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Babylend is a little magazine that mothers and
babies -Ke in clientnt ways. The baby likes It, of
course, because it makes him happy. That is reason
S enough. The mother likes it because with such
pictures and taltes and talk-,tiff she has no end of
S resource. for keeping the baby good."
What is a "good baby ? Why, a baby that is
contented and (Ioesn't squall when he Is properly
taken care of: a baby brought up on Bohpabyland.
Send tie cents to D. Lothrop Company, Boston for
a copy of it a
SonetThde Baldwin Library
_...... t1...... .. Aarem...................
", '\i2-, .' .
Our Little Men and Women is the name of a maga-
zine that comes once a month and is made on pur-
pose to make reading easy for little people just
beginning. Nothing is hard, if they like it, you know.
The secret of doing good work and a good deal of it,
is to like it. They can't help liking it. That is what
it is made for. You can get a specimen copy of it by
sending five cents to D. Lothrop Company, Boston.
But you can guess from these pictures how it looks.
Only in the magazine there are stories in big plain
letters, and pictures about the stories.
What sort of a boy do you think this one with a
That is the boy who grew to be Andrew Lang, the
\ writer and poet. He has a healthy good-for-nothing
sort of a look; hasn't he? We suspect he enjoyed
.- -life those days almost as well as now when he is
writing boy-stories and rhymes.
/ i I
THE J J ST .
THE .ES.E ETI
DWARFS, GIANTS, GYPSIES AND TROUBADOURS
A GYPSY FORTUNE-TELLER.
WITH THIRTY-SIX ILLUSTRATIONS
D LOTHROP COMPANY
FRANKLIN AND HAWLEY STREETS
D. LOTHROP & Co.
8ERWICK & SMITH, PRINTERS, BOSTON.
THE GYPSIES Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood.
TRUE STORIES ABOUT DWARS .. Isabel Smithson.
ABOUT OTHER DWARFS Isabel Smithson.
ABOUT GIANTS Isabel Smithson.
THE TROUBADOURS George Foster Barnes.
T was nearly sunset when I fortune. So, though I begged her not to let me
drove into the Gypsy camp interrupt her, the children and flies had the ground
near Dayton, Ohio. The table pretty much to themselves while we sat on a
camp consisted of squatty wagon tongue and exchanged remarks.
tents, wagons with horses The Gypsy king's tents were near by; not gor-
feeding behind them, horses geous pavilions guarded by brown-skinned senti-
tethered ready for trades, nels but the same old weather-worn canvas
dogs, children, men and stretched on poles, with a corner or two hitched
women. The tent is up for air, that you see every summer in creek-
scarcely a Gypsy's house bottoms or the edge of the woods, when the other
he requires all outdoors for that; it is only a sort boys guide your steps thither by the magic words,
of coverlet which he will draw over his head at There's Gypsies camped over there." The king
night, if he cares for such a cover, so it makes no was in town trading horses or buying supplies.
difference how small it is. He is said to be an old man with a striking hoary
A fat, curly-haired woman sat on the ground, head.
with her supper spread on a tablecloth before her. His daughter came from one of the tents. She
The fire which cooked it burned near, and the chil- had the features of her race, but a gentleness in
dren, dogs and flies came up and all seemed about her manner which bordered on refinement. She
to settle on the beefsteak. She brushed the dogs' was a handsome girl. A yellow handkerchief was
noses to keep them back, and prevented her baby tied over her hair, and her shape was trim, like
from walking in the gravy. I wanted to talk to Fanchon's, after the poor Cricket tried to make
her about her people and she wanted to tell my something of herself. She even resembled the old
8 THE GYPSIES.
German woodcuts of Fanchon. This Gypsy prin- sign to the hearts of these travellers. The prin-
cess was the daughter of that Matilda Stanley to cess translated several common words; her voice
whose burial in the Dayton cemetery the Gypsy was very pleasant.
tribes and families flocked in such numbers a few "What do you call child ?" I asked.
years ago. Chavi."
It is said that whenever a gorgio, or stranger, "Or say, How do you do? "
approaches a tent, the Gypsies try him by certain How de kur."
test-words of Romany, to see if he has any knowl- Perhaps the princess was fooling a Gentile, or
edge of this ancient language of theirs. The prin- giving a localism for the ancient Romany greeting,
cess, as she approached, said something to the "Sarishaw." /
curly woman which sounded like Sov meen; chivvy A horse was a gry," and the teakettle kdkavi."
delay." "Kkavi," or kettle, is one of the test-words which
It's the Romany," I said, though unable to a dye or Gypsy woman is sure to utter before
quite catch the words or understand them. One strangers.
who does not rakker," or speak the tongue, is Very few of them know a great number of Rom-
easily puzzled by these mysterious words which any words. But they use what they have to throw
they mix up with their English. a veil over their speech. It is the language in
SThey looked suspicious an instant, but laughed, which their folk-tales are preserved, and in which
and one replied, "Yes, it's the Romany." And a gudyo (story) is told while they are squatted by
the other added with a learned air, "The Egyptian the camp-fire. These old stories record their days
language." of persecution, their sharpness at bargaining, their
If you can b hkker Romanye iou have a ass- nve of there waBon and the road and contempt for
they mix up with their English. a veil over their-speech. It is the language in
. They looked suspicious an instant, but laughed, which their folk-tales are preserved, and in which
and one replied, "Yes, it's the Romany." And a gudla (story) is told while they are squatted by
the other added with a learned air, The Egyptian the camp-fire. These old stories record their days
language." of persecution, their sharpness at bargaining, their
If you can i ikker Romany, you have a pass- love of the wagon and the road and contempt for
THE GYPSIES. 9
standard modes of life, their thievings, and their a natural death (for the wanderers like such meat),
lax notions of dealing with the gorgio. or chickens taken without leave off somebody's
Besides telling fortunes the Gypsy women make roost. This is to them such a forbidden and deli-
lace and sell baskets. In England they are a beg- cious feast as crackers and sardines are to a bad
going people, but those in America, even the English boy or girl at boarding-school, eaten sitting up in
families, are said to improve, to accumulate prop- bed after the lights are out and the teacher has
gone down the hall.
This Stanley family at Dayton, and the other
\, families intermarried with them and clustering
S -A '. around them to form a tribe, own considerable
i'...' """ t,- property there.
I.: -.- "We've just bought another farm," said the
older woman pointing out on a ridge east of
Scamp, a sweep of fertile-looking land and a home-
i:. ^.,".I'' stead under shady trees.
S The camp was on an open common, with scarcely
.''::" a shrub to keep off the late summer heat. Yet
S' all of these children of the road preferred their
,i wagons on the common to the embowered house.
*'." -.. From her manner of speaking I inferred that this
e. clan owned property in common, no piece of land
belonging to any individual uncontrolled by the
erty, and to hold themselves above any lower means others. Their farms were rented to tenants.
of getting a living than cheating in a horse trade, You love to live outdoors," I said.
or getting silver for fortunes out of credulous "Of course," replied the elder woman, as if she
people. I can remember when the dark-skinned wondered how anybody could endure a different
woman, with a leghorn poke just begged out of life. "We stay South all winter."
some old closet and turned wrong-side foremost on Her children tumbled over the ground and raced
her head, used to come into the house, half-fright- with the dogs, uttering bits of Romany talk. They
ening and half-delighting us with her wheedling live in the joy of perpetual moving. Looking at
plea for any discarded garment. Now, many of the them, I remembered how often I had built a play-
clans own valuable real estate, and some are even house under the carpet on the line in housecleaning
dwelling in their houses, at least part of the year, days, and how I loved to see the kitchen table in-
though summer and the leafing-out of the green- verted with legs in the air and to sit in it, rowing
wood tree draws them again and again to the road with a broom, fancying it a boat. The dark little
and the wagon. The impulse which seizes us all Romanys do not mind sun or wind or rain; they
in May or June to go a-Gypsying, which empties need not keep themselves tidy, and the world is a
dusty streets and fills farmhouses and seaside hotels, changing panorama to them.
must be very strong on certain of these wealthy The men, lounging beside or under another
wanderers, living in cities, whose intimate friends wagon, rolled their laughing eyes at us, sure that I
do not know that the dark blood is in their veins, would leave silver in the fortune-teller's palm be-
Every once in awhile it is told that they disappear fore going away. Such sparkling eyes and teeth
from civilized ways and are absent. But the are in no other countenance than a Rom's. While
Romany rye (or gentleman Gypsy) is not away on the Gypsy is in one sense as sociable and innocent
business; nor is the beautiful lady visiting the as a child, in another he is as crafty as a fox. He
great people of the earth. They are both under likes to make game of the gorgio, and especially
the tent, or in the wagon, delighting themselves of that alien who despises his wandering life, his
once more with Romany talk and the sight of a dirt, and his basking and inviting his soul." But
k/kavi hung on its iron support over a camp-fire. you cannot talk with such a clan as this one, with-
They are perhaps helping to eat a pig which died out warming to them somewhat, in spite of differing
Io THE GYPSIES.
habits. They are very hospitable and kindly when floral epitaphs. These epitaphs are prepared by
their interest is aroused. It is true that Gypsy themselves, and are crude and tender, like a boy's
traders have taken miserable horses, painted them first letter to his mother, with all the curlycues
attractive colors, touched them up in various cun- thrown in.
ning ways, and cheated many a Gentile buyer with Though the ceremonies at Queen Matilda Stan-
them; it is true they used to have a reputation for ley's burial differed in no way from the ceremonies
kidnapping children, though they always seem to of any Christian burial, the newspapers had taken
have plenty of their own ; and that their appearance so much notice of the event that thousands of
in a neighborhood made the residents careful not strangers "flocked there to witness them. Her
to leave any valued thing lying around in easy monument is of native granite, or what the ceme-
reach after night; it is true, according to the best tery-keeper irreverently calls "nigger-head stone,"
authority, that old Gypsy women love to play the bearing a marble angel on the capital. The in-
mystery of mysteries, or great trick hokkani boro scription reads: -
-on any trusting gorgio-that is, cheating him \lATILDA
out of all he has. Only a few years since a West- wife of
ern farmer had a Gypsy queen arrested for getting LEVI STANLEY,
thousands of dollars from him fraudulently. But Died February 15, 1879,
it is also true that many a gifted man and woman Age 53 years.
have looked on these runaway playmates of nature Farewell, dear Tilda, farewell, your earthly days
Share past, like a blooming and lovely
with lenient and kindly interest. flower you
They are of the woods,woodsy, and of the ground, were too sweet to last. Your pain
loamy. Their wandering is as much an instinct as on earth was
the yearly migrations of the birds. Hunters have very great, my lovely beauty dear, now
had the same restless feeling; and I have known Jesus has
called on you, I trust you in his care,
families, not Gypsies, possessed with a like mania now you be
for change and indulging it in very civilized ways. quick and follow me and tell my
Occasionally an outsider marries among the Gyp- children dear to
sies, and is at once adopted by them, wandering do their work, for Jesus. I hope to
and living their life. An Irishman buried in the meet them there.
Dayton Cemetery was such a recruit. And many
Dayton Cemetery was such a recruit. And many On the base is the name Stanley," and on a re-
an Englishman has taken to the road with his brown e
wife. verse side another epitaph:
At Elmwood, New Jersey, the gathering point MARTHA LOUISE
of an Eastern clan, not long ago there died a man Daughter of Levi and Matilda
named Wharton, who was a native of Shropshire, STANLEY
England. He had married a Gypsy woman and Died December, 1866:
became king of the tribe. Recently his daughter Our daughter go a mansion
was married to a descendant of Oak Lee, who was of rest, along
king of all the English Gypsies sixty years ago. It with her Jesus that's who she loves
appears that each clan, or bunch of families under best. Along with
the patriarchal rule of a small king or chief, has her Jesus who died for us all,
come on here in heaven
its gathering-point, where it owns property and there is room for us all.
brings its dead for burial.
The Dayton princess, sitting on the wagon-tongue, As a race the Gypsies have no religion. But in
asked me if I had seen her mother's monument in monumental piety they appear quite equal to the
Woodland cemetery. I had seen it, with other gorgios. Scarlet geraniums, blooming oleander
monuments of the Joels, Jeffreys, Harrisons, etc., and foliage plants are as well kept about their
who make up the clan. They seem very fond of plots as if the kin of these resting travellers had
the resting-places of their dead, and ornament nevereaten wildmeat along thehedges. Masonic
ihem lavishly with flowers and the most childishly- and Odd Fellow emblems are carved upon the
monument base; I do not know for what reason. We loved this tender little one
Near by are the Harrison and Jeffrey stones, And would have wished him stay.
But let our Father's will be done,
He shines in endless day.
S The quaintest stone is in a shrubby enclosure
S. o where the "old king and queen have long lain
s buried. These were Owen Stanley, a native of
Reading, Berkshire, England, who died February
2 86o ; and Harriet, consort of Owen Stanley,
who died August 30, 1852." After the usual
; affectionate doggerel this information is recorded:
Owen Stanley was his name,
England was his nation,
Any wood his dwelling place,
And Christ his salvation.
He died at Andover, Indiana, in his wagon. He left
twelve children, forty grandchildren and two great-grandchil-
dren to mourn his death.
Among the Gypsies the old man or old woman
is a revered and powerful being.
Here also is inscribed the name of David Stan-
ley's daughter, born in England, and in her second
car burned to death in the wagon.
Gypsies used to swarm along the old National
-1ike, and even yet they make it a thoroughfare,
S:. though all roads and by-ways are theirs also.
S-.. Among the small dilapidated villages along the
'Pike in Ohio, is one where the warehouses are
about sinking into the canal through natural decay,
A RUSSIAN GYPSY CHILD. and all summer long dog-fennel stands deep and
rank up the very sides of the 'Pike embankments.
the first indicating one grave which has a foot- Near this place the Gypsies watch the tan," or set
stone marked Mother and Babe :" up the tent, and very appropriate to such surround-
ings are their quaint figures. There was a milli-
REFIANCE, ner who had a stock of headgear left upon her
RICHARD IARRISON, hands when the season was past, so she invited the
Died Gypsy women to come in and "deal" with her; for
May 3, 1873, the dark-skinned women of the road, who used to
Aged 43 years. pick up any kind of finery, were supposed to be
JOSHUA indifferent to the shapes of their bonnets. They
their son died came and filled the little shop. That evening they
May I, 1873,
Age Io months. struck camp and proceeded on their way, and the
A husband and six children milliner discovered that rolls of precious ribbon
left to mourn their loss. and scraps of lace had gone with them. A consta-
ble pursued and brought the party back to trial.
Our Mother here lies underground, They claimed that they had bought their goods,
The dearest friend we ever found;
But through the Lord's unbounded love but the milliner showed she had none of their sil-
We'll meet again in realms above. ver in exchange. The voluble dark women who
12 THE GYPSIES.
pen dukkerin (tell fortunes) so glibly, know how to Charles G. Leland, who has made the race and
throw contempt upon, and raise the neighborhood the tongue his studies for many years, tells us of a
laugh at the expense of gorgios. The anxious Gypsy woman he saw in Egypt who could not talk
milliner received her goods again, but she and her Romany. None of the Gypsies there speak it. She
shop are now known by the name the Gypsy wo- said they had lost the gift; for she knew there
man gave them, the bony old bird in her nest of was such a language spoken by the wandering
ribbons." races. The Gypsies in Egypt call themselves Ta-
"An old Gypsy used to be the bugaboo of all taren.
children. We have crouched in the elderberry The Gypsies are of Aryan stock, and Asiatic
bushes at the mention
of such a crone. It was
a great piece of courage
to climb upon the fence
in the woods and defy
such an imaginary child-
stealer. But I have
never known one in-
stance of such kidnap- IL ;
ping by the Gypsies. In
this country children are
carried away by other
races than the Roms, 4.:
and with other motives
than these loitering,
basking people could
feel. Yet in old times
abroad, and particularly
in Scotland, they suf-
fered persecution be-
cause ignorant people
suspected them not only
of child-stealing, but of
cannibalism, of being
agents of the Turks, etc.
In the year 1636 they
were warned out of Scot-
land, or the "men would
be hangit and the woe- Z
men drowned; such of
the women as has chil- -
dren to be scorgit V-'- -
through the burg and -.-._. :. -
brent in the cheeke." At
the same time that coun-
SPANISH GYPSY GIRL DANCING.
try was so unsettled, and
outrages were so common among all classes, that in their origin. They are always a distinct and
the people were a long time in coming to the con- separate element, like running water, though they
clusion of laying the blame on the Gypsies. take peculiarities from the countries through which
Though this woman in the Dayton camp spoke' they move. We can trace them back to the four-
of Romany as' "the Egyptian language," Mr. teenth century; they existed then in the Balkan pen-
a s: -' _______
_, - -'_ ._)
.~~~ ,,v ,..l "y I e P .-
-1, 5 r -. -N J4
?I ,: ': ....
__ .- .- _.- -
THE G YPSIES. 15
insula. Some authorities have considered that the As to their religion, they generally absorb it
name signified Egyptians, but too many proofs point from the country they are in, though they have
out India as their native land. Their Spanish ap- the relics of one old faith, about which they do not
pellation is Gitano; Albanian, Jeok; Magyar trouble themselves. Mr. Leland tells an amusing
Pharao niphek -or Pharaoh's people; French, story of a very poor, pious-looking old woman
Bohemians; Scotch, Tinkler, which is probably a whom he and some friends saw tramping along the
corruption of Zingaro or Zingano. highway. She made no appeal for charity, but
They have penetrated to nearly all known coun- was so aggressively sad-looking and worthy, that
tries, taking characteristics from each. But it is one of the party spoke to her and drew forth her
impossible to fix a date to their first appearance in moving story. She said she was a washerwoman,
Europe. They may have been wandering there going to another town to see her dying daughter.
centuries before historical mention is made of She had never begged; she could get through
them. They have been called "chaltsmide," or somehow. But through this artlessness Mr. Le-
Ishmaelites -descendants of Hagar, the smith's land's practiced eye detected the Gypsy tramp
trade being always one of their leading handicrafts. who loves to fleece any gorgio. So he spoke to
Among the English Gypsies is indeed one large her: "Can tute rakkerRomanes, nridye?" "Can
family branch called Petolungro, or Smith. you talk Romany, my mother ?"
Mr. Leland tells us of Welsh Gypsies, Russian, The old woman taken unawares at hearing the
Austrian, Egyptian, Hindoo, American Gypsies. dialect of the tents in the mouth of a gentleman
The Russians are delicately made and not so tourist, replied in confusion, The Lord forbid, sir,
brusque and stolid as the wanderers in English that I should talk any of them wicked languages."
lanes. Nearly all of them have some musical skill. She was a noted tramper and a deep actor of ap-
Their Romany songs have a power and melody propriately-dressed parts. She pretended to have
that cannot be withstood. Mr. Lathrop in his a letter of recommendation from her clergyman.
Spanish Vistas describes the dancing of a Gypsy But the sound of Romany took her off her guard
girl in a figure belonging exclusively to her race. and at once brought the mischievous Gypsy glitter
It is not, as one would suppose from the abandon into her eyes.
and excitability of the Romany, a flinging and vio- Family affection is strong in the race, as their
lent dance, but a series of smooth, sinuous motions, care of their dead testifies. Mr. Leland tells us a
extremely graceful, requiring great skill, and gain- survivor will forever deprive himself of any pleas-
ing intensity of expression, until undulations seem ure he enjoyed with a lost relative. "My brother
to flow, wave after wave, downward through the was so fond of cigars," said one; I never have
dancer's body, while her arms weave about. He smoked since he died." "Mother liked fish so
says: well. O, no, I never can touch it again, now she
is gone." And they are quickly sympathetic
The crowning achievement is when the hips begin to towards people poorer than themselves, Gypsy or
sway too, and, while she is going back and forward, execute alien. Being wanderers, they are of course adapt-
a rotary movement like that of the bent part of an auger.place or circumstances. They love
In fact, you expect her to bore herself into the floor, and dis- able to an
appear. Then, all at once, the stamping and clapping and all dumb creatures, and their love of nature must
the twanging strings are stopped, as she ceases her formal be their most conspicuous trait. When you talk to
gyrations; she walks back to her seat like one liberated them they do not attempt to explain their wander-
from a spell; and the whole thing is over. ing instinct, their snuggling up to Nature's breast.
I have thought they feel a superiority to the world
In 1417 a band of three hundred Gypsies came of people settled in houses.
to Liinneburg. The account says: In Europe and America, the titles of duke, king
etc. are given to the heads of small bands of Gyp-
They were as black as Tartars, with a duke and count at sies, until, says authority, one is bewildered by
their head splendidly dressed and leading, like nobles, dogs te h o k f J B b
of chase; then a motley crew afoot, and women and chil- the hosts of kings from John Buelle beside Athels-
dren in wagons. They pretended to be on a seven years' tan in Malmesbury Abbey in 1657, to Matilda
pilgrimage to expiate apostacy. Stanley who was buried at Dayton, Ohio, in 1879."
I6 THE GYPSIES.
The Gypsies are ignorant of books, and have no this country. Mr. Leland gives a list of many
literature of their own, except the unwritten bal- different families named to him by an old Gypsy
lads and stories handed down from generation to woman, each having some physical trait distinct
generation, which careful compilers and nomad- from the others.
lovers, like Mr. Leland, have gathered up and put Every Romany gudlo (story) is short and pointed.
into print. Mr. George Borrow, an English author, One of the gudli told generation after generation,
wrote books about the Romany people, though is about the Gypsy bribing the policeman:
Mr. Leland's several volumes are the best. Bul-
wer Lytton put them into some of his novels ; and Once apr6 a chairs a Romany chal chored a rani chillico
-even George Eliot delighted herself with their (or chiriclo), and then jailed Atut a prastramengo 'pr6 the
picturesque figures, though touched-up with dirt drum. Where did tute chore adovo rani ?" putchered the
and seen against a background of vapor from the prastramengo.
pot where hedgehog or dead pig was boiling. One "It's kik rani; it's a pauno rani that I kinned'drie the
gav to del tute."
*of the men at the Dayton camp observed doubt- gay to del tute."
of the men at the Dayton camp observed doubt- Tacho," penned the prastramengo, "it's the kushtrest
ingly to me that he thought some man had made rani mandy ever dick dus. Ki did tute kin it?"
a book about them, but he was not sure. Intelli- Avali, many's the chairs mandy's tippered a trin-mushti
gence circulates among them in primitive ways. to a prastramengo to mukk mandy hatch my tan with the
He had probably heard from some other travelling chavis.
family or clan New Jersey or Pennsylvania Gyp-
sies about Mr. Leland, the great Romany Rye, Once on a time a Gypsy stole a turkey, and then met a
and his works. But not having met this gentle- policeman on the road.
Where did you steal that turkey? asked the policeman.
man Gypsy himself, the impression left on his It's no turkey; it's a goose that I bought in the town to
mind was vague. give you."
The entire stock of Romany words is said to ex- Fact I said the policeman; it is the finest goose I ever
*ceed five thousand, though the number known to saw. Where did you buy it ?"
any one Rom is small. He mixes them generously Yes, many's the time I have given a shilling (three four,
with English, or whatever tongue he is born to pence) to a police-
speak; and the little brown babies around Lhe ,,,, I)., -,,, h. .
camp-fire are taught to treasure tl:he t. m, -n..t ,t_- h ..Ir,
No record is left of the first arrix al of Gy psics in The aoka
America. They came over with
means, however. As to per- -
sonal appearance, they are a
-dark, finely-formed race. They
pride themselves on their small
hands and feet, their lightness
of step and easy motion. Their
hair is black, or very dark, and
does not readily turn gray; .
their skins are tawny olive;
their teeth are strong and
white; their cheek-bones are
high and their noses aquiline
like the Indians. But of course
there are differences in families, ITALIAN GYPSIES.
some being shorter, or lighter,
or less muscular, or less generally well-favored hang their cooking utensils high in the wagon, be-
than others. The Stanleys and Lees have been cause if a thing falls upon the ground, or is trodden
-conspicuously handsome, both in England and on, they consider it consecrated to the earth and
THE G YPSIES. '7
no longer fit for their use. Mr. Leland tells us a "No," said the other man, "it is all good and sound. Toss
curious point of affinity between the Gypsies and it in our hand and hear it ring? "
Yes," replied the Gypsy, "you told me that only bad
Hindoos may be found in a custom which a Rom things keep going, and this money has gone all over the
thus describes: country many a time."
All men are not like trees. Some must travel and can-
When a mush mullers an' the juvas adree his ker can't not keep still.
kair habben because they feel so naflo 'bout the Rom being
gone, or the chavi or juvalo mush, or whoever it may be,
then their friends for trin divvuses kairs their habben an' This precisely expresses the Romany nature.
pitchers it'a lende. An 'that's tacho Rommanies, an' they They must travel and cannot keep still. Their
wouldn't be dessen Romany chuls that wouldn't kair dovo strain of blood prefers the open sun for a parasol
for mushos in sig an' tukli. and any woods for a dwelling-place, to palace roofs
When a man dies and the women in his house cannot and established kingdoms. Of course they have
prepare food (literally, make food) as they feel so badly be- no record as statesmen, soldiers, agriculturists,
,, ,:a Ili --T- 4>. **
/v; ''11J 0i
it -, --
AA J i' ,. _., _:_
cause the man is gone, or the girl or young man, or whoever builders or scholars. They are always playing
it may be, then their friends for three days prepare their food truant along the roads; they never have been, and
and send it to them. And that is real Romany (custom) never d's busy school.
and they would not be decent Romany fellows who would
not do that for people in sorrow and distress. A Gypsy fortune-teller always takes her subject
to one side, so that spectators may neither over-
hear the revelation nor cast contempt upon it. She
Precisely the same custom prevails in India seems to believe what she tells, but behind the
where they use an indentical term for it. gorgio's back she always has her laugh at his credu-
Here is another of their stories, about the gorgio lity. The prediction is short but bristling with
and the Romany chal: points; and when the Gypsy predicts backward, or
tells what has actually happened, her penetration
Sdoes her marvelous credit; she often hits the ex-
Once upon a time a gorgio said to a Gypsy, Why do youee des or m arv s cr ; shey are alwas playing
always go about the country? There is no food in what does act truth. The fortune usually runs in this wse,
not rest (or stay here)." Said the Gypsy, Show me your if she sees in the face before her and in the hand
money w she holds, energy and the generous piece of silver:
And he showed him a guinea, a sovererign, a half-soverign, And it's a good fortune that's coming to you,
a half-guinea, a five-shilling piece, a half-crown, a two-sill- gentleman. You've been far and
ing piece, a shilling, a sixpence, a four-penny piece, a three-
pence, a two-pence, a penny, a half-penny, a farthing, a half- you ve seen much, but you'll go farther and see
farthing. Said the Gypsy, "This is all bad money." more. There's going to be a great change, and
farthing. Said the Gypsy, This is all bad money." more. There's going to be a great change, and
18 THE GYPSIES.
it's a change for the better. You'll be rich, and always range with them ; that loves the ground
give away by the handful, and what you've had is we tread, enough to snuff its sweetness along with
but a drop to what you will have. Tell me the Romany noses ; or that can at all comprehend the
exact truth: do you begrudge me this money that brown brother's love of free air and his hatred of
you lay in my hand ? No. I tell you a true fortune, walls.
and them that's your enemies can never make It was sunset when I left the Dayton camp ; the
headway against you. You will succeed in what- west was all a water-melon color over that pretty
ever you turn your hand to." Then to these little city. Soon the men who had been in town
bright generalities she adds a few predictions trading, would come home; or do they say come
suited only to the person addressed, which gives tent?" Come ker, perhaps. The camp-fires would
him faith in the whole, though he laughingly denies start up fresh, and perhaps the guitar or fiddle be
it to his friends; and sends him away with the im- heard between dog-barks and children's night
pression that in his case the oracle has spoken twitterings. I could have stayed longer, if steam
fact. cars only took the road in such a leisurely fashion
It is a queer little discovery that the good old as do Gypsies. They were not like any of the peo-
gibberish with which boys and girls have long ple who live in houses. Outdoors furnishes their
counted out for Hide-and-Seek, bric-a-brac--in golden-rod, quaint toad-stools, all
kinds of leaves, mosses and curious pebbles. The
One-ry, O-ry, ick-ry Ann, sky, raining or shining, is a ceiling renewed every
Filison, foloson, Nicholas, Jan, etc. day.
Boys are sometimes possessed with a fury for
is a corruption of Romany rhymed words, going off to unknown places and achieving im-
The neighbors of the Gypsies, that is, people who mense deeds in the killing of buffaloes, Indians and
live around their gathering-points, know less about alligators. I know one dear little fellow who
them, their traditions and common happenings, broke up a lot of pickle-bottles with a hatchet, and
than do strangers far off who love to gather up in- played he was killing giants. But if pen and wo-
formation about them. This is partly because they mnen confessed to their chief mania, I think it
despise the gorgio, and partly because the gorgio would be a general desire to sit along the hedges
despises them. It is not every white-face that or in the dim sweet woods, without a care in the
cares to sit down in a Gypsy's tent and have the world, letting the hours soak them in content and
dogs nosing near--the wolfish-looking curs that playing they were Gypsies.
Li .- lb. ,~
~;~~;-~L~.I~L~e~?lC~E~--: ~; .,~urz~" ~Z~
~i ~kie~BC~ Rp~ ,h.
THE WONDER PEOPLE OF THE SEA.
TRUE STORIES ABOUT DWARFS.
BY ISABEL SMITHSON.
A TINY BRIDAL-PARTY. fetch them, and on the appointed day seventy tiny
ladies and gentlemen arrived, twelve or more in
BOUT two hundred one carriage and driven by a single horse !
years ago there was a Crowds of people laughing and cheering followed
queer wedding in an the fairy procession into the city ; the great palace
emperor's palace. of the Kremlin was lighted up, and there the little
The bridegroom was bride and groom, dressed in magnificent clothes,
as small as a child awaited their guests. The royal family, and many
five years old, and the noblemen, came to see the wedding; and every-
bride and the cor- thing was very grand ; but there was much trouble
pany not any larger; afterwards in getting the little people in to supper.
yet they were all Each one wanted to go first, so the Czar said that
"grown-up" people, they should be placed "by sizes ;" the smallest one
and this is not a fairy- at the head. But this did not please them any
tale. better, for no one liked to be called the tiniest of
A Russian princess, the tiny, and every one wanted to go last How-
'" Natalie, had these two ever, it was all settled peaceably, and the company
:-, little people for pets, sat down to supper on small chairs at a long, low
-and when she told her table; and they ate and drank out of beautiful lit-
SIR JEFFREY HUDSON, THE TINY brother (the Czar, Pe- tie plates and cups and saucers which had been
KNIGHTter the Great) that made on purpose for them. After supper there
they were to be married to each other, he ordered was a grand ball; each little gentleman asked a
every dwarf within two hundred miles of Moscow little lady to be his partner, and then they danced
to come to the wedding. Carriages were sent to the minuet and other dances, and fanned them-
22 TRUE STORIES ABOUT DWARFS.
selves with tiny fans. Must it not have been a think of, but did not find it, and he was too much
pretty sight ? afraid to tell the king that it was lost, so he went
and killed himself The picture was found a few
LITTLE DICK GIBSON AND HIS WIFE. days afterwards.
Little Gibson went over to Holland and gave
King Charles the First of England had a favor- drawing-lessons to Princess Mary who afterwards
ite dwarf named Richard Gibson, who was hardly became Queen of England, but he never grew any
more than a yard high, and the king's wife, Queen taller, though he lived to be seventy-five years old,
Henrietta, had a lady-dwarf who was exactly the and neither did his little wife, who was nearly a
same height, and these two little people were mar- hundred when she died.
ried to each other. The king and queen were at
the wedding; the queen gave the bride a little dia- SIR JEFFREY HUDSON, THE TINY KNIGHT.
mond ring as a bridal-gift, and the court-poet wrote
a poem about the marriage. The most interesting of all these little creatures,
Little Dick Gibson and his wife had nine chil- and the one whose history reads most like a fairy-
LITTLE DICK GIBSON.
dren, five of whom lived to grow up and become tale, is Jeffrey Hudson, who, at the age of seven
just as tall as most people, so that they must have years was only half a yard high. His parents were
seemed like giants to their papa and mamma. of the usual size, and his father, who took charge
This small gentleman was a great painter and of fighting-bulls for the Duke of Buckingham (the
used to make beautiful pictures for King Charles. greatest nobleman in England), sent his tiny son to
One of these pictures was the cause of a very sad the Duke's wife and she dressed him in handsome
event; King Charles gave it to a man named clothes and made him her page. He was taught
Vanderwort (who took charge of all the king's pict- to be polite, and to wait upon ladies and gentle-
ures), and told him to put it in some safe place men, instead of running about barefoot as he
where no harm would come to it, and the man put used to do at home.
it away so carefully that when the king asked for One day some mischievous fellows having killed
it Vanderwort could not remember where he had a large cat belonging to an old woman, took off
bestowed it. He looked in every place he could the skin and fastened it round little Jeffrey, so that
'TRUE STORIES ABOUT D WARFS. 23
when he went on all-fours he looked jusf like Rut- was walking along by the river Thames and being
terkin," the cat. While the old woman was at tea taken up by the wind would have been blown into
with some of her friends, Jeffrey, dressed in the the water if his clothes had not caught in a bush on
cat's skin, lay curled up in the corner as if asleep, the bank.
and when some one threw him a piece of meat, he -Queen Henrietta used to send her dwarf-page
jumped up suddenly, saying: Rutterkin can help on important errands, and to carry letters and mes-
himself when he is hungry," and ran down-stairs sages for her; and once he went to see the Queen
as fast as he could go. of France who was Queen Henrietta's mother, and
The visitors started up, screaming out, "A witch who loaded him with beautiful presents. As he
a witch, with her talking cat and they were in was sailing home again, across the English Chan-
a great fright until they found out that a trick had nel, the vessel, which was very old and slow, was
been played on them. attacked by pirates. They stole all the presents
Some time after this, the Duke heard that King that he was taking to the Queen of England, from
Charles and his young French wife, with a number her mother, besides those which had been given to
of lords and ladies, were coming to make him a him, and Jeffrey, together with a nurse whom the
visit, so everything was got ready to receive the Queen of France was sending to her daughter, was
royal guests. The Duchess of Buckingham knew taken prisoner. It was not until the king had
that Queen Henrietta was very fond of dwarfs, and agreed to pay the pirates a large sum of money
wishing to give her a pleasant surprise, she put lit- that the captives were set free; but before he
tle Jeffrey into a large deep dish, and had a crust reached home Jeffrey met with another adventure
of baked dough made over the top, with holes for a fight with a turkey-gobbler. The big fowl
him to breathe through; and when dinner was chased the little fellow and frightened him so badly
ready, and the king and all the visitors were sit- that he cried for help until the queen's nurse came
ting at table, this big pie was brought in and Queen and drove away his enemy. This incident was
Henrietta was asked to cut the "venison-pastry," told to Sir William d'Avenant the poet, and he
as it was called. She did so, and when the pie was thought it so funny that he wrote a poem about it
opened up jumped a little man dressed in a suit of which he called "Jeffriedos." Two of the closing
armor lines are as follows:
Was not that a dainty dish to set before the king! So Jeffrey straight was thrown. When faint and weak,
The cruel fowl assaults him with its beak.
Every one was astonished at seeing what the pie
was made of, and Jeffrey stepping out knelt beside At last he was sent back to England, where he
the queen's plate and asked her to take him with remained for several years, playing with the queen's
her and let him be her page, which she was very pet monkey, and quarreling with the young gentle-
glad to do, although she already had her two mar- men of the court, who loved to play tricks on the
ried dwarfs. little knight. He had his portrait painted very
So Jeffrey Hudson went to live in the king's pal- often, sometimes with the king and queen, some-
ace and soon became a great favorite with his royal times alone, and sometimes with a dog; one New
mistress and the ladies of her court. He once Year's Day, a court-lady made him a present of a
acted in a play before the king and queen, when a little bit of a book which she had had printed on
tall fellow came out and danced and then pulled a purpose for him, and which had his portrait on the
loaf of bread out of one big pocket, and little Jef- first page.
frey Hudson, instead of a piece of cheese, from the The poor little fellow had the misfortune to be
other. taken by a pirate again, and this time he was car-
The king made Jeffrey a knight and after that ried off to Africa and sold as a slave. He was
he wore a sword and was always called Sir Jeffrey; treated cruelly and forced to do hard work to which
but his grand title did not prevent him from being he had never been accustomed, and was very, very
nearly drowned one day, in a basin of water when unhappy until King Charles again paid to get him
he was washing his hands. At another time, he back, and he returned to his dear queen at last.
24 TRUE STORIES ABOUT DW4.RFS.
She was delighted to see him and every one was was given, both raised their pistols and fired at
surprised at finding that he had grown a foot tall- each other, and little Jeffrey killed the gay young
er; the king gave him a fine uniform and a little gentleman at the first shot. Every one was shocked
horse to ride on, and made him a captain in the and grieved on hearing what had. happened, and
army. Sir Jeffrey was locked up for a punishment, and
A dreadful revolution broke out in England and then sent away from the court.
little Jeffrey fought for his king, and when the Some years afterwards he went back to England,
queen had to leave England in the middle of the where his old master, the Duke of Buckingham,
night, with a few faithful friends, Jeffrey Hudson gave him enough money to live comfortably.
I , .
PHILETAS, PTOLEMY SOTER'S LEARNED DWARF.
was among them. He was now about twenty-five Poor Charles the First had been put to death by
years old, and, having grown to be more than three the rebels, Cromwell had been deposed, and Charles
feet high, thought himself a very big man, although the Second was king; some wicked men made up
most eight-year-old children are taller, a story that a dreadful plot was on foot and that
As I have said, he went to France with Queen the king and many other persons were to be mur-
Henrietta, and there he soon got into trouble dered, and this made every one so frightened that
through giving way to his fiery temper; some young numbers of people were thrown into prison, and
courtiers who had read the Jeffriedos amused some even put to death, before it was found out that
themselves by teasing the dwarf and making fun there was no "plot" at all, except in the evil minds
of him for having run away from the turkey, and of those who had begun the fuss. Jeffrey Hudson,
the little man got dreadfully angry with his tormen- being of the same religion as the accused persons,
tors, and at last called out one of them to fight a had been put in prison also and kept there for
duel, which was the fashionable way of settling some time, and after he had been let out he fell
quarrels in those times. On the day appointed for very ill, and soon the adventures of the tiny knight
the duel, Jeffrey came to the place with his pistol were over.
loaded, but the courtier, Mr. Crofts, thinking that He was sixty-three years old when he died, and
the affair was only a joke, brought nothing but a only three feet nine inches high; a blue satin suit
big squirt, with which he meant to throw water on of clothes which belonged to the little manikin are
the dwarf. This made Jeffrey angrier than ever still shown in a museum in England, and a full-
and he insisted on having a real duel with his enemy. length picture of him hangs in Hampton Court
They fought on horseback, and when the signal palace.
TRUE STORIES ABOUT DWARFS. 25
DWARFS OF OLDEN TIMES. ago; indeed their bones have been found buried
in the ground in many different countries.
The most famous dwarf of olden times was Phi- Whole acres of land in the State of Tennessee
letas, who lived in Egypt three hundred years be- are thought to have been the burying-grounds of a
fore Christ. When a grown man he was so small pigmy-race that must have lived before the Red In-
and light that he dared not go out of doors with- dians. It is said that about fifty years ago some
out having lead weights in his pockets, lest he one accidentally discovered there hundreds of lit-
should be blown away. And yet he was a great tle skeletons under the ground, the largest not more
poet, and so wise and learned and trustworthy than nineteen inches long, and people knew by the
that he was chosen by the king, Ptolemy Soter, to shape of the teeth that these were skeletons of
direct the studies of his son Philadelphus, the heir grown-up persons. The coffins were made of four
to the throne. How queer it must have seemed to rough, flat stones, and were all placed in regular
the young prince to have such a mite for a teacher rows, about two feet down in the earth, the little
Writers of that long-ago time say that there was people lying on their backs, their arms crossed on
once a whole tribe of dwarfs living in India, and that their breasts, and each one holding a sort of small
they rode about on sheep and goats, and cut down stone jug; one of these skeletons wore a necklace
the corn with axes as if the corn-field were a great made of ninety-four pearl beads, and at a short dis-
forest. Every winter whole flocks of cranes- tance from the burial-place were found the ruins of
those tall birds with long beaks-used to fly to what seemed to have been a very old town. Whether
India from colder lands, and the dwarfs were fond this account is authentic, I cannot say. Dwarf-
of picking up the birds' feathers, and what was graves have also been found in Central America,
worse, of stealing their eggs. This made the and in some parts of Europe and Asia; and on an
CAESAR AUGUSTUS AND HIS DWARFS.
cranes very angry, so that they attacked the robbers, island near Scotland, called the Isle of Pigmies, is
and as the dwarfs would not run away, there was an old ruined chapel,
a terrible battle, where, Addison says,
In whose small vaults a pigmy folk is found,
High in the midst, the chieftain-dwarf was seen; Whose bones the delver with his spade upthrows.
Full twenty inches tall he strode along.
In the time of the Roman Empire it was the
But he was killed, and so were all his little soldiers, custom for rich people to buy dwarfs and keep
and that was the end of the dwarf-nation, them for pets. Julia, the niece of Cesar Augustus,
This sounds rather like a fairy-tale, and perhaps had a little favorite named Conopas, and a hand-
it is not all true, but at the same time, it is not im- maiden, Andromeda, each of whom was only two
possible that a very small race of people lived long feet and a hand-breadth high." Augustus himself
26 TRUE STORIES ABOUT DWARFS.
was very fond of dwarfs, and used to send to all had been kept from the very earliest times, and'
parts of the world for them; but he would not from those countries the fashion spread to Europe.
have any excepting those who were well-shaped, In the city of Mantua, in Italy, there is, in the
handsome and lively. He and his little pets used duke's palace, a suite of six very small rooms with
to play together in the palace ; while listening ceilings so low that a tall man cannot stand up un-
to their pretty prattling the great emperor forgot his der them; two tiny staircases lead to these rooms,
worldly cares. The Romans had a cruel practice which are said to have been built for the duke's.
of making dwarfs by keeping young babies in dwarfs to live in. William, Duke of Normandy, the
wooden boxes to prevent their growing; and by conqueror of England, had dwarf-pages, and it was
the time the poor little creatures were a few years the fashion among his nobles to have as many of
old they were worth a great deal of money. these little creatures as they could get, to wait on
In Egypt and Persia and Turkey, pet dwarfs them, and lead their horses in grand processions.,
I ,*II I" .
"PLEASE BUY ME A LITTLE DWARF OF MY OWN, PAPA."
ABOUT OTHER DWARFS.
BY ISABEL SMITHSON.
JOUJOU AND BEBE. the great city of Vienna, and when the empress
lifted him up on her lap and asked him what he
O NCE upon a time there lived near the town thought the most wonderful of all that he had seen,
of Chaliez in Russia a lady and gentleman he said that the strangest sight was what he saw
of the usual size, who had six children, every sec- at that moment.
ond one of whom was, when grown up, very tall And what is that ? asked Her Majesty in sur-
indeed, while the other three were dwarfs. The prise.
eldest son, who grew to be a little more than a "To see so little a man on the lap of so great a
yard high, became page to a grand lady; the second woman," he replied, and this answer pleased the
of this tiny trio was only eight inches long when he empress so much that when he was bidding her
good-by she called one of her children, a girl five
years of age, to her side, took a little diamond ring
off the child's hand and put it on the dwarf's.
SThis ring he kept as long as he lived, and
prized it as the greatest treasure, for that little girl
S was Princess Marie Antoinette who afterward mar-
,i ried the King of France, Louis the Sixteenth, and
is jwho with her royal husband was put to death by
the mob during the French Revolution.
This little Joujou, whose real name was Joseph
) Bornwlaski ( a very long one for such a small per-
son), pleased every one who saw him, for he was
polite and gentlemanly in manner, very well edu-
-cated, speaking French and German perfectly, and
what was still better, he was always amiable and
One day he was taken to see the King of Po-
was born; while the third, who was a girl, measured land, who had a dwarf of his own called B1b6.
three quarters of a yard in height at the age of This little fellow had been carried on a plate to be
twenty years. baptized, and for some time after had had a shoe
Their father died suddenly, leaving his wife very of his father's for a bed; he was not as tall as Jou-
poor and with the six children to take care of, jou at the time of the latter's visit, and not one
and so a rich lady who had always made a pet half as pleasing and amiable.
of Joseph, the second of the dwarf-children, said Stanislaus was delighted with little Joujou and
she should like to adopt him as her own. His talked to him for a long time, and Bdbd on seeing
mother cried a great deal at parting with her little this was dreadfully jealous. As soon as the king
Joujou, as he was called, but she let the lady take had gone out of the room, and the dwarfs were
him away, and he stayed with his new mother until left alone, B1b6 crept up quietly behind his visitor,
he was twelve years old and twenty-one inches caught him by the waist and tried to push him
high. Then another kind lady, the Countess into the fire! Fortunately, however, the king heard
Humiecka, took him traveling with her and he the noise, and came back again to see what was the
went to see Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria. matter, and after separating the struggling dwarfs,
He had been looking at all the beautiful sights in he called to a servant to give Bebd a sound whip-
30 ABOUT OTHER DWARFS.
ping and then to turn him out of doors, for he poor that he had no money to buy food and clothes
would have nothing more to do with such a wicked for his family, and this lasted for several years;
fellow. but at last he was able to settle down quietly, and
Joujou was so kind and good as to beg the king employed his time in writing a book about his own
to forgive the little culprit, and at last it was ar- life and travels.
ranged that Bbde must have the whipping, but that He was ninety-eight years old when he died,
after that, if he would beg Joujou's pardon for try- and a shoe which he had worn is kept in a museum
ing to kill him, the king would let him be his little in England; the sole is hardly six inches long.
pet again; and to this, B&bd agreed, though very
unwillingly. SX DWARFS OF THE LAST CENTURY.
Soon afterwards B6b6 began to grow bent and At about the same time with Joseph Bornwlaski,
feeble like an old man, though he was hardly more there lived in London a Mr. and Mrs. Robert
than twenty-two years old,
.and one day he fell ill of a
fever and died. f
Joujou went to Paris, .1' V
where the king and nobles "
made a great fuss with him,
.and once at a grand dinner- '
party he was served up in a r
,soup-tureen and jumped out -
when the cover was raised.
At another time a friend 4
.asked him to dinner and had
little plates and dishes just "
.his size, and even the roast
birds, etc., were small.
The little gentleman (who
stopped growing at thirty
years of age, when he was J -
thirty-nine inches high) mar-
ried a young lady of ordinary '.
height, and this queer couple
had several children who
soon grew to be much bigger I
than their father. He went p f r
travelling again after he was
married and gave beautiful
-concerts in London, and while
he was there, a giant eight JOUJOU, THE TINY PAPA.
feet high was on exhibition.
Joujou went to look at him, and the very big and Skinner, who were each about two feet high, and
very little man on seeing each other were too used to drive round St. James' Park in a carriage no
much astonished to speak. At last the great fel- bigger than a baby's, drawn by two dogs, and with
low stooped down a long, long way, took Joujou's a twelve-year-old boy in purple and yellow livery for
hand in his and spoke to him, and all the people a coachman. They had fourteen children, not one
laughed to see the giant and the dwarf talking of whom was unusually small.
together. Another lady-dwarf was called the Corsican
Soon after this the dwarf, too, was obliged to Fairy, from the place of her birth and because she
Have himself exhibited in a show, for he got so was so light and tiny. She was a beautiful little
ABOUT OTHER DWARFS. 3'
.creature, very graceful and gay, and spoke both years of his life never went out of the house, being
French and Italian. She was first exhibited in very shy before strangers.
London in the year 1769, when she was twenty-six The last person who is known to have kept a
years old and not quite a yard high. dwarf in his family as a pet was Mr. Beckford,
Then'there was Wybrand Lolkes, a clever little son of the Lord Mayor of London, who, with his
Dutch watch-maker, who though only twenty-seven friends, used to amuse himself by throwing the
dwarf across the table from one person to another
L as if he were a rubber ball!
DWARFS OF OUR TIMES.
-Away down in the south of Africa lives a race
of fierce savages, called/Hottentots. Several years
S'. : ago, a Dutch trading-vessel happening to stop there,
i the captain saved the lives of a boy and girl whose
parents and friends had been attacked and cru-
.' > elly killed by the Kaffirs, another African tribe.
; r. .. These children were dwarfs; the boy a yard and
I '" ""'' //-- eight inches high, and the girl less than a yard;
. .. ..' ..-' .. they were sent over to England, and exhibited in
SLondon, where hundreds of people came to see
' them dance the strange, wild dances of their
7 country, and hear them talk in their own queer
They belonged to a tribe called Bushmen or
/ ---_ __--_ African Gypsies, and were not dwarfs at all,
/ compared with the rest of their race, of whom very
few persons ever grew to be more than four feet
\ \ tall, which is about the height of most nine-year-old
TOM THUMB AND HER MAJESTY'S LIFEGUARD. In Madagascar too, that large island near Africa,
there is said to be a nation of dwarfs living up
inches high, married a woman of ordinary size. in the mountains; a French sailor who was ship-
Very likely he was the little man whose wife, when wrecked there came home and said he had seen
she did not hear what he said, used to call out as them, and that they were not more than three feet
hard as if she were speaking from a second-story high but were very strong little creatures and very
window: "What's that you are saying down clever.
there ?" The Bushmen are the smallest race of people
If he wanted to kiss her good-by he had to get known, excepting, perhaps, the Esquimaux, and it
up on a table, and when they went for a walk must be that great heat and great cold keep peo-
.-.*,rir.. i, she would stoop down and hold his hand ple from growing tall, since the nations of both the
instead of taking his arm. torrid and frigid zones are generally shorter than
During the French Revolution a dwarf named those of temperate countries.
Richebourg was very useful in carrying letters and In Russia and Sweden dwarfs are often kept
messages out of Paris. The little man, dressed in the houses of noblemen, and a gentleman who
in a full suit of baby-clothes, with the secret papers visited those countries some years ago tells us in
hidden in his ruffled cap, was carried in the arms his book of travels that he saw numbers of these
of a nurse; the trick was never found out which little fellows dressed in gay, rich clothes, standing
was lucky for the baby." This dwarf lived to be round their master's chair to hold his snuff box and
;ninety years old, and during the last twenty-five wait upon him, and they had also to take care of
32 ABOUT OTHER DWARFS.
his pet dogs and see that they were washed and the theatre every evening, for which he received a
combed regularly. These dwarfs were pretty and great deal of money.
graceful, and looked so much alike that it seemed While we are thinking of dwarfs, we must not
as if they must all belong to one family, forget our own Tom Thumb whom nearly every
Turkey is the only country where court-dwarfs American child has seen.
are still kept, and there they are highly prized, He was born at Bridgeport, Connecticut, on
especially if they happen to be deaf and dumb, January ii, 1832, and when about seven years old
which is sometimes the case. was taken by Mr. Barnum to New York and exhib-
In the city of London, several years ago, a Mr. ited in the American Museum, where thirty thou-
Birch while walking in the street saw three poor sand persons came to see him. From New York
ragged men standing on the edge of the sidewalk, he went to Boston, Philadelphia, and many other
singing. He stopped to listen, and noticed that American cities, and then to England, ten thousand
one of them, who had a voice of great sweetness, persons going down to the steamer to see him off.
was a dwarf, and pitying the little fellow, he asked In London he went to see Queen Victoria and her
him to come home with him and have something family, all of whom were delighted with the little
to eat. The poor dwarf gladly consented, and a man. He was then twenty-five inches tall, and
short time afterwards Mr. Birch, who kept a large very lively and interesting, singing songs, speak-
carriage factory, gave a dinner party in his work- ing pieces," and even acting in plays before his
rooms to the men who made carriages for him. royal audience, and when it was over the Queen
Besides the workmen, he invited some gentlemen gave him a watch and chain, a gold pencil-case
who sang and played in Drury Lane Theatre, and and many other beautiful presents. One of the
all together there were nearly a hundred persons plays in which he acted was the fairy tale of Hop-
at the party. When dinner was over, they had o'-my-Thumb."
songs and music, and all of a sudden when the A London carriage-maker was engaged to build
room was very quiet,
a most beautiful voice
was heard singing,
though where it came .
from no one knew.' t
The guests stared
round in astonish- -
ment, and looked at d- L
each other, but no one I J
spoke until the sweet
clear voice had ..
ceased, and then ev- .
ery one clapped hands
in delight and asked t) .s o L
each other whose it
could be. Some said %
it must be a lady, and THE TOM THUMB BRIDAL PARTY.
while they were won-
dering, the door of a new carriage was thrown him a handsome little carriage, twenty inches high
open, and out stepped the dwarf-singer, a young and eleven inches wide. It was bright blue, with
man of twenty-two years. red and blue wheels, and on the doors and harness
Then Mr. Birch told who he was, and about his was painted the Goddess of Liberty, with the
singing in the streets for a few pennies, and some British Lion and American Eagle, the British and
of the gentlemen went and spoke to the owner of American flags, and the motto, Go ahead!"
Drury Lane Theatre about him, and the end of it The carriage was drawn by a pair of little Shetland
was, that the dwarf-singer was engaged to sing in ponies, with two boys as coachman and footman,
ABOUT OTHER DWARFS. 33
who were dressed in sky-blue coats trimmed with sil- bull-fight, when he sat close to Queen Isabella, and
ver lace, red knee-breeches, silver buckles, cocked at last he came home to America again.
hats, and wigs. This grand affair cost nearly two Mr. Barnum found three more dwarfs -another
thousand dollars, and when it went rattling through little man, called Commodore Nutt, and two young
the streets of London every one stopped in surprise ladies, Lavinia and Minnie Warren, and all three
to look at it. were shorter than Tom Thumb. These four made
While General Tom Thumb was in England he a very pretty group, and Tom Thumb soon married
heard of another dwarf named Edwin Calvert, Miss Layinia Warren, the older of the little sisters.
who was still smaller than himself and who played The wedding was celebrated in New York at Grace
the violin, and could also dance gracefully, and Church and crowds of people went to see it; Min-
mimic the voices of birds and other animals. Tom nie Warren was her sister's bridesmaid, Commo-
Thumb sent and asked this little gentleman to visit dore Nutt the groomsman, and when the four tiny
him, and when they had talked together, the gen- people, beautifully dressed, marched up the middle
eral took off his boots and Mr. Calvert tried them aisle of the church, they looked more like walking
on, and they were so much too large for him that dolls than real persons.
he could easily shake them off his feet. Since then, Tom Thumb and his wife have been
Several months were spent by Tom Thumb in to London to see the Queen," and she and her
travelling over the continent of Europe; in Paris people were delighted with the pretty face and the
he acted in a French play which had been written quiet, lady-like manners of his little wife. The
on purpose for him ; in Spain he went to a grand General died about two years ago.
'' |^ "1 -^ ;- ." ^
\ <, ,, .
By ISABEL SMITHSON.
HOW BIG ARE GIANTS? of Patagonia, the southernmost country of South
America, were enormous giants, and wonderful
B .. ANY and won- tales were told about them by travellers and sail-
derful are the ors, but at last a sea-captain who lived in Patagonia
-c stories about some thirty years ago, brought back the truth.
'' giants found in He said that almost every man among them was
K I old books -of more than six feet high, and many of them nearly
men as high as seven feet; that they were immensely strong, with
i >,- '" '0 the tallest dark skins and thick hair, and a muttering indis-
S' trees with three tinct way of talking, "as if their mouths were filled
S '. heads each, with hot pudding."
and dragons' It is believed that there has never lived any nation
tails, of one- of giants, though some races of people are known
i.: .. -.- e d, ten-armed giants, to have had more very tall persons among them
S. _- ot monsters who went than others, and the tallest people now on earth
.about pulling up trees are in the countries of South America.
...- :lic roots, lkin:cking over moun-
\- I~ \\;-irn ,:, I-and, or amusing LONG AGO.
Themselves by playing foot-ball with
Sthe dead bodies of their foes. This In old times, not only children, but grown-up
sort of story does very well in fairy persons, liked to listen to stories of fierce giants,
tales, but it can never find place in and many spots in England and other countries
a true account of giants, any more still bear the names of these huge wonders; some
than the old Greek writer's mention of the legends or tales are very amusing, and pos-
of the man who was so small that no one could sibly true. For instance, a high sea-cliff on the
see him, could be admitted into a true history of south coast of England which is called "The Giant's
dwarfs. Leap," is said to be the spot where two giants had
A man who is more than six feet high is a very a fierce fight and one of them, after having had
tall man indeed, and if he is seven or eight feet three ribs broken, caught up his enemy and threw
high he is called a giant, and there have been a few him headfirst over the cliff into the sea.
persons still taller than this. Then there is a large cavern in the north of Eng-
In the Bible it is said that there were giants land called "The Giant's Cave," and a deep crack
on the earth in those days; and the country of in the flat rock near it is known as "The Maiden's
Ammon is called "a land of giants," and the spies Step," and the story goes that here a lovely lady
who were sent by Moses into Canaan came back ran away from the cruel giant Torquin, who was
saying, "We saw the giants, the sons of Anak." keeping her a prisoner in his rocky home. Near
Now it is not to be supposed that these people by is a low mound five yards long, with a great
were as high as a four-story house-which would stone pillar at each end, and this is called "The
be nothing astonishing in a fairy tale. Goliath, Giant's Grave," being believed to be the spot where
the famous Philistine whom David killed, is thought Torquin was killed and buried by the brave knight,
to have been about nine feet, that is, a yard higher Sir Launcelot. A single stone pillar as high as a
than the tall men we see in these days. man, which stands near the mound, is named "The
For a long time it was believed that the people Giant's Thumb."
ABOUT' GIANTS. 35
Agiant who is said to have lived on t'.e Isle of and was first told and believed in Iceland, where,
Man in the Irish Sea, was very fond playing the however, it was supposed to be an ash-tree instead
game of quoits with large rocks such as no other of a bean-stalk which "grew and grew until it
man could lift, and here two square pillars are reached beyond the clouds."
still known as "The Giant's Quoiting Stones."
On one of the Scilly Islands, off the southwest BURIED GIANTS.
coast of England, is a great pile of rocks shaped
like walls with pointed towers, and this enormous In the British Museum there hangs a large
mass is called The Giant's Castle," while in the corselet or vest such as warriors of old times used
south of Ireland several immense rocks piled one to wear. It is made of leather, covered with thin
above the other, are named The Giant's Stairs," fine gold of most beautiful workmanship, and is
r ----- -i
ROLLO THE WALKER ORDERS HIS WARRIOR TO KISS THE KING'S FOOT.
and are said to have led to the hiding-place of a known as "The Golden Vest." The way in which
monster whose legs, to fit this staircase, would have it was found makes it interesting.
had to be long enough for him to step up to the About fiftyyears ago some men who were mend-
roof of a good-sized house in one stride. ing roads near the town of Mold, in Wales, came
The nursery fairy story of Jack the Giant-killer is across a tumulus, or great mound of earth, and
very old indeed. Although it was not printed until thinking it might contain gravel which would be
the year 1711, it had been told in England and useful to them in their work, they began digging
Germany for hundreds of years before that, and is into it. What was their surprise to find at the
found in Hindoo writings which were made as long bottom of the mound some human bones and a
ago.as two hundred and fortyyears before the time skull of unusual size, two or three hundred amber
of Christ. Jack and the Bean-stalk is also very old, beads, and a golden vest. These curious articles
36 ABOUT GIANTS.
were sent to a learned man, who soon after dis- go on foot, was called Rollo the Ganger (which
covered in some very old Welsh writings that the meant the Walker), or Gang Roll," for short.
mound was the grave of a giant named Beulli, who This giant chieftain used to sail down to France,
lived in the year 500, and after whom was named land his men, and then rush through the country,
a hill where he used to collect his men together burning houses and churches, and killing people
before a fight. The place where his grave was on every side. The French tried to drive out the
found had been named The Field of the Goblin," strangers, but it was no use, and at last the king
or in Welsh language, Cae Ellyllion. The Golden and his nobles got so frightened that they offered
,- -- -to make friends with the terrible Northmen, and to
i" give them a part of France for their own. To this
Rollo agreed, and on the day fixed the king,
; \ Charles the Third, with some of his nobles, met
Rollo and the chief Northmen to settle matters
P I peaceably. Rollo was made a duke, and it was
arranged that he should become a Christian, be
baptized by the name of Robert, and marry the
SFrench princess Gisele. During the council the
Northmen were very quiet and well-behaved, but
V, .t %ajs sent to the when they heard that the newly-made duke would
l Mu eum %here any one have to kneel down and kiss the king's foot (that
Swho visits London may being the custom in those days), they made a terri-
see it. ble uproar. Rollo proudly refused to kneel to the
Giant skeletons have king, the French nobles insisted that that was the
been found buried in law of the land, every one began talking at once,
many different coun- and for a time it seemed as if all the plans for peace
Strikes, and it i very likely and friendship were to be overturned. But at last
that the old stories of Rollo said he would let one of his men act for him,
iimp,:.ssibly large men and calling out a tall fierce warrior, he ordered
ere believed, because him to kiss the king's foot. The soldier dared
Spceo'l did not know not disobey, but went sulkily towards the king, and
that ages ago there instead of kneeling down, he pulled the king's foot
lived enormous animals up to his own lips, doing it so suddenly and roughly
larger than any we see that poor Charles lost his balance and fell over
now. Such were the backwards.
WALTER PARSONS AND THE IM- mammoth, mastodon, Then the rude strangers all burst out laughing,
PERTINENT STRANGER. dinotherium, megathe- but as the French were too much afraid of their
rium, and many others with names to match the visitors to criticise them, the meeting ended with-
size of their bodies; these strange creatures died, out any more quarrelling, and Rollo married the
and hundreds of years afterwards, when they had French princess and he and his followers settled
been forgotten, their huge skeletons were found by down quietly in their new home in the north of
accident, and people thought that the great bones France, which has ever since been called from,
must have belonged to human beings. them, Normandy," meaning "Northman's land."
ROLLO THE WALKER. THREE TALL ENGLISHMEN.
Rollo was the leader of the Northmen, a wild Walter Parsons, a very famous giant, was em-
fierce race of people who lived in Norway and played by King James the First of England as
Sweden several hundred years ago. He was so porter, and his business was to stand beside a
big that he could never find a horse tall and strong heavy gate and open it when any one wanted to go
enough to carry him, and being always obliged to in or out. In his youth he had been a blacksmith,
ABOUT GIANTS. 37
and when he struck the anvil he had to stand in a help him, and wanted them to get their troops
deep hole in the ground so as to be of about the ready to fight the rebels who had raised an army
same height as the other workmen. He was im- against him, and so Sir Beville got his men to-
mensely strong, but too good-tempered to hurt any gether as fast as he could. He chose Tony Payne
one; once, when a man offended him in London to be one of his bodyguard, so that the young
streets, he lifted him gently by the waistband, and giant's place was near his master, and before very
hung him up high on a hook in the public market- long word was received that the rebels were comn-
place, where he left him, unhurt, but laughed at by ing to Stowe, where Sir Beville lived. Tony Payne,
all who passed. When King James died, his son, with a body of troops, was sent out to meet the
King Charles, kept Parsons in his place as porter; enemy, and a battle was fought, in which the
and this king had also another giant, named Evans, Royalists, as the king's friends were called, were
who danced in a play before his royal master, and the victors. When the fighting was over, Payne
then drew little Jeffrey Hudson out of his pocket. ordered his men to take care of the wounded and
The pictures of this giant and dwarf are painted on to bury the dead, and he himself went about carry-
the signboard of an old London inn which is named ing great soldiers in his arms as if they were so
after them. many babies. That same year another and fiercer
Tony Payne was the name of a tall schoolboy battle was fought near Lansdown, and here the
who lived down in Cornwall, the southwest corner Royalists were sadly beaten, and Sir Beville Gran-
of England. His back was so broad that his class- ville killed. Payne was beside him when he fell,
mates liked to use it as a blackboard and work and the devoted giant put John Granville, a lad of
out their examples on it with chalk, and he would sixteen, into his father's place on the horse, and
sometimes pick up two of his companions, tuck one led the troops into the fight. Tony Payne after-
under each arm and then climb up a steep sea-cliff, wards sent a letter to his dead master's widow, say-
saying that he was taking his little kittens out to ing that he would always be faithful to her and her
show them the world. He was always so gentle son. Fifteen years later when Charles the Second
and kind to his schoolmates that they loved him was called home to England to be king, Sir John
dearly, and though it is nearly two hundred years Granville was made governor of a fortress at Ply-
since he died, the Cornish people still talk about mouth, and Tony Payne went with him and became
him, and when a country lad wants to speak of any halberdier, or keeper of the cannon. King Charles
thing as being very large indeed, he says it is as knew how brave and faithful Payne had been dur-
long as Tony Payne's foot ing the war, and he made a great favorite of the
When Payne was twenty-one years old, and big halberdier, and had his portrait painted by a
seven feet two inches high, he was engaged by a great artist. In this picture the giant is shown
nobleman to take care of hunting dogs and horses, standing beside a cannon, with one hand resting
and after a hunt he used to carry home great stags on it, while in the other he holds his halberd,
and deer upon his shoulders; and if he wanted to a sort of battle-axe which halberdiers carry.
have a jacket made of deerskin, he had to use the When he grew old he left the army and went
hides of three full-grown animals. One Christmas back to his home in Stratton, and after he was
eve a boy was sent into the woods with a little dead and ready to be buried, it was found that the
donkey to get fagots for firewood, and as it grew doorways and staircases were not large enough to
very late and they did not come back, people be- allow his huge body to be carried out of the house.
gan to be worried lest the child had lost his way. The walls had to be sawed through, and the floors
So Tony Payne went to fetch him, and finding that lowered with ropes and pulleys, and a number of
nothing was the matter except that the donkey felt the strongest men that could be found took turns
tired, and would not go, he stooped down, took the in carrying the giant's body to the grave.
astonished animal on his shoulders, and carried
him home, fagots and all. THE GIANT REGIMENTS.
He soon had more serious work to do, however,
for his master, Sir Beville Granville, heard that the Frederick William, emperor of Prussia, had in his
king, Charles the First, needed all his friends to army a regiment of men who were all immensely
38 ABOUT GIANTS.
tall, being gathered together from every part of can be found, look very grand and soldierly gal.
Europe. They we;e called The Grand Grena- loping along together, or standing "on guard," as
diers," and in their front rank there was not a still as statues, neither horses nor riders moving
single man less than seven feet in height, so much as an eyelid.
The emperor's greatest delight was to ride out These are the men who fought so well in the late
and review his giant regiment, and when ambas- war in Egypt; and at the battle of Waterloo in
sadors or any grand persons from other countries 1815, the Life Guardsmen were those who rode up
... .... =-- -
TONY PAYNE, THE TALL SCHOOLBOY.
in the nick of time, attacking the Frenct
and chasing them into the valley.
TWO IRISH GIANTS.
About five miles from the silver mines
of Tipperary, in the south of Ireland, there
lived a giant boy named Cornelius McGrath.
His parents were peasants and they and all
his brothers and sisters were of the usual
Size; and even he was not astonishingly
large until he reached his sixteenth year.
Then he was taken with such violent pains
came to visit him he always had his Grand Grena- in his arms and legs that he was lame for a month,
diers march by to be wondered at and admired, and everyone thought he had rheumatism, and the
When Frederick William died his son sent the tall doctor ordered him salt water baths. It was soon
soldiers to the empress, and they used to march on found out, however, that his complaint was "grow-
each side of her immense state coach and could ing pains," for in a year's time he became so dread-
shake hands with each other over the roof. fully tall that when he visited the city of Cork
England still has a tall regiment, and every one crowds of people followed him through the streets.
who has been to London must have seen the Life The sole of his shoe was fifteen inches long, his
Guardsmen in their scarlet coats. Each manwears wrist measured a quarter of a yard round, and with
beside great leather boots reaching above his one hand he could entirely cover a good-sized
knees, long gauntlet gloves, and a helmet and shoulder of mutton. Of course he was very strong,
breast-plate made of shining steel, and carries a and there was a little student in Trinity College,
sabre at his side, and two pistols before him, in the Dublin, whom Cornelius used to pick up by the
saddle. No one can be a Life Guardsman unless coat collar and hold out at arms-length. The
he is at least six feet two inches high, and these young giant was exhibited in a show in Cork, and
huge men, who have to ride the largest horses that from that city he went to Paris, and then all over
APfOUT GIANTS. 39
Europe, and everywhere crowds of people flocked Chang went over to London and visited the
to see him. After his death his friends the stu- Prince of Wales. The Prince asked him to sign
dents placed his great skeleton in Trinity College, his name on the wall as high as he could reach, and
where it remains to this day. the giant put up his big hand and wrote his name
Another Irish giant named Cotter, and sometimes away up above every one's head at the height of ten
called the Man-mountain," used to astonish the feet from the ground, so that it would take a six-
night watchmen by stopping at a street lamp-post year-old child standing on the head of a very tall
and lighting his pipe in the flame, and then walk- man to touch it.
ing off as coolly as if he had done nothing queer. Chang Woo Gow was in New York and other
He was more than eight feet tall, and so strong American cities last winter.
that when some one spoke rudely about Ireland, he Once upon a time the Empress of Austria had a
took the man by the coat collar, held him up in the fancy that it would be nice to get all the giants and
air and shook him well. He once acted in a play dwarfs that could be found and put them into one
with a dwarf lady who was less than a yard high, house together.
and all the people laughed at seeing her go up a This was done, and great care was taken to hire
flight of stairs to talk with the great fellow who strong men to guard the dwarfs, lest the giants
would turn round next minute and shake hands should frighten or hurt them. Strange to say, how-
with the people in the upper stage boxes. The ever, the little people were too much for the big
showman pretended that his giant was related to ones, and the poor giants complained with tears
Brian Boru, a famous Irish king who fought the in their eyes that the dwarfs teased, abused and
Danes nine hundred years ago, beating them in
forty-nine battles, and who is said to have been ---""
more than eight feet high.
Mr. Cotter used to travel about in a carriage
which had the floor let down on purpose to make -
room for his long legs, and one night as he was
driving through the woods the horses were stopped
bya highway robberwho meant to steal all he could <
find in the coach. The giant leaned out of the win-
dow to see what was the matter, and the astonished
robber, not daring to attack such a big fellow, put -
spurs to his horse and rode off as fast as he. could
go. The giant's gold watch and chain would have
been worth stealing, as they had been made to suit, 1
his big hands and pockets, and together weighed a '
Mr. Cotter had his portrait painted many times,
and in some pictures he is shown with his arms
resting on the top of a room door.
THE GREAT AND THE SMALL.
In the year 1866 there came to America from THE CHINESE GIANT.
China three queer persons Chang Woo Gow, a
giant, King Foo, his wife, and Chung Now, a Tar- even robbed them, and so the guards had to pro-
tar dwarf. The first of these three was nearly eight tect the giants from their tiny tormentors.
feet high, and he had had a sister who grew to be It would seem from this that giants are good-
still taller than himself. He was very polite, and be- natured and gentle, instead of being the fierce, ter-
ing awell-educated gentleman and pleasant to talk rible monsters they are made in story-books;
with, received a 'reat many visitors in Barnum's and dwarfs are usually-though not always-
Museum where he was exhibited, peevish and mischievous little creatures.
light of our practical wealthy people whom they had amused. An old
upon." plishments is indicated by the figures on the front
LACED in the broubad ours of a chapel in France, erected bygiven their united
lightwere men who made contributions. Itpeople washom they had amused in Septemberold
times, the ompohistory of song relates how one of the figures represented a Trom thuba-
recitationse old days when king's owna long purs e with m uch gold ander, eachite
t h a profession. Many with his various instruments." Like others occu-e."
flourish hedm were actors, pied ins like To be a Troubade or thprofession ats to bime and juggler,
and mimicsstory, or, and jugNa- a posince, a musician, a master of dancintog, a one great soci-
said, "a fable agreed and a trainer of animals. Their variety of accom-
gler, an the bro- ado it o ad a nd ch v aluable gos give n told th their
werelight of our practical wealthy peoplemade contributions. It washom they hated amuin Septemberd n old
tess s t e te e th e histo one, ts had a k ng t s ertan the f e s reese f ote tree
mfrom sines o s loaded ing oanies mn p se ith m o ace agoland "search
hea profession. Many with his various instruments." Like others occu-e.
flourish them were actors, pied inms like To be a Troubade our thprofession at thato be a jugglernd
and mimics, and jug- since, they bound themselves into one great soci-
glers, and the pro- ety, or "trade union;" and we are told that they
fession was at one time a very lucrative one, its had a king It is certain that they often travelled
members frequently retiring from business loaded in companies from place to place in search of
IL I jaI;
6NZ~~~Li ~ I
NOi "~, ..
BEFORETHE CSTLE ATES A NIGIiFALL
THE TROUBADOURS. 43
employment, and often in midwinter they ap- well pounded. It is related of one that while
peared before the castle gates at nightfall, a group returning from a visit to a certain lord, having
of crimson, and violet, and velvet-black, relieved reached a deep and dangerous forest, he was sud-
against the shadowed snow. denly set upon by thieves who haunted these gloomy
The richer class of Troubadours did not travel shade They took from him his horse, his
at this season. They remained at home during money, and even his clothing, and were about to
/ 4 -
THE TROUBADOUR SINGING TO THE THIEVES.
the winter and composed, or learned new verses, kill him, when the captive Troubadour begged to
and thus prepared themselves for a fresh cam- be allowed to sing one more song before he died.
paign; and with the first upspringing of the grass Obtaining consent, he began to sing most melodi-
they came forth like song birds, flocking joyously ously in praise of thievery and of these particular
from city to city, from castle to castle, with their thieves, whom he so delighted with his sweet
flutes and rebecs, their wonderful stories of Ar- compliments and admiration that they "returned
thur's Round Table, of wild horses of the forest him his horse, his money, and everything they
bearing fair maidens lashed to their backs forever, had taken from him "
of towers dragon-guarded. But there were often pleasanter scenes under
The life of the wandering Troubadour must the greenwood tree." Picture to yourself a com-
needs have been one of romance and adventure. pany of the merry singers, in fantastic array,
Not infrequently did he picture to the life in his halted beneath the broad and protecting boughs.
lyric some well-known character of the day and Can you not hear the jest go round, the free
the neighborhood; and it followed that if the hero laugh ring out, and echoing in the old woodland, as
of the song or recital was of a revengeful nature, these Troubadours, those human songsters, revel in
the Troubadour was frequently waylaid and the joy of their out-of-door life, and breathing the
44 THE TROUBADOURS.
healthful airs of the forest ? What is the world his time. Referring to her ambitious and captive
of war and loss, burning castles and tumbling son, Richard Coeur de Lion, who, by the way, was
thrones, to them ? What but so much material for a Troubadour, she describes herself in one of her
moving, thrilling song ? letters to the Pope: Eleanora, by the wrath of
These roving minstrels were often of great God, Queen of England."
secret service to armies in time of war, for they Well, the turbulence of her reign was often due
could travel where others could not, and many to the war songs of Troubadours; for if ever
were the momentous missions they undertook. The it occurred that her impetuous sons were inclined
Troubadour was always free to go and come, to a season of peace, the Troubadours always
a welcome guest, a jolly good fellow. The camp broke into their retirement with passionate and
fires might be burning, armies moving from base boastful fensons which urged them to revolt and
to base, but amid the tramp of marching men
and the shifting of military posts he was secure ^
in his privilege as a neutral person. As a -
song, the turning of three somersaults, or a new
jest was sufficient password to hostile camps, "
it naturally followed that he should often be ( '' ''
employed as a spy or messenger, penetrating. .0.
outer lines, and into castles whose gates were
closed by armed men. Imagine him spirit- r
edly reciting some heroic tale to a group o:f
rough and iron-clad warriors -restless soldiers*
of fortune, who listen to him with savage in- '-
terest, clinking their swords as an accompan- '
ment to his song. While they make jokes at r ,. -
his expense they house and feed him. They
reward him with curious trinkets taken in bat- I
tle, a quaint ring, or ancient bracelet, a gem- '. -
crusted drinking-cup, which serves to swell "",
his possessions. But the cunningTrouba-
dour takes the number of their spears. He "
spies the secret gates I
where the men go in
and out at night bear-
ing supplies of pro-
visions and arms. He
learns the plans for to- .
morrow's foraging. In N
short, a song, a simple 4.
story, a few amusing f
tricks, secretly turns "- -
the tide of battle, set-
tles the fate of kings ,
and queens. -i
Among the many r"
unhappy queens of UNDER THE GREENWOOD TREE.
merry England, Elea-
nora of Aquitaine stands in her place. Her battle. As the Marseillaise has resounded in the
reign was full of trouble and misfortune, although streets of Paris in our time, inspiring men and
Henry the Second was a most peace-loving king of women with feelings of enthusiasm and reckle.f
THE TROUBADOURS. 45
valor, so certain subtle recitations of the minstrels France, and Spain, exciting passion, distrust, and
roused the insurgent sons of Eleanora to rebellion hatred among high and low. So skilful was
and deeds of blood. The peace of a kingdom, the he in creating discord and manipulating intrigue,
ties of kindred, the affairs of state, were over- that Dante fittingly assigned him a place in the
turned by a mere song. Chief of these political Inferno. Eleanora herself was the granddaughter
IN THE REIGN OF ELEANOR OF PROVENCE.
Troubadours, and a personal friend of these war- of one of the earliest Troubadours, whose works
like sons of Eleanora, was the Baron Bertrand have reached down to our day; and many of the
de Bosn. This French nobleman was a born songs of that day are addressed to her. One
revolutionist, impetuous, violent, and his verses of her Troubadour train, after a life of devotion to
on the lips of Troubadours, penetrated England, poetry and romance, became a monk and ended
46 THE TROUBADOURS.
his days amid the sober scenes and subduing mad poet called loudly for Henry, demanding that
influences of an abbey in the Limousin. he show himself and be killed, the search was in
Retiring from the world into the bosom of the vain. The poor poet had to pay for this attempt,
Church, seems to have been a favorite closing act being executed at Coventry.
among the Troubadours. Many of them did so from For many years the Troubadours continued
ignoble or selfish motives, but some were actuated to sing at ancient windows and in lordly halls.
by religious convictions, no doubt. Great ladies, But their numbers gradually grew less, until few
also, whose beauty had been made famous by the were left of all that happy profession. As times
Troubadours, frequently sought in the end, peace- grew more peaceful, and please -ter occupations
ful nunneries from which they never came forth increased, the romance of chivalry, the wild leg-
again. endry of feudal courts and fields waned in inter-
Many of the productions of the Troubadours con- est for the people, until only an occasional stroller
trained from fifteen to twenty thousand verses, and was seen no more in princely dress, slowly travel-
therefore required much time in the delivery, es- ling along some lonely road in quest of such
pecially as they were accompanied by music, warmth or comfort as a charitable or inquisitive
When one performer became weary another person might give him by listening to his worn-out
took his place, and thus continued the linked songs. Instead of receiving a cloak of cloth of sil-
sweetness to an almost
endless length. The
Troubadour was a reformer
of manners and the creator
of many pleasing offices,
some of which exist to
this day. For instance:
In the reign of Eleanor M ;
of Provence, queen of -
England, we have our first
glimpse of a poet-laureate; 1
and the office since be- -
come so glorious with -
song, undoubtedly sprung _
out of the literary tastes -
of the Provencal queen,
who was herself a singer,
and had been surrounded
in her youth by Trouba-
dours and minstrels. But
this kindly harboring of
Troubadours came near THE LAST MINSTREL.
being the death of the king,
her husband; for one night a gentleman known ver inwoven with gold as a reward, he was content
as "a mad poet" was so well used in the hall with a bed of straw. There is much pathos in
that he got into high spirits and amused the royal those lines of Walter Scott which describe the last
household by "joculating for their entertainment, minstrel as forsaken by all except an orphan boy:
and singing some choice minstrelsy." But he
seems all the while to have had another end in The bigots of the iron time
view, for at a convenient moment he crept into Had called his harmless art a crime.
the king's bedchamber armed with a very sharp A wandering harper, scorned and poor,
He begged his bread from door to door;
knife which he plunged into the royal couch. For- And tuned to please a peasant's ear,
tunately the king was not there, and although the The harp a king had loved to hear.
.. ,,: ,-. \
-- -,. -- a.
ELEANOR OF PROVENCE WHO WAS HERSELF A SINGER."i
^ . K
Here is the boy Christ disputing with the doctors in one in the world. You can get a specimen copy of it
the Temple. All these pictures are out of The Pansy, by sending five cents to D. Lothrop Company, Bos-
a religious magazine for children, the most successful ton.
-I -- -- -
Here is the boy Christ disputing with the doctors in one in the world. You can get a specimen copy of it
the Temple. All these pictures are outof The Pansy, by sending five cents to D. Lothrop Company, Bos-
a religiousmagazine for children, the most successful ton.
Frances E. Willard The Fishermian
9- TO THE READERS OF THIS BOOK.-.
WIDE AWAKE FOR 1890.
This favorite People's Pictorial proposes to celebrate fitly the making of its
A large company of its readers and friends have been on its subscription-list from the issue
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subscribers. i For one thing, they say, young and old, that they cannot find anywhere else reading
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MRS. JESSIE BENTON FREMONT,
And they know Mrs. Frdmonr writes for no other periodical.)
To honor these friends, and to celebrate the loyalty of the public, every number of
WIDE AWAKE FOR z8go
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will be a series of true and most romantic Acadian stories which have never been in print, but
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