Group Title: Rice performance trials ...
Title: Rice performance trials
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054450/00003
 Material Information
Title: Rice performance trials
Series Title: 1984- : Belle Glade research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Research and Education Center (Belle Glade)
Belle Glade AREC
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, Fla
Publication Date: 1985
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Rice -- Varieties -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1982; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1984?
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054450
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40942357
lccn - 2007229086

Full Text




Belle Glade Research Report EV-1986-2 February 1986



1985 RICE PERFORMANCE TRIALS



David B. Jones, Rice Agronomist



IFAS EREC



Belle Glade, FL 33430 & '



Rice performance trials were conducted at four locations th otit he

Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) in 1985. The trials were grown a the

following locations: Everglades Agricultural Research and Education Center, 3 .

miles east of Belle Glade; A. Duda and Sons, 10 miles southeast of Belle Glade;

Okeelanta Corporation, 10 miles southwest of Belle Glade; and Seminole Sugar

Company, Shawano Farm, 20 miles southeast of Belle Glade.

A total of ten cultivars were tested in 1985. -Cultivars were divided into

two general maturity groupings, very-early and early-midseason, and grown in

separate tests in an effort to avoid difficulties encountered in past years when

all cultivars were grown within the same test at each location. A general

description of the cultivars tested in 1985 is given in Table 1. All cultivars

tested in 1985 were long grain; there were 4 short and 6 intermediate in plant

type; 3 very early, 3 early and 4 midseason maturity. Three cultivars

originated from Arkansas and the remaining 7 were from Texas, of which two were

advanced experimental lines that may be named and released in 1986.

Temperatures were slightly above the average throughout most of the 1985

growing season, appendix Table 1. The planting season began with a dry March









and included a wet April causing somewhat erratic stands throughout the EAA.

The remainder of the growing season was mostly below average in rainfall.

Tropical storms brought high winds and scattered heavy rainfall which seem to

have led to severe outbreaks of the blast fungus, Pyricularia oryzae, in certain

parts of the EAA. These outbreaks of blast were responsible for the low yields

obtained from some tests.

PROCEDURES

Average soil test values and fertilizer use at the various test locations

in the EAA for 1985 are given in Table 2. Soil samples.were taken at time of

planting at all locations except EREC, which was taken in advance. At the EREC

location sulfur was applied in an attempt to lower the pH and P and K were

added. All of the off-station locations had fairly high P and K soil test

values. Iron sulfate was applied banded in the row at Shawano to avoid seedling

...chlorosis which occurs in that area. No nitrogen fertilizer was applied. All

tests were drill seeded at a seeding rate of 100 kg/ha. Plots consisted of six

rows spaced 20 cm apart and 10 m long. Entries were arranged in a randomized

complete block design consisting of five replications except at VE-Shawano (4

reps) and EM-Shawano (6 reps). Days to 50% heading, a relative indication of

maturity, are the number of days from planting to head emergence of 50% of the

plants in the stand, based on a visual estimate. At maturity, plant height is

measured from the ground level to the tip of a group of panicles. Plot yields

were obtained by harvesting the 4 center rows 10 m in length with a small plot

combine. Samples for milling yields were determined by the Sem-Chi Rice Mill

grain quality laboratory using standard test procedures.

RESULTS

EREC

Very Early The mean grain yield of the three cultivars in the very early


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maturity test at EREC was 4308 kg/ha, Table 3. Some bird damage was incurred in

this test. 'Bond' had the highest yield of 4682 kg/ha although grain yields

were not significantly different.

All three cultivars varied significantly in plant height with 'Bond' being

the shortest and 'Labelle' and 'Tebonnet' somewhat similar.

Milling yields, percent whole grain and total milled grain were also not

significantly different and averaged 59 and 70% respectively.

Early-Midseason The mean grain yield for the early to midseason maturity

cultivars at EREC was 5709 kg/ha. 'Newbonnet'yielded significantly higher than

the other cultivars in the tests with a yield of 6970 kg/ha. All other yields

were not significantly different although they ranged from 5812 kg/ha for

'Lemont' to 4839 kg/ha for experimental line 83/169. The lower yield of 83/169

is attributed to its poor stand establishment characteristics. It is similar to

its predecessor 'Bellemont' in this respect. Whole grain milling yields of

83/169 were significantly lower than the rest of the entries in the test, again

because of its poor stand which led to non-uniform maturity within the plots.

A. Duda and Sons

Very Early The seedbed at this test was very soft and moist leading to

excessive planting depth (5-8 cm) and thus somewhat erratic stand establishment.

This, combined with deep flooding during the season led to lower yields at this

location. 'Labelle' had the highest yield although it was not significantly

different from the other entries. The tall plant heights are indicative of the

deep flooding.

Early-Midseason The seedbed at this test was similar to the very early

test leading to similar stand establishment difficulties and eventually reduced

yields. Under the circumstances, 'Lemont' did surprisingly well with the

highest yield in the test and was significantly better than 'Newrex',

page 3









'Skybonnet' and 83/169 all of which had reduced yields because of poor stands.

'Lebonnet' and the experimental semi-dwarf 83/46 also did above average in the

test. Milling yields were lowered because of poor stands and thus non-uniform

maturity at harvest.

Okeelanta

Very Early About three weeks after emergence seedlings in this test

became very chlorotic. It was assumed to be a manganese deficiency induced by

the high pH at this site. The field was flooded shortly after the appearance of

the chlorosis and which seemed to alleviate the deficiency before any stand loss

was incurred. Grain yields were very good for both 'Bond' and 'Tebonnet'.

Lodging occurred with all cultivars at this site being 18, 25 and 38% for 'Bond',

'Tebonnet' and 'Labelle', respectively. The high percent of lodging probably

led to the lower yields of 'Labelle'.

Shawano

Very Early'- No adverse conditions were encountered at this site thus

providing a fairly representive test of agronomic performance of the cultivars.

Again there was no significant difference between cultivars for grain yield

although 'Bond' and 'Tebonnet' gave numerically higher yields. Milling yields

were good for all cultivars.

Early-Midseason Once again stand establishment was very difficult. Soil

moisture was quite low at planting which led to non-uniform germination and

stand reduction and even though iron sulfate was applied at seeding, some

seeding chlorosis occurred further reducing the stand. Yet, satisfactory yields

probably could still have been obtained had it not been for a severe outbreak of

the blast fungus at heading, which led to greatly reduced yields for the test.

'Lebonnet' and 'Lemont' yielded significantly better than the rest of the

cultivars in the test.. Milling yields were not performed because of the poor

page 4








grain quality caused by the blast.

Summary

Very Early Generally, in 1985, there was not much difference in agronomic

performance between the three cultivars tested in the very early maturity group.

There was no significant difference between the cultivars for grain yield

although 'Bond' and 'Tebonnet' numerically out yielded 'Labelle'. Over several

years of testing 'Labelle' has shown inconsistency in grain yields. 'Bond' has

shown promise over the last few years in growers fields but has two weaknesses,

brittle nodes which tend to break .when the mature plant is physically stressed

and a higher susceptibility to blast than other cultivars tested. 'Tebonnet'

continues to show promise as an acceptable cultivar for the EAA although it has

not yet been extensively grown.

Yields of the very early cultivars compare favorably with cultivars in the

early-midseason group. Therefore, very early cultivars can be used to reduce

the length of the cropping season without sacrificing grain yields. The very

early cultivars mature 12 to 14 days earlier than the early-midseason group in

the plant crop and previous data indicates they also mature 10-12 days earlier

in the ratoon crop, thus shortening the overall season 20-24 days when compared

with early-midseason cultivars. This is an important consideration for growers

who have restricted land use schedules.

Early-Midseason There is considerably more variability in all agronomic

traits in the early-midseason group thus allowing growers more of a basis for

selection. 'Lemont' had the highest overall grain yields and was a consistent

performer. It appears 'Lemont' can perform as well as the widely grown cultivar

'Lebonnet' under low to moderate fertility, yet possesses the potential to

perform even better under high fertility and good management conditions.

Therefore 'Lemont' should be strongly considered when such conditions may exist,

page 5










such as when grown following vegetables on a soil h.gh in residual fertility, on

native fertile soils such as "custard apple" muck and when good water management

and control is possible. 'Newbonnet' also had a good overall yield but it

appears to perform well only under good growing conditions and is therefore

somewhat inconsistent. 'Newbonnet' is also more susceptible to blast than most

other cultivars tested and it does not ratoon. The main attribute of.'Lebonnet'

is its consistentt performance, unlike its sister line 'Skybonnet' which has not

held up as well. The experimental line 83/46 shows promise and warrants further

testing while 83/146 appears more questionable because of its poor stand

establishment characteristics'

















-- ------


















Ii
s ,


page 6







Table 1. General description of rice cultivars tested in the Everglades

Agricultural Area in 1985.

Plant/ 2 Grain3/ State of
Cultivar Type -- Maturity -/ Type -- Origin


VERY EARLY
Bond S VE L AR
Labelle I VE L TX
Tebonnet I VE. L AR

EARLY-MIDSEASON
Lebonnet I E. L TX
Lemont S M L TX
Newbonnet I M L AR
Newrex I E L TX
Skybonnet I E L TX
83/46 S M L TX
83/169 S M L TX


I- S Short, I Intermediate, T.l Tall


VE Very early, E Early, M Midseason

L Long grain


page 7









Table 2. Average soil test values and fertilizer use at rice test

locations in the EAA in 1985.

EREC Soil Test Values Fertilizer Use
Location
PH P K Grade Rate

(%) (kg/ha).
EREC 7.5 3 80. 0-8-8 1100
Ag Sulfur 4500
Duda 6.1 34 177 none
Okeelanta 7.1 8 214 none
Shawano 5.8 16 116 Iron sulfate 150 kg/ha


page 8








Table 3. Performance of rice cultivars grown at Everglades Research and

Education Center (EREC), Belle Glade, FL, 1985 .


Grain2/ Days to 50% Mature Plant Milling Yield
Cultivar Yield Heading Height Whole Total

(kg/ha) (no.) .(cm) Z
VERY EARLY
Bond 4682 -. 89 c 58 70
Labelle 4238 99 a 59 70
Tebonnet 4005 96 b 59 69
NS NS NS
MEAN 4308 95 59 70

EARLY-MID
Lebonnet 5371 b 92 a 105 a 60 ab 68
Lemont 5812 b 95 a 85 c 63 a 69
Newbonnet 6970 a 94 a 99 b 61 ab 69
Newrex -
Skybonnet 5706 b 84 b 103 ab 60 ab 68
83/46 5554 b 93 a 85 c 62 ab 70
83/169 4839 b .95 a 84 c 58 b 68
NS
MEAN 5709 92 93 60, 69

1I


--- Planting date: VE, April
Harvest date: VE, August


4, 1985; EM, April 4, 1985.
5, 1985; EM, August 9, 1985.


2/
- Rough rice at 12% moisture.


page 9








Table 4. Performance of rice cultivars grown at A. Duda and Sons farm,


Belle Glade, FL, 1985


1/


Grain^2 Days to 50% Mature Plant Milling Yield
Cultivar Yield -Z Heading Height Whole Total

(kg/ha) (no.) (m) -- % -----
VERY EARLY
Bond 3800 73 109 b 59 70
Labelle 4436 73 124 a 59 70
Tebonnet 3555 73 127 a 59 70
NS NS NS NS
MEAN 3894 73 120 59 70

EARLY-MID
Lebonnet 3810 ab 84 b 108 a 55 ab 67
Lemont 4650 a 87 a 83 c 56 ab 67
Newbonnet 3410 ab 86 ab 106 a 50 b 63
Newrex 2978 b 87 a 108 a 60 a 70
Skybonnet 3251 b 79 c 106 a 55 ab 66
83/46 3904 ab 86 ab 86 b 54 ab 64
83/169 2666 b 88 a 81 c 55 ab 67
NS
MEAN 3524 85 97 55 66


1/ Planting date: VE, May 3, 1985; EM, May 3, 1985.
Harvest date: VE, August 13, 1985; EM, August 30, 1985.

SRough rice at 12% moisture.


page 10








Table 5. Performance of rice varieties grown at Okeelanta Corporation farm,

Okeelanta, FL, 1985 1 .

Grain, Days to 50% Mature Plant Milling Yield
Cultivar Yield -- Heading Height Whole Total

(kg/ha) (no) (cm) ----- ---
VERY EARLY
Bond 4540 78 01 b 57 69
Labelle 3367 78 114 a 57 70
Tebonnet 4622 79 117 a 58 69
NS NS NS NS
MEAN 4177. 78 111 57 69


--L Planting date:
Harvest date:


April 23, 1985..
August 13, 1985.


Rough rice at 12% moisture.


page 11








Table 6. Performance of rice cultivars grown at Seminole Sugar, Shawano farm,


Belle Glade, FL, 1985


-/


Grain2, Days to 50% Mature Plant Milling Yield
Cultivar Yield Heading Height Whole Total

(kg/ha) (no.) (cm) --- --
VERY EARLY
Bond 4198 74- 106 60 70
Labelle 3816 76 111 .61 71
Tebonnet 4618 76 114 61 71
NS NS NS. NS NS
MEAN 4180 75 110 61 71

EARLY-IJD-
Lebonnet 2513 a 87 ab .98 a -
Lemont 2346 a 88 ab 77c --
Newbonnet 1949 b 91 a 93 a -
Newrex 1873 bc 88 ab .91 ab -
Skybonnet 1566 b-d 82 c 94 a -
-83/46 1475 cd 85 bc 81 c -
83/169 1279 b 86 bc 84 b -

MEAN 1857 87 88 -


-L- Planting date: VE, April 19, 1985;
Harvest date: VE, August 9, August

2- Rough rice at 12% moisture.


EM, May 6, 1985.
12, 1985; EM, August 30, 1985.


page 12







Table 7. Summary of performance of rice cultivars tested in the EAA in 1985.

Grain Days to 50% Mature Plant Milling Yield
Cultivar Yield -- Heading Height Whole Total

(kg/ha) (no.) (cm) --- --
VERY EARLY
Bond 4305 75 101 59 70
Labelle 3964 76 112 59 70
Tebonnet 4200 76 114 59 '70

MEAN 4156 .76 109 59 70

EARLY-MID
Lebonnet 3898 88 104 58 68
Lemont 4269 90 82 60 68
Newbonnet 4110 90 99 56 66
Newrex 2425 88 100 60 70
Skybonnet 3508 82 101 58 67
83/46 3644 88 84 58 67
83/169 2928 90 83 57 68

MEAN 3540 88 93 58 68


-- Rough rice at 12% moisture.


page 13







APPENDIX


Table 1. Comparison of 1985 and 60 year mean maximum and minimum temperatures
and rainfall data for the EAA rice growing season.


Temperature 0F
Maximum Minimum Rainfall, inches
Month 60 year 1985 60 year 1985 60 year 1985
average average average


March 79.5 82.3 55.0 56.4 2.99 1.00
April 83.0 82.2 59.1 58.8 2.92 6.71
May 86.5 89.1 63.5 63.6 5.14 2.18
June 88.8 92.3 68.5 70.5 8.83 5.15
July 90.4 90.0 70.2 70.2 8.06 6.99
August 90.6 91.6 70.7 70.8 8.11 5.52
September 88.8 87.6 70.4 68.9 8.62 9.64
October 84.6 88.6 65.6 68.4 4.39 3.39

Mean 86.5 88.0 65.4 66.0 49.06 40.58


page 14




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