Citation
Training course in agricultural production.

Material Information

Title:
Training course in agricultural production.
Place of Publication:
Guatemala
Publisher:
Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Guatemala -- Caribbean
Caribbean

Notes

Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS
ICTA Sector Publico Agricola, Ministerio de Agricultura del
Gobierno de Guatemala
STRAININGS
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION




INSTITUTO DE ClENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS ICTA
TRAINING COURSE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Guatemala, August 1976.




WORKING PAPER
TRAINING COURSE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
PRESENTATION
This document consists of three Parts and an Annex. Part I conceptualizes and describes the objectives and methodology of the first Training Course in Agricultural Production ( I-CAPA, this being the acronym in Spanish) as well as the activities to implement it.
Part I1 describes the place, the work frame and the Course's operation up to August 31, 1976. This part, in itself, serves as an insight into the nature of the Course. Part I] I is the search for alternative ways of adapting the Course to the future needs of ICTA. The Annex is a plan of activities to be carried out during the second semester of 1976, that is, after August 31.
If these four sections allow the reader to visualize what the 1-CAPA is and how it is conducted, the objectives of this document will have been accomplished.




PART I
INTRODUCTION
The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology ICTA (this being the Spanish acronym) was established for the purpose of designing strategies and executing programs aimed at the discovery and use of new farming methods and technologies, that will contribute to an increase in agricultural productivity, especially among the small farmers of Guatemala. ICTA considers the farmer the main element in its programs, and recognizes 'the importance of identifying and singling out the practices which result in low productivity, as well as those factors which limit the access to a more efficient technology. The production of basic food grains is the principal activity among small and medium sized far mers and within these social strata, the farming practices and the technology used do not have the potential for production sufficient to fulfill the needs of the rural families. For these reasons,, the institute has given first priority, and oriented its initial efforts, toward the identification and generation of practices to increase production and productivity of maize, beans, wheat, rice, and sorghum for the small and medium sized farmer, and to make such practices and materials accessible to the agricultural strata mentioned above. In addition, the institute works in horticulture, swine production, soybeans, and sesame with these programs receiving a lower priority than the basic food grains mentioned previously. The need for better alternatives to transfer the results to farmers is evident. The search has been concentrated around those alternatives that would relate agricultural research to the farmers, which would result in technologies that would be acceptable, feasible, and economically




-2
productive and manageable, taking into consideration the resources of both, the farmers and the institute.
On the other hand, there was doubt, based on the results of agricultural institutions in other countries, that the technological innovations would express all of their potential, nor would they reach the farmer with the fidelity and the rapidity needed, which would result, in some cases, in complete rejection of the innovation and in others, of technology of little long-term value.
With these facts in mind, it was deemed necessary, as wellI as opportune, to start a Training Course in Agricultural Production to train the "ingenieros agro'nomos" in the use of the practices and materials generated by ICTA with the purpose of:
a Transferring them correctly and rapidly to the farmers;
b Validating and adapting them to local specific conditions; and to
evaluate the acceptability of the materials and practices by the
farmers themselves.
It was also believed that this process should be applied with scientific, technical, and social criteria in order to prepare the trainees to be qualified in:
1. Applying existing technological knowhow under the conditions of the
farmer as a producer;
2. Identifying and analyzing agronomic problems and propose alternative
solutions;




3
3. Programming, recording, and analyzing the practices of the farmers as well
as the results from research, and
4. Evaluate the validity and applicability of the technical innovations, for
their application by small farmers.
Thus, it is intended to take solid steps to place at the disposal of farmers the technology generated in the national crop programs.




- 4
METHODOLOGY
The Training Course at ICTA has the principal characteristic of providing a structure for opportunities for trainees to apply their theoretical background and make decisions in the field, with the following basic objectives:
1) To reinforce and to complement theoretical knowledge of the trainee, with the
objective of homogenizing and increasing the knowledge of the training group
and to initiate an efficient process of Learning by Doing ;
2) Promote the process of conceptual ization and development of ideas and planning,
to complement theoretical knowledge, to mature ideas, and to initiate the development of criteria and a rational process in decision making; and,
3) Conduct the course in a manner so as to identify the elements and the parameters
favorable to the learning process, especially as related to the capabilities sought. The implementation of the training process is through:
I Theoretical Training, which covers 20% of the course time, and
2 Learning by Doing or through execution., which covers the remaining
80% of the course time.
The content of both aspects of the course is rigid in regard to meeting the objectives, but it is also flexible enough to allow individual objectivity.




5
Theoretical Training refers to the process of evaluating information and knowledge after listening and discussing different topics presented by capable lecturers. It also includes learning through solving case study problems that are related to the theoretical information presented, going from an easier situation to more difficult ones,, until a topic has been covered.
The Learning by Doing is focused to improve the physical and intellectual capabilities of the trainee and is divided into two phases:
I "Laboratory" work
2 Field work
The work of the "laboratory" corresponds to a phase of conceptual ization and development of ideas, planning, and a review of the work plans; this process taking about 10% of the course time.
The Field Work is the phase of execution of the work plans after they have been treated in the "laboratory"; this has required about 80% of the course time.




-6
THEORETICAL TRAINING
Experience, limited time available, and limited resources indicate the importance of using all means possible in order to achieve successfully the training goals within a short period of time.
In order that the changes in the trainee (increased knowledge, increased skills and improvements in decision making), be consistent with the objectives of the course, the theoretical training includes:
1I Consultation and discussion with other professionals about their own experiences
and those of others,
2 Seeking information and ideas to carry out their projects, to write their reports,
etc. and
3 To allow for alternatives depending upon the individual trainees.
In agreement with these guidelines, four activities have been selected to further the theoretical training:
1. Conferences
2. Lectures
3. Workshops
4. Consultations
These four have proven sufficient to develop common technological knowledge among the participants in the course and to contribute information which will improve the conceptual ization




-7
tualization and development of ideas, and programming, as well as the execution of field work and, thus, develop judgement capability and to rationalize decision making during the Learning by Doing.
CONFERENCES
Conferences include basically the technology identified and generated by ICTA with respect to the basic grains (beans, maize, sorghum and rice) but also includes edaphology, hydrological information, and the human element, which affect production. This is complemented by information from the disciplines of Weed Control, Statistics, Economics, Communications, and Mechanization. These subjects must be time related with the activities which are carried out in the field.
The conferences are given by permanent instructors of the course, specialists of ICTA or professionals with experience from other institutions.
READING ASSIGNMENTS
The reading assignments include materials recommended by the individuals presenting the conferences, and other materials distributed during the course. These last include the summaries of lectures and other information of interest which have direct relation with the activity of Learning by Doing.
WORKSHOPS
The workshops of this course are a series of exercises with different levels of complexity.




8
In some instances, actual cases are used and presented in the form of problems which the trainee solves, and in other instances when the subject matter allows, theoretical cases are handled in the some manner. This scheme has the advantage that the trainee is participating continuously and permanently during the learning session; unfortunately, however, not all of the instructors and lecturers have the ability to carry this scheme out, not all subjects lend themselves to this treatment and also, the trainee refers to information which he has previously obtained from other sources, of which the instructor may not be aware. Also, the system requires time in preparation, selection of supporting materials and furthermore, requires some experience with this kind of exercise inasmuch as it must not be the objective to present the solution to the trainees but to lead them toward the solution, so that they themselves find the answer, which in itself is an award for their efforts.
ADVICE AND CONSULTING
Here the trainees seek the information about diverse subjects with the specialists and authorities in the subject matter.
Normally, the necessity for this activity arises from the field work.




-9
LEARNING BY DOING
A LABORATORY WORK
In the laboratory phase of the Learning by Doing, the trainee faces situations in which he must come up with solutions to real problems. In this process, the trainee must take into consideration his own experience, and understand his limitations, which leads him to evaluate his capabilities and seek more and different kinds of information.
To meet this objective, the course establishes the obligation to prepare:
1. Projects for commercial seedings;
2. Experimental plans;
3. Conferences;
4.. Agricultural meetings or get-togethers and field days at some field site;
5. Cooperative projects with an agriculturist; and
6. Reports.
The finished reports and plans are presented by a trainee to the group of trainees who, together with the instructors, review the form and content. This group review is preceded by an autoanalysis on the part of the trainee before he makes his presentation. This kind of exercise, in addition to forming broader points of personal views, provides a conceptual framework within which the role of the professional in the rural development process




-10
can be visualized. Furthermore, it improves the ability of the trainee to participate in dialogue, propose objectives, alternatives and activities within a global strategy consistent with the situation in which he is involved.
B F IELD WORK.
1 Production Projects of commercial seedings
Each Work Group* seeds and cultivates a small commercial planting in the region to which he is assigned.
For this, a parcel of land is rented within the area where the group is assigned. The trainees must seek information about the history of the land and its physical and chemical characteristics. With these data, along with the prices of inputs, the group of trainees can proceed to prepare a production project for their assigned parcel. These projects include technical and economical feasibility studies of the crops which they select, as well as a graphic representation of the different steps in the project and the activities, using the method of PERT and CPM. When the projects are ready, they are presented formally to a group of technicians with the objective of discussing and revising the project and developing the definite plan.
These commercial seedings are the responsibility of the group of trainees, where the group must take the initiative, rely on their knowledge to execute and supervise the project in all its stages. This situation offers a new framework for learning, and for understanding the kinds of information
* A work group has been 3 trainees with their instructor for 1976.




which the trainee needs. He learns to make decisions, to keep physically active, and to keep records.
For these projects they select from the crops around which the course is designed: maize, beans, sorghum and rice, and the technology to be applied is usually based on information available within the institute, but applied under the real conditions of the small agriculturist. The size of the lot varies from one to two hectares depending on what is common among small farmers of the region.
2 -Experimental plans
The principal objective of experimentation in the training course is to understand the technology generated by the institute and to revalidate the technology on private lands. The training course, then, works in close collaboration with the agriculturist and the research workers of the institute and in this role conducts field testing as an integrated part of the ongoing institutional programs within the region to which he is assigned. The local agriculturists cooperate allowing part of their private land to be seeded to an experiment. The farmer collaborates in the field work, works with the trainees in the cultivation of the crop as wellI as the harvest, and once experimental data is obtained, the production belongs to the farmer.
The research workers of the institUte collaborate with the training program in the identification and the elaboration of the experimental plans oriented to revalidate technology already tested




12
to some degree at the farm level and considered of good merit, and low risk. Also, the trainees have an assigned exercise of identifying and defining an existing field problem and planning a research strategy to determine the solution.
3 Conferences
The trainees present two conferences. In the first he makes a literature review and in the second he selects some theme related to some experience he has had during the course. Both conferences are presented to instructors and students. These exercises are oriented to develop ability in communication with demanding audiences, from the standpoint of content and quality of the presentation.
4 Farm meetings and Field days
A Farm meetings
Both agriculturists and technicians are confronted with unexplained field situations. When this happens, problems must be faced. These new and unexpected problems of reality are used in the course so that the trainees and farmers have the opportunity to observe them, evaluate them, and depending on their experience and knowledge, to seek reasonable explanations, and respond in a logical and feasible manner.
When such a problem is found, a farm meeting is organized either with agricultural specialists,




- 13
or with farmers at the field site. These get-togethers have been called Farm Meetings (in Spanish the terminology has been Encuentros Agrrlcolas) and have as their objective the identification of strategies for correcting or controlling problem situations, and furthermore, to provide an opportunity for the trainees to practice communication with specific audiences of different levels of technical training.
There is no particular methodology for the organization of the farm meetings. The form that is given to the meeting, or the manner in which it is developed, depends much on the nature of the problem to be discussed. However, the majority of these have been developed as follows:
a History of the problem, from the beginning of its observation,
b An audience is invited to observe and to study the characteristics of the problem,
c An attempt is made to define the problem, and,
d Discuss the problem and draw conclusions.
Each trainee, individually plans and carries out one farm meeting for agricultural specialists and each work group plans and conducts one meeting for farmers.
B Field Days for Farmers
The planning and the carrying out of Field Days for Farmers is the responsibility of the work groups. In this manner, there will be one field day in each of the localities where the five groups are assigned.




- 14
At these field days, the farmers see some of the results which are being obtained on the private farms of other farmers. The intention is to explain in simple terminology the technical concepts being applied in the work which they are observing. Special care is taken to point out the possibilities; as well as the limitations of the work in process. Therefore, the invitation to participate in such farm meetings is for the farmers of the immediate area, taking into account that the results may only have value for that locality.
The trainees present a report on each field day, relating how it was organized and carried out.
5 Cooperative projects with farmers
One is never certain that the professionals promoting the use of a new technology fully believe in it or can develop meaningful relationships wit h the farmers to whom the technology should be transferred. It is important therefore to initiate a process of understanding in which technicians and farmers participate, with the objective of understanding the relationships of the technical innovations with the problems of the agriculturist, and in this manner, step by step, advance their knowledge of the rural realities. One method of doing this is to present or propose to the farmer the use of new techniques which can be of benefit to him. (But such proposals to the farmers do not always result in a change either in the farmer or the technician, who is attempting to promote new technology.) The training course attemptsto operate under representative rural conditions, which is a consideration in locating the technician and selecting sites to carry out field work. Special attention is given to cooperative work with agriculturists. In each case, experience is gained by




- 15
planning and executing several cooperative projects, each trainee working with four interested farmers. These projects are determined jointly, based on the interest of the trainee as well as the interest and the needs of the farmer, and is subject to the limitations of both. These cooperative projects have no defined system for carrying them out and as a result, the work may be experiments, very simple farm tests,, technical assistance, or periodic meetings with the farmers.
6 Reports
One of the means of evaluating the course is by measuring technical level reached by the trainees. One of the most important measures of the progress of the trainees and their level of technical competence are through the reports presented at the end of the course. If the students have been given the necessary tools and the capabilities have been developed, they can make objective and logical decisions relative to the validity of the information that they have collected and analyzed, as well as the applicability of the results for elaborating future work plans.
One assignment is to review and correct the reports that they have written from the beginning of the-course. The professional interchange and contact along with the class lectures, contribute to capabilities of carrying out this exercise. At the end of the course, they will have the ability and technical competence to present reports :
1 For agriculturists (recommendations),
2 On the commercial seeding,
3 Of experimental plans,
4 On cooperative work with farmers, and,




16
5 To plan the work for another year.
In each case, if it is deemed important, the trainees are given a schematic orientation and information on how to structure their reports.




- 17
EVALUATION
With the objective of evaluating the course, an exam is given to the trainees to evaluate their general knowledge at the beginning and at the end. In this manner, it is possible to estimate the knowledge gained during the course. At the same time, during the course each of the activities are evaluated as shown in Table 1. Also, the general level of satisfaction of the trainees (See Table 2) is evaluated. This evaluation is conducted less frequently. The main value of this evaluation is that it identifies factors associated with their satisfaction. In other words, what are those characteristics that the students deem good or unsatisfactory. This kind of evaluation in combination with the evaluation of the students themselves hel ps to:
1. Make objective decisions oriented to improve or to correct deficiencies in the course during the course itself;
2. To put pressure on the trainees to bring about the changes in habits and performance to increase their knowledge and the capabilities during the training period;
3. To estimate the degree to which the objectives of the course are being reached during its progress.




- 18
PART II
DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE FROM MARCH 1, 1976 TO AUGUST 31, 1976
PROJECT AREA
The course is carried out in the southeastern area of Guatemala. In selecting this area, the physical facilities available, the kind of work in the area, the methods and objectives of the institutional projects, the people involved in their ongoing projects assigned to the area, and the diversity of the farming practices, have all been taken into consideration and the available resources of the area.are channeled as much as possible to be helpful to the training process. Jutiapa (See Map I), capital of the state wi th that name, is the center of operations for the course. It is located 118 kms. from the capital of the country (the city of Guatemala) on the Panamerican Highway. At Jutiapa, ICTA has established one of its Production Centers (experiment stations) and has assigned to that center a group of professionals that work in production programs on beans, maize, sorghum, etc. and a team to conduct experimental work at the farm level as well as revalidate technology under farmers conditions.
The annual medium rainfall is 2,000 mm. which falls from May to October, with a dry period of two weeks or more, usually in the month of August. Thus, the May to October rainy season is represented by bimodal curves with a period of no rainfall. The remainder of the year, November to April, there is practically no rainfall.
The average temperature is 200 centigrades.




1UGIONS OF GUATEYALA
Ile
lop op
0 at
% AtiaD




MAP 2 REGION VI LOCALITIES
B
A
to




TABLE I
TABLE FOR GRADING THE TRAINING EXERCISES
Exercises Item Graded Highest Grade
Written Reports Justification 2
Objectives 6
Appointments 2
Presentation Time adjustment 2
Aids 3
Lecturer's relations and
confidence 5
Discussion One participation 6
Participation A good participation 4
Theoretical
Learning Monthly written test 10
Experiments at the farmers' A weekly note is written on the
properties trainee's report book 6
The general condition 4
Commercial lots A weekly note is written on the
field's report book 6
The general condition 4
Farmer-technician Program for carrying out activities
cooperating projects with the farmers 10




TABLE 2
GENERAL SATISFACTION LEVEL CHART
100% 90% 80% 70%
LU
>60%
-JI
Z 50%
0
I
U-2
~30% _
10%
0
13 N
MONTHS ASSOCIATED FACTORS
GREATER SATISFACTIONS LESSER SATISFACTIONS




TABLE 3
WORK GROUPS ASSIGNMENT AREA
Work Group Municipal area (county)
Group I Quezada (A) *
Group II Jutiapa (B), and
El Progreso (C)
Group Ill Santa Catarina Mita (D),
and Agua Blanca (E)
Group IV Asunci6n Mita (F)
Group V Atescatempa (G),
Yupiltepeque (H), and
Jerez (I).
* The letter within the parenthesis corresponds to Map 2.




- 19
In general, the area is formed of interconnected valleys surrounded by mountains. (Map 1) The operation of the Course
The course operates, in part, as a linkage between the production programs for specific commodities, research programs, and the agriculturists. In this sense, it has characteristics similar to and functions like the institution's ongoing technological testing teams. Hence, it conducts experiments on farmers' properties and encourages farmers to run farmers' trials with the aim of validating the technology, adapting technology to the local conditions, promoting the use of technology with the local farmers, and evaluating the acceptance of the introduced technology by the farmers themselves.
The trainees do play the role of farmers, and for this they lease a small farm or parcel and seed it commercially which should allow, with the use of good technology, a profitable agricultural enterprise under the farmers',own conditions. Thus, carrying out experiments, farmers' trials and commercial seedings, is what is designed as field work. This field work, together with the laboratory work, represents the Learningby-Doing part of the Training Course.
To conduct the field work, the trainees are divided into work groups.
Each work group consists of three technicians to which is assigned one vehicle, which, in turn, are assigned to a specific geographical area, and work under the orientation of and with the backstopping of an instructor. (Map 2) (Table 3)




- 20
The 'present course has five work groups located in five areas. (See Map 2 and Table 3)
The work groups, together with the instructor, assume the role responsibilities and functions of the ongoing Field Testing Programs of the institute which otherwise would have been conducted by personnel dedicated exclusively to this work. Therefore, the students do spend a good part of their time on serious experimental field work to obtain useful data, this activity being incorporated into the teaching- learning process. Administration and Management
In order to have an operational base, a rather large house was rented in the town of Jutiapa. At this location space has been allocated to offices, a conference and classroom, space for preparation of teaching materials, and a small stockroom for the storage of material and equipment needed in the work.
The programming, supervision and execution of the course is under the responsibility of a coordinator, with three instructors. Other personnel include a secretary and five technical aids. During periods of heavy workloads, additional help is hired. The Production Center for the Southeast (experiment station) is located about I km. from the town of Jutiapa and gives administrative support to the course paying salaries, per them and purchasing of some material in the local market. It also is used as part of the administrative mechanism for furnishing gasoline and lubricants and controls the inventory of materials and equipment used in the field work.




- 21
Transportation
The distances between one point and another within the assigned area for a group of trainees is as much as 60 kms. Also the distances from the field location assignment to the headquarters for the course is up to a 100 kms. It is necessary to transport materials and equipment, inputs, and workers these distances. Some of the activities such as seeding must be complemented within a short period around a week to 10 days. This situation must be met with an efficient system of transportation. The course is assigned 9 vehicles which are distributed between the five work groups, the three instructors and the coordinator. The next several titles have already been discussed from a conceptual viewpoint and now will be discussed in direct relation to the operation of the course between March 1, 1976 and August 3 1.




22
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
As mentioned previously, 80% of the course's time approximately, is devoted to the process of Learning by Doing, and the remaining 20% of the time is devoted to theory. During the period of the course, there may be an unbalance in this relationship. On June 12, for example, three months after the course had been started, 26% of the time had been used for theoretical training and 74% in Learning by Doing. Such unbalances might occur because of such factors as weather, etc. However, the course has kept as close to the 80-20 ration as possible. On August 31 (See Table 4) 81% of the time had been used for Learning by Doing and 19% to Theoretical Training.
THEORETICAL TRAINING
The Theoretical phase, as mentioned previously, consists ofI Conferences
2 Workshops
3 Assigned readings, and
4 Consultation.
The course itself controls the amount of time allocated to the conferences and workshops but it does not control the time dedicated by the trainees themselves to reading and consultation or seeking help. Because of this, the real amount of time employed by the trainees for the Theoretical Learning is an excess of 19%.




TABLE 4
TIME DISTRIBUTION THROUGHOUT THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES
From March I to August 31)
LEARNING ACTIVITY TIME
Theoretical Training: Hours: %
Conferences and Workshops 247 18.8
Learning by Doing
Field practices 939 71.5
Lab practices 127 9.7
TOTAL: 1313 100.0




TABLE 5
CONFERENCE COVERAGE AND WORKSHOPS
CONFERENCES
Corn Beans Rice
Soybeans
Sorghum
Soils
Economics
Programming
Communication
English
WORKSHOPS
Project Outline
Agricultural Production
Group Dynamics




- 23
The subjects selected for conferences and workshops have been interrelated, as much as possible to the field work and laboratory exercises. (See Table 5) A program or schedule of activities is prepared on a weekly basis. (See Table 6 ) This hourly program for a week's activities is not made up much in advance, and it is through this system that the course is adjusted to situations which cannot be determined in advance. It does give both instructors and trainees a definite hourly program before the week's activities are initiated. The trainees move from their assigned locality to the center for the course at Jutiapa, in agreement with the weekly program, to bring materials, to attend classes, conduct laboratory exercises, etc. Once the activity programmed for the classroom or the center is realized, the trainees return to their area of assignment. The lecturers are selected according to their experience and capability. The majority are from ICTA itself but also other personnel have collaborated without cost to the institution. Those from outside the institute have come from the following institutions: The Governmental Agricultural Sector, The Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Science, INTECAP, a Guatemalan training organization, The University of San Carlos,
The University Rafael Landrivar,
The International Corn and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), & The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT).




- 24
Forty-two percent of the lecturers have been college graduates and 58% have had graduate train ing.
As the course advances, it is important to take additional care to be certain as to the quality of the lecturers and their capabilities so that the course progresses academically and technically.
For example, in June when the first review of the course was made in relation to the professional level of the lecturers, the relationship of college graduates to postgraduates was 1 to 1. Now this has changed with greater participation of lecturers having postgraduate study, and hopefully in agreement with the plan elaborated for the second semester (See Annex). Lecturer participation will include a greater number with postgraduate training. Also, for the second semester, the Theoretical Training has been structured by modules. Therefore, subject matter has been selected with specific content and objectives. Thus, one area or subject willI be presented together, in such manner that lectures can also be attended by professionals other than the regular course trainees.
LEARNING BY DOING
As mentioned previously, the Learning by Doing consists of two phases:
A Laboratory exercises, and
B Field work
A Laboratory exercises
This phase of the work is conducted according to the plan in which instructors and other professionals of ICTA participate. Through the laboratory, plans are made which are later




- 25
carried out in the field work phase. These laboratory exercises, largely planning exercises, include:
I Experimental plans
2 Farmers' trials
3 Commercial seedings
4 Agricultural meetings and Field days 5 Cooperation with agriculturists, and
6 Conferences.
The plans elaborated according to these subjects are presented by the trainees to the instructors and to the other members of the course with the objective of discussion and revision before the plan takes definite form. B Field work
The major part of the field work which is carried out by the course trainees is a planned part of the institution's farm experimental work. In this manner, the students become acquainted with serious field experimentation, its methodology, and objectives. These activities as well as the Farmers' Trials and Field Days thus, are both an official ICTA institution activity as well as a training component. The remaining activities of the course are selected and conducted by those responsible for it.
Experiments and Test Plots
The growing season in the Eastern area of Guatemala is divided into 2 periods referred to as




-26
semesters. The first seeding is in May and the second seeding is in August or September. During the first semester of 1976, 75 field experiments and 173 phosphorus trials were seeded in the five localities where the different groups of the course were assigned. (See Table 8). The kinds of experiments as wellI as the number of experiments to be carried out are based upon the results from the previous year and planned according to the needs and objectives of ICTA's production programs, taking into account the course's capabity for this kind of work (See Table 9).
In the second semester, the course will carry out 24 experiments related to beans, 18 on sorghum and 70 phosphorus trials.
As in the first semester, these experiments will take place on the private farms within the five areas where the work groups are assigned (See Pages 6 and 7 of the Annex).
In addition to the seeding, the field work of the second semester includes harvesting and taking of data of the first seeding. For this reason, it is not possible to manage as many experiments in the second semester as in the first.
Commercial seedings
Each work group has seeded within his assigned area a small commercial seeding (See Table 10).
The crops selected for this work are maize, beans, sorghum, and rice.




TABLE 6
ICTA TRAINING SCHEDULE
Week from July 26 to 31
DATE TIME ACTIVITY COORDINATOR
July 26 8:00 17:00 Field Practice Instructors
July 27 8:00 17:00 Field Practice Instructors
July 28 8:00 9:00 English B.A. Alan Reece
9:00 17:00 Soil analysis and fertilizer
recommendations Ing. Julio Brolo
July 29 8:00 9:00 English B.A. Alan Reece
9:00 17:00 Vegetable tissue analysis Dr. V victor Urrutia July 30 8:00 9:00 English B.A. Alan Reece
9:00 17:00 Fertilizer efficiency
associated factors Dr. Victor Urrutia
July 31 8:00 12:00 Field practice Instructors




TABLE 7
TIME ALLOTTED TO LECTURES BY DIFFERENT
ACADEMIC LEVEL PROFESSIONALS
(From March I to August 31)
ACADEMIC LEVEL TIME
Hours: %
Engineers and BA's 104 42.1
Masters of Science 84 34.0
PhD's 59 23.9
TOTAL: 247 100.0




TABLE 8
EXPERIMENTS' DISTRIBUTION AND PHOSPHORUS LOTS BY LOCALITY
Locality (Municipal) Corn Beans Rice Phosphorus
Quezada 8 5 3 43
Jutiapa and El Progreso 6 3 7 54
Santa Catarina Mita and
Agua Blanca 5 4 2 27
Asunci6n Mita 8 6 2 24
Atescatempa, Yupiltepeque
and Jerez 8 7 1 25
TOTAL: 35 25 15 173




TABLE 9
VARIABLES UNDER STUDY AND AMOUNT OF PLANTED EXPERIMENTS Experimental Variables Number of Experiments
Corn
Varieties 14
Plant population 6
Water conservation 5
Planting density 3
Nitrogen levels 5
Levels of lime I
Dates for nitrogen application I
Beans
Varieties 14
Granulated insecticides 4
Water control 5
Levels of phosphorus and potassium I
Foliar fertilization I
Rice
Varieties 5
Nitrogen levels 4
Plant population 4
Borders 2
Phosphorus trials 173
TOTAL: 248




TABLE 10
COMMERCIAL SEEDINGS. CROPS AND EACH GROUP'S PLANTED AREA
CROPS AREA (m2)
Group I (Quezada)
Corn 5,292
Beans 4,410
Sorghum 882
Group II (Jutiapa and El Progreso) Corn 7,000
Rice 10,000
Group III (Santa Catarina Mita and Agua Blanca) Corn 14,000
Beans 3,500
Group IV (Asunci6n Mita)
Corn 10,500
Beans 3,500
Group V (Atescatempa, Yupiltepeque and Jerez) Corn 10,850
Beans 4,900
TOTAL: 74,834




- 27
The seedings vary in size from I to 1. 7 hectares with the total seeded by the five groups being
7.5 hectares.
Agricultural meetings and Field days
The students have conducted 14 agricultural meetings at the field plot sites for technicians and 5 for agriculturists.
In the first case, an individual trainee is responsible for carrying out the agricultural meetings and in the second, the field days are the responsible of the work group consisting of three students and their instructor. During the remainder of the course, 5 field days willI be held for agriculturists, one for each work group.
Cooperation with farmers
Each trainee identifies, within his region, four agriculturists and makes a cooperative plan of work with each. For this, it is important that the trainee and the farmer be equally interested in solving a problem, agree to share experiences and define responsibilities of each in the execution of the cooperative work. Under this plan, work has been carried out on:
1 Pest control
2 Varietal trials of maize, beans, and sorghum
3 Defoliation of maize to determine the effect on an associated crop,




28
4 Counseling on the selection of seed
5 Amounts and application of nitrogenous fertilizers on maize
6 Planning density in com
7 etc.
During the first semester, 56 of these collaborative works with farmers were carried out, and an equal number will be done during the second semester.
Conferences
Each trainee must prepare two conferences.
In the first, he is allowed to select a subject of his choice and he makes a literature review. For the second, the trainee selects a theme related to his experience sometime during the course*
He must present a written copy to the instructor as well as an oral presentation to the training group.




TABLE 11
AVERAGE MONTHLY GRADES
Month Average Grade
General knowledge 4.89
March 6.64
April 6.39
May 9.10
June 7.31




TABLE 12
GENERAL SATISFACTION LEVEL CHART
100% __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 90% _ _ _ _ _ _ 80% __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 70%_____
60% ___________50% 0 0 _____40% _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ 30% _______ _ _ _ _ _
20% _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10% __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
March April May June
ASSOCIATED FACTORS
GREATER SATISFACTIONS LESSER SATISFACTIONS New theoretical and practical Distributing poor quality knowledge (11) seed (10)
Fiel praticeLack of economic support
Fied pactce(10) at the beginning of the course (7)
Workshops of agricultural Work overload and little production (5) travel ing (5)
The ours's pograming(2) Disagreement among
Thecors'sproramig 2) instructors (5)
Lab racices(2) Not enough resources for
Labpraties 2) practices (4)
______________________Not adequate practices (3)




- 29
EVALUATION OF THE COURSE TO DATE
in Table 11, the average of the monthly grades of the trainees are shown, when examined on the Theoretical Knowledge in relation to the classroom presentation through lectures. This classification or grading does not include work other than the theoretical phase. The trainees were evaluated for their technical knowledge before beginning the course, which gave a measure of their knowledge at the start. Other tests were given throughout the course. It wil I be noted (Table 11) that the average has increased. Table 12 shows the general level of satisfaction on the part of the trainees. During the first two months, only 50% of the students were satisfied, which had risen to 80% on the date of the last test on June 19. Below the table are the factors most commonly mentioned by the students as being associated with their degree of satisfaction or their feeling td the contrary. In other words, these were the most frequent comments on the part of the trainees during four months of the course.




-30
PART Ill
CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE
In Part 1, a conceptual description of the course was presented, and in Part 11 the operation of the course from March to August 31, 1976 was described. Being the first course, it has been modified while in progress to adjust it to the conditions of the institute and to the conditions of southeastern Guatemala where the course is conducted. Nevertheless, the methodology and the principles presented in Part I, have been adhered to. It must be kep in mind that since ICTA is a dynamic institution by nature, all of its activities, including training, will be subject to change and adaptation to meet the needs and the conditions. It is important to remember that someone within the institute must take the leadership and 'direct it through a progressive evolution.
It has been said that in order that favorable changes take place within the institution, it is necessary that the institutional personnel must change. The changes within ICTA will be made in order to more efficiently play the role for which it was organized. In general terms, the training course is one of the activities where the principal function is to ellaborate strategies that will induce changes in behavior and increase technical knowhow. Therefore, ICTA is asking itself about the future and what it might do to better meet its responsibilities. Herein are presented some ideas related to the future of the training progra m.




- 31
Five-Year Plan
ICTA is a relatively new institution (it was created in 1972 and began operating in 1973). It has made a tentative Five-Year Plan which contemplates the expansion of the institute until 1980. During this period, ICTA will need at least 75 new production agronomists (ingenieros agr6nomos) to form additional Teams for Testing and Adaptation of Technology at the field level (Equipos de Prueba de Tecnologra).
ICTA feels that it is desirable that these new agronomists receive a training which will increase their capability to conduct the assigned field work. Therefore, it will be necessary to train 15 new agronomists yearly during a five-year period. This number is the present capacilty of the training course. If the number of personnel to be trained by ICTA were to increase, a means of meeting this increased responsibility should be found without sacrificing quality of the training.
Training for other areas
The Republic of Guatemala has two well defined climatic areas where the agricultural practices are quite different, the Coast and the Highlands. Therefore, it is contemplated that it would be desirable to move the center of the course between these two zones. There would be some difficulties and inconveniences that would need be resolved but the advantages could be large since the personnel could be trained for specific areas. Also, it is contemplated that the course may receive additional professionals from other areas, particularly Central America and the Caribbean.




- 32
In order to receive foreign students, it would be important to increase personnel and the physical resources, which may be difficult under a limited budget.
Additional Guatemalans might participate in the course in two manners: a) as regular trainees of the course, or b) as shorter-term trainees. Starting with the second semester of this year, on a trial basis, provision is being made so that professionals outside the course might participate in the course for short periods. For this reason, the theoretical lectures have been structured as modules. Some general themes have been selected with specific contents and objectives (See Annex). In doing this, the theoretical training is planned to be continuous within one subject area to allow professionals from other institutions or from ICTA to attend. At thi s time there is no similar plan to modulate the field work.
Intra- and Inter- institutional communication
As it was mentioned previously, ICTA is a relatively new institution, and it is important to know itself better internally, and at the same time make itself known to others, especially to the Public Agricultural Sector and to other Guatemalan institutions. It is important to make known what ICTA can contribute, as well as what other institutions and people can do, that would be of mutual benefit in meeting the countries' goals.
ICTA should take the initiative, and conduct training for this purpose. Therefore, it is proposed to elaborate a plan for:
A ICTA's own personnel, and
B For personnel of other institutions.




- 33
For its own personnel, the plan would be modules whose content would be related to the organization, objectives, plans, policies, etc., of ICTA, with the institutional leaders participating as instructors.
To train personnel from other institutions, a defined national policy would be important. Some successes have been reached internally and externally but it is important to review the past experience and to elaborate strategies seeking greater effectiveness.
Courses could be developed for training personnel from other institutions at both the local and national level. ICTAwould have to face the problem with their own available resources or seek additional ones. If such a plan were to be put into effect, it would be important to study the results jointly with the institutions involved, for the purpose of continuously re-shaping the course to meet the needs of the Sector as efficiently as possible.
The present training course might be considered as an introductory phase to postgraduate studies.
Its requirement would be that the candidates for training would have had demonstrated special capacities within the university and within their professional labors. The trainees should be university graduates in agronomy or related fields. The efforts should be directed toward the formation and orientation of leaders, which in turn, are capable of training people under their supervision. Taking into consideration the limited resources for training at all levels, it is believed that the cari didates for training should be those in position of leadership or those that are expected




- 34
to arrive rapidly to such positions within their professional careers. In this manner, training would have a multiplying effect.
Also it is believed that cooperation with technological institutes and universities should be sought. This cooperation could be through professors and visiting scientists who would share their experiences and contribute to the course. Such an interchange could result in allowing credit to the participants of the course for work at the Master's level when one or more participants demonstrate capabilities, and meet other requirements for postgraduate study.




ANNEX
WORKPLAN FOR THE TRAINING COURSE IN AGRONOMIC PRODUCTION
SECOND SEMESTER OF 1976 REGION VI




Annex-i
Dear Reader:
This Annex is included here in its original form in Spanish. For those who cannot easily read Spanish, the following is an English summary.
COURSE OUTLINE
1. TECHNICAL PERSONNEL 11. INTRODUCTION Ill. ANTECEDENTS I V. LEARNING BY DOING
A LABORATORY WORK
1 Experimental plans
a. Beans
b. Sorghum
c. Phosphorus
2 Projects for commercial plantings
3 Planning Field Days for Agriculturists
4 Preparation and presentation of reports
a. For agriculturists (recommendations)
b. For the Course
- Commercial seedings
- Experimental work
- Cooperative work between technicians and agriculturists
- Work Plan for 1977
- Agricultural Monograph




Annex-2
5 Other plans
B FIELD WORK
1 Experimental Seedings
a Beans
b Sorghum
c Phosphorus
2 Seeding the commercial lot
3 Cooperative work with farmers
4 Seeding
a Experiments Beans
" Maize Rice
" Phosphorus Sorghum b, Commercial lot
5 Follow-up with farmers
V. THEORETICAL TRAINING
A On Soils
B Audio-Visual Aids
C Analysis and design of agronomic experiments
D Agricultural development




Annex-3
E Agricultural machinery
F Economic analysis of the experimental results
G Herbicides
H Commercialization of basic grains
I- Determination of objectives VI. EVALUATION
The theoretical part of the course is very similar to that already described. The experimental work for the second semester is summarized on pages 6 and 7 of the Spanish version. The following is a translation of these two pages.
.pmi
November, 1976




Annex-4
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPERIMENTS SECOND SEMESTER 1976
LOCALITY Atescatempa Asunci6n Agua Blanca El
(Community) Yupiltepeque Mita Santa Cata- Progreso Quezada
Jerez rina Mita
TECHNICIAN 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2
Bean varieties 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Granulated
Insecticide 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
in Beans
Nitrogen
levels in 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sorghum
Planting distances 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
in Sorghum
Phosphorus
studies 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5




Annex-5
SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTS SECOND SEMESTER 1976
No. No. No. Length No. Size of experiment
Name trials treatm. rows rows repli- Width Length
(Meters) cations (Meters) (Meters)
Bean
Bean
varieties 14 5 8 6 6 18 41
Granulated Insecticide in 10 7 8 6 6 25.2 41
Beans
N i trogen levels in 10 4 6 6 4 14.4 27
Sorghum
Planting distances 8 4 6 6 4 15.6 27
in Sorghum
Phosphorus studies 70 2 5 20




A N E X 0
INSTITUTO'D, CIENCTA -1 T-Er-NOLOOIA AMICOLAS
ENTRENAMIENTO TECNIno
PLAN DE TRABAJO DEL CURSO DE ADIESTRAKENTO EN PRODUCTION AGRICOLA SEGUNDO SEMESTER DE 1976
Region VI
SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA Agosto 1976




CONTENIDO
I- PERSONAL TECNICO II- INTRODUCTION III- ANTECEDENTS IV- APRENDIZAJE POR EJECUCION
A- TRABAJO DE LABORATORY
1- Planes experimentales
a- Frijol
b- Sorgo
c- F&sforo
2- Proyectos de producci6n para el Lote Comercial
3- Planeaci6n de DIas de Campo para Agricultores
4- Preparation y presentaci6n de informed
a- Para Agricultores (Recomendaciones)
b- Para el CAPA
- Lote Comercial
- Experiments
Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-Tgcnico
- Plan de Trabajo para,197?
- Monograff"a AgrIcola
5- Otros planes
B- TRABAJO DE CAPTO
.1- Siembra de Experimentos
a- Frijol
b- Sor 0
c- F65oro
2- Siembra del Lote Comercial
3- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-T4cnico




4- Cosecha
a- Experiments
- Frijol
- Malz
- Arroz
- F'sforo
- Sorgo
b- Lote Comercial
5- Seguimiento de Agricultores
V- APRENDIZAJE TEORICO
A- Curso de Suelos
B.- Curso de ayudas audiovisuals
C- Curso sobre analysis y diseflos experimentales agron6micos
D- Curso sobre Desarrollo Agrlcola E- Curso sobre Maquinaria Agricola
F- Curso sobre AnailiSi3 Econo'mico de los resultados experimentales.
G- Curso sobre herbicides
H- Comercializaci6n de grants ba'sicos,
I- Formulaci6n de objetivos VI- EVALUATION




I- PERSONAL TECNICO
A- INSTRUCTORES PERMANENTES
Albert Plant Coordinador Regi6n VI
Oscar Martfnez Coordinador Entrenamiento T~cnico
Marceliano Lopez Instructor y Asesor de Entrenamiento
Leonel Pineda Instructor
Helmuth Cardona Instructor
Alan Reece Instructor de Inglds
B- TECNICOS EN ENTRENANIENTO,
Otto Dard~n
Guillermo M~ndez LeeRoy Gillespie
Mario O2aeta
Marco A. Martinez
Edgar Oliva
Roberto Ralda Roberto Leiva
Victor Sal~uero Fredy Hernandez Jos6 A. Da'vila
Jose' M. Dfaz
Francisco Turcios
Adolfo Torres
C- AIJXILIARES DE TECNICOS
Juan Dard6n
Felix Ochoa
Carlos Bonilla
Ramiro Mazariegos
Adelso Aguilar L~zaro
Andr~s Ruiz
D- SECRETARIAS
Matilde Ranero Batres
Luz Marl'a Silva




-2
II- INTRODUCTION'
El process de Adiestramiento se conducirA bajo la misma organizacio'n y metodologl'a que en el primer semester. Los adiestrandos continuarain en la sede que se les asign6 y cada instructor orientara' y apoyarA a groups espec'ficos. Pero dado el advance del curso se estarA promoviendo e incremen-tando la participation del adiest'rando. La cual se incre-mentara en la media en que el Curso proporcione herramientis conceptuales y pragmalticas y los t4cnicos las aprehendan, Lasta desarrollar en ellos una actitud critical y analftica, agrosiva y beligerante pero constructive. Es por eso que se han seleccionado actividades que contribu yan a dar una mayor solidez a la experience adquirida a 1 a vez que se promueve una actitud mas comprometica a trav4a de los process de participation en el diseflo de la calidad y el contenido de areas que a juicio de los instructors tienen una finalidad y un significado claro para todos e im portante dentro del curso.
Finalmente no se encontraran cambios importance en el contenido del plan sino evolucio'n y continuidad, actividades a vanzadas, lo cual es concomitant a tapas superiors del process de aprendizaje.




IV- ANTECEDENTS
Todavla no se tiene un anailisis complete, ni estA estruct.ura da la poca experience del actual curso de Adiestramiento. Sin embargo de acuerdo con el informed que se elabor,6 en junio pasado se podr1a adelantar que se prevee un balance favorable. Por otra, parte se observe en el mismo la introduccidn de los primers cambi os al Provecto de Adiestramiento original. Tales cambios obedecen al pmp&sito de adapter aquella experience cia a.las conditions resales de operaci6n en la Regi6n VI, sin que por ello haya sido necesario revisar los principios y la metodologl*a propuesta inicialmente. No obstante, la forma de operaci6n continua-ajustAndose en.el sentido de establecer una mayor interaccio'n entre los t4c nicos de los Programas de Producci6n y los Te'cnicos en Adies tramiento. AsI, se ha logrado elaborar conjuntamente los Planes Experimentales de Frijol, Sorgo, y de F'sforo conla Discipline, de Suelos. Este esfuerzo cooperative se espera continuar en la media en que la, structural institutional y Entrenamiento T6cnico lo permitan, torque no se ocultan las ventajas que ofrece desde el punto de vista econ6mico y del logro de los objetivos del Curso de Adiestramiento. De esta mantra se espera estar contribuyendo a "Desarrollar programs de Enseflanza. y Promocio'n que tiendan a la aplicaci6n de los resultados obtenidos en la investigation".




-4
IV- APRENDIZAJE POR EJECUCION
El contenido del Aprendi zaje por ejecunio'n so -ha divi dido, an dos parties:
A- Trabajo de, Laboratorio
B- Trabajo de Campo
El Trabajo de Laboratorio se refiere a la conceptualizaci6n y planeacio'n de las actividades, mientras que el Trabajo de Campo corresponded a la ejecucio'n de las mismas.
Ambos, Trabajo de Laboratorio y de Campo se desarrollaran ba jo la responsabilidad y con la participation de los Adiestran dos. Los instructore3 daran orientaci'n y apoyo an todo elproceso,
A- TRABAJO DE LABORATORY
1.- Planes Experimentales
Durante el segundo semester los Planes Experimentales.tendrgn. como objetivo principal los cultivos de Frijol y Sorgo, y los Studios de F6sforo.
La concepci6n de los nfismos sera' el resultado de confrontar las experiences y prop6sitos de Entrenamiento T4cnico con los objetivos y experiences de los programs de Frijol, Sorgo y Suelos.
Por parte del curso se dedicara' el tempo que sea necesario para discutir los different punts de vista qua conduzcan a conclusions que satisfagan a las parties interesadas.




PLANES EXPERIMENTALES
FRIJOL
SORGO
.FOSFORO




-6
DISTRIBUCION DE EXPERIVEINTOS SEGUNDO SEMESTER 1976
Atescatempa Asunci6n Agua Blanca
LOCALIDAD Yupiltepeque Mita Sta. Catari- El Progreso Quezada
(Municipios) Jerez na Iita.
TECNICO 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2
iariedades de Frijol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Insecticide Granulado en 1
Frijol
Niveles de Nitr6geno en 1 1
Sorgo
'istancias de Hembra en ,orgo
i-istudio de 6sforo 5 5 5 5 j5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5




-7
REStJIEN DE LOS EXPEIIMNTOS SEGUNDO SE1VESTRE 1976
Tamafto experimento
Nornbre Num. Num. Ntdmero Largo Num.
Ens: Trat. Surcos Surcos Repi. Ancho Largo
(Metros) (Metros) (Metros)
Variedades de frijol 14 5 86 6 18 41
Insecticidal Gr anu2lado
en frijol. 10 7 6 6 25.2 41
Niveles de Nitr6-erno
en sorgo 10 4 6 6 4 14.4 27
Distancia de Siornbra en sorgo 84 6 6 4 15.6 27
Estudio de Fo'sforo 70 2 .5 20




EXPERIPIENTOS DE FRIJOL
VARIEDADES
TRATAMIENTOS:
A- Negro Jalpatagua
B- Turrialba 1
C- Porrillo 1
D- Linea 32 E- Criolla.
DISTANCIA DE SIEMBRA: 45 cms. entre surcos y 10 cms. entre plants
*FERTILIZACION CON N: 30 Kg/Ha. a la siembra. 4-F"IRTILIZACION CON P: 60 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present deficiencia de fo'sforo.LARGO DEL suico: 6 Mts. 3URC03 FOR PARCEL: 8 PARCELA: 6 Mts. x 3.6o mts. (21.6 mt.2) NUMBER DE REPETICIONES: 6 SISTEYIA DE SIEMBRA: Intercalado en el ma:rz de primer, METODO DE SIEMBRA: Al chorro, al fondo del surco. CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUELO: Volat6n, 40 Kg/Ha. RALEO: Despue's de la primer limpia, dejando 10 plants por metro lineal.
LIT,-IPIAS: Una entre los 10 y 15 d1as despue's de la germinaci6n y la otra 8 dfas antes del inicio de la floracio'n. CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades. (Principalmente aplicar Metasistox, un litro por hectares). PARCELA NETA A COSECHA : 5 Mt. x 1.80 Mt. (qMt.2). Los cuatro surv cos centrals.
Fuente de N: Urea al 467o
Fuente de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%




DI,3,7, 70 DE CAMPO
mt s
VARIEDADES
V, 6 mt. REFERENCES
Surco Borde
A= Negro Jalpatagu V B-- Turrialba 1
C= Porrillo 1 D-- L'nea 32 E= Criolla IV DISE O EXPERIMENT
BLOQUES AL AZAR. 41 mt.




A
INSECTICIDES GRttNULADOS
vJjjjEDADES: Porrillo I
Linea 32
TRATAK[ENTOS:
A- Furadan 10 Kg/Ha.
B- Furadan 20 Kg/Ha.
C- Furadan 30 Kg/Ha.
D- Thimet 10 Kg/Ha.
E- Thimet 20 Kg/Ha.
F- Thimet 30 Kg/Ha.
G- Testigo. (sin insecticide granulado)
DISTANCIA' DE SIEMBRA: 45 cm. entre surcos y 10 cm, entre plants. 'FERTILIZACIO1,4 CON N: 30 Kg/Ha. a la siembra. "'FERTILIZACION CON P: 60 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present defi
ciencia en f'sforo.
LARGO DL., SURCO: 6 Mts.
SURCOS POR PARCEL: 8
PARCELA: 6 Mt. x 3,60 Mt. (21.6 Mt.2)
NUMBER DE REPETICIONES: 6
SISTEMA DE SM":BRA: Intercalado en malz de primer.
T,'IETODO DE SIEMBRA: Al chorro al fondo del surco
CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUBLO: Ning 0
,una aplicaci6n; s'lo la de los tratai-,iientos a evaluarse.
RALEO: Despue's de la primer limpia dejando 10 plants por metro lineal.
LINIPIAS: Una entre los,10 Y 15 d'as despu4s de la germinaci6n y la otra
8 d'as antes del inicio de la floracio'n.
CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: Se hara' aplicaci6n de Metasistox (un
litro por hectares)
PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: 5 Mt. x 1.8o Mt. (9M2) los cuatro surcos central
*PIonte de N: Urea al 46 % *"Fuente de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%




DISE,00 DE CAMPO
25,2 Mt* TNSFCTICIDAS GRANTILAr
REFERENCES: VI 6 Mt. i= Surco Borde
1 mt. A= FuradAn 10 Kg/Ha.
B-- Furadan 20 Kg/Ha. C= FuradAn 30 Kg/Ha.
V
D-- Thimet 10 Kg/Ha. E= Thimet 20 Kg/Ha. F= Thimet 30 Kg/Ha. IV G-- Testigo
41 mt. DISEF O EXPERT TNTAL
BLOQUES AL AZAR. VARIEDADES: Portillo 1 Linea 32




-12
EXPERIIENTOS DE SORGO
*NIVELES DE NITROGEN VARIEDAD: Guatecau
TRATIJ.-IIENTOS: Ot45,60,75 Kg. de N/Ha.
CANTIDAD Y EPOCA DE APLICACION DE LOS TRATAKEN'TOS, CON N: 50% a la
50% a los 45 d as despu4s de la siembra.
**FERTILIZACION CON F: 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present deficiencia en fo"sforo. DII,'TANCIA DE SIEjNBRA: 60 cm. entre surcos y 10 cm. entre plants.
LARGO DE SURCO: 6 10ts. SURC03 FOi-t PARCEL: 6
P AR C J] L'A 6 1-11"Cs, x 3.60 Mt. (21.6o 1,1t.2 Nu 4
SISTENU DE SHEYBRA: Intercalado on el mal'z de primer. P; TODO DE SIE ,,BR': Al chorro, al fondo del surco CONTROL DE IINSECTOS DEL SUELO: Cytrolane, 35 Kg/Ha. HALEO: Dcspu 's de la primer limpia, dejando 10 plants por metro lineal. CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FGLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades (principalmente con Volat6n, Lannate, Dipterex). F, ,RCELA NETi' -'% C0SIIJCKAft: 5 Mt. x 1.80 Mt.= 9 IvIt.2 (3 surcos centrals)
Fuente de N: Urea al 46%
,-'uu-n-c de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%.




-13
DISE'-P,,0 DE CI'MO
14. 4 mt.
T-1 NIVELES DE NITROGEN REFERENCES IV 6 mt
Surco Borde
1 mt A= 0 Kg.N/Ha.
B. 45 KgN/Ha. C= 60 Kg.N/Ha. D-- 75 Kg.N/Ha. 27 Mt. DISEPO EXPERIMENTAL BLOQUES AL AZAR NOTA: Aplicar 50% del nitr6geno a la siembra Y 50% a los 45 d'as des pues de la siembra, p -ra cada nivel.




-14
DISTANCIA3.DE SIEMBRA
VARIEDAD: Guatecau
*TRATA.Ki]NTOS:
A- 40 cms. entre surcos y 10 cms. entre plants B- 40 cms. entre surcos y 50 cms. entre postures; 5 plantas por posture.
C- 80 cms. entre surcos Y 5 cmsi entre plants D- Testi3o: practical del agriculture. "'*FERTILIZACION CON N: 60 Kg/Ha. 50%0 a la siembra; 50% 45 d1as despu4s de la slembra.
.'.'..)"9FERTILIZi ICIO'_I CON P: 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present deficiencia en fo'sforo.
LARGO DEL suRco: 6 i,it s.
SURCOS POR PARCELA: 6
PARCELA: AB y D-- 6 Yits. x 3.60 Mt; C= 6 mt.x 4.8o mt.
NUTIERO DE REPETICI011,1ES: 4
SISTEM DE SIEMBRA: Intercalado en el malz de primer
IVIETODO DE SIEMBRA: Para el tratamiento A., al chorro y al fondo del surco
Para el tratamiento B, mateado. Para el tratamiento CP al chorro y al,
fondo del surco.
CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUELO: Cytrolane, 35 Kg/Ha.
RALEO: Despu4s de la primer limpia, dejando el number de plants in-,
dicados on los tratamientos.
CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades (principalment,
con Volat6n, Lannato, Dipterex)
PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: AB y D: 5 x 1.80 m.= 9 M2.; C: 5 x 2.40 M= 12M2
Tratamientos surcos doubles; Tratamiento C: S-urc' sencillo';' Tratamiento D: tgricultor
Fuente de N: Uroa al -".-"-*Fuente de P- triple superfoafato al 46%




-15
DISE1 ,,O DE CAMPO
DISTANCIAS DE SIENBRA 15.6 mt.
REFERENCES Surco Borde IV 6 m, A= 40 cms. entre surcos
y 10 cms. entre plan-. 1 -- 40 cms. entre surcos Y 50 cms. entre posturas; 5 plants por 27 Mt@ posture.
C= 80 cms. entre surcos y 5 cms. entre plant, D-- Testigo (Agricultor)
DISETO EXPERIMENTAL BLOQUES AL AZAR
VARIEDAD: Guatecau




STUDIO Y ANALYSIS DE SUELOS
PARCELS DE FOSFORO
DISERO DE CAMPO
20 Mts.
15 Mts.
i= Surco Borde
CULTIVOS: Frijol
- Sorgo
A- NITROGENO 1- Sorgo: 60 Kg/Ha.= 30 Kg/Ha a la siembra;
30 Kg/Ha. 45 dlas despue's de la siembra. 2- Frijol: 30 Kg/Ha a la siembra B- NITROGEN + TFOSFORO 1- Nitr(Sgeno a- oorgo: 60 KKg/Ha= 30 Kg/Ha.a la siembra; 30 Kg/Ha
45 d'as despues de la siembra. b- Frijol: 30 Kg/Ha. a la s.iembra 2- Fo'sforo
a- Frijol: 60 Kg/Ha. a la siembra b- Sorgo : 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra.




STUDIO Y ANALYSIS DE SUELOS PARCELA3 Dt FOSFORO
VARIEDAD DE FRIJOL: La usada por el Agricultor VARIEDAD DE OSORGO: La usada por el Agricultor
TRATANIIENTOS: A y B A-4UITROGENO: Frijol- 30 Kg/Ha.a la siembra Sorgo 60 Kg/Ha: 30 Kg a la siembr-a; 30 Kg, 45 dfas despue's de la siembr.a.
B- NITROGENO+**FODFORO:
NITROGENO: Frijol- 30 Kg/Ha,-a la siembra
Sorgo 60 Kg/Ha: 30 Kg. a la siembra; 30 Kg. 45
d'as despue's de !a siembra
FO:7FO ZO: Frijol- 60 Kg/IIa.a la siembra
Sorgo 90 Kg/Ha.a la siembra.
- Las restuantes prakticas agrono'micas son bajo las conditions del
Agricultor (segiln su costumbre). PARCEL: 5 M. x 10 M. PARCEL NETA A COSECHAR: 5 M. x 10 M.
Si hay effect de borde, eliminarlo.
Puente de N; Urea al 46%
Fuente de P: Triple Superfosfato 46%




2- Proyectos de producci6a para el I.8te Comercial
Los proyectos de production incluyen el studio de factibilidad t4cnica y econ6mica de los cultivos seleccionados, asl como una representaci6n grafica de las different tapas del Proyecto y sus actividades
utilizando los m4todos PERT y CPM.
Los proyectos sera'n revisados y discutidos. Posteriormente se ejecutarAn
3- Planeaci'n de DIas de Campo para Agricultores
Se realizaran cinco D'as de Campo. Uno en cada sede de los Tecnicos
en Adiestramiento.
En esta3 reunions deberain participar, especialmente, los agricultores
de la localidad dado que las demostraciones, si hubiera, tienen validez (con aigunas reserves), solamente para esa localidad. Sin embargo podr3fan participar agricultores de otras localidades pero el t4cnico que
invite deberd' consider esta limitaci6n.
De cada Dfa de Campo so presentara' un informed donde so resume la organizacio'n y ejecucio'n del event.
4- Preparacio'n y presentation de informed
Una de las forms como se evaluara' el Curso internal y externamente sera por el nivel te'cnico alcanzado. La primer evidencia que se tendrA para hacer un juicio al respect son los informed que se presented.
Por tal raz6n se tiene el proposition de proporcionar en el curso otras herramientas que permitir&n hacer decisions objetivas y discurrir acerca de la validez relative do la informaci6n que se process y analiza,
asi como, de la aplicabilidad de resul-tados en la elaboraci6n de planes
futures de trabajo. So tiene confianza en poder satisfac6r este pro'p&sito. En una proporci6n alta lo implementarS el components de




Aprendizaje Te&rlco V la i ntcraccioln oon otroa prof-asionales. De tal.
mantra que al final se podrA tener la capacidad y la habilidad para
preparer y presenter informed
1.- Para Agricultores (Recomendaciones)
2.- Lote Comercial
3.- Experimentos
4.- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-Tdcnico
5.- Plan de Trabajo para 1,977
6.- Monograffa Agr"'cola
En su oportunidad, si fuere necesario, el curso proporclonar.4 orientaci6n esquematizada y/o detallada para estructurar en forma convenience
cada uno de los informed mencionados.
5- Otros planes
En asta parte se estaran considerando aquellas propuestas no previstas en el curso o en otro program interesado en adelantar trabajos cooperativos con Entrenamiento Te'cnico.
B- TRABAJO DE CANPO
1.- Siembra de Experimentos a- Frijol
b- Sorgo
c- F6sforo
2.- Siembra del Lote Comercial. La fecha para hacer las siembras dependera' de la presencia de lluvias en el area, sin embargo, tentativamente se ha seleccionado el perlodo
del.15 de Agosto al 4 de Septiembre,




-20
Previamente a la aieznbra h"-bra q'uu o,)n"guir lotes de Aappdoulto *- para las Siembras Experimnntalppt do Frijol, Sorgo y- las parcelas de F6sforo. Ademas habr& que tomar muestras de suelo para anglisis.de laboratorio. Por lo tanto el trabajo de campo se iniciarg en los primers dfas do Agosto. El Lote commercial del segundo semester serk el misma, ya que el contract de arrendamiento se hizo por un afto. Durante el crecimiento del cultivo hasta la cosecha serg necesario hacer las observations que requiera el Experiment6 y el Lote Comercial, para lo cual se proveeran los elements necesarios y especialmente una librota de Campo para hacer anotaciones. Las obs, ,rvaciones que normalmente hace un t4cnico en un cultivo son un process que implica varies tapas:
1.- Percepci6n de la situation
2.- Modici(Sn y/o descripci'n de la situaci6n en t4rminos numdricos y/o literales.
3.- Revision y seleccidn de alternatives pertinentes a la situation.
4.- Ejecuci6n de alternatives adoptadas
5.- Evaluaci&n de la accio'n ejecutada (la cual. en a1gunos casos tiene caracterlsticas de otra observaci6n). .Conviene anotar en la libreta de campo cuando menos las tapas 2,4 y 5, especificando fechas.
3.- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-T4cnico
En un sentido ampliotodo el trabajo de campo se estA llevando a cabo como cooperaci6n de los agricultores con los t4cnicos y viceversa, pero de mantra especial se, le llama Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-Weni co al ejercicio qua se iniciarg4ton la planeacio'n y ejecuci,6n de-sendos,




21
proyectos cooperatives con cada uno de cuatro agricultores interesados. El contenido de dichos proyectos serd el resultado de la interaccio'n de los interests del tecnico, las necesidades e interests del agriculture y las limitaciones de ambos. De tal mantra que los proyectos no tendr'n definido un marco que limited las decisiones adoptadas y en consecuencia se pueden realizer experiments, parcelas de prueba, asistencia tecnica, reunions, etc.
4. Cosecha
a Experimentos
- Frijol
- Ma 'Iz
- Arroz
- F'sforo
- Sorgo.
Durante la cosecha es necesario identificar cada experiment con un nu'mero clave que indicara' el CULTIVO, MUNICIPIO, TWO DE ENSAYO y TECNICO RESPONSABLE. En su oportunidad se entregara' la information detallada al respect. Por otra parte para las observations que se haran durante la cosecha, se distribuira un formulario especial para cada cultivo.
b Lote Comercial
En la cosecha del Lote Comercial se tomar6n los datos que ayuden a interpreter y analizar los resultados economics de la empress. Adem6s como este lote se ha




- 22
conducido bajo la responsabilidad e iniciativa de los Tecnicos en Adiestramiento'r habr6 libertad de tomar los datos que considered necesarios de acuerdo a sus intereses,
5. Sequimiento de Agricultores
Para hacer seguimiento a los Agricultores se distribuyeron cinco copies de un formulario para cada t6cnico. Estos formularies strain Ilenados de acuerdo a las instructions de 651 consignadas y devueltas a la oficina de Adiestramiento.




23
V- APRENDIZ.AJE TEORICO
CURSO CORTO SOME SUELOS PARA INGENiEROS AGRONOMOS
A- OBJETIVOS:
Al finalizar el curso los Adiestrandos sergn capaces de:
1.- Interpretar los anAlisis de suelos
2.- Hacer recommendations de fertilizantes en base al an4lisis
de suelo pero teniendo en cuanta los dema's factors asociados con la fertilizaci6ni
B- SUGERE14CIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACIONI
1.- Dictar el curso en cuatro d1as
2.- Dictar el curso en forma continua C- TEMAS:
1.- Factores Asociados a la eficiencia de los fertilizantes apli
cados al suelo
2.- Manejo y clasificaci&n de los suelos del Area Piloto de Orien
te.
3.- AnSlisis de Suelo y recommendations de fertilizantes
4.- Ana'lisis de tejido vegetal
5.- Conservacion de suelos y control de agua.




- 24
CURSO CORTO SOME AYUDAS AUDIOVISUALS PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS
A OBJETIVOS :
Al final del curso el educando podra':
a Enumerar las ventaias y limitaciones; de los medics audiovisuales
estudiados.
b Elaborar ayudas audiovisuals para exponer mensaies agr'Icolas
en el medio que sefiale el professor. B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION:
a Duracion de 3 dias
b Preferiblemente ocupar los dtas Lunes, b4ortes y Miercoles.
c En el horario se incluir'ian dos temas en la mamana y dos por la
tarde.
C TEMAS:
I La communication multitudinaria y las ayudas audiovisuals
2 Tecnica de diseho de letras Practica supervised
3 Caracteristicas de las grafficas estad'sticas
4- Tecnicas de diseho del cartel y practical supervised
5- Preparaci6n del portfolio graffico y pr6ctica supervised
6- Tecnica del franelografo y pr6ctica supervised
7- Te'cnica del pizarr6n y practical supervised
8- La radio como media de difusio'n
9- La prensa y su te'cnica
10- La television como medio education
11 Caracter'sticas de la c6mara fotografica
12- Tecnicas para la toma de fotografias
13- Uso del proyectos de transparencies, vistas opacas y retroproyector.




CURSO CORTO SOBRE DISENO Y ANALYSIS DE
EXPERIMENTS AGRONOMICOS
A- OBJETIVOS
Al final del Curso el adiestrando estar4 capacitado para:
I.- Sefialar las ventajas y desventajas de cada diseffo.
2.- Seleccionar el disefio apropiado a los objetivos y'condiciones experimentales.
3-- Procesar y analizar los resultados de un experiment.
B- SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION
1.- Dictar el curso enforma continua.
2.- Duracic5n del curso, una semana.
C- TEIAS:
1- Fuentes de variabilidad experimental
2- Distribucio'n normal y sus transformaciones
3- Tdcnicas de muestreo
4- Dise:fto
a- Completamente al azar
b- Bloques al azar
c- Parcels subdivididas
d- Duadrado Latino
5- Analysis de varianza
6- Comparacion de Promedios
a- Prueba de T
b- Diferencia nifnima significative
c- Prueba de Duncan
d- Prueba de Tukey
e- LImite de confiabilidad
7- Correlaci6n y regression para una variable
8- Funciones curvillneas
9- Mkodo corto para c&lculo de regresi6n
10- Correlaci6n y regresi6n para dos o mAs variables 11- Superficies de respuesta 1- Experiments factories completes y modificadoo
2- Disefto compue6to central rotation
3- Otros diseffos.
12- Mesa redonda La Validez y aplicabilidad relative de la experimentacida agnan6mica.




-26
CURSO CORTO 8OBRE DESARROLLO AGRICOLA
PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS
A- OBJETIVOS:
Al final del curso los adiestrandos podr4n:
1- Elaborar un proyecto para aumentar la producci6n en
una region dada.
B- SUGERENCIAS PARA LA FROGRAMACION:
1- Duraci6n del curso, cuatro d1as
2- Dictar el curso en forma continua C- TEMAS:
1- Process para identificar problems regionals
2- Supuestos y evidencias para definir causes de problems
3- Seleccio"n de objetivos para proyectos regionals
4- Implementation de Proyectos
5- Ta ller sobre Proyectos de Producci6n Agr1cola
6- Presentation de Proyectos regionales,




27
CURSO SOME MAQUINARIA AGRICOLA PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS
A OBJETIVOS
Al final del curso los participants:
1. Enumeraran el equipo b6sico utilizado en una explotacio'n agr"cola.
2. Podr6n semalar los factors que influyen en la calibration de los implementos y en la calidad del trabajo realizado con los mismos B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION
1. Realizar el curso en el Centro de Producci6n de Cuyuta
2. Duration del curso, una semanao C TEMAS
1. Introduccio'n. Information general sobre implements y maquinaria
existence en el Centro de Produccio'n.
2. Aspersoras Fundamentos y uso.
3o Principios y objetivos del arado, rastrilla, y sembradora.
4. Aspersion Pra'ctica y calibraci6n y aspersioneso
5. Arado Practica de arado y mantenimiento.
6. Rastrillo Prdctica de rastra y mantenimiento.
7o Espolvoreo y siembras a[ voleo Pr6ctica.
8. Calibraci6n.de Sembradora.
9.- Siembra Pr6ctica.
10. Taller sabre siembra.




28
CURSO CORTO DE HERBICIDES PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS
A OBJETIVOS :
Al terminal el curso los adiestrandos sera'n capaces de:
1. Identificar los herbicides, dosis y forms de aplicaci6n para los cultivos de
grants ba'sicos y asociaciones.
2. Identificar y/o describir los effects de los herbicides
3. Enumerar las limitaciones y ventaias de los herbicides usados en grants
basics y asociaciones.
B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION:
1. Revisar los OBJETIVOS y los TEMAS
2. Duration del Curso, tres d*as C:- TEMAS :
1. Malezas, definici6n, P6rdidas debidas a las malezas
2. Caracter'sticas de las malezas.
3. Factors de competencia
4. Fundamentos del control de malezas
5. Control integrado de malezas
6. Caracter'sticas de los herbicides
7. Factors asociados a los herbicides foliares y aplicados al suelo
8. Metodos Para evaluar herbicides
9. Selectividad de los herbicides
10. Herbicides recomendados en frijol, ma,1z, arroz, sorgo y asociaciones
11. An6lisis econ6mico de los herbicides
12. Uso y manejo de los herbicides
13. Formulaci6n de herbicides
14. Sintomatologia del effect y residualidad de los herbicides
15. Mesa redonda Control de malezas en el Oriente de Guatemala.




- 29
CURSO CORTO SOME COMMERCIALIZATION DE GRANTS
BASICS PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS
A OBJETIVOS:
Al final del curso el Adiestrando estar6 en capacidad de
1. Comprender la teoria relacionada con la determination de precious; de
los products agr'Icolas.
2. Enumerar los factors que influyen en la fijacion de los precious de
[as grants ba'sicos en Guatemala.
B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION:
1. Dictar el curso en forma continua
2. Duracio'n del curso, tres d"as
3. Ejemplificar cada tema con el caso de los grants bdsicos. C TEMAS:
I La Comercializacion como actividad general.
Su funci6n social y economic.
2 Oferta y Demanda.
3 Elasticidad Ingreso de la demand
4- El impact, de la nueva tecnolog'ia sabre los precious
5- Canales de comercializacio'n
6- M6rgenes de commercialization
7- Importaci6n y exportation de products agr'Icolas alimenticios.




-30
V1- EVALUAnIDN
Los trabajos se e t-araln cgi-jfjcAr4o de.acuorda con la siguiente
tabla:
TRABAJOS ITEM PARA CALIFICAR CALIFICACION MAXIMA
INFORMED E3CRITOS Justificacidn 2
Objetivos 6
Cita3 2
EXPOSICION Ajuste al tempo 2
Ayudas
Tranquilidad y Seguridad del expositor 5
CRITICS Y AUTOCRITICA Una participation, 6
Buena participation 4
APRENDIZAJE TL,0.,KCO Examen sensual escrito 10
EXPERIPTENTOS EN FINCAS Una observaci6n anotaDE AG1UCULTORES da en la libreta-de
campo por semana, por experiment. 6
Estado general del Lot 4
LOTES COMERCIALES Una observaci6n anotad
en la libreta de campo por semana, 6
Estado general del Lote 4
TRADAJOS COOPERATIVO*9 Programa para realitar AGRICULTOR-TECNICO actividades con los
agricultores 10
f
97ims. 9--r77




SERVIP.* MERICANA