft, induction type motors operating at 1450 rpm on 400 volt, 3 phase,
50 cycle current. The motors are controlled by a combination starter







- 19 -


and push-button motor control unit with short circuit, overload and under-
voltage protective equipment all mounted in a metal cabinet installed inside
of the pumphouse.

The discharge pipe of each tubewell terminates in a discharge box,
consisting of a concrete masonry structure, rectangular in plan with vertical
walls and an opening in one side through which water is delivered to the
water course. Figure No. 4 shows a typical discharge box as provided for
the tubewells in the eight scheme areas constructed under the auspices of
the Authority.

During the development of plans for the project a number of alternative
schemes for housing and protecting the tubewell installations were considered,
varying from completely open installations protected only by a fence, to
brick masonry pump houses of various designs. Brick pump houses were
ultimately selected as the most desirable installation, primarily because
they afforded better protection from the weather and animals, as well as
security, and required virtually no materials that could not be obtained
locally. The earliest installations consisted of a totally enclosed building
with a single window and access door. It was found that because of the
practice of keeping the door and window closed during operation that these
buildings became excessively hot and later designs provided for panels of
open brick work in the walls of the pump house to provide better ventilation.
Figure No. 5 shows details of the latest type of pump house installation which
was constructed for most of the tubewells.

Originally it was intended that one operator would tend anywhere
from three to five tubewells and would be provided with suitable quarters
for this purpose. It developed however that, because of the relatively great
distances between individual tubewells, it was desirable to station an indivi-
dual operator at or near each tubewell. Accordingly it is presently planned
to provide operator's quarters in the vicinity of each tubewell, and to date
such quarters have been provided for approximately 23 per cent of the total
number of tubewells in the project. Figure No. 6 shows the type of operator's
quarters provided for a typical installation.

A number of Plates have been prepared showing the location of works
constructed as a part of Project No. One. Plate I is a reduction of a map,
the original of which is to a scale of one inch to four miles, showing the
boundaries of the individual scheme areas and the location of all of the tube-
wells constructed as a part of Project No. One superimposed on a base map
showing the principal canals, branches and distributaries of the irrigation
system, main roads, railways and other features of the project area. Plates
II through VIII inclusive are reductions of maps covering the scheme areas
listed below upon which have been shown the location, number, and nominal
capacity in cusecs of each of the tubewells embodied in Project No. One.




FIGURE 4


PLAN
Pump discharge i o A 3 4 s
pipe ..--' I I I I I I I
SCALE OF FEET


SECTION A-A


-----------Af

-I

IC


END VIE
END VIEW


'0


,-Normal ground
Level

2






I I"
-13 -








F. 1"

--- I,9f"---

NOTE
Inside length of tank for discharges of:
3 Cusec L 4'-O"
3 to 4 Cusec L= 5'-0"
4 to 5 Cusec L= 6'-0
5 to 6 Cusec L:7'-O"

WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH,INC ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO.1
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB
TYPICAL DISCHARGE
BOX.


A


A
-'A


-c~~i~1<- -- 3~Ii --- 1




FIGURE 5


PLAN
1 0 2 3 4 5
SCALE OF FEET


,-3 MS Corrugated sheets 8624.
/ Side lap of one corrugation


SECTION B-B


Crest of
corrugation -


n washer



J-hooks


J-HOOK DETAIL


SECTION A-A


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH,INC.-ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB


TYPICAL PUMPHOUSE




FIGURE 6


PLAN
SCALE F FEE .
SCALE OF FEET


..4s"Earth fill
I Mud plaster
.-2"Brick tiles (12'x 6"x2")


A-A


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH,INC.-ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB

TYPICAL OPERATOR'S
QUARTERS









- 20-


PLATES SCHEME AREAS

II Shah Kot (5), Chuharkana (3)
III Jaranwala (4), Zafarwal (6)
IV Hafizabad (11)
V Pindi Bhattian (1), Beranwala (9),
Harse Sheikh (10)
VI Sangla Hill (8)
VII Khangah Dogran (7)
VIII Chichoki Mallian (2), Shadman (12)


On the above plates the approximate location and circuit designations
of the electric distribution lines supplying the tubewells have also been
shown.

The originals of the above scheme area maps are to a scale of one
inch to one mile and are so arranged that by piecing together the individual
maps a wall map can be prepared covering the entire area of Project No. One
to this scale.

Each of the tubewells shown on the above series of plates have been
sited as closely as possible consistent with the scale of maps. The electric
features are shown in schematic form only and reference should be made to
the detail construction drawings of the electric distribution system prepared
by Miner and Miner, Inc. for details of the location and characteristics of the
facilities which form the electric power supply features for the project.

Tables 4, 5, 6, and 7 contain summaries of pertinent information
with respect to the tubewells constructed as a part of the Project No. One.
The data contained in these tables, which are believed to be self-explanatory,
represent statistical totals of quantities and other information related to the
total of the works constructed. In addition to this information, individual
tubewell data sheets of the form shown as an example by Figure No. 7 have
been prepared to provide a permanent record of the works constructed.
These data sheets have been prepared for each of the 1796 tubewells com-
prised in the eight scheme areas constructed under the auspices of the
Authority, the originals of which are in file in the Ground Water and Recla-
mation Division of the Authority. They show all of the information collected
during the course of construction regarding the formations penetrated by
the tubewells, the characteristics of the basic tubewell installation including
data pertaining to the equipment installed in each tubewell. In many instances
multi-stage pumps were installed with one impeller removed because of the
low pump head during the initial operating period.,









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 4
Numbers of Tubewells and Construction Methods


Scheme Areas
No. Designation
(1) (2)

Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal

Total


Total Number
of Tubewells
(3)


21
12
24
131


Construction Agency
I. D. WAPDA Contractor(c)
(4) (5) (6)


21
12
24
131


Construction
H.B. C.T.
(7) (8)


21
12
24
131


188 188 0 0 188 0 0

385(a) 0 385(a) 0 154 227 4
390 1(b) 329 60 135 165 90
209 6(b) 0 203 0 0 209
233 0 0 233 0 0 233
126 0 0 126 0 0 126
44 0 0 44 0 0 44
318 0 0 318 0 0 318
91 0 1 90 0 0 91
1,796 7(b) 715 1,074 289 392 1, 115


1,984


195


1,074


477


392


Notes: (a) Includes 32 tubewells in poor quality ground-water area in which pumping equipment has
not yet been installed.
(b) Tubewells constructed by WASID
(c) Harold T. Smith International S. A.
Symbols in Columns (7), (8), and (9) have following significance:
H. B. Hand boring sets C. T. Cable tool rigs R. R. Reverse rotary rigs


Method
R.R.
(9)


1, 115









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 5
Characteristics of Tubewells Part I


Scheme Areas


Designation
(2)


Number of
Tubewells
(3)


Total
Capacity
(cusecs)
(4)


Tubewell Capacities
(cusecs)


Min.
(5)


Avg.
(6)


Max.
(7)


Pumping Heads
(feet)


Min. Avg.
(8) (9)


Max.
(10)


Motor Power
(horsepower)
Min. Avg. Max.
(11) (12) (13)


Departmental Schemes:

1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal


21
12
24
131


52.0
26. 0
48. 0
293.0


1. 5
2.0
2.0
1. 5


2.5
2.2
2.0
2.2


3.5
3.0
2.0
4. 5


188 419.0 1.5 2.2 4.5 20 47 70 15 19 37

385 966. (a) 2.0 3.0 4.0 30 52.5 80 15 27.2 50
390 1,161.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 50 61.0 80 15 29.8 50
209 636. 5 2.0 3.0 4. 5 60 72. 5 80 20 33. 5 50
233 686.0 2.0 2.9 4.5 70 73.5 80 25 33.4 60
126 407.0 2.0 3.2 5.0 50 66.0 80 15 33.2 60
44 148.5 2.0 3.4 5.0 50 57.0 70 15 31.2 50
318 950.5 2.0 3.0 4.5 50 64.0 70 15 30.0 50
91 261.5 2.0 2.9 4.5 50 56.0 70 15 26.0 50
1,796 5,217. 5 2.0 3.0 5.0 30 62. 8 80 15 30. 5 60


1.5 2.8 5.0


20 61. 3


15 29.4 60


Notes: (a) Capacity of 319 installations in which
Values shown in Columns (5) through (10)


pumps have been installed.
inclusive represent "design" or "rated" values.


Most


multi-stage pump installations have only one stage installed initially because initial pumping head
is less than design head.


No.
(1)


Total


1,984


5,636.5









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 6
Characteristics of Tubewells Part II


Scheme Areas
No. Designation
(1) (2)

Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal


Total


Number of
Tubewells
(3)


21
12
24
131


Tubewell Depths
(feet)


Min.
(4)


135
195
186
150


Avg.
(5)


207
210
230
250


Max.
7T


324
295
290
320


Slotted Casing
(feet)
Min. Avg. Max.
(7) (8) (9)


75
140
120
94


100
140
130
107


(a)
Blank Casing(
(feet)
Min. Avg. Max.
(10) (11) (12)


140
140
140
136


139
102
102
110


188 135 240 324 94 111 140 0 37 139

385 137 227 358 72 138 160 2 38 148
390 240 260 312 119 134 166 19 38 75
209 245 280 335 107 128 149 25 56 120
233 235 268 344 103 126 158 25 46 109
126 230 269 355 111 133 160 25 42 122
44 235 275 340 117 138 162 25 45 112
318 230 267 350 106 128 159 25 46 107
91 226 248 325 115 128 160 21 33 92
1,796 137 262 358 72 132 166 2 43 148


1,984


135 260 358


72 130 166


0 42 148


Notes: (a) Blank'casing refers to unslotted portions of 10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing and does
not include pump housing casing of larger diameters. All tubewells in Scheme Areas 1, 2, 3,
and 4 provided with brass screen in lieu of slotted steel casing.









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 7
Characteristics of Tubewells Part III


Scheme Areas
No. Designation
(1) (2)

Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal

Total


Number of
Tubewells
(3)


Slotted
Length-ft.
per cusec.
(4)


21
12
24
131


Theoretical
Velocity thru
Slots ft. /sec.
(5)


N. A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.


Specific Drawdown
(feet per cusec)
Min. Avg. Max.
(6) (7) (8)


7. 1
5.6
5.0
3.7


10.2
6.4
6.4
4.5


188 50.8 N.A. 3.7 5.5 18.0 167 1115 3000

385 46.0 0.104 2.2 4.7 12.8 133 1040 2670
390 44.7 0.108 2.7 5.2 28.0 160 815 2335
209 42. 6 0.112 2. 9 4.2 9.0 133 450 1070
233 43.5 0.110 2.5 4.3 8.3 147 870 2335
126 41.5 0.115 2.4 3.9 6.5 167 1070 2265
44 40.6 0.118 3.2 4.2 5.4 160 535 1100
318 42.6 0.112 2.4 3.6 6.7 160 605 1330
91 44.1 0. 109 2.6 3.5 4.8 174 465 935
1796 43.2 0.111 2. 2 4.2 28.0 133 780 2670


Quality of Water
(parts per million)
Min. Avg. Max.
(9) (10) (11)


620
167
170
200


815
365
585
1330


1000
486
913
3000


1984


43.9


2. 2


4.3 28.0 133 815 3000


Notes: Values in Col. (4) are average values derived from Col. (8) of Table


and Col. (6) of Table


Values in Col. (5) based on 180 slots 2-5/8" x 1/16" per lineal foot of slotted pipe, equivalent to
30 square inches of slot openings per foot.
Values in Cols. (9) through (11) inclusive represent initial conductivity (Micromhos) measurements
converted to ppm. using factor of 0. 667.









- 25 -


Spaces are provided on the tubewell data sheet forms to record the installation
of additional stages and other modifications that may be made in the future
and it is planned that these records will be maintained in such a manner as to
provide a complete record of the equipment installed in the tubewells at any
particular time.

Table 8 summarizes the areas served by the tubewells provided for
each individual scheme area. The pumping capability of the tubewells,
together with the canal supplies of the areas under command of the canal
system, and the combined canal and tubewell supplies expressed in terms
of acres per cusec are shown in Table 9. It should be noted that in this
and other tables, the capacity of individual tubewells, as well as the pumping
capability of groups of tubewells, indicated refer to the "design" or "rated"
capacities of the tubewells. The design capacity of the tubewell is the
theoretical capacity of the pump with all stages installed and operating under
its design head. The actual output of an individual tubewell at any particular
time will depend on the number of stages installed and the head, or pump
lift, under which it is operating. Because of the present high groundwater
table in the area pumping heads are less than those for which the installations
are designed and therefore, at most installations, one impeller was removed
from the multi-stage pumps. When first placed in operation an installation
working at less than the designed pumping head for a single stage, may
actually be pumping as much as 25 to 30 per cent more water than its rated
capacity. As the water table gradually descends and the pumping head
increases, the discharge will gradually decrease. When the discharge has
decreased to about the rated capacity of the tubewell, the additional impeller
will be installed in the pump and its discharge again will likely be somewhat
greater than the rated capacity of the tubewell until such time as the pump
lift has increased to that corresponding to the rated head of the multi-stage
unit. Thus at any particular time the actual discharge of an individual tubewell
may vary anywhere from roughly 25 per cent above or below its nominal
design capacity depending on the number of stages installed and the level
of the water table. These variations in discharge are of little significance
in so far as drainage and utilization of the water for irrigation are concerned
as the total volume of water pumped can be controlled by varying the period
of pumping.









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 8
Project Areas


Scheme Areas
No. Designation
(1) (2)

Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal


Number of
Tubewells
(3)


21
12
24
131


Gross Area
(acres)
(4)


8,305
7, 122
10,769
90, 873


C. C. A.
Present
(5)


4, 823
6,442
7,907
69,035


- Acres
Proposed
(6)


7,969
6, 556
9, 255
83, 235


Average Acres per Tubewell
Gross Area C.C.A.
(7) (8)


395
594
449
694


378
546
386
635


188 117,069 88,207 107,015 623 570

385 245,291 203,515 229,881 637 596
390 204,258 136,702 192,353 524 494
209 119,083 91,990 113,397 569 542
233 136,602 111,188 127,038 585 545
126 125,920 102,677 114,441 999 908
44 22,000 18,899 20,627 500 469
318 170,560 127,590 152,086 536 479
91 82, 995 76,194 76, 194 911 836
1796 1,106,709 868,755 1,026,017 616 571


Total


1984


1,223,778


956,962 1,133,032


Notes: C. C. A. designates "Culturable Commanded Area".
Values in Col. (5) represent areas commanded by canal systems.


617









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 9
Water Supplies


Scheme Areas
No. Designation
(1) (2)


Number of
Tubewells
(3)


Tubewell
Supplies
(cusecs)
(4)


Canal
Supplies
(cusecs)
(5)


Combined
Supplies
(cusecs)
(6)


(a) Water Duty of
C. C. A. Combined Supplies
(acres) (acres/cusecs)
(7) (8)


Tubewell Pumping
Capability
Depth-ft. /
MAF/yr. gross acre/yr.
(9) (10)


Departmental Schemes
1 Pindi Bhattian
2 Chichoki Mallian
3 Chuharkana
4 Jaranwala
Subtotal
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot
6 Zafarwal
7 Khangah Dogran
8 Sangla Hill
9 Beranwala
10 Harse Sheikh
11 Hafizabad
12 Shadman
Subtotal


21
12
24
131


52. 0
26.0
48. 0
293. 0


0
17. 6
16.0
237. 0


52.0
43. 6
64.0
530. 0


188 419.0 270. 6 689. 6 107,015 155 0. 30 2. 5

385 966. 0(b) 382.0 1348. 0(b) 229,881 170(b) 0. 70(b) 2. 9(b)
390 1161.5 330.0 1491.5 192,353 129 0.85 4.2
209 636.5 136.5 773.0 113,397 147 0.46 3.9
233 686.0 202.0 888.0 127,038 143 0.50 3.7
126 407.0 148.0 555.0 114,441 206 0.30 2.4
44 148.5 32.0 180.5 20,627 114 0. 11 4.9
318 950.5 200.0 1150.5 152,086 132 0.69 4.0
91 261.5 145.5 407.0 76, 194 187 0. 19 2. 3
1796 5217.5 1576.0 6793.5 1,026,017 151 3.80 3.4


7,969
6,556
9,255
83. 23.5


153
150
144
157


0.04
0. 02
0. 03
n ? 1


4. 6
2. 7
3. 3
2 A


5636.5 1846.6


7483. 1 1, 133,032


Notes: (a) C.C..A. denotes culturable commanded area.
(b) Capacity of 319 installations in which pumps: have been installed.
Values in Column (5) represent 70 per cent of authorized full supplies
Values in Columns (9) and (10) based on continuous pumping.


of channels serving the area.


Total


1984


151


4. 10


3. 3


:







- 28 -


CONSTRUCTION HISTORY


General

At the time active work on Project No. One got under way (taken for
purposes of this report as April 1, 1959, the date the Project Engineer
established his office in Lahore) a small Departmental group working under
the jurisdiction of WAPDA was engaged on constructing tubewells in the
Shahkot area. With the perfection of the Loan Agreement and engagement of
the Engineer, WAPDA was anxious to accelerate the program as quickly as
possible by: (1) procuring badly needed transportation facilities and con-
struction equipment and augmenting the Departmental forces engaged on
tubewell construction, and (2), taking the necessary steps to place the first
block of tubewells under contract at the earliest possible date. To accomplish
the second objective the Engineer initiated preparation of technical plans and
specifications for the work concurrently with the task of carrying out the over-
all technical appraisal of the project.

Because of the specialized nature of tubewell construction it was
concluded desirable that prospective contractors be pre-qualified before being
invited to tender on the work. Accordingly the Engineer prepared a pre-
qualification document which described the project and set forth the informa-
tion required to appraise the qualifications of prospective contractors. This
document was mailed to 25 tubewell construction firms domiciled in nine
countries around the world. The information called for by that document was
received from all but three of the 25 firms and after reviewing this material,
the Engineer recommended to WAPDA on June 8, 1959, that the following
eight firms be invited to submit tenders for the first tubewell contract
embodying the construction of 500 tubewells:

LeGrande Adsco Ltd. England
Harold T. Smith International, S.A. Panama
International Water Corporation U. S. A.
German Water Development Corp. Germany
Geoistrazivanja Yugoslavia
B & W Drilling Co. U.S.A.
Nebrado Irrigation & Water Dev. Co. U.S.A.
Associated Tubewells International Ltd. England


On 16 June 1959 the technical specifications for the construction work,
together with an invitation to submit a tender for the construction of 500
tubewells were sent to the above firms. The invitation called for tenders to







- 28 -


CONSTRUCTION HISTORY


General

At the time active work on Project No. One got under way (taken for
purposes of this report as April 1, 1959, the date the Project Engineer
established his office in Lahore) a small Departmental group working under
the jurisdiction of WAPDA was engaged on constructing tubewells in the
Shahkot area. With the perfection of the Loan Agreement and engagement of
the Engineer, WAPDA was anxious to accelerate the program as quickly as
possible by: (1) procuring badly needed transportation facilities and con-
struction equipment and augmenting the Departmental forces engaged on
tubewell construction, and (2), taking the necessary steps to place the first
block of tubewells under contract at the earliest possible date. To accomplish
the second objective the Engineer initiated preparation of technical plans and
specifications for the work concurrently with the task of carrying out the over-
all technical appraisal of the project.

Because of the specialized nature of tubewell construction it was
concluded desirable that prospective contractors be pre-qualified before being
invited to tender on the work. Accordingly the Engineer prepared a pre-
qualification document which described the project and set forth the informa-
tion required to appraise the qualifications of prospective contractors. This
document was mailed to 25 tubewell construction firms domiciled in nine
countries around the world. The information called for by that document was
received from all but three of the 25 firms and after reviewing this material,
the Engineer recommended to WAPDA on June 8, 1959, that the following
eight firms be invited to submit tenders for the first tubewell contract
embodying the construction of 500 tubewells:

LeGrande Adsco Ltd. England
Harold T. Smith International, S.A. Panama
International Water Corporation U. S. A.
German Water Development Corp. Germany
Geoistrazivanja Yugoslavia
B & W Drilling Co. U.S.A.
Nebrado Irrigation & Water Dev. Co. U.S.A.
Associated Tubewells International Ltd. England


On 16 June 1959 the technical specifications for the construction work,
together with an invitation to submit a tender for the construction of 500
tubewells were sent to the above firms. The invitation called for tenders to







- 29 -


be submitted to WAPDA on or before 24 July 1959, it being contemplated that,
if acceptable tenders were received, two contracts of 500 tubewells each or
a total of 1000 tubewells would be awarded. By the specified time four tenders
were received in the amounts indicated below:

Summary of Tenders Received for the
Construction of 500 Tubewells


Amount of Tender
(all values in millions)

Equivalent
$ U.S. .R Rupees

H. T. Smith International, S.A. 3.42 4.92 21.18
International Water Corporation 4.29 4.09 24.49
Haniel and Lueg 4.35 7.35 28.04
Le Grande Adsco Ltd. 4.32 7.89 28.43

Engineer's Estimate 3.69 5.98 23.60


Actually a tender had also been received from the Yugoslav firm,
Geoistrazivanja, but was returned to that firm unopened because the DLF
had ruled shortly before the date set for receiving tenders that the firm did
not fully meet the requirements of DLF regulations regarding development of
private enterprise.

H. T. Smith International, S.A. submitted with their basic proposal
an alternative tender for the construction of 600 tubewells which embodied a
price reduction equivalent to 900 rupees per tubewell and all of the tenders
contained a number of stipulations which had to be taken into account in their
evaluation. After evaluating all tenders WAPDA accepted the Engineer's
recommendation that a contract be entered into with H. T. Smith International,
S.A. for construction of 600 tubewells. This contract was consummated in
Lahore on 7 August 1959 and subsequently approved by the DLF on 13 August
1959. It is referred to herein as Contract No. 1.

No action was taken at that time regarding the award of a second
contract because the proposals of the other bidders were either too high to
be considered or their cost was made ambiguous by certain stipulations.
Further it was not entirely certain at that time whether the funds available
under the DLF Loan No. 25 would be adequate to accommodate a second
500 tubewell contract as well as the other work it was desired to complete
under the original program. On the basis of estimates prepared by the
Engineer it appeared that no more than about 400 additional tubewells could







- 30 -


be constructed under contract with the funds available. Accordingly on the
instructions of the Authority the Engineer sent cables to each of the firms
which had been previously qualified, with the exception of the Yugoslav firm,
inviting them to submit tenders for the construction of 300 and 400 tubewells
under alternative schedules. Three of the seven firms submitted tenders to
the Authority on 20 October 1959 which are summarized below:

Summary of Tenders Received for the
Construction of 300 and 400 Tubewells

Amount of Tender
(all values in millions)

Equivalent
$ U.S. Rs Rupees

Alternate A 300 Tubewells:
Haniel and Lueg 2.14 3.22 13.40
B & W Drilling Co. 1.62 5.27 12.97
H. T. Smith International, S. A. (No tender)


Engineer's Estimate

Alternate B 400 Tubewells:
Haniel and Lueg
B & W Drilling Co.
H. T. Smith International, S. A.


2.15 3.57 13.82


2.68 3.90 16.66
2.09 7.03 16.98
2.50 3.54 15.44


Engineer's Estimate 2.87 4.75 18.41


All of the proposals being less than the cost of this work included
in the estimates for the entire program prepared by the Engineer in
September it was concluded that the available funds would be adequate for
the construction of an additional 400 tubewells under contract. After giving
detail consideration to the several proposals the Engineer recommended that
the second contract be awarded to H. T. Smith International, S.A. This
recommendation was accepted by the Authority and the contract was consum-
mated in Lahore on 14 November 1959 and subsequently approved by the DLF
on 18 December 1959. It is referred to herein as Contract No. 2.

Each of the two contracts cover the construction of the complete
tubewell installation, with the exception of the pump house, discharge box,
and operator's quarters which were constructed by WAPDA's forces. Under
each contract the Contractor is required to supply all casing, gravel, pumps,
motors, motor controls and all other equipment and materials incorporated
in the permanent construction. The contracts are of the fixed unit price type







- 31 -


under which the Contractor is paid on the basis of actual quantities of
work completed and accepted by the Engineer and the rates set forth in the
contract and tender. For information purposes, the tender unit price rates
for the various items of work under each contract are set forth in tables
contained in Appendix

Upon the award of the second contract to H. T. Smith International,
S.A. that firm became responsible for the construction of 1000 tubewells of
the program. The scheduled completion date of both contracts was 7 July
1961, an elapsed time of 700 and 600 days respectively from the dates of
signing of Contracts Nos. 1 and 2. The manner in which this work was
accomplished by the Contractor, the organization and plant utilized, the
construction methods and progress of the work are covered under the section
on history of Contract Construction. Although during the course of the pro-
gram H. T. Smith International, S.A. were assigned certain other special
work under separate contracts, that work pertained largely to tubewells
situated within scheme areas assigned to WAPDA forces for construction and
hence the work performed under those contracts is covered under the section
on history of WAPDA Construction.

At the same time the work leading to the contracting of the construction
of 1000 tubewells was underway, steps were taken by the Authority and the
Engineer to accelerate the construction being undertaken by WAPDA's forces.
This task involved the recruitment of a number of expatriate drillers and
other technicians, the augmenting of the Pakistani construction staff, the
inventorying of available equipment and supplies, and assisting WAPDA in
the preparation of lists of construction and transportation equipment required
for both WAPDA's construction operations and the Engineer's operations,
together with many other similar preparatory functions needed to mobilize
the work to be undertaken by WAPDA's forces. The manner in which this
work was undertaken, the construction methods utilized and progress attained
are described in more detail under the section covering WAPDA Construction.

The overall program and division of work which evolved as described
above resulted in a total of 1796 tubewells being constructed. Of this total,
1014 tubewells were constructed by H. T. Smith International S.A. in six
scheme areas, 775 tubewells were constructed in two scheme areas by WAPDA
forces, and 7 of the original test wells were incorporated in the project as
follows:







- 32 -


Scheme Tubewells
Agency Areas Constructed

WAPDA Shahkot 385
Zafarwal 390 (Includes one tubewell
775 in Shadman Area)

Contractor Khangah Dogran 203 Contract No. 1
(H. T. Smith) Sangla Hill 233 tI
Beranwala 126 "
Harse Sheikh 44 "
Hafizabad 318 Contract No. 2
Shadman 90 "
1014

WASID Khangah Dogran 6
(test wells) Zafarwal 1
7
Total 1796


Figure No. 8 is a bar chart showing periods during which principal
operations performed by WAPDA and the Engineer, as well as the Contractor,
were carried out compared with the periods originally planned for the same
operations at the time the project was implemented. Figure No. 9 portrays
graphically the overall progress of tubewell construction achieved. It consists
of two charts, one of which shows progress on tubewell construction (excluding
the installation of equipment) and the other progress on tubewell completion
(including equipment) under the WAPDA operations and under the work done
under contract, together with the combined rates of progress of both phases of
the program. Referring to the uppermost chart of Figure No. 9 it may be
noted that the construction of tubewells, not including the installation of the
pumping equipment, was completed in substantial conformity to the target
program that was originally adopted in September 1959 in that more than 90
per cent of the total number of tubewells embodied in the program had been
constructed by mid-1961. Referring to the lowermost chart, it may be noted
that the installation of equipment in tubewells constructed under contract was
completed in substantial conformity to the original program. Many delays,
however, were encountered in securing equipment for installation in the WAPDA
constructed tubewells and in the installation of that equipment which resulted
in the completion of this work extending more than a year beyond that originally
programed. More detail information on the subject of progress is contained
under the histories of construction performed under the two phases of the
program. The work done under contract is discussed first and followed by
that carried out by WAPDA's forces.







- 33 -


CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION


General

The work covered under this section consists of that pertaining to
the 1014 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith International, S.A. under
the two contracts designated as Contract No. 1 and No. 2. Under the terms
of these contracts of which the tender documents and specifications were a
part, the Contractor was required to designate a banking authority acceptable
to WAPDA and the DLF and to provide a Fidelity Bond to insure proper use
of the funds advanced for mobilization and the procurement of equipment.
The Contractor nominated the Chase Manhattan Bank of New York to be his
banking agents. The Fidelity Bond was provided by the American Surety
Company of New York. The prime letters of credit covering foreign currency
expenditures were opened under DLF letters of commitment Nos. 391-8
and 391-16 on September 2, 1959 and December 18, 1959 for Contracts
Nos. 1 and 2 respectively, and firm purchase orders for construction equip-
ment and materials were placed by the Contractor shortly thereafter.

During the course of the work, a number of change orders were
issued to the Contractor embodying a total of 22 changes under Contract No. 1
and sixteen changes under Contract No. 2. Some of these change orders
covered identical changes under each of the two contracts. Most of the
change orders pertain to relatively minor details of the tubewell construction
or modification of requirements relating to the equipment installed in the
tubewells, such as for example an increase in the height of the concrete
pedestal upon which the pump is supported, and a reduction in the depth of
pump setting and horsepower of the motors for certain installations. As
such most of the change orders involved very little or no adjustment in the
tender prices. In their sum total, the value of all of the change orders
issued during the course of the work resulted in a reduction in the foreign
currency cost of the tubewells constructed under contract equivalent to less
than 0. 6 per cent of their total cost and an even lesser increase in the local
currency portion of that cost. Tables contained in Appendix list the
pertinent matters embodied in each change order under both contracts and
the respective modifications in unit costs. In addition to the above change
orders, a total of five separate work orders were issued to the Contractor
during the course of the work, four of which pertained to construction under
Contracts Nos. 1 and 2. These work orders covered additions to the work
not contemplated under the original contract, such as the installation of rock
guards at the ends of the discharge pipes and the installation of additional
impellers on certain tubewells. These work orders are also summarized
in Appendix







- 33 -


CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION


General

The work covered under this section consists of that pertaining to
the 1014 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith International, S.A. under
the two contracts designated as Contract No. 1 and No. 2. Under the terms
of these contracts of which the tender documents and specifications were a
part, the Contractor was required to designate a banking authority acceptable
to WAPDA and the DLF and to provide a Fidelity Bond to insure proper use
of the funds advanced for mobilization and the procurement of equipment.
The Contractor nominated the Chase Manhattan Bank of New York to be his
banking agents. The Fidelity Bond was provided by the American Surety
Company of New York. The prime letters of credit covering foreign currency
expenditures were opened under DLF letters of commitment Nos. 391-8
and 391-16 on September 2, 1959 and December 18, 1959 for Contracts
Nos. 1 and 2 respectively, and firm purchase orders for construction equip-
ment and materials were placed by the Contractor shortly thereafter.

During the course of the work, a number of change orders were
issued to the Contractor embodying a total of 22 changes under Contract No. 1
and sixteen changes under Contract No. 2. Some of these change orders
covered identical changes under each of the two contracts. Most of the
change orders pertain to relatively minor details of the tubewell construction
or modification of requirements relating to the equipment installed in the
tubewells, such as for example an increase in the height of the concrete
pedestal upon which the pump is supported, and a reduction in the depth of
pump setting and horsepower of the motors for certain installations. As
such most of the change orders involved very little or no adjustment in the
tender prices. In their sum total, the value of all of the change orders
issued during the course of the work resulted in a reduction in the foreign
currency cost of the tubewells constructed under contract equivalent to less
than 0. 6 per cent of their total cost and an even lesser increase in the local
currency portion of that cost. Tables contained in Appendix list the
pertinent matters embodied in each change order under both contracts and
the respective modifications in unit costs. In addition to the above change
orders, a total of five separate work orders were issued to the Contractor
during the course of the work, four of which pertained to construction under
Contracts Nos. 1 and 2. These work orders covered additions to the work
not contemplated under the original contract, such as the installation of rock
guards at the ends of the discharge pipes and the installation of additional
impellers on certain tubewells. These work orders are also summarized
in Appendix







- 34 -


Organization and Plant

The Contractor's organization was made up of a number of expatriate
personnel in administrative and supervisory functions and a much larger
number of locally employed Pakistani personnel. During the period when
construction was at its maximum tempo extending generally from mid-1960
to mid-1961, the Contractor's organization was composed of almost 900
Pakistani personnel and 45 expatriates. These numbers represent the maxi-
mum working forces employed at any one time, the total number of personnel
employed during the course of the work being, of course, much greater
because of fluctuating labor requirements, turnovers, resignations, and
discharges. Table No. 10 shows a summary of personnel employed by the
Contractor during the period of peak construction activity. It may be noted
that personnel employed directly on construction operations represented
63 per cent of the total work force and administrative and support functions
the remaining 37 per cent. Nationality wise, 95 per cent of the total force
was composed of Pakistani personnel.

The Contractor elected to establish a single base camp for all of
his operations at a site 51 miles west of Lahore and 2-1/2 miles east of
the village of Sukheki on the Sheikhupura-Sargodha Road. A Rawalpindi firm
of British architects prepared plans for the camp and on 21 November 1959
a local contractor commenced construction. This base camp, commonly
known as the "Smith Camp, is bisected by the main road. The main office,
the supervisory mess hall and the expatriate residential area are on the south
side of the road. The workshop, the warehouse and storage area, and the
National quarters are located on the north side of the road. Figure 10 is
a plan of the camp showing the layout of the principal buildings. Table 11
shows a summary of the cost of construction of the camp facilities, exclusive
of the cost of land, equipment and furnishings.

The base workshop was responsible for the assembly, repair and
maintenance of all construction equipment and accessories, for the fabrication
of items used in tubewell construction, such as reducing cones and motor
control support brackets, for the manufacture and fabrication of small tools
and accessories, for the driving staff and their motor vehicles, and for the
maintenance of camp area machinery. .The base workshop was divided into
14 sections: machine shop, repair shops, welding shop, powerhouse, slotting
plants, tire shop, battery shop, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, service
ramp and vehicle bays, paint shop, fuel station, parts and tools store, and
works office. The first work was done in the workshop in December 1959, and
consisted of the assembly of equipment. The workshops, as such, were
organized and went into operation 1 February 1960. Work was done generally
on a 3 shift basis until May 1961, when most of the sections were reduced to
1 shift per day. Between February and June 1960, 116 items of equipment





- -55-


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 10
Summary of Personnel Employed by
Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S. A.)



Percent of
Expatriate Pakistani Total Total

Administration and Related Functions:
General administration 4 7 11 1,2
Accounting 2 17 19 2.1
Engineering 2 13 15 1.7
Subtotal 8 37 45 5.0

Construction Operations:
Gravel production
(at Campbellpur) 1 31 32 3.6
Pipe slotting
(at Sukheki shops) 2 26 28 3.1
Site preparation 1 138 139 15.6
Tubewell drilling 14 149 163 18.3
Electric logging 2 4 6 0.7
Developing and testing 3 43 46 5.2
Concrete slabs and pedestals 2 42 44 4.9
Installation of equipment
and testing 5 98 103 11.6


Subtotal

Support Operations:
Workshops
Motor pool
Warehouse and stores
Camp operation
Security
Subtotal

Total
(Percent of total personnel)


30 531 561 63.0


3 120 123 13.8
0 24 24 2.7
1 22 23 2.6
3 79 82 9.2
0 33 33 3,7
7 278 285 32.0

45 846 891 100.0
(5.0) (95.0) (100.0)




FIGURE 10


@Compound wall


Lahore-SOrqodh y


Lahore 5! miles----


O Storage---L

L --'--J -

,"MessHo/a 0 Hl ff


"f -I First aid
room --------


Swimming pool


-------. .. .- -----Kitchen(D
SMaorried Quarters Married Quarters -
SBachelors Quarters


Compound wall-'" 650 0 Laundry--'' '-Storage


5o 0 so 100
SCALE OF FEET


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
T/PTON AND KALMBACH,INC.-ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB


CONTRACTOR'S CAMP


-
Sukheki miles


oi

LI
0i


..


Lahore-S -r odha Hi hwo Lahore 5! mil- -- -





-356-


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 11
Estimated Construction Cost of Base Camp
provided by Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S.A.)
near Sukheki
(See Figure No. 10 for location of facilities listed below)


Feature


Ref. No

Area A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12


Area B
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21


Approximate Cost
(rupees)


47,091
1,200
5, 344
45, 533
216,037
37,946
39, 854
3, 601
30,373
12, 586
6,435
10,426
456, 526


41, 275
31,908
19, 279
13,199
3,356
3, 250
57,214
18,814
20, 819
209, 114
20,118


Total Cost


685,658


Above costs are for buildings only and do not include costs
of equipment and furnishings nor cost of land and the tubewell
for water supply.


(south side of highway) 3.1 acres
Offices and storage facilities
Car shelter
First aid room
Bachelor quarters (20 units)
Married quarters (19 units)
Project Manager's quarters and guest house
Mess hall, kitchen and cold storage
Laundry
Recreation hall and school room
Swimming pool
Water tank
Compound wall
Subtotal

(north side of highway) 7.2 acres
Warehouse, machine and repair shops, fuel depot
Power plant and storage
Pipe slotting plants (3)
Welding shop
Vehicle wash rack
Electric shop and security office
Living quarters (45 units)
Mess hall, kitchen and clubhouse
Compound wall
Subtotal
Architects' fee


.





- 37-


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 12
Principal Items of Construction Equipment
Used by Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S. A.)


Quantity
( 1)


Equipment
(2)


7 Reverse rotary drilling rigs
1 Rotary drill, truck mounted
2 Earth augers with 9" heads

)2 Wheel tractors, diesel
6 Crawler tractors, diesel,.with
blade
2 Crawler tractors, diesel.with
shovel
3 Wheel tractors, diesel, with
loader

;5 Trailers, 4 wheel, 5 ton
:9 Trailers, 4 wheel, 6 ton
2 Trailers, 4 wheel, 7 ton

2 Electric logging unit, diesel-
electric
1 Electric logging unit
2 Pipe slotting machines, 12 spindles
1 Pipe slotting machine, 16 spindles
1 Gravel screening and washing
plant
4 Concrete mixers
5 Pump setting rigs, truck mounted
4 Test pumps, diesel driven,
1550 gpm
5 Test pumps, diesel driven,
2120 gpm
3 Test pumps, diesel driven,
2820 gpm
3 Centrifugal pumps, diesel
powered

1 Centrifugal pump, electric
motor driven
1 Air Compressor
6 Generators, 1. 5 kw, 250 v
8 Generator, 37. 5 kw, 440 v,
diesel powered


Manufacture
(3)


"Winter Weiss", model RV-6
"Failing", model 150055
"Truco"

International B-450

International BTD-6

International BTD-6

International B-275


Bunger, model BU6.
Bunger, model BU6.
Bunger,


Failing, model LM-D-3P
Widco
Allen, model B
Allen

Parker 12. 5 tons/hr.
Worthington, model 3- NST
Truco, model THD-B-55

Worthington, model 12H110E2

Worthington, model 12HH165E2

Worthington, model 12HH200E2

Auto Diesel, model ADP 3 x 4
and 4 x 4

Auto Diesel
Holman, model 13-D
PAZ

Auto Diesel, model ADD-57-A




FIGURE I


5 0 25
.5.. a 2 RECLAMATION SCHEME AREAS
SCALE OF MILES I- Pindi Bhaffian 8- Sangla Hill
2- Chichoki Mallian 9- Beranwala
3- Chuharkana lo- Harse Sheikh


W.A.RD.A. Program


Constructed by
Irrigation Department

Future Construction


4- Jaranwala II- Hafizabad
5- Shahkot 12- Shadman
6- Zafarwal 13- Lalian
7- Khangah Dogran


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACHINC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB
ORIGINAL PROJECT AREA


I







WEST
WATER AND POWER
GROUND WATER A


SALINITY CONTROL AND
TIPTON AND KALI



El....__- ..-..

S.-Top of pedestal

El.--------------
': DEPTH LOG "'Pump house floor


M1 0:0 p
S. Doat
Cana
20
0 2Villc
w( 30.
SElec
> .. Cons
o 40 Dril
05
/ 50.

60
C
0 -;:. 1
C ) ;


80--

90


T
100--

K^~f 1 107

I120

S130

140--
11111o
II1 11 11

i A11I 50--


I 60




170



II I0



Illi I
I 2 210

ii III I 220.

112-30--

S240--


250--

260

270

280

290

300

310

320

I330

340

3505

----Borehole


'


:j "
gpd
'
O b










'

r









-


r PAKISTAN
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
ND RECLAMATION DIVISION

RECLAMATION PROJECT NO. I
MBACH INC.- ENGINEERS


FIGURES SHOWN ARE FOR
A TYPICAL TUBEWELL


b R.....R.ech.n. .............. Scheme Area ..Hfz.bad ..
al System. H fi.zabad. Di.st.ry... Tubewell No.... HFD. ....
age.. Mu.d.hin Wqla.......... Square/Killa... .08./. ....
;s/Culturable Commanded Area............ ......... Acres
trification Circuit........ !9.5.......
;tructed by ....... SMITH NT., S.A.. ......... ..
ling method .....R.R9.o.i y ...........................

LEGEND

I:Sd;: Sand IIl Clay

I stl Silt IKao Kankar

SBlank Casing III III III Screen or Slotted


TUBEWELL


DIAMETER
INCHES


Borehole
Housing Casing
Reducer
Blank Casing
Slotted Casing (a)
Brass Screen (b)


22
14


10
10
o


DEPTH (OR
LENGTH) FEET

244
80
1 -J-


Casing


REFERENCE
DATUM

Ground level
Pedestal top


50.5
114
0


I" 5"
(a) Slots T- x 2-8 30 Sq. in. per lin. ft.
(b) .. ................... ....... ......... -...-

EQUIPMENT


PUMP: MOTOR:
Make.....W hon9ton. _C. rP:.......... Make. .. -.. S.E.I.e.cic..
Capacity.... 2.5... cusecs..' ...gpm* Hp.......... .... ...
Head.......... ..feet" Rpm ...... ..... ..
Stages............no. Volts..... 4 0.... ..
Impeller dia...8....inches Amps...... ...............
Suction pipe...9...feet Cycles......5... ..
Lubrication .... ..L .... .. ........ Model No..3 4 ....
Model No.....'.2..-..35. ............ Serial No...? .6.2.55 ...
Serial No.....YTP.4!?? ............. MOTOR CONTROL:
COLUMN PIPE: Make...A!len Bradley ........
Diameter......8.... inches Model No...... Nem......
Length.......6... ....feet Size motor rating...?5.H.P.
Shaft diameterJ:.5...inches
I: Design characteristics of pump. See test data
for number of stages installed and performance


TEST DATA
Depth measurement from


Date
Depth water table (feet)
Pump stages installed
Drawdown (feet)
Discharge (cusecs)
Specific capacity (gpm/ft.)
Conductivity (micromhos)
Volts
Amps
Cycles
Rpm
Kilowatts
Power factor


Values in first column obtained


ground level


10-60
8.60

8.87
2.7
136
1080
400
18.9
50
1465
10.7
0.82


from acceptance test


TUBEWELL NO. HFD-118C


diameter


; 4 MR i Isa r -


0% As m m A & m -w- %




FIGURE 8
-I


I ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
I. Negotiation of the Loan Agreement with DLF
(a) Original Letters of Commitments
(b) Revisions to Letters of Commitments
2. Staffing of Administrative Organization of WAPDA
3. Services of Supervisory Engineer
(a) Recruitment of Foreign Specialists
(b) Recruitment of National Staff.
(c) Review and Appraisal of Project
(d) Supervision of Construction
(e) Preparation and Review of Project Completion Report
4. Procurement of offices,engineering and transportation facility
II TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION BY WAPDA
1. Procurement of construction equipment and supplies
2. Procurement of pipe casing
3. Procurement of pumps, motors and motor controls
4. Drill tubewells,including setting casing,shrouding and developer
5. Installation of pumps and motors
6. Contract No. 3 (H.T. Smith International -S.A.)
7. Contract No. 4 (H.T. Smith International- S.A.)
8. Contract No. 5 (H.T. Smith International S.A.)
Ml TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION BY CONTRACT
I. Prequalification of Contractors
2. Preparation of construction specifications
3. Calling for tenders
4. Contract No. I (H.T. Smith International S.A.)
5. Contract No. 2 (H.T. Smith International S.A.)


1959 19601 1961 1 1962
J F M A M IJ IJ tA IS 10 N IDIJ F I M I A IM 11 NI DIIJ IF M Ih IM IS 0 N D J F M A M I J A S 0 N D


m -mlo*


*i.g.g.g.g.g.g.g.i.g.


MMMII MElEE EMEEhE Eu.. EE~****** U. EU EU


*.fl.~flfl. I.E. U *mmuuu EU EU uuumu mum mm mm m

Eu EMMEEMEE El flU U UUUEUU UE Em *E~E EU HUE EU EU


EIhI .~hhh~~ IhElIin I In In1inI I


mmmnI i mm m


... .


-Original Target Completion
Date -30June 961.


Actual Progress
Scheduled Progress


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH,INC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB
TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION
PROGRAM


, I, .I., II I, ,I,


I I I


L. r I I I I I I I I I~rlrl I I JI I


I I I rrlrl' I I I 1 'I I I I ill I r I I I I' I i I It


rl -'''' '' '''


I I I I I I I I I


I00i


mmm


INN m


II




FIGURE 9


1959 1960 1961 1962
J2 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D


Note: Progress does not include
installation of pumping
equipment _
"------------------ C---------------
1a50

Combined -~ c
Progress- i o _
00 ----------------
/ ig
SQ I-
l -I ,.... -

Contract ...
5oo, tProgress. : .,_ .,
/00 --
S. I
WAPDA / .* I o
Progress- ---I
i i-j.. ..... .
I I\ I i
TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS
(INCLUDES DRILLING ,CONSTRUCTION, DEVELOPING AND TESTING)
2000


21500 ---- ----------------------------------------------------------------
C -

1500, ii i : a)





o500-------------- ------------ -- 0 ___ |
o Combined
1


1000 -- A
Contract
Progress .
......I I I I 2 ......-'-T


..u.---.- L- ---L -


C -1 + -- -4 4 4 -- + 4 .- -


F M AIM J JI A S O N D J


M A M J J


N D


F M A M JIJ


A S O N ID


I W I APD I I I


WAPDA
Progress--


IFM A M J


1959 1960 1961 1962


TUBEWELL COMPLETION
(INCLUDES INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT BUT EXCLUDES


A S 0 N D


PUMP HOUSE)


LEGEND

------- Contract Progress
................. W APDA Progress
SCombined Progress



NOTE

*'Does not include 188 tubewells completed in
Scheme Areas 1,2,3 and 4,or 7 WASID
tubewells in other Scheme Areas. Includes
only work completed through 30 November
1962.


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT T NO. I
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB
TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION
PROGRESS


i i i i i i i I i


I I I I I I T I v


-1I











N



-C -


LEGEND


Cnncl, Branco, Distributary and Minor


----- Drain


Roads


- Railway


"I Towns and Villages


Tubewell


- -- Water Quality, Conductivity, Micromhos @ 25 C.


WEST PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I

PROJECT AREA MAP

ORAWN.....Q A.... PPROVED....... ..........
TRACED.... ... TPT A K MANCH, INC.
CHECKED D.K.S. K. APPROVED............. ..... .....
-O-Sc ----V-- O N S A T TK---- I NVE''V ,c O A N O V. IP.D A
DESCRIPTIONS DATE BY DENVER, COLORADO NOVEMBER,1962 C I- 14
REVISIONS I r, 37 1 i-i*


PLATE I















U 1.0
3.0 .
d so / 97o 4





roty KHURRIANWALA a o3-o aAM


as 2 A loss as2 S1,
Din






I.. 111o5245
2oa









5 104~o)5
so at SH H
4. em *










E sU R I N -r as*2 o.
3 o





















2-0*
-- A
Llooo























a o
23- 0 ro az* / *

2~~~~~~~ o ea- MNWL o
30 T0 s


























u 'b

2 52 To *0
o40 w 24 a oo i1.
1917 .5I~n 3
,,'o o. 4'B




























T5- 2.5tr At
201-A *112;
jl_







































SCALF O(AILES
'T 5 .1 o
21rrno it I211



40 8\_


T- t z* 75
ypile I33 T.3 -35 3 r
o T 5


Pf 25 55n

-T-o-25 140A l


317 4.00

25 T


2. 140Pi 40

,., J61 61
4.0 4.0 To




~24.


L"2319 2260
3. ~ T -5 2I

-4 oI

912
05 *21-
242-A
T Th 2








SC LE OFMI ES L ---- ---


so, 5
















73A 40



1.12o -0-

o 00
74


tse "0

13.


(14_ 5
30



300


6"s










254-




254-

--A-
3I


LEGEND


Canals, Distributaries and M

- -- ~ Drains

Main Roads

=== ====Secondary Roads

Railways


los


Towns and Villages

Scheme Area Boundary

Tubewell, ( )

Substation


66KV Transmission Linet

'o'E /" IIKV Distribution Circuit an(

------ 400 Volt Service Lines














AS CONST


WEST PAKISTAN WA
DEVELOPMENT
TIPTON AND KALMBACH
SALINITY CONTROL A
PROJECT
TUBEWELL LO
SCHEME AREA NO.
NO. 5-SHA


2 7 S co4NsrO NTED o1-3062
A ONEDAELD B
NO1DESCRIPTIONI DATE 2-4
REVIVONw


DRAWN.... ..: W.
.RAwn.. ..... .... APPROVED..
TRACED.... ..
CHECKED.. ........I APPROVED..

TK37 DENVER,COLORADO


i


INDEX MAP


i


Pft IlbI UI



























911 672 65

So. 062 o.



060


o. 051
o.

43
go.


go,

0 78
lo. 076

oo o
ow"
125
13.
.4
0 io
lo
o-

2ft
o 104 lo

232
7T
loo/l 150 1.o, 227
lo 'i-5
106
*117 204 Sao..
l56 JARANWALA lw -
TA AR D-1 205
1 4 F5-
238
e14 411, 136 ,,,2o 07 H10H LEVEL C'"'EL IS ..o
,15
Ir --e- R-6 141
20 2O 1 251 7.3
7 0 0-9
--o 207
12 ./1 -11, &14 7T.
242
2.o T-5 4.o

S13
44 .5TO

I A. 212 51 .26
2.5 o 3.5 r
15 S
-j
2-.5 47 41 L
253 To o 376
*247 T-5 Ell. -
T.T 4.1
211.
i-.
21 5 269 4.0 0260
114 L. 2..
Fo
o5 3.1
-7
2.o
go 2o. 0 ...
'o =0 -5

940 30 -NANKANA
3.0 36 o. 0 2 0 SAHIB
#
o 2 15 *-..-o
40 o. 4.4 2. 4.o
2. 3.o -2-0 T.-o

Oo4 -A o.o 41 7
05. 2. -T--- 1 273 2.0 *6
T T
4.0 To
T -I F1.4
*52 93 2,0 218 4.0 329 A' 14.
TF -3-o -T.-o o 15
o27 e
o-5 3,
A74
47 044 To 3.0 i3
.5 o.o
T-0
It i.5
o.o 3ole,
q KF M
o44 43 2. 2 o 3.0
0. 04. 2.o i
3.0 03oz 4.1
goo oo. wo. 0 2.o T-o P, 0, .0
o4o TT i -I- a 1
7- 4.0
iZ
o.o
.13 Flo 4.0

041 34o if 2.5 ... E.,ot ;I
,,g 3.5
TO-11
I.o -- se
4o o4l L-E 2.6
0 340 .5
-ra- 11 *-A 2.
o4. L47 2.0 _.A
go 314 Of
3. o.. 102
3.0
31o To
T-0
30 47-
.5
# To Q.,
o.o Ln
o5oA a i / 30
TY 3 5 350 o.0
104

a 5 1137)



2

SCALE OF MILES

J


4.0
*362
47


1 o 3 i-o
760




F-I


14 35
2.o
4-o los
FF
o
T.-o o
-4-o o

KOM-
1 0


.2. -LO-
T-5 "RaURTON (103) L2A
2.0

11
TO


4
21
er-O
30
-F.T
2.0
*2. o F51
50 17 To-
_u 10
0

144
30

142


149 _i_
14"
5



170
T-0 2.5
_L7

10 4.0


4R Lg
.5



03.0


LEGE


-- Canals, Distr

------ Drains


Main Roads

Secondary I

Railways

Towns and

Scheme Are


'' Tubewell; (-


Substation

66KV Transn

106E -/ IKV Distrib


------- 400 Volt S

















AS


WEST

TIPTOE

SALINITY


TUBi

SCHEME
A


2,0437A6ONTRcrD1-0-2 )t
2 ADDiED rUSWEL 3e0 RK8



REVISION


TRAEcD0 ..~..



TK37


I


INDEX M

















// VANIKE






JALALPUR NAU



3no .o I











3oo
5-1 -A1.* -o








? PIN I BH TTIAN2-.o
'e 52-. *25**. 0











se \ .o o P oo04.0
20 2-5 0 o5so


0o a 4o










170 4ooo

1- s.o o'as.. .
T.ooT To io-a -oo4-5
0 1.o5 6 3 mAg2

o AI 5. 4.*Ie as o M L oa o nns aso
zo -5.o o1

-oo o5. -o n oeaI














g ooHAFIZABAD/ "
Tc so 2.0 o
146-A 12-A

o 13"ss 2.os a ~ r ^

.-A 3.o T. 130 44 as* *







TO142.5 7 3.0i2'o1 -i3.5





o 5o








o o a/* 2 4







oe 2o .5-


ix

3 0 '03 1 0
25











4D(


L


Canals

-- Drainr

Main

.--.===-. Second

Railwc

STowns

Scheme
o Tubew
Subsi

66KV

106 40EIKV

-- --------400


2 3


SCALE IF MILES


2 AS CONSTRUCTED 11-30-62 6)4
S DAP F AD1-25-60 RK B.
O. DESCRIPTION DATE BY
REVISION


I0


SA




SCi

DRAWN..
TRACED.
CHECKED

TK31


INDE.





wo/


INIOT






-LO-A
4.5
llo HARSE SHEIKH



16

5
2.o 5 36 0.5
5o 10-A 7 3.0
3-7
3o


V7
2.o

o
2 o 14 T-5
4-
3.0 06


KOT
0- 3 T Z-5 47.- 0 NIKK
4.5 T.-o 50
2.0

-A 0
.3 5 -i-.o 4.o
WALA(ANWA" _2 5- 4.0 6- 3-o
0 iT *10-
0 2.5
14.

AL Fo
33-A
25 4.o
5-
5-
4-0- 3.
-To 15
579
1.5
-3-.5 42-A 4-0
045
To -A 400
2-o 42 O-A
40 o
4.0 3.0 o
.4
I-A
3.o -20
-3-o 3.5 1
0 40




le- 24:A 15
.o
o

7. .4


.0
40
11 2.5

909
T-5
0 -2-o 77 T-0 SL
3 0
07.
47o
a 5 0
-3-5
T-5 070 MARH
0 BALOCHAN',
71
100 To
7
2 5 4-
o 6i
0 _17



-A

- SANGL





IALLPUR








0
SCALE OF MILES



rO L LLPUR


AS CONSTRUCTED 11-30-62 f9A
DESCRIPTION DATE IBY


-- 400 Volt Service Lines















AS CONSTRUCTED


WEST PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC. ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
TUBEWELL LOCATION MAP

SCHEME AREA NO. I PINDI BHATTIAN,

NO. 9-BERANWALA, NO. I1-HA0t E HEIKH


DRAWN..
TRACED.
CHECKED.


..... APPROVED...


D. K.S APPROVED .... .. ...... .... .............


I.EI I N i1 1r"iI I I %'-.


PLATE V


TK37 I DENVERCOLORADO NOVEMBER,1959 I cl-I


INDEX MAP
-K ----- Drains- a







INDEX MAP









LEGEND


Canals, Distributaries and Minors

Drains

Main Roads


0 -

A"o




(Off /


Secondary Roads

Railways

Towns and Villages

Scheme Area Boundary

Tubewell; ( )

Substation

66KV Transmission Lines

IKV Distribution Circuit and Designation


TO LYAI




PLATE M


o*,lo
aa






ine 0 9 *






L4 zo 3 0
35. so .1 o

soo
2* 2 -o a --




,













lsT





4102 201

so s
.U~







o o 20
S09-A O M L
*5 4.



22s sow- 12 s.5 .. 3.
\1 s.0 35 s.
r r~o .o
% 2 -424 12
-4.6 L" _06 -9144
,.6- Is
2 .1 4
"*9 ssT-0 I- __

22.. 1)Is, ...


-6-0 1 -To L7 4
4 5 21 2
T-0160L
r1L50
,17
i/ \/ I BL I~/ "179


22 s
30 Is.



.L. 4 2.1 2.
KHRRANAA 5 .
o ,,W


s ~20s W3,


tao
SCAL OF ILE






I~j


to


Canals,D

---.-.-- Drains


0 T TT

IIo


INDEX MAP


S CONSPRFCI ED T 30 6

NO1DESCRIPTION I DTE BY
REVISION


Distributaries and Minors


Main Roads

Secondary Roads

Railways

Towns and Villages

Scheme Area Boundary

Tubewell; ( )

Substation

66Kv Transmission Lines

11KV Distribution Circuit and Designation

400 Volt Service Lines


AS CONSTRUCTED


WEST PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC. ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
TUBEWELL LOCATION MAP

SCHEME AREA NO.8 SANGLA Hi

DRAWN. ..... APPROVED.... .
TRACED. .F M.r TIPT aiACH, INi
CHECKED.. K ... APPROVED.. ..... .......

TK37 DENVER,COLORADO NOVEMBER,19591 Cl


LEGEND




PLATE vL


INDEX MAP


LEGEND


Canals, Distributareis and Minors
Drains

Main Roads
Secondary Roads
Railways
Towns and Villages
Scheme Area Boundary
Tubewell; (N )
Substation

66KV Transmission Lines
IIKV Distribution Circuit and Designation
400 Volt Service Lines


AS CONSTRUCTED


SCALE OF MILES
SCALE OF MILES


3 AS CONSTRUCTED 1l-30-I J
EI NTTo AA -A15 3-7-60 IR.KB.
BEWEL LOCATED-I
I ASER IELD DATA --R .
NO. DESCRIPTION DATE BY
REVISION


WEST PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH. INC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
TUBEWELL LOCATION MAP

SCHEME AREA NO.7 -KHANGAH DOGRAN


DAWN... APPROVED....
TRACED.. ..:H. TPTU ACH,
CHECKED.. ...: APPROVED.......... ..... ................
.W.A.APD.A.


I TK37l ER.c


CI-6


==== ==






os~




IosE /
-* -


pr




l PLATE ZInm


INDEX MAP


LEGEND

- Canals, Distributaries and Minors
Drains
Main Roads
== Secondary Roads
Railways
Towns and Villages
Scheme Area Boundary
,.. Tubewell, ( )
Ao' Substation
66KV Transmission Lines
-i6E / IIKV Distribution Circuit and Designation
-400 Volt Service Lines


2 AS CONSTRUCTED 11-30-62
TUBE WELLS LOCATED
SAPER ELO AT 216-60 R.KB..
NO DESCRIPTION DATE BY
REnV In


AS CONSTRUCTED

WEST PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC. -ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. I
TUBEWELL LOCATION MAP
SCHEME AREA NO. 2 -CHICHOKI MALLIAN,
NO.12 SHADM ,/
DRAWN... R.SH APPROVED
TRACED.....R S. H TIPTAI A AfKM CH. INC.
CHECKED..D.. APPROVED ..... W .P D. .

TK37 DENVER,COLORADO NOVEMBER,1959 Cl-2


i I iTt vizilviv I 1 11 I








Table No. 12 (Cont'd.)


Quantity
(1)
1

3
1
1
2


Equipment
(2)
Generator, 60. 0 kw, 440 v,
diesel powered
Welding machines, 150 amp.
Welding machines, 200 amp.
Welding machines, 300 amp.
Motor analyzers

Dump trucks, 5 ton, diesel
Oil field trucks, 5 ton, diesel
Flatbed trucks, 5 ton, diesel
Trucks (for pump setting rigs),
diesel
Pickups, 1 ton, diesel
Pickups, 3/4 ton, diesel
Jeeps, gasoline
Bus, diesel
Sedans


Manufacture
(3)

Auto Diesel, model ADD-87-A
Lincoln
Lincoln
Lincoln
Westinghouse, Type TA

Leyland, model ECO2/2R
Leyland, model ECO2/4R
Bedford, model J-5

Bedford, model J-2-LC7
Bedford, model J-1
Land Rover
Willys Jeep, model CJ-5
Bedford, model CAV5
Various







- 39 -


were received, assembled, serviced, and put into operation. All major
equipment idled by the monsoon during July, August and part of September
of 1960 were given major overhauls. The workshops also carried out
extensive overhaul, modification and renovation of construction equipment
upon completion of the contracts.

The Contractor elected to procure all new construction equipment
for carrying out his work. A summary of the numbers, types, and manu-
facture of principal items of construction equipment utilized by the Contractor
is indicated in Table No. 12. It may be noted that the Contractor utilized
equipment manufactured in several countries. He selected diesel engines for
essentially all of the powered equipment for reasons of economy as well as to
minimize fuel supply problems. A later section summarizes the general
suitability and performance record of the principal equipment utilized by the
Contractor.

On the night of 30 April 1961 a fire broke out in the machine shop
adjacent to the warehouse used for storage of spare parts, and for the storage
of some equipment items for tubewell construction. The fire soon spread
from the machine shop to the warehouse. The reed matting material of the
roof, the roof trusses, and the contents of the warehouse were all reduced
to rubble and ashes. All warehouse records were destroyed. The loss and
damage to the contents of the shops and warehouse was estimated at $ 102, 000.
The loss of the buildings and one Land Rover which was destroyed, was
estimated at Rs. 41,963.


Permanent Equipment

Under the terms of Contracts Nos. 1 and 2 the Contractor was called
upon to procure all permanent equipment to be installed in the tubewells in
conformity with the requirements of the technical specifications. The manu-
facturers and sources of principal items of permanent equipment and materials
installed in the tubewells constructed under contract are:

Equipment Source

Pumps Worthington Corporation,
Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.

Motors U.S. Electrical Motors, Inc.
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Motor Controls Allen-Bradley Co., Inc.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Steel Pipe Dalmine Sp. A., Milan, Italy and
Casing Stewart and Lloyds, Glasgow, Scotland






- 40 -


The tubewell and pump housing casing were fabricated at the supplier's
plants in Italy and Scotland. The reducing cones connecting casing of different
diameters were fabricated at the Contractor's base shop, where the slotting
of the tubewell casing was also carried out. The characteristics of each unit
of equipment installed in each tubewell are recorded on the individual Tubewell
Data Sheets.


Construction Methods

All of the tubewells constructed by the Contractor were drilled by
reverse circulation drilling methods, using a bit with a diameter of 22 inches.
The use of drilling mud was expressly forbidden. In addition to the log
obtained by taking samples continuous electric logs were run in most of the
bore holes to obtain self-potential (spontaneous potential or S.P.), and
resistivity curves. Upon completion of the electric log, 10-3/4 inch blank
and slotted well casing was run into the hole as indicated on the casing
schedule prepared by the inspector. After the scheduled amount of 10-3/4
inch casing was run, pump housing casing of 14 inch diameter in the case of
2.0 to 3.0 cusec tubewells, and 16 inch diameter in the case of 3.5 to 5.0
cusec tubewells, was attached to the 10-3/4 inch casing by use of a reducing
cone, and run into the hole. When the well was cased as scheduled, the
annular space between the formation and the casing was shrouded with gravel.
Gravel was placed up to the level of the reducing cone at which time the
determination of the verticality of the pump housing casing was made.
Verticality was determined by lowering a round plumb with a diameter 1/2
inch less than the inside diameter of the housing pipe. The plumb was
centered in the housing pipe and was lowered into the housing pipe in 10 foot
increments. The deflection, if any, of the wire suspending the plumb was
measured and the direction of deflection noted. By simple proportion the
deviation of the housing pipe from the vertical could thus be obtained. When
it was ascertained that the housing pipe was vertical and plumb to within
specification tolerances, gravelling was completed to the surface. A final
verticality check was then made. The tubewell was then bailed to consolidate
the gravel shroud. This completed the construction of the tubewell.

The tubewell was next developed and tested. A test pump capable of
pumping at a rate of at least 135 per cent of design capacity, and preferably
150 per cent of design capacity, was installed in the tubewell. The Contractor
then step-developed the tubewell by surging and backwashing until it would
efficiently pump clear water which contained less than 30 parts per million
(ppm) of sand 10 minutes after the start of the sand test and would not
increase in specific capacity more than 10 per cent in a 4 hour period, all
the while pumping at 135 per cent of design capacity for wells up to a capacity
of 3.5 cusecs, and 125 per cent of capacity for tubewells of 4.0 cusec capacity
and greater. When these criteria were met the tubewell was tested.







-41


The tubewell was allowed to stand idle until the water level had
stabilized and a static water level had been established. The tubewell was
then pumped for a period of 1 hour, during which time water level measure-
ments, discharge measurements, and sand content determinations were made.
From the water level and discharge measurements a specific capacity was
established. The tubewell was then developed for a period of 4 hours by
surging and backwashing. Following this, pumping was stopped and the water
level was again allowed to stabilize. A pumping period of 1 hour at 125 -
135 per cent of capacity then followed, during which sand samples were taken
at 3, 5 and 10 minutes, and every 10 minutes thereafter. Water level measure-
ments were also taken during this period. This 1 hour period constituted
the qualifying sand test. A second specific capacity was obtained from data
collected during this 1 hour period. This specific capacity, when compared
with the previously obtained specific capacity, indicated whether or not the
specific capacity had increased more than 10 per cent during a 4 hour period.
Pumping was again stopped and the water level in the tubewell was allowed
to stabilize. The tubewell was then step-tested in increments of 25 per cent
of capacity starting at 25 per cent and ending at 125-135 per cent. The tube-
well was pumped for 30 minutes at each increment. At the end of the 30
minutes of the 125-135 per cent step, a 7-1/2 hour period of pumping at the
125-135 per cent rate was started. When this was completed, the testing was
considered complete.

Following development and testing, a concrete pedestal and slab
were constructed. Generally, the pedestal was constructed prior to the slab,
but under certain circumstances, the Contractor constructed the floor first.
The concrete was poured and then cured for a period of 7 days. The motor
control support brackets were imbedded in the slab and placed in position at
the time of slab construction.

After the concrete pedestal and slab had cured for at least 10 days,
the permanent pumping equipment was installed. The tubewell was first
sounded and if there was more than 4 feet of material in the casing, the well
was bailed. Also if there was any foreign matter floating on the water, it
was removed.

Following installation of the pump, the wiring and the motor control
were installed. The tubewell was then ready for the 4 hour equipment per-
formance test. A generator was then brought to the site and the equipment
given a 4 hour running test. During this time hydraulic and electrical measure-
ments were taken to ascertain the performance of the tubewell and the equipment.
Upon completion of the equipment test the pump discharge head was grouted to
the pedestal top and the surrounding area cleaned up. The tubewell construction
performed by the Contractor was then complete and ready for the construction
of the pumphouse by WAPDA forces.







- 42 -


Construction Progress

Upon being awarded the second contract the Contractor prepared a
consolidated construction program which combined work under the two contracts
into one schedule of construction operations. This program envisioned that
preliminary preparations for construction, mobilization, and procurement of
construction equipment would require until the end of 1959, that tubewell
construction would begin in January 1960, and that all work would be com-
pleted by 7 July 1961, the completion date established under both contracts.

The Contractor's Project Manager arrived in Pakistan during the
first week in October 1959 and a temporary office was established at Faletti's
Hotel in Lahore. The Project Manager immediately undertook the task of
registration of the Company in Pakistan; establishment of banking facilities
for the Company; establishing liaison with WAPDA and the Engineer; arranging
for the import of materials, equipment and other supplies; appointing of
customs clearing agents in Karachi, finalizing the site and location of gravel
supply; arranging for quota and priorities for railway wagons; arranging for
stockpiling materials; recruiting of local personnel, and other necessary
preliminary operations.

Construction equipment and materials began to arrive in Karachi at
the end of November 1959. There was difficulty in clearing the first shipments
through customs because the documentation on the goods was received after
the goods had arrived. This condition was remedied and little trouble with
customs clearance was had thereafter. The first shipment of construction
equipment arrived at Sukheki by rail from Karachi, near the end of December
1959. The shipment consisted of wheel tractors, tractor spare parts, pipe
perforating plant and saws, and front-end loaders. On 22 January 1960,
22 Land Rover pickups and 4 Leyland dump trucks, which had recently arrived
in Karachi, left there by road and arrived at the Sukheki base camp on
25 January. These trucks were loaded with equipment and supplies which
had also recently arrived in Pakistan. The gravel plant reached Campbellpur
on 23 January and erection of the plant on a previously constructed foundation
began immediately.

In the early part of January, the Project Manager moved from
Faletti's Hotel to the Sukheki base camp which thereafter was the headquarters
of all the Contractor's operations. By the end of January the Contractor had
23 expatriate employees in Pakistan, 19 of whom were living at the base camp.
At the end of January the Contractor had more than 100 Pakistani personnel
employed in this organization.

The Contractor's operations may, for convenience of discussion, be
subdivided into the following principal items of work:






- 43 -


Preparatory and Production Work
Gravel Processing and Transportation
Pipe Slotting
Site Preparation

Construction Operations
Drilling
Developing and Testing
Concreting
Equipment Installation, Testing, and Cleanup


Each of the above operations are described separately and followed
by a discussion of the overall construction progress attained.


Gravel Processing and Transportation

The gravel processing and transportation department was responsible
for the quarrying and processing of gravel at the gravel pit near Campbellpur,
and for the shipment of the finished gravel to the project area for use as
gravel shrouding material in tubewell construction. The "Parker" gravel
screening and washing plant was erected, ready for operation on 16 February
1960. The gravel plant operations were under the supervision of one expatriate
superintendent who directed a staff of 31 Pakistani employees. The plant
operated two 12 hour shifts per day. Twentytwo men were employed on the
day shift excavating, stockpiling, and processing raw materials, hauling
oversize and undersize waste material to the waste area, hauling processed
gravel to the railhead, and loading railway wagons. The night shift was
composed of 9 men who processed stockpiled gravel only.

The following support equipment was utilized at the gravel processing
plant:

4 Leyland dump trucks
2 Drott shovels mounted on crawler tractors
1 Wheel tractor
1 Bunger trailer


Two of the dump trucks were used to haul raw materials from the gravel
pit to the processing plant and to haul waste material to the disposal area. The
other 2 Leyland dump trucks were used to transport processed gravel from the
plant to the rail head, a round trip of 6 miles. The tractor drawn Bunger
trailer was used for hauling gravel as necessary, and for hauling water during
periods of water shortage. The dump trucks were later augmented, and
eventually replaced by the use of leased, owner operated and maintained, trucks.






- 44 -


The "Parker" gravel plant had a design output of 12.5 tons per hour
using 1000 gallons of wash water per ton, or a total of 100 tons per 8 hour
shift, using 100, 000 gallons of water. When the plant first went into operation
no water was available so the Contractor initially processed the gravel without
water. The production under these circumstances averaged 155 tons per day
using 2 shifts of 12 hours each. The gravel produced did not meet specifica-
tions, because of material passing the No. 16 screen. When this material
was received in the project area, the Contractor was asked to clean it so that
it met specifications. This he endeavored to do by hand screening and washing.
This proved to be unsatisfactory because of the removal of material which
would normally be retained on the No. 16 screen. It was then agreed that if
the shrouding material contained 10 per cent or less of material passing the
No. 16 screen and if the tubewell was pumped slowly during gravelling, thus
removing the fine material, the sub-standard gravel could be used. This
procedure was followed until a tubewell was constructed at the gravel proces-
sing plant. This tubewell yielded 3000 gallons per hour, which was insufficient
for direct operation of the gravel plant. A reservoir was then constructed and
water was pumped from the well to the reservoir and from the reservoir to
the gravel processing plant. Waste water from the plant was returned to the
reservoir. This worked well for 11 days, when the well went dry. Water
was then hauled to the reservoir in the Bunger trailer which allowed limited
use of water for gravel processing. In August 1960, construction of a new
tubewell began and in October was completed and tested. This tubewell pro-
duced 9500 gallons per hour and was connected directly to the processing
plant. Production immediately rose to 240 tons per day (two 12 hour shifts).
In November two 3/32 inch screens and one 1/16 inch screen were placed in
the lower deck of the plant at reduced angles. Using this arrangement and
the optimum amount of water the quality of the gravel at last met the speci-
fications.

Prior to the time the plant went into operation, some:4770 tons of gravel
was purchased from local suppliers in the Campbellpur area. From March
1960 onward local purchases of gravel were only infrequently necessary to
augment the output of the gravel plant.

The overall average production at the gravel plant was 45. 6 per cent
of its rated capacity, or 5.7 tons per hour. About 40 per cent of the material
processed was recovered. Of the 60 per cent waste, 27.8 per cent was over-
size and 72. 2 per cent was undersize.

It is interesting to note that the Contractor originally scheduled
production of 37,000 tons of gravel or an average of 37 tons per tubewell.
Assuming a unit weight of 110 pounds per cubic foot, this corresponds to an
average of 673 cubic feet of gravel per tubewell as compared to the theore-
tical average volume of the annular space between the casing and the forma-
tion, assuming an overdrill of 3 feet, of 542 cubic feet. Actually each well,






- 45 -


on the average, received 51 tons of gravel, or assuming the same unit
weight, 927 cubic feet of gravel. The overrun in gravel take is probably
due to the drilled hole being somewhat larger than the nominal bit diameter
and to "loosening" of the formation during drilling and its subsequent re-
consolidation during the gravel shrouding operation.

Transportation from the gravel production area to the project area
was by rail. The capacity of the wagons of the Pakistan Western Railway is
between 20 and 22 tons. Each tubewell required approximately 2.4 wagon
loads of gravel. During June 1960, 7930 tons of gravel were processed and
only 2478 tons shipped, due to a wagon shortage and traffic restrictions
imposed by the Pakistan Western Railway over certain sections of the line
between Campbellpur and the project area. During July of the same year,
shipments were delayed because of breaches in the rail line caused by floods
between Campbellpur and the project area.


Pipe Slotting

The pipe slotting department was responsible for the slotting of
10 inch pipe used in tubewell construction, and for the maintenance of the
pipe slotting machinery. The slots were machine cut, 1/16 inch wide, 2 to
3 inches long, and arranged in groups of 3 in alternating rows to provide
not less than 180 slots per foot of length and not less than 30 square inches of
opening per foot of length of casing.

All pipe slotting was done at the Sukheki base camp. Pipe slotting
operations were under the supervision of 2 expatriate employees who
supervised the work of 28 Pakistani personnel. The pipe slotting machines
normally operated three 8 hour shifts per day.

Three Alien pipe slotting machines were used in producing the
slotted pipe. Two of the machines had 12 spindles and the other was a 16
spindle machine. Slotting began on 23 January 1960 and was completed in
mid-March 1961. The combined production of the 3 machines averaged
15.5 feet per hour for the 13 months of operation. A total of 149, 640 feet
of pipe was slotted, of which approximately 137, 000 feet was used in tube-
wells constructed under Contracts Nos. 1 and 2.


Site Preparation

The site preparation department was responsible for the field
location of well sites furnished by the Authority; for preparation of access
roads; for digging of slush pits and ditches for water supply; for transport
of gravel and well casing to drilling locations; and for removal of surplus
pipe and gravel following completion of tubewell construction.






- 45 -


on the average, received 51 tons of gravel, or assuming the same unit
weight, 927 cubic feet of gravel. The overrun in gravel take is probably
due to the drilled hole being somewhat larger than the nominal bit diameter
and to "loosening" of the formation during drilling and its subsequent re-
consolidation during the gravel shrouding operation.

Transportation from the gravel production area to the project area
was by rail. The capacity of the wagons of the Pakistan Western Railway is
between 20 and 22 tons. Each tubewell required approximately 2.4 wagon
loads of gravel. During June 1960, 7930 tons of gravel were processed and
only 2478 tons shipped, due to a wagon shortage and traffic restrictions
imposed by the Pakistan Western Railway over certain sections of the line
between Campbellpur and the project area. During July of the same year,
shipments were delayed because of breaches in the rail line caused by floods
between Campbellpur and the project area.


Pipe Slotting

The pipe slotting department was responsible for the slotting of
10 inch pipe used in tubewell construction, and for the maintenance of the
pipe slotting machinery. The slots were machine cut, 1/16 inch wide, 2 to
3 inches long, and arranged in groups of 3 in alternating rows to provide
not less than 180 slots per foot of length and not less than 30 square inches of
opening per foot of length of casing.

All pipe slotting was done at the Sukheki base camp. Pipe slotting
operations were under the supervision of 2 expatriate employees who
supervised the work of 28 Pakistani personnel. The pipe slotting machines
normally operated three 8 hour shifts per day.

Three Alien pipe slotting machines were used in producing the
slotted pipe. Two of the machines had 12 spindles and the other was a 16
spindle machine. Slotting began on 23 January 1960 and was completed in
mid-March 1961. The combined production of the 3 machines averaged
15.5 feet per hour for the 13 months of operation. A total of 149, 640 feet
of pipe was slotted, of which approximately 137, 000 feet was used in tube-
wells constructed under Contracts Nos. 1 and 2.


Site Preparation

The site preparation department was responsible for the field
location of well sites furnished by the Authority; for preparation of access
roads; for digging of slush pits and ditches for water supply; for transport
of gravel and well casing to drilling locations; and for removal of surplus
pipe and gravel following completion of tubewell construction.






-46 -


The work of site preparation was carried out under the supervision
of one expatriate staff employee. The force which he supervised was composed
of 145-150 Pakistani personnel. Site preparation work began on 7 January
1960 and was completed at the end of March 1961, approximately 50 days
ahead of schedule. The average time for the preparation of one tubewell site
was approximately 10 hours.


Drilling

The drilling department was responsible for moving the rigs onto
location; for setting the rig up; for constructing a supply well if needed; for
drilling the production well; for formation sampling and logging; for electric
logging the well; for running casing, including welding; for gravelling; for
plumbing the pump housing casing to within the specification tolerances; for
bailing, tear down, and moveout.

Expatriate personnel in the drilling department consisted of 6 top
drillers and 8 drillers. One field superintendent who was attached to the
administrative force was in charge of all drilling operations. These men
supervised the work of approximately 150 Pakistani workers who were
classified as drillers, assistant drillers, time keepers, welders, mechanics,
drivers, bulldozer operators, helpers and laborers.

The Contractor used Winter-Weiss reverse circulation drilling rigs.
With each rig was an International crawler tractor, a wheel tractor, and a
Bunger trailer. Each drill crew had a Land Rover for transportation to and
from base camp or sub-camp. Two drill rigs went into the field on 26
January 1960; two more went in the third week of February; and one more
went in March 1960. During the first two months of drilling operations all
tubewells of 3.5 cusec capacity and larger had to be by-passed because
the Contractor had no 16 inch diameter pump housing casing. There had
been a breakdown at the pipe suppliers fabricating plant and no 16 inch
diameter pump housing casing was received in the project area until the
early part of April, 1960.

Between 2 July and 11 July, 1960, 3.1 inches of rain fell in the
camp area and on 9 July 4 drill rigs were recalled to the base camp from
the Hafizabad area. One rig was left in the field to complete the construction
of the large capacity tubewells which were by-passed in the Sangla Hill area
because of the shortage of 16 inch diameter pump housing casing. During
the time the drill rigs were in the base camp yard, they and their support
equipment were overhauled. On 1 August 1960 two rigs went into the field to
begin tubewell construction work in the Khangah Dogran area. During this
month the rig which had been working in the Sangla Hill area returned to
camp for overhaul. On 29 August a third rig went into the field; on the 19th






-47


and 29th of September the fourth and fifth rigs went into the field and on
19 October the sixth rig went into the field. From the 19th of October 1960
to the latter part of February 1961, there were six rigs in the field. During
portions of this period only 5 rigs were working due to major breakdowns to
two of the rigs. On 1 March 1961 one rig returned to the yard and between
25 and 29 March the other five rigs returned to the yard when construction
of 1014 tubewells was completed.

The Contractor was paid for 269, 256 feet of drilling, all but 120 feet
of which was successfully developed into tubewells. One bore hole struck
non-water bearing bedrock at 120 feet and was abandoned. The average total
rig time for the completion of 1 tubewell was 36.17 hours. This included
an average of 7.78 hours of down time.

The electric logging division of the drilling department was responsible
for the running and production of the resistivity and spontaneous potential logs
called for in the specifications, and for the repair and maintenance of the
logging equipment. This work was performed by two expatriate employees,
assisted by four Pakistani employees.

The first logging machine arrived in Lahore on 23 January 1960, after
being air freighted from Karachi. Upon arrival it was found that the machine's
control panel was badly damaged. This machine was repaired by Schlumberger
technicians and went into service two months later. Because of the damaged
logging apparatus the Contractor was allowed to construct a limited number
of tubewells without running electric logs. The second logging machine arrived
in February, and the first tubewell log was run on 11 February 1960. The
Contractor was paid for running 936 electric logs. It took an average of 31
minutes to run an electric log, but it sometimes took as much as 3 hours
travel time to get from camp to rig, and from rig to rig with the logging
equipment.


Development and Testing

The developing and testing department was responsible for the
installation of the development pump and driver; for the development and
testing of the tubewell; for the disposal of pumped water; for the removal of
the testing equipment; and for the move to the next location.

The Contractor had four expatriate pump setters and 25 Pakistani
employees in the test equipment setting section. In the development and
testing portion of his. operation, the Contractor had three expatriate em-
ployees and 20 Pakistani employees.






- 48 -


The Contractor used a maximum of 2 pump setting rigs in this
operation. These pump setting rigs had 10 pumping units of various capacities
to work with. The pumping units consisted of a vertical turbine pump, a
right angle gear drive, a drive shaft, and a diesel power supply mounted on
a tractor drawn trailer. All equipment gave satisfactory service except the
Bedford trucks on which the pump setting rigs were mounted. Because of
the breakdown of the Bedford trucks, the Contractor at one time used a
tractor drawn, trailer mounted, hand operated rig for setting the test pumps.

Development and testing started on 16 February 1960, and was com-
pleted on 18 April 1961. The relatively late start of this phase of the
construction operations was due to the late arrival of pump setting rig com-
ponents, and to the length of time required to modify the equipment so that the
pump setting unit could be mounted on the Bedford trucks. A reverse circu-
lation drill rig was used to set test pumps until the third week in March.
During September 1960 the lag time between completion of tubewell drilling
and development and testing was at its lowest. At one time during this
month there were only 19 tubewells which had been constructed and had not
been developed and tested.

A total of 1017 tubewells were developed. Three tubewells were
abandoned and redrilled because of excessive sand content, and 1014 tubewells
were successfully tested. The average development time was 6.5 hours
with a maximum of 105 hours. The average test time was 16.9 hours. The
average time for setting, pulling, and moving test equipment, including down
time, was approximately 10 hours.


Concreting

The concreting department was responsible for the construction of the
concrete pump pedestal, the concrete pump house floor, and for the instal-
lation of the motor control support bracket. This department was under the
supervision of two expatriate staff supervisors. They supervised and planned
the work for approximately 40 Pakistani employees. Worthington Concrete
Mixers were used for mixing concrete. Aggregate and cement were moved
to the site on tractor drawn Bunger trailers.

At the end of February 1960, two concrete crews were fielded by the
Contractor. In mid-April 1960, the number of concrete crews was increased
to four. This number of crews was maintained until February 1961, when the
number was again reduced to two. These two crews completed the remaining
work in April 1961.






- 49 -


The average construction time for a complete pedestal and slab was
10 hours. In addition, an average of 4. 5 hours was taken for material
transport, repair work on previous construction, and down time. The con-
crete department used approximately 4375 barrels of cement, 2700 yards of
gravel, and 1350 yards of sand.


Equipment Installation, Testing and Cleanup

This department was responsible for the installation of the permanent
pumping equipment; the electric motor and motor control complete with
electric wiring and connections; conducting the 4 hour equipment performance
test, including the disposal of pumped water; grouting of the discharge head;
site cleanup, including the filling of slush pits; and the final preparation of
the installation for acceptance.

The staff for this department was distributed as follows:

Expatriates Pakistani

Permanent pump storage and hauling 1 11
Permanent pump installation 4 37
Permanent electrical installation,
final testing and cleanup 1 37


Permanent pump installation was accomplished with the same type
of rigs as were used in development pump setting. A maximum of 2 pump
setting rigs were used in setting permanent pumps. It was found that the
optimum work output commensurate with good workmanship and safety, was
obtained by working two rigs one 12 hour shift during daylight hours.

Permanent pump installation began on 1 March 1960 and the last
pump was installed on 29 June 1961. Progress at first was very slow
because of the lack of pumps of the correct capacity and design head. It
was not until the latter part of May that sufficient pumps were available
so that it was not necessary to by-pass tubewells because of lack of correct
pumping equipment. The late completion of pump setting was caused by the
order for the 14 additional pumps not being finalized until January 1961, by
the loss of equipment spare parts in the warehouse fire of April 1961, and by
the loss of 57 joints of column pipe which were dropped in Karachi Harbor
while being unloaded.

The installation of motor control panels, rigid conduit and wiring
was begun on 20 March 1960 and was completed on 29 June 1961. The conduit
and wiring for use between the motor and motor control was pre-fabricated
in the base camp shop, transported to site, and fitted in place.














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TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.-ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION c
PROJECT NO.1
CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB m

PROGRESS ON CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION-

















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WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.- ENGINEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO.1

CENTRAL RECHNA DOAB


PROGRESS ON


WAPDA CONSTRUCTION


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- 50 -


The average time consumed for the pump installation, installation of
the electric motor, motor control, conduit, and wiring of one tubewell was
15 hours. The average time consumed for this same work during the time
when equipment was readily available and it was unnecessary to by-pass tube-
wells because of the lack of correct capacity and design head pump, was
13 hours. The installation of the motor control and wiring took place generally
within 2 days of the installation of the pump, and the testing of the equipment
generally was accomplished within 2 days of the completion of this wiring
installation.

Equipment performance testing began on 22 March 1960 and was
completed on 29 June 1961. The start and finish of this work was predicated
upon the start and finish of permanent pump installation and thus any delays
which were experienced in pump installation were reflected in the progress of
equipment testing.

Following completion of the test, generally within a week, the grounds
were cleaned up, excavations were filled, and the area returned to its normal
appearance. The installation was then given a final inspection by an expatri-
ate member of the Engineer's staff, at which time the work was either
accepted or rejected. Prior to this inspection all pertinent records were
scrutinized to insure that all specifications had been complied with. If the
tubewell was accepted, the Contractor was issued a Certificate of Acceptance.
If rejected the tubewell was returned to the Contractor for remedial work
and subsequently accepted when that work had been completed.


Overall Progress

Figure 11 portrays graphically the overall progress of tubewell
construction under Contract Nos. 1 and 2. The several curves shown on this
chart depict separately progress on the drilling, the developing and testing,
and the installation of equipment, all of which was carried out by H. T. Smith
International, S.A. Another curve shows progress on the construction of
pump houses which work was carried out by WAPDA forces and by local con-
tractors. Referring to the curve showing progress on drilling operations
(which includes also the installation of casing and gravel shrouding) it may
be noted that with the exception of the monsoon season, extending from July
through September of 1960, tubewell construction reached a sustained rate of
approximately 80 tubewells per month. To achieve this production an average
of 5 drilling rigs were operated three shifts per day, which is equivalent to
an average production rate of 16 tubewells per month per rig, operated on a
three shift per day basis. The drilling and testing of the tubewells, while
lagging the tubewell construction by 2 to 3 weeks and for somewhat greater
periods during the monsoon season, attained about the same average rate of
progress. Most of this work was accomplished with two pump setting rigs







- 51 -


or an equivalent fair weather production of 40 tubewells per month per pump
setting rig. The installation of pumping equipment lagged several months
behind the developing and testing of tubewells during the forepart of the
construction period but after all of the pumps and motors had been received
from the suppliers, this work progressed at a sustained rate approaching
105 tubewells per month.

A period of approximately 19 months elapsed from the time the first
drilling operations were undertaken in January 1960 until completion of the
last of the 1014 tubewells in June 1961, an overall average rate of production
of about 53 completed tubewells per month. This rate is equivalent to a little
less than 650 completed tubewells per year.

Construction of pump houses in the contract scheme areas was under-
taken after completion of the tubewell installations. This work progressed
at an average rate of about 100 pump houses per month, and by the end of
October 1961, all pump houses for tubewells constructed under contract had
been completed.







- 52 -


WAPDA CONSTRUCTION


General

The portion of Project No. One, designated as "WAPDA Construction,"
consists of a total of 782 tubewells situated in the following areas:


Area


Number of
Tubewells


Shahkot
Zafarwal


Khangah Dogran
Shadman


Total


385
390 (Includes 1 WASID
tubewell and 60 con-
structed under contract)
6 (WASID tubewells)
1
782


Although denoted as WAPDA Construction, since most of the tube-
wells were drilled by WAPDA construction forces, certain phases of the work
in these areas were carried out by other agencies. Under a work order and
several contracts, H. T. Smith International, S. A. was called upon to perform
the following work in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas:


Work Order
or Contract No.


Date


Description of Work


6 March 1961





10 April 1961





1 May 1961



29 May 1962


Developing and testing of 5 tubewells
in the Zafarwal area. (Later incorpo-
rated in Contract No. 4 for purposes
of payment. )

Construction, including development
and testing, of 60 tubewells of 4. 0 to
5.0 cusec capacity in the Zafarwal
area.

Developing and testing 152 tubewells in
the Zafarwal area and 17 tubewells in
the Shahkot area.

Installation and testing of pumping
equipment, motors, and motor control
units in 385 tubewells in the Zafarwal
area.


WO 1





C3





C4



C5







- 52 -


WAPDA CONSTRUCTION


General

The portion of Project No. One, designated as "WAPDA Construction,"
consists of a total of 782 tubewells situated in the following areas:


Area


Number of
Tubewells


Shahkot
Zafarwal


Khangah Dogran
Shadman


Total


385
390 (Includes 1 WASID
tubewell and 60 con-
structed under contract)
6 (WASID tubewells)
1
782


Although denoted as WAPDA Construction, since most of the tube-
wells were drilled by WAPDA construction forces, certain phases of the work
in these areas were carried out by other agencies. Under a work order and
several contracts, H. T. Smith International, S. A. was called upon to perform
the following work in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas:


Work Order
or Contract No.


Date


Description of Work


6 March 1961





10 April 1961





1 May 1961



29 May 1962


Developing and testing of 5 tubewells
in the Zafarwal area. (Later incorpo-
rated in Contract No. 4 for purposes
of payment. )

Construction, including development
and testing, of 60 tubewells of 4. 0 to
5.0 cusec capacity in the Zafarwal
area.

Developing and testing 152 tubewells in
the Zafarwal area and 17 tubewells in
the Shahkot area.

Installation and testing of pumping
equipment, motors, and motor control
units in 385 tubewells in the Zafarwal
area.


WO 1





C3





C4



C5







- 53


In October 1961 a work order was issued to the Beco Pump
Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore covering the installation of pumps and
motors in 60 tubewells in the Shahkot area. This work order was later
expanded on several occasions to cover the installation of additional pumps
and motors in the Shahkot area. Other contracts were entered into with
local contractors for the installation of motor control panels and internal
wiring of the pumphouses. Many of the pumphouses and operator's quarters
were also constructed under several contracts with local contractors.

All of the 782 tubewells scheduled for WAPDA construction have
been constructed. As of November 30, 1962, pumping equipment had been
installed in only 750 of these tubewells, and of this number certain of the
equipment installations remained to be tested before final acceptance. The
32 tubewells where no equipment has yet been installed are situated in the
southern portion of the Shahkot area which overlies a zone of relatively poor
quality ground water where the concentration of disolved salts in the ground-
water range upwards from 1500 ppm. Installation of pumping equipment in
these tubewells is pending resolution of the best manner of disposing of
saline water from these tubewells or diluting it sufficiently to permit its
use for irrigation.

Aside from the fact that a number of different agencies were
involved in constructing tubewells in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas the works
in these areas are characterized by a great variety of types and sources of
pumps, motors and other equipment installed in the tubewells. This came
about because of the need to utilize, to the greatest extent possible, certain
quantities of casing, electric motors and motor controls which existed in
various stores in West Pakistan at the outset of the program, as well as
the desire to procure as much equipment and materials as possible with
local currencies so as to limit the use of DLF loan funds to only those items
which could not be obtained locally. The sources of the principal items of
equipment and materials incorporated in the WAPDA constructed tubewells
are described in more detail in a later section.

As noted heretofore, and as discussed in more detail later, the
entire program undertaken by WAPDA forces was fraught with numerous
problems and suffered many delays. To a degree many of these problems
and delays had been foreseen, and could not have been avoided, in view of
the requirement of utilizing to the greatest extent possible the somewhat
limited resources available to the Authority at the commencement of the
program and the great variety of equipment and materials which existed in
widely scattered stores within the country.







- 54 -


Organization and Plant

At the time the Loan Agreement was perfected in February 1959
WAPDA's forces committed to the project consisted of two drilling divisions
operating in the Shahkot scheme area. These drilling divisions had only a few
hand boring sets, a limited amount of tubewell casing, and virtually no
transportation facilities. As a result the work was showing little progress
and being done without adequate supervision. There were available in the
country, however, a number of mechanical cable-tool machines, some of
which were still in their original crates which had formed part of the equip-
ment for the reclamation scheme provided under the Colombo Plan. Soon
after the Project Engineer established his office in Lahore in April 1959,
steps were taken to inventory the equipment and material available in
various stores in the country; to prepare requisitions for the supplementary
construction equipment, particularly transportation equipment, which was
very badly needed; and to recruit a number of expatriate drillers around
which the tubewell construction operations could be expanded utilizing the
mechanical cable-tool rigs. In addition to integrating expatriate personnel
into WAPDA's field drilling operations, it was also necessary to recruit
staff for the planning and technical supervision of the work including that
being done under contract, to establish field base camps, and to accelerate
the task of siting of the proposed tubewells. The latter operation became
a particularly burdensome one which was difficult to keep far in advance of
the construction operation because of the limited number of personnel
available, time required to obtain adequate maps and other data pertaining
to the existing irrigation system, and the need for relocating many tubewell
sites after they had once been sited to meet the demands of landowners.

The equipment and plant utilized for the WAPDA constructed
tubewells may be grouped into two categories: (1) equipment available
within the country at the time the work started, and (2) additional equip-
ment procured from the exterior with DLF funds. The first group of
equipment consisted primarily of a number of hand boring sets and some
mechanical cable-tool rigs, together with a few old trucks, small tractors,
trailers, pumps and miscellaneous tools. The hand boring sets consist
of an "A" frame composed of three pipe poles and a crude winch with
cable and bailer. The mechanical cable-tool rigs are ofAustralian manu-
facture, mounted on wheels with a gasoline engine driven cable drum
operating the bailer. These units were situated at various locations around
the country and had to be gathered together and assembled. The balance
of equipment available in the country consisting of a few trucks, tractors
and other miscellaneous items, had already outlived its useful life but by
makeshift repairs and improvising it was possible to put much of this old
equipment into use.







- 55 -


To supplement the above equipment orders were placed for trucks,
transportation equipment, welding machines, pump testing sets, jacks and
other tools and spare parts required for the work. However, because of
delays encountered in establishing procedures for implementing procurement
of equipment and other items under the DLF Loan, the time required to
obtain quotations and place orders and to ship the equipment to Pakistan,
transport it to the site and place it in operation many months elapsed before
this new equipment was available for construction operations. Table No. 13
shows a summary of the principal items of equipment utilized on the WAPDA
construction operations.

Near the end of 1960 an old Winter-Weiss reverse rotary drilling
rig was rehabilitated and put in service to complete some of the larger capa-
city tubewells in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas.

Soon after the work commenced it was recognized that it would be
necessary to establish a base camp in the field to form a depot for stores of
all types and a suitable site for the overhaul and maintenance of construction
equipment. Innumerable delays were encountered in procuring a suitable
site for this camp but finally in December 1959 a site some 33 miles from
Lahore on the Lahore-Lyallpur Road was selected, but it was not until
March 1960 that actual construction on the camp was started. This camp,
which became known as Mile 33 Camp, was not fully completed and provided
with power facilities until the summer of 1961.

The maintenance of equipment, particularly transportation equipment,
was one of the greatest problems encountered in the WAPDA construction
operations. Initially and for many months the repair and maintenance of
transportation equipment was handled through commercial establishments in
Lahore and at times certain equipment was sent to the Machinery Pool
Organization (MPO) shops at Lyallpur for overhaul and repair. In spite of
strenuous efforts on the part of the Authority and the Engineer, neither of
these arrangements proved satisfactory because of long delays in carrying
out the work and lack of an adequate supply of spare parts. To rectify this
situation, which was delaying both the construction work as well as the
supervision of construction being done under contract, the Engineer petitioned
the Authority to set up a motor pool operation of its own. Sanction for the
motor pool was given in November 1960 and after some delay in selecting a
suitable site the motor pool was finally established in Lahore in March 1961.
Even after this facility was established, it took strenuous efforts to keep
the transportation equipment in operating condition. By that time most of
the transportation units had traveled in excess of 50, 000 miles, much of
which was over unmetalled roads and rough terrain, and it was not unusual
to have up to 30 per cent of the vehicles down for repairs at one time.
Notwithstanding the many difficulties encountered in all these operations,
it was eventually possible to complete the work and much of the transporta-
tion equipment purchased for the project is still operating, although it has
all been used far beyond its normal useful life.




-56-


Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 13
Principal Items of Construction Equipment
used by WAPDA Forces


Equipment


Manufacture


Reverse rotary drilling rigs
Cable tool drilling rigs
Hand boring sets

Wheel tractors, gas
Wheel tractors, diesel

Crawler tractors
Crawler tractor
Trailers

Test Pumps
Test Pumps
Diesel engines, trailer-mounted
Diesel engine, skid mounted
Diesel engines, skid mounted
Air compressors
Welding machines

Power Analyzers
Conductivity meters
Drawdown gauges
Drawdown gauges
Dial indicators w/magnetic base
Temp indicating meters w/probes
Sand cones
Volt-ammeters
Frequency meter
Watt-hour meters
Voltmeters

Trucks w/end dump
Trucks w/oil field bed
Trucks
Trucks
Pick-up Trucks
Station wagons
Universal Jeep CJ5
Sedans


"Winter-Weiss, modified
Australian Colombo Plan
Composite


Various
Various


Italian Ansaldo
Australian Colombo Plan
Various

Peerless Pump Div.
Various
Continental Red Seal
IH UD 18 Colombo Plan
General Motors
Various
Various

Westinghouse
Industrial Instruments
Fischer Instruments
Cox
Brown & Sharpe
Simpson
Imhoff
General Electric
G. E. Type P3
G.E. Type V-3-A
G.E. Type AP11

White Motor Co. 2064
White Motor Co. 2064
Leyland
Bedford
Willys
Willys
Willys
Various


*Equipment purchased with DLF funds.


Quantity


4
1
18

3*
4
3*
1
3




3 *
8*
7*
3*
3*
3*
48*
6*
1*
4*
2*

5*
5*
4
8
-*

-*
-*
-*






- 57 -


Permanent Equipment

For reasons noted earlier a great variety of equipment procured from
a number of different sources was incorporated in the WAPDA constructed
tubewells. At the commencement of the program some 400 electric motors
and motor control panels had been allocated to the project under the Colombo
Plan, although they had not at that time been delivered to West Pakistan.
There was also available in a number of stores and at various sites in the
field a supply of 18 inch diameter casing used to sink holes drilled with
percussion equipment and a considerable supply of 14 inch diameter and
10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing. In June 1959 an order was placed
with the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 100 turbine
pumps of 3 cusec capacity. An additional order was placed with Beco in
December 1959 for up to 300 pumps of various capacities, it being intended
that these orders for Beco pumps, together with the Colombo Plan motors
would be utilized to equip 400 tubewells.

In June 1960 international tenders were called for the supply of
the balance of 400 pumps, motors, and motor controls, required for the
WAPDA tubewe Ils. As a result of this tendering, contracts were awarded
to the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 400 turbine pumps
with electric motors and to Siemens Pakistan Engineering Company, Ltd.
of Karachi for 400 motor control units. Because of delays in delivery of
the Beco pumps, a separate order was placed in March 1962 with KSB
Pump Company of Wah, West Pakistan, for the supply of 100 turbine pumps.
In July 1960 tenders were called for the supply of 13, 000 feet of 16 inch
diameter casing required for the housing pipe of the larger capacity tube-
wells and the contract for this casing was awarded to Foster International
Corporation. Summaries of the tenders received for the above items of
equipment and materials are contained in Appendix C.

Table No. 14 shows a summary of the types and sources of equip-
ment installed in the tubewells constructed in the Shahkot and Zafarwal
areas. The individual tubewell data sheets on file in the offices of the
Groundwater Division of the Authority form a record of the equipment
installed in each individual tubewell.


Construction Methods

With the exception of 60 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith
International, S. A. in the Zafarwal area and 34 tubewells constructed
with the single reverse rotary rig utilized late in the program by WAPDA
forces, all of the WAPDA constructed tubewells were drilled by percussion
methods utilizing the hand boring sets and the mechanical cable-tool rigs.






- 57 -


Permanent Equipment

For reasons noted earlier a great variety of equipment procured from
a number of different sources was incorporated in the WAPDA constructed
tubewells. At the commencement of the program some 400 electric motors
and motor control panels had been allocated to the project under the Colombo
Plan, although they had not at that time been delivered to West Pakistan.
There was also available in a number of stores and at various sites in the
field a supply of 18 inch diameter casing used to sink holes drilled with
percussion equipment and a considerable supply of 14 inch diameter and
10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing. In June 1959 an order was placed
with the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 100 turbine
pumps of 3 cusec capacity. An additional order was placed with Beco in
December 1959 for up to 300 pumps of various capacities, it being intended
that these orders for Beco pumps, together with the Colombo Plan motors
would be utilized to equip 400 tubewells.

In June 1960 international tenders were called for the supply of
the balance of 400 pumps, motors, and motor controls, required for the
WAPDA tubewe Ils. As a result of this tendering, contracts were awarded
to the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 400 turbine pumps
with electric motors and to Siemens Pakistan Engineering Company, Ltd.
of Karachi for 400 motor control units. Because of delays in delivery of
the Beco pumps, a separate order was placed in March 1962 with KSB
Pump Company of Wah, West Pakistan, for the supply of 100 turbine pumps.
In July 1960 tenders were called for the supply of 13, 000 feet of 16 inch
diameter casing required for the housing pipe of the larger capacity tube-
wells and the contract for this casing was awarded to Foster International
Corporation. Summaries of the tenders received for the above items of
equipment and materials are contained in Appendix C.

Table No. 14 shows a summary of the types and sources of equip-
ment installed in the tubewells constructed in the Shahkot and Zafarwal
areas. The individual tubewell data sheets on file in the offices of the
Groundwater Division of the Authority form a record of the equipment
installed in each individual tubewell.


Construction Methods

With the exception of 60 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith
International, S. A. in the Zafarwal area and 34 tubewells constructed
with the single reverse rotary rig utilized late in the program by WAPDA
forces, all of the WAPDA constructed tubewells were drilled by percussion
methods utilizing the hand boring sets and the mechanical cable-tool rigs.







Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 14
Summary of Permanent Equipment and Materials
Installed in WAPDA Constructed Tubewells


Item

1 Pumps
Beco-KSB

Beco-Jacuzzi

KSB

2 Motors
McColl
Newman

3 Motor Controls
Siemens


Midland Electric
Johns & Phillips
Bailey & Grimster
Assoc. Electric
Schiele Indus-
triewerke
East Asiatic Co.
(ASEA)

4 Casing
16" dia. (ft)

14" dia. (ft)

10-3/4" blank (ft)
10-3/4" slotted(ft)

10-3/4" slotted(ft)

8" brass screen


Quantities Installed
Shahkot Zafarwal Total


304 11 315

36 296 332

13 83 96
353 390 743

285 69 354
68 321 389
353 390 743

36 325. 361


33 0 33
105 32 137
170 1 171
0 1 1

0 14 14

9 17 26
353 390 743


(a) Quantity of brass screen installed
late 1959 not recorded.


Beco Pump Mfg.
Co., Lahore
Beco Pump Mfg.
Co., Lahore
KSB Pump Co.,
Wah

Colombo Plan
Beco Pump Mfg.
Co., Lahore

Siemens Pak.
Engr. Co.,
Ltd., Karachi
Local Market
Colombo Plan
Colombo Plan
Local Market

Local Market

Local Market


1, 222 6, 677 7, 899 Foster Int'l
Corporation
27, 357 27, 909 55, 266 WAPDA Stores
(MPO)
14, 484 14, 808 29, 292 WAPDA Stores
42, 099 43, 247 85, 346 WAPDA Stores
(MPO)
1,845 8,722 10,567 H. T. Smith
Int'l S. A.
(a) 133 WAPDA Stores


in tubewells in Shahkot area prior to


Note: Additional equipment Items 1, 2 & 3 installed at six locations in Khangah
Dogran, and one location in Shadman scheme areas.






- 59 -


In the so-called hand boring operation an "A" frame equipped with
sheave is set up over the site of the tubewell. A hand operated winch is
anchored at some distance from the tubewell site and the cable wound on this
winch is run through the sheave of the "A" frame and connected to a con-
ventional bailer. Eighteen inch diameter drilling casing is set up over the
well and as material is removed from inside this casing with the bailer the
casing slowly sinks into the ground. The bailer is operated by a group of
men who in rhythm alternately pull and release the cable anchored to the
winch. A framework of heavy timbers is placed on top of the 18 inch dia-
meter casing and loaded with earth and extra pieces of casing pipe to provide
additional weight to force the casing in the ground as material is removed by
the bailer. When the casing has been sunk to the full depth of the tubewell
the permanent casing is installed. After this casing has been lowered in the
tubewell the gravel is fed into the annular space between the permanent
casing and the 18 inch housing casing. As gravel is being fed in, the outer
casing is removed by jacks, care being taken in the operation that the
gravel pack is kept four to five feet above the bottom of the outer casing
as it is being withdrawn. The entire operation with the hand boring sets is
carried out by manual labor, a normal crew consisting of 10 to 15 men.
While it is a slow and laborious operation, it was nevertheless possible, by
working three shifts per day, to complete an average of one tubewell per
month per rig. Initially only a limited number of screw jacks were available
and the removal of the housing casing by this means was a very slow opera-
tion. This part of the operation was speeded up somewhat after hydraulic
jacks had been procured.

Functionally the tubewell construction operation with the mechanical
cable-tool rigs was identical to that utilized with the hand boring sets except
that with mechanical operation of the bailer and the more efficient means
for stringing casing in the hole, the operation was considerably faster. With
these rigs it normally took approximately 3 days to sink a 250-350 foot depth
tubewell, about 1 day to lower the casing, and another 2 days to complete
the gravel packing and withdraw the housing casing. On the average, one
cable-tool rig, operated three shifts per day, would complete approximately
4 tubewells per month, not including developing and testing.

Except for method of construction the tubewells constructed by the
above means are essentially identical to those constructed by the Contractor
with reverse rotary equipment. Although the diameter of the casing forming
the drill hole is slightly less than that obtained with the 22 inch bit of the
reverse rotary machines, the percussion operation tends to disturb the
surrounding formation to a greater degree with the result that the quantity
of gravel required is not greatly less than with the rotary operation.
Other operations necessary to complete the installation after construction
of the tubewell consisting of developing and testing of the tubewell and
installation of equipment were similar to the operations described for the






- 60 -


tubewells constructed under contract. One significant difference between
the two construction methods was the time elapsed between construction
of the tubewell and commencement of the developing and testing operation.
Suitable equipment for developing and testing of WAPDA constructed tube-
wells did not become available until late in the program. As a result
there was commonly an extended interval, sometimes as long as 6 to 12
months between the time the construction was completed and the tubewell
was developed and tested; whereas with the tubewells constructed under
contract, it was seldom more than a few weeks between these two operations.
Experience has shown that this long interval of time between construction
and developing and testing has an adverse effect on the tubewells, principally
through incrustation of slots in the casing. Although with some exceptions
it was possible to develop these tubewell satisfactorily, the operation
required much more time and in some cases required the use of light
explosive charges to jar loose incrustations which had formed in the slots.

Other problems inherent in tubewells constructed by percussion
methods relate to the greater degree of difficulty in maintaining verticality,
particularly with the hand boring sets and the fact that because of the greater
degree to which the surrounding formation is disturbed in the percussion
operation there is a greater likelihood of settlement of the casing string
with the consequent likelihood of rupture of the casing or damage to the
gravel pack. There were a number of tubewells in the Shahkot area that
had been constructed prior to the initiation of full scale operations by WAPDA
forces which settled anywhere from 2 to 10 feet prior to being developed and
tested. In several cases some of these tubewells could not be developed and
were abandoned. In a few cases there was evidence that the casing string had
ruptured and the tubewells were abandoned.


Construction Progress

By April 1959 when the Project Engineer's office was established
in Lahore approximately 130 tubewells had been constructed in the Shahkot
area. Although most of these tubewells had been constructed by the Irri-
gation Department prior to the time the project was taken over by WAPDA,
they are considered herein as part of the WAPDA construction as WAPDA
became responsible for their completion. All of these early tubewells
were constructed utilizing the hand-boring sets, and less than half had
been developed and tested by the time the first two expatriate drillers
arrived on the scene in June 1959. This was in the midst of a period of
intensive efforts directed towards completion of planning and the mobili-
zation of construction forces; and much of the time of the two expatriate
drillers who arrived in June, as well as that of others who followed in July,
August and September, was spent in seeking out and inventorying equipment
and materials lying in various stores around the country and in assembly






- 61 -


of the mechanical cable-tool rigs and other equipment. As a result, during
the months of May, June and July the drilling operations continued at about
the same pace with the hand-boring sets.

By August 1959 the monsoon rains had begun and the work was
slowed considerably because of inaccessibility of many of the tubewell sites.
The rains continued to impede the construction work as well as the task of
gathering and assembling the cable-tool rigs during September and October,
and again by unseasonal rains occurring in November. During that month
10 jeep pickups and 4 jeep trucks were acquired which temporarily relieved
the transportation problem which had greatly impeded progress up to that
time. After weather conditions had improved in December the first of the
cable-tool machines were put into operation, and an intensive program of
training of drill crews in their operation was undertaken. This training pro-
gram continued through January of 1960 while construction continued with
the hand-boring sets. Although six of the cable-tool rigs were in operation
by the end of February 1960, it was found necessary to keep the hand-boring
sets in operation at sites which were inaccessible to the cable-tool machines
because of wet ground and lack of adequate roads.

The tempo of construction operations increased slowly during the
ensuing months with 6 mechanical cable-tool rigs and 15 to 16 hand-boring
sets in operation. By June 1960 enough personnel had been trained in the
operation of the cable-tool rigs to permit placing those operations on a two-
shift basis. At that time the drilling of tubewells in the Shahkot area was
nearing completion, and in July 1960 drilling commenced in the Zafarwal
area. Throughout this period it was found necessary to keep the hand-
boring sets in operation and as many as 20 sets were in operation at one
time. Although the drilling operations had become fairly well organized by
that time, delays were still periodically being encountered because of lack
of slotted pipe and a sufficient number of jacks for withdrawing the 18 inch
housing casing.

From the outset the developing and testing of tubewells lagged
considerably behind the drilling operations. The old pump testing sets were
more or less continuously breaking down and it was not until three new pump
testing rigs became available in July 1960 that it was possible to accelerate
this operation. The installation of pumping equipment in the tubewells was
also far behind schedule, principally because of delays encountered in
obtaining the electric motors to be supplied by Australia under the Colombo
Plan. Soon after the first of these motors were received in October 1960,
the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. undertook the installation of pumps
and motors in tubewells in the Shahkot area. By the end of 1960 a total of
560 tubewells had been constructed, 290 had been developed and tested,
and pumps and motors had been installed in 58 tubewells. Up to that time
it had been necessary to by-pass all of the tubewells of 3. 5 cusecs capacity
and larger in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas because of lack of equipment






- 62 -


to drill holes sufficiently large to accommodate the 16 inch diameter housing
pipe required for the larger pumps. Finally in February 1961 the rehabili-
tation of the Winter-Weiss reverse rotary rig had been completed and it
was placed in operation. Nevertheless it soon became apparent that it
would be necessary to greatly accelerate the rate of completion of the large
tubewells, as well as the developing and testing operations and the installation
of equipment, if the program were to be completed within a reasonable period
of time. Accordingly in April 1961 a contract was entered into with H. T.
Smith International, S. A. to construct, and develop and test 60 of the larger
capacity tubewells in the Zafarwal area, which work was completed in
June 1961. Under another contract H. T. Smith International, S.A. was
called upon to develop and test additional tubewells in the Zafarwal and
Shahkot areas, and by July of that year had completed this work on 170
tubewells. By that time all the tubewells scheduled for these two areas had
been constructed, developing and testing was essentially completed, but only
125 of these installations had been equipped with pumps and motors. Up to
that time and for a number of months thereafter great difficulties were
experienced in securing pumping equipment from Beco that would satisfac-
torily meet the performance requirements of the specifications. Actually a
number of the pumps that had already been installed had to be removed
because of various deficiencies encountered in their operation and it was not
until November 1961 that it was possible to resume work on the installation
of equipment in the WAPDA constructed tubewells. Later further delays
were encountered because of the failure of Beco Pump Manufacturing Co.,
Ltd. to meet promised delivery dates on the second order for 400 pumps
and motors. This situation ultimately became so serious that in
February 1962 the Authority gave notice to the Beco Pump Manufacturing
Co., Ltd. of its intent to cancel the contract for the pumps and motors.
At the same time, because of the seriousness of the situation, a separate
order was placed in March 1962 with KSB Pump Manufacturing Company of
Wahfor 100 pumps. Finally in March 1962 delivery of the Beco pumps
was resumed and delivery of the 100 KSB pumps was completed in April
1962. A contract was entered into with H.T. Smith International, S.A. in
March 1962 covering the installation of these pumps and motors in the tube-
wells in the Zafarwal area. By the end of August 1962 pumping equipment
had been installed in all of the Zafarwal tubewells and in 353 tubewells in
the Shahkot area. It was decided at that time to defer the installation of
equipment in the remaining 32 tubewells in the Shahkot area, all of which
are situated in a zone of poor quality ground water, until a decision could be
made as to the best means of disposing of the saline water or of providing
sufficient good quality canal supplies for dilution. As of November 30,
1962, no decision has yet been made on these matters, and the equipment
destined for installation in these tubewells is stored at the Mile 33 base
camp.






- 63 -


Overall Progress

Figure 12 portrays graphically the overall rates of progress attained
in the drilling, developing and testing, installation of equipment and
construction of pumphouses in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas. The marked
differences between the manner in which this work was carried out, and that
in which the contract work was carried out as portrayed on Figure 11, may
be readily noted. Although because of circumstances previously described
the drilling of tubewells progressed at a much slower pace than did the
contract construction, essentially all of the tubewells scheduled for the two
WAPDA areas had been drilled by the end of May 1961. Developing and
testing operations, however, lagged anywhere from 6 to 12 months behind
the completion of tubewell construction; and because of the innumerable
delays encountered in procuring equipment for the tubewell installations,
the installation of that equipment lagged anywhere from 6 to 18 months
behind the developing and testing of the tubewells. In the Shahkot area the
construction of pumphouses was commonly executed before equipment was
available for installation. While this was not originally planned, since it is
preferable to complete the installation of equipment before constructing the
pumphouse, it was nevertheless not feasible to defer the construction of
these facilities because of the long delays encountered in procuring
acceptable equipment for installation in the tubewells.






- 64 -


COST


The total estimated cost of the 1796 tubewells of Salinity Control and
Reclamation Project No. One constructed under the auspices of the Authority
is equivalent to 94. Z million rupees. A summary of the estimated cost of
these works and related expenditures incurred in connection with their con-
struction is indicated in Table No. 15. Their total cost is made up of
foreign expenditure currencies of 8. 87 million dollars and local currency
expenditures of 51.96 million rupees.

The totals cited above, as well as the amounts indicated in Table
No. 15, have been determined from the Engineer's records of payments
made to contractors and suppliers in so far as foreign currency expenditures
are concerned and from the accounting records of WAPDA and other sources
of information in so far as local currency expenditures are concerned. As
of 30 November 1962, the date of this report, the project accounts have not
been closed and therefore it should be recognized that all references made
to the so-called "total" cost of the work represent only the best estimates
it is possible to make at this time with the data available from the sources
indicated. Actually it will likely be a number of months before all of the
accounts, particularly those pertaining to rupee expenditures, can be fully
closed and audited. Some works have not yet been fully completed and other
pending matters such as disposition of several cases which involve liquidated
damages due WAPDA on account of suppliers failing to deliver acceptable
equipment in accord with agreed time schedules may also result in some
adjustments to the total costs indicated herein. Notwithstanding these
circumstances, amounts have been included in the estimates to represent
the probable total cost of the tubewell features of the project and related
services which it is believed will be reasonably close to the final cost of
such work when all accounts have been closed and all outstanding matters
have been settled.

Table No. 16 has been prepared to show a comparison of the final
cost of the work with the target estimate which was prepared in August
1960 and which is summarized in Table No. 2. It maybe noted that the
estimated total cost of the work is some 2.0 million rupees more than the
target estimate prepared in 1960, but of this total increase 3.0 million
represents custom duties paid by the Authority on construction equipment
imported by H. T. Smith International, S. A. for which no allowance was
made in the original target estimate. Under the contract between the
Authority and H. T. Smith International, S.A. the amounts expended by
WAPDA in payment of custom duties on construction equipment will be
reimbursable to the Authority by the Contractor to the extent that the
construction equipment is not re-exported from West Pakistan within a
specified period. While there are other significant differences between









Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 15

Summary of Expenditures


I Tubewell Construction (1014 tubewells)
(a) Contract No. 1 (606 tubewells)
(b) Contract No. 2 (408 tubewells)
Subtotal Contract Construction
II Tubewell Construction by WAPDA (782 tubewells)
(a) Construction equipment
(b) Permanent equipment
Casing(2)
Pumps, motors and motor controls(3)
(c) Construction
WAPDA
Contract No. 3
Contract No. 4
Contract No. 5
Subtotal WAPDA Construction
III Appurtenant Facilities by WAPDA
Pumphouses, etc.
Total Construction Costs
IV Administration, Engineering and Supervision
Total Cost
Customs Duties
Grand Total


United States
Dollars

3,886,508
2,461, 169
6, 347,677

504, 550(1)

52,000
152, 500

0
68,226
41, 112
0
818, 388

0
7, 166,065
1,698,606
8,864, 671
0
8,864,671


Rupees

5,845,858
3, 420, 574
9, 266, 432

4, 603, 842

4,575, 180
8,554, 100

6, 443, 882
527,673
190,958
696,307
25, 591, 942

3, 538,800
38,397, 174
10,554,517
48,951,691
3,007, 123
51,958,814


Equivalent
Rupees

24, 345,636
15, 135,738
39,481,374

7,005,500

4, 822,700
9,280,000

6, 443, 882
852, 429
386, 651
696, 307
29,487,469

3,538,800
72,507,643
18,639,882
91, 147,525
3,007, 123
94, 154, 648


Consists of Construction Equipment procured with DLF funds.
Includes casing purchases under contract and an estimated amount for casing from WAPDA stores.
Includes pumps, motors and motor controls purchased under contract from WAPDA stores,
Colombo Plan, and local market.




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