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 The problem
 Figure 1: Mesoamerican humid...
 Figure 2: Andean American humid...
 Renovation with reforestation
 The benefit
 Literature cited






Title: Cattle-forest production in the hispanic american humid tropics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054667/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cattle-forest production in the hispanic american humid tropics
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Bishop, John P.
Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuaria
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America -- Ecuador
South America
 Notes
General Note: Paper presented at 13th Annual Conference on Livestockand Poultry in Latin America, sponsored by University of Florida. May,1979. English translation. Author acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute. of Linguistics.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054667
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    The problem
        Page 1
    Figure 1: Mesoamerican humid tropics
        Page 2
    Figure 2: Andean American humid tropics
        Page 3
    Renovation with reforestation
        Page 4
    The benefit
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 6
Full Text

-' EWEL



CATTLE-FOREST PRODUCTION IN THE
HISPANIC AMERICAN HUMID TROPICS*


by

John P. Bishop, D.V.M., Ph.D.**
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuaria
Apartado 2600, Quito, Ecuador


The Problem

The Hispanic American humid tropics*** (Fig. 1 & 2)
are presently undergoing large scale deforestation in
favor of cattle development. Forests are substituted
with pastures following short-term cropping. Such de-
velopment has provoked severe criticism as there occurs
serious soil deterioration and few pastures persist.
Today many of these pastures are found abandoned (8).

One suggested solution is to associate forage grasses
with timber trees (1,2~3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11). Timber trees
can fulfill the following'Tunctions: 1. significantly
fertilize soil through leaf-fall, 2. significantly increase
soil nitrogen by root associations with bacteria and fun-
gus, 3. notably improve soil texture and aeration by physi-
cal and chemical effects, and 4. substantially increase
income from pastures by sale of timber.





* Paper presented at 13th Annual Conference on Livestock
and Poultry in Latin America, sponsored by University of
Florida. May,1979. English translation. 3 .. ;
** Author acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute.
of Linguistics.
*** Less than 600 m elevation and more than 2000 mm
annual rainfall.
























































Figure 1. Mesoamerican Humid Tropics.



























































Figure 2. Andean American Humid Tropics.









Renovation with Reforestation


In Amazonian Ecuador the legume Micuna prurians var.
1tiles (velvet bean) is used before pasture renovation to
reduce weed incidence and improve soil fertility. Following
intensive grazing, Munrna seed is broadcast planted (40-
50 kg/ha) at the beginning of the rainy season and harvested
(400-500 kg/ha) during the dry season.

At the beginning of the next rainy season and after
grazing the Miuuna, forage grass Branhiaria humidicnla
(kikuyo Amaz6nico) is established (1 m x 1 m) using vege-
tative material and planting stick. The timber tree
Cnrdia alliodnra (laurel) is also planted at this time
using rootstumps at a distance of 5 m x 5 m (400/ha). The
newly established pasture is not grazed for one year or
until timber trees are three meters high.

Two years after reforestation, trees are thinned to
200/ha and again after four years leaving 100 high-grade
trees per hectare (Fig. 3)..
The BRnefit

One hectare of pasture maintaining two bovines with
25% extraction per year will produce ten bovines in twenty
years. Estimating each adult bovine at US $300, cattle
income per hectare in twenty years will be US $3,000.

One hundred Cordia trees per hectare can produce
100 m3 of timber in twenty years. Estimating each m3 of
Cnrdia at US $30, forest income per hectare in twenty
years would be US $3,000.

Therefore, cattle-forest production has great poten-
tial to improve stability (persistence) and double profita-
bility of pastures in the Hispanic American humid tropics.









Renovation with Reforestation


In Amazonian Ecuador the legume Micuna prurians var.
1tiles (velvet bean) is used before pasture renovation to
reduce weed incidence and improve soil fertility. Following
intensive grazing, Munrna seed is broadcast planted (40-
50 kg/ha) at the beginning of the rainy season and harvested
(400-500 kg/ha) during the dry season.

At the beginning of the next rainy season and after
grazing the Miuuna, forage grass Branhiaria humidicnla
(kikuyo Amaz6nico) is established (1 m x 1 m) using vege-
tative material and planting stick. The timber tree
Cnrdia alliodnra (laurel) is also planted at this time
using rootstumps at a distance of 5 m x 5 m (400/ha). The
newly established pasture is not grazed for one year or
until timber trees are three meters high.

Two years after reforestation, trees are thinned to
200/ha and again after four years leaving 100 high-grade
trees per hectare (Fig. 3)..
The BRnefit

One hectare of pasture maintaining two bovines with
25% extraction per year will produce ten bovines in twenty
years. Estimating each adult bovine at US $300, cattle
income per hectare in twenty years will be US $3,000.

One hundred Cordia trees per hectare can produce
100 m3 of timber in twenty years. Estimating each m3 of
Cnrdia at US $30, forest income per hectare in twenty
years would be US $3,000.

Therefore, cattle-forest production has great poten-
tial to improve stability (persistence) and double profita-
bility of pastures in the Hispanic American humid tropics.
















Figure 3. Pasture Renovation and Reforestation,









S2 3 4 5 6 I7 81 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 years




L Thin Cordia to 100/ha Sell timber

Renovate
Thin Cordia to 200/ha
Reforest


Plant Brachiaria and Cordia (400/ha)


S Plant Mucuna A__


* I. -








Literature Cited

1. Bishop, J. P. 1978. The development of a sustained
yield tropical agro-ecosystem in the upper Amazon.
Agro-Ecosystems, 4:459-461.

2. Cook, B. G. & Grimes, R. F. 1977. Multiple land-use
of open forest in south-eastern Queensland for timber
and improved pasture: Establishment and early growth.
Trop. Grasslands, 11:239-245.

3. Gregor, E. W. 1972. Integration of grazing in tropical
forestry---An experiment in combining cattle raising
with pine plantation forestry in Fiji. Seventh World
Forest Congress, Buenos Aires.

4. Kennard, D. F. & Walker, B. H. 1973. Relationships
between tree canopy cover and Panicum maximum in
the vicinity of Fort Victoria. Rhodesian J. Agric.
Res., 11:145-153.

5. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Agricultural land-use and the
settlement of Amazonia. Pacific Viewpoint, 15:105-131.

6. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Forest grazing: A technique for
the tropics. World Crops, 28:248-251.

7. Knowles, R. L., Klomp, B. K. & Gillingham, A. 1977.
Report for the Fiji Pine Commission on forest grazing
research. Rotorua.. New Zealand Forest Service, 13 p.

8. Parson, J. J. 1976. Forest to pasture: Development
or destruction? Rev. Biol. Trop., .24 (Supl. 1):121-138.

9. Payne, W. J. 1.976. Possibilities for the integration
of tree crops and livestock production in the wet tropics.
J. Sci. Food Agric., 27:888.

10. Peck, R. B. 1977. Sistemas agro-silvo-pastoriles como
una alternative para la reforestaci6n en los tr6picos
americanos. Bogota, Colombia, CONIF. 73-84 p.

11. Thomas, D. 1978. Pastures and livestock under tree
crops in the humid tropics. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad)
55:39-44.




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