Title Page
 Summary of the problem
 Proposed response
 Goal, purpose, output, input
 Financial plan
 Related activities and project...
 Project development
 Addendum A: East from the Andes:...
 Addendum B: Mixed foodcrop/small...
 Addendum C: Integrated cattle/hair...

Title: Project proposal : INIAP/UFLA/USAID
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Title: Project proposal : INIAP/UFLA/USAID
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Language: English
Creator: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Summary of the problem
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Proposed response
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Goal, purpose, output, input
        Page 7
    Financial plan
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Related activities and project alternatives
        Page 9
    Project development
        Page 9
    Addendum A: East from the Andes: Pioneer settlements in the South American heartland - Ecuador
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
        Page A 6
        Page A 7
        Page A 8
        Page A 9
        Page A 10
        Page A 11
        Page A 12
        Page A 13
        Page A 14
        Page A 15
        Page A 16
    Addendum B: Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood production for small farms in the humid tropics east of the Andes
        Page B 1
        Page B 2
        Page B 3
        Page B 4
        Page B 5
        Page B 6
        Page B 7
        Page B 8
        Page B 9
        Page B 10
        Page B 11
        Page B 12
        Page B 13
        Page B 14
        Page B 15
        Page B 16
        Page B 17
        Page B 18
        Page B 19
    Addendum C: Integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber production for small farms in the humid tropics east of the Andes
        Page C 1
        Page C 2
        Page C 3
        Page C 4
        Page C 5
        Page C 6
        Page C 7
        Page C 8
Full Text







Title: Compile Technology, Train Production Specialists
S and Prepare Training materialss for Small Farmers
in the Humid Tropical Lowlands East of the Andes

I. Summary of the Problem

Each geographic region has unique food-poverty-population
problems and potentials. Such problems are compounded in
the central Andean region because its population has the
highest density and birth rate in South America while
consumption levels of protein and calories are among the
lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Traditionally most
people of Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia have lived
in highland areas.

These countries also contain vast humid tropical low-
lands (HTL's) east of the Andes into which highways are
being built due to petroleum discoveries and colonization
plans (Figure 1). Such highways are leading the poorest
of the rural poor away from over-populated highland areas
to establish small farms in the eastern lowlands (Adden-
dum A).

Mixed small farm production-systems are common to
these HTL's with livestock/forestry systems having the
most economic potential and ecological stability (Addenda
B & C). The comparative efficiency of livestock/forestry
and food cropping systems is not a-meaningful question in
these HTL's where low natural soil fertility and high
rainfall limit sustained foodcrop production. As demo-
graphic pressures increase, livestock/forestry can not
compete with foodcrops on the more fertile soils of the
highlands. The exact opposite is true in the major part
of the HTL's east of the Andes.

Efficient livestock/forestry production practices,
however, are not being effectively integrated into small
farms in the HTL's east of the Andes. Livestock produc-
tivity is less than one-fourth that of Europe and North
America. Timber and firewood trees are also becoming
scarce. The lack of technology transfer is even more
critical when one considers the ever increasing demand
for animal protein, housing timber and firewood within
Andean America.

Current efforts to transfer small farm technology
mainly employ the demonstration technique on more progres-
sive farms. While this technique is relatively easy to
execute, the few farmers that benefit are those with
better incomes. The resulting effect tends to widen the
gap between the rich and the poor, as technology does not
easily 'trickle down' to poorly educated marginal small

The mass training of such marginal small farmers is
essential for harmonious rural development in the HTL's
east of the Andes. The mass training of colonos in this
pioneer zone is one of the most difficult challenges
facing national institutions in the region. The proposed
project is designed to aid existing national institutions
in the compilation of technology, training of production
specialists and preparation of training materials for--
small farmers in the Napo province of eastern Ecuador-
(Figure 2).

"i.g 2

Humid tropical lowlands (HTL's) east of the Andes.


Figure 1 -

I 11.

Figure 2.

Map of Ecuador showing the Napo province in the
humid tropical lowlands east of the Andes.

I _ _~_~ L~_ C __ L~

I I III I- I -

II. Pronosed Resnonne

To help resolve the specific problems stated above,
the following strategy is proposed:

A. Compile msall farm technology for the HTT,'q east
of the Andes. Whereas technology for education and health
components of integrated rural development is widely trans-
ferable, small farm technology is largely location and
situation specific. The proposed project will form a net-
work for the compilation and exchange of appropriate small
farm technology for the HTL's in the Napo province of
eastern Ecuador.

The technology compiled will go beyond foodcropping
systems to include timber trees, chickens, swine, cattle,
firewood--in short--total farming systems. The compiled
technology will accomplish as many of the following inter-
related objectives as possible:

(1) Produce an improved and secure diet for the family.
(2) Improve forage and feed for animals.
(3) Improve, or at least maintain, soil fertility
and general ecological balance.
(4) Increase yield per unit of land and capital.
(5) Increase market options to consume, store, feed,
barter or sell.
(6) Increase production.of firewood.
(7) Improve cash flow by producing a surplus for sale-
at various times of the-year.
(8)_ Improve distribution of demand on family labor
during the year.
(9) Be acceptable to small farmers in terms of the
amount of risk, capital and labor required.

B. Train small farm production Rspcrialist for the
HTL's east of the Andes. The future course of integrated
rural development in these HTL's will largely depend on
the number of small farm production specialists, their
level of training and ultimately on enhanced mass small
farmer training programs in the region.

National trainees will be selected from ongoing inte-
grated rural development projects in the HTL's. Emphasis
will be given to local technicians who are actively work-
ing with small farmers at the village level. The training
will focus on:

(1) Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood production
(2) Small-holder cattle/timber production systems.

C. Prepare training materials for small farmer 'in
the HTL's east of the Andes. Effective training materials
are critically lacking for mass small farmer training pro-
grams. The proposed project will aid ongoing integrated
rural development projects in the preparation of a series
of small farmer training materials to be used in local
adult education centers, radio education courses and prac-
tical classes in rural schools. The threefold response
of the training materials will be:

(1) Transfer small- farm technology.
(2) Motivate small farm population toward agricul-
tural vocations and thus reduce rural/urban migra-
(3)- Facilitate adult literacy programs-with practical
auxiliary reading materials.

III. Goal, Purp ue Output, Tnput

Goal- To improve the economic productivity, ecologi-
cal stability and sociological viability of small family
farms in the HTL's east of the Andes through increased
implementation of appropriate technology.

Prpose- To improve small farm technology transfer
through enhanced mass training programs relevant to the
impact area.

Output- The output will involve improvements in many
aspects of small farmer training programs in the area.

(1) A consolidated information and reference base
on all aspects of appropriate technology for
small farms in the HTL's.
(2) A corps of trained small farm production special-
ists in each of the participating institutions.
(3) A network for the preparation and exchange of
small farmer training materials for use in
village adult education centers, radio education
courses and practical classes in rural schools.
(4) In addition to enhancing agricultural education,
the training materials will provide practical
auxiliary reading for adult literacy classes in
integrated rural development projects.
(5) _-The training materials will also motivate rural
populations toward agricultural vocations and
thus reduce rural/urban migration.
(6) A communication network to facilitate information
exchange among those working on small farm tech-
nology transfer within the area.
(7) A mechanism established that not only transfers
technology but also identifies lacking technology
for future research..
(8) A "model" that could be replicated in other similar'.
HTL's of Ecuador, Colombia, PerG and Bolivia.

InDut- The input will involve a stateside university
and collaborating national institutions in the impact area.

(1) The stateside university (e.g. University of Flori-
da) will provide specialists in tropical small-
holder cattle/timber production and family foodcrop/
small stock/firewood production. Collectively,
the professional staff will devote 18 months/year
to the project.
(2) The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrope-
cuarias (INIAP) will be the national institution
responsible for the project. The following
collaborating national institutions responsible
for small farmer training programs in the area
will provide qualified trainees, maintain trainee
salaries and continue publication of prepared
training materials:


IV. Finaineial Plan

Project Year

1. Personnel

2. Transportation

3. Training

4. Publications/







('in $ thousands)

1983 1983





217 595








V. Befnrficiariep

The project iJnumact area will be the HTL's in the Napo
province of eastern Ecuador. National institutions respon-
sible for small farmer training programs in the area will
be the clients receiving training for staffs and compiled
technology in the form of training materials for small
farmers. Small farm families will be the users through
village adult education centers, radio education courses
and practical classes in rural schools. Specifically,
the bepnfini-ric will be the landless rural poor (colonos)
from the over-populated highlands and the Amerindic popu-
lations of the HTL's east of the Andes.

VI. Related Aetivities and Project Alternatives

National institutions in the HTL's east of the Andes
are initiating (in many cases with the help of IDB and
IBRD agricultural developmental loans) integrated rural
development projects. The most crucial gap common to
this developmental process is the under-training of small
farmers (sub-eapacitaci6n campnsina). The proposed project
will help fill that void.

VII. Project development

Author of proposed project: Dr. John P. Bishop
Casilla 5080
Quito, Ecuador

V. Befnrficiariep

The project iJnumact area will be the HTL's in the Napo
province of eastern Ecuador. National institutions respon-
sible for small farmer training programs in the area will
be the clients receiving training for staffs and compiled
technology in the form of training materials for small
farmers. Small farm families will be the users through
village adult education centers, radio education courses
and practical classes in rural schools. Specifically,
the bepnfini-ric will be the landless rural poor (colonos)
from the over-populated highlands and the Amerindic popu-
lations of the HTL's east of the Andes.

VI. Related Aetivities and Project Alternatives

National institutions in the HTL's east of the Andes
are initiating (in many cases with the help of IDB and
IBRD agricultural developmental loans) integrated rural
development projects. The most crucial gap common to
this developmental process is the under-training of small
farmers (sub-eapacitaci6n campnsina). The proposed project
will help fill that void.

VII. Project development

Author of proposed project: Dr. John P. Bishop
Casilla 5080
Quito, Ecuador

V. Befnrficiariep

The project iJnumact area will be the HTL's in the Napo
province of eastern Ecuador. National institutions respon-
sible for small farmer training programs in the area will
be the clients receiving training for staffs and compiled
technology in the form of training materials for small
farmers. Small farm families will be the users through
village adult education centers, radio education courses
and practical classes in rural schools. Specifically,
the bepnfini-ric will be the landless rural poor (colonos)
from the over-populated highlands and the Amerindic popu-
lations of the HTL's east of the Andes.

VI. Related Aetivities and Project Alternatives

National institutions in the HTL's east of the Andes
are initiating (in many cases with the help of IDB and
IBRD agricultural developmental loans) integrated rural
development projects. The most crucial gap common to
this developmental process is the under-training of small
farmers (sub-eapacitaci6n campnsina). The proposed project
will help fill that void.

VII. Project development

Author of proposed project: Dr. John P. Bishop
Casilla 5080
Quito, Ecuador

East from the Andes

Pioneer Settlements
in the South American Heartland
6I''n .afln

Raymond E. Crist
Charles' M. Nissly

1. Prologue

TIiEi GREAT MAS of the rural proletariat of Andean America
has always lived a marginal existence, economically, politically,
and socially. The core and continuum of their lives have been
poverty. Although they are economically, socially, and even cul-
turally deprived peoples, they have survived. Their "scarcity econ-
omy," or "poverty mentality," or "culture of poverty"-the term
given currency by Oscar Lewis-or whatever name one pleases to
give it, must have had real survival value, for the carriers of that
culture are here today, very much alive, if not exactly thriving, in
this last third of the twentieth century. In their desperate struggle
for the minimal amount of the food and shelter consonant with
their survival, these Andean peasants have been prey to the envy,
distrust, deceit, vicious gossip, lies, and, not infrequently, the physi-
cal violence of their fellows. But they have survived.
The economic outlook of the Andean peasantry is probably well
summed up in the story of the farmer who, when asked if he had
received the price he had expected for his hogs that spring, re-
plied: "No, but then I didn't expect to.." And no wonder, Harvests
are getting more and more meager as soil fertility wanes, and
the soil washes away, and pest problems become more acute. Tech.
nology is archaic, Illiteracy is the rule, and folk methods rather
than modern science are depended on as guides in farming. Ill
health, malnutrition, and desperate, crushing poverty have condi.
tioned the population to attitudes of hopelessness, resignation, and
fatalism. The circle of life and hope has been so small and so tight
that it has been impossible for the individual to escape from the
immemorial way of life, or even to think of wanting to escape.
Each peasant has been born into a world of poverty, has known
nothing else all his life, and will bequeath to his children as his
only legacy the traditions of poverty. A removal of the barriers to

University of Florida Press / Gainesville / 1973

_ __ __ __ I_ ~__ _


economic development i"r not always enough; as Oscar Lewis has
suggested, the culture of poverty iay b moe m e difficult to eliminate
jh some areas than poverty itself, for certain patterns of life, non-
economic life goals, have been perpetuated over generations and
they are not going to, be changed: easily. No man is an island.
As Foster so perceptively writes, "In the traditional peasant society
hard work and thrift are moral qualities of only the slightest func-
tional value. Given, the limitations of land and technology, ad-
ditional hard work in village productive enterprises simply does
not, produce a significant, increment,in income. It is pointless to
talk of thrift in a subsistence economyin which most producers are
at the economic margin; there is .usually nothing to be thrifty
about."1 ,,t ,i .
The wealthy elite,lThe rich and the powerful, the dominant class,
wish to preserve the status quo of the,Andean peasantry; they tend
to explain away low economic status as being the result of personal
inferiority and inadequacy. But the peasants ai-e aware that the
dominant people in society neither, toil, nor spin, that they were
born as owners of land and wealth, able to manipulate those con-
trols and sanctions which the police, priests, teachers, and govern-
ment officials are able to impose. Peasants know, that the powerful
do not prize thrift simply because they do not have to-they have
their property and wealth, hence they do not have to accumulate it.
They can literally afford the Caballeroo" or, "gentleman" complex,
feeling superior, to those who have to work with-their hands and
walk to market with their produce. They can indulge in conspicuous
consumption and waste by buying Parisian gowns, cream-colored
Cadillacs,,.and walled-in, nonfunctional homes because they have
the.means to do so-means which seem limitless to the peasant, who
knows that those who have not, arenotl!,; ,
Instiutionalized thinking.-To change peasant. mentality it is
necessary ,to understand, and to work from within, the peasants'
institutional environment. Most peasants do not feel sorry for them-
selves, or feelbeset by insoluble problems unless such factors are
.pointed out by,,outside observers whowould act, as diagnosticians.
1. Georg'M. Fosqtr, "Penasnt Society and the Image of Limited Good," In
Peasant Society: A Reader, tcd. Jack M, Potter, May N. Dial, and George M.
Foster (Boston: Little; Brown and Company, 1907)',p. .17.


In too many instances, however, "doctors" unfamiliar with the
closed social and economic systems of the peasant have, as it were,
written prescriptions without understanding-or even talking to-
the peasant. The problem of loans, or short-term credit, is an ex-
ample. A government loan represents a windfall that can be ad-
vantageously used, for example, to hire someone else to do work
that the campesino has usually done himself. He can sit back in the
cafe or cantina and watch someone else work, just as the wealthy
patrdn has always done, and this idleness is in no way a threat to
community stability. Indeed, he is idle or at least underemployed
much of the year. Yet if he uses his loan to buy hybrid seed corn
and by planting it increases his yield several fold, he thereby
achieves individual progress and by so doing he changes his status,
thereby upsetting the status quo and stability of the community,
whose fellow members may not sanction such behavior. Such con-
servative attitudes have spelled survival for the closed peasant colm-
munity and will continue to be held as long as those communities
continue to exist as peasant societies, Once the peasant's view of
his social and economic universe is one of expanding opportunity
in an open system where initiative is rewarded and not t met by
negative sanction, he acquires initiative-fast.
Natural and supernatural forces.-The peasant everywhere lives
in a world pervaded by fears. His life is hemmed about by taboos, lor
evil spirits are at work all around him. He may not be able to enter,
much less to clear and grow crops on, certain pieces of forest be-
cause of the spirit or spirits that live there. He may have to work on
an infertile hillside instead of a piece of fertile alluvial river bot ton
land, over which hovers the ghost of his old friend and comnpadre.
Juan L6pez-for Juan, late one night and full of aguardiente, fell
face down in the little pond there and breathed his last. In Ilaiti,
the peasant may have to spend much time keeping the voodoo of
his enemies off his own plantings and at the same time harnessing
those occult forces of black magic for his own ends of bringing dis-
comfiture and bad luck to those who wish him ill. Ile may have to
bury the head of a white rooster in his neighbor's dooryard, or hang
the right wing of a guinea hen in the palm tree closest to his door.
Thus, phantoms, demons, and horrible apparitions will be called
forth to haunt his neighbor.
Fundamental beliefs.-It is important to take into consideration
those fundamental beliefs about life and its meaning which are held



by the general population. If everyone is basically convinced that
what will be will be, then striving for change is futile. The inertia
often imputed to tropical peoples, even in the highlands, may be
due more to malnutrition diseases, and, parasites than to basic
philosophy. They may seem to feel that all things come to him
who waits simply because they do not have the energy to stand tlhe
process of helping themselves. Further, the conservatism, the resist-
ance to change, that peasants everywhere are said to be ilmbuled
with has served as a means of survival, for those near the margin
of subsistence dare not take chances with new crops, new tech-
niques, or with anything new, They have to know that any new
method must increase their returns, for any decrease might be
fatal. They have had to struggle within the way of life that they.
have evolved, and they should be studied from within that way of
Every culture passes on knowledge to the next generation, but lthe
nature of that knowledge suits the survival requirements of the in-
habitants of each particular place or region at a particular time.
Geography and history are different threads of the same closely
woven fabric that is human society on this earth; and it is very dilfi-
cult to separate them.
The crux of the whole problem of settlement is to convince
pioneers that. by accepting innovations and( the winds of change,
thus moving into new areas and with new technology, they will
alter the pattern of their daily lives so to be able to live a more
abundant life, spiritually as well as materially.

It is a sad fact that, in the nations of Andcan America, the gulf be-
tween peasants and urban dwellers has been profound, especially
where there is a language barrier as in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
The peasant has not been merely neglected; lie has been gratuitously
ridiculed and humiliated when not actually physically mishandled,
in the army, in church, in the courts, in the post office, and espe-
cially in the shops and in the market place.
The average peasant is only mildly surplus- or market-miinded,
for all too often the trail, road, or river that ties him to the outside
world tends to be a one-way street: the products that move over
it tend to lose most of their value en route, as the peasant must pay
high transportation costs, or high taxes, or sli'fer outright confisca-

tion at the hands of one who claims to own tile laind( on which the
produce was grown. Further, native peoples, ignorant of tihe olici.i
language, who occasionally try to cnler thie market cconomiy ;nc
frequently, and sometimes even openly and flagrantly, robbed by'
all, even by the small village shopkeepers.
One may witness a scene such as this one. An litdian ioml ai
community high in the mountains arrived in a siall village of the
Andean foothills on market day, his donkey laden with onions, ;di
neatly arranged and tied in bunches convenient for the shopper.
Even before the farmer and his donkey arrived at the square where
the vendors' stalls were located, the pair was surrounded by a small
crowd of people who began pulling hunches of onions off tile pack
animal, asking the driver in Spanish the price of this bunch or
that. 'The poor man answered hesitantly in broken Spanish only to
realize that his inlerlociliors were moving off witl tihe bunches they
had selected; he tried to slemi the tide by following one or two
persons and stating the price, only to have the thieves pay no at-
iention to him and merely quicken their pace. Meanwhile, 0o;hcls.
taking advantage of his having left his pa31iclnt donkey for ;i few
minutes to plead in vain for payment, just helped themselves. ,ie
poor frustrated man came running back to try to stop ilie open
robbery, but the predators tugged and pulled, laughing 1and sioult-
ing at the good fun they were having, and withilin milules ihe
whole load of produce was gone. The bewilder ed peasant, choking
with wrath and muttering to himself in Quechla, alone in a hostile,
unjust world against which lie had no recourse, g4raidually made his
way to the fountain of cool water in the center of the ipaza where
lie bathed his tired feet. For the produce which had cost hir s,
much in time and effort lie had nothing to show but feelings of in-
feriority, rancor, and injustice. lie could not take advantage of his
day in town to purchase a few necessities and perhapl a drink or
two in the local carf or bar. There was nolhiing left for himn to do
but sit around dejectedly for a few hours, then get astride his
animal, and, his heart black with bile and frustration, fIolow itc
narrow rocky trail back to his home and family. The oily creat;i;ci ;
below him in the pecking order are his wi.e ando children, upi)"i
whom all too often his suppressed fury is vented. he wife caiii,;i-
escape, but tile children, especially the boys, cannot i expc cicXj C: ;
tarry at home oine ihey (can get out, even 1run :way.l o mate 1 iiv.
for themselves in the cities, or in tile new lands to ii-> cast.


Incidents such as this are lessons-part of the educational process
-that the poor peasant and his family are quick to learn and slow
to forget. When trails, roads, and rivers enjoy two-way tralfic, with
produce flowing to market in exchange for cash or goods of suffi-
cient value to make the trip worthwhile in the mind of the producer
of raw materials, then, he will be motivated to further trips to that
market-and only then,
In order to escape his own personal closed economic system, his
cocoon of self-sufficiency, the peasant or villager must produce some-
thing that is saleable, whether it be a bunch of cooking bananas, a
load of firewood or charcoal, or a piece of woven goods. If a road is
built by the central government, it might be easier for the product
to get to market, but both the saleable product and the market are
the basic ingredients of a diversified economy-the fundamentals, to
be sure. Only when a peasant knows that someone wants and will
pay for his products will it, or can it, occur to him that it might be
possible to increase his production. He produces a surplus in the
first place because lie hopes that with it hle can get something he
wants but cannot produce. The better the peasant is rewarded for
whatever surplus he can produce, the more willing is he to accept
innovative practices, if by so doing he can increase production.
Unfortunately, millions of human beings, pporly qualified or
equipped to cope with modern agricultural problems, are relegated
by history and cultural controls to precisely those areas where tihe
problems of soil management are most difficult. Most often those
with wealth and training have control over large land tracts of
physically good land within easy reach of markets. Such people can
apply the techniques of modern scientific management to produce
crops for the market, domestic or foreign, and thus achieve a high
profit per acre. Further, they are powerful enough to acquire con-
trol of other good land to hold for speculative purposes, that is,
to hold it at prices which the land would have if it were already
settled and being farmed.
In other words, by keeping vast acreages out of production, they
are able to price this land out of the market for any small-scale
farmer. When access roads are constructed into sparsely settled
areas, politicians and speculators often control the very land that
the road was ostensibly built to make accessible, with the result that


what was meant to be an access road may even dr;iini out of the
territory the few subsistence fiinmers already living there

MOIurLITY, A'rrrTi'irun, iFAEcrs or CIlANG(;i
If new ideas are carefully but. unobtrusively planted in what we
smugly think of as a "backward" society, "colscivative" autitudcs
may possibly change to the extent that the caipesinio wants to
change; the reaction thus elicited, (lte new motivation, iay Iii;akc
him reveal capabilities of which he himself had been unaware. Tlhe
progressive attitude with which thi people who make up the ii:-
digenous cultural environment may be imbued might indeed ,ruvc
to be more important in development than a grandiose, prei.ibi-
cated infrastructure inserted in the peasant society y forces folrci"i
to it.
The education behind this ch;;iige in attitude is not iccc',.> iiiy
one of formal book learning. Wiheneveri ; pc;,s;ii I-;: i:i; .
nearby caserlo, or village, no m;atlcr how seldom, ihe geis iiew idic.;s.
Further, it is likely that members of a gang o1 lab;oicis cie;igagcl iiI
building a road into remote areas ,are theinscivcs ;par. of t th(: ii
tional process for the few inhabitants living in these scclors. 'iis
was certainly the case with the gangs of i;bo rerl' wiho buil 0t tic Ji.
roads in Mexico under Porfi io Diai. If tie cr;inocsuio is cxiic'u
by those of the village, or by imiciiiebers of the road-buildiinilg c,:i
or by a local landlord or bigwig, he will mciely want to get ;ic.i'i.'
away from tlihem-cither by moving into a distant uirbn;i cciiier Ai
by going ever mi ore deeply ii;to the pIrotecting forest.
Vast changes in habit .sand attitudes are already iiiIicler w;A y. I '.-
day, one may meet a barefoot c:;;iiin sino on a ;iai;;i ;,iaiiwiii >in.
his prize fighting cock under his ;irm or in a nmakeshiift c;.I,, o0.I hi.
way to the weekend cockfights in a neighboring town. i e will cb
paring the spurs or plucking the leg and neck featl.ir. of his i, ;.
with as much nonchalance as if lie wcire at iomei. Such tin eli-
counter would have been unthinkable a few decades ;ag1.o.
Channels of conmmiinication opened up in the pas.t fe:w dc;it.;
now link the camupesino to the larger national society ;ani evii to
some extent to tile world outside. The recent network of ritls ii'.
vastly extended the horizon of tile peasant, beckoningi iuii to i.v,:
his smoke-filled, malodorous, liea- or bug-ridden hiove, lw .e liic :
and his family live in friewliy symbiosis with his idoiesl;i .,iiii i.u.
If tile siren call has not been strong enough for the palii f;iliii;..


it often has been effective in luring away the sons and daughters.
By tile tens of thousands they have gone to the city where they have
run into that almost impenetrable wall of joblessness characteristic
of pre-industrial, urban agglomerations. But some have followed
the trails and roads to the virgin tropical lands of the cast.
SThis migration, largely into the Oricnte, this slowly growing
exodus to new lands and new hopes, is our concern in this book.2

Never in the history of the world were there events comparable to
the discovery and exploration of tihe New World by the Spaniards
and Portuguese. The first sight of the shores, covered with heavy
tropical forest or sand dunes and giant cactus, must have been a
wondrous thing to these adventurous men of action. They were
not philosophical over what they saw, for their compulsion was to
dominate what they came in contact with, whether man or nature,
animate or inanimate. Hungry for gold and glory, in the course of
two generations they had crossed deserts and penetrated rain forests.
The Spaniards dismembered the Inca and Aztec empires, began to
indoctrinate the conquered people with Christianity, and sent
galleons of fabulous treasure back to Spain. And they gradually
became aware of the outlines of the main physical features of what
is now South America, with its huge chain of mountains-the Andes
-and its vast, tropical, forested heartland-the trackless, almost
uninhabited Amazon and Orinoco lowlands cast of the Andes.
At the time of the Conquest, the plains Indians of what is now
Venezuela lived in villages, or caserfos, widely distributed over the
llanos. In the selection of sites for these settlements, the available
supply of food and water had been the dominant factor, especially
for the Caribs. However, as the Achaguas'and other Arawak tribes
were pushed from the rivers by the fierce Caribs, they probably
sought out easily defended or easily Vacated sites'.' The pre-Colum-n
bian causeways and watch towers in the vicinity of Ciudad Bolivia-

2. Ialah Bonwman, in his cla.~ic volume The Pionrr Fringe, made no mention
of the lowland humid tropic:; he did not consider them a potential pioneering
zone, The area cast of the Andle is an excellent example of the penetration and
.cttlement of the humid tropical lowland during the forty ycars since the publi-
cation of The Pioneer Fringe, tlie last gleat land frontier zone on ratli. Ah will
be scen, failure of settlement and colonization schemes have resllted ln fImnn
tile influence of physical anl cullimral factors tr im fronm sociovr'onomic reality y
which lo0t out to sociopolitical experdiency.

Barilas State, as well as the ridged fields mentioned by CGastellano,
wele undoubtedly built by the quiet, hard-working, agricultural
Arawaks, possibly for purposes of defense.3 The Caribs, beint oi
conquest, came up the rivers ini dug-out canoes. From lthe river .i
would be almost impossible to see the enemies' settlements il the
open savanna because of the gallery forest. Even when seen, it would
be difficult to effect a surprise attack. Besides, the causeways could
be used by the Arawaks for flight or for bringing in reserves. In the
dry season, the Caribs, adept on the water, would be forced to
cross a large open savanlla oil foot before battle. Tihus, iic attackers
would be placed at a disadvantage in many ways. At all events, tli
Arawaks did not hec.itate to settle in tile savannas despite the tre-
mendous work involved in building these great earthen s tructures.
On the north (left) bank of the Orinoco, immediately below the
influx of the Apure. there were Indian settlements which were
famed among the Orinoco Indians because of tle fertility of (heir
soil andi the abundance of their food supplies. When the Orinoco
subsides at the bcginiiiing of the dry season, a deposit of fine, fertile
silt is left behind, in tlie same manner as Ilie deposit left )by the
Nile after its annual overflow. Padre Gumilla relates how various
tri l)s-Otomnacos, Gua;nos, Paos, and Ser-rcos-were cultivate i i
in this fertile deposit a kind of maize which matured in two Ioiniths.
But great agricultural activity had been carried on by the aboriginal
Indians; as early as 15.3, when I Icrrera's expedition arrived at
Cabruta, his soldiers found "iin cave's which they had made in low
knolls a large quantity of m iie which they must have kept there
to avoid the inundations of the river."'1 Maine yielded well, for
hiese farming people had become such epicures that corn on the
cob was a favorite dish. "In t(rih, so much is caten when tlie ears
still have tender grains, that tlie Indians themselves notably de-
crease their harvesrs [of ripe ears]."
There was a very important trade route for gold which followed
the Front Ranges along the soutlicastern slopes of tile Veneziueli;a
Andes. The excellent water supply and the fertile alluvial soil
along this route made possible a rather dense Indian poiipulaiion.
There were numerous thriving hamlets. Along this route, gold front
the Chibcha domain, probably even from theli Inca m'ipire, weiil
3. juan ,le Ca ctrliaFmo F, glagtns de varrnU s iluh.olrte die ilian, 1:53.9,
'1. S'ven l.ovi "i'ie Orinoco i Old ldia ulio s." 2 .
',. ioirph ;umiilla. FI O hinnro ihlsti,! p. 279.


to Venezuela, eventually sent as far east as Barcelona, Maracapana,
and Cumnani. Lovdn suggests that there were large amounts of gold
in the uplands of Cutnana because the Indians there raised coca,
for. which their neighbors eagerly traded gold.0 On this oute,
Tenauren (now Turen), just east of the Portuguesa River, seems
to have been tlie point farthest east where, gold was cast. The
Achaguas, a branch of the Arawaks, inhabited the strip of land just
east of the Cordillera, the greater part of which was above the an-
nual inundations suffered by the lower llanos. They were peace-
loving and industrious and had come in friendly contact with tihe
cultured Chibchas. As,a result of contact with this affluent people,
they had become the chief traders in gold between the people of
the plateau and those of the llanos and northeastern Venezuela.
Eastern Ecuador has for long been a kind of terra incognita, es-
pecially from the view of archaeology. Parts of this area have re-
cently been most successfully and profitably studied by Father Pedro
Porras Garcds, who has built up in the town of his birth, Amlbato,
an. archaeological museum with emphasis on the culture of the
Quitus and the Pansalcos. During his many apostolic Iiissions lhe
has found traces of mian's occupancy in what is now dense forest.
He has carried out explorations covering thousands of square miles
over a period of more than six years in these forests, beginning in
the vicinity of Papallacta, gradually extending farther eastward into
tle Valley of the Quijos River and into the Vallby of the Mlisagualli,
a tributary of the Napo.
The pottery of Quijos shows that there were close connercial
ties with the people, of the Ecuadorian alliplrnio, that tlere was
sonicetrade in Loja with the laltas or Jlharos of the Catalmayo Val-
ley. Perhaps there was also some interchange with the zone of
Tierradentro in Colombia, where the great nmonuments of San
Agustin are found.
It is possible that'the Valley of Quijos was theIfinal stronghold of
cultures of the central inter-Andean Valley of Ecuador whose in-
habitants emigrated eastward as a result of ltie Incaic invasions.
Here in the east they built fortifications which they had not felt
necessary in their high heartland. The armies of the incas were
afraid of the hot tropics and, except for short military forays, did
not penetrate such lands either in coastal Ecuador or in the cast.

0. hxnvhn, "The Ouitio rr Iii Old tintla Thnicns p. 719.

In the vicinity of Papallacta, simple tombs were found. TNiu taC'.
were buried in excavations in the ground, or welis, and in cavities in
rocks or protected by overhanging rocks. l.arther alicid, ia;irii;, l y
beyond Baeza, prehistoric roads, great cyclopean walls, and m ono-
lilhs covered will strange figures and symbols have beenii iscoveed,
as well as agricultural terraces, fortresses, toimbs of many descrip-
tions, and what seem to be boundary markers or ldolhens.
In the Llanos de Mojos of northeastern .1olivia, pre-Conueij st
aboriginal people achieved the most intensive utilization of itropica
grasslands known in the history of the New World. The nibcs i'
lojos adapted to annual flooding by constructing various typis ,i
earthworks to provide dry ground for dwellings, cultivation, ,i(i
communication. The drained licids, some 50,0i(0 acres, are a ianiii-
ment to savanna agriculture in what is now northeastern ioiiVli.i
they were estimated to have supported several huntl ed tloui i.i
people lup to the seventeenth ceniiry. roim 1.-2 to 176i7, scii
nents were founded, but thie pipulatioi was rapidly rediicii iy
I'"luropean diseases, and tile inlive cultures of the Arawak-.spic.ak,;
Mojo and aurie Indians deterioi ated.
It is significant that in this harshly savanua euvro;nm.ct, wnmc:
floods alternate with drouglils, p)ie-Spainish peoples wiii cxtueuci.y
primitive techniques achieved a productivity and popuilaitioin eNi-
sity which have not since been equaled. Since sava;iuia cultivatiol; i,
less productive and perhaps requires more labor tihan stiliiin;g .'.;
cultivation, Denevan suggests that, since stone for tools was rae.u
it may have actually been easier to raise earit in savanna land iai;
it was to clear forest. It is falmrler ..,,,:...i that populatiWn anm.y
have become so tdenset hat there was not enough forest avai iiable
support successful shifting cultivalion based on a long forc.t I;;ii.'.
As in the Venzuelan llanos, tilial territori;aI claims may 1:avc i, c
vented migration and thercby necessitated inltcnsive cull~ivatioi (,
whatever land was available. At all events, savanna lannini w
given up early in the colonial period, for the Conqau'st i;i 'aotiiein
m arii tools for clearing forest, drastically reduced tih paoii atioii.
and established new groupings of the Indians.
7. Pedro I. P' ni Gnar.& Conobihlci4: al 1u. dio der la itrqu.rtloiia e hie,'w,,
de Ios a'nlles lQuijo y Afi.gualli (Alto Napo) en la rrgi6n oti0 fal di t /.:,rii f l.'.
SA., p.."32.
Hl. Wiliani MT. l)nicvan, The Aibotigitial Cullit tl Geography of the l.lia.r
Afojos of Bfolivia, pp. 90, 96,
9. lbid., pp. 94-95.

I,.Ui.OGU iE


The sixteenth-century explorers of the Amazon, such as O0cilana
and Orsua and Aguirrc, provisioned themselves from the food sup-
plies of tile Indians they met, commandeered their canoes, and took
into slavery those that they wanted. The result was-very early-a
complete breakdown in native life and an appalling decrease in the
Indian population. By the mid-eighteenth century, Portuguese slav-
ers were doing a thriving business, capturing Indian slaves in tlhe
upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries and selling lthem to
plantation owners downriver or along the cast coast. Von IIum-
boldt noted, that along the banks of the Cassiquiarc River, or
"Canal," which connects the Orinoco and Negro rivers, the Indians
had fled the slavers and taken refuge in the bush to the east.
Even as late as the mid-nineteenth century, ihe English explorer
Bates remarked on the common but illegal practice of obtaiinng In-
dian children as slaves from the wild tribes of the interior. And 1.
IH. Rusby, writing of his experiences, observed: "At the time of the
occurrences which I have related [1885], these Indians [Arauna In-
dians of the Ibon] were a large and powerful tribe, occupying a
wide area of country. In the meantime the aggressions of the whiles,
not merely by the invasion of their territory, but through the raids
for prisoners to be enslaved as peon workmen in the rubber in-
dustry, have resulted in their almost complete annihilation."'t
As late as 1906, Colonel Fawcctt wrote of the wholesale capture
of wild Indians who were enslaved to work tapping rubber; it was
plentiful and brought a high price on the world market, but was
difficult to get at because rubber trees were scattered over a huge
area and increasing toil was necessary to locate and work them.
Women and children were wantonly butchered, as were any men
who became ill or who could not gather their assigned quota.
Colonel Fawcett's observations of conditions in eastern Bolivia bear
out completely Sir Roger Casement's report on the shocking condi-
tions on the Putumayo River in eastern Colombia a few years later.
And according to newspaper reports, such activities have by no
means ceased in the remote areas of tropical South America.
The white man,'bearer of civilization, did not superimpose a
new technological order on tropical South America. Rather, he cn-
slaved the Indians and forcibly made them continue a gathering
economy, the profits of which resounded to the benefit of the over-

10. II. II. Rumly, Jungle MAt inoties (New Ymk, 19r5) pp. 297-98.







lord, not the Iiidian. Thus, ti iiveprimitive gathering ecominy was
largely frozen as found. As long as those countries conui oling iih:.,;
"primitive" tropical areas were content with a gathering-rconomy
slatls (iuo, there could be no change.
During the past half century, the wol Id has experienced a revolu-
tion of rising expectations to which lle peophls of densely popi-
lated Andean America have not been iiluininlic. They have begun io
break their medieval bonds. geographicc aid social mobiiiy ;a.i
increasing, effecting massive changes ill the distribution of poilai-
lion and in the manner of living.


Mountains everywhice modify the climate, since termnpciiatmes are
lowered by about 3 degrees for every 1,000 feet elevation. Whl'i is
thought of as the e tri tropics is found from sea level to an1 elva-
tion of about 3,000 feel, and this altitudilnal life zone is refei rd to
as sierra calienic, or hot couilrty. From there to 6,0O00-8,000 .1cct
(depending on angle of slope a;1d( hours of sunlsinte), tlicie is a
modified tropical climate; tlie sectors between those contours :;i
known as tierra templada, or tenmperate country. Above tils h .i-
tour is tierra [ria, or cold couimtry, where night temperatures o;*,,.:
frcczing, and occasionally even bciow, are succeeded during lit: !;iY
by shade temperatures in the fifties. The great mass of Aiidea. ii-
dians and mestizos still live in the tierra frfa of hle altipli;ao (lie
high plateau between the casternl aind western Anudean Cotrdiiic;i,)
and in the high valleys. From their ranks come a imajoriy of ihe
settlers of the pioneer fringe zones in the humid tropics.


The humid tropical sector between Velle/ucla anld l Voliv ia coinsisi.
largely of grassy savannas in Venezuela, eastern Coloinlbia, amli
much of Bolivia. lThese sectors have a distinct (dy sCison (verato)
during periods of low sun, aid rains fall during the wet season (i.-
vierno), the period of high sun. Even in these grassl;iias rivers are
lined by gallery forests varying in width from several hliiiiied yarni,
to a mile or more. Land that is very steel) or stoiny induces rapni
runoff of precipitation; sandy soils may be extremely prcnmeabic;
in such areas, even where precipitation is heavy ;mad weli is-
tributed, edaphiic savannas of co.:.rse grasses may result.



rue rain forest is found where rainfall is heavy (usually 80 to
100 inches or more) and well distributed throughout the year. This
is what is usually called jungle. This is the weo ld of giant but-
tressed trees festooned with lianas and laden with epiphytes that pro-
duce here and there brilliant red or white flowers that gleam in the
dark foliage. Even on sunny days the forest canopy shuts out most
of the sunlight. When it rains, great drops patter loudly on ihe
millions of leaves and then drip from leaf to leaf to the ground
floor; this is a dim twilight world of greens and browns and damp-
ness, of rotting, termiite-infested wood and of wet, soggy vei;cC;ioil.
The layer of leaf mould on the ground is (lin or nonexistent le-
cause of the rapid rate of oxidation. Soluble salts have been leached
out and the resultant acid soil is well adapted to tlie growth of trees
and shrubs. Such forest-covered land is extremely difficult to clear,
especially for a person armed with only a machete or an ,lxe. 'he
clearing of such forests on steep slopes makes thle soil a picy io
rapid erosion.


When such forests on hill lands are cleared for (ihe growing of crols.
erosion would be even worse than it is if it were not for Ihic fact
that aggressively colonizing species of perennial African grasses,
readily disseminated by seed or cutting, have been widely iand
rapidly naturalized in the forestlands of humid tropical America.
Areas newly cleared of forest, cropped for a few years, are either
planted to grass or invaded by an aggressive volunteer grass. Crop
agriculture is thus just a step in the process of converting foicst-
land into pastureland.
Such grasses also compete successfully with native grassecs that
evolve under very low grazing pressure. A case in.point, Yaraglia, or
jaragdia (Hyparrhenia rufa), has been able to compete within native
savanna grasses in the Venezuelan llanos due to its ;,',; c.' ;,'-;
and ability to self-seed. This African invader, apparently aided by
being regularly burned, within a decade or two may well ie tile
dominant grass in the open Venezuelan lianlos, were it is fired
each year in the dry season and grazed closely (during the rainy sea-
son to prevent its becoming rank and fibiros.
Melinist miinuiflora, or molasses grass, so lialed for its chlaracler-

ist1iC )in asscS-,ike (01~i m.. an KW lliiiy CX1 15" Azl.444414.
halryi leaves stiIy,;;s .i 4
Sanita Ala&'ta airea of DAW(?4l; ty& cmA4y sA.Au t.4 ,.,u4nA,4,.
bCcomeC a volumeC~ l: l n Ii),l4,),cJ '! .ta _,l,i ca

c~faniA irlNi~i1 as a esuilt of )4 ,il~ omkn s' hw fdmimah"~Lob
of secoiind grow h, ;l4"d dlvy-sc.soli, se, y
recent. study of 1i( CoXoi i~i A),AI ,'.i., *C

-aon ti i~':
gra gI;1Ss (;'.'niaii i ri ull? ir f' inirwd ; .. i IC 'i U
4.C., by Fuliiii.:4 i is pa1(1o :11C o A? Ai' ly !4tl),l
of zilc I0 ho 444 ;lop444(4.,, ,. "ho
V;a inl the( QNS lad W0. ,'. )4AA m ', ad ov '.w Awo, 4

Goo ','Se

;m 4, AkV
"';kiii? ,AA(tsaiC A jo Y(a

Aior u saS4A t tc, qv Ak a ill t..liiS

livesock Ciildl, ill i;.4', ).& ill'.', '.4 ~ Nc.4A ,.U' "
11. jams I &," A Ay d
iv. W., A.0

4. Ecuador

JLcUADOR is divided physically in its climate, landIscape, andi
culture. The massive, cool-lo-c(old Andean codilleras sticwn wiiith
volcanoes, almost of which are extinct, and tlie inlteCrontane, valleys
contain all the important towns, except Gunayaquil, and 51 per cent
of Ilie country's people. The great majority of the inlhabilant's a-e
Indians who cling o their cloistered way of life; hicy have little
national feeling and are gencraliy nilniteiested in larrlge-scale coin-
merce. Wcst of tlie Andes, hie hot, generally low ,nid daiii coastal
plain is peopled by indians, Negiocs, and mesLizos whio griOw i)ost
of the country's exlporl crops andl carry n(i most of its (oiiimnere.
Fast of the Andes, the great, hot, forested plain of thie Oli icn.
through which meander the headwater itribuaries of the Aliiamon,
is nearly empty, with only 2 per cent of Ecuador's population. (Cu-
renitly it is of almost no economic signiicance in the ag;iiculiural
T'lie forests of Eccuador's "Wild l:.ast" begin at the tree line on thli
eastern flank of (the eastern cordillera, cover the inountains and hill
lands of tie mountain front, anl cxtciid in unbroken treescape
eastward to thie Piummayo River and io to e disputed bolder with
Peru. In spite of--perhaps because of-the activities in this vast a;l(a
of sixteentlh-cenluiy gold lniiners a;nd ime recent rubber g;athlleicis
and adventurers, permanent settlemeniits have bee' c,.lstahlishied in:y
with the greatest difficulty. The Jesuit missions of the scveniteeiit
century did not have church leadership long enioughi to pit an ini
delible stamp on the country as did the Jesuit reductionsi" ;along
tie Rio de la PIiaa. Building a road into a sparsely seitlld ;tiiaea suci
as (lie Ecuadorian Oriente does not always attra:, ilrniiiatris.
it should always be kept in mind that a highway is buil and aii
for two-way iraflic. If a road is built front a dei' ely popuiiiTCi Sw(mcr
X, to a frontci' /oine, Y, in which a sparse i)pouiatioli is i. )ciariotiiso


established, the road can le a hooin to the people of Y, for it., ....1
now send produce to and import goods fromi X. iiowevcr, ii ;i p :ii-
deinic should break out, or if the political situation should become
menacing, or if other physical or man-made catastrophes should
arise, then the role of the road is revised. That is, peopIic wiii use
it to flce from X in order to achieve the relative safety o"'1, ;ti;' N
will be drained of its inhabitants. A case in point is the ()iiiie ,.
Ecuador, where the Jesuits established more or Ic.s pi)i)p'cii(,
missions among the Indians in tile seventeenth cc(ilitir). W'lh i,."
Jesuits were expelled by the Spanish crown in the c;;;.'n I.cai
tury, their chiaiges became a prey to rapacious ranicheis, iniiN,
and traders looking for cheap or free labor,

A military colonization project in the Aimazon i aisin, Paluimia i .1
bcgan in 1962 on the right bank of the Saii Migiuci iivcr in ..-
northeast Ecnadorian Oriene. Funded l)y tiie Ailianie for PlO;,PIc,'
the project is tile cooperative eiimii of ithe Minisiry of Oc..'i
Accidn Civica, and a two-maltn military Imissioti froi tlie Ulniai'.
Rolf Wesche provided the following descril)tion of the colony:
the project still has the aIl)peuanci of a construction I.;,
when visited.... One complex of iO ceceint-block sctiler iionic
has been completed. Four of these are occupied by ;ady ;i.i,-
trative personal, and alrealy are scarred with signs of 1di.1-
dation. On the opposite end of the blul[ on which the villa;; i.,
)being built, an identical comiiplx is under conlt i( tion. 'i'
center of the setticiment is coiimposed of several woliksiiip',
6.7-kilowatt diesel-power piiilt, a barracks for lii." aily 1(,v.
stlctiction workers, and a iWo-iroo0i school. rFurther pi.iins iin
clude a c(ich li, central stoic, civic center, and a cei;cl )'. L. mii
has already l)cen cleared lor an Hi80-Wner air strip audi ;ai :t (I'
field. Slippery clay roads onneiiit the various 11 pa1 s of ; lie i ,ci(I
tnent. Considering tlhe duration of construction activity. 0i
involvement of an entire company of soldiers (aboui 60 idn'.,i.
20 veteran scitlers. 2 tricks aln 2 traHclios, and the intmirci oi
the government in thie venture's success, the rate of .pia,,i',c
seems disappointing.
As happens so ol'Ien in i,aiin America, the plans foi ;aln
orderly settlement hLave ilirady bI'en diluted. I lilS of non-
military settles ;ae sprouiont iin and around the villa),e. Vel-


crans, unable to wait for the completion of their homes in lthe
village, have built houses on the plots assigned to them along
the river. : .
The twenty veterans, all with a minimum of fifteen years in the
military and thus familiar with life in the Oriente, form the nucleus
of this service and regional'development center; their plots, front-
ing 220 yards along the river, may not be sold during the first tell
years of occupancy. New nonmilitary settlers and increased appli-
cations from the military uiiger well for continued growth.
But Palina Roja, its construction motivated also' by Ecuador's
need to secure the border zone, yet without"a tiC-in to the nation's
road network, cannot survive without trading across the nearby
Colombian-Ecuadorian frontier. Although insisting on supplying
the settlement strictly from Ecuadorian sources during its embry-
onic state, the Ecuadorian government has not followed this policy
of certain'isolation but has permitted across-the-border movement.
The colony, with a population of 250, sees for itself an increasing
role in the Oriente's development.

It was generally assumed that the accord signed in 1942 in Rio de
Janeiro had settled a long-standing boundary dispute between Ecua-
dor and Peru. However, as far as Ecuador is concerned, there is
still a zone in dispute' Zonaa controvertida) in the southern part of
the country. Vast quantities of petroleum have been discovered ill
southwestern Colombia, in the northeastern Oricnte of Ecuador,
and more'recently (1972) in the Pavayact' area, some 150 miles west
of Tquitos, in northwestern Peru. This is a powerful motivation be-
hind the determination of the Ecuadorian government to incor-
porate the Oriente into the national economy. Wtilh the rapid
development of large oil fields nearby in the Pitu!mayo basin of
Colombia, active oil exploration in Ecuador's Oriente has suddenly
rejuvenated the area, now patterned with large concessions. In April
1967, Texas Gulf Oil Company spudded in its first' wildcat at Lago
Agrio, forty-five miles southeast of Colombia's Orito field. In May,
thirty miles west at Bermejo, the company struck oil in a second
wildcat and in August completed a second producing well at Lago

v1. 1Rolf Jtlrgen Weiche, "The Settler Wedge of the Upper Puturmayo River,"
pp. 267-4i8.

Agrio. To the south, at Coca on the Napo River, the company has
spudded itn a fourth well. On concessions of nine other companies,
aeromagnetic surveys are being carried out as well as photogeo-
logical studies; other companies are engaged in seismograph surveys.
Ecuador, with reserves estimated at 5 to 7 billion barrels, may
soon become South America's largest oil exporter. The Ecuadon ian
State Petroleum Corporation (CEPE) was established in 1972 to
coordinate this new industry.
Millions of dollars are being invested in the Oriente in coninec-
lion with tile further development of oil fields; thousands of float-
ing laborers have been attracted to this area, but very few of them
come with tle goal of becoming permanent residents engaged ill
agricultural pursuits. Indeed, some who have been producing crops
oi small plots abandon them to seek cniploylent at highly wages ill
the oil field. However, once production is stabilized, it is estimated
that tile services of a total of not more than 500 to 1,000 full-time
employees will be required to operate the oil field, service tlhe re-
cently completed (July 1972) pipeline from the oil-producing area
to Esmeraldas, and care for the storage tanks and port installations
in Esmeraldas. When this time arrives, there will be tullcImploy-
mentl, outmigration, and economic depression in tie area, as has
been tile case with the Orito oil field across the border ill Colombia.
Such conditions do not favor effective settlement of rain foregs
lands, as many of those who come to make their fortune in the oil
fields have neither the spirit of the pioneer nor a penchant for thll
sedentary life of the farmer. Perhaps the government is anticipating
this eventuality, for one reads in the Alliance for Progress IVrchly
Newsletter (September 18, 1972) that a mixed highway-waterway
known as the "lnter-Occa:nic Way" is beingR built to connect the
LEcnladorian seaport of Sail Lorienzo to the river port of Maniii;s,
State of Anmaonas, Brazil. A highway will link Sai Lorenlzo to
Puerto Putunayo on the Putuimayo River; the remaining distance
to Manaus is to be covered by riverboats,
The road eastward from Quito crosses two deep gorges in semii-n lid
country and ascends to a very high, cold pass before the dcesceiit to
Papallacta. In 1970 this road was improved by tile oil comlpanuy and
extended to the producing field at .ago Agrio, via Baica.
Most of the easily accessible land along the Quito-I.;go Agt i


road was rapidly occupied by spontaneous colonists. A town, Nueva
Loja, grew up near the Texaco-Gulf Camp, consisting originally of
a"muddy street, without sidewalks, lined with primitive bars and
ramshackled'restaurants and rooming houses. The population of
Nueva Loja'in early 1973 numbered about 2,000; small but sub-
stantial stores handling general merchandise and notions were be-
ing built, and 'property lines were being laid out according to the
specifications of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Reforma Agraria y
Colonizaci6n (IERAC).
Some 10,000 settlers, largely from' the drought-stricken Loja
Province aid the northern coastal provinces, have coie into the
whole Aguarico region. Those living outside the town are for the
most pat engaged in subsistence farming pro tern,' that is, their
immediate goal is to raise as much of their own food as possible, but
they hope in the future to produce some surplus for the Sierran
market with which to buy such staples as sugar, rice, and potatoes,
and clothing, tools, and household utensils. Hence, 'they settled on
or as near as possible'to the roads that give them access to the mar-
kets of the Sierra. "
The road from Ambato eastward has long been open as far as
Bafios. Even before there was a road for wheeled vehicles, people
came on horseback to bathe in the hot mineral spritigs there. In the
1930s the Shell Oil Company opened the road as far as Mera, drilled
a few dry holes, and abandoned the well sites. The few floaters who
came in at that time as laborers drifted away. During tie earth-
quiake of 1949, the town of Pelileo, between Anmato and Banios, was
deeply buried under a tremendous landslide of millions of tons of
volcanic ash. This horrible catastrophe cast its shadow on road
construction for several years. Even twenty years after the event the
new town called Pclileo, built on a steep barren slope not far from
its buried predecessor, was far from flourishing. In spite of frequent
landslides and"'ashouts, thie road is kept open and has been coln-
tinued as far as Tena on the Napo River. A'small'but steady trickle
of settlers is coming in'and the faithful mistos (trucks that haul both
freight and passengers) have regularly scheduled service from Bafios
to Teia anid'ftnti :Bhfiiot to Quito.
Between the forested Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Cucutti.,
extending approximately from M6ndez northward to Macas at an
.. i,


altitude of 1,700-3,700 feet, there is one area of the F.cuadol i.a
Oriented priinung for incorporation into the national economy: the
relatively flat Upano River Valley, an area recently designated by
the Junta de Planificacion as one of the most important for coloni-
zation. Previously, sonic adjacent highland settlers, two or three
thousand from Cuenca, imbuled with a desire for adventure or"
merely tired of trying to live on the pittance to be cared makiii|.
Panama,, or jiijanpa, hats, came to the Upatno River Vallcy to search
for gold near MNndz.. Here, despite very hard work, they seldom
make more than a bare living, but they are noticeably better oif
than they were in the uplands. And from these uplands addltion.il
waves of inigrants have poured into highland cities and the Soith-
east Oricnte, llecing periodic droughts, Iieavy erosion o( t(he agii-
cultural lands, andi( extreme tiinifuntdia.
There are already 15,000 squatters in the valley, utilizing 100,0(00
acres of land primarily for the raising of cattle. Scattered along lie
left side of the Ulpanio are Ibaro Indians who, because of mission
encouragement and training, have shown a tendency to trade tllcir
nomadic way of life for one more pelrmantenit. The coiIileliont of
the primary penetration roads to Mtndc. atld beyond will peinii
the immediate settlement of 1,150 families; another 3,100 itnil.C
will be settled later oil 280,000 acres, approximately 75 anes planned
per family. ut l now these are only paper exercises. The plains, yet
to be fully illplenmetnted, call for tie selection of colonos and aid f(r
their migration (only those with private resources are now cintetii.;
the zone of colonization, excluding those who are ha;ely subsist-
ing on small, drought- and erosion-plagued sierra plots). T'her e will
also be secondary roads, construction of schools, medical dispein-
saries, a cold storage warehouse for meat, experimental farins.
marketilig and consumer cooperatives, titlilg of properties by the
IERAC,2 all to lie fitlatlced by a .S millioll loan from tle l teCltaiel i.
can Development Iantk for road construction and $6 million fIroti
national agencies for colonization costs.
With the bank loan, construction of the roads to an d with n lis
frontier zone is progressing. A major penietra'tio route to i.tildc/.
considered in 19i9 and finally decided upon in 1962, has c;ridecti
2. Froml 1964 to Spltellber 30, 191(7, 728 families trccivre titlr to W~,000 ;ilist
of lIltid. An addilionitl 190,000 aiirs arc now bcing litlril (Iltiitil r io ir10 iio.iit
de er onnr a Agrarln y C(oloi:lc 'iill, l'lladin irns de In% rem lircione irs i iloitr iln
agraria y colonizaci/in [Quito, 1.I8]H).

. 1 1,

, I 10 j I_


the Negro River, eighty miles from Cuenca. A road within i he valley
extending south fronh Macas, as of mid-g196, was inching soulh, six
miles east of Mnndez, eventually to be joined with the penetration
road and with a proposed intravalley road froni J.im6n. Lim6n is
the terminus of a complelcd second penetration road from Cuenca.
Seventy miles of short secondary roads, eight miles of which are
completed, will cut from both sides of the lUpano River, east and
west into more virgin territory. When complleed, this road net-
work will funnel the products of the region's major economic activ-
ity, cattle raising, to the Sierra. Cattle are now removed by airplane.
An estimated 50 per cent of crop production in the valley now rots
because of the lack of inexpensive means of reaching highland
markets. With roads, trucks will haul out coffee, yuca, rice, pealnus,
plantains, citrus, soybeans, nuts from the,wild almond tree, and so
on. Now almost all crops are grown for subsistence by primitive agri-
cultural methods, by colonos waiting for theCcolonization project to
move beyond government offices.
A case study: Macas and Suclud.--The towns of Maras and Sincli;
are located in the zone of active colonization in the IUpano River
Valley; both have been described by Richard Iflasis.' His findings
are included here to compare and'contrast two Oriente frontier
towns, one geared to the traditional, the other to the innovative.
The contrast between Macas, a settlement for over 360 years, and
Sucua, a relatively new town of approximately '10 years, is striking.
The inhabitants of Macas are, for the most part, descendants of
serranos who came several centuries ago from the Sierra and have
historical ties withI Guamote and Riobamna, Cuenca, as the early
center for expeditions: to this part of the Oriente, lost its influence
after tlhe founding of Riobamba. The trail leading to Cucnca served
Macas as a connection to other settlements in the valley and occa-
sionally as a means to market products. Macas is dominated by tlhe
inertia of centuries. Several families are important because of early
connections. Sucui, however, has not had to break with heavy tra-
ditions and has not been saddled with similar problems. SucuA is
freer to choose a more pragmatic approach towards solving problems
and encouraging growth,.
Length of settlement plays a part in the distribution of houses
within the two towns. The central plazas of both Macas and SuicuA
are roughly comparable, but the scattered location of buildings
S, "Colonitation in lhe Ilpano River Valley, Ecutnor."

around the plaiz in Macas coulrlsis';t willi ilh co;ip.iaii:ncs olf iWUi'-
ings around the plaza in Suclul, and Ilhis paurci;i holds Olhroaglhout
tlhe towns. In Macas, the early pa) ltern of scattered iihomllCsll Witcs
surrounded by subsistence crops, fruit trees, sugarcani e, andi pa:isltil
continues. Sucu;, although the houesites are soniewhal spaced out.
has a more compact settlement t f)rii and has several streels near tih
central plaza with wall-to-wall houses.
Macas does not accept newcomers and especially does "no like
colonos from Cuenca, for lthe long-time resildelts fc.;r erosion oir
(ticir positions of economic miid social superiority. They see COit;-
ca;ios as special villains becaucni'. ilhese people seem to lihve a knrimck
for business. The Spanish background of mllaiy of thie resides is
also a possible reason for ihe c(oldness toward Indian ;lld m11esil/o
migrants from the Sierra provintces, The popiulationi of lINacas i;l
1858 was around .370; in 1912, 190; iby 1960, 1,800; in 1968, ani csi-
mated 2,000. Families are exceptioinally large, thus piyovidilngi;, lpti
of cheap labor. Inbreeding is prevalent; consequeilt physical ;iati
mental defects such as albini.si auld mental reliardallion seem es-
pecially common.
Siuciui does not have the closed atmosphere found iil MNi;is. Ils
inhabitants accept newconmcis, since they ihcelselves aiie ir-cliiively
recent colonos. Tlhe jealousy of Cuenca is not found iicre, in i; ;
many of the migrants are fro iil Hie i)rovince of AQuay (ca;pitail.
Cuenca). The doubling of the population of tle iurbain :irca of
SucuA in three years (1965-68) hais Icsullted in a popjiilation of al;)(io
2,300. Growth is mainly the result of migration.
The tradition-bound people of Macas seem uii;bl)ce tol uilie ill
group effort. Petty quarrels inhibit the effective functioningi of
groups such as mieln's antl w(oieln's lRed Cross clubs. MAost of tic
leadership is provided by tlie Snalesian MAission, several fieiiagn iim-
migrants, and Peace Corps voluiileers. Sucu;'i, on the iiier ianiid.
does not have these problems. Ticr, dynamic iinividuali s have led
in the organization of several groups that have proved erc radio station in Sucua is the result of inWdiividua;i efiior ami culic-
preneurship; Macas does not have one. The movie thcale iahN Mar;s
was built by the SNicsian Mission several years ago. wifr'c li'h oiic-
year-old theater in SucuA is the result of ;private i;liiaiivc.
Macas has a credit cooperative founded in 1965 wih i35 tiiat iai
and a capitalization of '".i iBy the c d e if il '7, ii ld A ,ai w iii to W1
members and ].1i The id(hi coopielalive iil Sti li' iifas miioir



bers and greater capitalization. Financial support and advice
both national and intcrnatonal cooperative o ganizations are
available. The nicinlers were able to obtain this aid through plan-
ning and perseverance, qualities which also are found in Macas but
are limited by the lack of internal harmony and dynamic leader-
Macas, as capital of the province of Morona-Santiago, has govern-
ienit olfices and agencies not found in Suicua. 'The only existing agri-
cultural extension agency, iannc ed by a veterinarian and an exten-
sion agent, is found in Macas; there are plans for one in SiIcuii.
Macas also has a national health agency and a new clinic which are
not found in Stucui. On closer inspection, this does not amount to
much in dillrc1ential development of the towns, for Sucuii does have
a hospital in the mission where most people go with serious health
Sucun's equal to the extension agency in Macas is thic police of the
Institute Nacional de Reforna Agraria y Colouizaci6n which oper-
ates five days a week to demarcate lands aind iielp coloIos secure
clear titles: The office opens only on Friday ;and Saturday mornings
in Macas. This operation is a result of the colonization activity tak-
ing place in the areas surrounding the two settlements. In 1961, the
parroquia (parish) of Slucn;i showed 6 families receiving il,10 acres;
in 1965, 186 families received' 6,485 acres; in 1966, 63 families re-
ceived title to 1,020 acres; until September 30, no land had been
titled in 1967. The only year that Ie parroplia of Macas showed
titling activity was in 1966, when 12 acres were petitioned for and
Another factor that sets Sucu: apart from Macas is is multli-
purpose center presently under construction. Since Sucu': lies about
halfway between MNlacas and NlMndei, and is 'lnea:r the silt whie a
bridge will be built across the Upano tRivet, it will be thle eulter of
convergence for the entire valley. In addition to its probable posi-
tion as the center of commercial activity, it will also become an ad-
ministrative center in spite of tle fact that Macas is the provincial
capital. The multipurpose center will be ihe general administrative
ceat for Centro de Reconlversi6n Econ6mtica del Aziay, (afiar, y
Morona-Santiago (CREA) .and Instituto EUtculoliabo de Refo nril
Agraria y Colonizaci6n olliciis in the I Ipiano Valley. Sitrii will
also have a refrigerated warehouse for mneat storage, eliminating lihe
last-minute slaughtering of c.ttic only whelu airplanes can land.

B~oIth M\acas aii SuciniA hiatc *1lisvncies ol, the
Fil2OiLiIi.I. oVWCM'0I IHf (nllC it SUlA.) im a 6IM"Cr W a t.0.
IoanmLT.he rtnatimlde AMIc iCiis t f,,VN Cmi( Ul&s Ii ,t e coh,; '"w
l~ook and1 soffc( oounic posi iiwnl~' ""' rcfl" fih 1 o
111(11 Cfe jtV 10 to it~a ge .iat, idcA th. -n n ~i .. i.) 2,'t A V
pojfiittiolti of Mkiw'is. iTle co.o" 0 So n n1:1 C iio)liq ,4)NkiC
Zreally 1o obtaini ii. Tihie coli'lt,' iii)' ka) nlo' cf
ca ily sectirc-l tc tsmtatly has, .% i c m l.iil n niil' I li C.)i,: 4
tlt1i, niNs Coll~i'tA In l' ,It i ll ( s .it atni is less on on a, W ol,', '
pi l"lity [(,)I. oltatininIg a limn1 iS, otnOit low twi t-'.
colioa( of Stuu;'l.
"IleC *'nftsialt ills~o MtO a i5.N s sitnnig; ,s ,,s;e.h
Ollay ho ()Ie of kc i '5tis foi lall Q A"t.s..Ao. AAdoq W;
I d'w Romnt C huic ( iii i ts cl k():'.N1 ml tIile I
CicCPt ic flights inl 1"0 iQM)if \'flcy, 1111 Ion; flity *tioi )VtC
siacas, little change ranIn&tk plawc Niwmiio ii apip- ov;,.Lo
110iple. ai guir it) Ni aw'.1 5 ti /

in~t im "" (sot; )5 1 I ()I' theN 'S" OiVVO i, Wx

sch o I ; til eI g Uii' fol ti f .5

its ilis l ,i '..t.' till' Cidin a' 1 K.... m io-, f.or...
oXTIi I c Sals i s all 'Ct I I isO iVYohtn 46. ...Ci I.,,

fa( ce hic. a.a IIitihatt the ..11C iiii. .PA a

lio c l tic AL plane .o SoA in 194G.wx-1 in
tiwl, allal .'ilOA s aa.' i f, )Cel o,, I' .,caicunb. a,*

t\5'O I C iNti)V k~t I C... Ii 4,a' hla "W two, ...,.ana a,

l So l th rhiS ),,l' lo~a) Iw' a.ia' aaIit'


Sierra and beyond; Macas sends only 12,000 to 15,000 pounds.
Meat from SucuA, sent immediately upon slaughter at the airport
and without any protection, is loaded on DC-3's and flown to
Cuenca. From Cuenca, it may go as far as Guayaquil or northern
Peru. Meat butchered in Macas is wrapped in cheesecloth-type
covering and taken from the slaughterhouse by truck. Four meat-
transport flights per week carry the beef to Pastaza, in the Oriente to
the north, where it is loaded on trucks and hauled to Sierra conm-
munities. .
The recent extension of the road south of Iluambi :and Logrofio
has greatly facilitated the transportation of beef from Sicua..
Slightly higher prices in SucuA may explain why cattle are trucked
or driven by night from the Macas zone to Suctii to be slaughtered.
This movement from canton to canton is illegal. There is also drain-
ing of cattle in. the SucuA zone without regard for tile future.
Strong efforts should.be made to encourage building up of herds
before the penetration road is completed. The zone of commerce of
Macas is not as large as that of Sucui because of the limits imposed
by the lack of roads and trails and the consequent lack of colonos
to the north.
Physical geography accounts for only a small part of the vari-
ation. Although there is a difference in altitude between Macas
(3,000 feet) and SucuA (2,400 feet), this is not too important. It is
true that the slightly warmer temperatures may have a minimal
effect on the rate of growth and types of crops. But the only notable
variation is the rice growing around Sucuii; the existence of an im-
permeable layer of,rock a short distance below the surface is one of
the physical factors, in addition to temperature, affecting the quality
of rice grown. Yields reach more than 3,000 pounds per acre.
Experimental farms in the area also are influencing the crops
grown. The new cattle-breeding unit near Macas has been in opera-
tion only for a short time and thus has had little effect so far.
The experimental crop station on,the edge of Sucui, testing for the
crops best suited to the Upano Valley, has led to the introduction
of soybeans by the more innovative farmers of: Sucun. Farmers in
the Macas area have not yet begun to sow soybeans. Another ex-
ample is the type of grass grown for pasture: the majority of farmers
around SucuA grow elefanie grass which can support one head of
cattle per acre, but the extension agent in Macas estimates that
farmers there sow 95 per cent of their pastures in gramalolte, the

traditional native pasture, which supports no more than oie a;nd
onc-half head per Iwo acres.4
'The lack of milgriants to :"..:.s is reflected in the high percent;
of families having a minimum of fifteen or twenty head of cattic.
But the long residence of the colonos is not the only reason for tile
relative prosperity. Tlie arrival of an agec:y of the Banco de
Foiiento wilhiiin Ilie last tell years has allowed many of the poorer
families to acquire cattle and to close partially the ecoinomlic gap
between themselves and tlih wealthier families. Siuc~u is dilfcicint
in this respect, because of the constant imniigration of families. They
do not have tlie means to buy cattle whmen heicy first arrive. Ti;e
same problem applies to iandholding. Macas, with native-born
colonos, has few landless families; holdings are usually seveniy-five
acres or more. Smaller holdings are characteristic of SucuA;i and Ihe
area between Macas and Sucutmi.
As a result of immigration to the SucuA area, farm labor is avail-
able. These recent imlnigranils Nwai;t to earn money to acqj lie ilthir
own land and cattle. 'I'Thuis, more labor-intensive crops can be grown,
although lack of nmaikets discoulrages this type of production. A
major problem in Macas, according t tthe colouos, is lie la;ck of
labor. Previously, iibharos tended cattle and cleared lani. Tilie mis-
sion, in tile las five years, has separated these Inidiians from Ihec
colonos so that they would leave tLheir inomiadic way of life for oie
of land and cattle ownership. ,lack of labor is reflecicd in lie coim-
paratively high daily wage of 83 cents to .1.38, pluis meals, l'hI:
laborer in the Sierra earns around 55 cenls per day. Another relic-
lion of labor scarcity is the lack of vegetables, a labor-intelcsivv
crop. Peas, tomatoes, and other vegetables are Hlown in from lime
to lime. Even wood for cooking is expensive-anl incolngruity, with
so much forest-because of the scarcity of labor.
The Proyccio de (:olonizacini d(el Valic del Rio Upa nIo estinalcs
that 23 per cent of the people in tile Upano Valley are engaged ia
commerce and lIH per cent in artisa;iship. Macas may show such
percentages, but in addition Io rlluing a store, a faiiily will ;ialo
have land and cattle. Sucui shows tile same division of (milployllilii.
but fewer people engage in both commerce and cattle raising.
SucuA, with increasing numbers of migrants and more iacivi;y.
4. All exception io the \iqe of gaiinial r fof p,>s.iic lit !thi a;c;ll r lo in :
cleanup n i1migiiin1: t whio hlnq been ill the rone for fiflien year. Ili% V25 arcir' of
pautre are in cifanile.


has more problems with thievery than Macas, a less dynamic place
where everybody knows cvcrybody else and what possessions each
family has. Repayment of loans is no problem in Macas either-
even the formerly seminomadic J fbaros repay them.
Many variables enter into the differences etweeni tile two towns,
only thirteen niles apart, What will happen in the future has been
suggested. The determining factor will be a penetration road. The
effects will be far-reaching and will probably change Macas more
than Sucud, since it has to make a greater adjustment to the in-
creased circulation and traffic that the road is certain to bring. What
erosion to the traditional ways of life in Macas, which have survived
over 350 years, will occur?
Eastward from Zamora.-'The road from Loja to Zamora has not
penetrated farther eastward toward tlhearea claimed by both Ecua-
dor and Peru; until the boundary dispute is settled to the satisfaction
of both the governments, development in the disputed area will
certainly be minimal.


It has been impossible over the years to get a national effort behind
the construction of a few but significant penetration roads into the
Oriente; rather the residents of eaclh iniiii in or county have
tried to get national funds for the construction of a road from their
own locality to the east. When such funds are not forthcoming, or
are spent on other road projects, local residents and their leaders
are nolonger interested. For instance, there is aln ungraveled, fair-
weather road that leads from Latacunga across the highlands to the
east; as it descends on tile eastern flank of the cordillera it becomes
a trail. Regional leaders in Latacunga spend much time and energy
on making this trail into a road. They are not at all interested in
helping pay the costs of road building eastward from Quito, or
from Ambato, or from'any olier center of the Sierra. And it is re-
ported that the people of Ambato. have steadfastly opposed the
efforts to improve the Quito-Papallacta road, especially its extension
to Tena via Baeza, because they fear that products from Tena would
then flow to the Quito market rather than to Ambato.
By way of contrast, brief mention might be made of western
Ecuador. The 27,000-odd square miles of coastal Ecuador produce
a large exportable surplus of bananas, coffee, cacao, rice, sugar,
cotton, citrus fruits, and pineapples. In f:ct (his is the most fertile

atid promising part of the coaiai)iy-iaid onle ofi ti c lIost lki
promhisinig rainy liopicii lowvlands ili the Westcii icili- 11Wic
provided, agaill, that tranisIMrL Ia ihitics aa-e ilopt ovcMd. 'ihauaSaiilsw
of acres of these for estlatds are Wvei suited, to crops a iid( iMSin CS.
San1ro Do,,iniigro de los Color ( (1(0-A vaist new area icr.,i oi ilic
Aunles was oPeted tip) for aj),,icrilirire with. tile C ia;1oeiio;1 ol kiw
roadi from Quito to Santo 0)ui0miin4)r de los (olorardos iii 1 ;;i7
beyond to Esuieraida's in 1919. 'i'lle govceimicIIuL na;s ailiiaicki sc ii,'4
about. 1,6300 families oti ln, 'toIau s ot land and is jalairarai;;" t
sCttlentent of atlloher '4,400 fiaiiiies. Thhte soils are [Citile,
temp~eratuires tg between '15 and1( 79, rainfall is l)CLwcCii (310 ail ,ao
iliciles a year, aild there is 1(4 dl -), season. I lere bailrla s, c(.uao, a11ii
ro[Fce are growni for the donci,;tic uuaak-et inl Quito. "i'iowus1ilkk,
iil(1e1(eident bamlana fain its, miomihy siuail haoldin;;s,, of 0 hit 5J
acres, many of thimu owned by Ncgros, now iilC ti s lrtm 1
warrd from Saiinto 1)omirigo lo sisica raldas. A sire quiaa imon :it,- 0),11
piaraible favorable i estilts of eifoi1A ;Ist (o10loiii/tiOii ii14(1 .i
dlevcioloment c('(1( ot the AiIncs is the Oimstui t -i t iio;,, k.1, )1 4(4
perioeration roads andl( miakiuigiai 11l aVoail~ile for- t:e 1;nlaadai~~

tla( I (eco, i)oiiniugo. t.sl1i1rzin dle Ataras. Quaito: CciOno Mis4. nal 6v4 k IIiCI
ciotlrR Cicintifliii 'a 1 1.
JIlrgiiia. Frincisc javiet. "Colldicoiam 's (iC Relvi i i( vip,,t lr'a s ( i'i i;
(iV0 Ohmici Coualtolim)(Y.' l'k(?(iPlwai4i( 1, aao. 2 (Mayo i'ia,):8i -99.

pialiaiotare gmd ictialaC( )ia' nite ilt)At4( Ni((4IIg~i;ivZilil /4,44.1 iI i
AIgricult ura Stra irf)Iaimale e la o/,ira 1r54. iia. 1-3 (Ccli ua to I I
Mlidi, /AittItu L., ci al. "San1to D1nihoaabgo de4 Josa Cohuimoto'--A Nviv Vi'oIIce /(44o
.in 1,cador' .''lconomuir (eograpli'a 161, n~o,. (jaai 1991)):221' :k).

Ca'ac.'' 11f IOCrriS atrl (41 Paltr 1 (in Culhor, ediiled Iby tlclrob vit4ii 1I1H44imci%
Chiicago: Aldhic Co.,11 '~ (() 1961.1
t(o lar' Laowl~andsu." Amtt~aira laid/gina 19I, nio. 3 (Jult)y 91(15):226 J1.
Co(2aiaI lnr'iaaaar'ineliiio (10 D)rsariollo Agi icohln. 7rncan-ia de, 1ii (ira 1, d rlC4 ,,olol
lorio-'colf6rniiro (let sr'ctr aganiria: ELriiador. Na'alutuii;ow: ;%'maia .Aoc

iivo' en d Ecaamor." Piaaaificari6a 1, no, I
ueaaas In. (Caaltaal Il O tvUclivengi(' Vi-omi1mca ide A;,iuay, C:atN.,
Sataaiago. I'a(?je"(i( (if! roloiaiiari(17 dirl I'alle an del M rT/;im. (.(iicna .. 161 .
Iia'ititlit( EJua:1aoioa .ao aiere'o tchna Aigau a y Colotlatr-c~oa. ltioi
dea lair reaZlnizafrjaionee re/aoaaaa (19?(iaa y t(71()az~arii~t. Qaaila, ',




John P. Bishop** -
Estaci6n Experimental Napo/Centro Amazsnico Limoncocha*-
Instituto iacional de InvestiEaciones A1-rcDecuarias
Apartado 2600 Quito, Ecuador

Each geographic region has unique food-poverty-population
problems and potentials. Such problems are compounded in
the central Andean region because its population has the
highest density and birth rate in South America while con-
sumption levels of protein and calories are among the low-
est in the Western Hemisphere. Traditionally most people
of Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia have lived in high-
land areas.

These countries also contain vast humid tropical low-
lands east of the Andes into which highways are being built
due to petroleum discoveries and colonization plans
(Figure 1). Such highways are leading the poorest of the
rural poor away from over-populated highland areas to es--
tablish small farms in the eastern lowlands (9)--- A sizeable
part of each family farm is utilized for products of primary
need such as foodcrops, small stock and firewood.

Paper presented to International Conference on Small
Farm Management, sponsored by Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), Kingston, Jamaica, July, 1980.
manuscriptt in preparation)
** Member of INIAP/UFLA/IBRD -Technical Assistance Mission.
Author acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute
of Linguistics.---.
SAverage annual precipitation 3102 mir, elevation 243 masl,
latitude 0024'S.

A shifting form of agriculture is practiced by small
farmers east of the Andes (26, 27,33). As "uman populations
and expectations increase, rest periods in shifting cultiva-
tion are shortened, accelerating in an alarming rate soil
deterioration and weed/pest invasion, and critically decreas-
ing yields precisely as needs are increasing (26,31,33).

One promising solution is to intensify the rest period
with swine, hair sheep, chicken and firewood production
(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,18,20,22,29,35,36). Forage and firewood
legumes increase soil aeration, organic matter, nitrogen
and available phosphorus, as well as control soil erosion
and leaching (5,6,21,28). Swine, hair sheep and chickens
improve soil fertility by depositing organic matter which
stimulates legu.me/R'P n ..i-r symbiosis and by supplying
fecal microorganisms which mineralize crop residues (5).
In addition, swine and hair sheep improve small farm income
(8) and produce low cost animal protein without cereal
grains (3).

The American lowland tropics have the highest per
capital swine population in the world (Table 1 & Figure
3), more than five times that of tropical Africa and
Asia (34). Most swine, hair sheep and chickens in the
tropical lowlands east of the Andes are produced on small
farms (Table 2) utilizing an open range production system
with banana as the principle swine feed and corn as the
supplemental chicken feed.

i v-'i Fon c-'*romn/Srm 1 Stork/Fi rewond P'nr'ut .on

In Amazonian Ecuador, studies are being realized to
intensify open range small stock husbandry and firewood
production utilizing the following mixture of perennial
species in a multi-strata production system: Desmndi
ovalifolium (trebol tropical), Canna edulis achiraa), iMu~s
auainata x M. bali ABB (orito) and T-nga edpi i

The umbraphilus legume DehLO-Dum -lfl consti-
tutes the ground floor (2) as !forage legumes are more
palatable and more efficiently utilized by swine and hair
sheep than are grasses (11, 15). The root forage anina
dlai? and banana .. z PS Rmr, x K. hlbi ha. ABB are
local perennial crops with low labor and soil fertility
requirements and produce low cost feeds for direct consumD-
tion by swine and hair sheep (12, 16, 17,19,25,32,34). The
fast growing native leg urme tree Icga -iLs improves soil
fertility and structure (23) as well as produces firewood
(1,2,3,4) on an eight year rotation cycle (Figure 4).

Initially, conventional agriculture is practiced on a
new plot each year: land clearing and production of short
cycle species in conformity with one or another classical
multiple cropping system. The perennial species of the
future multi-strata system are interplanted during short
cycle cropping (Figure 5). Following a two year period
of short cycle cropping, the mentioned perennial components
will have reached a vertically stratified state of devel-
opment. Four distinct strata are rapidly differentiated
and the resultant multi-strata structure and multi-species
composition ecologically and biologically approaches a
sustained yield forest ecosystem (10,13,1L).

A ten hectare family unit (Figure 6) is divided into
eight lots (1 ha. ea.) which are used following field crops
(Table 3) for swine and hair sheep. Also, eight lots
(0.2 ha. ea.) are formed and used following garden crops
(Table 4) for individual maternity pens. Six strands of
barbed wire and closely woven living Jatropha- cnurr
(pinon) posts-are used as-fencing-(24). Internal swine
and hair sheep parasites are chemically controlled (leva-
misole) every three months synchronized with alternate--
grazing. Also, a 0.4 ha. lot is used for the farm home,
chicken _house and fruit trees (Table 5).


A ten hectare family farm with 1.5 animal units
(1 A. U. 5 adult pigs) per hectare can maintain 12
sows and produce 5 pigs per-sow per year. Estimating
each pig at US $75, swine income per year can reach US

Therefore, mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood pro-
duction has great potential to imlrove the economic oro-
ductivity, ecological stability and sociological viability
of small family farms in the humid tropics east of the

For technology transfer to the rural masses, small
farmer training materials are being prepared for use in
local adult education classes, regional radio education
courses and practical classes in rural schools.

j' ~ ~ '. ..:e "
... .. : ,.

$..' ....... .....,..
..': ':' *
\ '. *, .' .. .* "

I '" .... .,
. ', .
| f' ~ ~ ). )' t
I ,) ,: : i.: .. .... ~~
.j ,,., .:' ., '; ,.,:
i,, ,,;, .
.. .. .. '" ':' "" :

.. .. .. .. ,., t rn r
i';', '" -I '- -

\" \,\ \. yL -.,J i_,* L(J ,-.I i-,.i- -.i- ,.',; ,-,i'/'1 A
-- ', L....,..t............ E tL-r-rJ- -L l..i L-t i. J..t.L tLI.L.J_-L i. L i .. t .
]T Humid Tropics tlM Wet-Dry Tropics Dry Tropics .
S 0-3 dry months 3-6 dry months L + 6 dry months
_,_.__ 3-6 dry months -Dr-Tropi..........

Figure 1.

Dry months in the tropical lowlands east of the Andes
(SOURCEs 1978 CIAT Annual Report).

- -~---------- -- ----- ---


0- 20 ha. 20-50 ha. 50-100 ho. + 100 tc

Size of Farms

Figure 2. Number of farms by size in Amazonian-Ecuador
(SOURCE: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, 1978).







Figure 3. Percent cattle, swine and sheep in Ecuador
(SOURCE: TMinisterio de Agricultura y
Ganaderia, 1978).

S2 3 I 4 I 5 I I years


Cut firewood
Small stock/firewood production
Plant foodcrops
I- lDemotim oval ifol ium
S(Tribol tropical)

anna .edulia
4 (Achira)

SMua acamina x M. balbihiana ABB

Inga cdulis

Foodcrop production

Figure 4. Mixed foodcrop/small stock/ firewood production.





150 -




1st Field
(0.5 ha)

i mall stock

Produc LI ].oi
(6 years)

,mall s-Loci:/'
,Produc lion
I (6 years)
S- -

2nd Field
(0.5 ha)

Figure 5. Average precipitation (15 years) and cropping practices in the
Centro Amaz6nico Limoncocha


,_ __

J A S 0 N D j F M A M J J

A S 0 months


80 m

80 =

80 m

80 n


40 m

40 m

I t

S 50 m 1 50 m.- 5 : 50 m

- 1 50 m :

50 m 7

Figure 6. Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood: production
in a-10 ha family unit.. -


Table 1. American countries with large swine populations
(SOURCE: World Almanac, 1978).

Number of

people per hog

1. Brazil

2. Ecuador

3. Haiti

4. Nicaragua

5. U.S.A.






- -

Table 2.

Farm size

0 20 ha.

20 50 ha.

+ 50 ha.

Percentage of farms, swine, sheep and chickens
by farm size in Ecuador (SOURCE: Ministerio
de Agriculture y Ganaderia 1978).

% of farms % of swine % of sheep %o of chickens













_ _



Table 3. 1.ajor foodcrops in Amazonian Ecuador.

Local name

Ma z



Papa mandi

Papa china


Scientific name

Z.-a nays

TMaRnihbt eRenzr nta

us~a acmninata x
bI. b albician AAB

Xantho-rQm'n agi ttji fol ium

Col ocasia enulenta

CPr-ica ppapya








- -


Table 4. Minor foodcrops in Amazonian Ecuador

Local name

Frejol comin
Frgjol rat6n
Frejol vainita
Habas nativas
Haba blanca
Matz peque'no
Papa de soga
Tomate criollo
Cebolla criolla
Cana- de azGcar

Scientific name

Ara -cbib hy-n boP-
Phaspol -usc vl gars
Vi~ gn unguinDeiul is

Canaval La nc formi
Pachyrrh5 7u tubpros:
Ananag romnosus
Solanum topi ro
Pac=iq orf a nuadrangrrulari n
Pc 4 fl o, a R n s
Zea mays

pnmea ehatatna
Diogcori- _tr.i-fida
Calat.hea allnnia
Cycl antPra nedata
LynonprcF non o pmipn- j
Ca-urbhi ta p.
A 1 tornPnthb-rp Se R
Al inT. -capa .
Sanhbern -p. -





Table 5. Fruit trees in Amazonian Ecuador

Local name

Limxn mandarina
Naranja criollo
Mani de arbol
Guaba Ilta
Arbol de pan
Cacao blanco
Guaba comun
Guaba mnachetona
Chonta duro
Guayaba -

Scientific name

Citrus limettoaide

Citrus, *fpnesi!
Tn rvripn Ii .Torainr
luca -; denni fn
Artocarpus i fali S
Theobromn Jhicol or
Cal onraprnm sanDPte
Pouteria c-pmi to
Annormna nupmo7a
Pouroumna neronr apfol ia
Tnga p d5
Inga pnent1ab 1
pperpa amp (rlena
Annona m-Enri ca t.
Gluil plmn- gaifplngs
Psid-5im g-uajara




1. Bishop, J. P. 1978. The development of a sustained
yield agro-ecosystem in the upper Amazon. Agro-
Ecosystems, 4: 459-461.

2. Bishop, J. P. 1978. Desarrollo y transferencia de
tecnologia para pequenas fincas en la Region
Amaz6nica ecuatoriana. En: Seminario sobre
Kanejo de los Sistemas Ecol6gicos y Alternativas
de Producci6n Agro-Silvo-Pastoril en la RegiSn
Amaz6nica Ecuatoriana, patrocinada por el Instituto
National de Colonizaci6n de la Regi6n Amaz6nica
Ecuatoriana, Limoncocha, Ecuador. 8 pp.

3. Bishop, J. P. 1979. Producci6n familiar agro-porcino-
forestal en el tr6oico humedo hispanoamericano.
En: Taller sobre sistemas Agro-Forestales en
America Latina Tropical, patrocinada por CATIE/
UNU, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 9 pp.

4. Bishop, J. P. 1980. Agro-Forestry Systems for the
Humid Tropics East of the Andes: 1. Integrated
foodcrop, swine, chicken and fuelwood production.
In: International Conference on Amazonian Agri-
cultural and Land Use Development, sponsored by
ICRAF/CIAT/RF/GTZ/NCSU, Cali, Colombia, April 16-
18, 1980.

5. Bredero, T. J. 1977. The role of farmyard manures
and green manures in soil fertility restoration
in the humid tropics. Abstr. Trop. Agric. 3:

6. Bredero, T. J. 1973. Green manuring and the N and
P supply of swamp rice. Nigerian Agric. J.,
10: 248-257.

7. Breitenbach, C. A. 1974. Farming systems for the
tropics and subtropics. In: .Guide for Field
S Crops in the Tropics and-the Subtropics. USAID,
Washington, D. C., 22-28-pp.

8. CIAT, 1971. Sistemas de producci6n de ganado porcino.
En: Informe Anual. Centro Internacional de Agri-
cultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. 41-52 pp.

9. Crist, R. E. and Nissly, C.M. 1973. East from the
Andes. Univ. Florida Social Sciences Monograph
No. 50. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville,
Florida. 166-pp.


10. Dubois, J. 1977. Investigaciones sobre Tr6pico Hramedo
Americano. En: Seminario sobre Ecologia .del Tr6-
pico HrGmedo Americano, IICA-TROPICOS, Kerida, Vene-
zuela. IX Al-AO1 pp.

11. Eyles, D. E. 1963. Integration of pigs into grass-
land farming. In: Animal Health, Production
and Pasture. Longmans, London, 359-383 PP.

12. Herklots, G. A. 1972. Vegetables in South-East
Asia. Hafner, New York. 525 pp.

13. Holdrige, L. R. 1959. Ecological indications of
the need for a new approach to tropical land-use.
Economic Botany, 13: 271-280.

14. Janzen, D. H. 1973. Tropical agroecosystems. Science,
182: 1212-1219.

15. Jones, D. W. and Wallace, H. D. 1974. Grain and
forage crops for swine. In: Swine Production
in Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture,
Bull. No. 21, 93-99 PP.

16. Kay, D. E. 1973. Queensland Arrowroot. In: TPI
Crop and Product Digest, No. 2 Root Crops, Tropi-
cal Products Institute, Overseas Development
Administration, London. 120-126 pp.

17. Kurita, K. 1967. The cultivation of C(nna edulia,
and its value as a feedcrop. Japan J. Trop.
Agric., 11 (1-2): 5-8.

18. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Agricultural land-use and the
settlement of Amazonia. Pacific Viewpoint, 15:

19. LeDividich, J. 1977. Feeding value of Carna faLip
roots for pigs. J. Agric. Univ. P. R. 61 (3):

20. Masefield, G. B. -1965. A Handbook of Tropical Agri--
culture. Oxford, London, 196 pp.

21. Moore, A. W. 1967. Changes in soil moisture and
organic matter under different covers at Ibadan,
Nigeria. Plant Soil, 27: 463-467.

22. Nye, P. H. and Greenland, D. J. 1960. The Soil under
Shifting Cultivation. Commonwealth Bur. Soils,
Tech. Commun. 51, Harpenden, U. K. 156 pp.

23. Ochse, J. J., et. al. 1961. Tropical and Subtropical
Agriculture, Vol. 1. Kacmillan, New York, 769 pp.

24. Payne, W. J. 1973. Disposici6n y Manejo de fincas
tropicales. En: Ganaderia en los Tr6picos.
Asociaci6n Venezolana de Criadores de Ganado Cebu.
Caracas, Venezuela. Vol. 1, 563 Pp.

25. Purseglove, J. W. 1972. Tropical Crops: Monocoty-
ledons. Wiley, New York. 607 pp.

26. Sanchez, P. A. 1977. Alternatives al sistema de
agriculture migratoria en Amirica Latina. En:
Reuni6n sobre Manejo, Conservacion de Suelos y
Agriculture Migratoria en America Latina, FAO/
SIDA, Lima, Peru. 44 pp.

27. Sanchez, P. A. 1973. Manejo de Suelos bajo sistemas
de roza. En: Un Resumen de las Investigaciones
Edafologicas en la America Latina Tropical. N.C.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 219: 51-74.

28. Singh, A. 1967. Long-term effects of green manures
in sub-tropics. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 37:

29. Sprague, H. B. 1976. Combined crop/livestock farming
systems for developing countries of the tropics
and sub-tropics. Technical Series Bulletin No.
19, Office of Agriculture, Technical Assistance
Bureau, Agency for International Development,
Washington D. C., 30 pp.

30. Thomsen, M. 1978. The Farm on the River of Esmeralds.
Mifflin, Boston. 329 pp.

31. Tosi, J. 1974. Desarrollo forestal del tr6pico ameri'
cano frente a otras actividades econ6micas. En:
Reunion Internacional sobre Sistemas de Producci6n
para el Tr6pico Americano. Informes sobre Cursos,
Conferencias y Reuniones No. 41, IICA. Zona Andina,
Lima,- Peri- 13 pp.

32. Walker, R. H. 1953. Some notes on the edible canna
and its use in feeding pigs on the Lehmann system.
Govt. Kenya: Report of an enquiry into the general
economy of farming in the highlands. pp. 56-57.

33. Watters, W. F. 1971. Shifting cultivation in Latin
America. FAO Forestry Dev. Paper No. 17. 305 pp.


34. Williamson, G. -and Pyne, W. J. 1975. La Ganader'a
en Regions Tropicales. Editorial Blume, Bar-
celona. 468 pp.

35. WINROCK, 1977. The role of sheep and goats in agri-
cultural development. Winrock International Live-
stock Research and Training Center, Morrilton,
Arkansas. 223 pp.

36. WINROCK, 1979. Hair sheep production systems.
Winrock International Livestock Research and
Training Center, I>orrilton, Arkansas. 117 pp.

7-.mden i.m C



John P. Bishop**
Estaci6n Experimental Napo/Centro Amazonico Limoncocha***
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Apartado 2600 Quito, Ecuador

The humid tropics east of the Andes (Figure 1) are
presently undergoinglarge scale deforestation in favor
of small farm pasture/cattle development. Forests are
substituted with forage grasses following short-term
croDDing. Such development has provoked severe criticism
as there occurs serious soil deterioration and few pastures
persist. Today many of these pastures are found abandoned

One promising solution is to associate forage grasses
and cattle with forage legumes, hair sheep and timber trees
(2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,15,16,17,18,19,20). Hair sheep
compact soil less than cattle while forage legumes and
timber trees: a) increase soil nitrogen by root associa-
tions with bacteria and fungi, b) fertilize soil through
leaf-fall, c) improve soil texture and aeration by physi-
cal and chemical effects, and d) increase income from small
farm pastures by sale of timber.

S Paper presented to International Conference on
Silvo-Pastoral Systems, sponsored by International
Council-for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi,
Kenya, April, 1981. (Mnanuscript in preparation)
** Member of INIAP/UFLA/IBRD Technical Assistance Mission.
Author-acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute
of Linguistics.
*** Average annual precipitation 3102 mm, elevation 243
masl, latitude Oo 24'S.


In Amazonian Ecuador, studies are being realized to
evaluate the forage grass rachiaria humnidi cla (kikuyo
amaz6nico), legume Desm.ium ovalFnliu (tr-bol tropical)
and timber tree Cnrddia all~n6or (laurel) in a silvo-pastor,'1
system (Figure 2).

At the beginning of the rainy season the E. hr.idinr-l
and D. ove aI ol il are established using vegetative material
and planting stick. The C. allonor is also -ransplanted
(400/ha) at this time using rootstumps (Figures 3 & 4).

The newly established pastures are not grazed for one
year or until timber trees are three meters high. Two
years after reforestation, trees are thinned to 200/ha and
again after four years leaving 100 high-grade trees per
hectare (Figure 5).
Thp Boner fit.

One hectare of pasture maintaining two bovines with
25% extraction per year will produce ten bovines in twenty
years. Estimating each adult bovine at US $300, cattle
income per hectare in twenty years will be US $3000.

One hundred Corria trees per hectare can produce 100 m3
of timber in twenty years. Estimating each m3 of Codia
at US $30, forest income per hectare in twenty years would
be US $3000.

Therefore,- integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber production
has great -potential to improve the economic productivity,
ecological stability and sociological viability of small
farm pastures in the humid tropics east of the Andes.

For technology transfer to the rural masses, small
farmer training materials are being prepared for use in
local adult education classes, regional radio education
courses and practical classes in rural schools.-

i5 12 13 14 176 1 : 10: years

L Thin Cordia to 100/ha.

S Thin Cordia to 200/ha.

Begin grazing

Sell timber

Renova be pansbure



CQadia alJlidora
DIlEmrdlium nav.ifnlinum
(trebol tropical)


Branhiaria .bumidicola
(kikuyo amaz6nico

Figure 2. Integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber production.

300 --

0 N D J, F M A M J

Maiz -


J A S 0 months

Kikuyo amaz6nico _
Tribol tropical I
_aure ----------

Figure 3. Average precipitation (15 years) and planting sequence in the
Centro Amazonico Limoncocha.



Cord.ia aJllJiotra (laurel)

Daismodium nYvaii.i.Qlium (tr6bol tropical )

Brachiaria humidiaila (kikuyo amaz6nico)

0 10 meters

Figure 4. Planting diagram.


2 ho



Figure 5. Small farm production-system for 50 ha farms.


Integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber
production (40 ha)

Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood
production (10 ha)


1. Anon. 1978. Forestry for local community development.
FAO Forestry Paper No. 7, Rome, 114 pp.

2. Bishop, J. P. 1978. The development of a sustained
yield tropical agro-ecosystem in the upper Ama-
zon. Agro-Ecosystem, 4: 459-461.

3. Bishop, J. P. 1978. Desarrollo y transferencia de
tecnologia nara pequenas fincas en la Regi6n
Amaz6nica Ecuatoriara. En: Seminario sobre
Manejo de los Sistemas Ecol6gicos y Alternativas
de Producci6n Agro-Silvo-Pastoril en la Regi6n
Amaz6nica Ecuatoriana, patrocinada por el Insti-
tuto Nacional de Colonizaci6n de la Regi6n Ama-
z6nica Ecuatoriana, Limoncocha, Ecuador.

4. Bishop, J. P. 1979. Producci6n ganadera-forestal en
el tr6pico humedo hisDanoamericano. En: XIII
Conferencia Anual sobre Ganderia y Avicultura en
America Latina, patrocinada por la Universidad
de Florida, Gainesville.

5. Bishop, J. P. 1980. Agro-Forestry Systems for the
Humid Tropics East of the Andes: 2. Integrated
cattle and timber production. In: International
Conference on Amazonian Agricultural and Land Use
Development, sponsored by ICRAF/CIAT/RF/GTZ/NCSU,
Call, Colombia, April 16-18, 1980.

6. Bishop, J. P. and NuZoz, K. 1979. Producci6n ganadera-
forestal en la Regi6n Amaz6nica Ecuatoriana. En:
Reunion de Trabajo sobre Pastos Tropicales, patro-
cinada por el Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical, Call, Colombia.

7. Cook, B. G. and Grimes, R. F. 1977. Multiple land-
use of open forest in south-eastern Queensland
for timber and improved pasture: Establishment
and early growth. Trop. Grasslands, 11: 239-245.

8. Gregory, E. W. 1972. Integration of grazing in tropical
forestry---An experiment in combining cattle raising
with pine plantation forestry in Fiji. Seventh
World Forest Congress, Buenos Aires.

9. Kennard, D. E. and Walker, B. H. 1973. Relationships
between tree canopy cover and Panienm maxi-un in
the vicinity of Fort Victoria. Rhodesian J.
Agric.- es., 11: 145-153.

10. King, K. F. S. and Chandler, M. T. 1978. The wasted
lands. International Council for Research in Agro-
forestry, Nairobi.

11. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Agricultural land-use and the
settlement of Amazonia. Pacific Viewpoint, 15:

12. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Forest grazing: A technique for
the tropics. World Crops, 28: 248-251.

13. Knowles, R. L., Klomp, B. K. and Gillingham, A. 1977.
Report for the Fiji Pine Commission on forest
grazing research. Rotorua. New Zealand Forest
Service, 13 p.

14. Parson, J. J. 1976. Forest to pasture: Development
or destruction? Rev. Bio. Trop., 24 (Supl. 1):

15. Payne, W. J. 1976. Possibilities for the integra-
tion of tree crops and livestock production in
the wet tropics. J. Sci. Food Agric., 27:888.

16. Peck, R. B. 1977. Sistemas agro-silvo-pastoriles
como una alternative para la reforestaci6n en
los tr6picos americanos. Bogota, Colombia, CONIF,
73-84 p.

17. Thomas, D. 1978. Pastures and livestock under tree
crops in the humid tropics. Trop. Agric. (Trini-
dad) 55: 39-44.

18. WINROCK, 1977. The role of sheep and goats in
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