• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Maps of Botswana
 Project title
 Roster of investigators
 Project objectives
 Changes in objectives
 Constraints to achievements
 Progress toward objectives
 Research outputs
 Training outputs
 Baseline data required and relevance...
 Women in development
 Results of field experiments
 Visitors, meetings, field days
 Professional and organizational...
 Institutional resources contributed...
 Future plans
 Articles written and paper...
 A. Report on consultancy mission...
 B. Travel Report - Visit to Botswana...
 C. Trip report - Visit to EMBRAPA,...
 D. Trip report - Visit to Centre...
 E. Report on TDY at CSU, Fort Collins...
 F. Trip Report - Visit to International...
 G. Cowpea CRSP field research program...






Group Title: Annual report, Botswana Cowpea Project
Title: Botswana Cowpea Project
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054560/00001
 Material Information
Title: Botswana Cowpea Project
Series Title: Annual report 1983/84
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Botswana Cowpea Project
Affiliation: Colorado State University -- Department of Agronomy
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University
Publication Date: 1983-1984
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Botswana
Africa
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054560
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Maps of Botswana
        Map 1
        Map 2
    Project title
        Page 1
    Roster of investigators
        Page 1
    Project objectives
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Changes in objectives
        Page 5
    Constraints to achievements
        Page 5
    Progress toward objectives
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Research outputs
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Training outputs
        Page 9
    Baseline data required and relevance to project objectives
        Page 10
    Women in development
        Page 10
    Results of field experiments
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Visitors, meetings, field days
        Page 34
    Professional and organizational linkages
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Institutional resources contributed to project
        Page 38
    Future plans
        Map 1
    Articles written and paper presented
        Page 39
    A. Report on consultancy mission to the CRSP/CSU/Botswana cowpea project by L. Jackai
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    B. Travel Report - Visit to Botswana by B. B. Singh
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    C. Trip report - Visit to EMBRAPA, Goiania, Brazil by C. J. and B. E. de Mooy
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    D. Trip report - Visit to Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques, Bambey, Senegal by C. J. de Mooy
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    E. Report on TDY at CSU, Fort Collins with Visits to University of California, Riverside, Michigan State University, East Lansing, and Kansas State University, Manhattan
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    F. Trip Report - Visit to International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria by C. J. de Mooy and K. Conniff
        Page 78
        Page 79
    G. Cowpea CRSP field research program 1984/85
        Page 80
        Page 81
Full Text



Colorado State University


Botswana Cowpea Project
Annual Report 1983/84











Department of Agronomy
Fort Collins, November 1984

















BOTSWANA COWPEA PROJECT

ANNUAL REPORT 1983/84


U.S. Lead University:

Colorado State University
Fort Collins,
Colorado 80523

in Collaborative Research Relationship with:

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management
Michigan State University
East Lansing,
Michigan 48824

Government of Botswana
Department of Agricultural Research,
Sebele

USAID/Botswana
Gaborone












Gaborone, November 1984



Prepared under support of USAID Grant AID/DSAN/XII G-0261 Michigan
State University as management entity for Colorado State University
Botswana Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Project(CRSP)










CONTENTS


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.


Appendix A.


Appendix
Appendix


Appendix D.


Appendix E.



Appendix F.


Appendix G.


Report on Consultancy Mission to the CRSP/CSU/
Botswana Cowpea Project by L. Jackai 40
Travel Report Visit to Botswana by B.B. Singh 51
Trip Report. Visit to EMBRAPA, Goiania,
Brazil by C. J. and B. E. de Mooy 63
Trip Report. Visit to Centre National de
Recherches Agronomiques, Bambey, Senegal by
C. J. de Mooy 69
Report on TDY at CSU, Fort Collins with
visits to University of California, Riverside,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, and
Kansas State University, Manhattan 75
Trip Report. Visit to International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria by
C. J. de Mooy and K. Conniff 78
Cowpea CRSP Field Research Program 1984/85 80


Project Title
Roster of Investigators
Project Objectives
Changes in Objectives
Constraints to Achievements
Progress toward Objectives
Research Outputs
Training Outputs
Baseline Data Required and Relevance to Project
Objectives
Women in Development
Results of Field Experiments
Visitors, Meetings, Field Days
Professional and Organizational Linkages
Institutional Resources Contributed to Project
Future Plans
Articles Written and Papers Presented
























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RAINFALL IN
IM Above 650
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E 500- 550
D 450- 500


MILLIMETRES
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E 350- 400
E 300- 350
ED 250-300
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By Pike 8 Hearn
UNDP/FAO 1972











BOTSWANA COWPEA PROJECT

ANNUAL REPORT

1983/84


Annual Project Report C. J. de Mooy, Team Leader
Period covered: October 1, 1983 to September 30, 1984.

I. Project Title

Development of integrated cowpea production systems in semi-arid
Botswana.

II. Roster of Investigators

The Project Roster of September, 1984 is attached. The Project
continues with a 1:1 male/female ratio of personnel actively involved
in Project activities.

III. Project Objectives

a) General

The general Project objective is to identify and improve constraints
in cowpea production which cause the traditional low yield levels

Project objectives are designed keeping in mind that:

1. Improvements must be conceived at the grass roots level to be
applicable to the farmers' conditions.

2. Recommended practices must be made specific for moisture and
other environmental conditions.

3. Proposed solutions must so completely suit the farmer that he
will be hard put not to accept the improvements.

Although not always specifically mentioned, Project objectives
are meant to lead to solutions distinguishing several
categories.

4. To address separately the needs of farmers in different
resource categories all of which belong under the heading of
small farmers.

5. To develop separate solutions for farmers using tractor versus
animal draft power.

6. To find solutions to special problems encountered by women
farmers.











BOTSWANA COWPEA PROJECT

ANNUAL REPORT

1983/84


Annual Project Report C. J. de Mooy, Team Leader
Period covered: October 1, 1983 to September 30, 1984.

I. Project Title

Development of integrated cowpea production systems in semi-arid
Botswana.

II. Roster of Investigators

The Project Roster of September, 1984 is attached. The Project
continues with a 1:1 male/female ratio of personnel actively involved
in Project activities.

III. Project Objectives

a) General

The general Project objective is to identify and improve constraints
in cowpea production which cause the traditional low yield levels

Project objectives are designed keeping in mind that:

1. Improvements must be conceived at the grass roots level to be
applicable to the farmers' conditions.

2. Recommended practices must be made specific for moisture and
other environmental conditions.

3. Proposed solutions must so completely suit the farmer that he
will be hard put not to accept the improvements.

Although not always specifically mentioned, Project objectives
are meant to lead to solutions distinguishing several
categories.

4. To address separately the needs of farmers in different
resource categories all of which belong under the heading of
small farmers.

5. To develop separate solutions for farmers using tractor versus
animal draft power.

6. To find solutions to special problems encountered by women
farmers.











BOTSWANA COWPEA PROJECT

ANNUAL REPORT

1983/84


Annual Project Report C. J. de Mooy, Team Leader
Period covered: October 1, 1983 to September 30, 1984.

I. Project Title

Development of integrated cowpea production systems in semi-arid
Botswana.

II. Roster of Investigators

The Project Roster of September, 1984 is attached. The Project
continues with a 1:1 male/female ratio of personnel actively involved
in Project activities.

III. Project Objectives

a) General

The general Project objective is to identify and improve constraints
in cowpea production which cause the traditional low yield levels

Project objectives are designed keeping in mind that:

1. Improvements must be conceived at the grass roots level to be
applicable to the farmers' conditions.

2. Recommended practices must be made specific for moisture and
other environmental conditions.

3. Proposed solutions must so completely suit the farmer that he
will be hard put not to accept the improvements.

Although not always specifically mentioned, Project objectives
are meant to lead to solutions distinguishing several
categories.

4. To address separately the needs of farmers in different
resource categories all of which belong under the heading of
small farmers.

5. To develop separate solutions for farmers using tractor versus
animal draft power.

6. To find solutions to special problems encountered by women
farmers.





-2-


September 1984


PROJECT ROSTER

Botswana/Colorado State Univ./deMooy
(Country/U.S. Lead University/P.I.)


Researchers
Name
U.S. at U.S. Institutions
Dr. Don R. Wood

Ms. Barbara deMooy

Ms. Maxine Tamlin


Percent
on CRSP Institution

10% CSU

50% MSU

10% CSU


Telephone/
Telex No.

(303)-491-6501

(517)-353-3711

(303)-491-5615


Role

On-campus
representative
Graduate student

Clerical


H.C. researchers participants trainees resident at U.S. institutions

Mr. Peter Montshiwa M 50% CSU Graduate student
at CSU
Ms. Mmasera Manthe F 50% CSU Graduate student
at CSU

Host Country Researchers
Dr. D. Gollifer M 0% DAR, Gaborone 53281 ext.254 Co-P.I.
(temporary)
Position Vacant 25% DAR, Gaborone Co-investigators:
Entomology
Position Vacant 25% DAR, Gaborone Plant Patholoov

Ms. Mmasera Manthe F 100% DAR, Gaborone (until 7/84) Asst. Research.Officer
Mr. Efedile Mosarwe M 100% DAR, Gaborone Technician
Mr. Thuso Nkago M 100% DAR, Gaborone Technician

U.S. researchers resident in host country
Dr. C.J. deMooy M 100% CSU Tel: 53294 Team Leader
Ms. Karen Conniff F 75% CSU Telex2336 Grad. student,CSU
SAID BD
Ms. Julie Concannon F 100% Peace Corps Volunteer
assigned to CRSP

Institutional Project Administrators
U.S. Program Administrator:- Dr. Wayne Keim, Head, Department of Agronomy, CSU,
Fort Collins, Co.
H.C. Program Administrator:- Dr. David Gollifer, Director, Department of Agricultural
Research, P.O. Box 033, Gaborone, Botswana
USAID Mission Contact Personnel:- Dr. Anita Mackie, Agricultural Development Officer,
Gaborone/ID,
Department of State,
Washington, D.C. 20520










LOG FRAME COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY BOTSWANA
1983/4


Narrative Summary


Program or Sector Goals:
Increase in yield per ha and yield
stability of cowpeas under specific
semi-arid conditions







Increased returns in rnwpea production
per unit of labor and/or financial input
on sample farms.



Project Purpose:
1. Identification of constraints in cowpea
production process stemming from a combi-
nation of: tillage/cultivation, planting,
spacing, and intercropping practices,
choice of variety, draft power supply,
insect and disease infestation, harvesting,
threshing, storage, labor or other resource
input factors.
2. Finding solutions for constraints.
3. Testing of solutions for acceptability
in farmers' fields.
4. Institutionalization of research
techniques and capacity


Objectively Verifiable
Indicators
Measures of Achievement:
Yields consistently in
excess of base line
survey records.







Greater production per
farm family unit compa-
red with previous stat-
istical records


Conditions Indicating
Project Achievement:
Packages of improved
cultural practices adapt-
ted to specific sets of
environmental or socio-
economic conditions.


Acceptance of project
recommendations by more
than one-half of the
farmers in sample having
identified constraints.


Means of Verification


Means of field trials for
certain regions under
various seasonal conditions
compared with standard
varieties and traditional
production methods.




Socio-economic data recorded
for cooperating farmers in
field trials.


Results of experiments.
Published reports






Survey of rate of accept-
ance of recommended
practices by cooperating
farmers and their neigh-
bors.


Assumptions


Assumptions for Goal Achievement:
Minimum of 3 years of project
operation
Continuing field support from
DAR and SAID.
Suffient level of interestfrom
GOB Agricultural Field
Services personnel in various
regions of the country.
Base line survey data exist or
will be made available.
Small farmers willing to follow
up on agricultural extension
recommendations and interested
in progressinQ beyond minimum
subsistence production.


Assumptions for Project
Achievement:
Continuation of H.C. administra-
tive and technical support





Continued interest of farmers
to cooperate with project.
Participation of Agricultural
Field Services regional staff
and Farming Systems groups.


Project Outputs:
1. Selection of HYV from local and internat-
ional germplasm collection and trials;
better adapted varieties than those
presently grown.


Magnitude of Outputs:
Number of varieties
identified, quantities
of seed produced.


Consistent superior perform- Output Assumptions:
ance of introduced varieties Continued cooperation with
in regional field trials. IITA and SAFGRAD Research
Amount of seed produced by Centers.
Seed Multiplication Unit.


__







LOG FRAME (continued)
Objectively Verifiable
Narrative Summary Indicators


Means of Verification


Assumptions


2. Packages of cultural practices for higher
production/ha, and yield stability through
better stands, insect and weed control and
other cultural practices for specific envi-
ronments, socio-economic resource levels,
and type of draft power availability.
3. Faster methods of harvesting, threshing,
and winnowing with greater returns per
unit labor.

4. Training of H.C. research personnel
at MS degree level at U.S. university
for cowpea research career.


Variety of situations
covered by improved
practices adequate to
make substantial prog-
ress over current
status.
Economic returns.



Number of H.C. person-
nel trained and remain-
ing involved in cowpea
research.


Measured and recorded obser-
vations in field trials on
Agricultural Research Stat-
ion, Outlying Research
Farms, and privately owned
farms.
Recorded comparisons of
harvesting, threshing, and
winnowing labor and time,
using hand labor or machine.
Same


Cooperation with EFSAIP in
development of appropriate
tillage/planting implements.
Appointment of active cowpea
researcher as H.C. profess-
ional counterpart.
Presence of suitable cowpea
lines in germplasm collection.


H.C. students capable of
fulfilling academic require-
ments at U.S. university


Project Inputs
1. CSU research personnel in H.C: Current project roster
U.S. Project Leader, 2 graduate students for personnel involve-
on continuing basis, 1 P.C. volunteer ment.
agronomist. Availability of input
2. CSU personnel on campus: resources recorded in
Program administrator and part-time progress reports.
technical backstop.
3. H.C. research personnel:
H.C. Project Leader, 2 graduate students
on continuing basis,2 Technical Assistants,
1/4 time R.O. in entomology and two 1/4
time assistants, 1/4 time R.O. in phytop-
athology and two 1/4 time assistants,
clerical support and supplies.
4. H.C. administrative support:
Program administrator.
5. DAR office/laboratnry facilities,
suitable land & research facilities,
equipment and materials, vehicle for
official transportation.


Project files containing
progress reports, annual
reports, official corres-
pondence and memo's, project
expense accounting


The negotiated project
input resources to be
sustained throughout life
of project.
All positions on the project
filled within reasonable time.


_ ___ _~_ I~_~ I~










b) Specific Objectives

1. Tillage/planting practices to devise a set of tillage/planting
practices whereby planting of cowpeas can begin immediately at the
start of the rainy season.

2. Tillage and moisture conservation to evaluate merits of reduced
tillage with simple tools especially for sandy, non-compacting
soils.

3. Variety testing to initiate a continuing variety screening pro-
gram involving local germplasm as well as exotic lines.

4. Cultural practices to undertake field research for improvement
of cultural practices under specific sets of conditions.

5. Harvesting techniques to combine whole-plant harvesting techni-
ques with a search for suitable varieties and machine threshing for
greater returns on labor.

6. Alectra vogelii to incorporate resistance to A. vogelii into cow-
pea varieties once the trait is found by screening of cultivars
by EFSAIP.

7. Demonstration plots to test research findings in farmers' fields
with and without subsidized inputs.

8. Self-evaluation to arrange self-evaluation meetings for the pur-
pose of soliciting suggestions and opinions from peers.

IV. Changes in Objectives

The objectives as listed in the Project Paper remained appropriate.

V. Constraints to achievement of Objectives

Most of the constraints reported after the previous year has been corrected
by DAR management. An additional field technician was appointed.

Seed multiplication facilities which were lacking last year are much improved
by allocation of 2 hectares of irrigable land to the Project. Irrigation
facilities were newly installed during July/August, 1984. Transportation
remains a problem. The Department of Agricultural Research provides official
vehicles whenever possible on a day-to-day basis. The Project should have
two vehicles of its own. It is difficult to understand how a field project
with experiments scattered over 1000 km radius and 7 researchers active in
the field can be refused authorization to purchase even its first vehicle.

VI. Progress toward Project Objectives

The main objective for the second year of Project operations was to
expand field experimentation to the full scope of the program described in
the Project Paper.










b) Specific Objectives

1. Tillage/planting practices to devise a set of tillage/planting
practices whereby planting of cowpeas can begin immediately at the
start of the rainy season.

2. Tillage and moisture conservation to evaluate merits of reduced
tillage with simple tools especially for sandy, non-compacting
soils.

3. Variety testing to initiate a continuing variety screening pro-
gram involving local germplasm as well as exotic lines.

4. Cultural practices to undertake field research for improvement
of cultural practices under specific sets of conditions.

5. Harvesting techniques to combine whole-plant harvesting techni-
ques with a search for suitable varieties and machine threshing for
greater returns on labor.

6. Alectra vogelii to incorporate resistance to A. vogelii into cow-
pea varieties once the trait is found by screening of cultivars
by EFSAIP.

7. Demonstration plots to test research findings in farmers' fields
with and without subsidized inputs.

8. Self-evaluation to arrange self-evaluation meetings for the pur-
pose of soliciting suggestions and opinions from peers.

IV. Changes in Objectives

The objectives as listed in the Project Paper remained appropriate.

V. Constraints to achievement of Objectives

Most of the constraints reported after the previous year has been corrected
by DAR management. An additional field technician was appointed.

Seed multiplication facilities which were lacking last year are much improved
by allocation of 2 hectares of irrigable land to the Project. Irrigation
facilities were newly installed during July/August, 1984. Transportation
remains a problem. The Department of Agricultural Research provides official
vehicles whenever possible on a day-to-day basis. The Project should have
two vehicles of its own. It is difficult to understand how a field project
with experiments scattered over 1000 km radius and 7 researchers active in
the field can be refused authorization to purchase even its first vehicle.

VI. Progress toward Project Objectives

The main objective for the second year of Project operations was to
expand field experimentation to the full scope of the program described in
the Project Paper.










b) Specific Objectives

1. Tillage/planting practices to devise a set of tillage/planting
practices whereby planting of cowpeas can begin immediately at the
start of the rainy season.

2. Tillage and moisture conservation to evaluate merits of reduced
tillage with simple tools especially for sandy, non-compacting
soils.

3. Variety testing to initiate a continuing variety screening pro-
gram involving local germplasm as well as exotic lines.

4. Cultural practices to undertake field research for improvement
of cultural practices under specific sets of conditions.

5. Harvesting techniques to combine whole-plant harvesting techni-
ques with a search for suitable varieties and machine threshing for
greater returns on labor.

6. Alectra vogelii to incorporate resistance to A. vogelii into cow-
pea varieties once the trait is found by screening of cultivars
by EFSAIP.

7. Demonstration plots to test research findings in farmers' fields
with and without subsidized inputs.

8. Self-evaluation to arrange self-evaluation meetings for the pur-
pose of soliciting suggestions and opinions from peers.

IV. Changes in Objectives

The objectives as listed in the Project Paper remained appropriate.

V. Constraints to achievement of Objectives

Most of the constraints reported after the previous year has been corrected
by DAR management. An additional field technician was appointed.

Seed multiplication facilities which were lacking last year are much improved
by allocation of 2 hectares of irrigable land to the Project. Irrigation
facilities were newly installed during July/August, 1984. Transportation
remains a problem. The Department of Agricultural Research provides official
vehicles whenever possible on a day-to-day basis. The Project should have
two vehicles of its own. It is difficult to understand how a field project
with experiments scattered over 1000 km radius and 7 researchers active in
the field can be refused authorization to purchase even its first vehicle.

VI. Progress toward Project Objectives

The main objective for the second year of Project operations was to
expand field experimentation to the full scope of the program described in
the Project Paper.










1. Tillage/planting practices Evaluation of the ridgeshaper/planter and
cultivator/planter by joint efforts of EFSAIP and the Cowpea CRSP
indicated that good crop stands can be obtained with minimal draft power.
The reduced draft power requirements enable farmers to begin planting
sooner after the start of the rainy season. Ten more ridgeshapers/
planters have been produced in local workshops and are ready for
testing on a wider scale.

2. Tillage and moisture conservation The cultivator/planter proved
suitable for once-over tillage and planting on certain soils.
Evaluation of moisture conservation risk of compaction and the types
of soil for which the implement can be recommended must be continued
at several locations over several years.

3. Variety testing Screening of local germplasm and exotic lines received
high priority. Replicated trials were conducted at 5 locations
(see Research Output).

4. Cultural practices Moldboard plowing and use of a row planter with
a tractor was compared with a plowplanter using 6 oxen, cultivator/
planter with 2 oxen, and cultivator followed by ridgeshaper/planter.
The seasonal conditions were not conducive to the test as no rainfall
occurred after the date of planting. Two trials involving 3 dates of
planting could not be interpreted due to the fact that only one suit-
able planting period occurred during the season. It was shown that
thrips pose no economic threat in drought years. Minimum row spacing
in drought years is 100 cm. Mulching reduced flower bud abscission,
reduced maximum soil temperatures, increased available soil moisture
and improved plant growth.

5. Harvesting Techniques No data could be obtained since none of the
cooperating farmers in the region had sufficient harvest to make any
comparisons or warrant the use of a machine.

6. Alectra vogelii Research on this parasitic weed was conducted by
EFSAIP. No Cowpea CRSP activity was needed.

7. Tests in farmers' fields This new program was launched with collabor-
ation from the Government Extension Service (DAFS) and several farming
systems groups in the country. The trials conducted (variety/spraying
tests) were based on several findings of the previous year and turned
out to be a success. Thirty Extension Officers participated and more
than 45 have expressed interest for next year.

8. Self-evaluating meetings Three self-evaluation meetings were held
with Crop Production Officers, ALDEP Managers and Extension Officers.
Each time, suggestions were made for further expansion of the range of
topics covered in collaborative field experiments. This was considered
in the design of experiments for the following year to the extent
possible.









VII. Research Outputs

a) Thrust of current research effort

The most urgent need of cowpea farmers in Botswana and surrounding
regions with similar extreme climatic conditions is new varieties
which are capable of flowering and producing grain in as short a
period of time as possible during which drought stress is broken by
occasional rains at unpredictable intervals. Additional requirements
of these varieties are a high degree of resistance to disease and
insect pests and high yielding ability, among many other desirable
qualities, one of which is the capacity to recover from serious
desiccation damage. This leads to high priority for what may be
termed the fast approach in variety development.

1. The fast approach

After identification of the variety ER7 as a temporary solution
to the problem, the focus of attention has been on even better
cowpea lines. The method followed was continued exposure of all
promising materials to the variable ecological conditions of
Botswana.

Progress in canopy development and flowering were recorded. Some
lines managed to set pods and produce grain whereas most others
succumbed to environmental stress. Forty varieties were selected
for continued screening from more than 100 foreign accessions
studied in the first year. These 40 varieties were narrowed down
to 24 during 1984. Approximately 75 new accessions from IITA and
SAFGRAD were added for screening during the past year. Twenty
three of these lines were selected for continued screening. It is
anticipated that 2 or 3 out of the total of 47 varieties will be
selected next year for seed multiplication and nationwide testing.

2. The long-term approach

The long-term approach began with local germplasm collection and
evaluation in the field to be followed by breeding to incorporate
missing traits into otherwise promising material. In anticipation
of the Cowpea Project's expansion into crop breeding activities,
cowpea breeders from IITA and SAFGRAD assisted with crosses between
3 or 4 local cultivars which displayed vigorous growth under drought
conditions, desirable plant type, high yielding ability, and absence
of virus disease symptoms, and exotic varieties having very early
maturity and very high yielding capacity in their regions of origin.
ER7 was one of these exotic varieties. F2 and F3 materials derived
from the crosses were made during 1983 and are now available for
testing in Botswana. A consulting entomologist and a breeder/
pathologist were appointed during 1984 to help accelerate development
of local-base cowpea varieties.

3. Botswana germplasm collection and evaluation

The germplasm collection grew to just under 700 accessions, 246 of
which were grown and evaluated in the field during the year. Another
24 lines, for which only a few seeds were available, first had to be
increased in the greenhouse. Owing to drought complete information










was recorded on only 157 cultivars. These were classified using
52 descriptors as had been done in the previous year. The results
are reported in the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue, Vol. 2,
published by the Ministry of Agriculture. This activity supports the
national as well as the international breeding programs. It should
be realized that changing weather conditions from season to season
will affect comparisons between cultivars catalogued in 1983 (Vol. 1)
and those described in 1984 (Vol. 2).

4. Search for aphid resistance in local germplasm

One hundred and sixty eight cultivars from the germplasm collection
were grown in the greenhouse, inoculated with aphids and evaluated
for resistance. The search was successful. Four cultivars proved
highly resistant to aphids in two separate, replicated trials. The
cultivars were B031, a brown-seeded variety; B037, white-seeded
with brown eye; B142, brown-seeded with black eye; and B232,
cream coloured with brown eye. All four cultivars are described
in the Cowpea Catalogue. This activity was conducted in support of
of the local and foreign cowpea breeding programs.

5. Evaluation of percentage natural outcrossing

The percentage outcrossing was evaluated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm
plant spacing of two cowpea varieties, a white-seeded and a black-
seeded one, in a replicated experiment with and without the natural
insect population. The outcome will become known when the collected
seed of the white-seeded variety is planted next season.

6. Determination of cause of excessive shedding of flowers in cowpeas

Nearly complete shedding of flowers and buds during bloom results in
crop failure. The known causes of abnormally high flower drops are
thrips and drought. An experiment was conducted with three soil
moisture levels, each with and without the presence of thrips to
determine the contribution from each cause. It was found that the
cause of excessive flower-drop was overwhelmingly due to drought
stress. This will shift research emphasis from thrip control to
varieties and breeding.

7. Search for appropriate cultural practices

Cultural practices concerning tillage, planting methods, time of
planting, draft animal requirements, weeding and harvesting deserve
attention besides the problems of varieties and breeding. Two
implements were designed for planting with reduced draft animal
requirements; one was produced by the Cowpea Project and the other
by the Agricultural Engineering Section of DAR. Both offer
opportunities for minimum tillage practices. Their range of
application needs to be delineated.

8. Collaborative program with the Department of Agricultural Field
Services

A collaborative program was set up for widely testing of CRSP









research findings by Agricultural Extension Officers (DAFS)
in farmers' fields. Evaluation of the materials and practices
involved by the Extension Officers and feedback from cooperating
farmers served to suggest directives for research priorities,
provide further improvement of techniques, acquaint the DAFS
with Cowpea CRSP activities, and distribute small amounts of seed
and equipment to the farmers.

b) Technology for immediate use

1. The cowpea variety ER7 originating from Nigeria (IITA) which was
officially released in Botswana last year, proved to be in high
demand by the farmers. Since no supply of seed was available for
distribution, access to ER7 by farmers in 1983 was limited to
contacts with the Cowpea CRSP and the Department of Agricultural
Field Services (Extension Service) conducting collaborative field
trials in farmers' fields. None of the cooperating farmers who
had received ER7 seed was found prepared to sell some of their
ER7 grain harvest to the Project. This is indicative of fast
acceptance of the new technology. During 1984, the Seed Multiplication
Unit of the DAR managed to produce 18 tons of ER7 all of which was
distributed to the farmers.

2. The Botswana Cowpea Gerplasm Catalogue, Volume 1, appeared in print
during January, 1984. The local germplasm collection program was
continued and the results summarized in Volume 2 of the Botswana
Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue, which was published in September, 1984.
Copies are available fromthe Director, Department of Agricultural
Research, Private Bag 0033, Gaborone.

c) Technology for use in 1 2 years
1. Two minimum tillage planters are in the testing stage in collaboration
with the Agricultural Engineering Section of DAR: a cultivator/
planter built by DAR and a ridgeshaper/planter produced by the
Cowpea Project.

2. Two or three cowpea varieties capable of producing seed under the
harsh ecological conditions of Botswana may be expected to result
from the ongoing field screening program involving more than 200
exotic varieties introduced from IITA in Nigeria and SAFGRAD in
Bourkina Faso.

VIII. Training Outputs

a) Host Country

1. Ms. Mmasera E. Manthe commenced academic course work leading to the
MS degree at Colorado State University and will continue thesis
research at Sebele upon return to Botswana in September, 1985.

2. Mr. Peter Montshiwa commenced academic course work leading to the MS
degree at Colorado State University in January 1984 and will return
to Botswana in December 1984 for thesis research at Sebele.






-10-


3. Short-term, non-degree training at IITA, Nigeria, was offered to
Mr. Efedile Mosarwe, holder of a 4-year diploma in Agriculture
from Botswana Agricultural College, who is technical officer with
the Botswana Cowpea Project, and Mr. M. Shubo, holder of an
agricultural certificate from BAC, who is part-time assigned
to the Cowpea Project in the Maun region. Both received 2 months
training in all aspects of cowpea field research and breeding at
IITA.

b) U.S.

1. Ms. Karen Conniff completed academic course work and preliminary
exam for the Ph.D. degree at Colorado State and was transferred to
Botswana for dissertation research in September 1984.

2. Ms. Barbara de Mooy completed thesis research for a MS degree,
followed by a year of regular project research in Botswana as a
research associate and was transferred to Michigan State University
in August 1984 for fulfillment of academic requirements for the
degree.

IX. Baseline data required and relevance to Project objectives

ATIP conducted cowpea baseline surveys in the Francistown and Mahalapye
areas. The Francistown survey dealt with cowpea cultivation and utilization
practices in the Tutume District. A total of 275 households were inter-
viewed. The Mahalapye survey was administered to 49 ATIP farmers in the
Shoshong and Makwate areas.

The cowpea CRSP administered a woman farmers' survey to 170 households
throughout the Eastern provinces. Very useful data were gathered by each
survey on traditional cultivation practices, insect infestation, constraints
to increased production, varietal preferences for consumption, outlets
for selling grain, utilization of residues for grazing.

It appeared that drought and lack of seed were the main constraints to
increased production. Surprising was that none of the survey assigned
great importance to tillage and harvesting problems. Even the women
farmers did not emphasize tillage operations and implements or harvesting as
constraints.

Interpretation of the surveys has not been completed. Relevance of the
findings to Project Objectives should be the subject of several meetings
with ATIP and Extension Service (DAFS) personnel.

X. Women in Development

a) U.S. Two out of four researchers resident in H.C. were women. Both
of them were simultaneously involved in training under supervision of the
Team Leader.

b) H.C. One of the two Assistant Research Officers assigned to the
Project was a woman. Besides conducting research, she received MS
degree training. She will play an important role in research policy
of the Project in a few years.






-10-


3. Short-term, non-degree training at IITA, Nigeria, was offered to
Mr. Efedile Mosarwe, holder of a 4-year diploma in Agriculture
from Botswana Agricultural College, who is technical officer with
the Botswana Cowpea Project, and Mr. M. Shubo, holder of an
agricultural certificate from BAC, who is part-time assigned
to the Cowpea Project in the Maun region. Both received 2 months
training in all aspects of cowpea field research and breeding at
IITA.

b) U.S.

1. Ms. Karen Conniff completed academic course work and preliminary
exam for the Ph.D. degree at Colorado State and was transferred to
Botswana for dissertation research in September 1984.

2. Ms. Barbara de Mooy completed thesis research for a MS degree,
followed by a year of regular project research in Botswana as a
research associate and was transferred to Michigan State University
in August 1984 for fulfillment of academic requirements for the
degree.

IX. Baseline data required and relevance to Project objectives

ATIP conducted cowpea baseline surveys in the Francistown and Mahalapye
areas. The Francistown survey dealt with cowpea cultivation and utilization
practices in the Tutume District. A total of 275 households were inter-
viewed. The Mahalapye survey was administered to 49 ATIP farmers in the
Shoshong and Makwate areas.

The cowpea CRSP administered a woman farmers' survey to 170 households
throughout the Eastern provinces. Very useful data were gathered by each
survey on traditional cultivation practices, insect infestation, constraints
to increased production, varietal preferences for consumption, outlets
for selling grain, utilization of residues for grazing.

It appeared that drought and lack of seed were the main constraints to
increased production. Surprising was that none of the survey assigned
great importance to tillage and harvesting problems. Even the women
farmers did not emphasize tillage operations and implements or harvesting as
constraints.

Interpretation of the surveys has not been completed. Relevance of the
findings to Project Objectives should be the subject of several meetings
with ATIP and Extension Service (DAFS) personnel.

X. Women in Development

a) U.S. Two out of four researchers resident in H.C. were women. Both
of them were simultaneously involved in training under supervision of the
Team Leader.

b) H.C. One of the two Assistant Research Officers assigned to the
Project was a woman. Besides conducting research, she received MS
degree training. She will play an important role in research policy
of the Project in a few years.






-11-


Project Impact of women's roles in agriculture is evaluated in Women
Farmers' Survey conducted by CRSP and bound to be significant
because most cowpea farmers are women.

XI. Results of Field Experiments

Emphasis of the program on evaluation of foreign and local germplasm is
expressed in the number of trials dealing with the subject (Experiments 1,
2, 3, 5 and 12).

The soil used was a hard-setting, medium-grained sandy loam with surface
crust upon drying after rainfall. Most of the field had a soil pH = 4.3
to 4.5, in places up to 6.0. The soil phosphorus content (Bray & Kurtz
No. 2) ranged from 35 to 55 ppm, indicating adequate available phosphorus.
Exchange capacity of the soil was small, averaging 4 m.e./100 g soil,
approximately one-half of which was occupied by Ca++. Available K+ content
averaged 0.4 m.e/100 g soil.

The field experiments were conducted by the entire group of field staff
in close cooperationincluding the managers of outlying experimental farms.
The name of the person assuming responsibility for most of the field work
is shown under the heading of each experiment.

Experiment 1. Variety evaluation.

Ms. Julie Concannon

Forty cowpea varieties selected on the basis of performance in Botswana
during the previous year were planted at Sebele on November 22, 1983,in
four-row plots in randomized block design with four replications. The
plots were harvested repeatedly. The final harvest-was done on May 28.
Accessions from IITA, SAFGRAD, USA, and local origin were included.
Extreme drought affected growth, flowering, and grain production (Figure 1).
Replication 1 was excluded from yield calculations owing to generally
poor performance of all varieties which seemed related to poor moisture
penetration into the soil. The yield data, ranking from high to low,
are presented in Table 1. Although the statistics have not been determined,
the reliability of yield testing under the extreme weather conditions is
questionable. However, the stress applied to the plants remains a real
factor. Varieties which consistently succeeded in flowering, pod setting
and producing at least some mature seed were clearly better adapted to
the prevailing climatic conditions than those which failed to reproduce.

It is interesting to note that generally accepted indicators of performance
such as number of days to 50% flowering and number ofdays to 95% maturity
lost their significance under the conditions. The majority of plants may
never flower as the buds keep falling. The criterion of 50% flowering
is based on visual observation. Flowers appearing on the first few plants
were often shedded before other plants produced flowers, resulting in
spurious flowering scores. It is proposed that time of flowering under
extreme drought conditions be judged from the number of "bald heads"
or peduncles from which flower buds have dropped in addition to visible
flowers. However, the observation will be laborious because bare peduncles
frequently are not elongated.








-12-


I
I
/
I

I
I
I
I
/
I
I


I'
I'\
'I
I


I


1983/84
1976/83


Total 1983/84:258mm


J A S 0 N D J F M


Figure 1. Monthly rainfall distribution,Sebele


t\


Months







-13-


Table 1. Mean yield of selected cowpea varieties at.
Sebele (Kg/ha) = 1983/84


Rank Variety Yield Days to
n y (g/plot) 1st flower
1 TVx1999-01F 197.8 53.8
2 IAR355 184.3 45.3
3 IT81D-1137 149.6 54.5
4 Vita 7 136.8 50.5
5 VegeIT1228-15 106.8 52.0
6 TVx3236-01G 106.3 50.5
7 59-9 100.0 54.3
8 Vita 6 96.2 50.5
9 IT82-9 80.5 43.5
10 Blackeye 76.9 45.7
11 Vita 9 75.9 55.8
12 IT82E-17 64.3 53.2
13 IT82E-8 58.6 46.5
14 IT81D-1051 54.0 46.8
15 TVx1836-013J 48.5 50.5
16. TVx4262-09D 41.6 46.0
17 KN-1 40.1 56.0
18 TVx3671-14C-01D 38.8 45.0
19 VegeIT1228-14 37.2 58.0
20 IT82E-61 30.9 43.5
21 Vita 4 30.1 48.2
22 Queen Anne 28.4 43.0
23 TVx2724-01F 28.1 51.0
24 Kpodiguegue 27.0 49.5
25 TVx3871-02F 25.1 45.5
26 TVx3627-012F 23.3 49.5
27 TVx4661-07D 22.5 60.7
28 IT82E-49 20.2 43.7
29 IT82E-58 18.7 45.5
30 TVx3236 17.9 56.2
31 Vita 5 17.3 51.5
32 IT82E-13 15.8 50.0
33 TVx1948-01F 9.7 64.0
34 N'Diambour 8.8 50.0
35 VegeIT1228-10 5.9 50.5
36 Vita 8 5.6 56.8
37 IT82E-16 5.5 45.5
38 VegeFARV-13 0 67.0
39 IT81D-990 100.0
40 ---



Number of days to 95% maturity becomes meaningless when the period of
appearance and maturation of pods is .prolonged over most of the growing
season. It is suggested that the time of appearance of the first few mature
pods is a better evaluation of the genetic potential for maturity date than 95%
maturity under drought conditions.

Other criteria which are generally considered as characteristic for a
variety also broke down. Normally determinate varieties may produce new
vegetative growth after breaking of a drought which had prevented bloom
and pod set. Sixty day varieties may then take 90-100 days to maturity
with some plants maturing at 60 days.






-14-


Experiment 2. Evaluation of local cowpea germplasm

Ms. Barbara E. de Mooy

Seed from 249 accessions from the Botswana germplasm collection were planted
in single row plots of 5 m length in the field at Sebele. Another 24
lines for which only a few seeds were available were grown in pots in the
screenhouse. Information was collected on 157 lines only owing to drought
effects. The cultivars grown in field plots were classified using 52
descriptors as had been done with 180 other local, cultivars in-the previous
year. The results are reported in the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalog,
Vol. 2, which was published by the Ministry of Agriculture and is available
upon request from the Director, Agricultural Research, P/Bag 0033, Gaborone.
It should be realized that the weather conditions which varied from season
to season would affect comparisons between cultivars catalogued in 1983
(Vol. 1) and those described in 1984 (Vol. 2).

Experiment 3. Evaluation of cowpea materials supplied by IITA.

Seed from advanced and preliminary trials obtained from IITA and vegetable
cowpea varieties also introduced from IITA, Nigeria, was evaluated at a
number of locations in Botswana in four-row plots laid out in randomized
block design with four replications.

3a. Advanced trial No. 1

Mr. J. Motlhatlhedi

The trial consisted of 20 lines including 2 standard varieties,
TVx3236 and TVx1948-01F. The trial was planted at Goodhope in
November, 1983, and harvested on March 2 and 23, 1984. The rainfall
distribution is shown in Figure 2. The growth of most varieties was
halted at the flower bud stage by the drought conditions and they
remained at that stage for a long time. Approximately one quarter
of the plots produced no grain. Some varieties, e.g. IT81D-1186-69
dried up completely whereas others formed a few pods. The grain
yield ranged from 502/kg/ha to zero with the standard varieties
ranking 6th and 7th. The best two varieties yielded approximately
twice as much as the standard varieties TVx3236 and TVx1948-01F
which are considered good producers, and also remained free from
mosaic virus symptoms (Table 2). IT82D-709 is also moderately
resistant to bruchid and thrips.

3b. Advanced trial No. 2.

Mr. M. Shubo

The trial consisted of 17 lines with mostly rough seed coat and
brown or white medium to large seed. Three TVx3236 isolations served
as standard varieties. The trial was planted at Motopi on December 7,
1983, and harvested on March 5 and 30, 1984. The yields obtained,
crop stands and flowering characteristics are shown in Table 3 and
the rainfall distribution in Figure 3.









-15-


Total 1983/84: 302mm


3 A S 0 N D J F M A M J
Months

Figure 2. Monthly rainfall distribution, Goodhope 1983/84




-16-


Table 2. Mean yield of introduced cowpea lines (kg/ha),
final crop stands (1000/ha) and disease symptoms,
IITA Advanced Trial No. 1, Goodhope, 1983/84.


Yield Final Disease
Rank Variety (kg/ha) stand symptoms

1 IT82D-709 502.9 48.3
2 IT81D-93 371.6 46
3 IT81D-1063 323.8 46 mosaic
4 IT81D-1065 319.3 35 mosaic
5 IT81D-1137 304.0 65 mosaic
6 TVx3236 243.6 46 mosaic
7 TVx1948-01F 201.8 60 mosaic
8 IT81D-1148 197.1 55 mosaic
9 IT81D-1046 156.4 45 mosaic
10 IT81D-1054 156.2 40 mosaic
11 IT81D-1039 145.1 50
12 IT81D-1175-17 136.9 60
13 IT81D-105 95.3 42
14 IT81D-1061 91.8 35 --
15 IT81D-1011 60.7 38 mosaic
16 IT81D-1178-31 43.3 51
17 IT81D-1184-64 39.8 50
18 IT81D-1202-155 19.6 56
19 IT81D-1202-154 16.9 55
20 IT81D-1186-69 0 35


Table 3. Mean yield (kg/ha), stand (1000/ha),
characteristics of introduced cowpea lines, IITA
No. 2, Motopi 1983/84


and flowering
Advanced Trial


Number Number
RYield Stand of days of nodes
Rank Variety to 50% at
Emergence Final to 50% at
emergence nal flowering flowering
1 IT81D-1223-42 342.2 48 43 50 5.3
2 IT81D-1206-179 262.9 53 30 53 4.3
3 IT81D-1189-81 260.0 51 40 51 4.4
4 IT82D-952 254.7 60 43 49 5.1
5 TVx3236-5-2 221.3 45 40 44 5.7
6 IT82D-716 203.8 48 36 50 4.0
7 IT81D-1223-72 195.6 46 31 52 4.0
8 TVx4659-03E 189.1 53 40 64 6.6
9 T81D-975 182.0 50 25 47 5.0
10 TVx3236 179.6 45 30 51 3.9
11 IT81D-1137 179.6 58 40 55 5.0
12 IT81D-981 149.6 50 35 82 5.5
13 IT81D-832 143.3 45 26 89 5.2
14 IT81D-898 129.1 55 41 63 5.8
15 IT81D-958 118.0 48 26 62 4.0
16 TVx3236-6-1 114.7 46 33 51 4.7
17 IT81D-897 109.6 53 43 64 5.1
18 IT81D-791 108.0 45 33 73 5.4
19 IT81D-951 .85.3 50 36 71 6.0
20 IT81D-795 55.:6 51 30 69 6.3

C.V.(%) 60.7 16.5 29.1 14.2 15.4































Total 1983/84: 259mm


J A S 0 N D J


M A M J


Months


Figure 3. Monthly rainfall distribution, Motopi 1983/84


-17-


E


E 4(
-
(t3






-18-


3c. Preliminary trial No. 1

Mr. M. Otlhogile

The trial consisted of 19 extra-early, brown-seeded cowpea lines
with TVx3236-01G as standard variety. The trial was planted at
Mahalapye on November 25, 1983, and harvested from January 21
until May 23, 1984. Most varieties suffered severely from the drought
(Figure 4) One line performed relatively well throughout the season
and later produced the top yield, IT82D-714. An interesting
observation which was brought about by sudden break of the drought
stress by heavy rains was that many varieties proved capable of
producing a second flush of vegetative growth and bloom. This is
remarkable because most were considered determinate lines which
commonly do not revert to vegetative growth after proceeding with
generative growth processes and variable degree of dying back.
The regeneration was quite impressive in some instances.

Totally dried up above-ground parts are commonly assumed to mark
the end of the growing period. Some varieties, however, demonstrated
the ability to reproduce green shoots from the base of the stem after
breaking of the drought. This phenomenon was coined "life after
death" and must be considered a highly desirable characteristic
for drought survival (IT82D-755). This trait can probably be
observed only rarely under natural conditions. Testing could be
arranged by imposing a certain degree of drought stress followed
by relief at a specific stage of development. In the experiment
under discussion the rain arrived too late for some varieties
which died (IT82D-636 and 669) and for others which produced
new shoots but failed to reproduce (IT82D-755).

The yield data obtained are presented in Table 4. Six lines produced
more grain than the standard variety TVx3236-01G. Those varieties
which produced a second flush of growth after breaking of the drought
are indicated in the table.

3d. Preliminary trial No. 2.

Mr. B. Samunzala

Most lines in this trial mature in less than 60 days when grown in
humid tropical areas. The trial was planted at Moshu on December 23,
1983, and harvested on February 27, March 21 and April 9, 1984. The
rainfall distribution is presented in Figure 5. None of the lines
showed considerable sensitivity to.photo-period and they matured
in 60 to 70 days. The yield performance is recorded in Table 5.
Three varieties, IT82D-881, 888, and 880 yielded somewhat higher
than the standard variety TVx3236-01G. The variety IT82D-888,
especially, showed unusual resistance to drought in the vegetative
stage.





T 256mm

-19-




180
Total 1983/84: 508mm



160




140




120




100,





80,




60,




40





20'





J A S 0 N D J F M A M J
Figure 4. Monthly rainfall distribution, Mahalapye 1983/84 Months





-20-


Table 4. Mean yield (kg/ha), stands (1000/ha) and number of days
to 50% flowering of introduced extra early cowpea lines,
IITA. Preliminary Trial No. 1, Mahalapye, 1983/84
Number of
Rank Variety Yield Stand days to COMMENTS
Rank Variety Yield
Germin Final 50% flowering
1 IT82D-714 441.3 56 5.3 41 2nd flush
2 IT82D-640 437.2 50 9.3 47
3 IT82D-785 371.9 57 6.7 45
4 IT82D-655 348.8 61 9.3 44
5 IT82D-784 327.5 54 10.7 43
6 TVx3236-01G 258.7 49 10.7 47
7 IT82D-641 255.5 45 14.7 47
8 IT82D-948 243.9 56 34.7 46 2nd flush
9 IT82D-789 216.9 56 21.3 41
10 IT82D-673 195.2 32 26.7 73
11 IT82D-720 190.9 31 16.0 46 2nd flush
12 IT82D-787 181.7 48 18.7 52 2nd flush
13 IT82D-638 161.9 53 28.0 47 2nd flush
14 IT82D-654 117.1 49 18.7 53
15 IT82D-755 94.0 46 29.3 47 2nd flush
16 IT82D-60 63.9 50 10.7 57
17 IT82D-849 61.9 50 33.3 75
18 IT82D-812 44.4 53 10.7 59
19 IT82D-636 0 50 16.0 >130
20 IT82D-669 0 48 21.3 >130

C.V.(%) 60.4 14.8 57.2 20.9



Table 5. Mean yield (kg/ha), final stand (1000/ha),
flowering and maturity of introduced extra early cowpea lines,
IITA Preliminary Trial No. 2, Moshu, 1983/84

Number Number
SFinal of nodes of days
Rank variety Yeld Stand at 50% 50% First
Flowering flow mature pod


IT82D-881
IT82D-888
IT82D-880
TVx3236-01G
IT82D-875
IT82D-887
IT82D-874
IT82D-906
IT82D-890
IT82D-885
IT82D-871
IT82D-908
IT82D-891
IT82D-872
IT82D-904
IT82D-889
IT82D-905
IT82D-907
IT82D-892
IT82E-60


1808.3
1516.7
1483.3
1433.3
1355.0
1308.3
1230.0
1166.7
1141.7
1138.3
1096.7
1066.7
1046.7
1016.7
950.0
938.3
913.3
888.3
838.3
800.0


9.2
9.7
9.7
7.9
9.8
12.5
10.9
8.9
7.6
8.4
10.8
9.6
9.3
9.8
7.8
7.2
7.4
11.3
8.2
11.4


31.6 25.1 12.1


5.5 4.6


C.V.(%)








-21-


Total 193/84: 352mm


J A S 0 N D J F M A M J
Months

Figure 5. Monthly rainfall distribution Moshu, 1983/84


100






80






60


E
E

% 40
-
c:
(0






-22-


3e. Vegetable cowpea trial

Mr. E. Mosarwe

Seed from 10 vegetable cowpea varieties introduced from IITA, Nigeria,
was planted in four-row plots with 3 replications at Sebele to evaluate
their performance under dry-land conditions. None of them flowered
and none survived the drought.

Experiment 4. Estimation of percentage natural outcrossing in cowpeas
under environmental conditions in Botswana

Ms. Barbara E. de Mooy

Seeds of an indigenous, erect, white-seeded variety (B161) and erect black-
seeded variety (IT82E-9) were planted alternatingly within the rows of
4-row plots of 5 m length. The row spacing was 1 m. Five populations
were established by choice of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm plant spacings
within the row. Two insecticide spraying regimes were imposed. One
involved spraying every 3 days during bloom. The other was not sprayed.

The field lay-out was a split-plot design with insecticide spraying as
main plots and populations as subplots. There were 4 replications and
the experiment was conducted at 2 locations on the Experimental Farm
at Sebele.

Seed from the white-seeded variety was collected separately from the
center 2 rows of each plot. This seed will be planted out during the
next season and the percentage outcrossing under the various conditions
will be determined by counting of black seeds produced in the next
generation as a percentage of the total.

Experiment 5. Variety adaptation trial

Identical adaptation trials were laid out with the varieties Vita 7.
IT82E-47 and Blackeye planted at 3 planting dates and at 5 locations
to gain as much information on the production capacity of these varieties
as possible over a wide range of conditions. The locations were Sebele,
Goodhope, Mahalapye, Motopi and Moshu. The trials at Sebele and Goodhope
failed due to drought. The third planting at Mahalapye was not made
for the same reason. The first planting date was November 25 and the
second December 20, 1983. At Moshu all plots were planted on the same
date (22 December). At Motopi the planting dates were only 4 days apart
(December 29 to January 6). The original objective of the experiment
could not be attained under the seasonal conditions. Ignoring planting
dates, the yield data based on 8 to 12 observations may be summarized as
follows:


Table 6.

Variety Mahalapye Motopi Moshu

IT82E-47 269.3 233.8 430.5
Vita 7 235.5 342.2 1055.5
Blackeye 164.8 396.2 325.5
All 3 varieties exhibited mosaic virus symptoms






-23-


The stand levels at maturity ranged from 36,000 to 50,000 plants per ha.
The highest yielding variety was a different one at each location. The
outstanding production was that of Vita 7 at Moshu which may be explained
by the fact that rainfall coincided with the flowering period. Vita 7
is a medium maturing variety, flowering after 53 days compared with 41
days for IT82E-47 and 43 for Blackeye under the conditions of the experiment.

Experiment 6. Intercropping trial

Ms. Mmasera Manthe

Sorghum and cowpeas in monoculture and under alternate row arrangement.
Three population levels were used for each of 2 cowpea varieties, ER7
and IT82E-60. All 14 combinations were laid out at 3 planting dates
in split-split plot design with 4 replications. Planting dates were
main plots, cowpea varieties subplots, and population/intercropping
combinations subsubplots. The experiment was conducted at 2 locations,
Sebele and Goodhope. Both sites failed owing to drought.

At Goodhope, no sorghum stand was obtained, but the cowpeas produced a
crop and the grain was harvested. The results may be considered as a
population/variety trial and are presented in Table 7. Several points can
be made. Firstly, considering that each of the 3 planting dates followed
some precipitation and the surface soil was moist, it appears that planting
of cowpeas at the first opportunity during the growing season was preferable.
For ER7, two opportunities were available to produce approximately 200 Kg
of grain per ha but for IT82E-60, only one choice occurred to produce a
little grain. Secondly, ER7 outyielded IT82E-60 at all times. Finally,
ER7 tended to produce more grain when the population was doubled by
reduction of row spacing from 150 to 75 m (10,000 to 20,000; 20,000 to
40,000 and 30,000 to 60,000) whereas IT82E-60 did not respond. The
reason may be that ER7 is a small erect plant with little capacity to
expand when space is available. IT82E-60 will branch out profusely and
even assume a spreading habit when space is available.

Experiment 7. Cultural practices trial

Mr. E. Mosarwe

The experiment served two purposes:

1. Minimum tillage and conventional moldboard plowing were compared as
methods of land preparation.

2. Two newly devised animal-drawn planters were tested in combination
with the land preparation.

a. Sebele

Use of newly cleared, virgin land will facilitate monitoring
of changes in soil bulk density with depth in the profile, moisture
and root penetration, starting with a non-compacted soil and
undisturbed structure.






-24-


Table 7.
at 2 row


Population
)Innn/ha/


Row
spacing


Mean grain yield of 2 cowpea varieties
spacings and 3 spacings within the row,
Goodhope 1983/84 (kg/ha)


Yield (kg/ha)


ER7


IiZ8E-bU


(cm) D/ D D3 D D2 D3
1 2 3 1 2 3
10 150 138 183 16 99 69 23
20 150 158 162 34 114 49 23
30 150 165 203 30 159 59 44
20 75 189 271 26 98 33 21
40 75 172 289 73 190 63 17
60 75 269 200 69 149 50 26

Mean 182 218 41 135 54 26


-/planting


date 17 November, 1983


planting date 8 December, 1983

planting date 4 January, 1984


The land was divided in 2 equal parts, one of which will be planted with
cowpeas in rotation with sorghum. The experiment will continue for 4 to 5
years or until conclusive results are obtained.

Planting of cowpeas was done with four implements:

1. Ridgeshaper/planter following shallow cultivation to loosen the surface
soil. Two oxen provided the draft power.


2. Cultivator/planter. An animal-drawn cultivator with
mounted Sebele planter box built by EFSAIP, was used
seedbed in strips and plant in once-over operation.
minimum strip tillage.


2 tynes and a
to prepare the
This amounted to


3. Plow/planter drawn by 6 oxen.

4. Tractor-mounted moldboard plow followed by single row planter.

The 4 treatments were laid out in randomized block design with 4 replications.
Plot size was 6 x 100 m.

Stand counts per 10 m of row were taken at 3 locations in each plot.
Satisfactory stands were obtained with each method (Table 8). The
cultivator/planter and plow/planter resulted in populations which were
too high. This can be readily adjusted to prevent seed wastage and labor
for thinning.






-25-


Table 8. Stands obtained with 4 methods of tillage/planting
on virgin land at Sebele (1000/ha)

Implement Stand
Ridgeshaper/planter 64.9
Cultivator/planter 247.5
Plow/planter 122.3
Moldboard plow & single row planter 43.7



The crop grew to a height of 20 cm and remained at that stage for 4 months
since no rain was received after the date of planting. No further observations
were made.

b. Pelotshetlha in cooperation with IFPP (Integrated Farming Pilot Project)

Mr. R. Edwards

At Peloshetlha, the ridgeshaper/planter and cultivator/planter were
tested on a hard veldt soil of medium texture with hard-setting
properties and subject to surface crusting. The cultivator/planter was
used with only 2 tynes which resulted in strip tillage, a form of
reduced tillage.

Three soil conditions were selected for the test:

1. Spring-plowed land

2. Winter-plowed land

3. Virgin land, hand cleared and kept under grass for several years.

Two replications were established. Planting was done when the surface
soil was soft after light rain. Both implements worked well even
on land which had never been tilled. Four donkeys pulled the ridge-
shaper with relative ease but needed all power for the cultivator/
planter on untilled land. Grasses were actively growing and neither
implement was designed to plant in grassland. Use of an interrow
cultivator would have been necessary to assist the cowpea crop,
had it been allowed to grow to maturity.

Emergence occurred with all treatments but was incomplete since no
rain was received during the entire season after planting. The
seedlings dried up and no records were taken.






-26-


Experiment 8. Cause of excessive flower drop in cowpeas

Ms. Barbara E. de Mooy

Excessive abscission of flower buds and flowers is a major cause of low
grain yield of cowpeas in semi-arid regions. Both drought stress and
flower thrips are capable of provoking this reaction by the plant. The
experiment was conducted to collect information on the relative contribution
of drought stress and flower thrips to the poor pod set of cowpeas grown at
Sebele. To this end 3 soil moisture levels were established and one-half
of the area sprayed to control the thrips.

The 3 moisture levels were treated as follows:

1. bare ground, rainfall dependent

2. grass mulch applied at seedling stage at the rate of 10 tons/ha

3. irrigation at the rate of 1.5 cm of water per ha, applied to small
basins covering approximately 1/4 of the area of each plot.

Mulching had a measurable effect on the moisture content of the soil.
The mean soil moisture content (by weight) during the season was
calculated on the basis of 12 samplings between 1 December and 9 March
to a depth of 45 cm and with 8 replications. Bare-ground control plots
contained 2.89% moisture by weight, mulched plots 3.55% and irrigated
plots 4.147. The differences remained consistent throughout the season
and were statistically significant (P0.05),

The spray treatments consisted of:

1. 100 ml Ambush/L ULV on 23 December, 1983, 11 and 19 January, 1984,
and 58 ml Azodrin/20L water as knapsack spray thereafter.

2. unsprayed

Two cowpea varieties were used: ER7 and Blackeye.

The field layout was a split-split plot design with soil moisture levels as
main plots, spraying as subplots, and varieties as subsubplots. There
were 4 replications. Individual plots contained 10 rows at 75 cm spacing
and 6.5 m length. Irrigation water was applied 12 times between 27 and
107 days after planting. Insecticide was applied 9 times during the
same period as judged necessary by thrip counts.

The thrip population was monitored by counting the number of thrips in 20
flowers picked at random from 4 rows assigned for the purpose. It was
found that at 81 days after planting, the number of flowers per plant
of each variety increased with moisture level of the soil (Table 9). The
differences were significant at P0.05 probability. Spraying had no
significant effect on the number of flowers despite the fact that the
number of thrips sharply decreased as a result of spraying. This
indicated that drought stress was a more significant factor than thrips
in causing flower abscission at least in a drought year. The trend
continued at 85 days after flowering. After that, flowering decreased.
ER7, although a 60-day cowpea variety, produced flowers until 109 days
after planting as a result of the drought.






-27-


Table 9. Mean number of flowers per plant
at 81 days after planting


Variety Insecticide Soil treatment
Control Mulched Irrigated
ER7 not sprayed 1.2 1.6 6.5
sprayed 1.3 2.0 6.7
BL not sprayed 0.4 0.6 3.0
sprayed 0.5 0.5 5.2


The percentage bare peduncles decreased significantly (P0.05) with increasing
moisture content of the soil (Table 10). The number of thrips per flower


Table 10. Mean percentage bare peduncles at 81 days after planting



Variety Insecticide Soil treatment
Control Mulched Irrigated
ER7 not sprayed 38.4 35.7 14.5
sprayed 32.9 31.4 15.2
BL not sprayed 62.5 40.6 35.9
sprayed 52.7 35.0 24.5

gradually built up between 53 and 81 days after planting (Table 11). Spraying
with insecticide gave almost perfect control. The thrips somewhat favored the
flowers of irrigated and mulched plots. The number of flowers increased as a
result of decreased drought stress despite this movement of thrips towards
better moisture conditions.



Table 11. Mean number of thrips per flower at 53, 60, 65, and
74 days after planting at 3 different soil moisture levels,
Sebele, 1984


Variety Insecticide Soil Days after planting
Variety 53 60 65 74
ER7 no spray control 0.3 0.6 1.2 9.0
mulched 1.1 1.5 3.4 3.1
irrigated 3.4 1.6 4.4 10.3
spray control 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4
mulched 0.2 0 0 0.2
irrigated 0.2 0 0.1 0.3
BL no spray control 0 0 0.5 2.6
mulched 0.1 0.2 0.7 8.1
irrigated 0.8 0.8 0.5 8.5
spray control 0.1 0 0 0.3
mulched 0 0 0.2 1.0
irrigated 0.2 0.7 0.1 1.3





-28-


The experiment showed conclusively that drought stress was the major cause
of flower bud abscission. Thrips played only a minor role. Spraying with
insecticide would not have helped in retaining flowers on the plants.
Spraying will presumably not be profitable in future drought years but the
situation may be different in more favorable seasons.

Experiment 9. Screening Cowpea (Vigna unguicualta) for resistance to
Aphid (Aphis craccivora)

Ms. Barbara E. de Mooy

One hundred and seventy cowpea accessions were screened for aphid
resistance (Aphis craccivora), Table 12. These lines were collected from
farmer's fields, villages and markets around Botswana. Aphid samples
were originally collected from field plots at Sebele and reared in the
greenhouse until a sufficient population was established. The aphids
were enclosed in a wire mesh cage and kept in a greenhouse at Sebele
at a temperature of about 200C. The variety ER7 was used as host plant
because of its known susceptibility to aphids.

Test lines were sown in plastic trays 45 x 25 cm and filled with a 2:1
mixture of sand to loamy sand. Due to limited greenhouse space, lines
were tested in groups of 30. Each group including one resistant (TVu 36)
and 1 susceptible (ER7) check. Three varieties were planted per tray
with 10 seeds per variety and three replications (randomized). Seedlings
were infested 9 days after planting (D.A.P.) with 5 aphids per seedling.
Scores were recorded at 15, 20 and 25 D.A.P. Scores were based on a
scale of 1 to 5:
1. No aphids or very few. Dead aphids may appear on seedling. No
visible effect on plant.
2. Some aphids appear on plant. No yellowing of plant.
3. Moderate infestation causing yellowing of plant leaves.
4. Aphid colonization with heavy yellowing of leaves.

5. Colonization with yellowing leading to seedling death.

Results from all three replications were averaged and lines having
scores of 2 or less were selected for further testing.

Twenty two lines had an average score of 2 or less. Seeds from each of
these promising lines were planted in a 4" diameter plastic pot (one
variety per pot) with 4 seeds per pot and three replications. All pots
were artificially infested with 5 aphids per seedling per pot5 days after
planting. Aphid counts were made on each seedling at 10, 14 and 20 days
after infestation. Results showed the following lines to have the lowest
number of aphid damage:

B031 B037 B142 B232

The number of aphids found on these lines decreased with time with no
more than 1 or 2 aphids remaining per plant at 20 days after infestation.






-29-


Tablel2. Local Accessions Screened for Resistance
(A. craccivora)


BOO2B
B005N
BOO8A
B010A
BOIOA
B012D
B015A
BO20F
B025
B030A
B037
B047
B053
B060C
B065
B069A
B073
B080
B097
B102
8115
8123
B142
B163
B180
B219
B232
B242
B301
B315
B324
B334
B340
B352


B004A
B006C
B008G
8011B
B013A
B016A
B022
B027
B030B
8038
B048B
B054
B061
B066
B069D
B074
B081
B098
B103
B116
B126
B143
B172
B184
B223
B233
B243
B305
B318
B325
B335
B343
B355


8004D
BOO7B
B008H
BO12A
B013C
B019A
B023
B028
B031
B039
B049
B055
B062
B067A
8070
B075
B082
B099
B104
8117
8127
8146
B173
8185
B225
B234
B246
B311
B319
B326
B336
B345
B356


B005A
B007C
B009A
B012B
B013D
B020B
B024A
B029A
B032
B042
B051
B056
B063
B067C
B071
B076
B087
B100
8107
B120
B131
8154
8175
B189
B230
B240
B261
B313
B321
B327
B337
8348
B357


to Ahpids


B005B
BO07F
B009B
B012C
8014
B020E
B024B
8029D
B035
B043
8052
B060A
B064
8068
8072
8077
8094
8101
8109
8122
8132
8161
8176
B218
B231
B241
B298
8314
B322
B332
B339
B351
B358


Tvu 36 Resistant Check

ER-7 Susceptible Check


Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences in aphid
resistance (P0.01) at 10, 14 and 20 days after infestation. It is believed
that the 4 above-mentioned cultivars possess a high degree of resistance
to aphids at. the seedling stage. Possible susceptibility to other
biotypes of aphids and at the flowering stage remain to be investigated.






-30-


Experiment 10. Integrated cowpea pest control
An experiment was started at Goodhope with two cowpea varieties
(ER7 and Blackeye) in split-plot design with 3 dates of planting
as main plots and 6 insect pest control treatments as subplots
using 4 replications.

The experiment was abandoned for the season when it appeared that
the plants would not bloom due to drought.

Experiment 11. Collaborative cowpea trial program with the Department
of Agricultural Field Services (DAFS): Evaluation
of cowpea varieties and insecticide spray treatments
in farmers' fields

Plans for collaborative work were discussed with the Director, AFS.
Arrangements were made for a network of field trials in 3 agricultural
regions in Botswana with Ms. K. Kealeboga, Crop Production Officer,
Gaborone Region, Mr. G. P. Chilume, CPO, Northern Region, and
Mr. B. Tilahun, ALDEP Manager, Southern Region. Meetings were held
with interested Agricultural Demonstrators (AD's) of each region which
resulted in development of detailed field trial plans (Appendix I).

It was decided to conduct identical variety/spraying trials at
locations throughout the country to compare the performance of the
cowpea variety ER7 with Blackeye as standard variety. ER7 had given
promising results in previous Cowpea CRSP trials. An insecticide
spraying variable was added to see if farmers could benefit from
insect control.
Three Farming Systems Projects, the Integrated Farming Pilot Project
(IFPP) at Pelotshetlha, the Evaluation of Farming Systems and
Agricultural Implements Project (EFSAIP) at Sebele, and the Ngamiland
Agricultural Development Project (NADP) at Gomare also participated.
A total of 31 AD's cooperated. In addition, the Mahalapye Development
Trust (MDT) joined the program with 3 locations in the Mahalapye area.

Training sessions were held at Sebele to familiarize field extension
staff with the experimental layout, procedures of planting, and
handling of ultra low volume spray equipment. The AD's were then
provided with all required materials including seed and ULV sprayers.
All trials were conducted in farmers' fields by AFS staff with
farmers cooperating and responsible for general management.

The trials provided useful information. The variety ER7 outyielded
Blackeye at most locations. However at one location in the Northern
Region Blackeye yielded higher than ER7. This was reportedly due
to late arrival of rains. Spraying was generally not effective.
Thrips did not pose a real threat anywhere in the country owing to
widespread drought. However, at 2 locations spraying raised the
yield of grain but the 30 to 80 kg/ha of additional seed harvested
was not profitable in view of the cost of spraying.

The farmers showed great interest in the variety ER7 which was new
to them. Many practical problems interfered with collection of reliable






-31-


yield data. It was clear, however, that ER7 was an obvious success.
None of the cooperating farmers was found prepared to sell any seed of
ER7 to the Project.

Several AD cooperators faced impossible situations when trying to
establish a trial. Draft animals were too weak to work at planting
time in several instances. Later on the land was too dry for planting.
Grasshoppers, spring hares and kudu's terminated a number of trials.
These factors reflect the problems of small farmers.

The trials will be continued during the 84/85 season after incorporation
of modifications suggested by all parties involved. The number of
cooperating AD's and farmers has increased to 45. This will provide
further information on the performance of ER7 under various ecological
and management conditions in various parts of the country. The trials
will also facilitate the establishment of ER7 as a cowpea variety
in Botswana.

Experiment 12. Evaluation of cowpea materials supplied by SAFGRAD

Included are early and medium maturity lines and breeding materials
prepared for the benefit of Botswana specifically by making crosses
between Botswana native germplasm and the best of varieties from
Bourkina Faso.

a. Regional medium maturity trial at Goodhope

Mr. J. Motlhatlhedi

The trial consisted of 14 lines recommended by SAFGRAD to which the
variety Blackeye was added as a standard variety. Five of the
varieties were new to Botswana. The field layout was a randomized
block design with 4 replications. Four-row plots were used of 5 m
length.

The stands were good at emergence, between 3.7 and 4.6 plants per
meter with the exception of TVx426209D which developed a poor stand.
Vegetative development stopped at a young stage owing to drought.
First flowering occurred between 55 and 64 days except for KN-1
which remained vegetative. Several other varieties produced flowers
in only 1 replication: TN88-63, White Wonder, and TVx4659-03E.
This was related to uneven moisture distribution, root development
and sensitivity to length of photoperiod.

The varieties are listed in order of high to low grain yield produced
(Table 13). The top 3 producers, IT82D-952 (265 kg/ha), TVx3236
(209 kg/ha) and IAR 48 (169 kg/ha) produced seed in 3 out of 4
replications which gives some measure of production reliability.
Blackeye and 3 other varieties produced seed in only 1 plot. Seven
varieties did not yield at all under the severe seasonal conditions.
Statistical analysis was not possible owing to the large number of
missing plots. The most promising variety in this trial was IT82D-952
which is a white-seeded selection from TVx3236 with brown eye.





-32-


Table 13. Mean yield (kg/ha), final stand (1000/ha)
and number of days to 50% flowering of 15 varieties in the
Regional Medium Maturity Trial, Goodhope 1983/84
50%
Rank Variety Final Flowering Yield of
stand (D.A.P.) Grain
1 IT82D-952 19.8 59 265.3
2 TVx3236 18.8 62 208.8
3 IAR 48 33.3 64 169.3
4 Blackeye 29.8 59 157.2
5 TVx4262-09D 9.8 60 110.4
6 Mougne 36.5 58 96.0
7 IT81D-1137 38.5 60 65.7
8 TVx1999-01F 33.8 56 51.3
9 TN88-63 37.3 55 0
10 White Wonder 35.5 58 0
11 Suvita 2 39.8 61 0
12 KN-1 36.2 -- 0
13 IT81D-994 34.5 59 0
14 IT81D-1157 43.3 59 0
15 TVx4659-03E 34.0 61 0


b. Regional early maturity trial at Mahalapye

Mr. M. Otlhogile

Eight early maturity cowpea varieties recommended by SAFGRAD were
grown with ER7 as standard variety in a randomized block design
with 4 replications. Four-row plots of 5 m length were used. The
stands at emergence ranged from 2.2 to 3.8 plants per meter. First
flowering occurred between 45 and 52 days after planting.

ER7 was the best variety in terms of growth habit, synchronous
flowering, pod formation, and yield. IT82E-60 ranked third (Table 14).
Table 14. Mean yield (kg/ha) and number of days
to 50% flowering of 9 cowpea varieties in
the Regional Early Maturity Trial, Mahalapye, 1983/84

50%
Rank Variety Flowering Yield of grain
(D.A.P.) (kg/ha)
1 ER7 45 315.5
2 IT82E-70 47 252.7
3 IT82E-60 48 250.9
4 TVx4659-13C-1K 48 212.0
5 IT82E-18 46 196.0
6 IT82E-77 48 107.3
7 IT82E-32 51 97.5
8 IVu-69/54 51 54.9
9 Bambey-21 52 52.9




-33-


This variety had been evaluated at Sebele in the previous year and
its performance found unsatisfactory under Botswana conditions,
presumably due to sensitivity to length of photoperiod at high
latitudes. Its growth habit varied from erect to spreading and
vining. The stage of development varied from plant to plant which
resulted in large variation in date of first flowering. Bambey 21
ranked lowest as it did in 1982/83.

c. F2 breeding materials

Mr. E. Mosarwe

Breeding materials provided by Dr. Vas Aggarwal of SAFGRAD, Bourkina
Faso, consisting of F2 seeds from 27 crosses (Table 15) were.planted
out in 2-row plots in November 1983. Two Botswana cultivars with
good plant type and free of any disease symptoms, B178 and B161
(B.E. de Mooy, 1983. Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue) were
crossed with Suvita-2, Mougne, 58-57, TN 88-63, and TVx 1999-01F.
Similarly, ER7, TVx3072-01E, IT82E-18, and IT82E-42 were crossed
with the same 5 varieties listed above. None of the plants produced
any seed due to extreme drought. Remaining seed will be evaluated
in 1984/85 under irrigation.


Table 15. Available F2 materials from SAFGRAD



Number of Lines grown Early maturing,
cross in Botswana productive varieties
cross in Botswana-i
in Burkina Faso
1 B178 x 58-57
2 B178 x TN 88-63
3 B178 x SUVITA-2
4 B178 x TVx 1999-01F
5 B161 x 58-57
6 B161 x TN 88-63
7 B161 x SUVITA-2
8 B161 x TVx 1999-01F
9 B161 x Mougne


ER-7
ER-7
ER-7
ER-7
ER-7
TVx3072-01E
TVx3072-01E
TVx3072-01E
TVx3072-01E
TVx3072-01E


IT82E-18
IT82E-18
IT82E-18
IT82E-18
IT82E-18
IT82E-42
IT82E-42
IT82E-42


x
x
x


/Selected for breeding program on the basis of yielding
habit and apparent disease resistance


58-57
TN 88-63
SUVITA-2
TVx 1999-01F
Mougne
58-57
TN 88-63
SUVITA-2
TVx 1999-01F
Mougne
58-57
TN 88-63
SUVITA-2
TVx 1999-01F
Mougne
TN88-63
SUVITA-2
Mouqne


capacity, growth


25
26
27


^^ ----- ~-


nnf






-34-


XII. Visitors, Meetings, Field Days

a. National events

Meetings with the Director of Agricultural Research and various
staff members of the Department were held at various times throughout
the year.

One-day training sessions were conducted during the months of October
and November for groups of Agricultural Extension Officers (AD's)
of the Southern, Gaborone and Northern districts to prepare them
for the collaborative cowpea trial program in farmers' fields.

Similar meetings with cooperating AD's were scheduled during April
and May in the same regions and served to discuss the results obtained,
problems experienced and suggestions for future work. These groups
are generally comprised of 20 to 30 extension personnel.

A meeting of Agricultural Research and Extension Officers was held
on January 19, 1984. Agencies represented were Agricultural Field
Services, Agricultural Research, ALDEP, Cowpea CRSP, ATIP, EFSAIP
and DLFRS. The objective was to ensure that extension and research
departments agreed on recommendations for crop production.

b. International Visitors

A large number of foreign visitors were received. The following
were among the relatively significant events:

October 10. Interview by Mrs. Norma Mohr of Voice of America,
Africa Division. The subject was objectives and activities
of the Cowpea CRSP for a 15 minute radio broadcast.

November 17. Visit by the SADCC Grain Legume Improvement Planning
Team consisting of Drs. Jackson, Ndunguru, Onim and Manda.

January 21 to 25. Consultancy by Dr. L. Jackai of IITA on
entomological problems. His consultant's report is attached
(Appendix A).

January 29 to February 7. Visit by Dr. B. B. Singh of IITA. Cowpea
research plots located throughout Botswana were examined to
discuss variety performance and research priorities (Appendix B).

February 3. Visit by Heads of Departments of Crop and Production,
Animal Production and Farming Systems of the Senegalese
Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA).

February 8. Visit of 8 staff from the Ministry of Agriculture,
Lesotho. Messrs. N. Manthmore, T. Mabooe, W. Ntsehke,
A. Sefeane, D. Youmans, M. Lesenya, J. Dunn, and C. Ballard
came to discuss the possibility of starting cowpea culture
in Lesotho.






-35-


February 21 to 23. SADCC Technical Conference at Gaborone. Various
proposals for organization of GLIP research in SADCC countries
were discussed.

April 6. Visit by Dr. George Ham, Head of Department of Agronomy,
Kansas State University. Discussion of Cowpea CRSP research
in relation to the ATIP work program.

June 4. Visit by Dr. J. Meiner of AID to discuss the feasibility
of various aspects of the SADCC GLIP program.

September 28. Visit by Dr. Stephen Biggs from Ford Foundation and
the School of Development Studies at the University of East
Anglia, to discuss potential financial support for SADCC and
national research programs.


XIII. Professional and Organization Linkages


a) Host Country

The linkages established during the previous year were further developed.

1. A collaborative program was developed with the Department of Agricul-
tural Field Services. Thirty AD's and other extension personnel
participated in the program, each conducting variety/spraying trials
with cooperating farmers in their respective districts. The tests
provided much needed information and suggestions for improvement.
The Department changed directors in July 1984. The new director,
Mr. T. Taukobong, expressed interest in continuation of the joint
program. More than 45 AD's from the Northern, Gaborone and
Southern regions will be cooperating during 1984/85.season along
lines developed in joint meetings as a result of last year's findings.
This will involve a somewhat more diversified program than last year.

2. Very useful information was gained through cooperation with the
Integrated Farming Pilot Project (IFPP). Eighteen field trials were
completed and two minimum tillage planters tested in the field. The
IFPP will be terminated as a British supported Farming Systems Project
during 1985 but the joint program will continue under management by
the DAFS.

3. Collaboration with the Evaluation of Farming Systems and Agricultural
Implements Project (EFSAIP) was very fruitful. Four variety/
spraying field trials were completed. The 2 minimum tillage planters
were tested in the field at Sebele and modifications suggested for
next year. EFSAIP ceased to exist as a Farming Systems Project but
both cooperators, Messrs, C. R. Riches and D. Horspool have joined
DAR as regular staff and collaboration will continue as before.
Mr. Riches will also continue his research on the parasitic weed
Alectra vogeli.

4. The Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) contributed
by conducting cowpeabench mark surveys in the Francistown and







-36-


Mahalapye areas which provided the Cowpea Project with very useful
baseline information. ATIP utilized the 40 dual purpose cowpea lines
provided by the Cowpea Project. Further materials will be supplied
to ATIP and seed sources increased as necessary. Prototypes of
planters, developed by the Cowpea Project to date will be made
available to ATIP research staff if desired.

5. The Mahalapye Development Trust conducted 3 variety/spraying trials
as part of the nationwide collaborative field program. MDT also
increased the seed supply of introduced varieties which was
requested by the Project.

6. Cooperation with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, continued as before. Dr. B. B. Singh,
cowpea breeder of the Grain Legume Improvement Program (GLIP)
visited Botswana and C. J. de Mooy of the CRSP visited IITA. Seed
resources were exchanged in mutual interest. IITA assisted the
Project with breeding activities. F3 generation seed resulting
from crosses made by Dr. B. B. Singh at IITA arrived for field
screening in Botswana. IITA also provided the entomology consultant,
Dr. L. Jackai, requested by the Project in January, 1984.

7. Cooperation with the Semi Arid Food Grains Research and Development
(SAFGRAD) in Bourkina Faso continued. Cowpea varieties distributed
by SAFGRAD for evaluation were tested under Botswana conditions.
Dr. Vas Aggarwal of SAFGRAD contributed by making special crosses
between selected Botswana germplasm and high yielding varieties from
his region. F2 generation seed resulting from these crosses is
being evaluated in Botswana.

8. First contact was established with EMBRAPA, at Goiania, Brazil, where
3 Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects are located. Besides the insight in
insect pathogen applications for cowpeas developed by the CRSP program
of Boyce Thompson Institute, EMBRAPA has significant research
programs in cowpea drought resistance screening and plant pathology.
Exchange of seed and resistance sources is between the 2 countries
and was arranged through a personal visit by C. J. and B. E. de Mooy
to EMBRAPA in June, 1984.

9. Periodic contacts were maintainedwith the Centre National de
Recherches Agronomiques, Bambey, Senegal. After the visit by Dr. M.
Ndoye to Botswana during the previous year, C. J. de Mooy visited
CNRA in September, 1984 for exchange of ideas concerning approach
to field problems, procedures and varieties.

10. Baptist Mission, Maun, Botswana. Seed shipments to the Baptist
Mission were continued in support of their efforts to estimate
cowpea growing in northern regions of Botswana.

b) Linkages with U.S. Institutions

1. Colorado State University

CSU, as the U.S. lead institution, is interested in supporting the
research program of the Botswana Cowpea Project. During TDY of






-37-


C. J. de Mooy in June/July, 1984 at CSU, it was decided that the
University will develop a breeding program for resistance to
low night temperatures in cowpeas. Arrangements were made with
Dr. D. Wood, on-campus representative of the Project, to initiate
this support program.

Dr. W. Keim, Head of the Department of Agronomy, serves as on-campus
administrator. The Department also provides on-campus advisors
for the two host-country graduate students who are spending one year
at CSU for academic course work required for a Master's degree with
thesis research in Botswana under the auspices of the Cowpea Project.

2. Michigan State University

The Cowpea CRSP Management Office provides administrative support and
backstopping services. A two-week TDY by C. J. de Mooy to the CRSP
head office during August 1984 was utilized for exchange of ideas
and writing of several articles summarizing Project research.

The Crop and Soil Sciences Department at MSU is in charge of the MS
degree program of a U.S. graduate student. Ms. B. E. de Mooy
completed her thesis research in Botswana under sponsorship of the
Cowpea Project.

3. University of California, Riverside

A visit was made to Dr. Anthony.Hall's Cowpea CRSP Project by C,J. and
B. E. de Mooy during July, 1984 for discussion of cowpea research
in Africa where both projects are dealing with drought problems.
Dr. Hall contributed by making available seeds from 31 lines of
cowpea breeding material. Contact between the two projects was
continued during a meeting with Dr. Hall at Bambey, Senegal, during
September, 1984, where he is U.S.P.I. of the Cowpea CRSP program
(travel report attached).
4. Kansas State University

Research findings and scope of the Botswana Cowpea Project were
presented in a seminar by C. J. de Mooy at Kansas State University
in August 1984. KSU is the U.S. lead university of the
Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP), a farming
systems research project located in Botswana. Results obtained
by the two projects must be integrated in recommendations made
for agricultural development of the country.

5. U.S. Peace Corps

Assignment of a Peace Corps volunteer to the Legume Improvement
Project of the Department of Agriculture Research has enabled the
Botswana Cowpea Project to conduct a research program that is more
likely to be useful to Botswana farmers than would otherwise have been
the case. The Peace Corps also contributed by supplying low volume
handsprayers to farmers cooperating with the insect control trial
program launched by the DAFS and the CRSP.






-38-


6. U.S. Plant Introduction Center, Beltsville

Communication with the U.S. Plant Introduction Center was continued
by mutual exchange of germplasm resources.

XIV. Institutional Resources Contributed to Project

a) U.S. Personnel included subject to change.
Permanent is Dr. Don Wood, Professor of Agronomy
Total value personnel input was $ 36,992.00.

b) Host country

The resources allocated to the Cowpea Project are listed below:-

Botswana Government inputs for Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project
Facilities Value
(P/annum)
Office for cowpea agronomist, clerical
support, postage and supplies 1000
Vehicle, maintenance and fuel 5000
Subsistence in travel status 2000
Land at Experiment Station and Substations,
tillage, fertilizers, and other materials 2000
Laboratory support work 5000
TOTAL facilities 15000
Staff
2 Technical Assistants, T5, full-time 6000
Entomology
1 Technical Officer, T3, 3 months 1000
1 Technical Assistant, T5, 3 months 1000
Plant Pathology
1 Assistant Agricultural Research Officer, PR4, 3 months 1000
1 Technical Assistant, T5, 3 months 1000
TOTAL staff 10000
GRAND TOTAL 25QQQ

XV. Future Plans

No changes are considered in Project objectives and rationale. The host
country institution supports the work program of the Cowpea project. Some
expansion is envisaged in the area of breeding of new varieties based on
local germplasm with incorporation of desirable tracts such as multiple
insect and disease resistance and high yield capacity from exotic material.
Also a more precise identification of virus infections and degree of disease
and insect resistance would be desirable.
























I-

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i
Gmw


i N G

20
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23* 24. 26


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-39-


Temporary appointments of a legume pathologist/breeder (50%) and legume
entomologist (25%) will assist in establishing the intended emphasis.
Changes in Project personnel included transfer of Ms. B. E. de Mooy to
MSU in August, 1984 for completion of MS degree requirements. Return
travel to Botswana is anticipated in June, 1985. Ms. Karen Conniff completed
her academic studies at CSU and joined the field staff in Botswana on
September, 1984, for dissertationresearch. Two host country students
will return from CSU during the next year to commence thesis research in
Botswana leading to the MS degree. Mr. P. Montshiwa will travel in
December, 1984; Ms. M. Manthe in September, 1985.

PLAN OF WORK FOR FY 1984/85

a) U.S. Supportive research on low night temperature
resistance breeding on campus is in the planning stage.

b) Host country The proposed plan of work is attached (Appendix G).

XVI. Articles written and Papers presented

de Mooy, B. E. 1984. Botswana Cowpea GermDlasm Catalogue
(Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) Vol. 1.
Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana.

de Mooy, B. E. 1984. Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue
(Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) Vol. 2.
Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana.

de Mooy, B. E. 1984. Variability of Characteristics of Botswana
Cowpea Germplasm. Trop. Grain Legume Bull.
IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria (in press).

de Mooy, B.E. 1984. Cowpea germplasm collecting in Botswana.
Plant Genetics Resources Newsletter, FAO, Rome (in press).

de Mooy, C.J. 1984. Search for more suitable cowpea varieties for
semi-arid conditions in Botswana. Research Highlights.
Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

de Mooy, C.J. 1984. Search for more appropriate cultural practices and
agricultural implements for cowpea production in Botswana.
Research Highlights. Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, Michigan

de Mooy, C. J. 1984. Early maturing cowpea varieties. Paper presented
at Meeting Agricultural Field Services Dept. Gaborone Reg.
Feb. 27-29, 1984, Sebele.

de Mooy, C. J. 1984. Variety trials for Botswana. Paper presented at
Meeting Agric. Field Services Dept., Southern Reg. May 21-25,
1984, Pelotshetlha.

de Mooy, C.J. 1984. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP in Botswana. Seminar Dept. of
Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, August 24, 1984.

USAID, 1984. The Cowpea CRSP program in Botswana; 5 minute presentation,
In: "U.S. Economic Assistance to Africa", film produced by
AID/Washington.






Appendix A
-40-

REPORT ON CONSULTANCY MISSION TO THE CRSP/CSU/:BOTSWANA COWPEA PROJECT

JANUARY 21-25, 1984

By Louis E.N. Jackai, Legume Entomologist, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria


The mission was undertaken at the request of Dr. J. DeMooy, Leader

of the project. Notice of the request was short due to the inability of

the project to get Dr. Moffi Ta'Ama (CRSP/CAMEROON) whose name had been

suggested by IITA. However, in view of our busy travel schedule and other

commitments at this time the writer was only able to get approval for

this trip for a short period.


Purpose of the mission

During the past 2 years there has been much concern about the extensive

flower drop in cowpeas in several areas in Botswana. Last year high numbers

of flower thrips were also observed but in addition, the country experienced

serious drought during the sameeperiod. It was (as expected) suspected that

thrips played a major role in the flower abscission. Furthermore, this

year (1983/84) a country-wide on-farm demonstration trial has been initiated

with the main objective of demonstrating the yield elevation potential of

controlling flower thrips with minimum insecticide application. Botswana

presently has not resident entomologist but one is undertaking graduate

studies at the Texas A & M University. The trial he (Mr. Chris Manthe)

initiated were therefore left under the management of his technician.

I was as a result invited to examine the insect pest situation, help train

local staff, and provide professional advice on the nation-wide trials.

These tasks could naturally not be completed in the short time I had at

my disposal, but it was considered that a four day trip was better than







-41-


none at all. P the time I left Botswana it was generally agreed that the

visit was worthwhile.

Present Research:

Current work being undertaken by the project includes:

1) Germplasm collection and evaluation local and exotic.

2) Varietal testing for local adaptation (many IITA varieties involvecQ.

3) Intercropping trials (mainly with sorghum and maize).

4) Evaluation of different cultural practices.

5) investigation of causes of excessive flower abscission.

6) Screening cowpeas for resistance to aphids.

7) Integrated Pest Management.

8) On-farm experimentation (designed mainly to evaluate advantages

of protection (2 sprays) over no protection). This was a nation-

wide trial involving up to 50 sites throughout Botswana, and was

beinq done in collahorat!onn with .-orne members of the Fanning

systems group.

9) SAFGRAD trials.


Prioect Personnel

The project personnel I met include the following:

1) Team Leader, Dr. J. DeMooy whose responsibilities include general

administration,planning and execution of agronomic research

planning and execution of on-farm demonstration, supervision of

entomology and pathology research.


2) Ms. B.E. DeMooy (MSU Graduate student) who in addition to her

thesis research participates very actively in other research.

She leaves in July/August 1984 for course work at MSU.







-42-


3) Ms. Aiiisera Manthe Graduate student at CSU who is doing

thesis research on inter-cropping and is expected to leave

for course work at CSU in May '84.


4) Ms. Julie Concannon US Peace Corps Volunteer.

5) Mr. Efidile Mosarwe Technician.

6) Mr. Hubert Technician.


Overall assessment of research at the Botswana Cowpea Project

The trials being conducted by the project scientists have been

carefully planned to address the most important production problems of

cowpea in Botswana. Of special mention here are the experiments on flower

abscission, germplasm evaluation, varietal adaptation tests, aphid

resistance screening, on-farm demonstrations and IPM trials.

These experiments were generally well designed and adequately managed.

A number of the trials required intensive management and sampling, and I

was most impressed by the total involvement of the staff in the execution

of their work. However, to do this, the staff werehaving to stretch

themselves beyond the normal limits of expectation. This is commendable

but bothersome. The research staff cannot be expected to keep this

up for too long without the strain showing on their normal day to day lives.
Most of the trials are either in their first or second year of

execution, a time period during which spectacular results cannot be

expected. It is nonetheless important to note that considerable progress

is already apparent particularly in the germplasm collection and

evaluation which has qhown that a number of introductions from IITA and 3

local (~ermpls&m lines are iell adapted to the harsh growing conditions







-43-


prevalent in Tlntswana. In addition, the on-farm demonstrations,despitc

the extended drought)showed that 1-2 sprays on ER-7 cowpea (introduced front:

IlTA several years back) can give substantial yield elevation. This tri:;l

needs to be continued for at least 2-3 more years. Planting with the

first rains should be given greater thought than appears to be the

case at the present time. This would take quite a bit of convincing

since the common practice appears to let the rains stabilize before

planting starts. The recent experience with drought should help drive

home the point. Planting date experiments should probably be conducted

in the farmers fields to demonstrate this, but only after this has been w.el

established at the research stations.

Some of the trials were more badly hit by drought. Ms. Manthe's

intercropping trial at Sebele is a case in point. This trial which was

being conduct-" for an MS degree is of great relevance and was meant to

address some of the problems involved in traditional cropping patterns

in Botswana. Unfortunately, this trial ran into trouble with the intense

drought which made it unlikely that any meaningful data would be obtained.

With a little luck Ms. Manthe was likely to get some information from an
S,. .-.,t ; ria, i-pt PF r nodh,)p. vher ran fli -. ge '"'. '.,

at Sebele. The inplication'of all of this on her degree program are

obvious. This brings up an important consideration. ,s : :

important trials planted at Sebele should be duplicated at another I~lcaL!c.

where rainfall may be more reliable, or alternatively better irrigation

facilities should be made available at Sebele station.

One of the most labor intensive trials I visited was that of flower

drop. This was a very well thought out experiment of overriding importance.

This is a problem that has been encountered at other locations where








-44-


drought sets in during the flower production phase of plant development.

It involved extensive data collection and intensive management. Both activi-

ties were being carried out meticulously and with sacrificial timeliness.

I can say this because I know how it feels to get up early in the morning,

go to the field and collect data for long hours in the hot sun. in a

crouched position. This however did not appear to dampen the enthusiasm

of the researchers, and Mrs. DeMooy must be complemented for her effort.

Finally, the porject has put together a catalogue of locally

collected germplasm. This is a laudable effort that will not be adequately

appreciated until the document is made public. It is hoped that the

required approval will be forthcoming.


Assessment of entomological research

The trials that had some level of entomological input are the following:

a) Flower drop experiment

b) IPM involving sprayed vs. unsprayed and planting dates using

2 varieties.

c) On-farm thrips control trial.

d) Aphid resistance studies.

a) The flower drop experiment has already been commented upon in the

previous section. The entomological input was in the form of

insecticide selection and application, thrips sampling and examina-

tion of samples. As there was no professional advice on this the

input was a little weak particularly with respect to insecticide

selection and application but this was not likely to have any drastic

effect on the interpretation of experimental results.







-45-


Observation )of samples is expected to proceed normally, but problems

may arise if different species of thrips (the target pest) are present.

..ittle can be done about this at the present time but the problem will be

adequately handled next cropping season.

The trial was meant to determine the role, if any, of flower thrips

in the observed extensive flower drop. The trial was still in progress

when I left Botswana but my preliminary conclusion was that the observed

phenomenon was largely due to drought stress in the first instance but

could have been exacerbated by thrips. Normally, when flower abscission

is causLj by flower thrips, there is distinct discoloration of the stipules

and buds. This is accompanied by non-elongation of peduncles and

pronounced reduction of flowering. There was in general little or no

sign of discoloration on the stipules or buds. Numbers of thrips in flowers

was also very low thus explaining the general absence of discoloration.

I was made to understand that during the previous year there was a

much higher infestation by thrips. Drought may also have been less

severe and the insect pest may thus have been elevated in status to primary

culprit! In view of the instability of the weather component, this study

need to be conducted over a number of years for the major cause to be

identified. I however feel strongly (and I stand to be corrected) that

drought stress and not flower thrips is the major cause.

b) The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) trials at Sebele involved different

insecticide treatments, 3 planting dates, and 2 cowpea cultivars.

This trial was planned for execution by Mr. Chris Manthe with the

assistance of the Project Leader. Unfortunately, Mr. Manthe had to

leave for further studies in the US before the trial got off the








-46-


ground (lite':i y). fhis created a situation where a technician was left

to conduct the trial. There were some problems with the experimental layout

:rnich could not be avoided because of land limitation. The first planting

-perminated well but was under drought stress; the second planting showed

:yed germination dL'e mainly to :i h moistJre deficit, and the third

!inting did not st-and a chance.

There was no clear-cut trend of the effect of spraying (I suspect

poor choice and timing of insecticide applications). Also, damage

characterization for the different pests was inadequately understood,

as was the case with sampling techniques. I was of the opinion that not

much was going to be obtained from this trial this year at Sebele

considering the multitude of constraints both climatic and professional.

This is a very relevant study at this stage in the development of

the Botswana cowpea program. It will have to be continued and its

importance cannot be over-emphasised. One point must be made now. The

program would benefit immensely from the services of a well-trained

entomologist. At the present time arrangements have been made for me to

visit Botswana again in 1984/85 growing season during the'critical stage

of crop development for up to about one month. If there is need for further

presence of an entomologist during the season I will arrange for the

SAFGRAD entomologist to over-lap with me. The latter may be able to

utilize SAFGRAD funding (still to be cleared officially) but my expenses

would have to borne by CRSP/Botswana (no consultancy fees will be charged).

This can only be seen as an interim solution possibly till Mr. Manthe

returns. However, if his absence from the country is likely to be

protracted then something ought to be done to hire someone on a more

permanent basis.







-47-


c) On-farm nhrLps control trial: I was able to visit a number uf theu:

trials around Gaborone and one at Ootsie. It is obvious that there

is a lot of concern about thrips, and justifiably so, judging from

past reports and the scope of this trial.

This trial was a commendable effort on the part of Dr. DeMooy to demon-

strate that if thrips are controlled with a minimum (2) insecticide input

yield levels will be elevated. The farmer believes and adopts only what he

sees and likes;so naturally this trial was conducted on-farm across the

country. In some cases, drought took the better part of the crop and

nothing scientific or otherwise could be done about it. Where there

had been a rain spell and the crop was in relatively good shape the

experiment was a success. ER-7 always performed better than the local

variety.

Given the importance one attaches to such on-farm trials, I feel

no restraint at all in recommending that this trial be continued for a

number of years.

A few points are noteworhty. Spraying was recommended if more than

2 thrips were found per flower. Normally, thrips damage is done at the

flower bud stage (i.e. prior to flowering) and therefore if there was a

heavy infestation of thrips, waiting to estimate the number in the flowers

before application of insecticide would be misleading and costly advice.

If an action threshold has to be established it must either be based on a

visual stipule/leaf bud discoloration assessment (my preference) or an

assessment of thrips in racemes. This is a modification that should be

made for the next cropping season.

The effort made by Dr. DeMooy to organize a crash course on the various








-48-


components involved in this trial for Agricultural assistants from across

the country is most commendable.


d) Aphid resistance studies

The take off of this studies has been hampered by the lack of

a viable culture of aphids for use in inoculation. Furthermore an

appropriate location was yet to be found in the greenhouse facilities.

The first of the problems was as a result of a braconid parasite

but the situation was rectified during my visit and a new culture

w6; started. It is expected that screening of lines for resistance

will soon be initiated by Mrs. DeMooy.

Aphids appear to be a serious problem in Botwana. This year

infestation was high in some areas and not others. In Oodi (near

Sebele) for instance, over 75 percent of the plants in one farm

were infested, but in other farms in the vicinity infestation

was much lower.

Aphids will kill seedlings if attack is timely and heavy, and

will adversely affect plant productivity even when attack is late

(in plant phenology) but heavy. Additionally, a virus disease (CAMV)

which can greatly hamper plant growth and productivity is transmitted

by aphids.

It is therefore of great importance to operate an aphid screening

program. Resistant varieties are available from IITA but there is a

godd argument for screening these under Botswana conditions due

to the frequent occurrence of different biotypes.








-49-


RECOMMENDATIONS

After spending only four days with the Botswana Cowpea Project durir'.

which time I interacted extensively with Dr. DeMooy and most of his staff

I came to the conclusion that the project was on the right track and

making good progress. The staff was highly committed to meeting the

objectives of che project and were very enthusiastic and admirably

motivated.

It w-s however clear that a number of handicaps existed, both in

terms f ;ITn-power and otherwise.

F!. 'y,' i a ,C'ld .i:orki-i r.el ;r tionu shij b -t n ,-L:,F '' t this n,,eds

hb extended to other non-project staff particularly in the areas th;.,

involve agronomic research and on-farm experimental in,. .tudic:-.

on intercropping for example should be conducted in close culla-h..

tion with the British Farming Systems Research team on the station.

This would not only ease the pressure on man-power demand but would

benefit from the experience of these scientists, even where

negative results have been obtained.


2. As stated in an earlier section, there is need for increased

professional support in the area of entomology and agronomy/breeding.

Interim arrangements would suffice for now (mainly through

fee-free consultancies from IITA) but a more permanent solution

should be sought.


3. There is need for increased technical assistance in number and

quality. If this can be done through Peace Corps Volunteers fine,







-50-


but this again is simply circumventing the real problem.

Local staff should be hired and adequately trained. The continued

success of the project lies in the hands of the nationals themselves.

In this regard, more funding should be made available to the

project for hiring local staff at different levels of competence.

I was of the opinion that the scientific staff of the project were

carrying too much work load themselves. This situation is one

of considerable concern.

4. Technical assistants should be sent to IITA for short intensive

training during IITA's cropping season which coincides with

Botswana's off-season.. Preferably one in entomology and one in

agronomy/breedi ng.


Acknowl edgements

I would like to express my appreciation to the CSU/CRSP/Botswana

Cowpea Project for paying my travel costs and to Director of GLIP,

,. S.R. Sigqh for granting permission to travel and paying for all other

:; -n is2s. ., hosts :. anu ,' 3. J. DeMC, y \'ere nO:.t .. ..-, u e

time, facilities and informative discussions were high appreciated.



LOUIS E. N. UACKAIt Ph, D.
&LO)mutopi






-51- Appendix B
Travel Report Botswana

B.B. Singh

January 29 to February 7, 1984




Purpose:

To visit cowpea variety trials in Botswana. The trip was funded by

the CSU/Botswana Cowpea CRSP Project.


Itinerary and persons visited See Appendix 1.


Significant Observations

Botswana is currently experiencing one of the worst drought in its history.

In the normal year, Kalahari desert receives about 200 mm rainfall and the rest

of the country receives between 400 to 700 mm spread over September to

February which permits cultivation of sorghum, millets, groundnuts, cowpeas

and at some places maize. This year,the total rainfall up to February 7, 1984

ranged from less than 150 mm to 250 mm in the whole country. Thus, the

whole of Botswana is like Kalahari desert this year. Driving through the

country, one sees acres and acres of maize, sorghum and millets wilted

beyond recovery point. Most of the late maturing cowpeas and groundnuts have

also been badly affected and may not recover unless it rained within a week.

It is in this background that the performance of early and medium maturing

cowpeas has attracted considerable attention throughout Botswana. In the

numerous cowpea variety trials and demonstrations conducted in different

parts of Botswana, the early and medium maturing cowpea varieties had reached

maturity and may yield from 300 kg to 1000 kg per hectare when the local

cowpea variety 'Tswana' and other late maturing cowpeas had just started

flowering and may be completely destroyed by drought. Early cowpeas seem to
have tremendous future in Botswana and very rightly, the Botswana Department








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of Agriculture Research has placed considerable emphasis on promoting cowpea

cultivation in the country. During my personal visits and discussions,

Mr. David Finlay, Permanent Secretary of Agriculture and Dr. Kristian Oland,

Director of Agricultural Research indicated their full support for further

expanding the cowpea research and development project in Botswana.


CSU/Botswana Cowpea Research Project

The CSU/Botswana Cowpea Project which was initiated in 1982 has already

made considerable progress. The project is headed by Dr. C.J. Demooy and

he is supported by a few but highly motivated young staff. He has managed to

ensure full participation and sincere involvement of several developmental

agencies, farming systems projects and agricultural extension staff in the

overall implementation of the project. He is also actively collaborating with

the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and SAFGRAD in

developing early maturing, high yielding, disease and insect resistant

varieties suitable for Botswana's agro-ecosystems. His approach is highly

pragmatic and result oriented: 1) collection and evaluation of local

germplasm as well as improved breeding lines from IITA, SAFGRAD and other

sources, 2) agronomic evaluation of promising lines based on their good

performance in previous years, 3) collaborative arrangement with IITA to

develop new hybrid materials and segregating populations involving selected

parents found promising in Botswana and 4) on-farm trials of the most

promising cowpea varieties in collaboration with various developmental

agencies, farming systems projects and extension personnel.







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Cowpea Trials in 1983-84

It was a great pleasure to visit numerous well planned and properly

conducted cowpea trials (Appendix 2) in different parts of Botswana (Fig. 1).

The experiments included evaluations of over 300 germplasm lines, 7

different variety trials (S from IITA and 2 from SAFGRAD), 3 agronomic trials,

3 entomological trials and 35 on-farm variety trials.

Most of the agronomy trials were severely affected by drought and the

results may not be useful but all the variety trials and gormplasm evaluation

have been very effective in screening of materials for drought tolerance.

There were marked differences among varieties in their reaction to drought.

IT82E-8, IT82E,61, TVx 3236, IT82E-58, Queen Anne, Bo 67C, B 231, B 232,

B 233, IT82D-709, IT82D-952, IT82D-975, TVx 3236-5-2, TVx 3236-6-1,

IT82D-880, IT82D-881, IT82D-885, IT82D-887, IT82D-888 and ER-7 appeared to

be least affected by drought and were well on their way to maturity whereas

most of the other lines had either dried or were just flowering. It was

interesting to note that all of the above mentioned promising lines are

early to medium maturing. The rainfall pattern in Botswana is such that

December and parts of January have more reliable rainfall than other

months and therefore, if planted in late November or early December, early

maturing lines of cowpea have a better chance than the late ones. This

was clearly evident from the date of planting trials conducted at Goodhope.

The performance of an early maturing line IT82E-47 and medium maturing line

Blackeye was completely normal when planted on November 21 and reasonably

good on 7th December planting whereas at both dates the performance of

a late maturing variety VITA-7 was extremely poor. All the three varieties

were badly affected by drought when planted on January 5. The on-farm cowpea







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variety trials also indicated similar trend. In most of the trials, the

performance of ER-7, an early maturing variety was near normal compared to

Blackeye and Tswana local which were badly affected by drought. All the

farmers visited by us showed great interest in planting ER-7 in large scale

next year. One of the farmers, Mr. R. Masisi, of village Kgalapitse was

very grateful to Dr. C.J. Demooy and Dr. Charles Riches for conducting a

cowpea variety trial on his farm because he could clearly see a normal crop

of ER-7 cowpea when all his surrounding fields of sorghum, millet and local

cowpeas were severely hit by drought. He plans to use every seed of ER-7

for planting next year.


Specific Suggestions

Because of frequent drought in Botswana, cowpea seems to have tremendous

potential and CSU/Botswana cowpea project has great opportunity to contribute

in increasing and stabilizing food production in Botswana. It is gratifying

to note that the project is moving with great enthusiasm and missionary zeal

and it also enjoys full support from Botswana Department of Agricultural

Research and USAID Mission in Botswana. However, in order to make rapid

and sustained progress, there is a definite need to strength&h this project

in terms of additional manpower and facilities. Some specific limitations

and suggestions are indicated below:

1) Botswana falls in the latitudinal range of 21 to 24og with longer day-

lengths than those prevalent at.IITA. Therefore, some of the varieties

from IITA show moderate degree of photosensitivity, particularly when

planted in December or January and the effects get accentuated due to

drought. Therefore, a large number of breeding lines from IITA must be

evaluated every year to select most suitable and well adapted varieties








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under Botswana conditions. Under a collaborative arrangement with

CSU/Botswana cowpea project, IITA has initiated specific breeding

program for Botswana and selected crosses have been made among ER-7,

and other desirable parents. F3 seeds have already been sent to

Dr. Demooy in October 1983 for evaluation of these materials, It

would be desirable to appoint an Agronomist/Breeder at least with

B.Sc. Agri. degree and preferably with higher degrees. In case this is

immediately not possible, it would be essential to appoint a senior

technician to assist in evaluation of these materials under the supervi-

sion of Dr. Demooy and technical backstopping of the IITA cowpea breeder.


2) Over 400 cowpea germplasm lines have been collected from different

parts of Botswana by Mrs. B.E. Demooy, Research Associate, in CSU/

Botswana project and these have been evaluated,catalogued and the

results have been published in the form of a bulletin. This is one

of the most important contributions of the project. However, this work

needs to be continued and further collections should be made from the

remaining parts of Botswana. It would be desirable to provide one

technician to Mrs. Demooy exclusively for germplasm collection,

evaluation, cataloguing and storage. Also, storage facilities need

to be improved.


3) Insect pests are not a major problem at present, however, moderate

infestation of thrips, aphids and pollen eating beetles were noticed.

Therefore,it would be desirable to obtain services of an entomologist at

least for 2 months during the growing season in 1984/85.








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4) The present peace corp volunteer, Miss Julie has been extremely helpful

in the multilocation testing of cowpea varieties in Botwana. In view

of the lack of local support staff, it would be desirable to provide

the services of an additional peace corp volunteer to the CSU/Botswana

cowpea project.


5) The existing linkage between CSU/Botswana cowpea project and other

farming systems projects should be further strengthened and the project

should work hand in hand with the agronomists of all other farming

systems projects currently operational in Botswana in respect of

agronomic trials and On-farm Evaluation of the most promising cowpea

varieties under various cropping systems.


6) CSU/Botswana cowpea project should have access to at least 2 hectares of

irrigated land to ensure multiplication of promising cowpea varieties

for on-farm evaluation.


Acknowledgement

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. C.J. Demooy, Leader of the

CSU/Botswana Cowpea Project for inviting me to visit cowpea experiments and

accompanying me to all the places that we visited during my stay in Botswana.

Thanks are also due to Dr. & Mrs. C.J. Demooy, Dr. & Mrs. J. Siebert and

Dr. & Mrs. Wayne Miller for warm hospitality during my stay in Botswana.








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APPENDIX 1


Travel Report Botswana

B.B. Singh

January 29 to February 7, 1984.


Itinerary


Sunday, January 29 Arrived Gaborone.


Monday, January 30


A.M. Visit of cowpea experiments at the Agricultural Research Station,

Sebele with Dr. C.J. Demooy, Ms. B.E. Demooy, Ms. Mmasera

Manthe, Mr. Efedile Moearue and Mrs. J. Siebert.


P.M. Visit of cowpea variety trials in farmers' fields conducted

in collaboration with integrated Farming Pilot Project

(IFPP) at Pelotshethla in Lobatse District accompanied by

Dr. C.J. DeMooy and Mr. R. Edwards. Meeting with Mr. N.

Hunter, Team Leader, IFPP.


Tuesday, January 31


A.M. Meeting with Dr. K. Oland, Director of Agriculture Research

and Dr. D. Gollifer, Chief Agricultural Research Officer,

Agricultural Research Station, Sebele.


Visit of cowpea variety trials in farmers' fields at Oodie

accompanied by Dr. C.J. Demooy.


P.M. Visit of cowpea trials at Goodhope accompanied by Dr. C.J.

Demooy and Ms. Mmasera Manthe.








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Wednesday, February 1


A.M. Visit of cowpea trials at Mahalapye accompanied by Dr. C.J.

Demooy, Ms. Siebert cowpeaa pathologist) and Mr. Alain

Mayeux, the groundnut agronomist.


Meeting with the staff of Agricultural Improvement Technology

Project (ATIP) Dr. D. Norman, Team Leader and other staff.


P.M. Travel to Francistown with Dr. Demooy and Mr. Mayeux and

overnight stay.


Thursday, February 2


A.M. Meeting with the staff of ATIP Project based at Francistown -

Dr. Wayne Miller, Dr. Koch, Dr. Jeff Heinrich and others.


Visit of ATIP demonstration plots in the farmers field at

Marapong.


P.M. Travel to Motopi with Dr. Demooy and Mr. Mayeux and visit of

cowpea variety trials. Travel to Maun and overnight stay.


Friday, February 3

A.M. Travel to Moshu Agricultural Station with Dr. Demooy and

Mr. Mayeux and visit of cowpea variety trials.


P.M. Meeting with Mr. G.P. Chilume, Crop Production Officer and

Mr. B.M. Zamunzala, Technical Officer, Agric. Research Maun.

Travel to Francistown and overnight stay.








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Saturday, February 4


A.M. Travel to Gaborone.


Monday, February 6


A.M. Visit of cowpea trial planted by different planters at Sebele

Agricultural Research Station.


Visit of vegetable cowpea variety trial at Sebele conducted

by Mr. Jeff Wiles, Horticulturist and Mr. Douglous Machacha,

Technical Officer.


P.M. Visit of mungbean variety trial conducted by Dr. Gielian

Hennessy.


Visit of cowpea variety trial in the farmers' field at the

village Kgalapitse.


Tuesday, February 7


A.M. Meeting with Mr. David Finlay, Permanent Secretary of

Agriculture, Government of Botswana.

Meeting with Mr. Edward Butler, Deputy Director, USAID and

Dr. Anita Mackie, Agricultural Development Officer, USAID,

Botswana.


P.M. Departure for IITA.








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APPENDIX 2



CSU/BOTSWANA COWPEA CRSP FIELD RESEARCH PROGRAM 1983/84


Expt. 1: Germplasm evaluation
Approx. 50 cowpea lines which showed some promise on trials
conducted during the previous year planted in 4-row plots with
4 reps. Included are varieties of different growth habit and
vegetable cowpeas selected on the basis of early bloom and
maturity, yield, thrip and other insect resistance and fodder
quality from foreign and local origin, Sebele.

Expt. 2: Germplasm collection of 270 lines in single rows for
observation and general evaluation. Sebele.

Expt. 3: IITA International trials
3a. Advanced trial No. 1 Goodhope
3b. Advanced trial No. 1 Motopi
3c. Preliminary trial No. 1 Mahalapye
3d. Preliminary trial No. 2 Moshu
3e. Vegetable cowpea lines Sebele.

Expt. 4: Outcrossing experiment involving 2 varieties. Experiment
designed to determine the percentage of outcrossing under
environmental conditions in Botswana. Sebele.


Expt. 5: Variety adaptation trial.
Performance of three promising varieties selected from
1982/83 screening trials in 4-row plots with 4 replications
at 5 sites. Two or three planting dates depending on
seasonal weather conditions. Monitoring of uncontrolled
variables such as moisture, temperature, insect and
disease incidence.

Expt. 6: Intercropping trial.
Sorghum and cowpea in monoculture and alternate row
arrangement at three population levels, 3 planting dates,
4 replications. Sebele.


Expt. 7: Cultural practices trial.
Search for various packages of cultural practices using
simple implements and animal traction, starting on virgin
land, using a sorghum/cowpea rotation. Minimum tillage
with shallow cultivation and attached planter will be
evaluated against plow/planter as a standard. Sebele.









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Expt. 8: Cause of excessive f:
Cowpea plants lose m
certain conditions.
This experiment will
of thrip infestation
drop. Sebele.


lower frop in cowpeas.
ost or all of their flower buds under
Drought stress and thrips are suspected.
be designed to evaluate the effect
and drought conditions on flower


Expt. 9: Aphid resistance screening.
Experiment designed to screen between 100 and 300 local
cowpea germplasm for Aphid resistance in the greenhouse
and under field conditions.


Integrated Cowpea Pest Control Trial.
6 x 2 x 3 Factorial with 4 reps. in s
3 dates of planting
2 varieties
6 spray treatments
Goodhope, in collaboration with Mr. C


plit-plot design:



. Manthe.


Tests in farmers' fields.
Two varieties and insecticide spray treatments in
duplicate in farmers' fields at 35 sites throughout
Botswana in collaboration with various extension and
farming systems groups.


SAFGRAD International trials
12a. Medium maturity trial
12b. Early maturity trial
12c. F2 seed from 27 crosses


Goodhope
Mahalapye
Sebele.


Expt. 10:


Expt. 11:


Expt. 12:









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* ,r


MAHALApyE
*


PELOTSHJT/Li G/iBR
/Lo,,TSE


o loo &2( YrM


Fig. 1: Places in Botswana where cowpea trials were visited.







-63-
Appendix C

Trip Report
Visit to EMBRAPA, Goiania, Brazil, June 1984

Travelers: C. Jack de Mooy
Barbara E. de Mooy
Dates of visit: June 19 22, 1984
Institution: Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijao (CNPAF)
Caixa Postal 179, 74000 Goiania, GO Brasil
Tel: 261-3022
Telex: 0622241 EMPABR
Purpose of visit: The purpose of the visit to EMBRAPA was
1. to acquaint ourselves with the scope of cowpea research
in South America, the programs conducted by individual
researchers and their approach to problems including
those of the three Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects located
at EMBRAPA
2. to inform the cowpea research staff at EMBRAPA on
activities carried on by the Botswana Cowpea Project,
and
3. to explore the possibilities of exchange of cowpea
breeding materials and current progress made in the
near future.
Itinerary:
Tuesday, June 19.
We were met by Mr. Bonifacio Peixoto Magalhaes, Entomologist at EMBRAPA working
on biological control methods in cowpeas and host-country P.I. of the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP project on "Insect pathogens in cowpea pest management systems for
developing nations." A detailed itinerary was prepared for a two day visit
to the institute.
Wednesday, June 20.
We were met by Dr. Armando Conagin, Statistics Consultant to EMBRAPA who
introduced us to the Technical Director, Mr. Arnaldo Jose de Conto.

Discussion of cowpea research began with Dr. Ricardo Jose Guazzelli, coordinator
of the National Cowpea Research Program, who presented a broad overview of
cowpea research operations. Three categories of trials are conducted.
1. preliminary trials
2. advanced trials
3. regional trials

The latter two are subdivided into trials consisting of lines with spreading,
semi-spreading, and erect growth habit. State experiments are regional trials
modified to suit the interests of regional researchers.

Fourteen cowpea varieties have been released since the field trials were
initiated in 1978. Among them is the variety BR-1, previously known as CHC 27-2 E
which was derived from TVU 410 x CERIDO. It is resistant to CAMV.

The Brazilian Cowpea Germplasm Collection has approximately 800 accessions. A total
of 1225 foreign lines have been tested.








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Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, Director EMBRAPA

We met with Dr. Blumenschein at the beginning and again at the end of our visit
to the Institute. During the final meeting, he invited Batswana cowpea workers
to training programs organized by EMBRAPA staff. He encouraged exchange of ideas
and cowpea breeding materials in years to come.

Dr. Gerson Pereira Rios, phytopathologist. Dr. Rios' work involved the crossing
screening and selection of cowpea lines showing resistance to a number of
diseases present in Brazil. Evidently, there has developed a strong link of
cooperation between IITA and EMBRAPA which has helped to strengthen the progress
of cowpea production in Brazil. In 1978, a number of crosses were made at IITA
for EMBRAPA, the objective being to select lines resistant to viral diseases
present in Brazil (of the 18 known cowpea viral diseases, 8 can be found in
Brazil). From the F2 generation of these crosses evolved the cultivar CNC
1434 which was selected from the segregants as a single plant which showed immunity
to cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus (CSMV). This line was tested under natural field
infestation and artificial inoculation. The line was then tested for its
agronomic qualities and proved to be quite productive when tested against other
local and foreign accessions and over many areas. In addition to being immune to
CSMV, CNC-0434 is tolerant to nematodes, moderately resistant to scab, tolerant
to leafhopper but susceptible to CAMV.
Since CAMV is also quite prevalent throughout Brazil, Dr. Rios is crossing
CNC-0434 with BR-1, a new cultivar release resistant to CAMV. Several hundred
crosses were made but only 25 showed resistance to both diseases. The results
indicated that the lines showing resistance were all white-seeded, an unacceptable
color to Brazilian farmers. Several hundred additional crosses were then made
and the new progeny is now coming to maturity. As the pods are still maturing,
it is not known if any will have brown seeds which is the preferred color in
Brazil. Dr. Rios explained that seed color is thought to be linked to the gene
for resistance to virus disease. Mutation breeding was done by exposing some
seeds to radiation in hopes of breaking the linkage and obtaining a few segregate
resistant lines of brown seed color.
We visited several field trials of Dr. Rios. Field evaluation of viral resistance
was being conducted through artificial inoculation of lines selected from
greenhouse crosses. Other field trials included screening lines for resistance
to scab. Diseased segments were placed on seedlings and observations were made
after some days to determine if plants showed symptoms of developing scab disease.
The thought arose that more cowpea virus types may occur in Botswana than have
been recognized so far. Variation in leaf symptoms does occur. The long
experience with virus research in Brazil could be one reason for more detailed
knowledge of cowpea virus types. Although it is possible that Southern Africa
has not yet been exposed to the wide range of cowpea viruses recognized in Brazil,
renewed attention to laboratory identification of virus types encountered in
Botswana seems desirable.


We then spoke with Dr. Belmiro Periera das Nevos, Cowpea Entomologist, who
introduced us to some insect pests of cowpeas not known in Botswana. Of
particular importance are Chalcodermus sp. an insect pest which spends part
of its life cycle within the cowpea pod. The larvae feed on the seed leaving







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empty pods. The adult emerges and repeats the cycle by laying eggs through
a new host pod wall. Yields are reduced significantly nationwide. Natural hosts
of the pest include Phaseolus vulgaris, P. acuntifolius, P. lunatus,
Macroptilium sp., Vignaradiata, V. sesquipetalis and Cassia sp. Several
lines of cowpeas have been identified which are not attacked by Chalcodermus
including Vita 4, Ife Brown and crosses made with CNC. So far 18 varieties
have been identified which show some level of resistance or tolerance. Among
criteria used for evaluation of damage are the percentage of damaged seed
and counts of the number of larvae which emerged.
Dr. Nevos is also studying varietal resistance to Maruca testulalis in cowpea.
Several African varieties were found to be resistant to this pest. In
addition, he showed us field screening trials in which F3 segregating material
was being selected for resistance to Empoasca. Dr. Rios and Dr. Nevos work
closely together in their research projects developing varietal resistance
of major insects and diseases which occur in Brazil.
Another line of research is the comparison of intensity of insect infestation
under monocropping and intercropping with cassava, maize, sorghum and sugarcane.
Dr. das Nevos' findings to date support the view that insect damage is less
under monocropping than under intercropping. Dr. E. E. Watt reported the same
for curculio damage under monocropping compared to intercropping of cowpea
with sorghum, cassava and maize. This is interesting because earlier findings
in West Africa with other insects had pointed at an advantage for intercropping
at least at low cowpea yield levels. Both points of view can be reasonably
defended. Opposite conclusions may be reached for different insects, yield
levels, companion crops, and other conditions. As is the case with so many
topics involving intercropping techniques, the answers may have to be qualified.
The most striking characteristic of the Brazilian insect population is its
total difference from the situation in Botswana. Apart from Aphis craccivora,
Impoasca sp., and Callosobruchus maculatus which the two countries have in
common, most other Brazilian insect species are unknown to Botswana. Blister
beetles (Mylabris sp.) which are abundant in Botswana, do not occur in Brazil.


Thursday, June 21.
This was an official holiday.


Friday, June 22.
The first visit for the day was with Mr. Ricardo S. Araujo, host country P.I.
of the Bean/Cowpea Project "Identification of superior bean-rhizobia combinations
for utilization in cropping systems suitable to small farms in Brazil".
Also present was Dr. R. Henson, representing the University of Wisconsin as
research associate on this nitrogen fixation project. The project deals largely
with beans although some information has been collected on cowpeas.
Bean cultivars with superior nodulation had to be identified. The first screening
was performed with beans in 2-row plots without replication and 2 treatments;
one plot receiving N fertilizer and the other depending on N2 fixation through
nodulation. The best performers were then planted in 4-row plots and nodule
weight, acetylene reduction, plant dry weight and grain yield were determined.
Superior bean varieties were identified. No such differences were expected for
cowpeas. However, our findings in Botswana suggest that genetic variation in
cowpea nodulation capacity does exist.






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An interesting finding of the Boyce-Thompson team was that Streptomycin
concentrations in newly cleared land in the Amazon region may affect nodulation
of cowpeas. In the fifth year after clearing the number of Strepto-resistant
bacteria increased and nodulation also improved. Fully grown cowpea plants,
totally devoid of nodules have been found in Botswana. Although it is unlikely
that soil antibiotics are involved, it is desirable to identify the responsible
factors there. Extreme water stress, high soil temperatures, low soil pH and
low Ca-concentrations could be equally well responsible for nonnodulated cowpeas
in Botswana.
Another interesting discovery resulting from the discussion was data sheets
containing the results of a cowpea nodulation experiment conducted in Botswana
2 years earlier. The data had been analyzed at IITA but had never been
communicated to Botswana. Finding the final results in Brazil was a happy event
underlining the importance of regular contacts between cowpea CRSP researchers
in the various countries.


Mr. Carlos Rava, Co-P.I. of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP project "Improved techniques
for development of multiple disease resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris" (University
of Wisconsin). Mr. Rava is working toward a Ph.D. degree in plant pathology
and breeding in this multiple disease resistance project with Phaseolus. The
program concentrates on six bean diseases: anthracnose, rust, bacterial blight
angular leaf spot, bean common mosaic and golden mosaic. Each disease has a
specific ecological zone with the exception of rust which occurs generally
throughout Brazil. The program is developing in a direction involving several
researchers, each researcher taking responsibility for one or two diseases
including breeding activities. All of them joining forces towards an integrated
solution. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP program will be working as one of the teams towards
the common goals. The discussion centered on procedures used in arriving at
disease resistance. The general approach is to find resistance to two diseases
combined with desirable agronomic characters such as reasonably good yield.
Thenmaking crosses. Although largely designed for Phaseolus, there is a possibility
that the program will be expanded into cowpeas since EMBRAPA already has a
strong interest in all aspects of research.


Dr. Richard A. Daoust, Insect Pathologist (cowpeas) representing the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP project on "Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest
Management Systems for Developing Nations" (Boyce Thompson
Institute)
The biological insect control program on which Dr. Daoust is working, involves
the development of a fungal biological control method for the cowpea insect pest
curculio. Much of the entomological infrastructure at EMBRAPA was set up by him.
A large culture room houses several insect species which are used for study and
genotype screening experiments.
Insect pathology has reached the stage of practical application in that certain
pathogens are being produced on a large scale with good purity for use in
control of specific insect pests in plantations. Research is now becoming the
limiting factor according to Richard. Effectiveness of insect pathogens has
been established in the laboratory but effectiveness under field conditions is
dependent on a number of factors including weather and cultural practices. It
is likely that a significant level of suppression will be achieved in the field
in a short period of time. Meanwhile, the industry may be running ahead of
research in this area.







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Mr. Cleber Morais Guimaraes, Crop Physiologist (bean/cowpea)
Cleber works on screening of drought-tolerant cowpea varieties. Using a line
source irrigation system, his strategy is to select tolerant varieties to
soil moisture stress by comparing each variety's performance across a range
of soil-moisture conditions. Soil moistures were recorded at regular intervals
using a tensiometer. Since good rains had preceded planting, and no pre-plant
soil moistures were determined, it is unlikely that genotypic differences will
show up across the moisture regime applied, either in the field or in the data
collected. No great differences in moisture stress could be detected on the
day of our visit.
It was agreed to exchange plant material for further drought studies. We have
agreed to send Cleber some of our local Botswana material which we think may be
drought tolerant.


Mr. Edson H. N. Vieira, M.Sc. Seed Technology
Mrs. Moris Regina de Almeida Vieira, M.Sc. Seed Technology
Mr. Vieira has been in charge of cowpea germplasm since the 1979 collection in
Brazil. He reviewed the procedures used at EMBRAPA for the multiplication and
distribution of certified seed. Breeding lines are given to the seed multiplicatior
unit after 4 to 6 generations at which time the lines are grown for increase.
Foundation seed is produced by EMBRAPA and State-controlled companies. Fifty
percent of the foundation seed is stored at the Research Station while the other
50% is sent out for multiplication as certified seed. Up to 1% off-type is
allowed in foundation seed. Certified seed is produced by private growers for
commercial distribution. Only 2% or less varietal impurity is allowed for
certified seed. When a variety falls below this limit, State farms apply for new
foundation seed. However, less than 1% of the farmers use certified cowpea seed
compared with 80% in wheat and soybeans.
Mr. Vieira thought at first that cowpea seed had a dormancy period but found that
low germination rates were due to hardness of the seed coat. Ninety percent of
the seed germinated after 90 days.
Phostoxin is used for fumigation of seed in SMU. Farmers use Eucalyptus leaves,
soybean oil or soil from termite hills. Ashes are not used in Brazil for seed
storage. Seeds of certain varieties were found to turn darker with time in
storage. An investigation is being conducted to determine if change in seed color
is correlated with cooking quality or protein quality. Also if the color change
is affected by moisture content of the air and the seed or light and temperature
conditions.


Dr. Marlene Silva Freire
The EMBRAPA Germplasm unit holds accessions of rice, beans and cowpea. The
accessions are derived from donations by national and international research
institutes as well as from collections of local cultivars. The cowpea germplasm
collection started in 1976. Many of the original accessions were derived from
IITA in Nigeria. Total cowpea accessions number over 2,000. Sub-samples of all
accessions are sent to CENERGEN in Brasilia for long-term storage. We visited
the cold storage facilities at EMBRAPA where an active collection of all accessions
is stored for use by researchers at the station and also for distribution to other
institutions working with similar crops. Samples of 50 grams are handed out







-68-


upon request. The researchers must multiply the seed to cover additional require-
ments. Seed storage temperature is mostly 12C with 30 to 40% relative humidity
but at Brasilia seed is stored at -200C. As samples enter the collection they
are assigned a number, catalogued and planted for field evaluation. Each line
is evaluated for its agronomic and morphologic characteristics using 16 descriptors.
An inter-disciplinary approach is used to evaluate the accessions for disease
and insect resistance. This insures that all research scientists get an opportunity
to inspect the germplasm pool while it is growing and to select lines carrying
desirable characteristics for their particular interests. Accessions are stored
in paper cartons and all relevant information concerning each line has been stored
on computer tapes. Dr. Freire runs the Germplasm Unit herself and her technical
staff is made up of personnel trained by herself and Mr. Vieira. Additionally,
she has several field laborers which help with the planting, harvesting and
sorting of seed samples. We agreed to exchange materials and information with
Dr. Freire and a copy of the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue was left at EMBRAPA


Mr. Jaime Robrito Fousecan EMBRAPA Germplasm unit
We met Jaime as he was returning from a cowpea germplasm collection trip in the
northeastern portion of the country. He explained his sampling and collection
methods and described the genetic diversity and farming methods he encountered
during his expeditions. Ecological maps are used to select the villages where
he will sample for germplasm. These maps contain precise soil and climatic
data and Jaime is able to select sites with similar conditions. He visits 50
farmers per micro-ecological zone. Using this method, he can identify the lines
which thrive best in dry versus humid conditions. Collections are made from
farmers field and markets. Seed mixtures are often preferred by farmers because
the genetic diversity forms an insurance against total crop failure, especially
during excessively dry years. Farmers perfer large, beige or tan-colored seeds
and all breeding programs at EMBRAPA are aiming at genotypes expressing these
characteristics. When asked about farming practices, Mr. Fousecan said that
women and children contributed a great deal to the production of cowpeas on
family farms. Cowpeas are often intercropped with other staple foods Planting
is done with a planting stick or draft power but never broadcast.




-69- Appendix D


TRIP REPORT

Visit.to Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques,
Bambey, Senegal


Traveler: C. Jack de Mooy
Datesof visit: September 11 13, 1984
Purpose of visit: 1. to learn about the approach and organization of a
sister project in cowpea research located in the
semi-arid subsahelian region
2. Although starting from a different set of indigenous
cultivars and breeding materials and operating in a
tropical zone of low latitude while pursuing somewhat
different goals, the exchange of views and experiences
would be of'benefit to both sides.
Itinerary: September 11. Visit to ISRA/Institut Senegalais de Recherches
Agricoles, Dakar. Meetings with:
Dr. P. I. Thiongane, Directeur General de l'ISRA
.Dr. Mamadou Sonko, Directeur Scientifique
de 1'ISRA
Visit to USAID Mission, Dakar
Meeting with Mr. John McMahon, ADO
September 12. Visit to CNRA, Bambey
Meetings with Dr. Mbaye Ndoye, Directeur de 1'ISRA
a Bambey and staff
Visits to field trials at Thiakhar and Thiatatao
September 13. Visits to research substation at Louga, and other
locations including Touba.
Concluding discussion session at Bambey


Comment on visit to Bambey Experiment Station and
outlying experimental farms


The total area under cowpeas in Senegal is approximately 55,000 ha compared with
one million hectares of sorghum and millet and more than one million hectares
under groundnuts. The cowpea varieties most commonly grown are 59-9 in the
eastern region and South of Gambia; 58-57 which is the only variety distributed
to farmers, and N'Diambour which was derived from 58-57 for the drier northern
region. Varieties from IITA are generally not favored due to color and seed size.

The tour of experimental stations and private farmers' fields surrounding
Bambey and the northern areas around Louga and Touba presented the
opportunity to observe the effect of drought on cowpea production. Conditions
became progressively drier towards the North and the crop noticeably shorter
and more thinly populated. Like is the case in Botswana, early-maturing
varieties are thought to be the answer to drought stress. The breeding work
in collaboration with the University of California at Riverside aims
primarily at the development of early-maturing varieties with erect growth
habit, resistance to high night temperature in relation to flower abscission,
and resistance to bruchids as a storage pest.
Inspection of the variety trials at the experimental stations showed good
performance of early varieties developed at Riverside.
The variety 58-57 has the useful characteristic of producing considerable
forage after grain harvest. This is a spreading variety which, however, is
likely to be too late when grown at the higher latitude of Botswana.






-70-


Interesting observations were occurrence of an exceedingly voracious pest,
Amsacta molonegi, a hairy caterpillar which is unknown in Botswana. It is hoped
that a biological control method will be found effective (B. thuringiensis).
Also the occurrence of stem blight which is caused by Phoma vignal and
Phyllosticta spp.

The Senegalese team is considering an indigenous germplasm collection activity.
They would like to set up a program for the farmer from seed supply to harvest
and including storage facilities which will protect the crop from bruchid weevils.

It is interesting that ISRA considers research trials in farmers' fields
including intercropping and soil fertility treatments as part of their
responsibility. This is done in collaboration with the Extension Service
(Sodeva-Society de Vulgarisation) in much the same way as is done by the
Cowpea CRSP project in Botswana. The findings to date appear valuable in
guiding station research into practical avenues. A description of the current
program is attached.

Protection from bruchids can be accomplished by the use of 44 gallon drums which
can hold 170 kg of seed. At regular grain prices the use of drums may not be
profitable but with recent grain prices up to 800 CAF per kg, drums would be
profitable. The use of Neem leaves or seed (Azadirecta indica) for insect
control in storage was mentioned. Neem trees are common in Botswana and may
have useful application for protection of seed from weevils in storage.

The concluding session was attended by:
Dr. Mbaye Ndoye
Mr. Mamadou Ndiaye, microbiologist, biological nitrogen fixation
Mr. Ndiaga Cisse, crop breeder
Mr. Thiaka Diouf, crop physiologist
Mr. Claude Dancette, agro-climatologist
Dr. Dago Seck, storage entomologist
Ms. Khady Diop, entomologist
Mr. Moustafa Fall, technician
Mr. Mankheur Fall, agronomist, research & development
Mr. Moustapha Diop, manager Louga Substation
Dr. Anthony Hall
Dr. P. N. Patel
Dr. C. J. de Mooy

The discussion session focused primarily on the Research Station/Extension
collaborative program. The programs of both countries were compared with
mention of special points for possible improvement which was considered very
useful for both parties.







-71-


TESTS EN MILIEU PAYSAN



PROTOCOLE



OBJECTIF :
Mise au point en milieu paysan de systemes de culture a base
de nieb6, en rotation avec du mil souna. Ces tests faciliteront les choix
vari6taux, les choix de techniques culturales (condition de semis, 6carte-
ments, fertilisation, rotation, traitements phytosanitaires et entretien)
et enfin le choix du ou des systfmes de culture les plus rentables et les
plus facilement adopts dans les conditions reelles du milieu paysan.


CONDITIONS GENERALSS:
Les disciplines de recherche impliquees dans ces tests sent :
la pr6vulgarisation, la physiologie fertilisationn) du ni6b6, la selection
du nieb6, la h0zobiologie la defense des cultures, la bioclimatologie (ges-
tion .'e l'eau et systmres de culture).
Une collaboration est assure entire l'ISIA et la SODEVA : choix
des localities, des paysans encadres, problems de transfers des ccnsignes ,
suivi des cultures, valorisation des rdsultats etc. Huit cultivateurs, en
2 localities voisines sont retenus pour ces tests, dans les environs de Bam-
bey, a proximity de K&r Saer : a THIAKHAR et A THIATATAO.


TRAITEMENTS : *
Ils sont d6taill6s ci-dessous. Il n'y a pas derep~tition.
Le dispositif comprend 16 parcellesrandomis6es de 10m X .10m s6pa-
r6es par des allies de 2m de large ; l'emprise du dispositif est de 2 500M2
(50m X 50m). On envisage de mat6rialiser les limits de parcelles par des
lignes de bissap implant6es dans les allies. Il est souhait6 que ces tests
puissent etre reconduits pendant plusieurs annies sur les m@mes sitesd'oO
la n6cessit6 de prevoir des la lere annee des parcelles semnes en mil, a des
fins de rotation avec le nieb6.


.' SRA SODEVA CRSP NIEBE


BAMBEY 1984






-72-


a) Cultures pures de niebe (Parcelles n0l A 7)
Trois vari6ets oot 6t& revenues : la variet4 s&ne'galaise
la plus rtsistante A la secheresse (V.58-57), une des meilleures vari6t6s
am&ricaines (v. 1-2-1) et la vari6te Ja plus performance des essais SAFGRAD;
originaire de.1'I.I.T.A, 1'I.A.R 48.
58-57 et IAR 48 pont sem6es A 60 X 60 cm, &cartement
adopt A partir des travaux de station. 1-2-1 reste aux anciens 6cartements
pr&conis 45 X 45 cm, plus conformes aux densities am6ricaines pour lesquel-
les il a ctW shlectionnA. Pour 58-57 et IAR 48, les parcelles utiles auront
6,0 x 6,0 i e. pour 1-2-1 5,85 m x 5,85 m. Pour 58-57, on compare 4 niveaux
de fumire minrrale, A des fins de reduction du coOt des intrants, compatibles
avec un niveau de rendement satisfaisant,et le maintien de la fertilitA des
sols :
Parcelle 1 : future vulgaris6e = 150 kg/Ha de 6-20-10s
Parcelle 2 = pas de fumure minerale (c'est un temoin)
Parcelle 3 = phosphate tri- calcique = 200 ks/ha
Il y aurait lA une solution possible pour rMduire notablement le coOt des
engrais
Parcelle 4 = idem 3 + un apport de soufre grace A 5:.kg/ha
phosploj.yjse.
Parcelle 6 et 7 = sur IAR 48, on ne corparera que 1'ap-
po:t ou nom de la future vulgarisee.
On ne prevoit pas de pre4pat-ion sp4ciale du sol, sinon le grattage
habituel ; la protection physto sanitaire sera assure (pour toutes les
parcelles d'ailleurs, que ce soit mil ou ni&bb). Le ni0b6 viendra apres
un p.crdent mil.
b) Culture associ6e (Parcelles nO 8)
Sur la parcelle 8, mil souna III et: nieb6 58-57 sont
a:-soci6s. Le mil est sem6 en sec ; on attendra qu'il ait levA pour implanter
plus facilement le niebe dans l'interligne. IE. nib6 sera done sema A la
2eme pluie utile. Le mil est sem6 A 480 nm d'interligne et 90 cm sur la li-
gne density6 moiti pEr rapport A la normale. Dans l'interligne de 180 cm
on installera une double ligne de niMbR 58-57 60 x 60 cm. La parcelle uti-
le sera de 7, 2 x 5,4 m. La parcelle recoit la fumure minerale du mil.
c) Cultures derobtes. (Parcelles n09 eY" 10)
Sur les parcelles 9 et 10, on seme du mil souna III a
180 x 45 cm. density6 6quivalerte 5 la culture pure A 90 x 90 cm). En
general, les rendements pour cette g6ometrie sent les m&mes que pour la
gecmetrie normal.





-73-


Mais ainsi, il est plus facile d'entretenir la culture et surtout
d'implanter le nieb& d6robe dans l'interligne. Ce ni6b6 d6rob6 sera instal-
16 en ligne double dans l'interligne du mil, A 60 x 60 cm, 1 mois et demi A
2 mois apres la lere pluie utile ayant fait lever le mil. Dans la parcelle
9, on a choisi la variety& locale NDOUT tres intfressante pour ses perfor-
mances en grain et en fane et dans la parcelle 10, la varie4t de ni6bb
66-16, tres productive en grain et plus hative que la NDOUT.
d) Cultures pures de mil (Parcelles no 11 a 16)
Le mil souna III est pr6vu en culture 'pure car on s'int&resse A
l'enser ble des systems de culture mil-ni6b4 et aussi parce qu'on a besoin
d'un precedent cultural sQr et homogene pour les traitements niebb de 1'an-
nee suivante.
Comme on dispose de 6 Parcelles de mil pur, on a pr6f6rg les
partager en vue de compare les 2 g6omrtries de cultures = 90 x 90 cm
(parcelles 11, 12 et 13) et 180 x 45 cm (parcelles 14, 15 et 16) ; ainsi
les densit6s sont les memes, mais la g6omrtrie A 180 x 45 cm, qui n'a rien
fait perdre sur les rendements en station lors des ann6es prec6dentes, faci-
lite,en revanche,les interventions culturales (sarclo binage surtout) et
la r6ussite des cultures associees et d&robees.
Partout oa le mil est A 180 x 90 cm (cultures associees) oV a
180 x 45 cm (cultures d6rob6es et pures), les lines sont orientees Ouest-
Est, pour des raisons d'6clairage et de photosynthfse.


OBSERVATIONS RECOLTE
Des analyses de fertility sont prevues (physiologie)
L'efficacit6 de la symbiose fixatrice de l'azote chez le ni6b6
sera 6tudi6e (Rhjzobiologie) en course de culture et a la recolte.
les rendements en grain et paille seront mesures sur les surfaces
utiles revenues.
Des observations visuelles seront consignees lors Oes visites-=
6tat g6n6ral, taux de converture approch6, states physiologiques, florai-
son, indices de stress 6ventuels etc...






-74-


CRSP Nieb6


TESTS EN MILIEU PAYSAN
BAMBEY 1984


Parcelle Especes Type de Ecartements Fumure Semis Rotation
et varies culture Parcelle uti minerale
___le (kg/Ha)
1 Niebb 5857 Pure 60 x 60 cm 6-20-10 lere pluie avec 11
(150)
2 Ni6bb 58-57 Pure 60 x 60 cm
6,0 x 6,0 m 0 Idem avec 12
3 Niebe 58-57 Pure 60 x 60 cm phosphate tri
6,0 x 6,0 m calc (200) Idem avec 13
4 Niebe 58-57 Pure 60 x 60 cm phosphogyse
.6,0 x 6,0 m (50)phosphate Idem avec 14
S 1' tri calc 200
5 Ni6b6 1.2.1 Pure 45 x 45 cm 6-20-10
5,85 x 5,85 (150) Idem avec 8
6 Ni6b6 IAR 48 Pure 60 x 60 cm 6-20-10
5,85 x 5,85 (150) Idem avec 15
7 Nieb6 IAR 48 Pure 60 x 60 cm
6,0 x 6,0 m 0 Idem avec 16
8 Mil SounaIII 180x90 cm 14-7-7 (150) mil semen en
Associ6e 7,2 x 5,4m uree (100) nieb6 .i avec 5
__ 2me pluie
9 Mil SounaII 180 x 45 cm 14-7-7 (150)Mil seme en
7,2 x 5,4m ureel00 SEC.nieb6 sur lui
45 a 60 Jour mgme
d&rob6e apJris lre
pluie
10 Mil sounall 180 x 45 cm 14-7-7 Mil semen en
Ni6be 66-16 7,2 x 5,4m (150) u -.Nii%e5 a sur lui-m@-:
derobee iure (100) 60 J apres me
lere pluie
11 Mil Souna II 90 x 90 Cm 14-7-7 (150) semis en sec
pure 7,2 x 5,4m uree (100) (15 Juin) avec 1
12 Mil sounaIII 90 x 90 cm
pure 7,2 x 5,4m Idem Idem avec 2
13 Mil sounaIII 90 x 90 cm
pure 7,2 x 5,4m Idem .Idem avec 3
LL. Mil sounaIII 180 x 45 cm
pure 7,2 x 5,4m Idem Idem avec 4
15 Mil sounaIII 180 x 45cm
pure 7,2 x 5,4 Idem Idem avec 6

16 Mil sounaIII 180 x 45 cm
____ _____Pure 7,2 x 5,4m Idem Idem avec 7







-75-


Appendix E


Report on TDY at CSU, Fort Collins
with visits to University of California, Riverside,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, and
Kansas State University, Manhattan

June 25 September 7, 1984

Itinerary C. J. de Mooy:

June 25 July 23 On TDY at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
July 24 26 Visit to Bean/Cowpea CRSP project of Dr. A. Hall, University
of California, Riverside
July 30 August 15 On TDY at Colorado State University, Fort Collins
August 16 23 On TDY at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
August 23 25 Visit to Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
August 27 29 On TDY at Michigan State University, East Lansing
September 3 7 On TDY at Colorado State University, Fort Collins


1. TDY at Colorado State University from June 25 July 23, July 3 0 August 15,
and September 3 7, 1984
Immediately upon arrival at CSU contacts were renewed with two host-country
graduate students of the Botswana Cowpea Project, Mr. Peter Montshiwa and
Ms. Mmasera Manthe, who had been transferred to CSU earlier for academic course work
Meetings were held with several administrators at CSU inside as well as outside the
Agronomy Department. Among those within the department were:
Dr. Wayne Keim, Head of department and institutional representative,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Dr. W. R. Schmehl, on-campus representative
Dr. D. R. Wood, on-campus representative
and other faculty members involved with training of Batswana students
or otherwise related to the cowpea project.
Among those outside the department of agronomy:
Dr. J. R. Meiman. Associate Vice-President for Research and Director,
International Programs
Dr. J. W. Oxley. Director Title XII Programs
Dr. W. R. Thomas. Acting Dean, College of Agricultural Sciences
Ms. Maxine Tamlin. Administrative Officer to the Botswana Cowpea
Project, College of Agricultural Sciences
Mr. Galen Frantz. Contract & Grants Officer
Ms. Phyllis Wendell. Member, Foreign Relations Committee and Agriculture
Committee of the Congressional Committee of Technology Assessment,
Washington, D.C.
Two seminars were presented at CSU on the Cowpea Project in Botswana.
Arrangements were made as necessary for four graduate students on the Project:
Mr. Peter Montshiwa, Ms. Mmasera Manthe, and Ms. Karen Conniff at CSU,
and Ms. Barbara de Mooy, at MSU.
Graduate student committee members were appointed and committee meetings held
for each Project student.








-76-


Discussions were held with Drs. Schmehl and Keim to settle graduate student
stipends and allowances while serving on the Project.
Instrumentation, equipment, and materials were ordered for use in Botswana and
shipment arrangements made.
Fiscal reports on Project spending in Botswana were made to the administration
of the College of Agricultural Sciences.
The budget was prepared for financial year 1984/85.
Arrangements were made for TDY at the University of California at Riverside,
Michigan State University at East Lansing, and Kansas State University at
Manhattan. Also, country clearance for visits by de Mooy and Conniff to the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP project in Senegal and IITA at Ibadan, Nigeria in September 1984.
Review and clearance of three technical papers with the Agronomy Department.
Interviewed a Peace Corps candidate for the vacant position with the Cowpea
Project in Botswana.
Made arrangements for written preliminary examination of Ms. Karen Conniff,
conferred with graduate committee members, and chaired oral prelims session.
The candidate passed and arrangements were made for her transfer to Botswana
to commence dissertation research activities there.
Negotiations were made with several applicants for two temporary positions with
the Botswana Cowpea Project in Botswana. This led to hiring of Dr. A. K. Karel,
entomologist, for a 3-month consultancy, and arrangements for an interview with
Dr. D. Burke for the position of legume pathologist/breeder at Sebele, Botswana.
Discussions with Mr. Frank E. Peairs, extension entomologist at CSU concerning
insecticide labels suitable for use with ultra low volume sprayers.


2. Trip Report, visit to Dr. Anthony Hall, University of California at Riverside.
Travelers: C. J. & B. E. de Mooy
Period: July 24 26, 1984
Itinerary:
July 24, pm. At Los Angeles, we were joined by Dr. Doug Burke, USDA plant
pathologist from Prosser, Washington.- We discussed the research
program of the Botswana Cowpea Project and the research activities
associated with the temporary position of cowpea breeder/
pathologist at Sebele
July 25, am. At Riverside with Dr. A. Hall, The morning was spent in the field
nursery and experimental plots at UCR and discussing Dr. Hall's
approach to breeding for tolerance to high night temperature
in cowpeas and the results obtained to date. We were accompanied
by Dr. D. Burke. Other staff who joined the meeting included
Dr. P. N. Patel, cowpea breeder at UCR, Ms. Barbara Robertson,
Mr. Samba Thiaw, Mr. Cass Mutters and other graduate students
associated with the cowpea project at UCR.
pm. The Botswana Cowpea Project was discussed during the afternoon.
Approach, activities, and results obtained were presented in
sufficient detail to support a lively discussion involving all
those present from which followed many valuable suggestions.
At the end of the day, a list of varieties and breeding materials
in use at UCR was made up which could prove useful for the Botswana







-77-


selected. The seed will be grown in the screenhouse at
Sebele for seed multiplication if no disease symptoms appear.
The lines will then be entered in the variety evaluation trials
which will be in the interest of both, Botswana and UCR.
In conclusion, it appeared that the UCR and Botswana Cowpea
Projects supplement each other very well with little or no
duplication of research efforts.
July 26, am. Final discussion with Dr. Burke who may join the Cowpea Project
in Botswana for a 6 month period later this year.
pm. Return to CSU


3. TDY at Michigan State University, East Lansing, from August 16 23 and
August 27 29
Meetings were held with several people who are involved with the cowpea project:
Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell, Director, Bean/Cowpea Management Office
Ms. Anne Ferguson, Women-in-Development Specialist, Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Ms. Nancy Horn, in charge of preparation Botswana Resource Guide,
Women in Agriculture
Dr. Wayne Adams, Professor of Crop and Soil Sciences, Chairman, graduate
committee Ms. B. E. de Mooy
Dr. Don Isleib, Associate Dean & Director, Institute of International
Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Dr. Kim Wilson, Assistant Director, International Programs
Dr. P. R. N. Chigaru, Director, Department of Research, Ministry of
Agriculture, Harare, Zimbabwe
A seminar was presented on the program of the Botswana Cowpea Project and results
obtained over a two-year period.
Two papers were written on cowpea research advances in Botswana which were
submitted for placement in Research Highlights:
1. Search for more suitable cowpea varieties for semi-arid conditions
in Botswana.
2. Search for more appropriate cultural practices and agricultural
implements for cowpea production under semi-arid conditions in Botswana.


4. Trip Report, visit to Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University at
Manhattan, Kansas.
Traveler: C. J. de Mooy
Period: August 23 25
The purpose of the visit was discussion of the nature of the research activities
and results obtained by the Botswana Cowpea Project in relation to Agricultural
Technology Improvement Program (ATIP) which is also operating in Botswana and
for which Kansas State University is the U.S. lead institution.
A seminar was presented to the staff at KSU on the results and direction of
research conducted by the Botswana Cowpea Project.
Discussions were held with Dr. George Ham, Dr. L. V. Withee, and Dr. R. L.
van der Lip on the same subject.








-78-
Appendix F

Trip Report

Visit to International Institute Tropical Agriculture
Ibadan, Nigeria

Travellers: C. Jack de Mooy
Karen Conniff
Dates of visit: September 15 21, 1984
Objectives of visit: 1. to acquaint Ms. Conniff with cowpea research at
IITA, and procedures and facilities used by the
Grain Legume Improvement Program (GLIP)),
2. to evaluate the large number of new breeding lines
produced by Dr. B. B. Singh and associates on IITA
campus and at outlying research centers in the northern
semi-arid region of Nigeria for potential use in
Botswana,
3. to carry seed of the most promising varieties to
Botswana for immediate application in the experimental
program there.
Itinerary:
Saturday, September 15. Meeting with Dr. B. B. Singh
Sunday, September 16. Meeting with Dr. B. B. Singh. Tour of IITA plots
Monday, September 17. Meetings with Drs. B. B. Singh, L. Jackai, and E.M.
Terry.
Ms. Conniff made a tour of research laboratories and
greenhouse areas to get acquainted with the GLIP
program and procedures used in testing for resistance
to aphids and other insect pests such as bruchids and
thrips. The cowpea breeding program was reviewed
including making of crosses and incorporation of
disease resistance
Dr. B. B. Singh invited us to accompany him on a field
tour to the northern province of Nigeria from
September 19 21.
Tuesday, September 18. Meetings with Dr. E. H. Hartmans, director-general IITA;
Dr. H. C. Ezumah, farming systems production agronomist;
Dr. R. Lal, soil scientist; Mr. C. Garman, agricultural
engineer; Dr. K. N. Nguyen, statistician.
Dr. Ezumah described baseline data analysis and identi-
fication of problems and constraints as a continuous
process, use of representative locations in the
national programs network as testing sites for new
materials and methods, especially for cowpea/maize
intercropping.
Time was spent with Dr. Lal discussing methods of land
clearing, cropping systems, especially the minimum
tillage approach. We joined Mr. Garman to see various
implements, including planters, in operation. The
simple roll and injection planter appeared suitable for







-79-


tillage practices being considered for Botswana since this
planter will not accumulate loose mulch while moving
across the field.
We briefly met with Dr. S. A. Shoyinka, cowpea breeder at
Zaria, who will accompany us on the trip to the North.
September 19 21. The tour to the northern province served primarily to allow
some close examination of the performance of the latest
cowpea lines developed by Dr. B. B. Singh. We visited
Kaduna and experimental substations at Zaria/Samaru
and Kano.
Several lines drew our attention for desirable character.
One of them was IT82D-716, a medium maturity variety of
high yielding capacity. It appeared rather susceptible
to Septoria which would be of little consequence in
Botswana. At Kano, it was found affected by mosaic but
only to a low degree. The variety carries its pods high
on long peduncles which would make it suitable for
mechanical harvesting. Possible drought resistance could
be evaluated in Botswana. It was very fortunate that
Dr. Singh could provide our team with sufficient seed of
this and two other varieties to conduct extensive trials
in Botswana during the 1984/85 season. Other lines were
selected on desirable qualities for dual purpose
(semi spreading, combining leafiness with high yield)
or forage quality (highly vegetative, spreading and
resistant to bacterial blight (IT81D-981).
Some of these lines were IT81D-897, 982, 720, 629-10;
IT82D-649, 719; IT83-S-473-1, 2 and 4, 742-13, 602-1 and 2,
319-5, 789, 725-9, 672-5, 681-2, 709.
However, seed from these varieties was not available at the
time. The trip was of great interest as a thorough
introduction to the best lines coming up at IITA.





Appendix G


-80-


COWPEA CRSP FIELD RESEARCH PROGRAM 1984/85


Expt. 1 Germplasm evaluation
Agronomic evaluation of 50 exotic and indigenous cowpea lines,
selected from performance trials during the previous 2 years,
planted in 4-row plots with 4 reps. Screening primarily for
high yield, drought resistance, desirable growth habit,earliness,
disease and insect resistance. Sebele, Motopi.

Expt. 2 General evaluation of USDA cowpea materials in single rows with
irrigation facility to ensure at least some reproduction. Sebele.

Expt. 3 Screening of new cowpea lines from IITA and SAFGRAD
3a. IITA Extra Early trial. Goodhope, Motopi.
3b. IITA Medium Maturity trial. Mahalapye, Maun area.
3c. Bruchid resistant trial. Sebele.
3d. Vegetable cowpea International trial. Sebele.
3e. SAFGRAD International trial. Mahalapye.

Expt. 4 Variety adaptation trial
Performance of 3 promising varieties selected from previous
trials in 4-row plots with 4 reps at 5 sites. Three planting dates
depending on seasonal weather conditions. Monitoring of uncontrolled
variables such as soil moisture, temperature, insect and disease
incidence. Sebele, Goodhope, Mahalapye, Motopi, Maun area.

Expt. F Evaluation of F3 and F5 breeding materials derived from Botswana
germplasm x exotic crosses. Approximately 60 lines. Irrigated.
Sebele.

Expt. 6 Estimation of percentage natural outcrossing in cowpeas at various
plant populations under environmental conditions of Botswana.
Sebele.

Expt. 7 Intercropping trial
Sorghum and cowpea in monoculture and alternate row arrangement
at 3 population levels, 3 planting dates, 4 reps, 2 locations.
Sebele, Goodhope.

Expt. 8 Cultural practices trial
Search for various packages of cultural practices using simple
implements and animal traction under sorghum/cowpea rotation,
starting with virgin land. Minimum tillage with shallow cultivation
and planting in once-over operation will be compared with plow/
planter as standard. Sebele, in coTlabo'riidt'or.with-'Mr.D-.,orspob].

Expt. 9 Moisture conservation trial
Effect of grass mulch and tied ridges in 2 x 2 factorial on soil
temperature and moisture conservation, root system and yield of
2 cowpea lines.

Expt.10 Nodulation evaluation trial
Comparison of local cowpea lines which showed significantly better
nodulation than average 2 years ago with an equal number of varieties
believed to be poor nodulators. Sebele.






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Expt.ll Soil Fertility trial
The effect of 3 rates of P application and addition of Zn and
other micronutrients will be evaluated on deep sand soils of
the northern region. Motopi.

Expt.12. Integrated Cowpea Pest Control trial
6 x 2 x 3 Factorial with 4 reps in split-plot design:
3 dates of planting
2 varieties
6 spray treatments
Goodhope, in collaboration with Mr H. Mokgweetsi.

Expt.13 Tests in farmers' fields
Variety and spraying trials in duplicate in farmers' fields at
35 sites throughout Botswana in collaboration with Agricultural
Field Services and Farming Systems groups.

Seed multiplication of cowpea research materials under irrigation.




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