• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Program evaluation: Overview
 Program evaluation: Summary statements...
 Program evaluation: Project ratings...
 Attachment A: Scope of work for...
 Attachment B: Members of the...






Title: Report of the External Evaluation Panel, Bean/Cowpea CRSP five-year review, January 19-24, 1986
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054561/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the External Evaluation Panel, Bean/Cowpea CRSP five-year review, January 19-24, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Affiliation: Michigan State University -- Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054561
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Program evaluation: Overview
        Page 3
        Production
            Page 3
        Knowledge/Technology generation
            Page 4
        Training and institution building
            Page 4
        Support for research
            Page 4
    Program evaluation: Summary statements on global constraints
        Page 5
        Insect pest limitations
            Page 5
        Disease limitations
            Page 5
        Plant response limitations
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Physical response limitations
            Page 8
        General agroclimatic information
            Page 8
        Constraints in particular environments
            Page 8
            Soil conditions
                Page 8
            Temperature
                Page 8
            Water relations and drought
                Page 9
            Interaction between photoperiod and temperature
                Page 10
        Storage problems, nutrition, food preparation and health
            Page 10
            Storage problems
                Page 10
            Nutrition, food preparation and health
                Page 11
        Farming systems, production-consumption economics and socio-cultural factors
            Page 12
            Farming systems
                Page 12
            Production-consumption economics
                Page 13
            Socio-cultural factors
                Front Cover
                Page 14
    Program evaluation: Project ratings and recommendations
        Page 15
        Ratings and recommendations format
            Page 15
        Category 1
            Page 16
            Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Bliss
                Page 16
            Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts
                Page 16
            Guatemala/Cornell University/Wallace
                Page 17
            Mexico/Michigan State University/Adams
                Page 17
            Senegal/University of California-Riverside/Hall
                Page 18
            Tanzania/Washington State University/Silbernagel
                Page 19
        Category 1A
            Page 19
            Brazil/Universityy of Wisconsin/Maxwell
                Page 19
            Malawi/Michigan State University/Adams
                Page 20
        Category 2
            Page 20
            Nigeria/University of Georgia/McWatters
                Page 20
        Category 2A
            Page 21
            Dominican Republic/University of Nebraska/Coyne
                Page 21
            Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico/Beaver
                Page 21
            INCAP/Washington State University/Swanson
                Page 22
        Category 3
            Page 23
            Botswana/Colorado State University/deMooy
                Page 23
            Cameroon/University of Georgia/Chalfant
                Title Page
        Category 4
            Page 24
            Ecuador/Cornell University/Wallace
                Page 24
            Honduras/University of Puerto Rico/Beaver
                Page 24
            Kenya/University of California-Riverside/Waines
                Page 25
    Attachment A: Scope of work for external evaluation panel
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Attachment B: Members of the EEP
        Page 28
Full Text




THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH
SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)

































Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035 USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810 251 0737 MSU INT PRO ELSG

Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant NO. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261
























REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Five-Year Review

January 19-24, 1986



























Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan










TABLE OF CONTENTS
REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FIVE-YEAR REVIEW


Introduction . . . .. . . . 1


Program Evaluation: Overview . . . . ... .... 3
Production . . . . . . . 3
Knowledge/Technology Generation . . . ... ... 4
Training and Institution Building . . . ... 4
Support for Research . . . . ... . .. 4


Program Evaluation: Summary Statements on Global Constraints . 5
Insect Pest Limitations . . . . . 5
Disease Limitations . . . . ... . 5
Plant Response Limitations . . . . .... .. 6
Physical Response Limitations . . . . 8
General Agroclimatic Information . . . . 8
Constraints in Particular Environments . . . 8
Soil conditions . . . . ... . 8
Temperature . ............... ...... 8
Water relations and drought .. ............... 9
Interaction between photoperiod and temperature . .. 10
Storage Problems, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health . .. 10
Storage problems . . .. .. ..... . 10
Nutrition, food preparation and health . . . 11
Farming Systems, Production-Consumption Economics and
Socio-Cultural Factors . . . .. .. .12
Farming systems .. ..... .. .. .. ... .. .. 12
Production-consumption economics . . . .... 13
Socio-cultural factors . . . ... 13


Program Evaluation: Project Ratings and Recommendations . .. 15
Ratings and Recommendations Format . . . . 15

Category 1:
Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Bliss . . . .... .16
Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts . . ... 16
Guatemala/Cornell University/Wallace . . . .... .17
Mexico/Michigan State University/Adams . . . 17
Senegal/University of California-Riverside/Hall . .... .18
Tanzania/Washington State University/Silbernagel . ... 19

Category 1A:
Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Maxwell . . ... 19
Malawi/Michigan State University/Adams . . . .. 20

Category 2:
Nigeria/University of Georgia/McWatters . . . 20











Category 2A:
Dominican Republic/University of Nebraska/Coyne . . .
Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico/Beaver ...
INCAP/Washington State University/Swanson . . . .

Category 3:
Botswana/Colorado State University/deMooy . . . .
Cameroon/University of Georgia/Chalfant . . . .


Category 4:
Ecuador/Cornell University/Wallace . . .
Honduras/University of Puerto Rico/Beaver
Kenya/University of California-Riverside/Waines .


Attachments
A. Scope of Work for External Evaluation Panel . . .
B. Members of the EEP . . . . .



r











REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FIVE-YEAR REVIEW
Michigan State University
January 19-24, 1986

Introduction

To guide the External Evaluation Panel's Five-Year Review of the Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative Research Support Program, the CRSP Management Office provided a
scope of work1 designed to determine what really has been achieved. .
The scope of work indicates clearly that the evaluation should be made in the
context of constraints identified when the CRSP was organized and which are
guiding features of a global plan. To insure such an evaluation, the Management
Office organized the review meetings around the following six constraint areas:
I. Insect Pest Limitations

II. Disease Limitations

III. Plant Response Limitations

IV. Physical Response Limitations

V. Storage Problems, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health

VI. Farming Systems, Production-Consumption Economics and Socio-Cultural
Factors
The evaluation was made from written reports, presentations by Principal
Investigators and discussions with available CRSP participants and officials.
In 1985, there was only one site visit by the EEP to evaluate CRSP field
research activities in the United States or in collaborating countries. This
can be a major deficiency in the evaluation of crop research, especially in
developing nations, where a variety of often unavoidable circumstances may
influence the nature and usefulness of research results, as well as the CRSP
collaboration process. A 1986 EEP site visit report of the Kenya CRSP project
underscores this circumstance.
An agricultural research program with global aspirations must be evaluated
in relation to similar research in process throughout the world; therefore, an
evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP should be made with reference to the nature,
magnitude and impact of significant bean and cowpea research activities (or
lack thereof) worldwide. For this reason, the EEP chair asked the Management
Office to secure and make available such information for use during the review.


ISee Attachment A.












The time available for the evaluation, the number of constraints to be
reviewed for two crops, the time provided for separate discussions with project
Principal Investigators, the unavailability of several written reports of the
CRSP constraint groups to the EEP, and the general lack of factual knowledge
concerning the status of bean/cowpea research worldwide on the concerned
constraints all combined to make the assessment of the contributions of CRSP
projects, individually and collectively, to the reduction or removal of the
identified constraints to bean and cowpea production and utilization less than
fully satisfactory.
Nevertheless, with the full cooperation of all concerned, the EEP did its
best to carryout its "scope of work." To be sure, the overall evaluation of
work related to constraints falls short of what had been hoped; but, on the
other hand, the ratings of the performances and contributions of individual
projects (which were based on previously received written reports and discus-
sions during the review with US and Host Country Principal Investigators) were
of satisfactory quality and should be useful to CRSP and USAID officials.













Program Evaluation: Overview


As the review of "constraints" has proceeded, it seems true that the only
programs of global importance and significance on the two crops are those of
CIAT (beans), IITA (cowpeas) and the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. It also appears true
that the number of bean and cowpea researchers and production specialists
worldwide is rather small, relatively and absolutely, and that a large portion
of these people are involved in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, except in Asian
countries. Of course, CIAT and IITA are responsible for the world's largest
single programs on beans and cowpeas, but the level of work on these crops may
not be commensurate with worldwide needs. The level of research and
development on beans and cowpeas, particularly in Africa, is probably
insufficient to support rapid advances in production and utilization of the
crops. Moreover, constraints in the technical domains relating to the
production of the crops are often less important than constraints in the wider
environment of the producers--effective domestic or market demands; output
delivery systems including storage and processing as well as transport,
markets and marketing; scarcities of production resources and competition for
them with other enterprises in the biological production sector or with other
sectors of the life systems of producers; and policies, difficulties and
practices of governments. Against this background, improvements in knowledge
and knowledge services (including research) may be a necessary condition for
advances in the quantity or profitability of production and the quality of
products, but they are seldom or never a sufficient condition, particularly in
the less developed nations. Important as it is, natural science-based
research must beware of claiming too much.
At the end of five years of activity and financial support, what are the
contributions of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program?

Production
The CRSP has not yet had a measurable impact on the production of beans or
cowpeas. Senegal seems to be the exception but, through Dr. Hall, the CRSP
had a head start in Senegal. Five years is usually too short a period to
substantially impact crop production through research and training, especially
when the required arrangements are weak and/or virtually non-existent as they
were in some of the CRSP collaborating countries when the CRSP was organized.













Program Evaluation: Overview


As the review of "constraints" has proceeded, it seems true that the only
programs of global importance and significance on the two crops are those of
CIAT (beans), IITA (cowpeas) and the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. It also appears true
that the number of bean and cowpea researchers and production specialists
worldwide is rather small, relatively and absolutely, and that a large portion
of these people are involved in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, except in Asian
countries. Of course, CIAT and IITA are responsible for the world's largest
single programs on beans and cowpeas, but the level of work on these crops may
not be commensurate with worldwide needs. The level of research and
development on beans and cowpeas, particularly in Africa, is probably
insufficient to support rapid advances in production and utilization of the
crops. Moreover, constraints in the technical domains relating to the
production of the crops are often less important than constraints in the wider
environment of the producers--effective domestic or market demands; output
delivery systems including storage and processing as well as transport,
markets and marketing; scarcities of production resources and competition for
them with other enterprises in the biological production sector or with other
sectors of the life systems of producers; and policies, difficulties and
practices of governments. Against this background, improvements in knowledge
and knowledge services (including research) may be a necessary condition for
advances in the quantity or profitability of production and the quality of
products, but they are seldom or never a sufficient condition, particularly in
the less developed nations. Important as it is, natural science-based
research must beware of claiming too much.
At the end of five years of activity and financial support, what are the
contributions of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program?

Production
The CRSP has not yet had a measurable impact on the production of beans or
cowpeas. Senegal seems to be the exception but, through Dr. Hall, the CRSP
had a head start in Senegal. Five years is usually too short a period to
substantially impact crop production through research and training, especially
when the required arrangements are weak and/or virtually non-existent as they
were in some of the CRSP collaborating countries when the CRSP was organized.













Knowledge/Technology Generation
The CRSP has produced valuable, useful additions to knowledge and
production technology. In certain areas of bean and cowpea research--
biological N-fixation; breeding for drought and disease resistance;
socio-economic studies and gender issues; collection and study of landraces;
biological control of insects; epidemiological studies and serological
diagnostic screening; and processing procedures to improve nutritional and
taste qualities--the CRSP is the most significant, sometimes the only,
contributor.


Training and Institution Building
When the CRSP was initiated, there was a dearth of well-trained,
experienced scientists, technicians and workers engaged in bean and cowpea
research and development in most, if not all, collaborating countries. Many
of the national programs were quite weak and lacked adequate leadership,
staff, facilities and financing. Over the past five years this circumstance
has been substantially improved, at least partially, through CRSP stimulus and
support. In the area of capacity building, the numbers of persons who have
received training under CRSP arrangements have been substantial, especially at
the graduate and baccalaureate levels. Training has been a major contribution
of the CRSP.

Support for Research
In the short period of less than five operational years, the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP has helped to pull together disparate, often isolated, efforts of US
university researchers into collaborative, mutually-supportive arrangements,
domestically and internationally. There is a growing community of interest
among bean and cowpea researchers in the US and Host Countries, which bodes
well for the future of bean and cowpea improvement. Certainly, this is an
important addition to the work of CIAT and IITA. At the conclusion of one of
the presentations during the Five-Year Review, one US CRSP researcher of note
exclaimed, the CRSP has been the best thing to happen to me in years!"













Knowledge/Technology Generation
The CRSP has produced valuable, useful additions to knowledge and
production technology. In certain areas of bean and cowpea research--
biological N-fixation; breeding for drought and disease resistance;
socio-economic studies and gender issues; collection and study of landraces;
biological control of insects; epidemiological studies and serological
diagnostic screening; and processing procedures to improve nutritional and
taste qualities--the CRSP is the most significant, sometimes the only,
contributor.


Training and Institution Building
When the CRSP was initiated, there was a dearth of well-trained,
experienced scientists, technicians and workers engaged in bean and cowpea
research and development in most, if not all, collaborating countries. Many
of the national programs were quite weak and lacked adequate leadership,
staff, facilities and financing. Over the past five years this circumstance
has been substantially improved, at least partially, through CRSP stimulus and
support. In the area of capacity building, the numbers of persons who have
received training under CRSP arrangements have been substantial, especially at
the graduate and baccalaureate levels. Training has been a major contribution
of the CRSP.

Support for Research
In the short period of less than five operational years, the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP has helped to pull together disparate, often isolated, efforts of US
university researchers into collaborative, mutually-supportive arrangements,
domestically and internationally. There is a growing community of interest
among bean and cowpea researchers in the US and Host Countries, which bodes
well for the future of bean and cowpea improvement. Certainly, this is an
important addition to the work of CIAT and IITA. At the conclusion of one of
the presentations during the Five-Year Review, one US CRSP researcher of note
exclaimed, the CRSP has been the best thing to happen to me in years!"













Knowledge/Technology Generation
The CRSP has produced valuable, useful additions to knowledge and
production technology. In certain areas of bean and cowpea research--
biological N-fixation; breeding for drought and disease resistance;
socio-economic studies and gender issues; collection and study of landraces;
biological control of insects; epidemiological studies and serological
diagnostic screening; and processing procedures to improve nutritional and
taste qualities--the CRSP is the most significant, sometimes the only,
contributor.


Training and Institution Building
When the CRSP was initiated, there was a dearth of well-trained,
experienced scientists, technicians and workers engaged in bean and cowpea
research and development in most, if not all, collaborating countries. Many
of the national programs were quite weak and lacked adequate leadership,
staff, facilities and financing. Over the past five years this circumstance
has been substantially improved, at least partially, through CRSP stimulus and
support. In the area of capacity building, the numbers of persons who have
received training under CRSP arrangements have been substantial, especially at
the graduate and baccalaureate levels. Training has been a major contribution
of the CRSP.

Support for Research
In the short period of less than five operational years, the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP has helped to pull together disparate, often isolated, efforts of US
university researchers into collaborative, mutually-supportive arrangements,
domestically and internationally. There is a growing community of interest
among bean and cowpea researchers in the US and Host Countries, which bodes
well for the future of bean and cowpea improvement. Certainly, this is an
important addition to the work of CIAT and IITA. At the conclusion of one of
the presentations during the Five-Year Review, one US CRSP researcher of note
exclaimed, the CRSP has been the best thing to happen to me in years!"













Program Evaluation: Summary Statements on Global Constraints

I. Insect Pest Limitations


Work on insect pest control, a significant part of the Global Plan, is
limited in the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). No
project deals with the insect constraint as a primary concern in the production
of beans. In cowpeas, in which insect damage tends to be more severe than in
beans, two projects include the management of insect pests. The Brazil/Boyce
Thompson project is developing insect pathogens as biological pest management
tools compatible with traditional insect control practices. Extensive
screening tests indicate that select isolates of entomopathogenic fungi have
considerable potential for microbial control of cowpea insect pests at low
cost. This work is still in the stage of controlled testing.
The Cameroon/University of Georgia project has had to concentrate on the
development of resistant varieties, study of insect biology, cropping systems,
insecticides and their use, and with storage problems in order to provide
producers with materials and procedures to control cowpea insects. By
necessity, most of the information and materials are location specific to the
Cameroon; however, some of the research, such as the work on the cowpea weevil,
an insect of worldwide importance, seems likely to be widely useful. Boyce
Thompson Institute determined the mechanism and consequences of dispersal
polymorphism in the adult stage that enables the weevil to infest cowpeas both
in the field and in storage. This research provided the first information on
the mode of attack by the poorly known "active" or dispersing form. These
results may pave the way to developing effective control measures against this
important cowpea pest.

II. Disease Limitations

The contribution of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP toward the control of diseases is
significant in beans but not in cowpeas.
Five of the twelve bean projects are primarily concerned with the disease
constraint. The Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Maxwell project has developed
improved techniques to inoculate bean cultivars sequentially with four major













Program Evaluation: Summary Statements on Global Constraints

I. Insect Pest Limitations


Work on insect pest control, a significant part of the Global Plan, is
limited in the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). No
project deals with the insect constraint as a primary concern in the production
of beans. In cowpeas, in which insect damage tends to be more severe than in
beans, two projects include the management of insect pests. The Brazil/Boyce
Thompson project is developing insect pathogens as biological pest management
tools compatible with traditional insect control practices. Extensive
screening tests indicate that select isolates of entomopathogenic fungi have
considerable potential for microbial control of cowpea insect pests at low
cost. This work is still in the stage of controlled testing.
The Cameroon/University of Georgia project has had to concentrate on the
development of resistant varieties, study of insect biology, cropping systems,
insecticides and their use, and with storage problems in order to provide
producers with materials and procedures to control cowpea insects. By
necessity, most of the information and materials are location specific to the
Cameroon; however, some of the research, such as the work on the cowpea weevil,
an insect of worldwide importance, seems likely to be widely useful. Boyce
Thompson Institute determined the mechanism and consequences of dispersal
polymorphism in the adult stage that enables the weevil to infest cowpeas both
in the field and in storage. This research provided the first information on
the mode of attack by the poorly known "active" or dispersing form. These
results may pave the way to developing effective control measures against this
important cowpea pest.

II. Disease Limitations

The contribution of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP toward the control of diseases is
significant in beans but not in cowpeas.
Five of the twelve bean projects are primarily concerned with the disease
constraint. The Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Maxwell project has developed
improved techniques to inoculate bean cultivars sequentially with four major













Program Evaluation: Summary Statements on Global Constraints

I. Insect Pest Limitations


Work on insect pest control, a significant part of the Global Plan, is
limited in the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). No
project deals with the insect constraint as a primary concern in the production
of beans. In cowpeas, in which insect damage tends to be more severe than in
beans, two projects include the management of insect pests. The Brazil/Boyce
Thompson project is developing insect pathogens as biological pest management
tools compatible with traditional insect control practices. Extensive
screening tests indicate that select isolates of entomopathogenic fungi have
considerable potential for microbial control of cowpea insect pests at low
cost. This work is still in the stage of controlled testing.
The Cameroon/University of Georgia project has had to concentrate on the
development of resistant varieties, study of insect biology, cropping systems,
insecticides and their use, and with storage problems in order to provide
producers with materials and procedures to control cowpea insects. By
necessity, most of the information and materials are location specific to the
Cameroon; however, some of the research, such as the work on the cowpea weevil,
an insect of worldwide importance, seems likely to be widely useful. Boyce
Thompson Institute determined the mechanism and consequences of dispersal
polymorphism in the adult stage that enables the weevil to infest cowpeas both
in the field and in storage. This research provided the first information on
the mode of attack by the poorly known "active" or dispersing form. These
results may pave the way to developing effective control measures against this
important cowpea pest.

II. Disease Limitations

The contribution of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP toward the control of diseases is
significant in beans but not in cowpeas.
Five of the twelve bean projects are primarily concerned with the disease
constraint. The Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Maxwell project has developed
improved techniques to inoculate bean cultivars sequentially with four major













bean pathogens. The use of detached, trifoliate bean leaves maintained in
culture in vitro and the use of "natural" dry. inoculant are promising
techniques which will help breeders to develop bean cultivars resistant to
several diseases. The Dominican Republic/University of Nebraska project has
developed methods for simultaneous genetic research on the host plant and its
pathogens. It has also developed a semi-selective medium (MXP) which is
considered an important breakthrough in methods of isolating the common blight
bacterium. Such studies are basic for improving the effectiveness of breeding
for resistance to bean diseases.
The related projects involving the Dominican Republic and Honduras with the
University of Puerto Rico have identified potential sources of resistance to
several diseases of worldwide importance, including web blight and bean golden
mosaic. Also, these projects are among the few research efforts attempting to
increase resistance to several diseases simultaneously in red-mottled, large-
seeded bean cultivars.
The diagnostic procedures using monoclonal antisera developed in the
Tanzania/Washington State University project have greatly facilitated strain
identification and monitoring of bean common mosaic virus. This is considered
to be a technological breakthrough in improving breeding for BCMV-resistant
beans. This contribution by the CRSP is of worldwide significance and
illustrates the kind of contribution US university scientists can make through
the CRSP.

III. Plant Response Limitations


This constraint is being addressed by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP through genetics
and breeding work in Brazil, Mexico, Malawi and Senegal. It is related to the
physical response constraint discussed in the next section.
The Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Bliss project represents the only effort
in the world focused specifically on the development of bean genotypes with
enhanced BNF ability. The research output of this project shows that BNF can
be increased in bean cultivars by appropriate breeding methods. This is a
major accomplishment of immediate benefit to national breeding programs, and
it will also stimulate the development of research networks on BNF in bean
producing countries of Latin America. Superior bean lines with high BNF













potential and reliable methods to increase the rate at which atmospheric
nitrogen is fixed are now available to national bean research programs.
The genetic variability in landrace populations of beans grown in small
farms has been sampled and analyzed by the Malawi/Michigan State University
project. Landraces of beans generate and maintain genetic variability through
natural crossing and perhaps under little or no selection pressure in farmers'
fields. These findings are of worldwide relevance since the limited genetic
variability available in the vulgaris species is believed to be a constraint
that precludes the development of superior bean varieties. The comparative
analysis of the performance of highly uniform varieties versus landraces may
encourage bean breeders to explore ways to develop new varieties with wider
adaptation and larger yield, using genetic pools of unselected bean
populations.
Physiologic and agronomic traits are being studied by the Mexico/Michigan
State University project to identify bean genotypes with high and low levels
of tolerance to moisture limitations. Rhizobium strains are also being
screened for ability to fix high levels of nitrogen under drought conditions.
The genetic knowledge derived from this research is expected to be used in
developing breeding strategies to produce bean genotypes which combine high
yield and adequate levels of BNF under drought stress. The outcome of this
research could help growers in the important semiarid areas of Mexico and
other countries where limited rainfall keeps bean yields below 300 kg/ha.
Significant advances have been achieved in the identification of promising
bean germplasm while the Rhizobium results are still inconclusive.
The combined effort of the bean projects in Brazil and Mexico may lead in
the near future to significant contributions of global impact when appropriately
adapted combinations of legume hosts and Rhizobium strains are found. This
will then represent a breakthrough for bean production with minimum inputs.
Plant response limitations in cowpea are being addressed by the Senegal/-
University of California-Riverside project, through breeding for early maturity,
drought adaptation and heat tolerance. Significant results have been achieved
in the research work of this project which reveal that appropriately designed
testing in the US can identify materials of benefit to other countries.
The impact of this project in the US and global contexts, as related to
plant response limitations, can be summarized as follows:













1. Development of new cowpea varieties with improved canopy architecture to
meet the requirements of the US mechanized farm production.
2. Stimulation and guidance to establish cowpea breeding programs in other
countries.
3. Development of early and heat tolerant lines now being tested in Senegal
and other African countries.
4. Development of a screening technique to compare differential root growth
of cowpea varieties under drought stress using herbicides.
5. Development of a network, with the assistance of IITA, to test cowpea
germplasm and exchange research information among cowpea programs in the
US, Africa, South America and the Caribbean basin.


IV. Physical Response Limitations


General Agroclimatic Information:
All crops, everywhere, are affected by constraints imposed by physical
factors of the environment. A research or development worker must therefore
know the agro-ecological attributes of the localities in which he or she works.
This helps to interpret variations between places and years and to guide
transfers of information and plant material between locations. All annual
reports should start with statements of the weather characteristics of the
season and of its departures from the longer-term modal climatic values,
supported by the essential numerical data. A useful base-line source is the
reports of the Agro-Ecological Zones Project of FAO, which cover all countries
of the developing world in respect of soils and terrain as well as climate.

Constraints in Particular Environments:
Soil conditions. Differences in texture and workability between different
soils in Botswana have led to new techniques for managing minimal tillage and
ridging for cowpeas on sandy soils. The simple equipment, of intermediate
technology type, could be drawn by donkeys rather than by oxen. This enables
the operations to be carried out by women and should lessen their physical
workload.
Temperature. Though populations of beans are known, from both CIAT and
CRSP programs, to vary in growth habit at different elevations in similar













1. Development of new cowpea varieties with improved canopy architecture to
meet the requirements of the US mechanized farm production.
2. Stimulation and guidance to establish cowpea breeding programs in other
countries.
3. Development of early and heat tolerant lines now being tested in Senegal
and other African countries.
4. Development of a screening technique to compare differential root growth
of cowpea varieties under drought stress using herbicides.
5. Development of a network, with the assistance of IITA, to test cowpea
germplasm and exchange research information among cowpea programs in the
US, Africa, South America and the Caribbean basin.


IV. Physical Response Limitations


General Agroclimatic Information:
All crops, everywhere, are affected by constraints imposed by physical
factors of the environment. A research or development worker must therefore
know the agro-ecological attributes of the localities in which he or she works.
This helps to interpret variations between places and years and to guide
transfers of information and plant material between locations. All annual
reports should start with statements of the weather characteristics of the
season and of its departures from the longer-term modal climatic values,
supported by the essential numerical data. A useful base-line source is the
reports of the Agro-Ecological Zones Project of FAO, which cover all countries
of the developing world in respect of soils and terrain as well as climate.

Constraints in Particular Environments:
Soil conditions. Differences in texture and workability between different
soils in Botswana have led to new techniques for managing minimal tillage and
ridging for cowpeas on sandy soils. The simple equipment, of intermediate
technology type, could be drawn by donkeys rather than by oxen. This enables
the operations to be carried out by women and should lessen their physical
workload.
Temperature. Though populations of beans are known, from both CIAT and
CRSP programs, to vary in growth habit at different elevations in similar













1. Development of new cowpea varieties with improved canopy architecture to
meet the requirements of the US mechanized farm production.
2. Stimulation and guidance to establish cowpea breeding programs in other
countries.
3. Development of early and heat tolerant lines now being tested in Senegal
and other African countries.
4. Development of a screening technique to compare differential root growth
of cowpea varieties under drought stress using herbicides.
5. Development of a network, with the assistance of IITA, to test cowpea
germplasm and exchange research information among cowpea programs in the
US, Africa, South America and the Caribbean basin.


IV. Physical Response Limitations


General Agroclimatic Information:
All crops, everywhere, are affected by constraints imposed by physical
factors of the environment. A research or development worker must therefore
know the agro-ecological attributes of the localities in which he or she works.
This helps to interpret variations between places and years and to guide
transfers of information and plant material between locations. All annual
reports should start with statements of the weather characteristics of the
season and of its departures from the longer-term modal climatic values,
supported by the essential numerical data. A useful base-line source is the
reports of the Agro-Ecological Zones Project of FAO, which cover all countries
of the developing world in respect of soils and terrain as well as climate.

Constraints in Particular Environments:
Soil conditions. Differences in texture and workability between different
soils in Botswana have led to new techniques for managing minimal tillage and
ridging for cowpeas on sandy soils. The simple equipment, of intermediate
technology type, could be drawn by donkeys rather than by oxen. This enables
the operations to be carried out by women and should lessen their physical
workload.
Temperature. Though populations of beans are known, from both CIAT and
CRSP programs, to vary in growth habit at different elevations in similar













1. Development of new cowpea varieties with improved canopy architecture to
meet the requirements of the US mechanized farm production.
2. Stimulation and guidance to establish cowpea breeding programs in other
countries.
3. Development of early and heat tolerant lines now being tested in Senegal
and other African countries.
4. Development of a screening technique to compare differential root growth
of cowpea varieties under drought stress using herbicides.
5. Development of a network, with the assistance of IITA, to test cowpea
germplasm and exchange research information among cowpea programs in the
US, Africa, South America and the Caribbean basin.


IV. Physical Response Limitations


General Agroclimatic Information:
All crops, everywhere, are affected by constraints imposed by physical
factors of the environment. A research or development worker must therefore
know the agro-ecological attributes of the localities in which he or she works.
This helps to interpret variations between places and years and to guide
transfers of information and plant material between locations. All annual
reports should start with statements of the weather characteristics of the
season and of its departures from the longer-term modal climatic values,
supported by the essential numerical data. A useful base-line source is the
reports of the Agro-Ecological Zones Project of FAO, which cover all countries
of the developing world in respect of soils and terrain as well as climate.

Constraints in Particular Environments:
Soil conditions. Differences in texture and workability between different
soils in Botswana have led to new techniques for managing minimal tillage and
ridging for cowpeas on sandy soils. The simple equipment, of intermediate
technology type, could be drawn by donkeys rather than by oxen. This enables
the operations to be carried out by women and should lessen their physical
workload.
Temperature. Though populations of beans are known, from both CIAT and
CRSP programs, to vary in growth habit at different elevations in similar













1. Development of new cowpea varieties with improved canopy architecture to
meet the requirements of the US mechanized farm production.
2. Stimulation and guidance to establish cowpea breeding programs in other
countries.
3. Development of early and heat tolerant lines now being tested in Senegal
and other African countries.
4. Development of a screening technique to compare differential root growth
of cowpea varieties under drought stress using herbicides.
5. Development of a network, with the assistance of IITA, to test cowpea
germplasm and exchange research information among cowpea programs in the
US, Africa, South America and the Caribbean basin.


IV. Physical Response Limitations


General Agroclimatic Information:
All crops, everywhere, are affected by constraints imposed by physical
factors of the environment. A research or development worker must therefore
know the agro-ecological attributes of the localities in which he or she works.
This helps to interpret variations between places and years and to guide
transfers of information and plant material between locations. All annual
reports should start with statements of the weather characteristics of the
season and of its departures from the longer-term modal climatic values,
supported by the essential numerical data. A useful base-line source is the
reports of the Agro-Ecological Zones Project of FAO, which cover all countries
of the developing world in respect of soils and terrain as well as climate.

Constraints in Particular Environments:
Soil conditions. Differences in texture and workability between different
soils in Botswana have led to new techniques for managing minimal tillage and
ridging for cowpeas on sandy soils. The simple equipment, of intermediate
technology type, could be drawn by donkeys rather than by oxen. This enables
the operations to be carried out by women and should lessen their physical
workload.
Temperature. Though populations of beans are known, from both CIAT and
CRSP programs, to vary in growth habit at different elevations in similar













latitudes, we have no precise information on this agronomically important
topic. It is related to the Cornell component of the Guatemala project
discussed below.
Warm or hot temperatures affect the fate of reproductive buds in both beans
and cowpeas. In general, heat tends to promote abscission. It has been shown
in the Senegal/UC-Riverside project that some genotypes of cowpeas are better
able to tolerate heat than others. The genetic nature of the differences has
been determined so that it is now possible to breed for tolerance of hot
temperature, a useful attribute in some extreme environments in Senegal. This
is a significant and novel achievement.
Water relations and drought. The projects in Tanzania, Kenya and Mexico
on beans, and in Botswana and Senegal on cowpeas, include the search for types
of these crops which are adapted to dry conditions. The most valuable type of
adaptation has been short season length, which enables the crop to evade or
escape drought by completing its life cycle within the period during which
water is available.
This work has helped to advance understanding of the nature of drought in
different environments: drought in Nigeria is a very different phenomenon from
drought in Nebraska. This is a valuable intellectual achievement.
The simplest method of screening populations for adaptation to dry
conditions is to grow them during several seasons in a number of places in
which dry conditions are usual. This method is tedious and imprecise; and it
often returns apparently inconsistent results because the dry conditions vary
in detail from place to place and season to season. The Mexico, Kenya and
Senegal projects have all investigated other methods. In Mexico, rain shelters
and other methods of preventing water from entering the soil were used to
screen beans for adaptation to dry conditions. At Riverside, herbicide was
placed at depth in the soil to identify types of cowpeas whose roots penetrate
the soil more rapidly. This could be a useful adaptation in those dry
environments in which the pattern of rainfall and evaporation and soil condi-
tions are such that a reserve of water exists in lower parts of the profile.
Measurements of water potential, stomatal conductance and other biophysical
attributes of leaves do not appear so far to have helped to identify drought-
adapted types of either beans or cowpeas--though in correctly chosen conditions
they might be able to do so.









-10-


The C13 discrimination technique may be useful in indicating plants which
assimilate more CO2 than others per unit of water transpired, but such plants
still have to acquire water before they can use it efficiently and they must
still be bound by the time limits imposed by the seasonal course of the water
balance.
The most useful methods of testing employed in the Senegal/UCR project seem
to be controlled irrigation and the sprinkler line technique (which has also
been used in Kenya)--although further experience with both is needed to ensure
that the experimental conditions match those to which adaptation is desired.
In combination with field testing in Senegal, those methods have helped to
select superior types of cowpeas for dry conditions. All of this adds up to
important progress in methods.
The tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and tepary-dry bean crosses seem
to include materials better able than most bean populations to withstand some
types of drought. The CRSP management should ensure that this work is
continued, perhaps in Tanzania or Mexico. That these crosses have been made
and that testing has begun is one of the CRSP's important achievements.
Interaction between photoperiod and temperature. The effects on bean
populations of photoperiod and temperature and their interactions are a set of
ecophysiological adaptive devices to locate flowering and podfilling at
favorable times in the crop season. This topic has been studied for a number
of years at Cornell and is included in the Guatemala/Cornell project. The
observations and data seem to be valid, but a serious attempt should be made
to reconcile the terminology and interpretation used by the Cornell workers
with those which have been used for many years by ecological plant
physiologists elsewhere.


V. Storage Problems, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health


Storage problems. Bruchid weevils cause serious losses of cowpeas during
storage in many countries. The most promising approaches to alleviating this
constraint have been undertaken in the Cameroon/University of Georgia project.
Information on the biology of the bruchid weevil has been obtained in studies
at Boyce Thompson Institute, and the mechanism for bruchid resistance has been
described in advanced cowpea lines derived at IITA from a bruchid-resistant









-10-


The C13 discrimination technique may be useful in indicating plants which
assimilate more CO2 than others per unit of water transpired, but such plants
still have to acquire water before they can use it efficiently and they must
still be bound by the time limits imposed by the seasonal course of the water
balance.
The most useful methods of testing employed in the Senegal/UCR project seem
to be controlled irrigation and the sprinkler line technique (which has also
been used in Kenya)--although further experience with both is needed to ensure
that the experimental conditions match those to which adaptation is desired.
In combination with field testing in Senegal, those methods have helped to
select superior types of cowpeas for dry conditions. All of this adds up to
important progress in methods.
The tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and tepary-dry bean crosses seem
to include materials better able than most bean populations to withstand some
types of drought. The CRSP management should ensure that this work is
continued, perhaps in Tanzania or Mexico. That these crosses have been made
and that testing has begun is one of the CRSP's important achievements.
Interaction between photoperiod and temperature. The effects on bean
populations of photoperiod and temperature and their interactions are a set of
ecophysiological adaptive devices to locate flowering and podfilling at
favorable times in the crop season. This topic has been studied for a number
of years at Cornell and is included in the Guatemala/Cornell project. The
observations and data seem to be valid, but a serious attempt should be made
to reconcile the terminology and interpretation used by the Cornell workers
with those which have been used for many years by ecological plant
physiologists elsewhere.


V. Storage Problems, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health


Storage problems. Bruchid weevils cause serious losses of cowpeas during
storage in many countries. The most promising approaches to alleviating this
constraint have been undertaken in the Cameroon/University of Georgia project.
Information on the biology of the bruchid weevil has been obtained in studies
at Boyce Thompson Institute, and the mechanism for bruchid resistance has been
described in advanced cowpea lines derived at IITA from a bruchid-resistant









-10-


The C13 discrimination technique may be useful in indicating plants which
assimilate more CO2 than others per unit of water transpired, but such plants
still have to acquire water before they can use it efficiently and they must
still be bound by the time limits imposed by the seasonal course of the water
balance.
The most useful methods of testing employed in the Senegal/UCR project seem
to be controlled irrigation and the sprinkler line technique (which has also
been used in Kenya)--although further experience with both is needed to ensure
that the experimental conditions match those to which adaptation is desired.
In combination with field testing in Senegal, those methods have helped to
select superior types of cowpeas for dry conditions. All of this adds up to
important progress in methods.
The tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and tepary-dry bean crosses seem
to include materials better able than most bean populations to withstand some
types of drought. The CRSP management should ensure that this work is
continued, perhaps in Tanzania or Mexico. That these crosses have been made
and that testing has begun is one of the CRSP's important achievements.
Interaction between photoperiod and temperature. The effects on bean
populations of photoperiod and temperature and their interactions are a set of
ecophysiological adaptive devices to locate flowering and podfilling at
favorable times in the crop season. This topic has been studied for a number
of years at Cornell and is included in the Guatemala/Cornell project. The
observations and data seem to be valid, but a serious attempt should be made
to reconcile the terminology and interpretation used by the Cornell workers
with those which have been used for many years by ecological plant
physiologists elsewhere.


V. Storage Problems, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health


Storage problems. Bruchid weevils cause serious losses of cowpeas during
storage in many countries. The most promising approaches to alleviating this
constraint have been undertaken in the Cameroon/University of Georgia project.
Information on the biology of the bruchid weevil has been obtained in studies
at Boyce Thompson Institute, and the mechanism for bruchid resistance has been
described in advanced cowpea lines derived at IITA from a bruchid-resistant










-11-


accession, Tvu 2027. Resistance to larvae by the advanced lines was expressed
as delayed growth of four geographically different strains of bruchid, unlike
Tvu 2027 that increases larval mortality. Because infestations during storage
are initiated by low densities of larvae in harvested pods and seeds, strains
of bruchid were examined for their propensity to produce the "active" or
dispersing form that is responsible for infestation in the field. Bruchid
strains varied in production of the "active" form, but ability to produce the
"active" form was inherited additively when population crosses were studied.
These two approaches are expected to provide bruchid resistant cultivars and
lead to biological methods to control bruchids.
Both beans and cowpeas, stored as whole seeds, become increasingly
hard-to-cook. The INCAP/Washington State University project has shown that
pretreatment with steam for ten minutes or soaking in a salt solution for five
hours, followed by solar drying, prevents this change in dry beans that are to
be stored for short periods. The Kansas State University portion of this
project developed a method to determine the tendency of beans to undergo
hardening during storage. They also developed a tactile method to determine
cooking time in beans.
Automated equipment to measure hardness of cooked beans was designed at
the University of Georgia and is available for use in screening cooked single
beans for degree of hardness.
Nutrition, food preparation and health. Achievements in these areas
include considerable data on protein quality and digestibility of cooked beans
and cowpeas and changes in cooking quality due to differences in length of
storage and temperature during storage. In the Nigeria/University of Georgia
project, village level technology has been developed to dehull cowpeas
efficiently and to grind dry, dehulled cowpeas to a meal that has suitable
functional characteristics for preparing akara, a preferred food in Nigeria.
This meal can be stored for at least four months without changes in quality.
Good quality dry bean flour, from dehulled dry beans, has also been prepared
by the INCAP/WSU project.
Twenty-three types of dry beans of known genetic background have been
recommended for use as standards in accumulating research data on beans. A
monograph containing standardized laboratory methods is being prepared for use
of food scientists, nutritionists and plant breeders.










-12-


Information has been exchanged among researchers in projects within the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP and among food scientists and nutritionists with similar
interests in the Sorghum/Millet, Peanut and Nutrition CRSPs, as well as with
US agricultural experiment station research workers. Interaction with
personnel in bean and cowpea programs at CIAT and IITA has been strengthened
during the four years that the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has been active.
Baseline data from Tanzania, Nigeria, Guatemala and Malawi include
information on methods of home preparation of beans or cowpeas, the relative
importance of beans/cowpeas as sources of protein in the diet, and taste
preferences among varieties. These data plus information on nutritional
quality and cooking quality before and after storage will enable plant breeders
to make choices among cultivars for those acceptable to target audiences as
well as for those with other characteristics related to increased production.
Baseline information on weaning practices and child-feeding practices has given
some direction also to research in food science and nutrition.


VI. Farming Systems, Production-Consumption Economics and Socio-Cultural
Factors


Farming systems. The farming systems approach in this CRSP refers to a
procedure to understand, in an efficient and timely manner, biophysical
(natural, environmental, technical) and socio-economic conditions of farms and
farmers and their characterization for purposes of orienting development
research. It includes on-farm testing for purposes of evaluation by both
researchers and farmers. Work of these kinds of farming systems is becoming
an important element of development research and extension efforts throughout
the world. A limited number of the projects have direct farming systems
components, but virtually all are benefiting from clearer identification of
farmers' problems and/or on-farm research in the Host Countries where they are
active.
Perhaps the most complete farming systems effort in the CRSP is in the
Ecuador/Cornell project where a team of social and biological scientists, both
US and HC, have combined efforts to characterize farms and farmers and conduct
on-farm research in two areas, one in the highlands and one in the lowlands,
in which INIAP is active. These multidisciplinary studies helped determine










-12-


Information has been exchanged among researchers in projects within the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP and among food scientists and nutritionists with similar
interests in the Sorghum/Millet, Peanut and Nutrition CRSPs, as well as with
US agricultural experiment station research workers. Interaction with
personnel in bean and cowpea programs at CIAT and IITA has been strengthened
during the four years that the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has been active.
Baseline data from Tanzania, Nigeria, Guatemala and Malawi include
information on methods of home preparation of beans or cowpeas, the relative
importance of beans/cowpeas as sources of protein in the diet, and taste
preferences among varieties. These data plus information on nutritional
quality and cooking quality before and after storage will enable plant breeders
to make choices among cultivars for those acceptable to target audiences as
well as for those with other characteristics related to increased production.
Baseline information on weaning practices and child-feeding practices has given
some direction also to research in food science and nutrition.


VI. Farming Systems, Production-Consumption Economics and Socio-Cultural
Factors


Farming systems. The farming systems approach in this CRSP refers to a
procedure to understand, in an efficient and timely manner, biophysical
(natural, environmental, technical) and socio-economic conditions of farms and
farmers and their characterization for purposes of orienting development
research. It includes on-farm testing for purposes of evaluation by both
researchers and farmers. Work of these kinds of farming systems is becoming
an important element of development research and extension efforts throughout
the world. A limited number of the projects have direct farming systems
components, but virtually all are benefiting from clearer identification of
farmers' problems and/or on-farm research in the Host Countries where they are
active.
Perhaps the most complete farming systems effort in the CRSP is in the
Ecuador/Cornell project where a team of social and biological scientists, both
US and HC, have combined efforts to characterize farms and farmers and conduct
on-farm research in two areas, one in the highlands and one in the lowlands,
in which INIAP is active. These multidisciplinary studies helped determine










-13-


why closer spacing and some specific higher yielding materials were not
acceptable to farmers in the two areas. In the Guatemala/Cornell project,
researchers benefited from and provided additional support to the ICTA
socio-economics program in its continuing farming systems activities. Well
designed and appropriately analyzed and interpreted on-farm trials are an
integral part of their activities. The Honduras/University of Puerto Rico
project has benefited from reconnaissance surveys and on-farm research
supported in part by other in-country projects. In Africa, direct farming
systems components include agricultural economics in the Tanzania/WSU project
and sociology in the Malawi/MSU project.
These activities can provide information critical to the biological
researchers concerning periods when labor may be a constraint, relative dietary
and economic importance of uses of plant parts at different stages of maturity
(green leaves, green pods, green peas or beans, dry grain, dry fodder or
forage, etc.), taste and color preferences, desirable plant architecture and
potential limits to farm practices. Farming systems activities also include
aiding in the selection of on-farm research locations, the design of on-farm
research, and help in analyzing and interpreting results. As breeding and
agronomic projects in this CRSP move more toward application of findings,
multidisciplinary farming systems activities, including mixed cropping systems,
will provide an ever more valuable contribution.
Production-consumption economics. The only project with a primary focus on
economic constraints is in Tanzania. It emphasized the different "markets" for
which beans are produced. When 50 percent of the bean output is produced to
meet the farm family's own food needs, a very different set of considerations
determine the characteristics of that part compared with the half produced for
the market. Some technology may be appropriate for one and not the other.
When this dichotomy in uses of beans and cowpeas exists, increased
production may create pressure to export the produce. In turn, export markets
may require still another type of technology, e.g., color of bean, uniformity
and attractive appearance. Suffice it to say that the economic analysis of
markets is essential for the creation of appropriate technology.
Socio-cultural factors. The sociological work in Ecuador clearly indicates
that bean producers should not be regarded as a homogenous mass of farmers.
Because, for example, subsistence farmers are clearly different from commercial








THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH
SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)

































Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035 USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810 251 0737 MSU INT PRO ELSG

Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant NO. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261










-14-


ones producing for urban or export markets, their receptivity to new technology
can be expected to be different. In fact, the technology needs are different,
e.g., with respect to purchased inputs. Further, the work in Ecuador clearly
demonstrated that natural science research workers must address the problems
expressed by the farmers themselves rather than those which they imagine are
important.
As with all crops everywhere, consumer preference is important in bean
marketing. This has been documented by findings in Malawi. In fact, the work
there indicates that two sets of preferences are important--those related to
what is consumed immediately and those which concern what seeds are selected
for planting. Further, the research documents the important role of women in
both of these processes. Clearly, these factors must be considered in
endeavors to improve technical methods intended to be used by farm families.










-15-


Program Evaluation: Project Ratings and Recommendations


Ratings and Recommendations Format
It is the normal business of the EEP to consider and make recommendations
on the future of individual CRSP projects. On this occasion, the EEP felt this
should be done with special care, since the CRSP may have to accept substantial
budget reductions.
In the context of (a) contributions to reduction of constraints comprising
the CRSP global plan, (b) operational mode and (c) prospective availabilities
of funds, each CRSP project was reviewed and given one of the following
category designations, ratings and recommendations:

Category Rating and Recommendation

1 Highly satisfactory--continuation with no recommended changes.

1A Highly satisfactory--major goals achieved; Board of Directors
may wish to consider orderly phaseout in FY 86 or later.

2 Satisfactory--continuation with no recommended changes.
2A Satisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to consider major
adjustments in activities and/or budgets.

3 Satisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to effect an orderly
change in mode of operation, perhaps by FY 87.

4 Unsatisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to consider orderly
phaseout in FY 86.










-15-


Program Evaluation: Project Ratings and Recommendations


Ratings and Recommendations Format
It is the normal business of the EEP to consider and make recommendations
on the future of individual CRSP projects. On this occasion, the EEP felt this
should be done with special care, since the CRSP may have to accept substantial
budget reductions.
In the context of (a) contributions to reduction of constraints comprising
the CRSP global plan, (b) operational mode and (c) prospective availabilities
of funds, each CRSP project was reviewed and given one of the following
category designations, ratings and recommendations:

Category Rating and Recommendation

1 Highly satisfactory--continuation with no recommended changes.

1A Highly satisfactory--major goals achieved; Board of Directors
may wish to consider orderly phaseout in FY 86 or later.

2 Satisfactory--continuation with no recommended changes.
2A Satisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to consider major
adjustments in activities and/or budgets.

3 Satisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to effect an orderly
change in mode of operation, perhaps by FY 87.

4 Unsatisfactory--Board of Directors may wish to consider orderly
phaseout in FY 86.










-16-


CATEGORY 1 /
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/BLISS I


This project is the only one of its kind in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, perhaps
in the world, that deals primarily and exclusively with improving biological
nitrogen fixation and bean plant response to nitrogen. It has a uniquely
important role in the world of bean improvement (i.e. the IARCs, the CRSP, bean
breeders and others) in that it is a principal source of information on the
appropriate breeding methodology, analytical methods for quantifying N2-
fixation and superior plant/Rhizobia combinations, superior Rhizobium phaseoli
strains and plant germplasm with potential for increased fixation. Through
outstanding leadership in the US and Brazil, this project is on the threshold
of what appears to be a bountiful payoff: selection for superior host plants
has produced black bean lines that have been shown to fix up to 50-60 kg N/ha
under field conditions. These lines fix more nitrogen and yield more grain
than standard cultivars in use in Brazil. The work shows that selection for
improvement of the host plant is an important factor for increasing the
potential for symbiotic fixation of nitrogen. The project has also developed
an improved method to enumerate Rhizobium phaseoli and potentially superior
inoculant strains. Evaluation under farmer-use conditions remains. The
research results of this project could have worldwide impact in increasing the
supply of nitrogen for bean crops grown by small, resource-poor farmers. The
project illustrates that a single project or line of research can have a
substantial practical effect.

BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE/ROBERTS


Without question, insect pests adversely affect production and storage of
cowpeas everywhere and especially in tropical environments. Through a well-
designed and executed collaborative research plan, this project is making out-
standing progress toward the selection and use of pathogens to be incorporated
in cowpea insect control programs as supplements or alternatives to chemical
insecticides. This is important because virtually no experienced insect
pathologists are working on cowpea pests anywhere. Brazil is a most appro-
priate location for this pioneering project on cowpeas. In the northeast there










-16-


CATEGORY 1 /
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/BLISS I


This project is the only one of its kind in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, perhaps
in the world, that deals primarily and exclusively with improving biological
nitrogen fixation and bean plant response to nitrogen. It has a uniquely
important role in the world of bean improvement (i.e. the IARCs, the CRSP, bean
breeders and others) in that it is a principal source of information on the
appropriate breeding methodology, analytical methods for quantifying N2-
fixation and superior plant/Rhizobia combinations, superior Rhizobium phaseoli
strains and plant germplasm with potential for increased fixation. Through
outstanding leadership in the US and Brazil, this project is on the threshold
of what appears to be a bountiful payoff: selection for superior host plants
has produced black bean lines that have been shown to fix up to 50-60 kg N/ha
under field conditions. These lines fix more nitrogen and yield more grain
than standard cultivars in use in Brazil. The work shows that selection for
improvement of the host plant is an important factor for increasing the
potential for symbiotic fixation of nitrogen. The project has also developed
an improved method to enumerate Rhizobium phaseoli and potentially superior
inoculant strains. Evaluation under farmer-use conditions remains. The
research results of this project could have worldwide impact in increasing the
supply of nitrogen for bean crops grown by small, resource-poor farmers. The
project illustrates that a single project or line of research can have a
substantial practical effect.

BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE/ROBERTS


Without question, insect pests adversely affect production and storage of
cowpeas everywhere and especially in tropical environments. Through a well-
designed and executed collaborative research plan, this project is making out-
standing progress toward the selection and use of pathogens to be incorporated
in cowpea insect control programs as supplements or alternatives to chemical
insecticides. This is important because virtually no experienced insect
pathologists are working on cowpea pests anywhere. Brazil is a most appro-
priate location for this pioneering project on cowpeas. In the northeast there










-16-


CATEGORY 1 /
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/BLISS I


This project is the only one of its kind in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, perhaps
in the world, that deals primarily and exclusively with improving biological
nitrogen fixation and bean plant response to nitrogen. It has a uniquely
important role in the world of bean improvement (i.e. the IARCs, the CRSP, bean
breeders and others) in that it is a principal source of information on the
appropriate breeding methodology, analytical methods for quantifying N2-
fixation and superior plant/Rhizobia combinations, superior Rhizobium phaseoli
strains and plant germplasm with potential for increased fixation. Through
outstanding leadership in the US and Brazil, this project is on the threshold
of what appears to be a bountiful payoff: selection for superior host plants
has produced black bean lines that have been shown to fix up to 50-60 kg N/ha
under field conditions. These lines fix more nitrogen and yield more grain
than standard cultivars in use in Brazil. The work shows that selection for
improvement of the host plant is an important factor for increasing the
potential for symbiotic fixation of nitrogen. The project has also developed
an improved method to enumerate Rhizobium phaseoli and potentially superior
inoculant strains. Evaluation under farmer-use conditions remains. The
research results of this project could have worldwide impact in increasing the
supply of nitrogen for bean crops grown by small, resource-poor farmers. The
project illustrates that a single project or line of research can have a
substantial practical effect.

BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE/ROBERTS


Without question, insect pests adversely affect production and storage of
cowpeas everywhere and especially in tropical environments. Through a well-
designed and executed collaborative research plan, this project is making out-
standing progress toward the selection and use of pathogens to be incorporated
in cowpea insect control programs as supplements or alternatives to chemical
insecticides. This is important because virtually no experienced insect
pathologists are working on cowpea pests anywhere. Brazil is a most appro-
priate location for this pioneering project on cowpeas. In the northeast there










-17-


is the need and Brazil has the capacity to collaborate through a young cadre
of BS and MS level plant protection workers and excellent laboratory and field
research facilities. Accomplishments to date include: (1) establishment of
an Insect Pathology Resource Center in Brazil, (2) establishment of laboratory
colonies of fungal pathogens of cowpea insects, (3) surveys to identify and
assess the prevalence and importance of cowpea insects and their pathogens in
the principal cowpea-growing regions, (4) screenings of entomopathogenic fungi
to identify the most promising strains, (5) biological assays of virulence,
(6) completion of selected ecological and epizootiological studies, (7) formu-
lations of entomopathogenic fungi for use in the field and (8) preliminary
field and screenhouse trials of promising fungal pathogens. These sequential,
systematic accomplishments have resulted in the successful, small-scale field
application of Erynia radicans against Empoasca leafhoppers. Tests with Erynia
radicans and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated that fungal pathogens can be
applied against cowpea pests without the use of prohibitively expensive formu-
lation additivies or application machinery. It appears likely therefore that
methods of the kind which this project is developing could be useful to limited
resource, subsistence farmers wherever cowpeas are grown.

GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY/WALLACE


The sociological portion of this project was terminated September 30, 1985.
Accomplishments include detailed descriptions and analyses of farming systems
in one region of the Guatemalan highlands, including family farming patterns,
agricultural zones and socio-economic and cultural characteristics of a
representative group of farm families. With regard to the genetic portion of
the project, research results have contributed importantly to improved under-
standing of how the interaction of daylength, temperature and cultivar regulate
bean yield. These results could have considerable influence on agronomic and
breeding improvement programs for beans and other crops in diverse environments
and perhaps for other crops also.

MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS


This project is another outstanding example of how a US university and a
national Host Country research organization can join forces to try to










-17-


is the need and Brazil has the capacity to collaborate through a young cadre
of BS and MS level plant protection workers and excellent laboratory and field
research facilities. Accomplishments to date include: (1) establishment of
an Insect Pathology Resource Center in Brazil, (2) establishment of laboratory
colonies of fungal pathogens of cowpea insects, (3) surveys to identify and
assess the prevalence and importance of cowpea insects and their pathogens in
the principal cowpea-growing regions, (4) screenings of entomopathogenic fungi
to identify the most promising strains, (5) biological assays of virulence,
(6) completion of selected ecological and epizootiological studies, (7) formu-
lations of entomopathogenic fungi for use in the field and (8) preliminary
field and screenhouse trials of promising fungal pathogens. These sequential,
systematic accomplishments have resulted in the successful, small-scale field
application of Erynia radicans against Empoasca leafhoppers. Tests with Erynia
radicans and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated that fungal pathogens can be
applied against cowpea pests without the use of prohibitively expensive formu-
lation additivies or application machinery. It appears likely therefore that
methods of the kind which this project is developing could be useful to limited
resource, subsistence farmers wherever cowpeas are grown.

GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY/WALLACE


The sociological portion of this project was terminated September 30, 1985.
Accomplishments include detailed descriptions and analyses of farming systems
in one region of the Guatemalan highlands, including family farming patterns,
agricultural zones and socio-economic and cultural characteristics of a
representative group of farm families. With regard to the genetic portion of
the project, research results have contributed importantly to improved under-
standing of how the interaction of daylength, temperature and cultivar regulate
bean yield. These results could have considerable influence on agronomic and
breeding improvement programs for beans and other crops in diverse environments
and perhaps for other crops also.

MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS


This project is another outstanding example of how a US university and a
national Host Country research organization can join forces to try to









-18-


ameliorate a major crop production constraint. It has been noted by Dr. Adams
that, "Among environmental limitations affecting the expression of genetic
potential for and stability of grain yield in beans and cowpeas, none are more
ubiquitous or adverse than limited and erratic rainfall and limited soil
nitrogen and phosphorus." This collaborative project focuses on the improve-
ment of bean production in the semiarid, temperate, non-irrigated highlands of
north-central Mexico. As far as is known, there is no other project in the
world where improvement of bean yields under drought and under low nutrient
status jointly are major objectives. This project is clearly alone in
combining a search for drought resistance with a search for adequate levels of
biological nitrogen fixation where both water and nutrients are limited. The
thrust of this project is to determine if there are heritable mechanisms in
beans that confer adaptation, or tolerance, to dry conditions, as is the case
of the tepary bean. Progress to date has been slow but promising.

SENEGAL/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE/HALL


This cooperative project has built a substantial national capability in
cowpea research and development in Senegal, including agronomy, physiology and
crop protection (in which IITA cooperates). Its work in identifying and
selecting short-season, drought-escaping cowpeas for use in the hot and dry
areas of Senegal has been of special importance. Specifically, the work has
helped Senegal to increase substantially the area and output of cowpeas in the
arid northeast districts in a manner reminiscent of the imports of wheat seed
that helped to start the Green Revolution in Asia in the 1960s. The Government
decided to substitute a part of the cereal area with cowpeas to counter the
continuing drought. The CRSP research had shown that CB5 (California Blackeye
5) was early and reasonably productive in the drier zones of Senegal. Six
hundred fifty metric tons of high quality, disease-free CB5 seed were imported
from California and distributed to farmers in northern Senegal together with
recommendations on cultural methods that had been developed by the project.
As a result, in 1985, cowpea productivity and production in Senegal,
respectively, were double and quadruple the average levels obtained in the
preceding fourteen years. It is estimated that one million people benefited
from the food supplied by these early cowpeas during the "hungry period" of










-19-


August and September. This all came about as a result of close cooperation
between the Government of Senegal, the European Economic Community, USAID,
IITA and the CRSP.
Dr. Hall of UCR and his counterparts at IITA have created a network of
cooperative CRSP cowpea breeding and agronomy programs involving Senegal,
Botswana and the Cameroon and national programs in Sudan and Nigeria. This
network ties into IITA's global network of 52 countries.
This is a model project with outstanding inputs in both the Host Country
and in the United States and with strong international linkages.

TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SILBERNAGEL


Unlike most of the CRSP projects which have a sharp, narrow focus on
selected objectives, this project has a wide range of interests--insects,
diseases, plant response, physical environment, storage, farming systems,
including consumption economics and socio-cultural factors. In short, this is
a multi-purpose CRSP project which has produced impressive results, i.e., 90
percent of the project's five-year objectives have been achieved. Several very
promising breeding lines (insect and disease resistant) are in the final stages
of evaluation. It is expected these will go through on-farm testing to release
in the next few years. Concurrently, an assessment will be made of the socio-
economic impact of the new cultivars on smallholder farm families for whom
baseline information was established early in the project. A small marketing
study is being initiated in anticipation of the new releases, so as to better
plan and promote public dissemination and acceptance of the new cultivars.
This CRSP program has generated a great deal of national and international
cooperation.


CATEGORY 1A
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/MAXWELL


After problems in its early stages, this project is now on track and has
made very creditable progress. Specifically, a procedure has been developed
for screening breeding lines for multiple resistance to pathogens. In addi-
tion, the detached leaf technique has been developed to study and test the










-19-


August and September. This all came about as a result of close cooperation
between the Government of Senegal, the European Economic Community, USAID,
IITA and the CRSP.
Dr. Hall of UCR and his counterparts at IITA have created a network of
cooperative CRSP cowpea breeding and agronomy programs involving Senegal,
Botswana and the Cameroon and national programs in Sudan and Nigeria. This
network ties into IITA's global network of 52 countries.
This is a model project with outstanding inputs in both the Host Country
and in the United States and with strong international linkages.

TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SILBERNAGEL


Unlike most of the CRSP projects which have a sharp, narrow focus on
selected objectives, this project has a wide range of interests--insects,
diseases, plant response, physical environment, storage, farming systems,
including consumption economics and socio-cultural factors. In short, this is
a multi-purpose CRSP project which has produced impressive results, i.e., 90
percent of the project's five-year objectives have been achieved. Several very
promising breeding lines (insect and disease resistant) are in the final stages
of evaluation. It is expected these will go through on-farm testing to release
in the next few years. Concurrently, an assessment will be made of the socio-
economic impact of the new cultivars on smallholder farm families for whom
baseline information was established early in the project. A small marketing
study is being initiated in anticipation of the new releases, so as to better
plan and promote public dissemination and acceptance of the new cultivars.
This CRSP program has generated a great deal of national and international
cooperation.


CATEGORY 1A
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/MAXWELL


After problems in its early stages, this project is now on track and has
made very creditable progress. Specifically, a procedure has been developed
for screening breeding lines for multiple resistance to pathogens. In addi-
tion, the detached leaf technique has been developed to study and test the










-19-


August and September. This all came about as a result of close cooperation
between the Government of Senegal, the European Economic Community, USAID,
IITA and the CRSP.
Dr. Hall of UCR and his counterparts at IITA have created a network of
cooperative CRSP cowpea breeding and agronomy programs involving Senegal,
Botswana and the Cameroon and national programs in Sudan and Nigeria. This
network ties into IITA's global network of 52 countries.
This is a model project with outstanding inputs in both the Host Country
and in the United States and with strong international linkages.

TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SILBERNAGEL


Unlike most of the CRSP projects which have a sharp, narrow focus on
selected objectives, this project has a wide range of interests--insects,
diseases, plant response, physical environment, storage, farming systems,
including consumption economics and socio-cultural factors. In short, this is
a multi-purpose CRSP project which has produced impressive results, i.e., 90
percent of the project's five-year objectives have been achieved. Several very
promising breeding lines (insect and disease resistant) are in the final stages
of evaluation. It is expected these will go through on-farm testing to release
in the next few years. Concurrently, an assessment will be made of the socio-
economic impact of the new cultivars on smallholder farm families for whom
baseline information was established early in the project. A small marketing
study is being initiated in anticipation of the new releases, so as to better
plan and promote public dissemination and acceptance of the new cultivars.
This CRSP program has generated a great deal of national and international
cooperation.


CATEGORY 1A
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/MAXWELL


After problems in its early stages, this project is now on track and has
made very creditable progress. Specifically, a procedure has been developed
for screening breeding lines for multiple resistance to pathogens. In addi-
tion, the detached leaf technique has been developed to study and test the










-20-


results of multiple inoculations made in the greenhouse or in the field.
Further, methods have been developed to prepare and use dry inoculum using
simple laboratory procedures. These improved techniques for the breeding for
multiple disease resistance should eventually be useful wherever beans are
grown.

MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS


The study, under the direction of Dr. Wayne Adams, a world leader in bean
research, of the genetic structure of landraces in the Malawi project is the
only one of its kind for beans anywhere in the world. With methods adapted
from statistical and genetic disciplines, along with contributions from
cultural anthropology, the Malawi project has produced unforeseen and
challenging information with regard to the origin and the generation and
maintenance of genetic variability in bean landraces, which is universal in
its significance. The results include both basic and applied data.
Notwithstanding outstanding results, this project has operated in Malawi
since February 1982 with expatriate scientists supported by Michigan State
University funding; thus, this project may not be conceptually and
operationally compatible with CRSP concepts.


Comment: These two projects, Brazil/Maxwell and Malawi/Adams, may be at a
point of achievement where orderly phaseout can be a consideration. Further
inputs may be fine tuning rather than innovative or creation of substantial
advances in knowledge (except that we do not yet know enough about the part
which is played by seed selection in maintaining the genetic structure of the
populations in Malawi).


CATEGORY 2
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/McWATTERS


This project, which seeks to increase the availability of cowpeas to
consumers in Nigeria by developing technologies to reduce postharvest storage
losses and to simplify the preparation of cowpeas for human consumption, has
had to overcome difficulties of communication between Georgia and Eastern










-20-


results of multiple inoculations made in the greenhouse or in the field.
Further, methods have been developed to prepare and use dry inoculum using
simple laboratory procedures. These improved techniques for the breeding for
multiple disease resistance should eventually be useful wherever beans are
grown.

MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS


The study, under the direction of Dr. Wayne Adams, a world leader in bean
research, of the genetic structure of landraces in the Malawi project is the
only one of its kind for beans anywhere in the world. With methods adapted
from statistical and genetic disciplines, along with contributions from
cultural anthropology, the Malawi project has produced unforeseen and
challenging information with regard to the origin and the generation and
maintenance of genetic variability in bean landraces, which is universal in
its significance. The results include both basic and applied data.
Notwithstanding outstanding results, this project has operated in Malawi
since February 1982 with expatriate scientists supported by Michigan State
University funding; thus, this project may not be conceptually and
operationally compatible with CRSP concepts.


Comment: These two projects, Brazil/Maxwell and Malawi/Adams, may be at a
point of achievement where orderly phaseout can be a consideration. Further
inputs may be fine tuning rather than innovative or creation of substantial
advances in knowledge (except that we do not yet know enough about the part
which is played by seed selection in maintaining the genetic structure of the
populations in Malawi).


CATEGORY 2
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/McWATTERS


This project, which seeks to increase the availability of cowpeas to
consumers in Nigeria by developing technologies to reduce postharvest storage
losses and to simplify the preparation of cowpeas for human consumption, has
had to overcome difficulties of communication between Georgia and Eastern










-20-


results of multiple inoculations made in the greenhouse or in the field.
Further, methods have been developed to prepare and use dry inoculum using
simple laboratory procedures. These improved techniques for the breeding for
multiple disease resistance should eventually be useful wherever beans are
grown.

MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS


The study, under the direction of Dr. Wayne Adams, a world leader in bean
research, of the genetic structure of landraces in the Malawi project is the
only one of its kind for beans anywhere in the world. With methods adapted
from statistical and genetic disciplines, along with contributions from
cultural anthropology, the Malawi project has produced unforeseen and
challenging information with regard to the origin and the generation and
maintenance of genetic variability in bean landraces, which is universal in
its significance. The results include both basic and applied data.
Notwithstanding outstanding results, this project has operated in Malawi
since February 1982 with expatriate scientists supported by Michigan State
University funding; thus, this project may not be conceptually and
operationally compatible with CRSP concepts.


Comment: These two projects, Brazil/Maxwell and Malawi/Adams, may be at a
point of achievement where orderly phaseout can be a consideration. Further
inputs may be fine tuning rather than innovative or creation of substantial
advances in knowledge (except that we do not yet know enough about the part
which is played by seed selection in maintaining the genetic structure of the
populations in Malawi).


CATEGORY 2
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/McWATTERS


This project, which seeks to increase the availability of cowpeas to
consumers in Nigeria by developing technologies to reduce postharvest storage
losses and to simplify the preparation of cowpeas for human consumption, has
had to overcome difficulties of communication between Georgia and Eastern









-21-


Nigeria. The new resolve of the PIs to do this was evident during the year and
during the five-year program review when the .new Nigerian Principal Investi-
gator, Dr. D. 0. Nnanyelugo, gave his unqualified support to current program
plans. These plans include establishing a prototype village-scale process for
mechanical removal of the seed coat from dry cowpeas and for making meal/flour
suitable for use in traditional West African foods which use cowpea paste as a
principal ingredient. Studies on improving conditions to prevent deterioration
of cowpea meal/flour in storage, prevention of weevil infestation in storage
and nutrition will continue. This project gives promise for significantly
increasing the quality and quantity of cowpea foods in Nigeria and elsewhere
in Africa where cowpeas are grown and consumed.

CATEGORY 2A
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA/COYNE


This project has made very satisfactory progress. Genetic and epidemio-
logical information of value have been obtained and bean cultivars with
resistance to bacterial and rust pathogens are available for use (secured in
cooperation with the University of Puerto Rico). The information and the
cultivars have been distributed to other CRSP bean programs. Close cooperation
with CIAT has been arranged. In fact, this project is a fine example of
collaborative research involving a US university, a developing nation, CRSP
projects and an international agricultural research center.
The progress made in building an operational bean research capacity in the
DR makes it possible and timely to consolidate CRSP activities in the DR. The
Board of Directors may wish to consider merging this project with that of the
UPR which also operates in the DR on much the same problems.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


Dr. Beaver and his predecessor, Dr. Lopez-Rosa, have been largely
responsible for establishing a very productive and mutually rewarding
relationship with their counterpart scientists in the DR, Honduras and the
University of Nebraska. The result is that improved bean cultivars with
multiple disease resistance are now in place and being multiplied for release









-21-


Nigeria. The new resolve of the PIs to do this was evident during the year and
during the five-year program review when the .new Nigerian Principal Investi-
gator, Dr. D. 0. Nnanyelugo, gave his unqualified support to current program
plans. These plans include establishing a prototype village-scale process for
mechanical removal of the seed coat from dry cowpeas and for making meal/flour
suitable for use in traditional West African foods which use cowpea paste as a
principal ingredient. Studies on improving conditions to prevent deterioration
of cowpea meal/flour in storage, prevention of weevil infestation in storage
and nutrition will continue. This project gives promise for significantly
increasing the quality and quantity of cowpea foods in Nigeria and elsewhere
in Africa where cowpeas are grown and consumed.

CATEGORY 2A
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA/COYNE


This project has made very satisfactory progress. Genetic and epidemio-
logical information of value have been obtained and bean cultivars with
resistance to bacterial and rust pathogens are available for use (secured in
cooperation with the University of Puerto Rico). The information and the
cultivars have been distributed to other CRSP bean programs. Close cooperation
with CIAT has been arranged. In fact, this project is a fine example of
collaborative research involving a US university, a developing nation, CRSP
projects and an international agricultural research center.
The progress made in building an operational bean research capacity in the
DR makes it possible and timely to consolidate CRSP activities in the DR. The
Board of Directors may wish to consider merging this project with that of the
UPR which also operates in the DR on much the same problems.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


Dr. Beaver and his predecessor, Dr. Lopez-Rosa, have been largely
responsible for establishing a very productive and mutually rewarding
relationship with their counterpart scientists in the DR, Honduras and the
University of Nebraska. The result is that improved bean cultivars with
multiple disease resistance are now in place and being multiplied for release









-21-


Nigeria. The new resolve of the PIs to do this was evident during the year and
during the five-year program review when the .new Nigerian Principal Investi-
gator, Dr. D. 0. Nnanyelugo, gave his unqualified support to current program
plans. These plans include establishing a prototype village-scale process for
mechanical removal of the seed coat from dry cowpeas and for making meal/flour
suitable for use in traditional West African foods which use cowpea paste as a
principal ingredient. Studies on improving conditions to prevent deterioration
of cowpea meal/flour in storage, prevention of weevil infestation in storage
and nutrition will continue. This project gives promise for significantly
increasing the quality and quantity of cowpea foods in Nigeria and elsewhere
in Africa where cowpeas are grown and consumed.

CATEGORY 2A
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA/COYNE


This project has made very satisfactory progress. Genetic and epidemio-
logical information of value have been obtained and bean cultivars with
resistance to bacterial and rust pathogens are available for use (secured in
cooperation with the University of Puerto Rico). The information and the
cultivars have been distributed to other CRSP bean programs. Close cooperation
with CIAT has been arranged. In fact, this project is a fine example of
collaborative research involving a US university, a developing nation, CRSP
projects and an international agricultural research center.
The progress made in building an operational bean research capacity in the
DR makes it possible and timely to consolidate CRSP activities in the DR. The
Board of Directors may wish to consider merging this project with that of the
UPR which also operates in the DR on much the same problems.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


Dr. Beaver and his predecessor, Dr. Lopez-Rosa, have been largely
responsible for establishing a very productive and mutually rewarding
relationship with their counterpart scientists in the DR, Honduras and the
University of Nebraska. The result is that improved bean cultivars with
multiple disease resistance are now in place and being multiplied for release









-22-


to farmers. Should widespread adoption of these cultivars take place as
expected, this project should have a significant impact on increasing the
availability of beans in the DR.
Because of its favorable location to deal with problems and to exploit
opportunities rapidly and because of its rapport with the DR, the CRSP Board
of Directors may wish to designate the University of Puerto Rico as the lead
institution in a merger of the two bean CRSP projects now operating in the DR.
The resulting project should be able to make substantial contributions to bean
improvement in the Caribbean basin along with CIAT and other bean programs in
the region, as well as in the DR.

INCAP/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SWANSON


Research by INCAP and its CRSP collaborators has provided better under-
standing of the changes which occur in dry beans as they mature and when they
are in storage, more information on the nutritional quality of dry beans and
more reliable data on the ways in which beans are incorporated into the diets
of rural people of Guatemala. These research results have provided the bases
for preparation and dissemination of educational dietary information regarding
handling/processing and cooking of beans. They indicate that complementary
blends of beans and maize, methionine supplementation, milling, toasting and
roasting of beans appear to improve nutritional quality and/or acceptability
of dry beans. The hard-to-cook phenomenon is a matter of priority research
concern. Various investigations--water imbibition, microstructural changes
in beans during maturation, relation of processing quality to bean phenotype
and genetic background, and other research leads--offer promise for reducing
the hard-to-cook characteristic. Screening techniques have been developed to
determine differences in beans for cooking time as well as for minimizing
hardening in storage. This work will allow plant breeders to develop dry beans
which will require less cooking time. Given the urgency of this problem as it
relates to energy requirements, the Board of Directors may wish to consider
limiting support under this project to this facet of the project.









-23-


CATEGORY 3
BOTSWANA/COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY/deMOOY


This project has made creditable progress towards establishing a cowpea
improvement program under difficult circumstances in a location where every-
thing needs to be done. The valiant, persistent efforts of one individual,
Dr. de Mooy of Colorado State University, have made this beginning possible.
A short-season, high-yielding variety, ER7, obtained from IITA, has been
tested, found to be adapted and released to farmers. An important germplasm
collection, including 700 local lines, has been established. It should be
useful for varietal development in Botswana and elsewhere.
The project has been operating in a direct technical assistance mode and
has been doing so since it was initiated in July 1982. By the end of FY 87,
it will have been operating in this manner for-five years. Five years should
be sufficient time to shift this project into a more desirable collaborative
mode.

CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/CHALFANT

For the lack of local collaborators in a country in which the number of
professionals trained in the agricultural sciences was very limited, this
project was regarded as "troubled." This is now being remedied. The project
now seems likely to provide producers with reliable cowpea insect control
procedures, as well as improved, insect-resistant cultivars. It may have a
favorable impact on cowpea production during the next few years. The program
is becoming linked to a developing network of cowpea programs associated with
IITA and the University of California-Riverside. With this link and the direct
support from the University of Georgia and Boyce Thompson Institute, together
with the growing capacity of the Government of Cameroon to sustain a national
cowpea improvement program, conditions seem favorable for continued progress.
While most of the work so far has been directed to urgent needs in the
Cameroon, certain elements can and will contribute to the reduction of global
constraints. For example, supporting research by the University of Georgia and
Boyce Thompson Institute on roles of chemical and physical stimuli on insect
egg-laying are such as to have value wherever cowpeas are grown. Also, cowpea









-23-


CATEGORY 3
BOTSWANA/COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY/deMOOY


This project has made creditable progress towards establishing a cowpea
improvement program under difficult circumstances in a location where every-
thing needs to be done. The valiant, persistent efforts of one individual,
Dr. de Mooy of Colorado State University, have made this beginning possible.
A short-season, high-yielding variety, ER7, obtained from IITA, has been
tested, found to be adapted and released to farmers. An important germplasm
collection, including 700 local lines, has been established. It should be
useful for varietal development in Botswana and elsewhere.
The project has been operating in a direct technical assistance mode and
has been doing so since it was initiated in July 1982. By the end of FY 87,
it will have been operating in this manner for-five years. Five years should
be sufficient time to shift this project into a more desirable collaborative
mode.

CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/CHALFANT

For the lack of local collaborators in a country in which the number of
professionals trained in the agricultural sciences was very limited, this
project was regarded as "troubled." This is now being remedied. The project
now seems likely to provide producers with reliable cowpea insect control
procedures, as well as improved, insect-resistant cultivars. It may have a
favorable impact on cowpea production during the next few years. The program
is becoming linked to a developing network of cowpea programs associated with
IITA and the University of California-Riverside. With this link and the direct
support from the University of Georgia and Boyce Thompson Institute, together
with the growing capacity of the Government of Cameroon to sustain a national
cowpea improvement program, conditions seem favorable for continued progress.
While most of the work so far has been directed to urgent needs in the
Cameroon, certain elements can and will contribute to the reduction of global
constraints. For example, supporting research by the University of Georgia and
Boyce Thompson Institute on roles of chemical and physical stimuli on insect
egg-laying are such as to have value wherever cowpeas are grown. Also, cowpea
























REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Five-Year Review

January 19-24, 1986



























Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan









-24-


germplasm found in the Cameroon will be valuable accessions to world collec-
tions of cowpeas held at IITA and in other gene banks, if and when collected.
In the Cameroon, the project is directed by an employee of the University
of Georgia, an expatriate scientist from Togo, who has done a fine job of
getting the project established and resolving communication and operational
difficulties. This situation--expatriate operational control--is being
gradually developed into a less dependent mode as CRSP-trained specialists
return to the Cameroon. As in the case of the Botswana project, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider actions to insure transition to a fully
collaborative mode in the next several years.


CATEGORY 4
ECUADOR/CORNELL UNIVERSITY/WALLACE


The EEP reviewed the plan for restructuring this project with the
Ecuadorian Principal Investigator and the present and future Co-US Principal
Investigators and discussed the plan in detail in executive sessions. There
were widely divergent views regarding several important issues: (1) appro-
priateness of such a plan in a situation where there are questions as to the
importance of beans and cowpeas and (2) prospects for contributions to the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan.
Given an unimpressive history and mixed views of the future, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider orderly termination of this CRSP project. If
the decision to terminate is made, consideration should be given to initiating
a farming system element in one of the on-going CRSP projects.

HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


This project is essentially the.same as the University of Puerto Rico
project in the Dominican Republic and the reported results are much the same.
There has been a succession of Principal Investigators in Honduras. The
present one is a Colombian who has had experience with beans as a scientist
with CIAT. He has recently joined the faculty of the Escuela Agricola
Panamericana, a private, regionally supported institution which conducts the









-24-


germplasm found in the Cameroon will be valuable accessions to world collec-
tions of cowpeas held at IITA and in other gene banks, if and when collected.
In the Cameroon, the project is directed by an employee of the University
of Georgia, an expatriate scientist from Togo, who has done a fine job of
getting the project established and resolving communication and operational
difficulties. This situation--expatriate operational control--is being
gradually developed into a less dependent mode as CRSP-trained specialists
return to the Cameroon. As in the case of the Botswana project, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider actions to insure transition to a fully
collaborative mode in the next several years.


CATEGORY 4
ECUADOR/CORNELL UNIVERSITY/WALLACE


The EEP reviewed the plan for restructuring this project with the
Ecuadorian Principal Investigator and the present and future Co-US Principal
Investigators and discussed the plan in detail in executive sessions. There
were widely divergent views regarding several important issues: (1) appro-
priateness of such a plan in a situation where there are questions as to the
importance of beans and cowpeas and (2) prospects for contributions to the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan.
Given an unimpressive history and mixed views of the future, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider orderly termination of this CRSP project. If
the decision to terminate is made, consideration should be given to initiating
a farming system element in one of the on-going CRSP projects.

HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


This project is essentially the.same as the University of Puerto Rico
project in the Dominican Republic and the reported results are much the same.
There has been a succession of Principal Investigators in Honduras. The
present one is a Colombian who has had experience with beans as a scientist
with CIAT. He has recently joined the faculty of the Escuela Agricola
Panamericana, a private, regionally supported institution which conducts the









-24-


germplasm found in the Cameroon will be valuable accessions to world collec-
tions of cowpeas held at IITA and in other gene banks, if and when collected.
In the Cameroon, the project is directed by an employee of the University
of Georgia, an expatriate scientist from Togo, who has done a fine job of
getting the project established and resolving communication and operational
difficulties. This situation--expatriate operational control--is being
gradually developed into a less dependent mode as CRSP-trained specialists
return to the Cameroon. As in the case of the Botswana project, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider actions to insure transition to a fully
collaborative mode in the next several years.


CATEGORY 4
ECUADOR/CORNELL UNIVERSITY/WALLACE


The EEP reviewed the plan for restructuring this project with the
Ecuadorian Principal Investigator and the present and future Co-US Principal
Investigators and discussed the plan in detail in executive sessions. There
were widely divergent views regarding several important issues: (1) appro-
priateness of such a plan in a situation where there are questions as to the
importance of beans and cowpeas and (2) prospects for contributions to the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan.
Given an unimpressive history and mixed views of the future, the Board of
Directors may wish to consider orderly termination of this CRSP project. If
the decision to terminate is made, consideration should be given to initiating
a farming system element in one of the on-going CRSP projects.

HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/BEAVER


This project is essentially the.same as the University of Puerto Rico
project in the Dominican Republic and the reported results are much the same.
There has been a succession of Principal Investigators in Honduras. The
present one is a Colombian who has had experience with beans as a scientist
with CIAT. He has recently joined the faculty of the Escuela Agricola
Panamericana, a private, regionally supported institution which conducts the









-25-


CRSP activities in Honduras for the Ministry of Agriculture. Institutional-
ization of bean research in a Honduran national institution is not promising
under this arrangement. Further, contributions of this project to reduction
of global constraints are not evident nor in prospect.
The Board of Directors may wish to consider orderly termination of this
project, with some provision for Honduras to benefit from the Dominican
Republic/University of Puerto Rico project.


KENYA/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE/WAINES


USAID and CRSP officials requested the EEP Chair, Clarence Gray, to visit
Kenya, review CRSP activities and prospects and make recommendations as might
be appropriate. The review was conducted during the period January 6-11, 1986
and the recommendation was to effect orderly termination in FY 86. The EEP
concurs with that recommendation. The Gray report is available to CRSP
officials, cooperating institutions, the CRSP Board of Directors and USAID
officials.
Because tepary/common bean hybrids developed by Dr. Waines and his
associates show promise for improving adaptability of beans to drought, the
Board of Directors may wish to include this work in one of the other CRSP
projects if the decision to terminate is made.


1059C:skb:080586





ATTACHMENT A


BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
1985 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL SCOPE OF WORK*

The EEP 1985 review for the first time will be able to turn to the
substance of the CRSP contribution. As has been said by the chair of that
group, "building an organizational framework to conduct collaborative research
is a pre-requisite to assaulting the big picture in an institutional
context, this takes time." All agree now, however, that the building of that
framework has been largely accomplished. Evaluation of progress can now turn
to the accomplishments within the constraints identified in the global plan
which is the organizational and driving force of the program's research. The
basic question being asked is what has really been achieved in the biological
and social sciences by the CRSP to improve the production, availability and
utilization of beans and cowpeas in the poverty areas of the world.

AGENDA

I. Evaluation of State-of-the-Science Statements in Constraint Areas.

A. Scientific knowledge, understanding and research expressed by
Principal Investigators in constraint area--if completed and
proposed research is appropriate to the specific situations for
which it is being developed.

B. Collaboration and integration of the research information which is
presented within constraint area.

C. Additional literature or research analyses necessary to better
contribute to understanding improvement of production, availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas around the world.


II. Evaluation of the Projects That Make Up Constraint Area.

A. Accomplishment of approved FY 85 and five-year objectives.

B. Performance in relation to resource allocation.

C. Adequacy of institutional support and contribution.


III. Evaluation of CRSP Contributions that Address Constraint Areas.

A. Breakthroughs or expanded current technology, problems solved and
methodologies developed.

B. Collaboration among projects focusing on the global plan; extent of
duplication of contributions among projects.


*The 1985 Five-Year Review was conducted in January 1986.









-27-


C. Complementarity of work with other professional groups outside of
the CRSP.

D. Critical disciplines not included in the CRSP that would strengthen
the global plan.

IV. Evaluation of the Application and Utilization of Research in Constraint
Areas.

A. Contribution of applied research to traditional small farm
practices, including attention to roles and concerns of women in
rural and urban settings.

B. Evidence of collaboration among projects and of user participation
in planning, utilization and application of research.

C. Identification of potential economic/social impacts of applied and
basic research. Demonstration that constraints addressed are
recognized by the Host Country as constraints and that the research
will lead to applicable solutions to them.


V. Evaluation of Proposed Actions and Future Directions.

A. Appropriateness of major focus for the extension years.

B. Identification of changes needed in research program (reduced or
increased emphasis).


VI. Summary and Conclusions.

Contribution and importance of research on this constraint to the global
plan. Priority of the research in relation to other constraint research
efforts. Lessons learned in consideration of the state of the science
as well as the progress of the CRSP in the constraint area. General
recommendations.









-28-


1986 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Professor, International Extension and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Office: 9945 Great Oaks Way
Fairfax, VA 20030


Dr. Melvin Blase, Professor
Agricultural Economics
200 Mumford Hall
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, Missouri 65201



Dr. Luis H. Camacho
INTSOY Plant Breeder
Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical (CIAT)
Apartado Aereo 6713
Cali, COLOMBIA



Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
Tropical Agricultural Research
and Development Specialist
IICA
P. 0. Box 11185
Lima 14 PERU


Dr. A. Hugh Bunting, Professor
University of Reading
Q 7/8, No. 4 Earley Gate
Whiteknights Road
Reading, Berks. ENGLAND RG6 2AR



Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand, Professor
Food and Resource Economics Department
1125 McCarty Hall
Institute of Food and Ag Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Director
World Food Institute
Iowa State University
102 E. 0. Building
Ames, Iowa 50011




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs