• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Presentation
 Part I
 Part II
 Part III
 Annex: Workplan for the training...
 Anexo: Plan de trabajo del curso...
 Back Cover






Title: Training course in agricultural production.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054446/00001
 Material Information
Title: Training course in agricultural production.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Guatemala -- Caribbean
Caribbean
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Presentation
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
    Part I
        Page 1
        Indroduction
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Methodology
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Theoretical training
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Learning by doing
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Evaluation
            Page 17
    Part II
        Page 18
        Project area
            Page 18
            Map 1
            Map 2
            Page 18a
            Page 18b
            Page 18c
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Learning activities
            Page 22
            Page 22a
            Page 22b
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 26a
            Page 26b
            Page 26c
            Page 26d
            Page 26e
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 28a
            Page 28b
        Evaluation of the course to date
            Page 29
    Part III
        Page 30
        Considerations for the future
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
    Annex: Workplan for the training course in agronomic production second semester of 1976, Region VI
        Page Annex
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
    Anexo: Plan de trabajo del curso de adiestramiento en produccion agricola - Segundo semestre de 1976, Region VI
        Page Plan
        Contenido
            Page Plan A
            Page Plan B
        Personal tecnico
            Page Plan 1
        Introduccion
            Page Plan 2
        Antecedentes
            Page Plan 3
        Aprendizaje por ejecucion
            Page Plan 4
            Page Plan 5
            Page Plan 6
            Page Plan 7
            Page Plan 8
            Page Plan 9
            Page Plan 10
            Page Plan 11
            Page Plan 12
            Page Plan 13
            Page Plan 14
            Page Plan 15
            Page Plan 16
            Page Plan 17
            Page Plan 18
            Page Plan 19
            Page Plan 20
            Page Plan 21
            Page Plan 22
        Aprendizaje teorico
            Page Plan 23
            Page Plan 24
            Page Plan 25
            Page Plan 26
            Page Plan 27
            Page Plan 28
            Page Plan 29
        Evaluacion
            Page Plan 30
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


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INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS
Sector Publico Agricola, Ministerio de Agricultura del
Gobierno de Guatemala


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TRAINING


AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION










INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS


ICTA




















TRAINING COURSE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION


Guatemala, August 1976.










WORKING PAPER



TRAINING COURSE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION




PRESENTATION

This document consists of three Parts and an Annex.


Part I conceptualizes and describes the objectives and methodology of the first Training Course

in Agricultural Production ( I-CAPA, this being the acronym in Spanish) as well as the activities

to implement it.


Part II describes the place, the work frame and the Course's operation up to August 31, 1976.

This part, in itself, serves as an insight into the nature of the Course.


Part III is the search for alternative ways of adapting the Course to the future needs of ICTA.


The Annex is a plan of activities to be carried out during the second semester of 1976, that is,

after August 31.


If these four sections allow the reader to visualize what the 1-CAPA is and how it is conduc-

ted, the objectives of this document will have been accomplished.








PART I


INTRODUCTION



The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology ICTA (this being the Spanish acronym)

was established for the purpose of designing strategies and executing programs aimed at the dis-

S cover and use of new farming methods and technologies, that will contribute to an increase in

agricultural productivity, especially among the small farmers of Guatemala.


ICTA considers the farmer the main element in its programs, and recognizes the importance of

identifying and singling out the practices which result in low productivity, as well as those

factors which limit the access to a more efficient technology.


The production of basic food grains is the principal activity among small and medium sized far-

mers and within these social strata, the farming practices and the technology used do not have

the potential for production sufficient to fulfill the needs of the rural families. For these rea-

sons, the institute has given first priority, and oriented its initial efforts, toward the identifica-

tion and generation of practices to increase production and productivity of maize, beans, wheat,

rice, and sorghum for the small and medium sized farmer, and to make such practices and mate-

rials accessible to the agricultural strata mentioned above. In addition, the institute works in

horticulture, swine production, soybeans, and sesame with these programs receiving a lower

priority than the basic food grains mentioned previously.


The need for better alternatives to transfer the results to farmers is evident. The search has

been concentrated around those alternatives that would relate agricultural research to the far-

mers, which would result in technologies that would be acceptable, feasible, and economically








PART I


INTRODUCTION



The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology ICTA (this being the Spanish acronym)

was established for the purpose of designing strategies and executing programs aimed at the dis-

S cover and use of new farming methods and technologies, that will contribute to an increase in

agricultural productivity, especially among the small farmers of Guatemala.


ICTA considers the farmer the main element in its programs, and recognizes the importance of

identifying and singling out the practices which result in low productivity, as well as those

factors which limit the access to a more efficient technology.


The production of basic food grains is the principal activity among small and medium sized far-

mers and within these social strata, the farming practices and the technology used do not have

the potential for production sufficient to fulfill the needs of the rural families. For these rea-

sons, the institute has given first priority, and oriented its initial efforts, toward the identifica-

tion and generation of practices to increase production and productivity of maize, beans, wheat,

rice, and sorghum for the small and medium sized farmer, and to make such practices and mate-

rials accessible to the agricultural strata mentioned above. In addition, the institute works in

horticulture, swine production, soybeans, and sesame with these programs receiving a lower

priority than the basic food grains mentioned previously.


The need for better alternatives to transfer the results to farmers is evident. The search has

been concentrated around those alternatives that would relate agricultural research to the far-

mers, which would result in technologies that would be acceptable, feasible, and economically








-2-


productive and manageable, taking into consideration the resources of both, the farmers and the

institute.


On the other hand, there was doubt, based on the results of agricultural institutions in other

countries, that the technological innovations would express all of their potential, nor would

they reach the farmer with the fidelity and the rapidity needed, which would result, in some

cases, in complete rejection of the innovation and in others, of technology of little long-term

value.


With these facts in mind, it was deemed necessary, as well as opportune, to start a Training

Course in Agricultural Production to train the "ingenieros agr6nomos" in the use of the prac-

tices and materials generated by ICTA with the purpose of:

a Transferring them correctly and rapidly to the farmers;

b Validating and adapting them to local specific conditions; and to

evaluate the acceptability of the materials and practices by the

farmers themselves.


It was also believed that this process should be applied with scientific, technical, and social

criteria in order to prepare the trainees to be qualified in:

1. Applying existing technological knowhow under the conditions of the

farmer as a producer;

2. Identifying and analyzing agronomic problems and propose alternative

solutions;








-3-



3. Programming, recording, and analyzing the practices of the farmers as well

as the results from research, and

4. Evaluate the validity and applicability of the technical innovations, for

their application by small farmers.


Thus, it is intended to take solid steps to place at the disposal of farmers the technology generated

in the national crop programs.








-4-


METHODOLOGY



The Training Course at ICTA has the principal characteristic of providing a structure for oppor-

tunities for trainees to apply their theoretical background and make decisions in the field, with

the following basic objectives:


1) To reinforce and to complement theoretical knowledge of the trainee, with the

objective of homogenizing and increasing the knowledge of the training group

and to initiate an efficient process of Learning by Doing;


2) Promote the process of conceptualization and development of ideas and planning,

to complement theoretical knowledge, to mature ideas, and to initiate the deve-

lopment of criteria and a rational process in decision making; and,


3) Conduct the course in a manner so as to identify the elements and the parameters

favorable to the learning process, especially as related to the capabilities sought.


The implementation of the training process is through:


1 Theoretical Training, which covers 20% of the course time, and

2 Learning by Doing or through execution, which covers the remaining

80% of the course time.


The content of both aspects of the course is rigid in regard to meeting the objectives, but

it is also flexible enough to allow individual objectivity.








-5-


Theoretical Training refers to the process of evaluating information and knowledge after listening

and discussing different topics presented by capable lecturers. It also includes learning through

solving case study problems that are related to the theoretical information presented, going from

an easier situation to more difficult ones, until a topic has been covered.


The Learning by Doing is focused to improve the physical and intellectual capabilities of the

trainee and is divided into two phases:


1 "Laboratory" work

2 Field work


The work of the "laboratory" corresponds to a phase of conceptualization and development of

ideas, planning, and a review of the work plans; this process taking about 10% of the course

time.


The Field Work is the phase of execution of the work plans after they have been treated in

the "laboratory"; this has required about 80% of the course time.








- 6 -


THEORETICAL TRAINING



Experience, limited time available, and limited resources indicate the importance of using all

means possible in order to achieve successfully the training goals within a short period of time.


In order that the changes in the trainee (increased knowledge, increased skills and improvements

in decision making), be consistent with the objectives of the course, the theoretical training

includes:


1 Consultation and discussion with other professionals about their own experiences

and those of others,

2 Seeking information and ideas to carry out their projects, to write their reports,

etc., and

3 To allow for alternatives depending upon the individual trainees.


In agreement with these guidelines, four activities have been selected to further the theoretical

training:

1. Conferences

2. Lectures

3. Workshops

4. Consultations


These four have proven sufficient to develop common technological knowledge among the par-

ticipants in the course and to contribute information which will improve the conceptualization








- 7


tualization and development of ideas, and programming, as well as the execution of field

work and, thus, develop judgement capability and to rationalize decision making during

the Learning by Doing.


CONFERENCES

Conferences include basically the technology identified and generated by ICTA with respect

to the basic grains (beans, maize, sorghum and rice) but also includes edaphology, hydrolo-

gical information, and the human element, which affect production. This is complemented

by information from the disciplines of Weed Control, Statistics, Economics, Communications,

and Mechanization. These subjects must be time related with the activities which are carried

out in the field.


The conferences are given by permanent instructors of the course, specialists of ICTA or profes-

sionals with experience from other institutions.


READING ASSIGNMENTS

The reading assignments include materials recommended by the individuals presenting the

conferences, and other materials distributed during the course. These last include the sum-

maries of lectures and other information of interest which have direct relation with the ac-

tivity of Learning by Doing.


WORKSHOPS

The workshops of this course are a series of exercises with different levels of complexity.








-8-


In some instances, actual cases are used and presented in the form of problems which the trainee

solves, and in other instances when the subject matter allows, theoretical cases are handled in

the same manner. This scheme has the advantage that the trainee is participating continuously

and permanently during the learning session; unfortunately, however, not all of the instructors

and lecturers have the ability to carry this scheme out, not all subjects lend themselves to this

treatment and also, the trainee refers to information which he has previously obtained from

other sources, of which the instructor may not be aware. Also, the system requires time in

preparation, selection of supporting materials and furthermore, requires some experience with

this kind of exercise inasmuch as it must not be the objective to present the solution to the

trainees but to lead them toward the solution, so that they themselves find the answer, which

in itself is an award for their efforts.


ADVICE AND CONSULTING

Here the trainees seek the information about diverse subjects with the specialists and authori-

ties in the subject matter.


Normally, the necessity for this activity arises from the field work.








-9-


LEARNING BY DOING



A LABORATORY WORK

In the laboratory phase of the Learning by Doing, the trainee faces situations in which he must

come up with solutions to real problems.


In this process, the trainee must take into consideration his own experience, and understand his

limitations, which leads him to evaluate his capabilities and seek more and different kinds of

information.


To meet this objective, the course establishes the obligation to prepare:

1. Projects for commercial seedings;

2. Experimental plans;

3. Conferences;

4. Agricultural meetings or get-togethers and field days at some field site;

5. Cooperative projects with an agriculturist; and

6. Reports.


The finished reports and plans are presented by a trainee to the group of trainees who, to-

gether with the instructors, review the form and content. This group review is preceded by

an autoanalysis on the part of the trainee before he makes his presentation.


This kind of exercise, in addition to forming broader points of personal views, provides a

conceptual framework within which the role of the professional in the rural development process








- 10 -


can be visualized. Furthermore, it improves the ability of the trainee to participate in dialogue,

propose objectives, alternatives and activities within a global strategy consistent with the situation

in which he is involved.


B FIELD WORK

1 Production Projects of commercial seedings

Each Work Group* seeds and cultivates a small commercial planting in the region to which he is

assigned.


For this, a parcel of land is rented within the area where the group is assigned. The trainees must

seek information about the history of the land and its physical and chemical characteristics. With

these data, along with the prices of inputs, the group of trainees can proceed to prepare a produc-

tion project for their assigned parcel. These projects include technical and economical feasibility

studies of the crops which they select, as well as a graphic representation of the different steps in

the project and the activities, using the method of PERT and CPM. When the projects are ready,

they are presented formally to a group of technicians with the objective of discussing and revising

the project and developing the definite plan.


These commercial seedings are the responsibility of the group of trainees, where the group must

take the initiative, rely on their knowledge to execute and supervise the project in all its stages.


This situation offers a new framework for learning, and for understanding the kinds of information


* A work group has been 3 trainees with their instructor for 1976.








- 11 -


which the trainee needs. He learns to make decisions, to keep physically active, and to keep

records.


For these projects they select from the crops around which the course is designed: maize, beans,

sorghum and rice, and the technology to be applied is usually based on information available

within the institute, but applied under the real conditions of the small agriculturist.


The size of the lot varies from one to two hectares depending on what is common among small

farmers of the region.


2 Experimental plans

The principal objective of experimentation in the training course is to understand the technolo-

gy generated by the institute and to revalidate the technology on private lands.


The training course, then, works in close collaboration with the agriculturist and the research

workers of the institute and in this role conducts field testing as an integrated part of the on-

going institutional programs within the region to which he is assigned.


The local agriculturists cooperate allowing part of their private land to be seeded to an experi-

ment. The farmer collaborates in the field work, works with the trainees in the cultivation of

the crop as well as the harvest, and once experimental data is obtained, the production belongs

to the farmer.


The research workers of the institute collaborate with the training program in the identification

and the elaboration of the experimental plans oriented to revalidate technology already tested








- 12 -


to some degree at the farm level and considered of good merit, and low risk.


Also, the trainees have an assigned exercise of identifying and defining an existing field pro-

blem and planning a research strategy to determine the solution.


3 Conferences

The trainees present two conferences. In the first he makes a literature review and in the se-

cond he selects some theme related to some experience he has had during the course.


Both conferences are presented to instructors and students. These exercises are oriented to de-

velop ability in communication with demanding audiences, from the standpoint of content and

quality of the presentation.


4 Farm meetings and Field days

A Farm meetings

Both agriculturists and technicians are confronted with unexplained field situations.

When this happens, problems must be faced.


These new and unexpected problems of reality are used in the course so that the trainees and

farmers have the opportunity to observe them, evaluate them, and depending on their ex-

perience and knowledge, to seek reasonable explanations, and respond in a logical and fea-

sible manner.


When such a problem is found, a farm meeting is organized either with agricultural specialists,








- 13 -


or with farmers at the field site. These get-togethers have been called Farm Meetings (in

Spanish the terminology has been Encuentros Agricolas) and have as their objective the

identification of strategies for correcting or controlling problem situations, and furthermore,

to provide an opportunity for the trainees to practice communication with specific audiences

of different levels of technical training.


There is no particular methodology for the organization of the farm meetings. The form that

is given to the meeting, or the manner in which it is developed, depends much on the nature

of the problem to be discussed. However, the majority of these have been developed as fol-

lows:

a History of the problem, from the beginning of its observation,

b An audience is invited to observe and to study the characte-

ristics of the problem,

c An attempt is made to define the problem, and,

d Discuss the problem and draw conclusions.


Each trainee, individually plans and carries out one farm meeting for agricultural specialists

and each work group plans and conducts one meeting for farmers.



B Field Days for Farmers

The planning and the carrying out of Field Days for Farmers is the responsi-

bility of the work groups. In this manner, there will be one field day in each of the localities

where the five groups are assigned.








- 14 -


At these field days, the farmers see some of the results which are being obtained on the private

farms of other farmers. The intention is to explain in simple terminology the technical concepts

being applied in the work which they are observing. Special care is taken to point out the pos-

sibilities as well as the limitations of the work in process. Therefore, the invitation to partici-

pate in such farm meetings is for the farmers of the immediate area, taking into account that the

results may only have value for that locality.


The trainees present a report on each field day, relating how it was organized and carried out.



5 Cooperative projects with farmers

One is never certain that the professionals promoting the use of a new tech-

nology fully believe in it or can develop meaningful relationships with the farmers to whom the

technology should be transferred. It is important therefore to initiate a process of understanding

in which technicians and farmers participate, with the objective of understanding the relation-

ships of the technical innovations with the problems of the agriculturist, and in this manner,

step by step, advance their knowledge of the rural realities. One method of doing this is to

present or propose to the farmer the use of new techniques which can be of benefit to him. (But

such proposals to the farmers do not always result in a change either in the farmer or the techni-

cian, who is attempting to promote new technology.)


The training course attemptsto operate under representative rural conditions, which is a consi-

deration in locating the technician and selecting sites to carry out field work. Special atten-

tion is given to cooperative work with agriculturists. In each case, experience is gained by








- 15 -


planning and executing several cooperative projects, each trainee working with four interested

farmers. These projects are determined jointly, based on the interest of the trainee as well as

the interest and the needs of the farmer, and is subject to the limitations of both. These coope-

rative projects have no defined system for carrying them out and as a result, the work may be

experiments, very simple farm tests, technical assistance, or periodic meetings with the farmers.


6 Reports

One of the means of evaluating the course is by measuring technical level

reached by the trainees. One of the most important measures of the progress of the trainees and

their level of technical competence are through the reports presented at the end of the course.

If the students have been given the necessary tools and the capabilities have been developed,

they can make objective and logical decisions relative to the validity of the information that

they have collected and analyzed, as well as the applicability of the results for elaborating

future work plans.


One assignment is to review and correct the reports that they have written from the beginning

of the course. The professional interchange and contact along with the class lectures, contri-

bute to capabilities of carrying out this exercise. At the end of the course, they will have the

ability and technical competence to present reports :

1 For agriculturists (recommendations),

2 On the commercial seeding,

3 Of experimental plans,

4 On cooperative work with farmers, and,








16 -





5 To plan the work for another year.


In each case, if it is deemed important, the trainees are given a schematic orientation and

information on how to structure their reports.










- 17 -


EVALUATION



With the objective of evaluating the course, an exam is given to the trainees to evaluate their

general knowledge at the beginning and at the end. In this manner, it is possible to estimate

the knowledge gained during the course. At the same time, during the course each of the ac-

tivities are evaluated as shown in Table 1.


Also, the general level of satisfaction of the trainees (See Table 2) is evaluated. This evalu-

ation is conducted less frequently. The main value of this evaluation is that it identifies fac-

tors associated with their satisfaction. In other words, what are those characteristics that the

students deem good or unsatisfactory.


This kind of evaluation in combination with the evaluation of the students themselves helps

to:


1. Make objective decisions oriented to improve or to correct

deficiencies in the course during the course itself;

2. To put pressure on the trainees to bring about the changes in

habits and performance to increase their knowledge and the

capabilities during the training period;

3. To estimate the degree to which the objectives of the course are


being reached during its progress.










18 -

PART II

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE FROM MARCH 1, 1976 TO AUGUST
----------------------------------------- --------
31, 1976



PROJECT AREA

The course is carried out in the southeastern area of Guatemala. In selecting this area, the

physical facilities available, the kind of work in the area, the methods and objectives of the

institutional projects, the people involved in their ongoing projects assigned to the area, and

the diversity of the farming practices, have all been taken into consideration and the available

resources of the area.are channeled as much as possible to be helpful to the training process.


Jutiapa (See Map I), capital of the state wi th that name, is the center of operations for the

course. It is located 118 kms. from the capital of the country (the city of Guatemala) on the

Panamerican Highway. At Jutiapa, ICTA has established one of its Production Centers (expe-

riment stations) and has assigned to that center a group of professionals that work in production

programs on beans, maize, sorghum, etc., and a team to conduct experimental work at the

farm level as well as revalidate technology under farmers conditions.


The annual medium rainfall is 2,000 mm., which falls from May to October, with a dry period

of two weeks or more, usually in the month of August. Thus, the May to October rainy season

is represented by bimodal curves with a period of no rainfall. The remainder of the year, No-

vember to April, there is practically no rainfall.


The average temperature is 200 centigrades.










18 -

PART II

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE FROM MARCH 1, 1976 TO AUGUST
----------------------------------------- --------
31, 1976



PROJECT AREA

The course is carried out in the southeastern area of Guatemala. In selecting this area, the

physical facilities available, the kind of work in the area, the methods and objectives of the

institutional projects, the people involved in their ongoing projects assigned to the area, and

the diversity of the farming practices, have all been taken into consideration and the available

resources of the area.are channeled as much as possible to be helpful to the training process.


Jutiapa (See Map I), capital of the state wi th that name, is the center of operations for the

course. It is located 118 kms. from the capital of the country (the city of Guatemala) on the

Panamerican Highway. At Jutiapa, ICTA has established one of its Production Centers (expe-

riment stations) and has assigned to that center a group of professionals that work in production

programs on beans, maize, sorghum, etc., and a team to conduct experimental work at the

farm level as well as revalidate technology under farmers conditions.


The annual medium rainfall is 2,000 mm., which falls from May to October, with a dry period

of two weeks or more, usually in the month of August. Thus, the May to October rainy season

is represented by bimodal curves with a period of no rainfall. The remainder of the year, No-

vember to April, there is practically no rainfall.


The average temperature is 200 centigrades.









-Z4


MAF 1 REGIONS OF GUATEMALA


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l*.


0**









TABLE I


TABLE FOR GRADING THE TRAINING EXERCISES




Exercises Item Graded Highest Grade

Written Reports Justification 2
Objectives 6
Appointments 2

Presentation Time adjustment 2
Aids 3
Lecturer's relations and
confidence 5

Discussion One participation 6
Participation A good participation 4

Theoretical
Learning Monthly written test 10

Experiments at the farmers' A weekly note is written on the
properties trainee's report book 6
The general condition 4

Commercial lots A weekly note is written on the
field's report book 6
The general condition 4

Farmer-technician Program for carrying out activities
cooperating projects with the farmers 10









TABLE 2



GENERAL SATISFACTION LEVEL CHART


2 3
MONTHS

ASSOCIATED FACTORS


GREATER SATISFACTIONS LESSER SATISFACTIONS


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0


...N









TABLE 3



WORK GROUPS ASSIGNMENT AREA


Work Group

Group I

Group II


Group III


Municipal area (county)

Quezada (A) *

Jutiapa (B), and
El Progreso (C)

Santa Catarina Mita (D),
and Agua Blanca (E)

Asunci6n Mita (F)

Atescatempa (G),
Yupiltepeque (H), and
Jerez (I).


Group

Group


* The letter within the parenthesis corresponds to Map 2.









- 19 -


In general, the area is formed of interconnected valleys surrounded by mountains. (Map I)


The operation of the Course

The course operates, in part, as a linkage between the production programs for specific commo-

dities, research programs, and the agriculturists. In this sense, it has characteristics similar to

and functions like the institution's ongoing technological testing teams. Hence, it conducts ex-

periments on farmers' properties and encourages farmers to run farmers' trials with the aim of

validating the technology, adapting technology to the local conditions, promoting the use of

technology with the local farmers, and evaluating the acceptance of the introduced technology

by the farmers themselves.


The trainees do play the role of farmers, and for this they lease a small farm or parcel and

seed it commercially which should allow, with the use of good technology, a profitable agri-

cultural enterprise under the farmers' own conditions.


Thus, carrying out experiments, farmers' trials and commercial seedings, is what is designed

as field work. This field work, together with the laboratory work, represents the Learning-

by-Doing part of the Training Course.


To conduct the field work, the trainees are divided into work groups.


Each work group consists of three technicians to which is assigned one vehicle, which, in

turn, are assigned to a specific geographical area, and work under the orientation of and

with the backstopping of an instructor. (Map 2) (Table 3)









- 20 -


The present course has five work groups located in five areas. (See Map 2 and Table 3)


The work groups, together with the instructor, assume the role responsibilities and functions

of the ongoing Field Testing Programs of the institute which otherwise would have been

conducted by personnel dedicated exclusively to this work. Therefore, the students do spend

a good part of their time on serious experimental field work to obtain useful data, this acti-

vity being incorporated into the teaching-learning process.


Administration and Management

In order to have an operational base, a rather large house was rented in the town of Jutiapa.

At this location space has been allocated to offices, a conference and classroom, space for

preparation of teaching materials, and a small stockroom for the storage of material and

equipment needed in the work.


The programming, supervision and execution of the course is under the responsibility of a

coordinator, with three instructors. Other personnel include a secretary and five technical

aids. During periods of heavy workloads, additional help is hired.


The Production Center for the Southeast (experiment station) is located about 1 km. from

the town of Jutiapa and gives administrative support to the course paying salaries, per

diem and purchasing of some material in the local market. It also is used as part of the

administrative mechanism for furnishing gasoline and lubricants and controls the inventory of

materials and equipment used in the field work.









- 21 -


Transportation

The distances between one point and another within the assigned area for a group of trainees

is as much as 60 kms. Also the distances from the field location assignment to the headquar-

ters for the course is up to a 100 kms. It is necessary to transport materials and equipment,

inputs, and workers these distances. Some of the activities such as seeding must be comple-

mented within a short period around a week to 10 days. This situation must be met with an ef-

ficient system of transportation. The course is assigned 9 vehicles which are distributed bet-

ween the five work groups, the three instructors and the coordinator. The next several titles

have already been discussed from a conceptual viewpoint and now will be discussed in direct

relation to the operation of the course between March 1, 1976 and August 31.









- 22 -


LEARNING ACTIVITIES




As mentioned previously, 80% of the course's time approximately, is devoted to the process

of Learning by Doing, and the remaining 20% of the time is devoted to theory.


During the period of the course, there may be an unbalance in this relationship. On June

12, for example, three months after the course had been started, 26% of the time had been

used for theoretical training and 74% in Learning by Doing. Such unbalances might occur

because of such factors as weather, etc. However, the course has kept as close to the 80-20

ration as possible. On August 31 (See Table 4) 81% of the time had been used for Learning

by Doing and 19% to Theoretical Training.


THEORETICAL TRAINING

The Theoretical phase, as mentioned previously, consists of:

1 Conferences

2 Workshops

3 Assigned readings, and

4 Consultation.


The course itself controls the amount of time allocated to the conferences and workshops but

it does not control the time dedicated by the trainees themselves to reading and consultation

or seeking help. Because of this, the real amount of time employed by the trainees for the

Theoretical Learning is an excess of 19%.









TABLE 4



TIME DISTRIBUTION THROUGHOUT THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

(From March 1 to August 31)



LEARNING ACTIVITY TIME

Theoretical Training: Hours: %

Conferences and Workshops 247 18.8


Learning by Doing:

Field practices 939 71.5

Lab practices 127 9.7

TOTAL: 1313 100.0









TABLE 5


CONFERENCE


COVERAGE AND WORKSHOPS

CONFERENCES

Corn

Beans

Rice

Soybeans

Sorghum

Soils

Economics

Programming

Communication

English


WORKSHOPS

Project Outline

Agricultural Production

Group Dynamics








- 23 -


The subjects selected for conferences and workshops have been interrelated, as much as possible

to the field work and laboratory exercises. (See Table 5)


A program or schedule of activities is prepared on a weekly basis. (See Table 6 ) This hourly

program for a week's activities is not made up much in advance, and it is through this system

that the course is adjusted to situations which cannot be determined in advance. It does give

both instructors and trainees a definite hourly program before the week's activities are initiated.


The trainees move from their assigned locality to the center for the course at Jutiapa, in agree-

ment with the weekly program, to bring materials, to attend classes, conduct laboratory exer-

cises, etc. Once the activity programmed for the classroom or the center is realized, the

trainees return to their area of assignment.


The lecturers are selected according to their experience and capability. The majority are from

ICTA itself but also other personnel have collaborated without cost to the institution.


Those from outside the institute have come from the following institutions:

The Governmental Agricultural Sector,

The Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Science,

INTECAP, a Guatemalan training organization,

The University of San Carlos,

The University Rafael Landivar,

The International Corn and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), &

The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT).









- 24 -


Forty-two percent of the lecturers have been college graduates and 58% have had graduate

training.


As the course advances, it is important to take additional care to be certain as to the quality

of the lecturers and their capabilities so that the course progresses academically and techni-

cally.


For example, in June when the first review of the course was made in relation to the prof-

essional level of the lecturers, the relationship of college graduates to postgraduates was

1 to 1. Now this has changed with greater participation of lecturers having postgraduate

study, and hopefully in agreement with the plan elaborated for the second semester (See

Annex). Lecturer participation will include a greater number with postgraduate training.

Also, for the second semester, the Theoretical Training has been structuredby modules.

Therefore, subject matter has been selected with specific content and objectives. Thus, one

area or subject will be presented together, in such manner that lectures can also be attended

by professionals other than the regular course trainees.


LEARNING BY DOING

As mentioned previously, the Learning by Doing consists of two phases:

A Laboratory exercises, and

B Field work


A Laboratory exercises

This phase of the work is conducted according to the plan in which instructors and other

professionals of ICTA participate. Through the laboratory, plans are made which are later








- 25 -


carried out in the field work phase. These laboratory exercises, largely planning exercises,

include:


1 Experimental plans

2 Farmers' trials

3 Commercial seedings

4 Agricultural meetings and Field days

5 Cooperation with agriculturists, and

6 Conferences.


The plans elaborated according to these subjects are presented by the trainees to the instruc-

tors and to the other members of the course with the objective of discussion and revision be-

fore the plan takes definite form.


B Field work

The major part of the field work which is carried out by the course trainees is a planned

part of the institution's farm experimental work. In this manner, the students become ac-

quainted with serious field experimentation, its methodology, and objectives. These activi-

ties as well as the Farmers' Trials and Field Days thus, are both an official ICTA institution

activity as well as a training component. The remaining activities of the course are selected

and conducted by those responsible for it.


Experiments and Test Plots

The growing season in the Eastern area of Guatemala is divided into 2 periods referred to as








- 26 -


semesters. The first seeding is in May and the second seeding is in August or September.


During the first semester of 1976, 75 field experiments and 173 phosphorus trials were seeded

in the five localities where the different groups of the course were assigned. (See Table 8).


The kinds of experiments as well as the number of experiments to be carried out are based

upon the results from the previous year and planned according to the needs and objectives

of ICTA's production programs, taking into account the course's capacity for this kind of

work (See Table 9).


In the second semester, the course will carry out 24 experiments related to beans, 18 on

sorghum and 70 phosphorus trials.


As in the first semester, these experiments will take place on the private farms within the

five areas where the work groups are assigned (See Pages 6 and 7 of the Annex).


In addition to the seeding, the field work of the second semester includes harvesting and

taking of data of the first seeding. For this reason, it is not possible to manage as many

experiments in the second semester as in the first.


Commercial seedings

Each work group has seeded within his assigned area a small commercial seeding (See

Table 10).


The crops selected for this work are maize, beans, sorghum, and rice.









TABLE 6


ICTA TRAINING


SCHEDULE


Week from July 26 to 31


DATE TIME ACTIVITY COORDINATOR


8:00 -

8:00 -

8:00 -

9:00 -


8:00

9:00

8:00

9:00


17:00

17:00

9:00

17:00


9:00

17:00

9:00

17:00


8:00 12:00


Field Practice

Field Practice

English

Soil analysis and fertilizer
recommendations

English

Vegetable tissue analysis

English

Fertilizer efficiency
associated factors

Field practice


Instructors

Instructors

B.A. Alan Reece


Ing. Julio Brolo

B.A. Alan Reece

Dr. Victor Urrutia

B.A. Alan Reece


Dr. Victor Urrutia

Instructors


July 26

July 27

July 28


July 29



July 30




July 31









TABLE 7



TIME ALLOTTED TO LECTURES BY DIFFERENT

ACADEMIC LEVEL PROFESSIONALS

(From March 1 to August 31)




ACADEMIC LEVEL TIME

Hours: %

Engineers and BA's 104 42.1

Masters of Science 84 34.0

PhD's 59 23.9

TOTAL: 247 100.0









TABLE 8




EXPERIMENTS' DISTRIBUTION AND PHOSPHORUS LOTS

BY LOCALITY


Locality (Municipal)

Quezada

Jutiapa and El Progreso

Santa Catarina Mita and
Agua Blanca

Asunci6n Mita

Atescatempa, Yupiltepeque
and Jerez


Corn

8

6


Beans

5

3


8


TOTAL: 35


Rice

3

7


2

2


1
15


Phosphorus

43

54


27

24


25
173








TABLE 9


VARIABLES UNDER STUDY AND AMOUNT OF PLANTED EXPERIMENTS


Experimental Variables

Corn

Varieties

Plant population

Water conservation

Planting density

Nitrogen levels

Levels of lime

Dates for nitrogen application

Beans

Varieties

Granulated insecticides

Water control

Levels of phosphorus and potassium

Foliar fertilization

Rice

Varieties

Nitrogen levels

Plant population

Borders

Phosphorus trials


TOTAL:


Number of Experiments


14

6

5

3

5

1

1



14

4

5

1

1



5

4

4

2

173

248








TABLE 10


COMMERCIAL SEEDINGS. CROPS AND EACH

GROUP'S PLANTED AREA


CROPS AREA (m2)

Group I (Quezada)

Corn 5,292

Beans 4,410

Sorghum 882

Group II (Jutiapa and El Progreso)

Corn 7,000

Rice 10,000

Group III (Santa Catarina Mita and Agua Blanca)

Corn 14,000

Beans 3,500

Group IV (Asunci6n Mita)

Corn 10,500

Beans 3,500

Group V (Atescatempa, Yupiltepeque and Jerez)

Corn 10,850

Beans 4,900

TOTAL: 74,834







- 27 -


The seedings vary in size from 1 to 1.7 hectares with the total seeded by the five groups being

7.5 hectares.


Agricultural meetings and Field days

The students have conducted 14 agricultural meetings at the field plot sites for technicians

and 5 for agriculturists.


In the first case, an individual trainee is responsible for carrying out the agricultural meet-

ings and in the second, the field days are the responsible of the work group consisting of three

students and their instructor.


During the remainder of the course, 5 field days will be held for agriculturists, one for each

work group.


Cooperation with farmers

Each trainee identifies, within his region, four agriculturists and makes a cooperative plan

of work with each. For this, it is important that the trainee and the farmer be equally inte-

rested in solving a problem, agree to share experiences and define responsibilities of each in

the execution of the cooperative work.


Under this plan, work has been carried out on:

1 Pest control

2 Varietal trials of maize, beans, and sorghum

3 Defoliation of maize to determine the effect on an associated

crop,








- 28 -


4 Counseling on the selection of seed

5 Amounts and application of nitrogenous fertilizers on maize

6 Planning density in corn

7 etc.


During the first semester, 56 of these collaborative works with farmers were carried out, and

an equal number will be done during the second semester.


Conferences

Each trainee must prepare two conferences.

In the first, he is allowed to select a subject of his choice and he makes a literature review.

For the second, the trainee selects a theme related to his experience sometime during the

course.


He must present a written copy to the instructor as well as an oral presentation to the training

group.







TABLE 11



AVERAGE MONTHLY GRADES


Average Grade

4.89


Month

General knowledge


March


April


May


June


6.64


6.39


9.10


7.31








TABLE 12


GENERAL


SATISFACTION LEVEL CHART


April


May


ASSOCIATED FACTORS


GREATER SATISFACTIONS LESSER SATISFACTIONS
New theoretical and practical Distributing poor quality
knowledge (11) seed (10)
Lack of economic support
Field practice (10) at the beginning of the course (7)
Workshops of agricultural Work overload and little
production (5) traveling (5)
Disagreement among
The course's programming (2) instructors (5)
Not enough resources for
Lab practices (2) practices (4)

Not adequate practices (3)


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0


___________ ________ __________ p_
00____




0 0


March


June







- 29 -


EVALUATION OF THE COURSE TO DATE



In Table 11, the average of the monthly grades of the trainees are shown, when examined on

the Theoretical Knowledge in relation to the classroom presentation through lectures. This

classification or grading does not include work other than the theoretical phase.


The trainees were evaluated for their technical knowledge before beginning the course,

which gave a measure of their knowledge at the start. Other tests were given throughout

the course. It will be noted (Table 11) that the average has increased.


Table 12 shows the general level of satisfaction on the part of the trainees. During the first

two months, only 50% of the students were satisfied, which had risen to 80% on the date

of the last test on June 19. Below the table are the factors most commonly mentioned by

the students as being associated with their degree of satisfaction or their feeling to the con-

trary. In other words, these were the most frequent comments on the part of the trainees

during four months of the course.







- 30 -


PART IlI


CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE



In Part I, a conceptual description of the course was presented, and in Part II the operation

of the course from March to August 31, 1976 was described. Being the first course, it has

been modified while in progress to adjust it to the conditions of the institute and to the con-

ditions of southeastern Guatemala where the course is conducted. Nevertheless, the metho-

dology and the principles presented in Part 1, have been adhered to. It must be kep in mind

that since ICTA is a dynamic institution by nature, all of its activities, including training,

will be subject to change and adaptation to meet the needs and the conditions. It is important

to remember that someone within the institute must take the leadership and 'direct it through a

progressive evolution.


It has been said that in order that favorable changes take place within the institution, it is

necessary that the institutional personnel must change. The changes within ICTA will be

made in order to more efficiently play the role for which it was organized.


In general terms, the training course is one of the activities where the principal function is

to elaborate strategies that will induce changes in behavior and increase technical know-

how. Therefore, ICTA is asking itself about the future and what it might do to better meet

its responsibilities. Herein are presented some ideas related to the future of the training

program.







- 30 -


PART IlI


CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE



In Part I, a conceptual description of the course was presented, and in Part II the operation

of the course from March to August 31, 1976 was described. Being the first course, it has

been modified while in progress to adjust it to the conditions of the institute and to the con-

ditions of southeastern Guatemala where the course is conducted. Nevertheless, the metho-

dology and the principles presented in Part 1, have been adhered to. It must be kep in mind

that since ICTA is a dynamic institution by nature, all of its activities, including training,

will be subject to change and adaptation to meet the needs and the conditions. It is important

to remember that someone within the institute must take the leadership and 'direct it through a

progressive evolution.


It has been said that in order that favorable changes take place within the institution, it is

necessary that the institutional personnel must change. The changes within ICTA will be

made in order to more efficiently play the role for which it was organized.


In general terms, the training course is one of the activities where the principal function is

to elaborate strategies that will induce changes in behavior and increase technical know-

how. Therefore, ICTA is asking itself about the future and what it might do to better meet

its responsibilities. Herein are presented some ideas related to the future of the training

program.







- 31 -


Five-Year Plan

ICTA is a relatively new institution (it was created in 1972 and began operating in 1973).

It has made a tentative Five-Year Plan which contemplates the expansion of the institute

until 1980. During this period, ICTA will need at least 75 new production agronomists

(ingenieros agr6nomos) to form additional Teams for Testing and Adaptation of Technology

at the field level (Equipos de Prueba de Tecnologra).


ICTA feels that it is desirable that these new agronomists receive a training which will in-

crease their capability to conduct the assigned field work. Therefore, it will be necessary

to train 15 new agronomists yearly during a five-year period. This number is the present ca-

pacity of the training course. If the number of personnel to be trained by ICTA were to in-

crease, a means of meeting this increased responsibility should be found without sacrificing

quality of the training.


Training for other areas

The Republic of Guatemala has two well defined climatic areas where the agricultural prac-

tices are quite different, the Coast and the Highlands. Therefore, it is contemplated that it

would be desirable to move the center of the course between these two zones. There would

be some difficulties and inconveniences that would need be resolved but the advantages could

be large since the personnel could be trained for specific areas.


Also, it is contemplated that the course may receive additional professionals from other areas,

particularly Central America and the Caribbean.







- 32 -


In order to receive foreign students, it would be important to increase personnel and the physi-

cal resources, which may be difficult under a limited budget.


Additional Guatemalans might participate in the course in two manners: a) as regular trainees

of the course, or b) as shorter-term trainees. Starting with the second semester of this year,

on a trial basis, provision is being made so that professionals outside the course might participate

in the course for short periods. For this reason, the theoretical lectures have been structured as

modules. Some general themes have been selected with specific contents and objectives (See

Annex). In doing this, the theoretical training is planned to be continuous within one subject

area to allow professionals from other institutions or from ICTA to attend. At thi s time there is

no similar plan to modulate the field work.


Intra- and Inter-institutional communication

As it was mentioned previously, ICTA is a relatively new institution, and it is important to

know itself better internally, and at the same time make itself known to others, especially to

the Public Agricultural Sector and to other Guatemalan institutions. It is important to make

known what ICTA can contribute, as well as what other institutions and people can do, that

would be of mutual benefit in meeting the countries' goals.


ICTA should take the initiative, and conduct training for this purpose. Therefore, it is pro-

posed to elaborate a plan for:

A ICTA's own personnel, and

B For personnel of other institutions.







- 33 -


For its own personnel, the plan would be modules whose content would be related to the

organization, objectives, plans, policies, etc., of ICTA, with the institutional leaders par-

ticipating as instructors.


To train personnel from other institutions, a defined national policy would be important. Some

successes have been reached internally and externally but it is important to review the past

experience and to elaborate strategies seeking greater effectiveness.


Courses could be developed for training personnel from other institutions at both the local and

national level. ICTAwould have to face the problem with their own available resources or

seek additional ones. If such a plan were to be put into effect, it would be important to study

the results jointly with the institutions involved, for the purpose of continuously re-shaping the

course to meet the needs of the Sector as efficiently as possible.


The present training course might be considered as an introductory phase to postgraduate

studies.


Its requirement would be that the candidates for training would have had demonstrated special

capacities within the university and within their professional labors. The trainees should be

university graduates in agronomy or related fields.


The efforts should be directed toward the formation and orientation of leaders, which in turn,

are capable of training people under their supervision.


Taking into consideration the limited resources for training at all levels, it is believed that

the can didates for training should be those in position of leadership or those that are expected







- 34 -


to arrive rapidly to such positions within their professional careers. In this manner, training

would have a multiplying effect.


Also it is believed that cooperation with technological institutes and universities should be

sought. This cooperation could be through professors and visiting scientists who would share

their experiences and contribute to the course. Such an interchange could result in allowing

credit to the participants of the course for work at the Master's level when one or more parti-

cipants demonstrate capabilities, and meet other requirements for postgraduate study.








ANNEX






















WORKPLAN FOR THE TRAINING COURSE IN AGRONOMIC PRODUCTION

SECOND SEMESTER OF 1976

REGION VI








Annex-1


Dear Reader:

This Annex is included here in its original form in Spanish. For those who cannot

easily read Spanish, the following is an English summary.


COURSE OUTLINE


I. TECHNICAL PERSONNEL

II. INTRODUCTION

Ill. ANTECEDENTS

IV. LEARNING BY DOING

A LABORATORY WORK

1 Experimental plans

a. Beans
b. Sorghum
c. Phosphorus

2 Projects for commercial plantings

3 Planning Field Days for Agriculturists

4 Preparation and presentation of reports

a. For agriculturists (recommendations)
b. For the Course

Commercial seedings
Experimental work
Cooperative work between technicians and agriculturists
Work Plan for 1977
Agricultural Monograph







Annex-2


5 Other plans


B FIELD WORK

1 Experimental Seedings

a Beans
b Sorghum
c Phosphorus

2 Seeding the commercial lot

3 Cooperative work with farmers

4 Seeding

a Experiments

Beans
Maize
Rice
Phosphorus
Sorghum

b Commercial lot

5 Follow-up with farmers


V. THEORETICAL TRAINING

A On Soils

B Audio-Visual Aids

C Analysis and design of agronomic experiments

D Agricultural development








Annex-3


E Agricultural machinery

F Economic analysis of the experimental results

G Herbicides

H Commercialization of basic grains

I Determination of objectives


VI. EVALUATION





The theoretical part of the course is very similar to that already described.


The experimental work for the second semester is summarized on pages 6 and 7 of the

Spanish version. The following is a translation of these two pages.
















:pmi
November, 1976







Annex-4


DISTRIBUTION OF EXPERIMENTS SECOND SEMESTER 1976


LOCALITY Atescatempa Asunci6n Agua Blanca El
(Community) Yupiltepeque Mita Santa Cata- Progreso Quezada
Jerez rina Mita


TECHNICIAN 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2


Bean varieties 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


Granulated
Insecticide 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
in Beans


Nitrogen
levels in 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sorghum


Planting distances 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
in Sorghum

Phosphorus
studies 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5













SUMMARY OF


THE EXPERIMENTS SECOND SEMESTER 1976


Size of experiment
Width Length
(Meters) (Meters)


Granulated
Insecticide in
Beans


Nitrogen
levels in
Sorghum


Planting
distances
in Sorghum


Phosphorus
studies


10 7




10 4


8 4


70 2


Annex-5


Name


No.
trials


No.
treatm.


Bean


No.
rows


Length
rows
(Meters)


Bean
varieties


No.
repli-
cations


14 5


8 6


25.2




14,4


6 6


15.6


5 20






ANEXO


INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICO.AS

ENTRENAIIENTO TECNICO


















PLAN DE TRABAJO DEL CURSO DE ADIESTRAMENTO EN

PRODUCTION AGRICOLA SEGUNDO SEMESTRE DE 1976

Region VI



















SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA

Agosto 1976











CONTENIDO


I- PERSONAL TECNICO

II- INTRODUCTION

III- ANTECEDENTES

IV- APRENDIZAJE POR EJECUCION


A- TRABAJO DE LABORATORIO

1- Planes experimentales

a- Frijol
b- Sorgo
c- Fosforo

2- Proyectos de produccidn para el Lote Comercial

3- Planeaci6n de DIas de Campo para Agricultores
4- Preparacidn y presentaci6n de informes

a- Para Agricultores (Recomendaciones)
b- Para el CAPA

Lote Comercial
Experimentos
Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-T4cnico
Plan de Trabajo para 1977
Monograffa AgrIcola

5- Otros planes

B- TRABAJO DE CAMPO

1- Siembra de Experimentos

a- Frijol
b- Sorgo
c- Fdsforo
2- Siembra del Lote Comercial

3- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-T4cnico











4- Cosecha

a- Experimentos

Frijol
Malz
Arroz
Fosforo
Sorgo

b- Lote Comercial

5- Seguimiento de Agricultores


V- APRENDIZAJE TEORICO

A- Curso de Suelos

B- Curso de ayudas audiovisuales

C- Curso sobre analisis y diselos experimentales agron6micos

D- Curso sobre Desarrollo Agrfcola

E- Curso sobre Maquinaria Agricola

F- Curso sobre Analisis Economico de los resultados expe-
rimentales,

G- Curso sobre herbicidas

H- Comercializacidn de granos basicos

I- Formulaci6n de objetivos


VI- EVALUACION









-1-


I- PERSONAL TECNICO


A- INSTRUCTORS PERMANENTES


Albert Plant
Oscar Martfnez
Marceliano Lopez
Leonel Pineda
Helmuth Cardona
Alan Reece


Coordinador Regi6n VI
Coordinador Entrenamiento T4cnico
Instructor y Asesor de Entrenamiento
Instructor
Instructor
Instructor de Ingles


B- TECNICOS EN ENTRENAMIENTO

Otto Dardon
Guillermo M4ndez
LeeRoy Gillespie
Mario Ozaeta
Marco A. Martinez
Edgar Oliva
Roberto Ralda
Roberto Leiva
Victor Salguero
Fredy Hernandez
Jos4 A. Davila
Jose M. Diaz
Francisco Turcios
Adolfo Torres

C- AUXILIARES DE TECNICOS

Juan Dard6n
Felix Ochoa
Carlos Bonilla
Ramiro Mazariegos
Adelso Aguilar LAzaro
Andres Ruiz

D- SECRETARIES

Matilde Ranero Batres
Luz Marfa Silva









-2-


II- INTRODUCTION'


El process de Adiestramiento se conducira bajo la misma or-

ganizacidn y metodologla que en el primer semestre. Los a-

diestrandos continuaran en la sede que se les asign6 y cada

instructor orientara y apoyarA a grupos especificos. Pero

dado el advance del curso se estarA promoviendo e incremen--

tando la participaci6n del adiestrando. La cual se incre--

mentara en la media en que el Curso proporcione herramien-

tas conceptuales y pragmaticas y los t4cnicos las aprehendan,

hasta desarrollar en ellos una actitud critica y analftica,

agrosiva y beligerante pero constructive.

Es por eso que se han seleccionado actividades que contribu

yan a dar una mayor solidez a la experiencia adquirida a la

vez que se promueve una actitud mas comprometica a travel -

de los process de participaci6n en el disefo de la calidad

y el contenido de tareas que a juicio de los instructors

tienen una finalidad y un significado claro para todos e im

portante dentro del curso.

Finalmente no se encontraran cambios importantes en el con-

tenido del plan sino evoluci6n y continuidad, actividades a

vanzadas, lo cual es concomitante a etapas superiores del -

proceso de aprendizaje.







-3-


IV- ANTECEDENTES


Todavfa no se tiene un analisis complete, ni esta estructura

da la poca experiencia del actual curso de Adiestramiento.

Sin embargo de acuerdo con el informed que se elabord en junior

pasado se podrfa adelantar que se prevee un balance favorable.

Por otra parte se observe en el mismo la introduccidn de los

primeros cambios al Proyecto de Adiestramiento original. Ta-

les cambios obedecen al piopsito de adaptar aquella experien

cia a las condiciones reales de operacidn en la Regi6n VI, -

sin que por ello haya sido necesario revisar los principios

y la metodologla propuesta inicialmente.

No obstante, la forma de operacidn continue ajustAndose en -

el sentido de establecer una mayor interaccidn entire los tec

nicos de los Programas de Producci6n y los Tecnicos en Adies

tramiento. Asf, se ha logrado elaborar conjuntamente los -

Planes Experimentales de Frijol, Sorgo, y de F6sforo con la

Discipline de Suelos. Este esfuerzo cooperative se espera -

continuar en la media en que la estructura institutional y

Entrenamiento T6cnico lo permitan, porque no se ocultan las

ventajas que ofrece desde el punto de vista econdmico y del

logro de los objetivos del Curso de Adiestramiento.

De esta manera se espera estar contribuyendo a "Desarrollar

programs de Ensenanza y Promocidn que tiendan a la aplica-

ci6n de los resultados obtenidos en la investigaci6n".







-4-


IV- APRENDIZAJE POR EJECUCION

El contenido del Aprendizaje por Ejecucion so ha divi dido en

dos parties:
A- Trabajo de Laboratorio

B- Trabajo de Campo

El Trabajo de Laboratorio se refiere a la conceptualizaci6n

y planeaci6n de las actividades, mientras que el Trabajo de

Campo corresponde a la ejecuci6n de las mismas.

Ambos, Trabajo de Laboratorio y de Campo se desarrollaran ba

jo la responsabilidad y con la participaci6n de los Adiestran

dos. Los instructors darn orientacidn y apoyo en todo el

process.

A- TRABAJO DE LABORATORIO

1.- Planes Experimentales

Durante el segundo semestre los Planes Experimentales tendran

como objetivo principal los cultivos de Frijol y Sorgo, y los

Studios de F6sforo.

La concepci6n de los mismos sera el resultado de confrontar

las experiencias y propdsitos de Entrenamiento T4cnico con los

objetivos y experiencias de los programs de Frijol, Sorgo y

Suelos.

Por parte del curso se dedicara el tiempo que sea necesario -

para discutir los diferentes puntos de vista que conduzcan a

conclusions que satisfagan a las parties interesadas.





-5-


PLANES EXPERIMENTALES

FRIJOL

SORGO

FOSFORO





-6-


DISTRIBUTION DE EXPERIMENTS SEGUNDO SEMESTRE 1976


LOCALIDAD
(Municipios)


iariedades de
Frijol


Insecticida
Granulado en
Frijol


Niveles de
Nitrdgeno en
Sorgo


'istancias de
Siembra en
;orgo


2 studio
6sforo


Atescatempa
Yupiltepeque
Jerez


Asunci6n
Mita


Agua Blanca
Sta. Catari-
na Mita.


El Progreso


Quezada





-7-


RESUNEN DE LOS EXPERIMENTOS SEGUNDO SEMESTRE 1976


Nombre


Num. Num. Ndmero Largo
Ens. Trat. Surcos Surcos
(Metros)


Num.
Repl.


Variedades
de frijol


Insecticida
Granulado
en frijol


Niveles de
Nitr6geno
en sorgo


Distancia de
Siembra en
sorgo


Estudio de
Fo'sforo


Tamafio experiment


Ancho
(Metros)


Largo
(Metros)


25.2




14.4


15.6


5 20







EXPERIMENTS DE FRIJOL


IVAiIEDADES
TRATAMIENTOS:

A- Negro Jalpatagua

B- Turrialba 1

C- Porrillo 1

D- Linea 32

E- Criolla.

DISTANCIA DE SIEMBRA: 45 cms. entire surcos y 10 cms. entire plants

*FERTILIZACION CON N: 30 Kg/Ha. a la siembra.

.-FERTILIZACION CON P: 60 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present

deficiencia de fosforo.

LARGO DEL SURCO: 6 Mts.

SURCOS FOR PARCELA: 8

PARCELA: 6 Mts. x 3.60 Mts. (21.6 Mt.2)

NUMERO DE REPETICIONES: 6

SISTEMA DE SIEMBRA: Intercalado en el mafz de primera.

METODO DE SIEMBRA: Al chorro, al fondo del surco.

CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUELO: Volat6n, 40 Kg/Ha.

RALEO: Despues de la primera limpia, dejando 10 plants por metro

lineal.

LIMIPIAS: Una entire los 10 y 15 dfas despues de la germinacidn

y la otra 8 dfas antes del inicio de la floracion.

CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades. (Princi-

palmente aplicar Metasistox, un litro por hectarea).

PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: 5 Mt. x 1.80 Mt. (9Mt.2). Los cuatro surv

cos centrales.

Fuente de N: Urea al 46/o
** Fuente de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%







DISEO DE CAMPO


--- 18 Mts.
I t

VI I 6 Mt.

*I-----i-
1 1 Mt.

I





IV
Iv

I I 4
I 41

I -
II (





I I



i I j
p I
^i I _1


VARIEDADES
REFERENCIAS
I= Surco Borde

A= Negro Jalpatagu
B= Turrialba 1
C= Porrillo 1
D= Linea 32
E= Criolla
DISE7O EXPERIMENT
BLOQUES AL AZAR.
Mt.


a






INSECTICIDES GRANULADOS


VilIEDADES: Porrillo 1

Linea 32
TRATAMIENTOS:

A- Furadan 10 Kg/Ha.
B- Furadan 20 Kg/Ha.

C- Furadan 30 Kg/Ha.

D- Thimet 10 Kg/Ha.
E- Thimet 20 Kg/Ha.
F- Thimet 30 Kg/Ha.
G- Testigo. (sin insecticide granulado)
DISTANCIA DE SIEMBRA: 45 cm. entire surcos y 10 cm. entire plants.

'FERTILIZACION CON N: 30 Kg/Ha. a la siembra.
*'FERTILIZACION CON P: 60 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present defi

ciencia en fosforo.
LARGO DE SURCO: 6 Mts.

SURCOS FOR PARCEL: 8
PARCELA: 6 Mt. x 3,60 Mt. (21.6 Mt.2)

NUMERO DE REPETICIONES: 6

SISTEMA DE SIEMBRA: Intercalado en maiz de primera.
METODO DE SIEMBRA: Al chorro al fondo del surco
CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL SUELO: Ninguna aplicaci6n; solo la de los tra-

tamientos a evaluarse.
RALEO: Despue's de la primera limpia dejando 10 plants por metro lineal.

LIMPIAS: Una entire los 10 y 15 dias despues de la germinaci6n y la otra
8 dias antes del inicio de la floraci6n.

CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: Se hara aplicaci6n de Metasistox (un

litro por hectarea)

PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: 5 Mt. x 1.80 Mt. (9M2) los cuatro surcos central
*Fuonte de N: Urea al 46 % **Fuente de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%








11-I


DISEDO DE CAMPO


7I'
6 Mt.

1 Mt.


VI




V




IV




III




II


TNSECTICIDAS GRANULAE
REFERENCIAS:
: Surco Borde
A= Furadan 10 Kg/Ha.
B= Furadan 20 Kg/Ha.
C= Furadan 30 Kg/Ha.
D= Thimet 10 Kg/Ha.
E= Thimet 20 Kg/Ha.
F= Thimet 30 Kg/Ha.
G= Testigo


DIiI II










II






:i 41


25.2


Mt,


41 Mt.
DISE^O EXPERIMENTAL
BLOQUES AL AZAR.

VARIEDADES:
Portillo 1
Linea 32


_______N


*


f'










-12-


EXPERIMENTS DE SORGO
*NIVELES DE NITROGEN

VARIEDAD: Guatecau

TRATAMIENTOS: 0,45,60,75 Kg. de N/Ha.

CANTIDAD Y EPOCA DE APLICACION DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS CON N: 50% a la

siembra, 50% a los 45 dias despu4s de la siembra.
**FERTILIZACION CON P: 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present de-

ficiencia en fo'sforo.
DISTANCIA DE SIEMBRA: 60 cm. entire surcos y 10 cm. entire plants.

LARGO DE SURCO: 6 Mts.

3URCO3 POA PARCEL: 6
PARCELA: 6 Mts. x 3.60 Mt. (21.60 Mt.2)

NUMERO D2E REFETICIO.NES 4

SISTENA DE SIE'BRA: Intercalado en el mafz de primera.

P.,TODO DE 3IEMBRA: Al chorro, al fondo del surco

CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUELO: Cytrolane, 35 Kg/Ha.

RALEO: Despu's de la primera limpia, dejando 10 plants por metro lineal.

CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FCLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades (principalmente

con Volat6n, Lannate, Dipterex).
PARCELA NETA A CCSiECHAR: 5 Mt. x 1.80 Mt.= 9 Mt.2 (3 surcos centrales)


Fuente de N: Urea al 46%

-Fuun-o de P: Triple superfosfato al 46%.





-1'3-


DISEEO DE CAMPO


14.4 Mt.---


I. I-


_________ _________ I S
S S


IV

I






II!
I
i



I
Ii







I


i 6 Mt

/ t I
1 Mt






27 Mt.


I I I-


NIVELES DE NITROGENO

REFERENCIAS

= Surco Borde


A= 0 Kg.N/Ha.

B= 45 KgN/Ha.

C= 60 Kg.N/Ha.

D= 75 Kg.N/Ha.

DISEPO EXPERIMENTAL

BLOQUES AL AZAR

NOTA: Aplicar 50% del
nitr6geno a la siembra
y 50% a los 45 dias des
pues de la siembra, pa-
ra cada nivel.


- -1 1- L





-14-


DISTANCIAS.DE SIEMBRA


VARIEDAD: Guatecau

*TRATAMIENTOS:
A- 40 cms. entire surcos y 10 cms. entire plants

B- 40 cms. entire surcos y 50 cms. entire posturas; 5 plan-

tas por postura.

C- 80 cms. entire surcos y 5 cms. entire plants

D- Testigo: practice del agricultor.
-*FERTILIZACION CON N: 60 Kg/Ha. 50% a la siembra; 50% 45 dfas despues

de la siembra.
':'*"FERTILIZACION CON P: 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra, si el suelo present de-

ficiencia en fosforo.

LARGO DEL SURCO: 6 Mts.

SURCOS POR PARCELA: 6

PARCELA: A,B y D= 6 Mts. x 3.60 Mt; C= 6 Mt.x 4.80 Mt.

NUMERO DE REPETICIONES: 4

SISTEMA DE SIEMBRA: Intercalado en el mafz de primer

IMETODO DE SIEMBRA: Para el tratamiento A, al chorro y al fondo del surco

Para el tratamiento B, mateado. Para el tratamiento C, al chorro y al

fondo del surco.

CONTROL DE INSECTS DEL SUELO: Cytrolane, 35 Kg/Ha.

RALEO: Despubs de la primer limpia, dejando el numero de plants in-

dicados on los tratamientos.
CONTROL DE INSECTOS DEL FOLLAJE: De acuerdo a necesidades (principalmenti

con Volat6n, Lannate, Dipterex)

PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: A,B y D: 5 x 1.80 m.= 9 M2.; C: 5 x 2.40 M= 12M2

Tratamientos A y B: surcos doubles; Tratamiento C: surco sencillo; Tra-
tamiento D: Agricultor.
** Fuente de N: Urea al 46%. :***Fuente de P: triple superfosfato al 46%









-15-


DISEiO DE CAMPO


-15.6 Mt. ...


6 Mr

1 Mt.


LldUI~


r


I




I
I



I

I

II

I
I


f
II


27 Mt,


1 .1: -.L


DISTANCIAS DE SIEMBRA

REFERENCIAS
= Surco Borde
A= 40 cms. entire surcos

y 10 cms. entire plan-
B= 40 cms. entire surcos

y 50 cms. entire pos-
turas; 5 plants por

postura,
C= 80 cms. entire surcos

y 5 cms. entire plant,
D= Testigo (Agricultor)

DISETO EXPERIMENTAL

BLOQUES AL AZAR
VARIEDAD: Guatecau


-Y' a-- d---r ---


-


-0




L





I


|









-16-


STUDIO Y ANALYSIS DE SUELOS
PARCELAS DE FOSFORO

DISERO DE CAMPO


20 Mts.






|5 Mts.
A B






i= Surco Borde

CULTIVOS: Frijol
Sorgo
A- NITROGEN

1- Sorgo: 60 Kg/Ha.= 30 Kg/Ha a la siembra;

30 Kg/Ha. 45 dias despues de la siembra.
2- Frijol: 30 Kg/Ha a la siembra

B- NITROGENO + FOSFORO

1- Nitrogeno
a- Sorgo: 60 KKg/Ha= 30 Kg/Ha.a la siembra; 30 Kg/Ha
45 dias despues de la siembra.

b- Frijol: 30 Kg/Ha. a la siembra

2- Fosforo
a- Frijol: 60 Kg/Ha, a la siembra
b- Sorgo : 90 Kg/Ha. a la siembra.









-17-


STUDIO Y ANALYSIS DE SUELOS
PARCELAS DE FOSFORO


VARIEDAD DE FRIJOL: La usada por el Agricultor
VARIEDAD DE SORGO: La usada por el Agricultor
TRATANIENTOS: A y B

A-4NITROGENO: Frijol- 30 Kg/Ha.a la siembra

Sorgo 60 Kg/Ha: 30 Kg/ a la siembr-a; 30 Kg, 45
dfas despues de la siembra.
B- NITROGENO+D*FOSFORO:

NITROGENO: Frijol- 30 Kg/Ha.a la siembra

Sorgo 60 Kg/Ha: 30 Kg. a la siembra; 30 Kg. 45
dias despues de la siembra
FOSFO7-O: Frijol- 60 Kg/IIa.a la siembra

Sorgo 90 Kg/Ha.a la siembra.
Las restantes practices agrondmicas son bajo las condiciones del
Agricultor (segdn su costumbre).
PARCELA: 5 M. x 10 M.
PARCELA NETA A COSECHAR: 5 M. x 10 M.

NOTA: Si hay efecto de borde, eliminarlo.


P Fuente de N; Urea al 46%
"* Fuente de P: Triple Superfosfato 46%









2- Proyectos de producci6n para el Lote Comercial


Los proyectos de produccidn incluyen el studio de factibilidad t4cni-

ca y econ6mica de los cultivos seleccionados, asf como una representa-

ci6n grafica de las diferentes etapas del Proyecto y sus actividades -
utilizando los m4todos PERT y CPM.

Los proyectos seran revisados y discutidos. Posteriormente se ejecutarki

3- Planeacidn de Dfas de Campo para Agricultores

Se realizaran cinco Dias de Campo. Uno en cada sede de los Tecnicos

en Adiestramiento.

En estas reuniones deberan participar, especialmente, los agricultores

de la localidad dado que las demostraciones, si hubiera, tienen validez

(con algunas reserves), solamonte para esa localidad. Sin embargo po-

drian participar agricultores de otras localidades pero el t4cnico que

invita deberd considerar esta limitaci6n.

De cada Dfa de Campo so presentara un informed donde se resuma la orga-

nizacion y ejecucidn del event.

4- Preparacidn y presentaci6n de informes

Una de las formas como se evaluara el Curso internal y externamente se-

ra por el nivel tecnico alcanzado. La primera evidencia que se tendra

para hacer un juicio al respect son los informes que se presented. -

Por tal raz6n se tiene el proposito de proporcionar en el curso otras

herramientas que permitiran hacer decisions objetivas y discurrir a-

cerca de la validez relative de la informaci6n que se process y analiza,

asf como de la aplicabilidad de resultados en la elaboraci6n de planes

futures de trabajo. Se tiene confianza en poder satisfacer este propd-

sito. En una proporci6n alta lo implementara el component de







-19-


Aprendizaje Te6rlco y la intoraccion con otros profesionales. De tal

manera que al final se podrd tener la capacidad y la habilidad para -

preparar y presentar informes

1.- Para Agricultores (Recomendaciones)

2.- Lote Comercial

3.- Experimentos

4.- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-Tdcnico

5.- Plan de Trabajo para 1,977

6.- Monograffa Agr'cola

En su oportunidad, si fuere necesario, el curso proporcionar. orienta-

ci6n esquematizada y/o detallada para estructurar en forma convenient

cada uno de los informes mencionados.


5- Otros planes

En esta parte se estaran considerando aquellas propuestas no previstas

en el curso o en otro program interesado en adelantar trabajos coope-

rativos con Entrenamiento Tecnico.


B- TRABAJO DE CAMPO

1.- Siembra de Experimentos

a- Frijol

b- Sorgo

c- F6sforo

2.- Siembra del Lote Comercial.

La fecha para hacer las siembras dependera de la presencia de lluvias

en el area, sin embargo, tentativamente se ha seleccionado el perfodo

del 15 de Agosto al 4 de Septiembre.






-20-


Previamente a la siembra habrd q'u oons)oguir lotes de Ag'i.ultora pa-
ra las Siembras Rxperi.mntalPs de Frijol, Sorgo y las parcelas de Fds-

foro. Ademas habr& que tomar muestras de suelo para analisis de labo-
ratorio. Por lo tanto el trabajo de campo se iniciarg en los primeros

dfas de Agosto. El Lote commercial del segundo semestre sera el mismo,

ya que el contrato de arrendamiento se hizo por un afo.
Durante el crecimiento del cultivo hasta la cosecha sera necesario ha-

cer las observaciones que requiera el Experimento y el Lote Comercial,

para lo cual se proveeran los elements necesarios y especialmente una
librota de Campo para hacer anotaciones.
Las observaciones que normalmente hace un t4cnico en un cultivo son un

process que implica varias etapas:

1.- Percepci6n de la situacion
2.- MediciSn y/o descripcion de la situaci6n en terminos
numdricos y/o literales.

3.- Revision y seleccidn de alternatives pertinentes a
la situacion.

4.- Ejecuci6n de alternatives adoptadas

5.- Evaluacicn de la accidn ejecutada (la cual en algu-
nos casos tiene caracterfsticas de otra observaci6n).

Conviene anotar en la libreta de campo cuando menos las etapas 2,4 y 5,

especificando fechas.

3.- Trabajo Cooperativo Agricultor-T4cnico
En un sentido amplio todo el trabajo de campo se estA llevando a cabo

como cooperaci6n de los agricultores con los t4cnicos y viceversa, pe-

ro de manera especial se le llama Trabajo Cooperative Agricultor-Tecni
co al ejercicio que se iniciara con la planeaci6n y ejecucidn de-sendos








- 21 -


proyectos cooperatives con cada uno de cuatro agricultores interesados. El conte-

nido de dichos proyectos serd el resultado de la interacci6n de los intereses del

t6cnico, las necesidades e intereses del agricultor y las limitaciones de ambos.

De tal manera que los proyectos no tendrdn definido un marco que limited las deci-

siones adoptadas y en consecuencia se pueden realizar experiments, parcelas de

prueba, asistencia tecnica, reuniones, etc.


4. Cosecha

a Experimentos

Frijol

Maiz

Arroz

F6sforo

Sorgo.


Durante la cosecha es necesario identificar cada experiment con un numero clave

que indicard el CULTIVO, MUNICIPIO, TIPO DE ENSAYO y TECNICO RESPON-

SABLE. En su oportunidad se entregar6 la informaci6n detallada al respect. Por

otra parte para las observaciones que se har6n durante la cosecha, se distribuird un

formulario especial para cada cultivo.


b Lote Comercial

En la cosecha del Lote Comercial se tomardn los datos que ayuden a interpreter y

analizar los resultados econ6micos de la empresa. Ademds como este lote se ha








- 22 -


conducido bajo la responsabilidad e iniciativa de los Tecnicos en Adiestramiento,

habr6 libertad de tomar los datos que considered necesarios de acuerdo a sus intere-

ses.


5. Seguimiento de Agricultores

Para hacer seguimiento a los Agricultores se distribuyeron cinco copias de un formula-

rio para cada t6cnico. Estos formularios serdn Ilenados de acuerdo a las instrucciones

de 61 consignadas y devueltas a la oficina de Adiestramiento.











V- APRENDIZAJE TEORICO
CURSO CORTO SOBRE SUELOS PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS


A- OBJETIVOS:

Al finalizar el curso los Adiestrandos seran capaces de:
1.- Interpretar los analisis de suelos
2.- Hacer recomendaciones de fertilizantes en base al andlisis

de suelo pero teniendo en cuanta los demas factors asocia-

dos con la fertilizaci6n.

B- SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACIONI

1.- Dictar el curso en cuatro dfas

2.- Dictar el curso en forma continue

C- TEMAS:

1.- Factores Asociados a la eficiencia de los fertilizantes apli

cados al suelo

2.- Manejo y clasificacidn de los suelos del Area Piloto de Orien

te.
3.- Analisis de Suelo y recomendaciones de fertilizantes
4.- Analisis de tejido vegetal

5.- Conservacion de suelos y control de agua.






- 24 -


CURSO CORTO SOBRE AYUDAS AUDIOVISUALES

PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS


A OBJETIVOS :

Al final del curso el educando podrd:

a Enumerar las ventajas y limitaciones de los medios audiovisuales
estudiados.

b Elaborar ayudas audiovisuales para exponer mensajes agrrcolas
en el medio que sefiale el professor.

B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION :

a Duraci6n de 3 dras
b Preferiblemente ocupar los dras Lunes, Martes y MiBrcoles.
c En el horario se incluirian dos temas en la maiana y dos por la
tarde.

C TEMAS:

1 La comunicaci6n multitudinaria y las ayudas audiovisuales

2 T6cnica de disefo de letras Prdctica supervisada

3 Caracteristicas de las gr6ficas estadisticas

4 Tecnicas de diseFo del cartel y pr6ctica supervisada

5 Preparaci6n del portfolio gr6fico y pr6ctica supervisada

6 Tecnica del franel6grafo y pr6ctica supervisada

7 Tecnica del pizarr6n y practice supervisada

8 La radio como medio de difusi6n

9 La prensa y su tecnica

10 La television como medio educativo

11 Caracterrsticas de la c6mara fotogr6fica

12 Tecnicas para la toma de fotografias

13 Uso del proyectos de transparencias, vistas opacas y retroproyector.





CURSO CORTO SOBRE DISE1NO Y ANALYSIS DE


EXPERIMENTS AGRONOMICOS

A- OBJETIVOS

Al final del Curso el adiestrando estara capacitado para:
1.- SeHalar las ventajas y desventajas de cada diseifo.
2,- Seleccionar el disefo apropiado a los objetivos y con-
diciones experimentales.
3.- Procesar y analizar los resultados de un experiment.

B- SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION

1.- Dictar el curso en'forma continue.
2.- Duracidn del curso, una semana.

C- TENAS:

1- Fuentes de variabilidad experimental

2- Distribucidn normal y sus transformaciones
3- Tdcnicas de muestreo
4- Disefo

a- Completamente al azar
b- Bloques al azar
c- Parcelas subdivididas
d- Duadrado Latino
5- Analisis de varianza
6- Comparacidn de Promedios

a- Prueba de T
b- Diferencia mfnima significativa
c- Prueba de Duncan
d- Prueba de Tukey
e- Lfmite de confiabilidad
7- Correlacidn y regresion para una variable
8- Funciones curvilineas
9- Mktodo corto para calculo de regresidn

10- Correlacidn y regresi6n para dos o mAs variables
11- Superficies de respuesta

1- Experimentos factoriales completes y modificados
2- Disefo compuesto central rotativo
3- Otros disefos.
12- Mesa redonda La Validez y aplicabilidad relative de la ex-
perimentacidna agandmica.









CURSO CORTO 8OBRE DESARROLLO AGRICOLA

PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS


A- OBJETIVOS:

Al final del curso los adiestrandos podran:
1- Elaborar un proyecto para aumentar la producci6n en
una region dada.

B- SUGERENCIAS PARA LA FROGRAMACION:

1- Duraci6n del curso, cuatro dfas

2- Dictar el curso en forma continue

C- TEMAS:

1- Proceso para identificar problems regionales
2- Supuestos y evidencias para definir causes de problems

3- Selecci6n de objetivos para proyectos regionales
4- Implementaci6n de Proyectos

5- Taller sobre Proyectos de Producci6n Agricola
6- Presentacidn de Proyectos regionales.








- 27 -


CURSO SOBRE MAQUINARIA AGRICOLA PARA
INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS


A OBJETIVOS

Al final del curso los participants:

1. Enumerar6n el equipo bdsico utilizado en una explotaci6n agricola.

2. Podrdn seRalar los factors que influyen en la calibraci6n de los imple-
mentos y en la calidad del trabajo realizado con los mismos

B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION

1. Realizar el curso en el Centro de Producci6n de Cuyuta

2. Duraci6n del curso, una semana.

C TEMAS

1. Introducci6n. Informaci6n general sobre implementos y maquinaria
existente en el Centro de Producci6n.

2. Aspersoras Fundamentos y uso.

3. Principios y objetivos del arado, rastrillo y sembradora.

4. Aspersi6n Practica y calibraci6n y aspersiones.

5. Arado Pr6ctica de arado y mantenimiento.

6. Rastrillo Prdctica de rastra y mantenimiento.

7. Espolvoreo y siembras al voleo Prctica.

8. Calibraci6n de Sembradora.

9. Siembra Prdctica.

10. Taller sobre siembra.








- 28-


CURSO CORTO DE HERBICIDAS PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS


A- OBJETIVOS:
Al terminar el curso los adiestrandos ser6n capaces de:

1. Identificar los herbicidas, dosis y formas de aplicaci6n para los cultivos de
granos basicos y asociaciones.

2. Identificar y/o describir los efectos de los herbicidas

3. Enumerar las limitaciones y ventajas de los herbicidas usados en granos
b6sicos y asociaciones.

B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION:

1. Revisar los OBJETIVOS y los TEMAS

2. Duraci6n del Curso, tres dias

C.- TEMAS :
1. Malezas, definici6n, P6rdidas debidas a las malezas
2. Caracteristicas de las malezas.
3. Factores de competencia
4. Fundamentos del control de malezas
5. Control integrado de malezas
6. Caracterrsticas de los herbicidas
7. Factores asociados a los herbicidas foliares y aplicados al suelo
8. Metodos para evaluar herbicidas
9. Selectividad de los herbicidas
10. Herbicidas recomendados en frijol, ma'z, arroz, sorgo y asociaciones
11. Andlisis econ6mico de los herbicidas
12. Uso y manejo de los herbicidas
13. Formulaci6n de herbicidas
14. Sintomatologia del efecto y residualidad de los herbicidas
15. Mesa redonda Control de malezas en el Oriente de Guatemala.







- 29 -


CURSO CORTO SOBRE COMERCIALIZACION DE GRANOS

BASICOS PARA INGENIEROS AGRONOMOS



A OBJETIVOS:

Al final del curso el Adiestrando estar6 en capacidad de:

1. Comprender la teorra relacionada con la determinaci6n de precious de

los products agrcolas.

2. Enumerar los factors que influyen en la fijaci6n de los precious de

los granos b6sicos en Guatemala.


B SUGERENCIAS PARA LA PROGRAMACION:

1. Dictar el curso en forma continue

2. Duraci6n del curso, tres dias

3. Ejemplificar cada tema con el caso de los granos bdsicos.


C TEMAS:

1 La Comercializaci6n como actividad general.

Su funci6n social y econ6mica.

2 Oferta y Demanda.

3 Elasticidad Ingreso de la demand

4 El impact de la nueva tecnologia sobre los precious

5 Canales de comercializaci6n

6 M6rgenes de comercializaci6n

7 Importaci6n y exportaci6n de products agricolas alimenticios.







-30-


VI- EVALUATION

Los trabajos se estar~n calificAnj$ de acurdo con la siguiente
tabla:


TRABAJOS


ITEM PARA CALIFICAR


INFORMS ESCRITOS Justificacidn 2
Objetivos 6
Citas 2



EXPOSICION Ajuste al tiempo 2
Ayudas
Tranquilidad y Segu-
ridad del expositor 5


CRITICS Y AUTOCRITICA Una participacidn 6
Buena participacion 4


APRENDIZAJE TLORICO Examen mensual escrito 10


EXPERINENTOS EN FINCAS Una observaci6n anota-
DE AGRICULTORES da en la libreta-de -
campo por semana, por
experiment. 6
Estado general del Lote 4


LOTES COMERCIALES Una observacidn anotad
en la libreta de campo
por semana. 6
Estado general del Lote 4


TRABAJOS COOPERATIVOS Program para realizar
AGRICULTOR-TECNICO actividades con los -
agricultores 10


ML/lms. 9---7


CALIFICACION MAXIMA




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