• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 National development policies and...
 Management issues
 Institutions
 Inter-institutional linkages
 Human resources
 Budgeting and financing
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Bibliography
 List of abbreviations
 List of persons interviewed






Title: Institutional factors affecting natural resources management in the Dominican Republic
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Title: Institutional factors affecting natural resources management in the Dominican Republic
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Creator: Antonini, Gustavo A.
Publisher: Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
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Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
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University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
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North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Acknowledgements
            Page 1
        Page 1
        Plan of presentation
            Page 2
    National development policies and natural resources management
        Page 3
        Background
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Current policies
            Page 5
        Future prospects
            Page 6
            Page 7
    Management issues
        Land
            Page 8
        Page 8
        Water
            Page 9
        Fisheries
            Page 10
        Forests
            Page 11
        Pollution
            Page 11
            Page 12
    Institutions
        Page 13
        Secretaría de Estado de Agricultura
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Secretariado técnico de la presidencia
            Page 17
        Dirección general de catastro
            Page 17
        Dirección general forestal
            Page 18
        Instituto agrario Dominicano
            Page 19
        Plan Sierra
            Page 20
        Instituto tecnológico de desarrollo
            Page 20
        Instituto nacional de recursos hidraulicos
            Page 20
        Instituto nacional de aguas potables y alcantarillado y la Corporación de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo
            Page 21
        Corporación de acueducto y alcantarillado de Santo Domingo
            Page 21
        Instituto de desarrollo y crédito cooperátivo
            Page 22
        Centro de investigaciones de biología marina
            Page 22
        Corporación nacional de parques
            Page 22
        Dirección nacional de parques
            Page 23
        Jardin botánico nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso"
            Page 24
        Parque zoologico nacional
            Page 25
        Corporaciones de presas
            Page 25
    Inter-institutional linkages
        Page 26
        Public sector
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Public-private sector links
            Page 29
        Public sector-international agencies
            Page 29
            Page 30
    Human resources
        Page 31
        Training
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Present labor force
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Projected manpower needs
            Page 38
            Page 39a
            Page 39b
            Page 39c
            Page 39d
            Page 40a
            Page 40b
            Page 40c
            Page 40d
            Page 40e
            Page 40f
            Page 40g
            Page 40h
            Page 40i
            Page 40j
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
    Budgeting and financing
        Page 44
        Souces of funds
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Use of funds
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Bibliography
        Page 61
        Page 62
    List of abbreviations
        Page 63
        Page 64
    List of persons interviewed
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text








INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC







By

Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida







For

USAID Washington, Office of Development Resources,
Bureau of Latin America/Caribbean
Through
JRB Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia
(IQC:AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247)



















Gainesville, Florida
October 24, 1980













INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC







By

Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida







For

USAID Washington, Office of Development Resources,
Bureau of Latin America/Caribbean
Through
JRB Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia
(IQC:AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247)



















Gainesville, Florida
October 24, 1980















TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION PAGE

List of Tables iv

I. Introduction 1

Acknowledgements 1
Plan of Presentation 2

II. National Development Policies and Natural Resources
Management 3

Background 3
Current Policies 5
Future Prospects 6

III. Management Issues 8

Land 8
Water 9
Fisheries 10
Forests 11
Pollution 11

IV. Institutions 13

Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura 13
Secretariado T6cnico de la Presidencia 17
Direcci6n General de Catastro 17
Direcci6n General Forestal 18
Institute Agrario Dominicano 19
Plan Sierra 20
Institute Tecnol6gico de Desarrollo 20
Institute Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos 20
Institute Nacional de Aguas Potables y Alcantarillado 21
Corporaci6n de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo
Domingo 21
Institute de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperativo 22
Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina 22
Corporaci6n Dominicana de Electricidad 22
Direcci6n Nacional de Parques 23
Jardin Botanico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso" 24
Parque Zoologico Nacional 25
Corporaciones de Presas 25










V. Inter-Institutional Linkages 26

Public Sector 26
Public-Private Sectors 29
Public Sector-International Agencies 29

VI. Human Resources 31

Training 31
Present Labor Force 33
Projected Manpower Needs 38

VII. Budgeting and Financing 44

Sources of Funds 44
Use of Funds 47

VIII. Conclusions and Recommendations 56

IX. Bibliography 61

X. List of Abbreviations 63

XI. List of Persons Interviewed 65


iii














LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

1. Summary listing of current levels and projected increases
in professional-technical staffing by field of
specialization . . . . . . 34

2. Levels of professional and technical staffing by work-
related activities in Dominican institutions . . 37

3. Current members of professionals/technicians and proposed
staffing additions over the next five years by fields of
specialization within each department of SURENA . .. 39

4. Current members of professionals/technicians and proposed
staffing additions over the next five years by fields of
specialization and within each institution . . .. 40

5. Proposed funding for SEA in 1980 . .... .. .... 45

6. Comparison of expenditures by programs in SEA for the 1978-80
period . . . . . . . 46

7. Percentage increases from 1978 to 1980 in SURENA budget 48

8. Comparison of expenditures by program in SURENA for the
1978-80 period . . . . .... 49

9. Expenditures for soils mapping and analysis within the SEA
rural development program for the 1978-80 period . .. 50

10. Expenditures for the forest protection and control program
of the Armed Forces during the 1978-80 period . .. 51

11. Use of funds by SURENA during the 1978-80 period ..... 52

12. Analysis of percentage in the SURENA budget from 1978 to
1980 by expenditure category . . . . 54

13. Analysis of percentage in the Armed Forces budget from
1978 to 1980 for the forest protection and control program
by expenditure category . .. .......... 55














I

INTRODUCTION

This Report on the "Institutional Factors Affecting Natural Resources

Management in the Dominican Republic" was prepared for USAID Washington,

Office of Development Resources, Bureau of Latin America/Caribbean through

JRB Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia (IQC: AID/SOD/PDC C 0247). It

is part of a larger "Country Environmental Profile for the Dominican Re-

public" prepared by a multi-disciplinary team of specialists, Dr. Gary

Hartshorn, Team Leader. While the Report attempts to cover the broad spec-

trum of natural resources management in the country, its principal objective

is to focus more especially on environmental problems and trends as they re-

late to the small farm sector (USAID, 1980).

Many persons assisted in making this study possible. These individuals,

whose collaboration and support proved invaluable, are acknowledged below. A

brief outline follows describing the sequence in which the study findings are

presented.

Acknowledgements

Several persons directly collaborated in the preparation of this Report.

Orlando Amargoz and Fausto Grisanti worked as counterparts in Santo Domingo

and assisted in invaluable ways. The Human Resources Survey was carried out

by a team including the following eight individuals under the supervision of

B6lgica Nunez: Aurelina de Ruiz, Hector Tejeda, Eusebio Castro, Belarinemo

Guzman, Juan Bautista Castillo, Jose Marieta, and Alfredo Marillo. Agapito

Perez Luna, IICA, ably assisted in the design of the questionnaire.














I

INTRODUCTION

This Report on the "Institutional Factors Affecting Natural Resources

Management in the Dominican Republic" was prepared for USAID Washington,

Office of Development Resources, Bureau of Latin America/Caribbean through

JRB Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia (IQC: AID/SOD/PDC C 0247). It

is part of a larger "Country Environmental Profile for the Dominican Re-

public" prepared by a multi-disciplinary team of specialists, Dr. Gary

Hartshorn, Team Leader. While the Report attempts to cover the broad spec-

trum of natural resources management in the country, its principal objective

is to focus more especially on environmental problems and trends as they re-

late to the small farm sector (USAID, 1980).

Many persons assisted in making this study possible. These individuals,

whose collaboration and support proved invaluable, are acknowledged below. A

brief outline follows describing the sequence in which the study findings are

presented.

Acknowledgements

Several persons directly collaborated in the preparation of this Report.

Orlando Amargoz and Fausto Grisanti worked as counterparts in Santo Domingo

and assisted in invaluable ways. The Human Resources Survey was carried out

by a team including the following eight individuals under the supervision of

B6lgica Nunez: Aurelina de Ruiz, Hector Tejeda, Eusebio Castro, Belarinemo

Guzman, Juan Bautista Castillo, Jose Marieta, and Alfredo Marillo. Agapito

Perez Luna, IICA, ably assisted in the design of the questionnaire.









Portions of the text were prepared at the University of Florida,

Gainesville, with the direct collaboration of Jose Enrique Lois (Institu-

tions) and Ernesto de Jesus Nufez (Budgeting and Financing). Messrs. Lois

and Nuhez also provided a general evaluation of the overall contents. With-

out their direct participation in such a constructive manner, the Report

presented herein wu ~. not have been possible.

Plan of Presentation

The substantive portion of this Report is presented in the following

manner. A brief historical background of present national development

policies and the future prospects for natural resources management are dis-

cussed in Section II. There follows in Section III, a review of management

issues concerning land, water, fisheries, forests, and pollution.

A detailed discussion of the objectives and scope of activities of

the sixteen principal institutions concerned with natural resources manage-

ment in the republic is found in Section IV. Problems of inter-institutional

coordination in the public sector and between public private agencies, as

well as international technical assistance efforts are described in Section V.

The Human Resource Profile in Section VI discusses training, present

labor force and projected manpower needs. Funding and the use of budgetary

allotments are found in Section VII, while conclusions and recommendations

are presented in Section VIII. There is appended a bibliography and lists of

abbreviations and persons interviewed.














II

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Background

The Dominican Republic has neither an explicit short nor long-term

policy of environmental and natural resources management (Hip6lito Mejia,

personal communication). Specific short-term actions are taken as the need

arises by any one of several public policy formulating and implementing ag-

encies. This manner of handling environmental matters reflects both the

recent awakening of public sentiment and scientific concern as well as inter-

institutional rivalries that have tended to keep apart rather than foster

closer cooperation (Ml. de Jesus Viiias Caceres, personal communication).

Though Chardon (1937) demonstrated public awareness of the deforestation

and soil erosion problems based on scientific observations as far back as 1937,

very little action could be taken during the years of the Trujillo regime

(1930-61) that was not in the dictator's interest. Rights to land, forest,

and water were controlled outright by Trujillo or through the guise of quasi-

independent companies. After his overthrow in 1961, a wide range of political,

economic and social restrictions were removed. Movements of people, goods and

services became the rule rather than the exception; staged migrations from

rural hamlet to town and city took place.

In the forested mountainous interior of the republic, the demise of the

dictator precipitated mass invasions of lumber company lands that many con-

sidered were owned in part by Trujillo. Standing timber was indiscriminately

cut by peasants intent upon establishing their land claims by introducing

slash-and-burn farms. Some planners and policy makers have suggested that














II

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Background

The Dominican Republic has neither an explicit short nor long-term

policy of environmental and natural resources management (Hip6lito Mejia,

personal communication). Specific short-term actions are taken as the need

arises by any one of several public policy formulating and implementing ag-

encies. This manner of handling environmental matters reflects both the

recent awakening of public sentiment and scientific concern as well as inter-

institutional rivalries that have tended to keep apart rather than foster

closer cooperation (Ml. de Jesus Viiias Caceres, personal communication).

Though Chardon (1937) demonstrated public awareness of the deforestation

and soil erosion problems based on scientific observations as far back as 1937,

very little action could be taken during the years of the Trujillo regime

(1930-61) that was not in the dictator's interest. Rights to land, forest,

and water were controlled outright by Trujillo or through the guise of quasi-

independent companies. After his overthrow in 1961, a wide range of political,

economic and social restrictions were removed. Movements of people, goods and

services became the rule rather than the exception; staged migrations from

rural hamlet to town and city took place.

In the forested mountainous interior of the republic, the demise of the

dictator precipitated mass invasions of lumber company lands that many con-

sidered were owned in part by Trujillo. Standing timber was indiscriminately

cut by peasants intent upon establishing their land claims by introducing

slash-and-burn farms. Some planners and policy makers have suggested that









this indiscriminate cutting of the forests in the early 1960s represented

a true peasant revolt against the dictator's inhumane policies. In 1967,

the OAS estimated that only a fraction of the republic could be classified

as forested. As a result of this indiscriminate cutting, President.Balaguer

decreed a complete cessation of lumbering activities; he placed the matters

of legal enforcement as well as reforestation in the hands of the Armed

Forces (PNUMA, 1977).

The Dominican Republic in the late 1960s and early 1970s was a country

trying to make up for years of social decay and economic stagnation. Relative-

ly rich in natural resources and labor but poor in capital, the country sought

to utilize its base to bolster primary agricultural production. The over-

riding concern was to improve the standard of living of the people. The

method used to achieve this improvement was through fuller integration of

the Dominican economy with foreign markets. Given the country's comparative

advantage in selling agricultural commodities such as sugar and coffee, it

was assumed that export earnings derived from these products could finance

development of the other sectors of the economy.

Unfortunately, a number of serious obstacles surfaced that impeded

development. These obstacles included: (a) inherent weakness ofithe republic's

single crop export sector; (b) weakness of the country's export-dependent

industrialization process; (c) externally caused price fluctuations; (d)

rigidity and fragility of the demand function; and (e) excessive increases

in the country's import bill due to the spiraling cost of fossil fuels.

Collapse of the price of sugar along with dramatic increases in the cost of

imported petroleum in 1976 called for immediate actions to diversify the

economy and improve the rational use of the country's natural resources.

Over the past two years, the government has reoriented economic policy by







5

placing major emphasis on the agricultural and mining sectors.

Current Policies

The present national development policy not only reasserts the previous

administration's goal to improve the social and economic well-being of the

population, but in addition it places emphasis on providing opportunities for

improving the conditions of the poorest segments of society. To achieve these

goals, the medium-range Agricultural Development Plan (ADP) for the 1980-82

period contemplates activities with the following objectives: (a) improve the

nutritional level of the population, especially the two lowest income levels;

(b) increase food production; (c) improve income distribution in the rural

areas; (d) reduce agricultural imports; (e) increase the exports of farm pro-

ducts as a means for alleviating the negative effects caused by price increases

of petroleum products; (f) settle new families on agrarian reform projects and

consolidate settlements; and (g) create new sources of salaried work in the

rural areas (SEA, 1979c).

The ADP program of activities combines direct government action to increase

productivity and improve the standard of living of small-holder agriculturalists

with indirect incentives to stimulate greater private sector involvement in the

development process. This Plan is being carried out at the present time, though

with some variations in the ranking of priorities due to the damage caused by

Hurricanes David and Frederick in 1979.

The Plan's basic objective is to eliminate the condition of malnutrition

in low income population groups. The strategy pursued is to increase food crop

production to benefit both small-holders and salaried farm workers, since both

groups suffer from limited availability of land and low salary levels, situations

which,have given rise to the high rate of under-employment in the rural sector.

The objectives to increase both food production and food supply go hand-

Sin-hand with the need simultaneously to increase available farm income. The







6

Plan does not exclude the role that large farmers should play to more fully

employ and better remunerate on-farm labor. Stated in another way, the Domi-

nican Republic's principal rural development policy is to provide a more

equitable distribution of the factors of production so that increases in agri-

cultural and livestock yields will benefit all income groups, but most

especially the underprivileged small-holders, tenants and salaried farmworkers.

Already, a number of important steps have been taken to stimulate this change

process: applied research, in-service training, institutional reorganization,

credit and other extension services, construction of roads and irrigation works.

Future Prospects

The implications of such developmental impacts on the environment are

unmistakable. Population pressures, the search for universally greater economic

well-being, land restrictions imposed by the country's relatively small size

and absence of any frontier areas awaiting colonization, are factors that

urgently call for the development of short and medium-term strategies that can

harmonize rural development schemes with future natural resources management

policies. The ADP recognizes this need and calls for the formulation of a

natural resources development policy that addresses community or living space

concerns as well as considers factors of production directly related to phy-

sical landscape characteristics such as slopes, land cover, agricultural soils

and water.

The Plan underscores the need to formulate and propose a natural resources

management policy. Obviously, such a clearly established policy does not exist

at the present time. Nonetheless, there is an awareness both in government

circles and in the mind of the general public that the socioeconomic development

goals of the country's growing population must be set within the context of a

finite resource base, that use of such resources should be determined in a







7

manner that does not imperil their use by future generations, and that natural

resources management is a dynamic, constantly changing process whose problems

and solutions must be considered within a holistic framework of relationships

between people and the land (Ramon Perez Minaya and Juan Nufiez, personal

communication).















III

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Land

Land use problems in agricultural areas of the Dominican Republic are

related to three basic factors: (a) rapid increases since 1961 in the total

land area in farm production; (b) shorter fallow periods resulting from farm

area expansion; and (c) increases in pasture land which have occurred at the

expense of forested areas.

According to Sector Analysis (USAID, 1979), small farms (less than

5 hectares) show a more intensive land use with 68 percent of their area in

cyclical and permanent crops. This percentage diminishes to 18 percent for

large farms (30 hectares and above in size). In contrast, natural and im-

proved pastures account for solely 19 percent of small farms but reach 60

percent of the area of large farms.

With adequate rainfall, it is not uncommon to obtain more than one

harvest a year in short cycle crops; production is by intercalation and the

crops include maiz, beans, manioc, plantains and sweet potatoes. Small farms

have 23 percent of their area in intercalated crops while the large farms

have only 2 percent. Expressed in another way, farms with an average size

of 60 hectares devote less than 1 hectare to intercalated crops. Use of

irrigation prompts a shift in agricultural practices since small farms have

reduced areas of intercalated crops where irrigation is practiced.

Cultural practices by small-holder agriculturalists in the cultivation

of food crops reflect a tendency towards intensive use of more fertile lands

(Antonini, 1968). Permanent crop production of sugar cane, fruit crops,















III

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Land

Land use problems in agricultural areas of the Dominican Republic are

related to three basic factors: (a) rapid increases since 1961 in the total

land area in farm production; (b) shorter fallow periods resulting from farm

area expansion; and (c) increases in pasture land which have occurred at the

expense of forested areas.

According to Sector Analysis (USAID, 1979), small farms (less than

5 hectares) show a more intensive land use with 68 percent of their area in

cyclical and permanent crops. This percentage diminishes to 18 percent for

large farms (30 hectares and above in size). In contrast, natural and im-

proved pastures account for solely 19 percent of small farms but reach 60

percent of the area of large farms.

With adequate rainfall, it is not uncommon to obtain more than one

harvest a year in short cycle crops; production is by intercalation and the

crops include maiz, beans, manioc, plantains and sweet potatoes. Small farms

have 23 percent of their area in intercalated crops while the large farms

have only 2 percent. Expressed in another way, farms with an average size

of 60 hectares devote less than 1 hectare to intercalated crops. Use of

irrigation prompts a shift in agricultural practices since small farms have

reduced areas of intercalated crops where irrigation is practiced.

Cultural practices by small-holder agriculturalists in the cultivation

of food crops reflect a tendency towards intensive use of more fertile lands

(Antonini, 1968). Permanent crop production of sugar cane, fruit crops,







9

coffee and cacao manifests a more extensive land use. While adequate rainfall

can be relied upon in certain regions of the republic, in many other areas,

limited precipitation or a scarcity of irrigation water seriously restricts

the extension of agricultural land use. Care must be exercised, therefore,

in advocating an intensification of agricultural use.

The increase in pasture and farm lands at the expense of forested areas

and the ecological ramifications of such changes in the Dominican Republic have

been well documented (Antonini, Ewel and Tupper, 1975). Land use changes dir-

ectly affect, through removal of plant cover, concomitant changes in the hydro-

logy of the soil zone. The amount and kinds of vegetation covering the soil

will determine in large measure the potential for surface water runoff and soil

erosion. Paulet (1977) estimates the prevailing erosion potential in the

mountainous regions at 600 to 1400 tons of soil loss per hectare per year. The

soil erosion problem is acquiring increasing relevance as new hydroelectric and

irrigation works begin to be placed into operation. Some of the existing infra-

structure already has been gravely endangered by sedimentation.

Water

The republic's hydrography is divided into seven irrigation districts and

108 independent drainage nets that cover a surface area of approximately 160,000

hectares. This water resources system has grown notably in recent years with

the construction of numerous dams and irrigation canals.

While there still remains an urgent need to increase the country's harness-

ing capacity, the overriding concern is to improve the existing system of pro-

viding water for agricultural use. Fundamental problems are found in administer-

ing irrigation water. According to the ADP, these problems include: (a) persist-

ence.of laws and regulations that make difficult adoption and implementation of

policies that can improve water management in the irrigation districts; (b)









inadequate land use zoning; (c) under-staffing that inhibits upgrading

technical services; (d) lack of better decentralization in administrative and

operational services; and(e) absence of measurement and water control systems

and continued dependence on an archaic rate for water use (SEA, 1979c).

The present rate structure for water use is obsolete and does not permit

self-financing irrigation services. Cognizant of this problem, INDRHI (1980)

has under review a new tariff structure for water use as well as corresponding

enabling legislation. This action, which assumes establishing a mechanism for

better water control and more efficient irrigation use, as well as proposals

for incorporating users directly into the administration and management of the

irrigation districts, should strengthen water resources administration in the

republic.

Fisheries

Traditionally, fisheries has been given little attention. Recently, however,

a number of public and private sector institutions have intensified research pro-

grams and outreach activities which focus on increasing productivity and the
(
catch.

The Dominican Republic is favorably endowed with extensive and diverse

coastal habitats that offer a variety of fauna and flora of ecologic and economic

value. There persist too "native habitats" with valued indigenous fauna, such

as the Cocodillia spp. and iguanas in Lake Enriquillo.

In recent years, the annual volume of fish caught totaled nine tons of

which 80 percent is marine. The volume of marine fish caught is low and it

reflects the primitive fishing methods used. Results of an INDOTEC study will

be available in the near future which should provide the baseline of information

needed to increase production.

The inland waters for all practical purposes have not been exploited. There









is an extensive stream network and some 2,000 km2 of watershed with numerous

water bodies and temporary lagoons that offer favorable conditions for fresh

water fisheries (SEA, 1979b). In pursuing such development, however, care

must be taken to exercise stricter control of exotic or endangered'fish catches,

such as the turtle and carey (Law 5194, 1969, Decree 600, 1975). Seasonal

sportfishing and hunting, too, should be more strictly regulated.

Forests

The OAS in 1967 estimated that the total forested area of the country was

557,000 hectares (OAS, 1967). Irrational use by sawmills in the 1940s and 1950s

and the wholesale clear-cutting by subsistence farmers in the early 1960s prompted

the government to institute strict control radically halting all such forest

activities. The Armed Forces was made responsible for safeguarding these areas

and for reforestation (Law 206, 1967,, Resolution 104 of FORESTA, Decrees 1998,

1968, and 3777, 1969).

PNUMA (1977) reported 200,000 hectares with conifers and 130,000 hectares

of mixed forests. Both forested zones are located in the Central Cordillera

and are of major economic importance. These forests, however, have been reduced

in area to one-half their coverage of several decades ago, through the act of

shifting cultivation and the lack of control of forest fires.

The termination of commercial logging has permitted adequate regrowth in

some areas; in others, however, shifting cultivation and forest fire damage are

still persistent problems. Recent damage sustained from Hurricane David,

especially on the southern slopes of the Central Cordillera, requires immediate

attention through the region will take years to recooperate.

Pollution

Accelerated socioeconomic development in the Dominican Republic manifests

itself in large-scale rural to urban migration with attending dramatic shifts









is an extensive stream network and some 2,000 km2 of watershed with numerous

water bodies and temporary lagoons that offer favorable conditions for fresh

water fisheries (SEA, 1979b). In pursuing such development, however, care

must be taken to exercise stricter control of exotic or endangered'fish catches,

such as the turtle and carey (Law 5194, 1969, Decree 600, 1975). Seasonal

sportfishing and hunting, too, should be more strictly regulated.

Forests

The OAS in 1967 estimated that the total forested area of the country was

557,000 hectares (OAS, 1967). Irrational use by sawmills in the 1940s and 1950s

and the wholesale clear-cutting by subsistence farmers in the early 1960s prompted

the government to institute strict control radically halting all such forest

activities. The Armed Forces was made responsible for safeguarding these areas

and for reforestation (Law 206, 1967,, Resolution 104 of FORESTA, Decrees 1998,

1968, and 3777, 1969).

PNUMA (1977) reported 200,000 hectares with conifers and 130,000 hectares

of mixed forests. Both forested zones are located in the Central Cordillera

and are of major economic importance. These forests, however, have been reduced

in area to one-half their coverage of several decades ago, through the act of

shifting cultivation and the lack of control of forest fires.

The termination of commercial logging has permitted adequate regrowth in

some areas; in others, however, shifting cultivation and forest fire damage are

still persistent problems. Recent damage sustained from Hurricane David,

especially on the southern slopes of the Central Cordillera, requires immediate

attention through the region will take years to recooperate.

Pollution

Accelerated socioeconomic development in the Dominican Republic manifests

itself in large-scale rural to urban migration with attending dramatic shifts









in population and settlement patterns. In 1960, 65 percent of the population

was rural; today, 55 percent is urban. The absence of urban planning and the

failure to provide for adequate water supply and waste disposal have led to

serious pollution problems and environmental degradation (Antonini, 1976).

Pefta Franjul (1978) states that in most cities and rural communities of

the republic, it is very risky to drink water since in most instances the water

sources are affected by chemical and bacteriological contamination. Treatment-of

these sources is meager and it is generally recommended to boil water for drink-

ing purposes. Indeed, poor water quality gives rise to high indices of infant

mortality and morbidity (Miranda, 1974).

Air pollution is another environmental problem that requires urgent attention.

The mining operations as well as the construction and light industries are the

principal sources of air contamination. Some are high polluters and indiscrimin-

ately discharge industrial waste into the air and rivers; others have adopted

preventive measures (Pefa Franjul, 1978).














IV

INSTITUTIONS

There are approximately twenty-six institutions involved with

environmental and natural resources-related matters in the Dominican Republic.

Of these, eighteen are public sector agencies. Some agencies, such as PARQUES,

ZOOLOGICO, BOTANICO, and the dam corporations, were created and function as

special entities directly under the President's Office; another agency type, such

as PLAN SIERRA, is a mixed unit with public as well as private sector participation.

Institutions in the private sector that have some relationship with

natural resources and the environment are the following: UCMM~ UNPHUI UCE; the

vocational agricultural schools, LOYOLA, SALESIANA, and DAJABON; the Dominican

Ornithological Society; the Dominican Conservation Society; andthe Caribbean

Ecological Society.

Of the nine private institutions, six are educational and some carry out

research; three are small conservation organizations devoted to preserving the

flora and fauna of the country. The universities and technological schools are

treated in Section VI-Training of this chapter, while the conservation associa-

tions are discussed in other chapters under relevant headings.

Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura

SEA is governed by Law 8 dated September 8, 1965 and Statute 1142 dated

April 28, 1966. Though this legislation remains in force, SEA's internal st-

ructure has varied significantly and is very different from its originally con-

ceived form. Indeed, Congress is considering new legislation that would modify

substantially the Secretariat's legal base.

SEA contains six undersecretariats, thirty-six departments and eight














IV

INSTITUTIONS

There are approximately twenty-six institutions involved with

environmental and natural resources-related matters in the Dominican Republic.

Of these, eighteen are public sector agencies. Some agencies, such as PARQUES,

ZOOLOGICO, BOTANICO, and the dam corporations, were created and function as

special entities directly under the President's Office; another agency type, such

as PLAN SIERRA, is a mixed unit with public as well as private sector participation.

Institutions in the private sector that have some relationship with

natural resources and the environment are the following: UCMM~ UNPHUI UCE; the

vocational agricultural schools, LOYOLA, SALESIANA, and DAJABON; the Dominican

Ornithological Society; the Dominican Conservation Society; andthe Caribbean

Ecological Society.

Of the nine private institutions, six are educational and some carry out

research; three are small conservation organizations devoted to preserving the

flora and fauna of the country. The universities and technological schools are

treated in Section VI-Training of this chapter, while the conservation associa-

tions are discussed in other chapters under relevant headings.

Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura

SEA is governed by Law 8 dated September 8, 1965 and Statute 1142 dated

April 28, 1966. Though this legislation remains in force, SEA's internal st-

ructure has varied significantly and is very different from its originally con-

ceived form. Indeed, Congress is considering new legislation that would modify

substantially the Secretariat's legal base.

SEA contains six undersecretariats, thirty-six departments and eight









regional offices. SURENA is the unit within SEA that deals with natural

resources; SEICA has some activities in this field, mostly through the Soil

Testing Laboratory in San Crist6bal. The regional offices are operational

units charged with carrying out programs and projects.

SEA's responsibilities are: (a) to formulate and direct the republic's

agricultural policies in accordance with national development goals and in

coordination with other public agencies in the sector; (b) to study and monitor

the socioeconomic aspects of agricultural production, distribution and consumpt-

ion; (c) to manage the use of renewable natural resources; (d) to rationalize

present with potential land use by promoting improvements in agricultural techno-

logy and upgrading the training of farmers and technicians; (e) to promote

agricultural production and protect such production from pests and diseases; (f)

to review and approve annual budgets of institutions in the agricultural sector;

and (g) to monitor, participate in and regulate all matters related to the nation's

agricultural development (Jose Enrique Lois, personal communication).

SURENA is responsible for managing renewable natural resource use in the

Dominican Republic. The laws and statutes in force that assign to it such a

mandate are: Law 8 (September 8, 1965) management and conservation of land re-

sources and the environment; Law 85 (February 4, 1931) hunting; Law 5914 (May 22,

1962) fishing; and Law 8 (September 8, 1965) weather forecasting. The key

functions of each department in SURENA are listed below.

The Meteorological Service has the following responsibilities: (a) to

maintain climatological stations throughout the country, analyze station data

and periodically report short as well as long-term trends in weather and climate;

(b) provide synoptic daily weather forecasts for marine and air navigation; (c)

offer.training in the field of meteorology; (d) conduct studies of the atmos-

phere; and (e) establish guidelines and control mechanisms to detect any









activities that may induce air pollution (SURENA, 1979). The Department recently

acquired new equipment to improve its service. The importance of the Meteorologi-

cal Service was highlighted in 1979 by increased public awareness after Hurricane

David (Angel Felix Deh6, personal communication)-

Fisheries Resources is responsible for: (a) monitoring compliance with

statutes that regulate fisheries exploitation in the country; (b) promoting

rational resource use in marine and fresh water areas; (c) obtaining baseline

information that will permit such rational use; (d) sponsoring oceanographic re-

search to guarantee the optimum use of the habitats; (e) maintaining and improving

water quality as a living environment in order to guarantee its productivity; (f)

acting as the sector's principal administrative-implementing agency charged with

coordinating inter-institutional activities related to fisheries resources (SURENA,

1979). Though this Department has existed for sometime, it has functioned

effectively only in the last two years. The Department supervises a number of

action programs, one of the most important is the PIDAGRO III Aquaculture Pro-

ject financed by IABD; it also undertakes research to increase fresh water

fish catch.

The Department of Inventory and Evaluation is a research unit responsible

for conducting studies on the potentialities of natural resource use in the re-

public. It was recently created and is an outgrowth of the GODR-USDA-Michigan

State University Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evalaation System (CRIES).

The Department has two key functions, the first of which is to carry out, update

and maintain an inventory of renewable natural resources of the country. The

objective of such an inventory is to provide precise information concerning the

quantity and quality of each natural resource factor input. This inventory is

being.carried out in coordination with other SURENA departments as well as other

public and private institutions that generate primary information concerning all









natural resources factors. The Department has a specialized remote sensing

unit. The other important function is to establish and maintain an archive

of published documents concerning the topic (Gustavo Tirado, personal communi-

cation).

The principal functions of the Wildlife Department are: (a) to promote

the conservation of wild terrestrial and marine animal species for reproductive,

scientific, educational and recreational purposes; (b) to carry out an inventory

of fauna for guiding more optimal use of wildlife areas; (c) to promote the con-

servation and reproduction of endangered species; (d) to control the introduction

of new wildlife species and to establish a system for regulating wildlife re-

sources. This Department only began to function two years ago. Presently, it

carries out a number of programs in the areas of wildlife preservation and food

production (Marcos Peina Franjul, personal communication).

The Department of Water and Land has four key functions which are: (a)

to set policy guidelines for water and land management and to provide channels

through which corrective measures considered in the laws and statutes can be en-

forced; (b) to assist in the preparation of watershed management plans and to

rank by priority such plans and projects that attempt to resolve the problems

attending resource conservation; (c) to review projects concerned with resource

development in urban-suburban areas as well, in terms of their technical validity

and compatibility with other prospective plans and policies, in as much as they

may affect present and future natural resource use; (d) to offer technical assist-

ance to farmers in preparing and carrying out more efficiently plans for the

management and conservation of land and water resources (Italo Russo, personal

communication). The Department is presently carrying out a land and water con-

servation project under the auspices of PPA II (SEA, 1977).

In addition to these five principal departments, SURENA has an Office of









Technical Coordination and an Environmental Education Unit (SURENA, 1979).

The Office is responsible for the overall elaboration of policies, development

of inter-institutional collaborative efforts at the local and international

levels; it also is in charge of program development and provides technical

backstopping to the Undersecretary of Natural Resources. The Environmental

Education Unit is responsible for promoting a public awareness for natural re-

sources management. It attempts to achieve this goal by developing short courses

for teachers, technicians and farmers. The Unit also is charged with providing

supportive materials for diffusion purposes (Italo Russo, personal communication).

Secretariado T6cnico de la Presidencia

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (MEDIO AMBIENTE) of

the President's Technical Secretariat was created in 1977 to monitor national

policies as well as to develop normative plans in the area. Though handicapped

by limited staff and resources,the Department has actively pursued the introduction

of natural resources management elements into national development planning

(Gretel Castellanos, personal communication).

The Department is an executive unit within the Office of the Technical

Undersecretary; as such, it is outside the formal national planning framework,

though its personnel actively collaborate with ONAPLAN on a need basis.

MEDIO AMBIENTE has been most active in working on the establishment of an

inter-institutional coordinating Council forNatural Resources Management (CONARENA)

in the republic (Pedro J. Bona Prandy, personal communication). It has also

collaborated with ONAPLAN in preparing multi-sector regionalization plans for

the Southwest and Eastern Cibao; and it has been involved in preparing reports

on the environmental impact of various development schemes.

Direcci6n General de Catastro

CATASTRO is a unit of the State Secretariat of Finances. It carries out









Technical Coordination and an Environmental Education Unit (SURENA, 1979).

The Office is responsible for the overall elaboration of policies, development

of inter-institutional collaborative efforts at the local and international

levels; it also is in charge of program development and provides technical

backstopping to the Undersecretary of Natural Resources. The Environmental

Education Unit is responsible for promoting a public awareness for natural re-

sources management. It attempts to achieve this goal by developing short courses

for teachers, technicians and farmers. The Unit also is charged with providing

supportive materials for diffusion purposes (Italo Russo, personal communication).

Secretariado T6cnico de la Presidencia

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (MEDIO AMBIENTE) of

the President's Technical Secretariat was created in 1977 to monitor national

policies as well as to develop normative plans in the area. Though handicapped

by limited staff and resources,the Department has actively pursued the introduction

of natural resources management elements into national development planning

(Gretel Castellanos, personal communication).

The Department is an executive unit within the Office of the Technical

Undersecretary; as such, it is outside the formal national planning framework,

though its personnel actively collaborate with ONAPLAN on a need basis.

MEDIO AMBIENTE has been most active in working on the establishment of an

inter-institutional coordinating Council forNatural Resources Management (CONARENA)

in the republic (Pedro J. Bona Prandy, personal communication). It has also

collaborated with ONAPLAN in preparing multi-sector regionalization plans for

the Southwest and Eastern Cibao; and it has been involved in preparing reports

on the environmental impact of various development schemes.

Direcci6n General de Catastro

CATASTRO is a unit of the State Secretariat of Finances. It carries out









the important function of servicing the rural cadastral needs of the country.

Already half of all farms have been surveyed under a program sponsored by

PIDAGRO I. The remaining farms will be surveyed under provisions called for

by PIDAGRO III. CATASTRO can provide important baseline information that will

be helpful in orienting future environmental policy (SEA, 1979a).

Direcci6n General Forestal

FORESTA was created by Decree 8086 on May 5, 1962 as a unit of SEA.

Law 5856 dated April 2, 1962 states as its principal objective the establishment

of norms for conserving, restoring, and using the country's forest resources.

This law substitutes Law 1688 (1948) concerning the conservation of forests and

fruit trees. Law 426 (1966) broadens the powers of FORESTA in conservation-

related matters.

The grave ecological consequences brought about by indiscriminate forest

cutting in 1966 and 1967 propelled the government through Law 206 (1967) to

charge the Armed Forces with monitoring, conserving, and upgrading yields from

forested areas. Thus, in 1967, FORESTA was transferred to and became a dependency

of the State Secretariat of the Armed Forces.

Resolution 104 (1967) declared as an important national interest an active

and permanent reforestation program; Decree 1998 (1968) created an inter-municipal

level commission charged with protecting the national forest; and Decree 3777

(1969) promulgated that only in exceptional cases could permission be authorized

for cutting trees and then only with the prior approval of the President.

The general functions of FORESTA are: (a) to carry out a forest inventory

as well as studies of forest exploitation, reforestation and management; (b)

to establish norms for the proper use of forest resources on State and private

lands; (c) to plan forest-related projects according to availability of resources

and needs of specific regions; (d) to regulate by law timber cutting concessions









in the country; (e) to monitor compliance with statutes governing conservation

and reforestation; (f) to promote campaigns for reforestation and forest con-

servation and monitor their development; (g) to carry out studies to determine

indigenous forest species, exotic species with rapid growth characteristics

adaptable to the ecological conditions of the country, as well as possible new

future uses of wood products (Ramon Rodriguez, personal communication).

A law calling for the reintegration of agencies in the public agricultural

sector is being discussed by Congress (SEA, 1980). This proposed legislation

calls for shifting FORESTA over to SEA. Should this occur, it would maintain

decentralized operations although it would be legally and administratively inte-

grated within SEA.

Institute Agrario Dominicano

Law 5859 (April 27, 1962) created IAD. By law, the Institute answers to

SEA and is controlled by a Directive Council presided over by the Secretary of

Agriculture. According to Law 496 dated October 1969, the President of the Re-

public designates all top management personnel including the Director, Sub-

director and Secretary (ONAP, 1980). This statute remains in force and un-

doubtedly has affected IAD's administrative efficiency and operational capacity.

The principal objective of IAD is to transform the latifundio-minifundio

structures of land tenure into a more egalatarian system. Its most important

functions are: (a) to distribute parcels of State land with the facilities needed

to establish settlements of underprivileged farm families, and to establish a

permanent and effective agrarian reform; and (b) to sponsor education and techni-

cal training programs for farm workers and their families (Ernesto de Jesus Nunez,

personal communication). At one time, IAD had a Soil Classification Division that

duplicated functions of the Soils Departmentin SEA. Recently, however, this

Division has been dissolved and its functions assumed by SEA.









Plan Sierra

PLAN SIERRA is an integrated rural development scheme that was initiated

in 1979. It is directed by an executive council with members drawn from the

public and private.sectors; nonetheless, it is dependent on SEA for its appro-

priations (Blas Santos, personal communication). The Plan's objectives include

the conservation and rational use of natural resources in the Sierra region of

the Central Cordillera. In addition to efforts in the natural resources manage-

ment field,the Plan includes projects in crop and animal production, public

health, education and rural organization (SEA, 1979e).

PLAN SIERRA is a unique and important institutional experiment: it is

a mixed private-public venture; it is decentralized in that the Plan administers

its own resources assigned through SEA; and it is headquartered in the town of

San Jose de las Matas which is located in the impact region (Antonini and York,

1979).

Institute Dominicano de Tecnologfa

INDOTEC is the research agency of the Central Bank of the Dominican Republic.

Its principal objective is to contribute to the industrial development of the

country through research, analytical services, training, as well as the provision

of technical, marketing information.

INDOTEC recently carried out studies of fisheries resources. One of these

studies deals with problems related to fisheries exploitation in the country.

Another contains proposals to increase marine and fresh water fish production

(Jose Enrique Lois, personal communication).

Institute Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos

INDRHI was created as an autonomous agency under Law 6 dated September 8, 1965.

This agency is responsible for water resources use in the republic. Its principal

functions are: (a) to plan, construct, and operate water works for irrigation









Plan Sierra

PLAN SIERRA is an integrated rural development scheme that was initiated

in 1979. It is directed by an executive council with members drawn from the

public and private.sectors; nonetheless, it is dependent on SEA for its appro-

priations (Blas Santos, personal communication). The Plan's objectives include

the conservation and rational use of natural resources in the Sierra region of

the Central Cordillera. In addition to efforts in the natural resources manage-

ment field,the Plan includes projects in crop and animal production, public

health, education and rural organization (SEA, 1979e).

PLAN SIERRA is a unique and important institutional experiment: it is

a mixed private-public venture; it is decentralized in that the Plan administers

its own resources assigned through SEA; and it is headquartered in the town of

San Jose de las Matas which is located in the impact region (Antonini and York,

1979).

Institute Dominicano de Tecnologfa

INDOTEC is the research agency of the Central Bank of the Dominican Republic.

Its principal objective is to contribute to the industrial development of the

country through research, analytical services, training, as well as the provision

of technical, marketing information.

INDOTEC recently carried out studies of fisheries resources. One of these

studies deals with problems related to fisheries exploitation in the country.

Another contains proposals to increase marine and fresh water fish production

(Jose Enrique Lois, personal communication).

Institute Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos

INDRHI was created as an autonomous agency under Law 6 dated September 8, 1965.

This agency is responsible for water resources use in the republic. Its principal

functions are: (a) to plan, construct, and operate water works for irrigation









Plan Sierra

PLAN SIERRA is an integrated rural development scheme that was initiated

in 1979. It is directed by an executive council with members drawn from the

public and private.sectors; nonetheless, it is dependent on SEA for its appro-

priations (Blas Santos, personal communication). The Plan's objectives include

the conservation and rational use of natural resources in the Sierra region of

the Central Cordillera. In addition to efforts in the natural resources manage-

ment field,the Plan includes projects in crop and animal production, public

health, education and rural organization (SEA, 1979e).

PLAN SIERRA is a unique and important institutional experiment: it is

a mixed private-public venture; it is decentralized in that the Plan administers

its own resources assigned through SEA; and it is headquartered in the town of

San Jose de las Matas which is located in the impact region (Antonini and York,

1979).

Institute Dominicano de Tecnologfa

INDOTEC is the research agency of the Central Bank of the Dominican Republic.

Its principal objective is to contribute to the industrial development of the

country through research, analytical services, training, as well as the provision

of technical, marketing information.

INDOTEC recently carried out studies of fisheries resources. One of these

studies deals with problems related to fisheries exploitation in the country.

Another contains proposals to increase marine and fresh water fish production

(Jose Enrique Lois, personal communication).

Institute Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos

INDRHI was created as an autonomous agency under Law 6 dated September 8, 1965.

This agency is responsible for water resources use in the republic. Its principal

functions are: (a) to plan, construct, and operate water works for irrigation







21

purposes (b) to conserve water resources and develop systems for water

management; and (c) to determine the future needs of infrastructural works for

energy use.

INDRHI historically has had difficulty in coordinating its activities with

other governmental agencies in related fields. For example, it maintains both

meteorological as well as fluviometric stations in its project areas. A case

could be made for placing all weather stations under the Meteorological Service.

Similarly, its Agrological Division carries out reconnaissance studies of water-

shed areas, such as the Hatillo dam site, and executes reforestation programs

but without coordination with the CDE, FORESTA or the Department of Water and

Land of SEA. On the positive side, however, the Agrological Division carries

out soil conservation in the Sabana Yegua dam area in coordination with the De-

partment of Water and Land (Fausto Grisanti, personal communication).

The lack of coordination between INDRHI and SEA is extended also to the

area of water use. Hence, there is a poor use of irrigation water. Though

INDRHI is responsible by law for the management of surface and underground

water, there is no national policy and subsequently no specific normative

actions in this area.

Institute Nacional de Aguas Potables y Alcantarillado and the
Corporaci6n de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo

INAPA was created as an autonomous agency by Law 5994 dated July 30, 1962.

It is part of the health sector and has the basic functions of planning, de-

signing, constructing, administering and operating all water supply and waste

disposal systems for urban and rural sectors of the country. CAASD was created

by Law 498 on April 11, 1973. It is also an autonomous agency whose functions

are the same as INAPA's but are restricted to Santo Domingo City. Both agencies

are under the President's Office.







21

purposes (b) to conserve water resources and develop systems for water

management; and (c) to determine the future needs of infrastructural works for

energy use.

INDRHI historically has had difficulty in coordinating its activities with

other governmental agencies in related fields. For example, it maintains both

meteorological as well as fluviometric stations in its project areas. A case

could be made for placing all weather stations under the Meteorological Service.

Similarly, its Agrological Division carries out reconnaissance studies of water-

shed areas, such as the Hatillo dam site, and executes reforestation programs

but without coordination with the CDE, FORESTA or the Department of Water and

Land of SEA. On the positive side, however, the Agrological Division carries

out soil conservation in the Sabana Yegua dam area in coordination with the De-

partment of Water and Land (Fausto Grisanti, personal communication).

The lack of coordination between INDRHI and SEA is extended also to the

area of water use. Hence, there is a poor use of irrigation water. Though

INDRHI is responsible by law for the management of surface and underground

water, there is no national policy and subsequently no specific normative

actions in this area.

Institute Nacional de Aguas Potables y Alcantarillado and the
Corporaci6n de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo

INAPA was created as an autonomous agency by Law 5994 dated July 30, 1962.

It is part of the health sector and has the basic functions of planning, de-

signing, constructing, administering and operating all water supply and waste

disposal systems for urban and rural sectors of the country. CAASD was created

by Law 498 on April 11, 1973. It is also an autonomous agency whose functions

are the same as INAPA's but are restricted to Santo Domingo City. Both agencies

are under the President's Office.









Institute de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperativo

IDECOOP is an autonomous agency created by Law 31, dated December 25, 1963.

Its principal objective is to promote.cooperative organizations in the country

through education, technical assistance and financial sponsorship. At the pre-

sent time, IDECOOP is carrying out a fisheries project with external financing.

Begun in 1977, the objective of this project is to improve local methods of

the catch; its overall objective is to increase the availability of fish as a

food and thus reduce the protein deficiency of the population (Jose Enrique Lois,

personal communication).

Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina

CIBIMA is a unit of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo. Its ob-

jectives are: (a) to better use marine resources for the socioeconomic benefit

of the country; and (b) to achieve scientific advances for the university in the

field of marine sciences.

CIBIMA operates within the Department of Biology in the Faculty of

Science. It regularly offers courses in the marine sciences and biology; it

possesses facilities for organizing seminars, short courses and exchanges with

foreign visiting professors (CIBIMA, 1980).

The Center functions under agreements with SEA, INDRHI and the Dominican

Academy of Science. The SEA agreement was signed in 1976 and extended in 1977;

these agreements have channelled external financing to the Center under PPA I

and PPA II (CIBIMA SEA, 1977). In 1979, Hurricane David destroyed CIBIMA's

installations with a valued loss of $200,000.

Corporaci6n Dominicana de Electricidad

CDE was created by Law 4115 dated April 21, 1955 and Decree 555 of January

16, 1955. Its functions are the production, transmission and distribution of

electric energy in the country. CDE has an Agroforestry Department charged with:









Institute de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperativo

IDECOOP is an autonomous agency created by Law 31, dated December 25, 1963.

Its principal objective is to promote.cooperative organizations in the country

through education, technical assistance and financial sponsorship. At the pre-

sent time, IDECOOP is carrying out a fisheries project with external financing.

Begun in 1977, the objective of this project is to improve local methods of

the catch; its overall objective is to increase the availability of fish as a

food and thus reduce the protein deficiency of the population (Jose Enrique Lois,

personal communication).

Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina

CIBIMA is a unit of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo. Its ob-

jectives are: (a) to better use marine resources for the socioeconomic benefit

of the country; and (b) to achieve scientific advances for the university in the

field of marine sciences.

CIBIMA operates within the Department of Biology in the Faculty of

Science. It regularly offers courses in the marine sciences and biology; it

possesses facilities for organizing seminars, short courses and exchanges with

foreign visiting professors (CIBIMA, 1980).

The Center functions under agreements with SEA, INDRHI and the Dominican

Academy of Science. The SEA agreement was signed in 1976 and extended in 1977;

these agreements have channelled external financing to the Center under PPA I

and PPA II (CIBIMA SEA, 1977). In 1979, Hurricane David destroyed CIBIMA's

installations with a valued loss of $200,000.

Corporaci6n Dominicana de Electricidad

CDE was created by Law 4115 dated April 21, 1955 and Decree 555 of January

16, 1955. Its functions are the production, transmission and distribution of

electric energy in the country. CDE has an Agroforestry Department charged with:









Institute de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperativo

IDECOOP is an autonomous agency created by Law 31, dated December 25, 1963.

Its principal objective is to promote.cooperative organizations in the country

through education, technical assistance and financial sponsorship. At the pre-

sent time, IDECOOP is carrying out a fisheries project with external financing.

Begun in 1977, the objective of this project is to improve local methods of

the catch; its overall objective is to increase the availability of fish as a

food and thus reduce the protein deficiency of the population (Jose Enrique Lois,

personal communication).

Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina

CIBIMA is a unit of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo. Its ob-

jectives are: (a) to better use marine resources for the socioeconomic benefit

of the country; and (b) to achieve scientific advances for the university in the

field of marine sciences.

CIBIMA operates within the Department of Biology in the Faculty of

Science. It regularly offers courses in the marine sciences and biology; it

possesses facilities for organizing seminars, short courses and exchanges with

foreign visiting professors (CIBIMA, 1980).

The Center functions under agreements with SEA, INDRHI and the Dominican

Academy of Science. The SEA agreement was signed in 1976 and extended in 1977;

these agreements have channelled external financing to the Center under PPA I

and PPA II (CIBIMA SEA, 1977). In 1979, Hurricane David destroyed CIBIMA's

installations with a valued loss of $200,000.

Corporaci6n Dominicana de Electricidad

CDE was created by Law 4115 dated April 21, 1955 and Decree 555 of January

16, 1955. Its functions are the production, transmission and distribution of

electric energy in the country. CDE has an Agroforestry Department charged with:







23

(a) reforesting high watershed areas; (b) planting fruits and other trees

in the areas directly adjacent to the dams and reservoirs; and (c) felling

and planting pines for use by CDE in the production of light posts (ONAP, 1980).

This Department coordinated activities with.SEA, FORESTA and INDRHI. In

early 1978, it was dissolved and the first and second functions were passed to

SEA. The former CDE staff in Augast 1979 assisted SEA in efforts directed to

rechannel streams and rivers around Constanza affected by Hurricanes David,

Frederick and Allen. CDE still discharges the felling and planting of pine trees

for light posts.

CDE administers the large hydroelectric projects, a fact that has led to

a weakening of INDRHI and to an even greater independency of action by CDE.

There are conflicts between these two agencies with respect to the management

of dams since INDRHI's interest lies in the use of water for irrigation purposes

while CDE's interest is in producing electric energy. Recently, an inter-

institutional agreement was signed creating norms for regulating both functions

and setting the stage for establishing mutually compatible guidelines for regulat-

ing water use in the hydroelectric projects (J.R. Leandro Guzman Rodriguez, per-

sonal communication).

Direcci6n Nacional de Parques

PARQUES was created by Law 67 (November 1974) as a unit of the President's

Office. Its principal objective is the conservation and study of the environment

in areas termed "national parks" located in rural, urban and recreational areas

as well as at historic sites. ZOOLOGICO and BOTANICO were also included in this

category; Law 67 (1974) declared the area around the Zoo a conservation zone.

The national parks of greatest importance in the republic are the J. Armando

Bermudez and Jose Carmen Ramirez with 77,972 and 76,976 hectares, respectively.

Both are located in the very wet montane and low montane forested uplands. These








24

are the source areas of the country's principal rivers and the parks existence

as conservation zones are amply justified. The smaller, remaining parks are the

following: Puerto Plata and Cape Francis on the north coast; Cabritos Island;

Del Este, with 43,000 hectares in the southeast and including the largest island

in the republic; the southern littoral in the National District; and the north-

central area, termed the Haitises, with 20,578 hectares All of these sites

have been declared national parks by law (PNUMA, 1977).

The most important functions of PARQUES are: (a) to guarantee the public

right to recreational land and to enjoy contact with nature in its pristine

state; (b) to provide study areas where management techniques can be tested and

directed to achieve stability in natural ecosystems; (c) to set aside areas where

the populace can participate in direct observations of nature and complement such

observations with environmental education courses and lectures, both actions

directed to make people conscious of their relation with the environment and their

responsibilities towards it.

Though PARQUES concentrates its actions in specific areas, it maintains ade-

quate contacts with SURENA and actively collaborates with FORESTA (Marcos Peia

Franjul, personal communication). Given the parallelism between both SEA and

PARQUES, however, the law proposing integration of the agricultural sector con-

templates shifting National Parks to SEA.

Jardin Botanico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso"

BOTANICO was created by Law 456 (October 12, 1976) with modifications in

its legal base enacted under Law 921 (August 14, 1978). Normative direction is

by a Technical Consultant and Administrator, both of whom are appointed for in-

definite periods by the President. The principal functions of BOTANICO are:

(a) to strengthen education and culture in what concerns botany and the bio-

logical sciences; (b) to carry out studies of Dominican flora and preserve









ecological zones that have suffered damage; and (c) to undertake studies

in botany and ecology in coordination with PARQUES (ONAP, 1980).

Parque Zoologico Nacional

ZOOLOGICO was created on January 3, 1975 by.Law 114. Decree 451 (December

24, 1974) declared protected all of the flora and fauna that surrounds the Park.

ZOOLOGICO is a unit of the Presidency. Its principal functions are: (a) to

study the ecology of indigenous species of vertebrates in the different habitats

of the island; (b) to develop biological studies and promote development of a

popular awareness concerning indigenous species; (c) to maintain adequate numbers

of indigenous and exotic species in captivity; (d) to contribute to the ecologi-

cal reserves through studies and publication (ONAP, 1980).

Both BOTANICO and ZOOLOGICO have newly constructed, modern facilities which

permit them to develop program activities without hindrance. Furthermore, both

agencies count with adequate economic resources and the support of the local

universities.

Corporaciones de Presas

Five autonomous corporations have been created by Presidential Decree and

made responsible for the construction of hydropower facilities. These agencies

were established because of the inherent weakness in existing governmental in-

stitutions and because of the greater ease with which political control and

fiscal restraints could be exercised.

The following corporations have been established and the costs of the

corresponding works are as follows: Hatillo ($85 million); Valdesia ($52 million);

Rincon ($26 million); Sabaneta ($45 million); and Sabana Yegua ($82 million). In

reality, the administration of these corporations is delegated by the President

to a small group of trusted, responsible individuals. The agencies function

with minuscule staff and cease to exist with the completion of the project. The

works are then turned over to INDRHI or CDE (L. Guzman, personal communication).









ecological zones that have suffered damage; and (c) to undertake studies

in botany and ecology in coordination with PARQUES (ONAP, 1980).

Parque Zoologico Nacional

ZOOLOGICO was created on January 3, 1975 by.Law 114. Decree 451 (December

24, 1974) declared protected all of the flora and fauna that surrounds the Park.

ZOOLOGICO is a unit of the Presidency. Its principal functions are: (a) to

study the ecology of indigenous species of vertebrates in the different habitats

of the island; (b) to develop biological studies and promote development of a

popular awareness concerning indigenous species; (c) to maintain adequate numbers

of indigenous and exotic species in captivity; (d) to contribute to the ecologi-

cal reserves through studies and publication (ONAP, 1980).

Both BOTANICO and ZOOLOGICO have newly constructed, modern facilities which

permit them to develop program activities without hindrance. Furthermore, both

agencies count with adequate economic resources and the support of the local

universities.

Corporaciones de Presas

Five autonomous corporations have been created by Presidential Decree and

made responsible for the construction of hydropower facilities. These agencies

were established because of the inherent weakness in existing governmental in-

stitutions and because of the greater ease with which political control and

fiscal restraints could be exercised.

The following corporations have been established and the costs of the

corresponding works are as follows: Hatillo ($85 million); Valdesia ($52 million);

Rincon ($26 million); Sabaneta ($45 million); and Sabana Yegua ($82 million). In

reality, the administration of these corporations is delegated by the President

to a small group of trusted, responsible individuals. The agencies function

with minuscule staff and cease to exist with the completion of the project. The

works are then turned over to INDRHI or CDE (L. Guzman, personal communication).














V

INTER-INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES

Public Sector

There exist an ample range of public institutions that carry out activities

related to environmental and natural resources management. These institutions

have an incredibly complex and heterogeneous character since each is charged

with specific and at times, unique missions.

That there are problems of division of interest and institutional conflicts

is due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned each of the different

public agencies, as it is to the absence of a natural resources policy. The ADP

calls for passage of enabling legislation to define specific policies for soil,

water and forest resources. The Plan also recognizes the importance of strength-

ening SURENA as the principal normative-operational unit in the natural resources

sector. Another specific recommendation in the Plan is the call for creating a

Council for Natural Resources Management (CONARENA) as the instrument needed to

harmonize and coordinate policy formulation and implementation amongst the var-

ious public and private institutions (SEA, 1979d).

Land Resources. Though positive steps very recently have been taken by

integrating IAD's Soils Department and the Agroforestry Division of CDE into SEA,

there still persist some problems with INDRHI's Agrological Division and the

parallel functions that this Division possesses with SURENA. Greater coordina-

tion needs to be achieved between CATASTRO and SEA since their functions are

closely related.

Water Resources. This problem is more complex since there are a larger

number of institutions involved. There are conflicts between INDRHI and SEA with














V

INTER-INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES

Public Sector

There exist an ample range of public institutions that carry out activities

related to environmental and natural resources management. These institutions

have an incredibly complex and heterogeneous character since each is charged

with specific and at times, unique missions.

That there are problems of division of interest and institutional conflicts

is due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned each of the different

public agencies, as it is to the absence of a natural resources policy. The ADP

calls for passage of enabling legislation to define specific policies for soil,

water and forest resources. The Plan also recognizes the importance of strength-

ening SURENA as the principal normative-operational unit in the natural resources

sector. Another specific recommendation in the Plan is the call for creating a

Council for Natural Resources Management (CONARENA) as the instrument needed to

harmonize and coordinate policy formulation and implementation amongst the var-

ious public and private institutions (SEA, 1979d).

Land Resources. Though positive steps very recently have been taken by

integrating IAD's Soils Department and the Agroforestry Division of CDE into SEA,

there still persist some problems with INDRHI's Agrological Division and the

parallel functions that this Division possesses with SURENA. Greater coordina-

tion needs to be achieved between CATASTRO and SEA since their functions are

closely related.

Water Resources. This problem is more complex since there are a larger

number of institutions involved. There are conflicts between INDRHI and SEA with









regard to a water resources management policy as well as in the activities

that each carries out; steps are being taken at the field level to mollify

these problems.

The management of dams and reservoirs poses a classic confrontation

between CDE's interest to devote such infrastructure to intensive energy use

and INDRHI's efforts to use water downstream for irrigation purposes. Both

institutions have very different priorities and these conflicts will continue

to arise if no overall national policy is adopted. Recently, the executives

of both institutions signed an inter-institutional agreement to form a technical

commission to study the problem and present viable solutions.

The creation of corporations to construct dams and reservoirs is an

obvious parallelism with functions that were mandated under law to INDRHI. It has

been argued that these corporations were created out of a lack of faith in INDRHI's

ability, as much by the government as by international lending agencies, to

carry out these very costly projects. However, had an opportunity been given to

INDRHI in the first place, and if resources provided to the corporations had

been directed to the Institute to upgrade personnel, equipment and materials, it

is possible that this institution today probably would be much more efficient

technically and administratively.

INAPA and CAASD have very specific functions and it is recommended that

they coordinate closely, especially in the rural areas with respect to the treat-

ment of potable water. Such coordination can be established at the normative level

between SEA, SESPAS and INDRHI.

Wildlife Resources. The responsibilities related to wildlife are concen-

trated in SEA's Wildlife Department. Other SEA departments that relate to this

activity are Plant Breeding, Livestock and Coffee and Cacao. There is adequate

coordination since they are dependencies of the same institution. There is no









formal coordination between ZOOLOGICO, BOTANICO and SEA;the first two agencies

are considered very independent.

Forest Resources. FORESTA is the agency responsible for setting and

carrying out forest-related policies and programs in the republic. 'Notwith-

standing, its internal structure is weak and it does not have sufficient

technically qualified personnel to carry out its work. There is little coordina-

tion with SEA and PARQUES.

In 1978, the President ordered by Decree 301 that both FORESTA and PARQUES

coordinate their activities with SEA through SURENA. A Coordinating Commission

was created and the Commission was charged with avoiding the duplication of

functions and efforts amongst these three agencies. This Commission is presided

by the Secretary of Agriculture and includes the Technical Secretary of the

Presidency, the Director of FORESTA and the Director of PARQUES.

The law being considered by Congress to integrate the public agricultural

sector calls for moving both agencies to SEA in order to assure that the policies

established in the natural resources management area are concordant with national

development policies and in particular with agricultural development policies.

Fisheries Resources. The Department of Fisheries Resources within SURENA

is charged with a bread array of functions and responsibilities. It has been

strengthened in the last two years and it carries out a number of important pro-

jects. Examples are: IDECOOP, which since 1977 is carrying out a program to expand

marine fisheries production; INDOTEC, which is just now completing a study to

determine marine fisheries potential; and CIBIMA, which for its part, orients its

activities towards research.

SEA and CIBIMA have signed inter-institutional agreements that have

significantly stimulated research. With respect to IDECOOP, though ties have

been broadened, one cannot say that adequate coordination exists. In general,










the existent institutional structure is weak and too dispersed to stimulate a

brad program of fisheries exploitation.

Public-Private Sector Links

The coordination between the public and private sectors is relatively

recent and generally informal. With the exception of agreements that SEA has

signed with the universities and some of the vocational schools, through the

Professional Training Project (PPA II) to train technical personnel in diff-

erent disciplines related to agriculture, the participation of the private sector

in the public arena and the mechanism of existing coordination are really limited.

It is important to take into consideration this problem and that the public sector

must not only make an effort to intensify this coordination but also to stimulate

other private organizations to fight for environmental concerns. CONARENA can

be an important means for amplifying the coordination between both sectors.

Public Sector International Agencies

The relationship between the public sector and international lending agencies

or technical assistance missions of foreign governments is concentrated in the

following areas.

The Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IICA) in collabora-

tion with SEA has carried out research principally in the areas of soil and

water resources. This collaboration was initiated in 1973 under PIDAGRO I and

through SEICA (Agapito Perez Luna, personal communication).

The Organization of American States has collaborated with SEA and FORESTA.

The most important collaborative effort was the natural resources inventory of

the Dominican Republic published in 1967 and considered the classic baseline

environmental work of the country.

-The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has offered

technical assistance in the areas of forest, soils and water use for several years.










the existent institutional structure is weak and too dispersed to stimulate a

brad program of fisheries exploitation.

Public-Private Sector Links

The coordination between the public and private sectors is relatively

recent and generally informal. With the exception of agreements that SEA has

signed with the universities and some of the vocational schools, through the

Professional Training Project (PPA II) to train technical personnel in diff-

erent disciplines related to agriculture, the participation of the private sector

in the public arena and the mechanism of existing coordination are really limited.

It is important to take into consideration this problem and that the public sector

must not only make an effort to intensify this coordination but also to stimulate

other private organizations to fight for environmental concerns. CONARENA can

be an important means for amplifying the coordination between both sectors.

Public Sector International Agencies

The relationship between the public sector and international lending agencies

or technical assistance missions of foreign governments is concentrated in the

following areas.

The Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IICA) in collabora-

tion with SEA has carried out research principally in the areas of soil and

water resources. This collaboration was initiated in 1973 under PIDAGRO I and

through SEICA (Agapito Perez Luna, personal communication).

The Organization of American States has collaborated with SEA and FORESTA.

The most important collaborative effort was the natural resources inventory of

the Dominican Republic published in 1967 and considered the classic baseline

environmental work of the country.

-The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has offered

technical assistance in the areas of forest, soils and water use for several years.






30

The Nationalist Republic of China through its Mission to the Dominican

Republic is offering technical assistance in both rice cultivation and fish-

eries. Israel is another country that has an agreement with SEA to stimulate

fisheries; it also collaborates in the rice research programs. The government

of the Federal Republic of Germany is initiating a broad technical assistance

program that includes conservation of natural resources (Jose Enrique Lois,

personal communication).

USAID has offered technical assistance and loans for development of natural

resources. It has sponsored numerous studies in the areas of forest, soils and

water resources. Through its loan program, PPA I and PPA II, it has aided in

implementing various projects in the natural resources area, principally in

land and water (Sergio Grullon, personal communication).

USDA has sponsored research in forest and soils areas. It was instrumental

in helping to carry out the CRIES Project.

IADB has financed hydroelectric projects, and under the auspices of PIDAGRO

I, II, III, various projects in soils, fisheries and forestry. The World Bank

has concentrated its efforts in the construction of hydroelectric works, especially

dams and irrigation canals.













VI

HUMAN RESOURCES

Surveys were undertaken of twenty-six public, semi-autonomous and

private agencies involved in training, research, planning and program

implementation in the natural resources and environmental management fields.

The purposes of the surveys were to determine the levels and disciplinary

orientation of training currently available in the Dominican Republic, to

identify present manpower levels, to relate fields of training with current

areas of work, and based on the proposed program of activities for each

institution, to identify institutional needs for additional numbers of pro-

fessionals and technicians over the next five years. The agencies surveyed

include: Training UASD, UNPHU, UCMM, ISA, LOYOLA, SALESIANA, and DAJABON;

Research BOTANICO, ZOOLOGICO, CIBIMA, INDOTEC, CENDA, and CIAZA; Planning -

MEDIO AMBIENTE, and OSISA; and Project Implementation SURENA, FOREST,

PARQUES, IDECOOP, CAASD, INAPA, IAD, INDRHI, PLAN SIERRA, PRYN, and INDESUR.

Training

The centers of higher education in the Dominican Republic are UASD,

UNPHU, UCMM, UCE, and INTEC. They provide Licenciate (Lic.) and Engineer

(Eng.) level professional training with the exception of INTEC which offers,

in addition, a one-year advanced course of study in Agricultural Economics.

Aside from the above exception, post-baccalaureate training is not available

in the Dominican Republic in any of the fields related to natural resources

management.

It should be recognized that over 80 percent of the present professional

staff in the nineteen agencies concerned with planning, project implementation













VI

HUMAN RESOURCES

Surveys were undertaken of twenty-six public, semi-autonomous and

private agencies involved in training, research, planning and program

implementation in the natural resources and environmental management fields.

The purposes of the surveys were to determine the levels and disciplinary

orientation of training currently available in the Dominican Republic, to

identify present manpower levels, to relate fields of training with current

areas of work, and based on the proposed program of activities for each

institution, to identify institutional needs for additional numbers of pro-

fessionals and technicians over the next five years. The agencies surveyed

include: Training UASD, UNPHU, UCMM, ISA, LOYOLA, SALESIANA, and DAJABON;

Research BOTANICO, ZOOLOGICO, CIBIMA, INDOTEC, CENDA, and CIAZA; Planning -

MEDIO AMBIENTE, and OSISA; and Project Implementation SURENA, FOREST,

PARQUES, IDECOOP, CAASD, INAPA, IAD, INDRHI, PLAN SIERRA, PRYN, and INDESUR.

Training

The centers of higher education in the Dominican Republic are UASD,

UNPHU, UCMM, UCE, and INTEC. They provide Licenciate (Lic.) and Engineer

(Eng.) level professional training with the exception of INTEC which offers,

in addition, a one-year advanced course of study in Agricultural Economics.

Aside from the above exception, post-baccalaureate training is not available

in the Dominican Republic in any of the fields related to natural resources

management.

It should be recognized that over 80 percent of the present professional

staff in the nineteen agencies concerned with planning, project implementation






32

and research solely have a Lic. or Eng. degree. This type of training at

a Dominican university is pursued through an Engineering degree program with

a major concentration in Agriculture or Civil Engineering. Programs leading

to an Agricultural Engineering degree are offered by ISA-UCMM, UNPHU, UASD

and UCE. Civil Engineering studies are pursued through UASD and UNPHU. Re-

cently, UASD instituted a program with a minor concentration in Soils while

ISA-UCMM now offers one with a minor in Forest Management and Administration

(Rafael Martinez Richiez, personal communication).

In most cases, while foundation courses in Soils, Hydrology, Forestry

and Botany may be taken, emphasis is placed on agronomic or engineering-design

aspects and little advanced training is possible in these subject fields.

Exceptions to the rule are studies in Marine Biology through the cooperative

CIBIMA-UASD program and in Geology at the UCMM. The latter program, however,

is heavily oriented towards mining and engineering applications and less

toward Geomorphology. The recently established Department of Natural Re-

sources in UNPHU's School of Agronomy should offer very important service

courses in Ecology and related subjects in the coming years and thus help

provide Agronomists with a greater awareness for environmental and natural

resources issues.

Due to the current absence of more advanced studies in natural resources

at Dominican universities, the increased demand for such specialized

training has led many individuals to obtain "skills-instruction" by attending

short intensive courses abroad. The two most oftentimes cited examples are:

airphoto interpretation skills through the Inter-American Center of Photo

Interpretation under the Ministry of Public Works in Medellin, Colombia; and

cartographic training at the Pan American School operated by the Inter-

American Geodetic Service in the Panama Canal Zone. In addition, attendance







33

at conferences and workshops abroad in the respective fields of interest

is often used as a "refresher" mechanism.

While social scientists represent only 4 percent of the current work

force in natural resources management fields, it is important to note that

a more diversified training base is available in this area in the republic.

There is Lic. training in Economics at UASD, UNPHU, UCMM, UCE and INTEC.

Sociologists are trained at UASD and UNPHU; while UCMM offers a Lic. in

Social Work. The UASD recently established a Lic. program in Geography and

UCMM offers a minor concentration in this field.

Public Administration also represents 4 percent of the present labor

force in the natural resources sector. Lic. training was made available

through the UASD in the mid-1960s, but due to low enrollments, it was

suspended for several years. Recently, this program was re-established

but enrollments remain low and the program's future is somewhat in doubt.

Technical level training in the field of Agronomy is available

through the following vocational schools: ISA (Santiago); LOYOLA (San

Crist6bal); SALESIANA (La Vega); and the Agricultural School (Dajabon).

These schools draw their student population from farm families; their geo-

graphical location at different points in the republic helps to build a cadre

of agronomists that reflects the country's varied ecological and social con-

tions. FORESTA operates a technical vocational school at Jarabacoa, but

todate only in-service, short courses have been offered in matters related

to forest conservation.

Present Labor Force

Table 1 presents a summary listing of current staff levels as well as

projected increases. There are 448 individuals who work as professionals

and technicians in natural resources and environmental management programs




TABLE 1


SUMMARY LISTING OF CURRENT LEVELS AND PROJECTED INCREASES IN PROFESSIONAL-TECHNICAL STAFFING BY FIELD.
OF SPECIALIZATION


FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION
Agronomy
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sci
Ecology
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisciculture
Planning & Project
Administration
Social Sciences
Soils Science
Professionals, Unspecified
Technicians, Unspecified


ences


TR


PH.D.


GAINING LEVEL


MA-MS


4
2
1
4

1
4
1
12

4

2
.1
7
1


N T-. SUBTOTAL.


Present Staff 14 44 263 127 448
Future Additions 9 82 85 172 348
Total Future I _______796


US TOTAL


LIC-ENG


TECH







35

in the nineteen surveyed planning, research and program implementing agencies.

Of this total, 414 have been trained in the following areas: Agronomy;

Botany; Biological Sciences (including General Biology, Marine Biology, and

Microbiology); Chemistry and Biochemistry; Computer and Information Sciences

(including Computer Science and Data Processing, Cartography and Photo Inter-

pretation); Ecology (including General Ecology, Natural Resources Management,

Range and Forest Management, and Wildlife Management); Education; Engineering

Sciences (including Agricultural, Chemical, Civil, Electro-Mechanical, Fisheries,

Industrial and Sanitary); Forestry; Geology; Hydrology; Meteorology and Clima-

tology; Pisciculture; Planning and Project Administration; Social Sciences

(including Sociology and Economics); and Soils Science. There are 23 profes-

sionals and 11 technicians whose training falls outside of the above fields,

but who nonetheless work in the area of natural resources management.

Three hundred and twenty-one individuals are considered professionals

with training at the Ph.D., MA-MS, and Lic.-Eng. levels; 127 are technicians

with secondary or equivalent technical school training. Eighty-two percent

(263) of all professionals are at the Lic.Eng. level. Their fields of

specialization in ranked order (numbers of persons) are: Agronomy (43);

Biological (33) and Engineering (33) Sciences; Ecology (23); and Hydrology

(22). Fourteen percent (44) have MA-MS degrees: the largest percentage (12

individuals) are trained Hydrologists; 7 are Soil Scientists; and there are

4 persons each with graduate training in the Biological Sciences, Ecology,

Forestry and Pisciculture. Four percent (14) of all professionals have

received Ph.D. training. By far, the largest proportion (4) are Soil

Scientists: there are 3 Chemists; 2 in Biological Sciences and Planning-

Project Administration; and 1 each in Botany, Hydrology and other fields.

Finally, 28 percent (127) of the entire staff is at the technical level.








The greatest numbers of technicians have received training in Computer and

Information Sciences (26 out of 27 in Cartography and Photo Interpretation),

Forestry (25) and Agronomy (13).

Table 2 presents the levels of professional and technical staffing by

work-related activities in the nineteen Dominican institutions. Because of

the importance of SURENA in the scope of activities under review, this

institution's personnel has been disaggregated and staffing is examined by

each respective department. The four major activities pursued by these

agencies are Planning, combined Planning and Projects Implementation, solely

Project Implementation, and Research. Each institution is categorized by its

prevailing scope of activities and the sum of professional and technical

staff in each work-related sphere indicates both strengths and weaknesses in

the sector's capacity to carry out natural resources and environmental manage-

ment programs.

The work areas of Planning combined with Project Implementation (246

individuals) and Project Implementation (52) account for 67 percent of the

work force. One hundred and forty individuals make up the research staff

and solely 10 persons are engaged in Planning.

The principal implementing institutions, based on numbers of professional-

technical staff, are FORESTA (53), INDRHI (47), Water and Land (34), Fisheries

(30), and the Meteorological Service (21). Over half of the personnel in this

work-related activity are at the Lic.-Eng. level; close to 40 percent are

technicians.

The research institution with the largest professional-technical staff

is INDOTEC (47); this is followed by CENDA (39), Inventory and Evaluation

(14), BOTANICO (12) and ZOOLOGICO (12). Close to three-quarters of these

agencies' staff are at the Lic.-Eng. level; another 10 percent each can be



















TABLE 2

LEVELS OF PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL STAFFING BY WORK-RELATED ACTIVITIES IN DOMINICAN INSTITUTIONS
A


PLANNING AND
PLANNING PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION RESEARCH
AGENCIES PH.D. MA/MS LIC-ENG TECH PH.D. MA/MS LIC-ENG TECH PH.D. MA/MS LIC-ENG TECH PH.D. MA/MS LIC-ENG TECH

SURENA a. Technical Coordination 1 1 (1)
b. Wildlife 3 6 3(12)
c. Fisheries Resources 6 13 11(30)
d. Water and Land 5 17 12(34)
e. Meteorological Service 1 11 9(21)
f. Inventory & Evaluation 1 12 1(14)
g. Environmental Education 1 2 1 (4)
FORESTA 13 40(53)
PARQUES 1 9 3(13)
BOTANICO 1 2 7 2(12)
ZOOLOGICO 2 2 8 -(12)
CIBIMA 2 2 5 1(10)
IDECOOP 3(3)
INDOTEC 5 1 39 2(47)
CAASD 2 14 -(16)
INAPA 1 10 8(19)
INDRHI 1 9 34 3(47)
IAD 4 12(16)
MEDIO AMBIENT 1 5 -(6)
PLAN SIERRA 1 6 4 (11)
CENDA 2 27 10(39)
PRYN 1 11 1 (13)
CIAZA 2 4 (6)
OSISA 1 1 1(3)
INDESUR 6 (6)
CESDA*

TOTALS 1 3 5 1(10) 1 27 126 92(246) 4 30 18(52) 12 10 102 16(140)

*Centro Sur de Desarrollo Agropecuario was not surveyed.






38

found at the Ph.D. and technician levels; the MA-MS category accounts for the

least number of individuals.

Only three units are concerned with Planning on a full-time basis. These

are MEDIO AMBIENTE, Technical Coordination and OSISA. They reflect only 7

percent (10 individuals) of all current staffing. Though the Lic.-Eng. level

continues as the principal staff component, the MA-MS makes up a significant

third.

Projected Manpower Needs

Tables 3 and 4 present information on current numbers of professionals-

technicians and proposed staffing additions (over the next five years) by

fields of specializaiton. This information is provided both for each depart-

ment of SURENA as well as for the other institutions. Projections are based

on information obtained through interviews with agency heads; in some cases,

the proposed staff additions have been adjusted either in level or number of

individuals requested, to reflect more accurately both project program develop-

ment and the ability of a unit to absorb additional staff.

Personnel projections should reflect both anticipated staffing needs at

the executive-administrative, professional and technical levels, as well as

the institution's respective function either as a planning, project implementing

or research unit. As a general rule, Ph.D. staff should be reserved for the

research institutions. The nine proposed Ph.D. additions fulfill this require-

ment with the possible exception of one Marine Biologist designated for

Fisheries Resources. This Department does have prospective research goals and

it is assumed that the fulfillment of such goals, in addition to the need to

work more closely with CIBIMA, would be enhanced with a resident Marine Biologist.

The greatest proposed proportional increase is at the MA-MS level. It is

here that the greatest present as well as future professional and administrative




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED SlTAfYfNG ADDITIUNb UVEK THki ln.Ai t.lvr, It.1aK DI
,FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION WITHIN EACH DEPARTMENT OF SURENA

TECHNICAL COORDINATION WILDLIFE
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy i 1 10 1 10
Botany 3' 3
Biological Sciences i6 2 8
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences a
Ecology 5 9 9
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry 1
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration 1
Social Sciences
Soils Science 1 1
Other Professionals 1 1
Technicians, Unspecified

Present Staff 1 1 3 6 3 12
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 5 513 10 23
Total Future Staff-5 Years i_5 35


al General Ecologist and
4 in Natural Resources Management


b8 Wildlife Ecologists and 1 in
Natural Resources Management




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNiGiANS AND fKUFUlbEU ) biA1Drt AUUL;L~1Nub V UV. Jn. YAJ.. z rIrv i.Lo j.D
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION WITHIN EACH DEPARTMENT OF SURENA

FISHERIES RESOURCES WATER AND LAND
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAI
Agronomy
Botany c d f
Biological Sciences 1 3 7 11 4 2 16 1
Chemistry 2 2
Computer & Information Sciences 1 2 7 8
Ecology 19 11 4 16
Education 2 2
Engineering Sciences 2 1 1
Forestry 2
Geology 2 2 3 5 5
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture 3 6 22 9 22
Planning & Project Administration 1 h 1
Social Sciences 2 2 2
Soils Science 1 1 5 1
Other Professionals
Technicians, Unspecified 3 3. 20

Present Staff 6 13 11 30 5 17 12 34
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 1 7 6 22 36 5 18 20 43
Total Future Staff-5 Years 7 66 77
CMarine Biologist gNatural Resources Management
d4 Pisciculturalists & 3 Marine hEconomists

Biologists iCartographers
e2 Fisheries Engineers
Marine Biologist




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED STAFFING ADDITIONS OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS BY
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION WITHIN EACH DEPARTMENT OF SURENA

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE INVENTORY & EVALUATION
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PHD. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 1 1 7 7
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 4
Ecology 1 1 2
Education 1 1 2 2
Engineering Sciences
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology 1 1
Meteorology-Climatology 5 7 8 20 15 25
Pisiculture 1 1
Planning & Project Administration 2 2 1 1
Social Sciences 1 2 1 2
Soils Science
Other Professionals 1 1
Technicians, Unspecified 15 15

Present Staff 1 11 9 21 1 12 1 14
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 5 20 25 1 7 1 15 24
Total Future Staff-5 Years 1 -46 1 38


JSystems Ecologist
Range & Forest Management

Cartographer & 2 Specialists
mAgricultural Economists


in Computer Science




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED STAFFING ADDITIONS OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS BY
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION WITHIN EACH DEPARTMENT OF SURENA

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SURENA TOTALS
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PHD. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 8 1 10 9 10
Botany 3 3
Biological Sciences 1 1 1 3 7 17 4 5 25 12
Chemistry 2 2
Computer & Information Sciences 3 2 3 9 11 6
Ecology 1 0 ( 1 1 3 16 11 4 18 17
Education 3 2 3 5 2 1 3 5 3 5 5 11
Engineering Sciences 2 2
Forestry 1 2 1 2 2
Geology 2 2
Hydrology 3 2 3 5 6 7
Meteorology-Climatology 5 7 8 20 15 25
Pisiculture 3 6 22 9 22
Planning & Project Administration 1 3 1 3
Social Sciences 5 2 5 2
Soils Science 3 3 5 3 8
Other Professionals 1 1 2
Technicians, Unspecified 3 35 3 35

Present Staff 1 2 1 4 18 61 37 116
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 3 3 5 11 2 45 28 92 167
Total Future Staff-5 Years 1 283


oEnvironmental Education


PSenior level staff appears under Marine
Biology & Fisheries Engineering





CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED STAFFING AUDDUITUNS UVCK Tkit inAi N 1 LV. IiatKz DI
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION ANU WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

FORESTRY PAROUES
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH,D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 7 7
Botany b
Biological Sciences 2 2
Chemistry 1 1
Computer & Information Sciences 6 6
Ecology 2c 1 1 2
Education 2 1 1 2
Engineering Sciences 7 7 3 1 4
Forestry 8 1 10 20 30 21 4 1 1 2 4
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration
Social Sciences 2 2
Soils Science
Other Professionals 2 2 3 3
Technicians, Unspecified 7 7 8 8

Present Staff 13 40 53 1 9 3 13
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 8 10 30 48 6 8 14
Total Future Staff-5 Years I 101 1 27

al Ecologist; 1 Parks Management Specialist
Marine Biologists
CEnvironmental Education




FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION
A
BOTANICO ZOOLOGICO
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PHD. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy
Botany 1 2 1 2 2 3 3
Biological Sciences 1 1
Chemistry 1 1
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology 1 1 1 1
Education
Engineering Sciences 1 1
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology 2 3 3
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration
Social Sciences
Soils Science 2 2
Other Professionals 5 5
Technicians, Unspecified 1 1

Present Staff 1 2 7 2 12 2 2 8 12
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 2 3 5 d
ITotal Future Staff-5 Years I 17 12
dNo funds projected for additional staff




FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

CIBIMA IDECOOP
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy
Botany
Biological Sciences 1 1 4 1 7 1 1
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology 1 1
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture 1 1 2 2 2
Planning & Project Administration
Social Sciences
Soils Science
Other Professionals 5 10 1
Technicians, Unspecified


Present Staff 2 2 5 1 10 3 3
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 5 10 1E
Total Future Staff-5 Years 25 3




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED STAFFING ADDITIONS OVEK THE
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION


NEXT k'VVE IEAKb b


INDOTEC CAASD
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy
Botany
Biological Sciences 1 10 11
Chemistry 3 1 11 1 16
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology 1 1
Education
Engineering Sciences 8 8 4 2e 4 2
Forestry
Geology 1 1 1 1
Hydrology 1 1
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration 1 7 8
Social Sciences 1 1 2 2 2
Soils Science
Other Professionals 1 9 10
Technicians, Unspecified 5 5

Present Staff 5 1 39 2 47 2 14 16
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 2 7 9
Total Future Staff-5 Years .47 1 1. 25
eSanitary Engineers




CUKKRNJL NUUDK.Z D rKV rVikLi o i I ntLvtI,.tLio n \wi- -1 U --- _. _
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

INAPA INDRHI
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION Pi,D. IMA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences 1 9 10
Ecology
Education f
Engineering Sciences 1 10 2 8 19
Forestry
Geology 1
Hydrology 1 8 3 18 20 26 23
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration
Social Sciences
Soils Science 1 7 7 3 11 7
Other Professionals
Technicians, Unspecified 9 9 20 20

Present Staff 1 10 8 19 1 9 34 3 47
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 2 2 9 13 3 27 20 50
Total Future Staff-5 Years __32 --
Environmental Engineers





FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

IAD MEDIO AMBIENT
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy
Botany
Biological Sciences 1 1
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences 1 12 10 13 10
Ecology 1 1
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry 1 1 2
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration
Social Sciences
Soils Science
Other Professionals 1
Technicians, Unspecified

Present Staff 4 12 16 1 5 6
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 10 10
Total Future Staff-5 Years 26 6




CURRENT NUMBERS OF FPRUhE6LiUNALS/'1iCHNH1UiArN5i ANL rKUjfUbELJ ,A3JArLjNI L IijLJLiuXV1N VYr I-n. L'Iu rCLvrc, jo.Ftii u.
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

PLAN SIERRA CENDA
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MSI LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 4 4 22 5 27
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology 1 2 I1 1 3 2 1 1
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry 1 1 2 3 1
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration 5 5
Social Sciences 2 2
Soils Science 1 1 2 3 5
Other Professionals
Technicians, Unspecified 3 3 o

Present Staff 1 6 4 11 2 27 10 39
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 1 2 3 6 1 1
Total Future Staff-5 Years 17 -- -- 40
gNatural Resources Management




CURRENT NUMBERS OF FRUOESSIUNALS/TEUHNLULALNS AND fKKUfUL'U lA.L.ArfUr A.UULI.iUIN UV. vK L. Il.NE.n riv Itnano DI
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

PRYN CIASA
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 9 9
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology 3 3
Education 1 1 2
Engineering Sciences
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology i i
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration 1 1 2 2
Social Sciences
Soils Science
Other Professionals
Technicians, Unspecified D


Present Staff 1 11 1 13 2 4 6
Future 5-Year Additional Demand
Total Future Staff-5 Years 13 6




CURRENT NUMBERS OF PROFESSIONALS/TECHNICIANS AND PROPOSED STAFFING ADDITIONS OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS BY
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AND WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION

OSIZA INDESTR
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 2 2 4 4
Botany
Biological Sciences
Chemistry
Computer & Information Sciences
Ecology 1 4 4
Education
Engineering Sciences
Forestry
Geology
Hydrology
Meteorology-Climatology
Pisiculture
Planning & Project Administration 1 h
Social Sciences 1 1 2 1 2 1
Soils Science I 1 1
Other Professionals
Technicians, Unspecified s


Present Staff 1 3 6 6

Total Future Staff-5 Years

Economist




CURRENT NUMBERS OF FROFESSIUNALS/TECHNiA1ANS AND frKUYfUSU bTAf1fiLNU AIUUJL1UINU UVJtK. L. It
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION AnD WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION


SURENA
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECI SUBTOTAL PH.D. MA-MS LIC-ENG TECH SUBTOTAL
Agronomy 8 1 10 9 10
Botauy 3 3
Biological Sciences 1 3 7 17 4 5 25 12
Chemistry 2 2
Computer & Information Sciences 3 2 3 9 11 6
Ecology 1 3 16 11 4 18 17
Education 3 5 3 5 5 11
Engineering Sciences 2 2
Forestry 1 2 1 2 2
Geology 2 2
Hydrology 3 2 3 5 6 7
Heteorology-Climatology 5 7 8 20 15 25.
Pisiculture 3 6 22 9 22
Planning & Project Administration 1 3 1 3
Social Sciences 5 2 5 2
Soils Science 3 3 5 3 8
Other Professionals 1 1 2
Technicians, Unspecified 3 35 3 35

Present Staff 18 61 37 116
Future 5-Year Additional Demand 2 45 28 92 167
Total Future Staff-5 Years_ 283

Senior level staff appear under Marine
Biology and Fisheries Engineering


NCAl rXiVr. ILVaM 013







41

demands in all agencies rest. Given that eleven out of the total nineteen

institutions in the sector are program implementing agencies, there is an

urgent need to introduce quickly professional skills and managerial techniques

that will enhance the successful completion of program activities. The

advanced skill level and the nature of the subject matter, juxtaposed with

the relatively short period (21-24 months) required for completion of MA-MS

training, are all factors which prompt such a heavy investment at this level.

Table 1 summarizes the five-year demand projection by field for the

nineteen institutions surveyed. It will be noted that, for example, a total

of 20 MA-MS in Ecology are proposed. A perusal of Tables 3 and 4 indicates

that the 20 MA-MS are distributed by agency in the following manner: SURENA,

a subtotal of 16 with Technical Coordination 1 General Systems Ecologist

and 4 specialists in Natural Resources Management; Wildlife 8 Wildlife

Ecologists and 1 specialist in Natural Resources Management; Water and Land -

1 specialist in Natural Resources Management; Inventory and Evaluation 1

specialist in Range and Forest Management; PLAN SIERRA 1 Ecologist; BOTANICO -

1 Ecologist; PARQUES 1 Ecologist and 1 Parks Management specialist. A

similar procedure can be followed in determining personnel projections by

specific fields within the work-related areas for each institution.

While the prospective 82 additional MA-MS professional should serve the

demands within the nineteen service agencies, every effort should be made to

incorporate some of them, at least on a part-time basis, into the academic

programs of the local universities. This would appear to be the most feasible

and economical manner of broadening instruction at the national level to in-

clude more substantive training in the fields of natural resources.

Of the total 85 proposed additional Lic.-Engs., by far the largest

number will be Agricultural and Civil Engineers. This projection assumes







42

continued availability of the UASD program with minor in Soils, the ISA-UCMM

program in Forest Management and Administration and the future establishment

of a much needed concentration in Hydrology within Civil Engineering either

at UASD or UNPHU. As a general rule, training at this level should be carried

out in the country.

The five-year personnel projections show more than a doubling of the

present number of technicians. The consensus of heads of departments and

agencies is that the greatest bottleneck to program implementation currently

rests at this operative level. Past experiences of Dominican professionals,

who returned from MA-MS training abroad and did not find relatively-trained,

supportive, technical staff to assist in program implementation, has been

disheartening: in many instances, such highly skilled individuals quickly

have become frustrated and after a short period of time, have left government

service.

The greatest numbers of technicians are needed in SURENA by Fisheries

Resources (22), Water and Land (20), Meteorological Service (20), Inventory

Evaluation (25), as well as in other agencies such as FORESTA (30), and INDRHI

(20).

The short intensive course of two to three months duration, offered in the

country and in Spanish, is a well-tested method of transmitting skills and

job techniques. The SEA-UNPHU link through the School of Agronomy's Depart-

ment of Natural Resources could provide the institutional base; requisite

technical back-stopping from outside the republic could be provided on a

need basis to offer a series of short courses on relevant themes or skills.

One such course, of potential value to SURENA, would be oriented to improve

techniques for inventoring, evaluating and managing natural resources; this

course should include laboratory as well as field techniques in land use methods







43

and conservation practices, as well as work in thematic cartography and

interpretation of air photo and remote sensed data.














VII

BUDGETING AND FINANCING

The financial analysis presented below is an initial attempt at

characterizing recent public expenditures in the natural resources manage-

ment field. It has two basic shortcomings. First, a financial analysis

ideally should be based on proposed as well as actual budgetary expenditures.

This report only includes actual expenditures for 1978; it was not possible

to obtain similar data for subsequent years. Second, though an active search

was carried out in Santo Domingo City, it was not possible to obtain financial

information for any of the autonomous government agencies nor the private

sector. As a result, no global figures can be given at this time for the

natural resources sector expenditures. This analysis, due to data limitations,

is restricted to the programs of SEA and the Armed Forces based on information

found in ONAPRES (1979).

Sources of Funds

Within the context of SEA's five basic program funding categories which

totalled $63,188,215.00 for 1980, SURENA's natural resources development pro-

gram was assigned $3,905,190.00 or 6 percent of the total (Table 5). In

1979, SURENA received 4 percent of the estimate $46,974,837.00 total budget;

in 1978, it was 4 percent of the $12,450,444.00 executed budget (Table 6).

Over the past three years, SURENA received the least amount of financing of

any of SEA's programs. Notwithstanding the proportionally low funding level,

one can observe a significant, comparative annual increase over the three-

year period: 1979-80, a 110 percent increase or $2,013,205.00; 1978-79, a

263 percent increase or $1,332,284.00 (Table 6).














VII

BUDGETING AND FINANCING

The financial analysis presented below is an initial attempt at

characterizing recent public expenditures in the natural resources manage-

ment field. It has two basic shortcomings. First, a financial analysis

ideally should be based on proposed as well as actual budgetary expenditures.

This report only includes actual expenditures for 1978; it was not possible

to obtain similar data for subsequent years. Second, though an active search

was carried out in Santo Domingo City, it was not possible to obtain financial

information for any of the autonomous government agencies nor the private

sector. As a result, no global figures can be given at this time for the

natural resources sector expenditures. This analysis, due to data limitations,

is restricted to the programs of SEA and the Armed Forces based on information

found in ONAPRES (1979).

Sources of Funds

Within the context of SEA's five basic program funding categories which

totalled $63,188,215.00 for 1980, SURENA's natural resources development pro-

gram was assigned $3,905,190.00 or 6 percent of the total (Table 5). In

1979, SURENA received 4 percent of the estimate $46,974,837.00 total budget;

in 1978, it was 4 percent of the $12,450,444.00 executed budget (Table 6).

Over the past three years, SURENA received the least amount of financing of

any of SEA's programs. Notwithstanding the proportionally low funding level,

one can observe a significant, comparative annual increase over the three-

year period: 1979-80, a 110 percent increase or $2,013,205.00; 1978-79, a

263 percent increase or $1,332,284.00 (Table 6).







45
TABLE 5

Proposed Funding for SEA in


Total


1980

National
Sources


PROGRAMS

1. Administration

2. Production, Credit,
and Marketing

3. Natural Resources

4. Rural Development

5. Livestock

Institutional Financing


21,235,110


20,778,365

3,905,190

10,444,430

6,825,125

96,570,905


17,926,285


20,441,590

3,851,190

8,316,325

6,825,125

74,039,485


3,308,825


336,775

54,000

2,128,105



22,531,420
22,531,420


159,759,125 131,400,000 28,359,125


External
Sources




46
TABLE 6

Comparison of Expenditures by Programs in SEA for the 1978-80 Period

FUNDS


National Sources

PROGRAMS


1. Administration

2. Production, Credit & Marketing

3. National Resources

4. Rural Development

5. Livestock

6. Institutional Financing

External Sources


Spent
1978

22,030,510


5,822,234

2,718,784

505,701

2,233,359

1,170,366

9,580,066


Estimated
1979

95,810,276


9,374,359

22,469,078

1,837,985

8,800,033

4,493,382

48,835,439


2200.1 951027


Proposed
1980

131,400,000


17,926,285

20,441,590

3,851,190

8,316,325

6,825,125

74,039,485

28,359,125

159,759,125


22 030.510


95.810 276







47

Only two activities, Meteorological Services and Fisheries Resources,

existed in 1978; the Wildlife, Water and Land, as well as Inventory and

Evaluation programs were created in 1979. The percentage increase from

1979 to 1980 in each activity is illustrated in Table 7. It should be noted

that Fisheries has received most of the funding; in contrast,;Water and Land

has received the least amount. The program of the Meteorological Services,

Wildlife, Fisheries Resources, Water and Land, as well as Inventory and

Evaluation, were accomplished with local funds during the 1978-79 period:

in 1980, only $54,000 in external funding was assigned to Water and Land as

part of the AID-517-T-029 (PPA) Loan (Table 8) (SEA, 1977).

A part of the Rural Development Program budget of SEICA is used for

soils mapping and laboratory analysis; hence, it could be subsumed under the

Water and Land budget because of the similarity in tasks performed.

The annual increase in budgetary allocations for this task is 182 per-

cent for the period 1978-79 ($206,363) and 80 percent in 1979-80 ($255,570).

The soils mapping phase of the Rural Development Program has been locally

funded except in 1980 when a $49,000 allocation was assigned from the AID

517-T-029 (PPA) Loan (Table 9) (SEA, 1977).

The Armed Forces Forest Protection and Control Program shows an annual

increase of 63 percent for 1978-79 $1,166,259.00 and 30 percent during 1979-80

($894,135.00). This program is financed exclusively with local funds (Table

10) (ONAPRES, 1979).

Use of Funds

The SURENA program shows an annual increase in capital expenditures of

3876 percent during 1978-79 ($81,390.00) and a 248 percent increase

($1,250,894.00) in operating expenses during the same period (Table 11).

For the period 1979-80, capital expenditures rose by 1341 percent





48

TABLE 7

Percentage Increase from 1978 to 1980 in SURENA Budget


Meteorological Land & Inventory &
ears Service Wildlife Fisheries Water Evaluation

978-79 $602,583 ----- $324,484 ----- ---

158.98 ----- 251.44 ----- ---

979-80 $690,461 $264,100 $775,706 $116,653 $220,285

70.51 274.98 171.04 55.25 224,70




49
TABLE 8

Comparison of Expenditures by Program in SURENA for the 1978-80 Period

FUNDS
Spent Estimated Proposed
1978 1979 1980

ACTIVITIES

1. Meteorological Services 376,651 979,234 1,669,695

2. Wildlife 96,045 360,145

3. Fisheries 129,050 453,534 1,229.240

4. Land and Water 211,137 327,790*

5. Inventory and Evaluation 98,035 318,320


TOTALS 505,701 1,837,985 3,905,190


*$54,000 external funds provided by AID-517-T-029 (PPA) loan.





50

TABLE 9

Expenditures for Soils Mapping and Analysis within the
SEA Rural Development Program for the 1978-80 Period

FUNDS
Spent Estimated Proposed
1978 1979 1980

National Sources .113,347 319,710 526,280


Operating Expenses

Capital Expenditures

External Sources


432,280

94,000

49,000*


.113$347 319,710 575,280

*AID 517-T-029 (PPA) loan.





51

TABLE 10

Expenditures for the Forest Protection & Control Program
of the Armed Forces during the 1978-80 Period

FUNDS
Spent Estimated Proposed
1978 1979 1980

National Sources 1,830,079 2,770,895 3,544,720

Operating Expenses 1,830,079 2,770,895 3,544,720

Capital Expenditures 9,027 234,470 354,780


1,839,106 3,005,365 3,899,500








Use of Funds by SURENA


52

TABLE 11

during the


1978-80 Period


National Sources

Operating Expenses

Capital Expenditures

External Sources

AID 517-T-029 Small
Farmer Development Program


FUNDS
Spent
1978

505,701

503,601

2,100


505, 701 1,837,985 3,905,190


Estimated
1979

1,837,985

1,754,495

83,490


Proposed
1980

3,851,190

2,647,725

1,203,465

54,000


505,701


1,837,985 3,905,190


--


--






53

($1,119,975.00) and operating expenses by 51 percent ($893,230.00). The

capital expenditure increment is extremely high and may demonstrate equip-

ment purchases, such as for machinery, buildings, installations and improve-

ments. The operating expenses increase though high initially shows more

rational growth during the second period. A final analysis of the percentage

distribution by types of expenditure is provided in Table 12. The figures

show a better distribution between capital expenditures and operating ex-

penses.

Only 1980 budget figures were available for the soils mapping and

laboratory task within SEA's Rural Development Program. The breakdown is

as follows for 1980: capital expenditures, 18 percent; and operating

expenditures, 82 percent. Given the limited information, one can only state

that the percentage relationship is low and an effort should be made in the

future to better distribute financial resources.

The Forest Protection and Control Program of the Armed Forces for the

1978-79 period presents a 2497 percent increase ($225,443.00) in capital ex-

penditures and a 51 percent increase ($940,816.00) for operating costs

(Table 10). For 1979-80, capital expenditures showed a 51 percent rise

($120,310.00) and operating costs 28 percent ($773,825.00). Percentage

increases show no marked tendency towards better distribution of capital ex-

penditures and operating expenses (Table 13).

Finally, mention is made of two approved IADB projects for which local

counterpart funding was not included in the 1980 budget. The first is a

two-year Acuaculture Project totalling $1,087,000.00, with first year

disbursements at $829,750.00 and the second year at $257,250.00. The second

is a four-year Soil and Water Conservation Project, totalling $654,000.00,

of which the Dominican government is funding 49 percent and IADB 51 percent

(ONAPRES, 1979).




54

TABLE 12

Analysis of Percentage in the SURENA Budget
from 1978 to 1980 by Expenditure Category


Year Capital Expenditures Operating Expenditures

1978 0.42% 99.57%

1979 4.45% 95.46%

1980 31.25% 68.75%




55

TABLE 13

Analysis of Percentage in the Armed Forces Budget from 1978 to 1980
for the Forest Protection and Control Program by Expenditure Category


Year Capital Expenditures Operating Expenditures

1978 0.49% 99.51%

1979 7.80 92.20

1980 9.10 90.90












VIII

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

Environmental policy. Though a defined national policy exists for

intermediate-term agricultural development planning in the Dominican Re-

public, at this time there is no explicit policy for natural resources

management. Solutions are sought for environmental problems on an ex post

facto basis.

Land Use. Over the last few years, population pressures have caused

an increasing amount of agriculturally-marginal hill land and forests to

shift over to cultivated use. Such a more intensive use has not taken into

consideration minimal functional farm size or ecologically compatible techno-

logical requirements. As a result, aggravated problems of deforestation, soil

erosion and reservoir siltation are of common occurrence.

Water Use. There are serious water management problems related to

inadequate measurement, control and use. These problems cause difficulties

in the administration and operation of the irrigation districts. Recent

studies should permit redesigning a more adequate legislative framework.

Fisheries. The Dominican Republic possesses an extensive fluvial network

and coastline in comparison with its limited geographical area, factors

favorable to promoting fisheries exploitation. However, catch methods remain

primitive and weaknesses persist in the institutional fabric.

Forests. After a period of irrational exploitation in the 1960s, the

forest area in the republic has regenerated. There still remains, however,

no adequate forest management policy. As a consequence, traditional problems

persist.









Institutions. There are sixteen public institutions directly related

to natural resources management in the Dominican Republic. Some of these

agencies have distinct responsibilities and others have parallel functions.

This situation has resulted in frequent conflicts and what is worse, an under

utilization of human, institutional and financial resources. There is little

coordination between public and private sectors. Informal arrangements are

the rule rather than the exception.

Decision-makers have demonstrated genuine interest to resolve structural

bottlenecks and organizational problems. In some cases, legislation has been

proposed as a corrective mechanism; in others, simple informal working

agreements are used. The law before Congress to integrate the agricultural

sector is an example of the former, while the INDRHI-CDE memorandum of under-

standing is an example of the latter. In any case, a fundamental govern-

mental objective since 1978 has been institutionalizing the management and

the decision-making process in the public sector.

Budget. The basic problem is the lack of standardized procedures to

evaluate all agency budgets and sector expenditures. The situation in the

private sector is even worse since very little budgetary information is made

available.

Human Resources. Training in the natural resources management fields is

not available in the Dominican Republic. Most professionals have an Engineer-

ing degree with a major concentration in Agriculture or Civil Engineering.

Technical, vocational school training is available solely in Agronomy; FORESTA

periodically offers short courses.

There are 448 individuals working in twenty-six public and private

agencies in natural resources management; 321 are considered professionals

and 127 technicians. Five-year demand projections for nineteen institutions







58

estimate a need for an additional 348 individuals; 176 professionals and

172 technicians. Greatest demand is at the technical level; this followed

by the baccalaureate (85), masters (82) and doctoral (9) levels.

Recommendations

Environmental Policy. An urgent need exists to formulate a natural re-

sources policy and relate such policy to the development goals of the country.

Planning. A Natural Resources Management Plan is needed, one that con-

templates discrete actions and programs to be taken singly or in combination

in the areas of water, soils, forest, wildlife, fisheries resources and

environmental pollution. Such a Plan should provide the frame of reference

for identifying, planning and executing field and laboratory-based programs

over the short and long-term.

More rigorous planning is required in the agricultural areas to improve

productivity and protect the ecosystem. This is especially true for marginal

upland areas which have been placed under more intensive shifting cultivation.

Many of these areas, such as the Sierra, coincide with catchment zones of the

multi-purpose hydroelectric projects. Only adherence to such planning will

maintain the viability and prolong the lifespan of these projects.

Institution. Mechanisms that bolster greater inter-institutional collabor-

ation need to be established. An important mechanism in this regard will be

the National Council of Natural Resources (CONARENA); it will be a step forward

in irradicating traditional problems of diffusion of effort and duplication of

function that in the past have led to inefficient use of personnel and

financial resources.

SURENA must continue to be strengthened. It should develop more fully

its mandate to plan, implement and supervise national policy in the natural

resources management fields. It is necessary, furthermore, to strengthen







59

other key institutions, such as INDRHI, FORESTA, and PARQUES. Care must be

taken to see that all coordinate more closely their activities with SURENA.

Budget. An effort should be made to begin to unify and standardize

accounting procedures so that a more rigorous analysis of the expdditures

in natural resources can be made in the future. Such normalized accounting

procedures would greatly aid in improving the use of national and external

funds.

Human Resources. There is an urgent need to establish instructional

programs for natural resources management in the republic. It is important

to provide support for the newly established Department of Natural Resources

at UNPHU. This Department needs to build a teaching and research staff.

Such a Department should offer formal professional training within the Lic.-Eng.

curricula as well as topically-focused or skill-oriented "refresher courses"

for technical, professional and administrative staff.

A professional training program should be initiated as soon as possible

and scholarships created to satisfy the projected middle management and inter-

mediate professional staff needs. Care should be exercised in defining specific

job requirements within each agency and using such job descriptions as the

basis for screening scholarship applicants. The job descriptions should serve

as points of reference in developing academic curricula.

Since many individuals will be called upon to exercise their professional

skills as members of interdisciplinary problem-solving teams, it is important

that they be given opportunities to develop these special team skills within

the supportive environment of their university studies. Furthermore, all who

pursue MA-MS and Ph.D. training abroad should be required to prepare theses

or dissertations on relevant environmental problems in the Dominican Republic.

It is important that research priorities be established a priori and related






60

as much as possible to on-going field projects in the sector so that the

large number of projected academic studies have a definite impact on environ-

mental problems of greatest concern.













IX

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Antonini, Gustavo A., 1968
Processes and Patterns of Landscape Change in the Linea Noroeste,
Dominican Republic. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.

1979
Urban and Regional Planning in the Caribbean. Association of Caribbean
Universities and Research Institutes, Kingston, Jamaica.

Antonini, Gustavo, Ewel, Katherine, and Tupper, Howard 1975
Population and Energy: A Systems Analysis of Resource Utilization
in the Dominican Republic. The University Presses of Florida,
Gainesville.

Antonini, Gustavo and York, Mason, 1979
Integrated Rural Development and the Role of the University in the
Caribbean: The Case of Plan Sierra, Dominican Republic. Revista
Geografica, 90, julio-diciembre.

Chardon, Carlos, 1937
Reconocimiento de los recursos naturales de la Republica Dominicana.
Report to President Rafael Trujillo Molina, Ciudad Trujillo (Santo
Domingo).

Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina, 1980
Contribuciones.

Centro de Investigaciones de Biologla Marina y Secretaria de Estado
de Agriculture, 1977.
Acuerdo entire la SEA y CIBIMA para desarrollar sus programs para la
evaluaci6n y producci6n de los recursos bi6ticos.

Institute Nacional de Recursos Hidr5ulicos, 1980
Estudio sobre una nueva tarifa de agua versionn borrador).

Miranda, Carlos, 1974
Implicaci6n sanitarias econ6micas y legales del problema de la conta-
minacion del agua en RepGblica Dominicana (ponencia presentada en
Mejico).

Oficina Nacional de Administraci6n y Personal, 1980
Manuel de organizaci6n del gobierno Dominicano.

Oficina Nacional de Presupuesto, 1979
Presupuesto de ingresos y gastos publicos para 1980









Organization of American States, 1967
Reconocimiento y evaluaci6n de los recursos naturales en la
RepGblica Dominicana. 3 vols. Washington, D.C., Pan American Union,
Department of Economic Affairs.

Paulet, Manuel, 1977
Lineamiento para el establecimiento de un program de conservaci6n
de suelos y agua en RepGblica Dominicana, Instituto Interamericano de
Ciencias Agricolas.

Pefa Franjul, Marcos, 1978
Repuiblica Dominicana: Ensayos Ecol6gicos.

Program de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente, 1977
Estudio exploratorio de la situaci6n ambiental en la Republica
Dominicana.

Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura, 1977
Program para el pequeio agricultor, II: Proyecto Tierras y Aguas.

1979a
Estrategia institutional para el manejo de los recursos naturales en
RepGblica Dominicana.

1979b
Program Integrado de Desarrollo Agropecuario III: Proyecto de Acua-
cultura.

1979c
Plan de desarrollo agropecuario 1980-82.

1979d
Reorganizaci6n de la Subsecretaria de Recursos Naturales

1979e
Plan de desarrollo: La Sierra

1980
Anteproyecto de ley para la conservaci6n de los recursos

Subsecretaria de Estado de Recursos Naturales, 1979
Program de desarrollo y conservacion de los recursos naturales
renovables.

United States Agency for International Development, 1979
Sector Analysis (working draft).

,1980
Scope of Work for Country Environmental Profile for the
Dominican Republic (IQC:AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247).













x

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ADP Plan de Desarrollo Agropecuario

BOTANICO Jardin Botgnico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso"

CAASA Corporaci6n de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo

CIAZA Centro de Investigaci6n Agricola en Zonas Aridas

CENDA Centro Norte de Desarrollo Agropecuario

CESDA Centro Sur de Desarrollo Agropecuario

CDE Corporaci6n Dominicana de Electricidad

CATASTRO Direcci6n General de Catastro

CIBIMA Centro de Investigacion de Biologla Marina

CONARENA Consejo Nacional de Recursos Naturales

CRIES Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System

PARQUES Direcci6n Nacional de Parques

DAJABON Escuela Agricola de Dajabon

FORESTA Direcci6n General Forestal

GODR Government of the Dominican Republic

LAD Instituto Agrario Dominicano

IADB Inter-American Development Bank

IDECOOP Instituto de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperativo

IICA Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences

INDRHI Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidr5ulicos

INDESUR Instituto de Desarrollo del Suroeste

INDOTEC Instituto Dominicano de Tecnologia

INAPA Instituto Nacional de Aguas Potables y Alcantarillado








INTEC

ISA

LOYOLA

MEDIO
AMBIENTE

OAS

ONAP

ONAPLAN

ONAPRES

OSISA

PNUMA

PIDAGRO

PRYN

PLAN SIERRA

SEA

SEAPLANE

SESPAS

STP

SEICA

SURENA

SALESIANA

UASD

UCE

UNPHU

UCMM

SAID

USDA

ZOOLOGICO


64

Institute Tecnol6gico de Santo Domingo

Institute Superior de Agricultura

Institute Politecnico Loyola

Departamento del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales


Organization of American States

Oficina Nacional de Administraci6n y Personal

Oficina Nacional de Planificaci6n

Oficina Nacional de Presupuesto

Oficina de Integraci6n Agropecuaria de Azua

Program de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente

Program Integrado de Desarrollo Agropecuario

Proyecto Riego Yaque del Norte

Plan de Desarrollo Integral "La Sierra"

Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura

SubsecretarFa de Planificaci6n Agropecuaria

Secretarla de Estado de Salud PGblica y Previsi6n Social

Secretariado T&cnico de la Presidencia

Subsecretarfa de Investigaci6n, Extensi6n e Investigaci6n

Subsecretarfa de Estado de Recursos Naturales

Escuela Agricola Salesiana

Universidad Aut6noma de Santo Domingo

Universidad Central del Este

Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Ureia

Universidad Cat6lica Madre y Maestra

Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional

United States Department of Agriculture

Parque Zool6gico Nacional















XI

LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED


Pedro J. Bona Prandy
Subsecretario Tecnico de la Presidencia

Gretel Castellanos
Director
Departamento del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (STP)

Angel Felix Dei6
Subsecretario de Estado de Recursos Naturales
SURENA


Fausto Grisanti
Subdirector
Departamento de
SEAPLAN

Sergio Grullon
Director
Departamento de
SEA


Planes, Programas y Proyectos




Recursos Externos


J.R. Leandro Guzman Rodriguez
Ing. Asesor
Corporaciones Sabana Yegua y Hatillo

Jose Enrique Lois
Ex-Subsecretario de Planificaci6n Agropecuario
SEA


Rafael Martinez Richiez
Director
Oficina de Coordinaci6n
SEA

Hipolito Mejia
Secretario de Estado de


Universitaria



Agriculture


Ernesto de Jesis Nuiez
Ex-Auditor General
Institute Agrario Dominicano









Juan Antonio Nuiez
Director
Departamento de Planificaci6n Sectorial
ONAPLAN

Marcos Peia Franjul
Director
Departamento de Vida Silvestre
SURENA

Agapito Perez Luna
Planificador Regional
IICA

Ramon Prrez Minaya
Director
ONAPLAN

Ram6n Rodriguez
Direcci6n General Forestal

Italo Russo
Director
Oficina de Coordinacion Tecnica
SURENA

Bias Santos
Director
PLAN SIERRA

Gustavo Tirado
Director
Departamento de Inventario)Evaluaci6n y Ordenamiento
SURENA

Ml. de Jesus Viias Caceres
Gerente General
Gulf and Western Corp. (La Romana)
Ex-Secretario de Estado de Agricultura




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