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Florida mirror
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 Material Information
Title: Florida mirror
Uniform Title: Florida mirror (Fernandina, Fla.)
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: A.B. Campbell, Geo. Burnside
Place of Publication: Fernandina Fla
Creation Date: September 29, 1883
Publication Date: 1878-
Frequency: semiweekly[<1894-1899>]
weekly[ former 1878-<1886>]
triweekly[ former <1890-1891>]
semiweekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Fernandina (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Nassau County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Nassau -- Fernandina Beach
Coordinates: 30.669444 x -81.461667 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 30, 1878)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1901.
General Note: "Democratic" <1880>.
General Note: Editor: Geo. R. Fairbanks, <1887>.
General Note: Publishers: George R. Fairbanks, <1885-1886>; Moore & Manucy, <1887-1891>; The Mirror Pub. Co., <1894-1898>.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002057832
oclc - 33834378
notis - AKP5868
lccn - sn 95047336
System ID: UF00054505:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Nassau County star

Full Text

THE FLORIDA MIRROR.

SA TURDA Y, SEPTEMBER 29, 188S.


A DUTY TO OUR STATE.
The results of the Louisville Exposition
proniselto be highly beneficial to Florida.
While the Florida exhibits thus far have
been meagre, they have made a very favor-
able comparison with those of other States
and excited universal approval. The com-
missioners have been hampered by insuffi-,
ciency of means, and the elegant fixtures
and appliances of other sections are wanting
in our own. Still, our display has been re-
spectable and promises, by the advent of
"Florida lay"' on the 18th proximno, to be-,
come really magnificent. It is important to
our interests to make it so.
The Louisville Exposition is dis tctieviely
and characteristically Southern. Theplan'of
it was sufficiently grand to properly effect,
its object. In buildings and grounds it coin-
pares favorably with those of any industrial
fair ever held. To it will come people from
all over the world ;. capitalists interested in
the South and in particular'States ; others
curious to learn what the Southern States
really can and do produce. Merchants, man-
ufacturers, mechanics, politicians, scientists,
are there by thousands; men who make fib-
rous wares, wooden wares and paper; those
who put up canned fruits, vegetables and'
meat; brewers and distillers ; men of every
trade, seeking among the exhibits those pro-
ducts used in their respective lines, and a
knowledge of their value and cost 6f pro-
duction.
Florida has succeeded in the march ot
matettalprogress because she has advertised ..--
her splendid possibilities, because shle has
earnestly desired immigration, and because
she has never failed to rise up in her might
and unitedly denounce her traducers. It
takes but one year to make a settler in this
State a patriotic citizen, an ever-vigilant
and earnest defender of the fair name of
Florida. We are every year developing new
possibilities, and a residence here, which a
few years ago was full of privations and
hardships for many, has become what it's
in the most favored States.
It is important to us that at this great
Southern Exposition Florida shall not fail
to properly acquit herself, and if we do our
duty we can create there an impression
which shall be paramount in the mind of
every sight-seer, for potatoes and garden
vegetable grow everywhere, but what State
can show a more tempting display than
Florida can make with her golden oranges
and hundred varieties of semi-tropic fruits?
Let. us, then, ,have a *" Florida Day ...at..
Louisville that shall not expose us to unfa-
vorable conclusions, but shall show us to be
that favored section which we really are.-
Times- Union.

IMMENSE OIL WELLS IN RIOUMA-
NIA.
BRADFORD, PA., September 21I.--The Oil
Well Supply Company of this city to-day
received a fetter from Prince, Sturby & Co.)'
dated Campina, Roumania. After ordering
2,000 feet of cable, five boxes of oil well sup-
plies, sand lines, tools, and other materials,
the letter goes on to say that two immense
wells were recently struck near Campina.
One started off at 4,000 barrels per day. The
oil gushed forth with the power of a cy-
clone. A river of oil ran down thd valley
and went mostly to waste. For ten days
this furious flow kept up, then it began to
fall off, and a cap was put on the casing.
This, however, was soon blown through the
t6p ofthe derrick. Sald W-as sn blowi oa t-w-
large quantities, and lay on the deiTrric.k floor
six feet deep, and as the oil ran down the
ravine it left deposits of sand for more than
three miles from the well. The other well
started off at 1.500 barrels per day. ; The Oil
Well Supply Company has already, sent a
number of drillers to Roumania, and has
also made several shipments of drilling tools
and oil well supplies.

Post- Office Notice.
Office Hours-From 8:00 A. M. to 7:00,P. M.
Sunday hours, 10:30 A. M. to 11:30 A. M.
SMoney Orders and Registered Letters from
9:00 A. M. to 1:00 P. M.; and from 2:1.0 P. M

to 4:00 P. M :
ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE OF THE MAILS,
Northern Mail (Daily except Sunday)- ...
Arrives................. 5:50 P. M. and ,;:o5 p.. M.
Closes.................... 7:30 A. M. and ':i; AL M.
Transit & Peninsular Railroad- .
"Arrive. .............:.;.. .... ..... ..;... 5"5 I' .-:M -
Closes...................................7..... 7;30 A. -M .
Jacksonville, South ,n,, West Florida-
Arrives ................... .9:00 A. M. and il:"5 P. M.
Closes .................... 9:30 A. M. and 5:30 P..M..
Arrives Sunday...... 10:25 A. M.
Closes Sunday........ 4:00 p. M.
St. Mary's and King's Ferry Mail- ,
ArriVes Tuesdays and Fridays at 2:30 p. M.
ClosesM Mondays and Tliur.-lays at 8:00 A2 M.
St. Mary's and Dungeness-
Arrives Mondays and-Thursdays at 8:00 A. M.
'' Tuesdays and. Fri,]ays ,at 2:30 P. M.
Wedn'sdaysandbat'days at !::0": A-. M.'
Closes Tuesdays, Wednesdays,
Friday and Saturdlays at 2:30 p. M.


SAML. T. RIDDELL, P. M.

Masonic. -
Regular coI nmuni .U t i-,on1 of Amelia Lodge
No. 47, F. & A, M., for the year 1883 : ".
January 22. July 16.: '
February 19. August 13.
eMarch 19. Selbt eiber 10. -
April 16 October 15. : ,
May 21.' : Noveilir 12. '
June 18. De,- b-. er '10. '
December 27.
At 7:30 p. m. Visiting bre-t Iren fi-itei'nally
invited to attend. E. .
J. E, WANDELL, W., M
:C. H. BERG, Secretary.. : .

SNassau Chapter No.:23, R.. A.,M., holds its
regular convocations on the Thursday fol-
lowing each regular communication of Ame-
lia Lodge, at 7:30 o'clock sharp. :
Transient companions fraternally invited
to attend. W. F. SCOTT, HM. P.
W. A. JONES, Secretary, i
Knights of Honor.
Weeapopka Lodge, No. 2535, K. of H.,
meets the first and third Tuesday nights in
every m.onth, at 8 o'clock.
G. N. SAJsSY, Dietator.
W. J. WOODWARD, Reporter. "
Legion of Honor.
Ponce de Leon Council-" No. 922, A. L. of
H., meets the second and fourth Friday
nights in every month, at 8 o'clock.
THEO. STARBUCK, Commandder...
W. J. WooDwARD, Secretary. '


east and west half-way across the peninsula,
connecting by a short river with the Laguna
del Espiritu Santo (Okechobee), which has
an outlet at Key Biscayne Bahia de Calos
(Charlotte Harbor), and also due south.
According to this map, Florida is a great
morass intersected in every direction with
bayous.
In Moll's Atlas (London, 1719), Florida is
represented as triangular in form, from Lake
George north as "good ground," and south
as lakes and brooks land." The route of
an expedition made by Captain T. Nairn,
accompanied by thirty-three Yemasee In-
dians, to Lulu, in South Florida, is laid
down. Cacema town (Kissimee) is located
on a lake lying north of the location of Oke-
chobeef which is not represented by any
large body of water, and which it is, there-
fore, doubtful if they reached; but the
course of the St. Johns and the chain of
lakes connecting with Okechobee is correctly
given.
The French expedition in Florida in 1563-4
did not, probably, make any excursions into
s6 distant part of the peninsnila, The Span- -
iards had no motive for doing so except the
establishment of trading houses, which
would have been too distant from their base
of supplies.
Prior to the breaking out of the Florida
war, in 1835, very little knowledge of that
region had been acquired by the Americans,
the whole of East Florida, with the excep-
tion of a portion of the sea-coast, being
occupied by the Indians. As the war went
on, the Seminoles were driven South into
the lake region and the Everglades. Naval
expeditions were sent in, which traversed
the Everglades from the Atlantic to the
Gulf in boats.
In 1847 the Legislature of Florida passed
aTesolution requesting Congress to grant to
the State of Florida all the lands, lying south
of "Carloosa Hatchee river and northerrn-
shore of Lake Okechobee and--bewtween the
Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, on
the condition that the State would drain
them and apply the proceeds, after defray-
ing the expenses of draining, to purposes of
education.
In June, 1847, the Secretary of the Treas-
ury appointed Buckingham Smith, Esq., to
procure authentic information in relation to
the Everglades of Florida.
Mr. Smith was furnished with a revenue

cutter and boats built for the purpose. He
commenced his exploration on the 1st of Sep-
t il r, 15 7. i -Tli-e waterr w .'stlife-i as-high in
the Everglades as it ever is. In dry seasons
the water falls thirty inches. Mr. Smith re-
ported that the bottom of the basin was of
.lime rock near the shore, slightly covered
with sand. In the deeper portions the bot-
tom is covered with sediment, generally from
two to four feet deep. The deposit occupies
three-fourths of the ;urtace of the glades
covered with water, has no adhesive matter,
and when dry is'of the cnsistny of snuffi.
The saw gra-s spring-s from the deposit,
though several t'.-et l:elow'theo -urlface of the
water, and is, taller and Imore dense in.thee
interior than near the shores. 'It grows to
the height of six to ten feet. There are large
numbers of small islands scattered through
the glades, but they are sparsely wooded,
although the soil is usually rich. The wild
.myrtle grows thickly with the saw grass in
many places, and makes a dense thicket,
through which it is impossible to force a
boat; narrow passages are generally found.
Mr. Smith estimated that the margin of the
glades at the mouth of the Miami was twelve
feet above the sea. On the west side the ele-
vation is less.
; The extent of the Everglades proper is
' about ninety miles south of Lake Okecho-
bee, and in width from thirty to fifty miles


Any expectations as to any great benefit to
be derived' from the drainage of the great,
ba;iin will pl-ab:l.Ily not b:e realize,-d:l, as thi e
character ,,f the dlep,_,sit is too deficient in
permanent elements of available soil to last
very long under cultivation.

The Art Amateur for October is a treasure
for home art workers. Its designs include
three: China painters (primroses for a vase,
Sharebells for a plate and poppies. for a
plaque,), three for embroidery-a letter case,
,aphoto'raph frame and a bellows; a charm-
ing hawthorn panel for wood-carving, a
Dozen pleasing figures for sketching on linen
f .
and a multiplicity of monograms and jewelry
de.tions. There are valuable articles on
etching drawing in red, and other art topics,
, with some good ,.examples of crayon work ;
Sthe Munich and Boston art exhibitions are
Reviewed and attractively illustrated; there
3 are some excellent pictures of. Boule work
a; 'ind one of a remarkable Henri Deux cabinet
s inlaid with ivory, and many practical sug-
Sgestions for home decoration and furnishing.
SPrice, 35cents ; $4a year. Montague Marks,
publisher, 23 Union Square, New York.

Atlanta, Ga., is moving for a permanent
Start and industrial exhibition building. .


/


etc.,) naturally resents criticism upon its fa-
vorite scheme. The relation of the editor
to the project naturally induces it to look
with favor upon all its plans, estimates and
promises.
The Mirror has neither disparaged nor as-
sailed the ship canal project, which it has
always regarded with great interest in its
general aspects and relations to .the com-
merce of the world. It has not regarded its
benefits to Florida as so immediate or so
great as the barge canal, but that is simply
a question of opinion.
The scheme of the Ship Canal Company,
now under discussion, is a fair subject of
criticism. The report which we have criti-
cised assumes that a tide-water canal, the
excavation of a large portion of which must
go to a very great depth, can be built at
a less cost than a canal with locks, places
the cost of excavation at only 14 cents per
cubic yard, and absolutely ignores all rock
excavation. Upon this basis of calculation
it pronounces that the cost will not exceed
forty-six millions of dollars, and that it is
entirely feasible. -
To meet the criticism of the Mirror and to
support the report of General Stone, the
Times- Union says :
Such is the enterprise which the editor of
the Mirror (which is also an incorporator of
the barge canal scheme) has set himself to
discredit. His latest effort in that line is an
attempt to show that the estimates of cost
made by such engineers as General Stone
and Captain Hill are not trustworthy, and
in order to do this he cites the report of
General Gillmore upon another scheme
along another line. General Stone having
estimated the cost, of excavating common
earth at 14 cents per cubic yard, the editor
of the Mirror calls attention to the fact that
General Gillmore's estimate in 1879 was 20
cents per cubic yard for similar work. This
argument, of course, makes no allowance
for the recent great improvements'in exca-
vating machinery but it can be setjat rest,_
not- by in 'e.llee, 'but by petiffti fact. A
well known contractor of Baltimore, Md.,
has made a formal offer to the Ship Canal
Company to take its whole excavating work
at the rate of twelve cents per cubic yard if
payment is made wholly in cash, and at the
rate of fourteen cents per cubic yard if pay-
ment is made partly in cash and partly in
the stock of the company. He already has
$150,000 invested in machinery, and offers
ample security for the due performance of
his work. Moreover, the company has been
informed that there are excavating ma-
chines at work near Chicago which excavate
common earth at a very rapid rate and at a
cost not exceeding nine cents per cubic yard.
As for the rock formations which so alarm
the editor of the Mirror they have no terrors
for the engineer or contractor. Such mate-
rial costs more to excavate, but a very much
smaller amount requires to be excavated.
In ordinary earth the slope of a canal has to
be so very gradual that, in order to make
sure- of a- channel thirty r eet deep andeig hty-
two feet wide at the bottom, it must be 230
feet wide at the surface. In stiff clay the
slope can safely be made much steeper. In
rock formations the walls can be made al-
most perpendicular. And with such soft
rock as underlies the soil of Florida for the
most part, the cost of excavating a channel
100 feet wide would be but little more than
that of excavating one 230 feet wide in
common earth, for modern excavating ma-
chines scoop out friable limestone almost as
easily as dirt.
General Gillmore had in 1879 estimated
ithe cost of excavation of a surface canal,
where little or no rock was to be expected,
at 20 to 30 cents per cubic, yard. He says :
"In the project submitted excavations are
estimated as being in sand and clay covered
yntlh V-.--_-.M1.'l, soil, materials which can be
easily and cheaply moved by machines, un-
derlaid on the western side by the rotten
limestone.
li' The interior and higher portions of the
peninsula of Florida consist of clay, inter-
mingled with calcareous formations. Coral
beds, some of great age, underlie most of the
State."
Again he says :
Before a ship canal across Florida can be
properly located, and a reasonable exact es-
timate of its cost prepared, it will be neces-
sary to expend a liberal sum in collecting
additional information. lNumerous boring
should be made at selected localities, to such


depths as will leave no doubt concerning the na-
ture of the 'material that will have to be built
upon or excavated.'
-Th-e. statementi.that any.contractor would
undertake t0 excavate the bed of a canal at
some places 150 feet deep, and in part, un-
doubtedly, solid rock, for 14 cents per yard,
will carry no conviction to any.mipd which
can appreciate the difference between soft
earth and solid rock. How solid the rock is
which underlie Florida at a depth of 150
feet, may be readily ascertained from the
result of the boring for a public well on the
court-house square in Gainesville, in Alach-
ua county, where the drill did not, -,.in some
places,, penetrate two inches per day. As to
the theory of scooping out rotten limestone
from the coral beds in depths of the canal
at-tide-water level, the proof exists only in
thesanguine iinagination oftdhe Times-Union.


EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE.


THE COOL SEASON- COLLEGE GAME OF HARES
AND HOUNDS-A TXRP TO A MAGNIFICENT
CAVERN IN LOST COVE-THE PLEAS-
URES OF A MOUNTAIN TRIP.
SEWANEE, September 25, 1883.
The leaves have begun to fall, and the
thermometer at night and morning stands
below 60. This is the bracing tonic weather
which we of the tropical clime most need to
give tone and vigor to the system. I think,
as a general rule, our people go North too
soon and return too soon. The climate of
Florida is quite comfortable, and certainly
healthy, up to the 1st of August. August
and September are the months when it is
best to take a Northern trip, because they
are the worst of the Florida season and the
better part of that of the North.
Among the modern importations of amuse-
ments for school is that of "Hare and
Hounds," com believe, in the English
schools. Two 1 i'en supplied with a
large quantity. paper start out in
.,t.b,e woods," dr. 1e bits of paper as
they go. They 1. few minutes' start,
when the hounds, n may consist of the
whole school, start pursuit. The hares
double and wind around through devious
paths to throw their pursuers off the track,
,and the skill of the hares in avoiding cap-
ture is exercised with the greatest energy
and ingenuity. The game is exciting and
gives any amount of physical exercise. A
few days since the students here had a game
of "Hare and Hounds," which was partici-
pated in by a large number. The hares ran
out a distance of eight miles, and the pur-
suit of the hounds was so vigorous that the
first of them who led the pack went seven
miles in fifty minute,. A little grandson,
only eight years ..'r ge, kept uTr-WlUFT-T1e
hounds and-travele, I.nr ten miles between
-d-iTiner and supper, and seemed no worse for
his trip. Such is the tonic effect of this
bracing mountain air.
Your correspondent formed one of a party
a few days since upon an excursion to Lost
Cove, a distance of eight miles from Sewa-
nee. A stream descends from the moun-
tain into a valley, which is about four miles
in length, when a barrier of several hun-
dred feet shuts it in like a basin. The
mountain streams ihl pass into the val-
ley have forced thei way through the base
of this barrier, and minneled it as effectu-
ally as tle land i- an could have done.
The. -'a ii.-th:ii. tice.l ] re grand and
beautit'.l beyond- di :'rip.tion. Entering on
the upper side the explorr.-, well supplied
with lights, des.teetnd a long incline of broken
rocks, a distance of 1.51 feet or more. At the
bottom of this incline a stream is heard
rushing and splashing. Looking back to
the entrance a lofty arch of silver grey rises,
like a canopy overhead, lighted with a
t
weird and ghostly radiance, which seems to
come from some lower region, and to be un-
like either the light of the sun or the moon
or the stars. From this lofty cavern pas-
sages diverge for In." distances in every di-
rection. Through the main cavernous pas-
sage a stream rushes wildly along with oc-
casional lakes :in.d .tiill spots, where the
water is so translucent that it is almost in-
visible. Stalactites abound in all the cav-
erns. Narrow pa'aged, cut in all the gro-
tesque forms of Eait.kri architecture, are
numerous, and eachpeems the more beauti-
ful. Passing down al,:,n.! the main cavern
the passage enlarges,' and we emerge on the
other side of the mountain barrier, under a
magnificent arch one; hundred feet high, as
perfectly arched and rounded as though
done by the chisel 'of the sculptor.' It is
like the entrance to a magnificent cathedral,-
and its grandeur i presses one with the
weakness of human achievements compared
with the work of the Almighty Architect of


the creation. lAr i.tnii, our party climbed
up the mountain i e a thousand.feet in
1hei.41t to the pl1t>1it the mountain eleyar-
tin, tfrm whib descended to visit
this beautiful wi nature. As it was a
holiday excursilar ies had gone in all
directions, one lar party, under the lead
of General Kirby mith, to visit a noted
cavern in the ni-i-.Tliorhood of Cowan, of
which they gave rapturous accounts. An-
other party visited toe coal mines at Tracy
City, twelve miles a*ove here, .here they
are able to pen-etratd some three miles into
-the bowels of the earth. These mountain
regions are the true summer resorts for our
people, who leave t e State in quest of rest
or pleasure.
Rev. Mr. Knight lhias returned to Crescent
City, and Mrs. Hedges to Fernandina.
Your correspondent will, regretfully, leave
for Philadelphia in 9 few days.
Your printer iirad.g iny uncertain chirogra-
phy-last week read St. Augustus' Chapel.
The good Saint after whom the Chapel is
named is St. Augustine. F.

THE SHIP CA*AL ESTIMATES.
The Times-Union Kwhose principal editor
is a director of the Florida Ship Canal pro-
ject, associated witl Mahone, Ben Butler,


A SHIP AND BARGE CANAL COM-
PARED.
We last week instituted a comparison be-
tween a canal with lbocks, reported upon and
recommended by General Gillmore, and the
tide-water canal which General Stone says
is feasible, but which fact, to our apprehen-
sion, he has not demonstrated. There is a
third, and in our opinion a much more fea-
sible, as it is a much less costly, canal pro-
ject which has been discussed, to-wit: a
barge canal-for which we have also an esti-
mate from General Gillmore.
The ship canal he estimated on a basis of
80 feet wide at bottom, 240 feet surface, and
26 feet deep, with 15 locks, at a cost of $50,-
000,000.
The barge canal is estimated on a basis of
100 feet at bottom, 8 feet depth, and slope of
banks 1 to 11. The cost of grading 132 miles
is placed at $3,330,543.74; the cost of 34 locks,
etc., $1,444,014; improvement of Aucilla
and St. Mary's rivers, bridging the Suwanee,
entire cutting along summit level, $1,650,-
- 000; total about $7,000,000, as against $50,-
000 for a ship, canal with locks, and proba-
bly three times that sum for a tide-water
ship canal.
The difference between a barge canal with
towage of a number of barges by a steam
tfg is similar to that of a locomotive with
its train of cars. A ship canal has all its
load placed on one ship with its own motive
power. The difference in cost between the
two systems of moving freight by water is
very great. This is now: demonstrated on
the great lakes and on the Mississippi river.
One tug moves as much freight as a steamer
..-tenti-mes-i-t cost. It-is the cheapest-mode'
of transportation yet devised by man. Its
value on the lakes and the Mississippi will
not be questioned. Why, then, by the same
reasoning, should it not be the most availa-
ble mode of moving heavy freights, grain,
etc., from the mouth of the Mississippi to
the Atlantic coast ? A steamer of 3,000 tons
costs $350,000; a tug to move 3,000 tons in
barges may cost $30,000. As it is cheaper to
load freight on freight cars than on the en-
gine, so it is cheaper to'haul barges by tow
than to load the freight on the vessel con-
taining the engine which gives the power.
A ship canal would benefit the commerce
of the world, but a barge canal would ben,
" ef 6Ftnda-f-ar-mt-ree: -We are qtuite-wil-li-ng
and desirous that both. should be.built, but
t
we regard the barge canal as .the more fea-*
sible of the two.
A barge canal would -not necessarily re-
quire any greater depth of water at our At-,
lantic coast than the mouth of the St. Marys
river now possesses. Its cost and practica-
ability are more certainly ascertained, and itsi
success is more certain. If a ship canal only'
lessens the time from twelve to thirty,-six,
hours, it is iot certain that the canal would
be preferred; but if a barge canal will
cheapen freight iwenty per cent., it is sure
to be preferred. ,
The projects are not antagonistic. The
.ship canal looks to the transifer of loaded
*ships from Gulf ports by a shorter route;
the barge canal looks to the transfer of the
loaded barges which come down the Missis-
sippi to an Atlantic port for transhipment,
.and also to furnish transportation for the
.country through 'which it passes. The ship
canal would apparently benefit Florida only
by the expenditures made during its con-
struction ; a barge canal would furnish Flor-
ida' with a cheap and valuable new route for
the transportation to market of its products,
:especially its timber and.the heavier class of
productions. Its value will be permanent
and constant.


THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES.
i5-It is' not very long since the Evergladle--of
Florida were regarded as an unknown and
unexplored 'region, traversed only by the
canoes of the .remnant of the Seminoles,
who lived a kind of ahiphibious life among
the islands and watery wastes.
Inspired by the expeditions of Stanley
and others into the interior of Africa, and
o Norden-kjuld in to the recesses of Greenland,
S- that enterprising newspaper, the Times-Dem,
' ocrat, of New Orleans, is about to send an
exploring expedition into the interior of
Florida. ,
Upon some of the older maps of Florida,
notably that attached to Roberts' Florida,
1763, three-fourths 9f the peninsula of the
State. is represented as an archipelago, with
lir',.. water Ci-hannels ..elerineating. its whole
ari.t ,nd innumerable -liip e.an ls coursin.
it in every direction. The St. Johns river is
rep)resented as having a large branch con-
necting with the Amasuro (the Withlacoo-
chee.i, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico
about latitude 2S"'. The Bay of Espiritu
Santo iTamipa Bayi is shown as running


In 1866 the be-t railroad time between
New York and New Oirleanswas five days,
and a passenger had to make nine changes,
many of them long rides from depot to de-
pot. In 1880 the time was reduced to fout
days ; in 1873 to three and a half days, and
in 1875 to three days and only one change.
Now the time has been reduced to forty-
eighthours.


THE FLORIDA MIRROR: SEPTEMBER 29. 5





__


a tnmmm


- Fancy TOILET Articles, --

PERFUMERY,

LT7BIN'S EXTRACTS, etc*

fi- Especial and careful attention paid
to PHYSICIANS' ..PR-ESCPIPTIO-NS; by
an experienced Druggist.
S^i* ME. RABB, the Manager, will sleep
over the store, and will respond to all calls
at nirht.


DR. W. E. SNYDER,


m III MMEM-1 -


0. S. OAKES,

CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER,
MANUFACTURES
DOORS AND WINDOW FRAMES
OF ALL SIZES.
Post Office Box 174.
jan4 Fernandina, Fla


29.


MISTAKES IN NURSING.
To minister to the sick is one of the no-
blest ambitions of the present age, as evi-
denced by the number of people who volun-
tarily devote themselves to such duties, in-
dependently of the calls of affection or con-
siderations of reward. To be a good nurse
requires a rare combination of excellencies
in the same individual-intelligence, physi-
cal strength, a kind disposition with firinm-
ness, a light hand and foot, courage greater
than that which animates the soldier on the
battle-field. Given these, and the nurse be-
comes more than half the remedy; not only
inspiring confidence on the part of the pa-
tient, but of the surgeon or physician also,
who can rely that his instructions will be
carried out with implicit obedience to the
letter. Such a paragon, however, is rarely
to be met with, except as an emissary from
one or another of those admirable institu-
tions where ladies are trained under skilful
management for this work ; and in the vast
majority of cases an invalid is placed in the
hands of his immediate friends or relations,
who, with the best intentions, it must be
confessed, often prejudice his comfort and
retard his recovery by the very over-anxiety
which is hred of affection. The object of
this paper is not to convey the instructions
necessary for the education of an accom-
plished nurse-a difficult task-but to enu-
merate a few small points which should be
avoided, as tending greatly to the discom-
fort of the patient, and for the guidance of
those who, without previous experience,
find themselves suddenly thrust into the
most responsible position.
Quietude is a great thing, of course ; but
real quietude means the absence of all ex-
citement, and it must be remembered that
anything out of the common will tend to
excite the mind of a sufferer. Do not,
therefore, walk on tiptoe, for this, in
addition to its unusual elaboration of the
gait, invariably causes a certain amount of
creaking. Speak in low tones, but don't
whisper; a whisper will often awake a sleep-
er who would not be disturbed by an ordi-
nary conversation ; and never say Hush !"
Let your clothes and fboit-covering be of as
noiseless and unobtrusive a character as
possible, and instead of gliding and totter-
ing about like a rickety ghost, do not hesi-
tate to walk. If you have occasion to say
anything in the room, say it so that the pa-
tient can hear it if he wishes, and do not let
him be aware of your conspiring privately
witl the others, especially at the door. That
door has much to answer for. If it be visi-
ble from the bed, people open it cautiously,
put their heads in, and slowly withdraw
again. If, as is more frequently the case, it
is screened by the bed-curtains, mysterious
openings and shutting are heard, unattend-
ed with any apparent ingress or egress, and
sotto-voce colloquies go on outside. When
you enter, do so honestly, and at once; do
not spend five minutes in turning the han-
dle, like a housebreaker, thereby producing
a series of irritating little clicks, finally ter-
mninating in a big snap, with which the door
flies open. If the latch be at all rusty, a
handle that is slowly wound back in this
way will often stick, and either require to
be rattled back into position, or, if left as "it
is, may start back suddenly, after a time of
its own accord with a report like a pistol-
shot It is always well to recollect that it by
no means follows that a sick person is asleep
--4.eause his eyes are shut; he mgy be acutely
conscious of all that is passing in the room,
though unable or unwilling to make any
sign; and nothing can be more maddening,
under such circumstances, than to havepeo-
ple husli-sh-shing, and whispering around,
and creaking about on the tips of their toes.
We have all sympathized in our hearts with
poor Sir Leicester Dedlock when his tongue
was smitten with paralysis, with his sister
.constantly bending over him with clasped
hands and murmuring, He is asleep !"-
till, goaded to desperation, he makes signs
for his slate and writes, I am not."
Never stand at the foot of the bed and
look at the patient. While talking to him,
it is better to sit by the side of the bed, and
as near the pillow as possible, so you may
converse easily, while your face and body
are turned in the same direction as his. By
this means you can make all.necessary ob-
servation of his features without enforcing
the arrest of his eyes to your own, which is
so embarrassing and disagreeable to one
lying in bed, and it is almost unavoidable
when facing him. Keep him in as comfort-
able a position as possible, by all means, but
don't be too demonstrative in smoothing
the pillows and little offices of that sort.
Fidgety attentions will worry him, and do
him more htlarm than downright neglect.
When you are sleepy, it is better for your
charge, as well as for yourself, that you
should go to bed at once, and get that re-
pose in slumber to which you must succumb
eventually, however strong your devotion
may be, and however great the interests at
stake. It is not necessary to dwell here on
the prudence of economizing your strength,
that you may be capable of greater or pro-
longed exertions, should the need for them
arise, or to look at this detail from the point


of view which affects yourself. But, in any
case, you can be of little or no service, worn
out with fatigue, and in a condition more
akin to somnambulisim than vigilance, and
the spectacle of a nodding, dozing nurse is
neither soothing nor reassuring to the suf-
ferer; while if you be one near and dear to
him, he will be tormented with anxiety lest
you should impair your own health on his
account. In such a case as this, you cannot
do better than lie down comfortably on a
sofa or, bed where he can watch you, and
there have a good nap-for his sake.
Some people have a great notion of tempt-
ing the appetite by the suggestion of all
manner of eatables and drinkables, or by
bringing them ready prepared to the bedside
experimentally. This, no doubt, is very
well at times-during convalescence, for in-
stance; but, as a medical man, I am per-
suaded that it is a mistake in the earlier
stages of an illness, when all food is loathed
alike, and the creation of an appetite is an
impossibility. The only thing to be done is
to impress on the invalid the necessity of
taking what is ordered for him at stated
times, just as he takes his medicine; and it
should be prepared on the same footing as a
medicine-with the understanding that it is
a nauseous dose, and must be presented in a
form that will admit of its being swallowed
as compactly and rapidly as possible. It is
worse than useless to employ flavoring mat-
ters at this stage, with the idea of making
anything palatable; if you can render his
food absolutely tasteless, you will do far
more for him. And beyond this forcible
administration, so to speak, of a certain
amount, I think little good is gained by sug-
gesting this or that delicacy, in the hope
that your patient may be induced to "fancy"


something. We may take it for granted
that when he feels inclined for anything, he
will ask for it spontaneously ; and the
promptings of nature are more likely to
lead him to a choice of what is best for him,
than our string of suggestions. I have fre-
quently observed that when sick people
have mentioned a desire for any special food,
they almost invariably eat of it when it is
procured; whereas it often happens, when
they have been persuaded to assent to some-
thing which has been proposed, the inclina-
tion-if it ever existed-hlas passed away be-
fore the dish or article can be brought to
th erm.
I say, if it ever existed ;" for there is no
doubt that a patient often yields to sugges-
tions in sheer extremity, simply for the
sake of peace. I happened to be in a sick-
room the other day, when a relative arrived
on the scene. She had been warned to
repress all emotion, and succeeded very well ;
but her tender solicitude was wholly irre-
pressible. I am sure that she asked at least
twenty questions in less than a minute, until
the unhappy sufferer writhed under them.
" Shall I raise your head a little? Will you
have another pillow? Wouldn't you like
your head a little higher? Let me fan you.
Will you have the blind up? What can I
get you ? Some arrowroot? Do try some!
I am sure you will be more comfortable
with another pillow. Will you have one?
--yes; do I'll go and get one. Will you
have a cup of tea? I'm sure it would do
you good. A cup of tea won't take a minute,"
etc. The cup of tea has been a dreadful in-
strument of torture in the hands of well-
meaning people, who would not knowingly
have teased a fly.
These are small things, you will say. But
a small thing in health is often magnified to
a grave matter in sickness, and the sum-
total of then all may be as serious in their
effect as the disease itself. It will be seen
that the few points upon which I have laid
stress are such as are calculated to promote
tranquillity of mind-which, indeed, is half
the battle in medical treatment. It is gener-
ally conceded that a trained nurse, who has
no interest in the patient beyond that which
the duties of her office impose, is better fitted
to expedite his recovery than those who are
bound to him by ties of affection, however
welcome their presence may be in the hour
of affliction. Whether the reader will agree
with me, or not, is more than I can tell, but
my experience in foreign countries has im-
pressed me with the conviction that men
make far better nurses than women.-Chanz-
bers' Journal.


REAL ESTATE.


DRUGS, MEDICINESE, CT.

ESTABLISHED 1875.

DRUGS and MEDICINES


I


DR. J. D. PALMER.


T. W. PALMER.


FERNANDINA,


- FLORIDA.


:Lr-- ABSOLUTELY PURE -
DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED

DRUGS CHEMICALS,

Standard Patent Medicines,


Professional and Business Cards.

E. LEROY JONES, M.D.,

HOMEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN and SURGEON,
Fourth St., between Centre and Alachua,
FERNANDINA, FLA.

Calls answered promptly day or night, and
Medicine furnished without extra charge.
Office hours:--a. m. until 8; p. rn. 1 to 2
and 7 to 8. 22 ly*"


\E
Tn




W
C1


AWL -.4iatp
PARKER'S

BALSA m
I l l. ,-",,tl III ,.r'''
S;.,
,,d., r lift I a-lvlc
,.. t I ,
11'1: \ '; 1 ...r ; Ij
.i ir


-~s.


-i.

;r
f~
s la LI
~'~is?


I


m

c,
M


WM. B. C. DURYEE,

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT,


CENTRE ST., NEAR R. R. DEPOT,


FERNANDINA,


FLA.


Hay, Corn, Oats


. ..- .


W. K. BAUKNIGHT,
AGENT.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
UTCHER AND STOCK DEALER,
iAND
Dealer in Ice


THE MOST SUCCESSFUL REMEDY
ever discovered, as it is certain in its
effects and does not blister. READ PROOF
BELOW W.


CINCER TONIC
An Invigorating Medicine that evr I C;ticales
This delicious comiiii::ion of (;ingw.er Bhiclhi.
Mandrake. .Stilling'i; :;. 'i iI Iv o'ler of the b, st
vegetable remedies Iin\\, ,:l:rs ;I:l disorders ( f
the bowels, sioa;ch, liver, l.idineys an;ti ungs, & is
The Best and Furest Congli Cure Ever Used.
If you are suiffciing fi(m I'enm.le Complaints.
Nervousness, \\; ikefulness. 1- heinatism Dyspep-
sia, age or any disease or infirnitv, t:ile P:rrker's
Ginger Tonic. It will streT.llthen brain and body
and give you new iif- acnd vi;or.
100 3 o01- 1i -LAiT
Paid for anything injurious found iu singerr Tenic
or for a failure to heip or cure
riOc. ntd $1 sizes e. dealers i drul,'. L-nrre saving btoinL"
$1 Size. Send for circular to Hiscox & Co., 1li3 \Wm.St.,N'.Y


Saved Him $1,800.00.
ADAMS, N. Y., January 30, 1882.
Dr. B. J. Kendall & Co.:
GENTs-Having used a good deal of your
Kendall's Spavin Cure with great success. I
thought I would let you know what it has
done for me. Two years ago I had as speedy
a colt as was ever raised in Jefferson county.
When I was breaking him he kicked over
the cross-bar and got fast and tore one of his
hind legs all to pieces. I employed the best
farriers, but they all said be was spoiled.
He had a very. large thorough-pin, and I
used two bottles of your Kendall's Spavin
Cure, and it took the bunch entirely off, and
he sold afterwards for $1800 (dollars). I have
used it for bone spavins and wind-galls, and
it has always cured completely and left the
leg smooth.
It is a splendid medicine for rheumatism.
I have recommended it to a good many, and
they all say it does the work. I was in With-
erington & Kneeland's drug store, in Adams,
the other day, and saw a very fine picture
you sent them. I tried to nuy it, but could
not; they said if I would write to you that
you would send me one. I wish you would,
and I will do you all the good I can.
Very respectfully, E. S. LYMAN.


Kendall's Spavin Cure.


TENNESSEE BEEF A SPECIALTY,


BROOM STREET WHARF,
FERNANDINA, FLA.


19-tf


LOUIS A. C. LANGE,
P H OL STERER,
SADDLE AND HARNESS-MAKER,
Foot of Centre Street,


address


CHAS. W. LEWIS,


FERNANDINA,


FLORIDA.


,nd Commissioner,
Fernandina, Fla.,
38


Furniture repaired in the best manner.
Hair Mattresses made to order at short
notice. 36
JAMES McGIFFIN,
C CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER,
Alachua Street, between Second and Third,
FERNANDINA, FLA.
Orders and estimates from a distance care-
fully attended to. 25-tf


ID ) W '

JAMAICA GINGER CORDIAL
S NOT AN ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT,
but contains all the medicinal proper- --.
ties of the finest Jamaica Ginger Root. It.
is very pleasant to take, and
CURES INDIGESTION, HEADACHE,
COLDS, CHILLS, CRAMP COLIC,
DIARRHEA, DYSENTERY,
PAINS in the Stom-ach and Bowels,.
and MALARIA, by warming and stimulat-
ing the Stomach and Bowels into a healthy
action. Sold by
PALMER BRO'S,
Centre Street, Fernandina, Fla.
_i- Also, Agents for DOW'S JAMAICA
GINGER ALE, the only Ginger Ale made
without pepper. 22


Or Ocala, Florida.


S


VEVAY, IND., August 12, 1881.
Dr. B. J. Kendall & Co.:
GENTS-Sample of circulars received to-
day. Please send me some with my imprint,
printed on one side only. The Kendall's
Spavin Cure is in excellent demand with us,
and not only for animals, but for human
ailments also. Mr. Jos. Voris, one of the
leading farmers in our county, sprained an
ankle badly, and knowing the'value of the
remedy for horses, tried it on himself, and it
did far better than he had expected; cured
the sprain in very short order.
Yours respectfully, C. O. THIEBAND.
Price $1 per bottle, or 6 bottles for $5. All
druggists have it or can get it for you, or it
will be sent to any address on receipt of
price by the Proprietors, DR. B. J. KEN-
DALL & CO.. Enosburgh Falls, Vt.
Send for Illustrated Circular.
Sold by all Druggists.


-:F W'_ AlSTL,-Y,


BOOKS AND STATIONERY.


rner an in er,


-dar s


School Books and Orange Wraps
NOW A SPECIALITY.
par- Liberal discounts to Teachers and
Trade. Special prices and Catalogue free on,
application.
59 W. BAY STREET,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


South side Centre St., near the Depot.
FLORIDA JEWELRY FOR SALE, AND
MADE TO ORDER.
Aig All work warranted.


THE FLORIDA MIRROR: SEPTEMBER


SUFFER


no longer from Dyspep-
sia, Indigestion, want of
Appetite,loss of Strength
lack of Energy, Malaria,
Intermittent Fevers, &c.
BROWN'S IRON BIT-
TERS never fails to cure
all these diseases.


Boston, November 26, i881.
BROWN CHEMICAL CO.
Gentlemen:-- For years I have
been a great sufferer from Dyspepsia,
and could get no relief(having tried
everything which was recommend-
ed) until, acting on the advice of a
friend, who had beea benefitted by
BROWN'S IRON BIT'ERS, I tried a
bottle, with most surprising results.
Previous to taking BROWN'S IRON
BITTERS, everything I ate distressed
me, and I suffered greatly from a
burning sensation in the stomach,
which was unbearable. Since tak-
ing BROWN'S IRON BITTERS, all my
troubles are at an end. Can eat any
time without any. disagreeable re-
sults. I am practically another
person. Mrs. W J. FLYNN,
30 Maverick St., E. Boston.


BROWN'S IRON BIT-
TERS acts like a charm
on the digestive organs,
removing all dyspeptic
symptoms, such as tast-
ing the food, Belching,
Heat in the Stomach,
Heartburn, etc. The
only Iron Preparation
that will not blacken the
teeth or give headache.

Sold by all Druggists.
Brown Chemical Co.
Baltimore, Md.

See that all Iron Bitters are made by
Brown Chemical Co., Baltimore, and
have crossed red lines and trade-
mark on wrapper.

BEWARE OF IMITATIONS.


HORSEY


& CO.,


1 PHARMACISTS |=

Centre Street,

FERNANDINA, FLORIDA,
KEEP constantly on hand a fine assort-
1 ment of FRESH and PURE FOR-
EIGN and DOMESTIC

Drugs and Chemicals,

Homceopathic and Patent Medicines,
Proprietary and Fancy Goods,

FINE TOILET ARTICLES,

,PERFU MER IY. S, APS, ETIf.,
IN GREAT VARIETY.,

Physicians' Prescriptions
carefully compounded with pure Drugs, at
reasonable prices.


Florida Lands.




The Peninsular ]_--|

AND

--l Tropical Florida


RAILROAl0 COMPANIES


ARE OFFERING LANDS IN THE
COUNTIES OF


_A_1-- -C-TJA_,






STJ-1VC:_TA RL I_\sD

:hE IA. NTIDO,

AT PRICE FROM


$1.25 to $10 per Acre.


All these lands are in the central
peninsular portion of the State, and
within fifteen miles of Railroads in
successful operation, traversing a ter-
ritory which is being more rapidly
settled and developed than any other
part o-f the State.
The fertility of the soil and accessi-
bility to the largest and best markets
make these lands particularly desira-
rable for the cultivation of fruits and
early vegetables for shipment. For
large and immediate profits there is
no industry in Florida equal to the
raising of early vegetables for North-
ern markets.
For new and descriptive circular,


PALMER BRO'S,

-+-4-- -----i 1i ; 1 I ; 1 11 i ~ -+-

PHARMACISTS
Centre treet, ne r Depot,1 1 1 44-

Centre Street, near Depot,


'In rnnl.l~
II I [I 171~r.
'., VL. VUI'L'1


: P~LBiPP~~E~J~


ON HUMAN FLESH.


HORACE DREW,
ookseller, Stationer,
P'.v i t US