<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Possible outbreak of leaf scald...
 Summary of new CP varieties
 An economic index for selection...
 Sugarcane fiber - a renewable...
 Respiration and behavior of a sugarcane...
 FAIRS (Florida agricultural information...
 Sugarcane cultivar response to...
 Sugarcane cultivar response to...
 BMPs for phosphorus loading reductions...
 The new sugar program in the 1990...
 Preliminary results of the 1990-91...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Sugarcane growers seminar
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054444/00003
 Material Information
Title: Sugarcane growers seminar
Series Title: Belle Glade EREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Belle Glade EREC (Fla.)
Everglades Research and Education Center
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Everglades Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service.
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Creation Date: 1991
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Sugarcane -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Sugarcane -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Annual
General Note: Description based on: 1989; title from cover.
General Note: Last issue consulted: 1993.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001831947
oclc - 40943253
notis - AJQ6045
lccn - 2003229204
System ID: UF00054444:00003

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Possible outbreak of leaf scald in commercial sugarcane plantings in Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Summary of new CP varieties
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    An economic index for selection of sugarcane clones
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Sugarcane fiber - a renewable resource
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Respiration and behavior of a sugarcane grub, ligyrus subtropicus (Coleoptera: Scaraeidae) under flooded conditions
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    FAIRS (Florida agricultural information retrieval system): A new format for the information age
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Sugarcane cultivar response to calcium carbonate application on Everglades histosols
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Sugarcane cultivar response to calcium silicate on Everglades histosols
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    BMPs for phosphorus loading reductions in the EAA: Future directions
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The new sugar program in the 1990 farm bill
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Preliminary results of the 1990-91 sugarcane enterprise budget
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





- 3 BELLE GLADE EREC RESEARCH REPORT
EV-1991-3


A991

SUGARCANE

GROWERS

SEMINAR

EVERGLADES RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA
MAY 15, 1991








FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITYOF FLORIDA 1991 SUGARCANE GROWERS SEMINAR

MAY 15, 1991

Frank J. Coale, Presiding & Editor
PROGRAM PAGE

POSSIBLE OUTBREAK OF LEAF SCALD IN COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE 1
PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
J.C. Comstock and J.M. Shine, Jr.

SUMMARY OF NEW CP VARIETIES 10
B. Glaz

AN ECONOMIC INDEX FOR SELECTION OF SUGARCANE CLONES 20
C.W. Deren, J. Alvarez, and B. Glaz

SUGARCANE FIBER A RENEWABLE RESOURCE 23
P.Y.P. Tai

RESPIRATION AND BEHAVIOR OF A SUGARCANE GRUB, Ligyrus 28
subtropious, UNDER FLOODED CONDITIONS
R.H. Cherry and P.S. Porter

AN UPDATE OF THE CURRENT LACE BUG SITUATION
D.G. Hall

FAIRS (FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM): 42
A NEW FORMAT FOR THE INFORMATION AGE
F. Ferguson, Jr., F.J. Coale, and R.S. Lentini

SUGARCANE CULTIVAR RESPONSE TO CALCIUM CARBONATE 45
APPLICATION ON EVERGLADES HISTOSOLS
D.L. Anderson, R.N. Raid, and M.F. Ulloa

SUGARCANE CULTIVAR RESPONSE TO CALCIUM SILICATE ON 48,
EVERGLADES HISTOSOLS
M.F. Ulloa and D.L. Anderson 1

BMPs FOR PHOSPHORUS LOADING REDUCTIONS IN THE EAA 53
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
F.T. Izuno

THE NEW SUGAR PROGRAM IN THE 1990 FARM BILL 60
J. Alvarez and L.C. Polopolus

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE 1990-91 SUGARCANE ENTERPRISE 65
BUDGET
J. Alvarez and T.J. Schueneman

The institute of Food and Agricultural Scences s an Equal Employment Opprtunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide wesarch, educational
Information and other servi only t Individual and nstitutlins tht function without regard to rac coao, ~ age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, SITE OF FLORIDA, IFA, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA;
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.









POSSIBLE OUTBREAK OF LEAF SCALD IN COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE

PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA

J. C. Comstock, Research Plant Pathologist

J. M. Shine, Jr., Agronomist

USDA,ARS,SAA, Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, Florida and

Florida Sugar Cane League, Canal Point, Florida



Introduction

Leaf scald disease of sugarcane is increasing in South Florida

and appears to be a major threat to the industry. Leaf scald is

caused by the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby)

Dowson (3). Leaf scald was first reported to be present in Florida

in 1967 (1); most likely, it was present many years prior to this

report. However, the disease was rarely found in either commercial

plantings or yield trial plots. The low incidence of leaf scald

was stable for 20 years and the reason for its recent increase is

unknown. Worldwide, the disease is found in at least 45 countries

where sugarcane is grown and it is an economic threat in many of

these locations.

Leaf scald symptoms include one or more of the following:

bleached white leaves on young plants, a fine pencil-line leaf

streak, chlorotic leaf streaks with or without necrosis, profuse

side-shoot (lala) development, and internal reddish discoloration

of vascular bundles at the nodes and at the juncture where the

lateral side shoot joins the stalk (2,3). However, many leaf scald

infected plants may not display any symptoms (3). These latently

infected plants make it difficult to accurately determine disease


. 1









levels and diagnose the disease.

Our objectives were to document the increase of leaf scald in

Florida, determine which parents in the breeding population give

rise to resistant progeny and to obtain relative comparisons of the

incidence in as many of the important commercial and potential

commercial cultivars as possible.

Materials and Methods
Surveys were conducted to determine the leaf scald infection

in Stage II plots at the Sugarcane Field Station during September-

October 1989 and 1990. The parentage of each cultivar was traced

to determine the frequencies of infection based on common female

and/or male parent.

Any observation of leaf scald was noted in 1990, during

routine field work in trials and visits to commercial fields.

Surveys were conducted in June 1990 in several fields. During the

week of April 22, 1991 counts of leaf scald infected stools were

made in commercial fields and older ratoon test plots near Pahokee

where leaf scald was observed in late 1990. In commercial fields,

counts were based on ten 100 row-ft samples taken at random

diagonally across the field. In plots of former yield trials, the

entire plots were counted.

Results and Discussion
Leaf scald at the Sugarcane Field Station. Prior to 1988 leaf

scald was found at a very low incidence in breeding plots but was

usually found every year. Estimates, in retrospect, would be less

than 1% infection of cultivars in the Stage II plantings. During

1989, 9% of the CP88-Series cultivars (plots) in the Stage II had









plants with leaf scald symptoms. In October 1990, the percentage

of cultivars with leaf scald symptoms in the CP89-Series was 17%.

Although counts in other plantings at the station were not taken

the incidence of leaf scald appeared to also increase.

Frequency of progeny infected with leaf scald by parents.

The frequency of leaf scald infection in Stage II was

influenced by parentage in 1991 (Table 1). The overall incidence

of leaf scald in Stage II was 17%; however, progeny of certain

parents had double that frequency. There were 29 progeny of CP81-

1302, when it was used as a female parent in Stage II, of which

41.4% were infected with leaf scald. Similarly, of the 26 progeny

of CP77-1776, 38.5% were infected with leaf scald. The progeny of

CP81-1238, when it was used as a male parent, had 36.4% leaf scald

infection. In contrast, the progeny of certain cultivars, CP70-

1133 and CP72-1210, when used as females, and CP76-1306, used as a

male, had a low frequency of leaf scald infection. This

information was used during the 1991 crossing season and it will be

used in the future to select the more resistant parents for use in

the breeding program. The emphasis at the Sugarcane Field Station

is on developing leaf scald resistant cultivars.

Leaf scald in commercial fields, increase and test plots.

Surveys in 1990 of test plots and commercial fields indicated

either no or a very low incidence of leaf scald (less than 1%

present). The susceptible cultivar, CP78-1247, had less than 1

stool per acre with leaf scald symptoms. Observations in the fall

of 1990 indicated a locus of infection near Pahokee. Subsequent

surveys in this area during April 25 to May 3, 1991 indicated 0 to









14% infection based on cultivar (Table 2). The highest incidence

was in fields of susceptible cultivars, CP77-1776 and CP78-1247,

both had 14% infection with 470 and 662 stools/ acre showing

symptoms. Data on other cultivars in plantings of Stage IV trials

near Pahokee are given as the stools infected/ acre (Table 3). Two

cultivars, CP85-1808 and CP85-1623 appear to be susceptible,

however, the data is limited at this time. Unfortunately, the

results indicate that the majority of cultivars can be infected

with leaf scald naturally. The infection counts presented here are

from an area with a higher inoculum pressure than what is present

in the majority of the commercial sugarcane area and do not reflect

the incidence of the disease industry wide.

Of particular note are the major commercial cultivars, CP70-

1133 and CP72-1210. The field data on CP70-1133 is limited to 5

replicated Stage IV tests in which the incidence ranged from 0 to

45 stools/ acre (Table 3). This was lower than CP72-1210 which had

2% infection with 96 stools/ acre showing symptoms in a commercial

planting. Other data on CP72-1210, in Stage IV replicated yield

trials near Pahokee indicate incidence of infection ranging from

105 to 540 stools/ acre showing leaf scald symptoms (Table 3).

These counts clearly indicate that leaf scald can infect CP70-1133

and CP72-1210 naturally in the field and that incidence in CP72-

1210 is higher of the two cultivars.

Clearly leaf scald is a threat to the industry. We know that

resistance to leaf scald is present based on field observations and

that the frequency of infection of progeny in Stage II cultivars is

influenced by parentage. We also know that resistance is the









control method of choice. In other countries where leaf scald is

a problem, varietal resistance is the primary method of control

with a disease-free seed program as a supplementary method of

lesser importance. The success of disease-free seed programs is

hampered by plants with latent infection.

It is not known is if the current leaf scald incidence will

continue to increase. Based on its increase in Florida over the

last three years and what has happened in other countries there is

no indication that the increase will stop by itself. Leaf scald is

known to be spread through infected seedcane and by contaminated

cutting knives and equipment. Long-hot water treatments are used

to control the pathogen in seedcane used to establish disease-free

nurseries for subsequent commercial planting in Australia. These

treatments are more severe than the 2 hr 500C treatment that is

used for ratoon stunting disease. Treatment methods would have to

be developed and tested locally before a disease-free nursery

program is possible.

Another unanswered question is the yield response to leaf

scald. Although the incidence of leaf scald based on stools/ acre

is high on certain cultivars, whether this relates to an equal

reduction in yield is questionable. Most likely infected stools

would produce some millable stalks and the yield reduction by

weight would be less than a straight percentage of stools infected.

Effects on juice yield and quality must be considered. Any effect

industry wide will depend whether the disease incidence continues

to increase and if it spreads geographically within the industry.









Summary

Leaf scald has been found in commercial sugarcane plantings in

South Florida and its incidence is increasing. Although certain

cultivars are susceptible to the disease, resistance to the disease

is available. Whether a leaf scald epidemic will develop is not

known but the disease does pose a serious threat to the Florida

industry.
Literature Cited

1. Koike, H. 1968. Leaf scald of sugarcane in continental United

States-- A first report. Plant Disease Reporter 52:646-649.

2. Koike, H. 1988. Sugar-cane diseases a guide for field

identification. Pages 69-71. FAO, Rome.

3. Ricaud, C., and Ryan, C. C. 1989. Leaf scald. Pages 39-58 in:

Diseases of sugarcane. C. Ricaud, B. T. Egan, A. G. Gillaspie,

Jr., and C. G. Hughes, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam.











Table 1. Frequency of leaf scald infected progeny by their female or male
Stage II Test, October 1990.


parent in


Female Parent Total % Male Parent Total %
Progeny inf. Progeny inf.


CP 70-1133

CP 72-1210

CP 72-2086

CP 74-2005

CP 76-1306

CP 78-1254

CP 78-2114

CP 80-1827



CP 81-1238

CP 81-1302


7.0

11.3

6.3

13.0

0.0

14.1

21.4

14.0



36.4

23.4


70-1133

72-1210

73-1547

75-1632

76-1306


4.0

3.4

7.1

8.5

4.5



38.5

9.3

29.0

41.4

29.4


77-1776

80-1827

81-1238

81-1302

81-2149


26

43

31

29

160










Table 2.


Incidence of Leaf Scald

A. Commercial Fields Near Pahokee.


Cultivar % Infection* Stools/Acre*

CL 69-886 0.7 26

CP 72-1210 2.0 96

CP 77-1776 14.0 470

CP 78-1247 14.0 662

CP 78-1628 3.6 157

CP 80-1743 13.7 436

CP 80-1827 0.7 34

CP 81-1254 0.5 17

CP 81-1302 1.9 78

* Based on ten 100 ft. samples taken April, 1991.


B. Old Increase Plots Near Pahokee.


Cultivars


Stools/Acre


CP 75-1553

CP 78-1247

CP 78-1628

CP 78-2114

CP 82-1172

CP 82-1985


0

650

303

0

0

530










Table 3.


CP 80-Series

Cultivar Stools/acre*


80-1557

80-1827

80-1743

70-1133

72-1210


105

15

90

0

180


Incidence of Leaf Scald in
ratooned Stage IV tests.

CP 81-Series

Cultivar Stools/acre*

81-1238 135

81-1254 0

81-1302 105

81-1425 15

70-1133 30

70-1210 255


CP 84-Series

Cultivar Stools/acre*


84-1062

84-1185

84-1198

84-1322

84-1706

84-1714

70-1133

72-1210


CP 85 Series

Cultivar Stools/acre

85-1207 30

85-1308 330

85-1343 330

85-1382 135

85-1432 15

85-1491 120

85-1498 90

85-1623 1305

85-1808 1155

85-1822 540

70-1133 30

72-1210 540

* Based on 4 plots


75

30

90

90

15

15

45

180


CP 86-Series

Cultivar Stools/acre

86-1180 30

86-1427 75

86-1633 30

86-1664 240

86-1705 180

86-1747 64

86-1830 60

86-1882 0

86-1952 165

86-2024 150

70-1133 15

72-1210 105

(4 rows 35 ft. long) taken April, 1991.










SUMMARY OF NEW CP VARIETIES

Barry Glaz, Agronomist



INTRODUCTION

Reports describing new Canal Point (CP) varieties selected

for the Everglades Agricultural Area began appearing as early as

1962 (Belcher and Rice). In a 1966 sugarcane variety census for

Florida, Hebert reported that sugarcane was growing on about

190,000 acres. During the 1960's, the USDA, University of

Florida, and Florida Sugar Cane League developed what we now know

as the sugarcane variety development program at Canal Point.

As a variety development program for any commodity should,

the CP program sought to test new varieties under conditions

similar to those used commercially. As the industry grew from

190,000 to more than 400,000 acres, the program also grew. In

their 1962 report, Belcher and Rice reported about results from

an experiment planted at 1 location. By 1972, this program

tested new varieties at 6 locations (Rice and Hebert, 1972).

Today, we test our most promising varieties at 9 locations. In

the 1970's, rust and smut became prevalent on commercial

sugarcane in Florida. The CP Variety Development Program made

major changes to deal with these two diseases.

However, the CP program has not always kept pace with the

Florida sugarcane industry. Two important changes to which the

program has not adapted are successive planting and mechanical

harvesting. In the 1960's as the CP program developed, growers

planted sugarcane on fallow land. Also, most commercial









sugarcane was harvested by hand. During the past 2 years,

growers have planted more than 58% of the sugarcane in Florida

successively (Glaz and Coale, 1990 and Coale and Glaz, 1991).

Probably most sugarcane is not harvested mechanically yet, but a

much higher percentage is harvested mechanically now than has

been during the past 25 years. Also, mechanical harvesting is

becoming increasingly popular.

The CP variety development program currently plants all its

variety trials on fallow land and harvests all its trials by

hand. Our program to test new varieties still emulates the

Florida sugarcane industry of the 1960's. By using these

procedures, we are selecting varieties that yield well under the

conditions of the 1960's. We are not necessarily selecting

varieties that do well under successive planting and mechanical

harvesting.

Does the CP program need to make changes? Florida growers

must answer and act upon this question. USDA or the University

of Florida will probably not increase funding of the CP program

to accommodate such changes. To harvest trials mechanically,

growers must commit the resources. If we are to have extra

trials planted on successive land, growers must commit the

resources.

The CP program has been highly successful. Varieties such

as CP 56-59, CP 63-588, CP 65-357, CP 70-1133, and CP 72-1210 are

proof of this success. This report presents some of the latest

promising CP varieties. These varieties were selected for

growers who plant on fallow land and harvest by hand. We have no









idea if we discarded other varieties that would have had higher

yields under successive planting or mechanical harvesting.

The new CP varieties described in this report are CP 78-

1628, CP 81-1238, CP 81-1254, CP 82-1172, and CP 82-1592.

Information about each variety is presented along with its

reference varieties. Reference varieties were CP 63-588, CP 70-

1133, and CP 72-1210. All yield information has been summarized

from "Evaluation of New Canal Point Sugarcane Clones," an annual

USDA report. Comments about disease susceptibility were made

after considering results from greenhouse and field inoculation

tests, and disease presence under natural field conditions. Jack

Comstock and Jim Shine provided much of the disease

susceptibility information (Personal communications).










REFERENCES


Belcher, B.A. and E.R. Rice. 1962. Sugarcane variety trials on

Everglades Peat in Florida, 1957-60. Sugar Journal, December

1962.



Coale, Frank J. and Barry Glaz. 1991. Florida's 1990 sugarcane

variety census. Sugar y Azucar 86(1):20,22,23,26.



Glaz, Barry and Frank J. Coale. 1990. Florida's 1989 sugarcane

variety census. Sugar y Azucar 85(1):19,22,23,26,27.



Hebert, L.P. 1964. Florida sugarcane variety for 1964. Sugar

Journal, December 1964, page 77.


Rice, E.R. and L.P. Hebert. 1972.

Florida during the 1971-72 Season.


Sugarcane variety tests in

ARS-S-2. 14 pages.










CP 78-1628

Parents: CP 65-357 X CP 68-1026

Fiber content: 10.39% VCF: 0.968

Status: Commercial variety


Yield
Cane Sugar Stalk
Variety Early Harvest yield yield weight

------%------ tons/a lbs/a lbs

CP 78-1628 10.15 12.16 51.39 12,420 3.16

CP 63-588 9.85 11.86 43.07 10,160 3.53

CP 70-1133 10.36 11.49 54.90 12,466 3.16


Standard tons of cane

Variety Early Harvest

CP 78-1628 57.17 68.30

CP 63-588 46.45 55.85

CP 70-1133 62.32 69.03


General

1.

2.



Disease

1.



2.

3.


Comments:

Yields well on muck and sand.

Has moderately high cane yield and above average sugar
concentration.


Resistance

Smut: Extremely susceptible in inoculated tests. So
far has only had low smut levels under natural
conditions.

Rust: Resistant.

Leaf scald: Probably resistant.










CP 81-1238
Parents: 78 P8 CP 71-1027

Fiber content: 9.45% VCF: 0.991

Status: Florida Sugar Cane League Increase


Yield
Cane Sugar Stalk
Variety Early Harvest yield yield weight

------%----- tons/a lbs/a lbs

CP 81-1238 9.61 10.93 48.97 10,641 3.81

CP 70-1133 9.74 10.40 56.00 11,375 3.03

CP 72-1210 9.60 11.52 50.30 11,565 2.98


Above data are for 8 locations.
Bros. Farm only.


Data below are for sand at Lykes


Yield
Cane Sugar
Variety Early Harvest yield yield

------%---- tons/a lbs/a

CP 81-1238 11.42 13.61 42.00 11,423

CP 70-1133 11.54 13.01 40.54 10,502

CP 72-1210 11.83 13.46 38.62 10,483


Variety

CP 83

CP 70

CP 72


Standard tons of

:y Early

.-1238 52.47

)-1133 51.17

-1210 49.95


cane

Harvest

62.38

57.59

56.73










CP 81-1238


General Comments:

Best adapted to sand where it has high cane yield and high
sugar concentration.


Disease

1.

2.

3.


Resistance:

Smut: Resistant

Rust: Resistant

Leaf scald: Moderately susceptible based on limited
information.










CP 81-1254


Parents: 78 P8 CP 72-1210

Fiber content: 11.24%

Status: Commercial variety


VCF: 0.932


Variety



CP 81-1254

CP 70-1133

CP 72-1210


Yield

Early Harvest

------%------

9.50 11.50

9.74 10.40

9.60 11.52


Standard tons of cane

Variety Early Harvest

CP 81-1254 54.24 65.45

CP 70-1133 59.83 63.81

CP 72-1210 52.98 63.38


Comments:

Yields well on muck, not on sand.

Has moderate cane yields and high sugar concentration.
Similar to CP 72-1210 before rust reduced yields of CP
72-1210.

After burning, not erect.

Has high fiber content.

resistance:

Smut: Resistant.

Rust: Cautiously optimistic that resistance will stay.

Leaf scald: Resistant.


Cane
yield

tons/a

52.03

56.00

50.30


Sugar
yield

lbs/a

11,891

11,375

11,565


Stalk
weight

lbs

3.46

3.03

2.98


General

1.

2.



3.

4.

Disease

1.

2.

3.










CP 82-1172

Parents: CP 75-1091 X CP 75-1283

Fiber content: 9.61% VCF: 0.979

Status: Commercial variety


Yield
Cane Sugar Stalk
Variety Early Harvest yield yield weight

------%----- tons/a lbs/a lbs

CP 82-1172 9.88 11.63 55.97 12,757 3.44

CP 70-1133 10.12 11.44 55.38 12,432 3.06

CP 72-1210 10.21 12.08 44.69 10,657 3.00


Standard tons of cane

Variety Early Harvest

CP 82-1172 60.64 71.19

CP 70-1133 61.43 69.31

CP 72-1210 50.01 59.01


General

1.

2.


Disease

1.

2.

3.


Comments:

Yields are excellent on muck, poor on sand.

On muck, has high cane yield, acceptable sugar
concentration.

Resistance:

Smut: Resistant.

Rust: Cautiously optimistic that resistance will stay.

Leaf scald: Resistant.









CP 82-1592

Parents: CP 72-1210 X CP 70-1133

Fiber content: 10.30% VCF: 0.954

Status: Commercial variety


Yield
Cane Sugar Stalk
Variety Early Harvest yield yield weight

------%---- tons/a lbs/a lbs

CP 82-1592 9.72 11.55 53.05 12,057 2.87

CP 70-1133 10.12 11.44 55.38 12,432 3.06

CP 72-1210 10.21 12.08 44.69 10,657 3.00


Standard tons of cane

Variety Early Harvest

CP 82-1592 56.56 67.02

CP 70-1133 61.43 69.31

CP 72-1210 50.01 59.01


General

1.

2.
similar

Disease

1.

2.

3.


Comments:

Yields well on muck and sand.

Has high cane yields and low sugar concentration,
to CP 70-1133.

resistance:

Rust: Cautiously optimistic that resistance will stay.

Smut: Resistant.

Leaf scald: No information.











AN ECONOMIC INDEX FOR SELECTION OF
SUGARCANE CLONES

C. W. Deren, Plant Breeder
J. Alvarez, Agricultural Economist
B. Glaz, Agronomist



INTRODUCTION

Selection of clones in a sugarcane breeding program is based

upon many characteristics such as disease reaction, growth habit,

and the components of yield, which are tons of cane per acre

(TCA) and pounds of sugar per ton cane (ST). From TCA and ST,

pounds of sugar per acre (SA) is calculated. Since SA indirectly

represents the potential dollar income of a clone, it has been

the selection criterion, above all others, upon which a clone is

evaluated.

Use of SA for selection also has problems, however. For

example, clones CP 87-1248 and CP 87-1226 have very different

values for TCA and ST, but more similar values for SA (Table 1).

The dilemma is in determining which clone is superior. CP 87-

1226 has a slightly greater SA yield, but through high TCA

production, which makes it more costly to harvest and process.

We need to know if the greater harvest costs offset the benefit

of higher yield potential (SA). To better evaluate clones for

potential advance in the breeding program, we sought to create an

index of economic value which would incorporate factors not

accounted for in SA values.









METHOD

Briefly, the economic index created included major costs and

factors of production. An equation was created which included:

price of sugar; sugar yield (ST); cane yield (TCA); preharvest

costs; harvesting, loading, and hauling costs; and milling costs.

The yield data was taken from Stage III and Stage IV of the Canal

Point sugarcane breeding program. The cost information is

primarily from the USDA (Clavson and Hoff, 1990). An economic

index value was calculated for each clone.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

At this time we are sill evaluating and verifying the index

formula. In its application on 1990 data from Stage III, it has

provided a valuable perspective on clonal selection. What is

particularly outstanding is that very sweet clones (with high ST

values) can be of high economic index even when their TCA and SA

values are relatively low (CP 87-1309 in Table 1).

Differences between low-sugar clones which are very similar

in TCA and ST appear greater when they are compared using the

economic index versus SA (CP 87-1226 and CP 87-1042 in Table 1).

From our initial evaluations of the index, it appears that it

will be a valuable tool in evaluating clones for advance or

release.












Table 1. Yield components of four CP sugarcane clones.


Clone ST* TCA* SA* Econ.
(lb/ton) (tons) (ibs) Index

87-1248 224 69 15,460 1915

87-1226 180 93 16,900 1334

87-1042 170 95 16,150 1023

87-1309 248 51 12,710 1740

* ST = lb sugar per ton cane
TCA = tons cane per acre
SA = lbs. sugar per acre









Sugarcane Fiber A Renewable Resource


P. Y. P. Tai


USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station

Canal Point, Florida


Sugarcane produces three main products (sugar, bagasse and

molasses) which can play an important role in meeting energy

demands. Bagasse can generate many by-products, such as fuel for

electricity, cellulose for paper, pentosan (hemicellulose) for

furfural, lignin for plastic, etc. Molasses is used as chemical

raw materials for feed and as feedstock for fermentation. The

efficient utilization of by-products could have a significant

effect on the profitability of the cane sugar industry.


On average, for every 100 metric tons of cane ground, the cane

sugar factory produces about 11.5 metric tons of sugar, 3 metric

tons of molasses and 25 metric tons of bagasse. Bagasse is the

fibrous residue of cane stalks after crushing and extraction of the

juice. It consists of water (46-52%), fiber (43-52%) and

relatively small amounts of soluble solids (2 6%). By the ISSCT

(International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists) definition,

fiber is the dry water-insoluble matter in the cane. Therefore,

fiber is a major component of the sugarcane stalk.


Under the current sugarcane breeding program at Canal Point,

Florida, wild canes (Saccharum spontaneum and 5. robustum) and the









relatives of sugarcane (Miscanthus and Erianthus) have been used to

broaden the genetic base of "CP" varieties and to transfer

desirable traits to sugarcane varieties. Variation in traits in

those interspecific and intergeneric hybrids provides us with a

large number of options to select useful objectives. One of them

is select clones with high fiber and acceptable sucrose content

levels during the nobilization process. The fiber content of the

progenies derived from those crosses ranges from 14 to 25% in the

F, generation and from 9 to 19% in the BC, generation (Fig. 1). The

fiber content of commercial varieties are CP 65-357 = 12.73%, CP

70-1133 = 13.82% and CP 72-1210 =.12.85%. These measurements of

fiber content were based on the laboratory procedure and the cane

stalks were nearly 16 months old. Based on the calculation from

the variety correction factor (VCF), the average fiber contents

were 11.06% for CP 65-357, 10.28% for CP 70-1133 and 9.97% for CP

72-1210.


The high fiber F, and BCI clones from the interspecific and

intergeneric crosses seemed to be more resistance to mechanical

damage, and have better ratooning ability, stronger tillering

ability and produce larger volumes of biomass. But these clones

also usually have thinner stalks and lower sucrose content. The

relationships between the fiber content and other important traits

vary: negative with stalk diameter and sugar content and positive

with stalk number and rind hardness (Fig. 2). Due to the negative

correlation between high sucrose content and component of high

fiber, selection of clones with both high sucrose and high fiber









may be very difficult.


More attention has been given to sugarcane as an important

renewable resource. This also offers sugarcane breeders with

challenge and opportunity of developing sugarcane varieties for the

future with a full range of characteristics to meet the total needs

of the sugar industry.



























COIMBATORE
*


* F= CP 65-357 x COIMBATORE


.BCI=F, x CP70-1133


0**
S3
S


r *
1.1.


I I 1 I


U 2 4 6 8


I i


10 12
SUC ROSE (X)


Fig. 1. The relationship between sucrose (%) and
progenies from a cross between CP 65-357
"Coimbatore".


14 16 18 20




fiber (%) of Fl and BC1
and Saccharum spontaneum


30r-


25H


20-


* *


*


015
'LU

u.


10-


CP70 1133
*


cPCS IS7


. i


q





















15f-


14




13



oa
-12
Lu.


P7-1133



C P72-1210
*
*


0 *


11 -


Il iI I i
14 15 46 17 18
SUCROSE %


Fig. 2 The relationship between sucrose (%) and fiber (%)
of commercial clones (CP 86 series).

(Acknowledgement: Dr. Raul Perdome and his staff assisted
in collecting the data which are shown in this figure.)









RESPIRATION AND BEHAVIOR OF A SUGARCANE GRUB, Liqyrus subtropious
(Coleoptera: Scarabasidae) UNDER FLOODED CONDITIONS'

R. H. Cherry, Sugarcane Entomologist
P. S. Porter, Agricultural Engineer


INTRODUCTION

Sugarcane, Florida's most valuable field crop, is primarily

grown in the Everglades area of southern Florida. Since, 1971,

several species of Scarabaeidae have been observed to cause

significant damage to sugarcane in southern Florida. Of these

pests, the white grub, Liavrus subtropicus (Blatchley), is the

species of primary economic importance (Gordon and Anderson

1981). This grub has been shown to reduce tons of sugar per

hectare in Florida by 39% in areas of high infestation (Sosa

1984). Currently, no chemical control is known for this pest in

sugarcane.

One method of grub control in sugarcane that has received

attention is controlled flooding of sugarcane fields. A normally

abundant water resource and water control expertise have created

an ideal situation in the Everglades Agricultural Area for water

use in the control of certain diseases, nematodes, and

subterranean insects (Genung 1970). Flooding the highly organic

muck soils of southern Florida is also sound soil conservation,

because flooding reduces microbial oxidation of soil organic

matter (Tate 1979). Various aspects of flooding mortality to L.

subtropicus have been reported by Genung (1976) Summers (1977),

Cherry (1984a), and Cherry et al. (1990).

Field flooding for controlling soil insect pests has been









noted in several studies for species other than L. subtropicus.

These studies include wireworms in Florida (Genung 1970; Hall

1990) and in California (Campbell and Stone 1938) and scarabs in

India (Avasthy 1967). Various studies have also noted that

higher temperatures are more effective in causing flooding

mortality to soil insect pests (Campbell and Stone 1938; Cherry

1990; Hall 1990). However, the reasons) for increased flood

mortality at higher temperatures is currently unknown. In

addition, behavior of most soil insect pests under flooded

conditions is anecdotal with little quantitative data. The

objectives of our experiments were twofold. First, the

respiration of L. subtropicus under flood conditions at different

temperatures was determined. Second, the behavior of L.

subtropicus under flood conditions was also measured. Hopefully,

these data will provide a better understanding of not only L.

subtropicus responses to flooding, but also give insight into

responses of soil insects under flood conditions noted in other

studies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Flooding mortality L. subtropicus third instars were collected

by digging in commercial sugarcane fields during January, 1990.

After collection, grubs were stored in large plastic pans filled

with muck soil and carrots for food and held at room temperature

(approximately 250 C) in a laboratory. The effect of temperature

on flood mortality of the grubs was determined at 180 C and 280 C

in temperature cabinets. These two temperatures were used since

they approximate the extremes of seasonal temperatures in flooded









fields in southern Florida (Cherry 1984a). Ten grubs were placed

into a 31 by 23 by 9 cm covered plastic pan which was one half

filled with water. Five pans with grubs were flooded at each

temperature for a five day period. In this study, "day" is

defined as 24 continuous hours (i.e. 5 days 120 h). The five

day flood period is based on the earlier recommendation of

Summers (1977) who stated that flooding standing cane for five to

seven days from August to November gave control of L.

subtropicus. A control pan containing 10 grubs in muck soil with

carrots was also held at each temperature. After the 5 day flood

period, grubs were removed from the water and held 48 h in pans

containing muck soil and then survival determined by gently

prodding insects. Grubs not moving were considered dead.

Mortality was checked after 48 h because grubs were all comatose

when first removed from the water, but may recover later.

Flooding tests were conducted from Feb. 1, 1991 to Feb. 9, 1991.

Respiration L. subtropicus third instars were collected and

stored before testing as described previously. Respiration as

indicated by CO2 production was determined under unflooded and

flooded conditions at 180 C and 280 C. A total of forty grubs

were tested with 10 grubs being tested at flooded and unflooded

conditions and at each temperature.

Unflooded conditions were simulated by placing 1 grub into a

125 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mls of moist sand. Moist

sand was used as a substrate to provide grubs a medium to dig

into simulate field conditions. Also, sand was chosen since no

CO2 would be produced by the sand unlike a more organic soil such









as the muck in which the grubs normally are found. Each grub was

rinsed with water, towel dried, weighed and placed into a flask.

The flask was immediately sealed with a septum stopper and

sampled for an initial CO2 reading. Thereafter, each flask was

put into a temperature cabinet at 180 or 280 C and held in

darkness, undisturbed for 24 h at which time another CO2 reading

was performed. To measure CO2 in each flask, 1.0 ml of air was

withdrawn through the sealed stopper with a lockable gas syringe

at the beginning of the test and after 24 h. These samples were

injected directly into the inorganic carbon part of a Dohrman DC-

90 carbon analyzer.

Flooded conditions were simulated by placing 1 grub into a

125 Erlenmeyer flask filled with water. Grubs were previously

washed and weighed, and then dropped directly into the water

filled flasks. The larvae initially thrashed about apparently in

distress, but became motionless after 60 to 90 min. After the

grub was dropped into the water, a septum stopper was added

immediately and an initial CO2 reading determined. Thereafter

each flask was put into a temperature cabinet at 180 or 280 C and

held in darkness, undisturbed, for 24 h at which time another CO2

reading was performed. Carbon dioxide samples were taken by

inserting a glass liquid syringe through the stopper, withdrawing

200 microliters of water and injecting this sample into the

inorganic carbon port of the previously described carbon

analyzer.

Respiration tests on grubs were conducted during November -

December, 1990. Grubs tested were selected in the weight range









of 3.5 to 4.5 g/grub to minimize grub weight differences among

the four treatments. Grubs used in all tests weighed an average

of 4.05 g and mean grub weights among the four treatments ranged

from 4.00 to 4.13 g/grub. Respiration of each grub was

determined as total CO, produced by each grub in each flask

during 24 h. Analysis of variance was used to determine

differences in means of total CO, among the four treatments.

Behavior L. subtroDicus third instars were collected and stored

before testing as described in flooding mortality tests.

Vertical movement of grubs in response to flooding was measured

in plastic buckets. Each bucket was 30 cm high by 30 cm in

diameter and filled 20 cm deep with muck soil along with a small

sugarcane plant to simulate field conditions. From 0 to 20 cm

deep approximates the depth at which most L. subtropicus third

instars normally occur in Florida sugarcane fields (Cherry

1984b). To simulate natural light conditions buckets were

wrapped in black plastic except on top. Tests were conducted

during March April, 1991 and buckets were held in a

screenhouse. Five grubs were placed into each bucket at 15 cm

deep by dropping each grub into one of five holes 15 cm deep made

by a 2 cm diameter pipe pushed into the soil to create the hole.

After placement of these grubs into the holes, the holes were

quickly filled with soil and the procedure repeated at 5 cm deep

with 5 new grubs. Buckets were paired during tests with one

bucket remaining unflooded and one bucket being flooded.

Immediately after grubs were placed into the designated flood

bucket, flooding commenced by pouring 500 ml of water into the









bucket on the soil surface. Thereafter, 500 ml of water was

added to the flood bucket at approximately eight hour intervals

so that after 48 h, the buckets was flooded about 2 cm deep with

only sugarcane leaves rising above the water level. The 48 h

interval for gradual flooding was selected to simulate the

occurrence of natural field flooding which occurs frequently in

southern Florida, especially during the summer-fall "rainy

season". After the buckets were flooded, the buckets were held

another five days (= 120 h) in this flooded conditions. The five

day period was used since we wanted to fully stress the grubs to

elicit their response to flooding and previous research (Cherry

1984a) indicated that a five day flood would kill most grubs in

our buckets. Soil temperatures were taken about mid-point of the

five day flood and averaged 240 C in all buckets. At the end of

the five day flood, grubs were recovered in all buckets by slowly

sorting through the soil in the unflooded buckets or mud in

flooded buckets. Sorting was conducted from top to bottom and

the position of each grub recovered was noted in reference to

vertical zonation such as surface, 0 10 cm deep, or 10 to 20 cm

deep. Survival of grubs in unflooded buckets was noted during

sorting and survival of flooded grubs was determined after 48 h

due to their comatose condition at recovery. Soil in unflooded

buckets remained moist during the experiment, thus approximating

soil moisture conditions in which the grubs are normally found.

Six pairs of unflooded versus flooded buckets were tested during

the March- April 1991. Frequency distributions of grubs in

buckets was compared between buckets before flooding, after 7









days unflooded, and after 7 days flooded by using Chi-square

contingency tables to test for homogeneity (Dixon and Massey

1969).

We conducted an additional test to determine how long third
instars of L. subtropicus are active underwater. On April 4,

1991, ten grubs were placed into 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks (1

grub/flask) filled with water. Flasks were placed into a

container (cooler) where they could be maintained in darkness and

undisturbed. Each grub was checked hourly for activity during

the first 8 hours and then at 8 hour intervals thereafter. Grubs

were first visually examined for movements in the flasks. If

movement was not observed, grubs were gently probed in the flasks

to discern if comatose (= no movement). Water temperatures in

the flasks were recorded and grubs were flooded for five days

(120 h). Based on data from Genung (1976) and Cherry (1990), it

was estimated that most grubs would die at 3 to 5 days under

water at the temperatures in the flasks. Five grubs were removed

from the water after 2 days (= 48 h) and survival noted after 48

h. The remaining 5 grubs were removed from the water after 5

days and survival again noted after 48 h.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Flooding Mortality Lane and Jones (1936) reviewed flooding for

insect control and were the first entomologists to stress the

importance of temperature in affecting flood mortality to

insects. In their study, flooding was more effective in

controlling wireworm populations in California when soil

temperatures were higher. Campbell and Stone (1938) essentially









corroborated Lane and Jones (1936) data by again showing that
warmer soil temperatures were more effective in controlling

wireworm populations in California. Cherry (1984a) showed flood

mortality to L. subtropicus grubs was greater at 250 C than 200.

Hall (1990) in a laboratory study on flooding to control the

wireworm, Melanotus communis (Gyl.) found greater flood mortality

at 260 C than at 180 C. In this study we selected 180 C and 280 C

to test for flood mortality to L. subtropicus thirds since these

temperatures approximate the extremes of seasonal temperatures in

flooded fields in southern Florida (Cherry 1984a). Consistent

with previous studies, we also found greater flood mortality at

the higher temperature. Sixteen (32%) of the 50 grubs flooded

for five days (120 h) at 180 C died versus 100% mortality for the

50 grubs at 280 C. The mean SE of grubs surviving in pans at

180 C was 6.80 0.38 versus 0 0 at 280 C. These data show

that with equal time intervals flooding sugarcane during warmer

months results in a greater mortality of L. subtropicus grubs

than flooding in cooler months.

Respiration Lane and Jones (1936) noted that oxygen deficiency,
carbon dioxide accumulation, and osmotic reactions were possible

explanations for increased flood mortality at higher temperatures

in wireworms in California. However, these authors presented no

data to support these explanations. Cherry (1984a) suggested

that increased flood mortality to L. subtropicus observed at

higher temperatures was probably due to increased respiration,

but no data were provided to support this conjecture.

Respiration of third instars of L. subtropicus under flooded and









unflooded conditions at two temperatures is given in Table 1.

Respiration was significantly higher in grubs at 280 C in both

flooded and unflooded treatments than in grubs at 180 C under

similar conditions. These data are expected since insects as a

class are poikilothermic; i.e. their metabolism varies directly

with fluctuations in the environmental temperature (Edwards

1953). The increased metabolism of the grubs at 280 C versus 180

C under flood conditions explains the increased grub mortality at

280 C versus 180 C observed in this study. Quite simply, the

grubs drown faster at higher temperatures due to increased

respiration. Increased metabolism at higher water temperatures

observed in this study may also explain increased flood mortality

observed at higher temperatures in other flooding studies such as

Lane and Jones (1936), Campbell and Stone (1938), and Hall

(1990).

Behavior Information about the behavior of scarab grubs in

anecdotal in most instances because of the difficulty in studying

the behavior of soil insects under natural conditions (Villani

and Wright 1988). More specifically, little data exist on the

response of grubs to flooding. Avasthy (1967) observed that in

flooded sugarcane fields in India, few grubs of Holotrichia

consanguinea Blanch were in the top soil layers and most grubs

were found deeper, although data were not given. Genung (1970)

reported that white grubs were observed at the surface where

birds gathered in flooded pastures in southern Florida. However,

the grub species or percentage of grubs at the surface was not

reported. The percentage of third instars of L. subtropicus









found at different soil levels before and after flooding is shown

in Table 2. The frequency distribution of grubs after flooding 7

days was significantly different from the distribution of the

grubs before flooding and significantly different from the

distribution of the unflooded grubs after 7 days. Overall, there

was an upward movement of grub populations in response to

flooding including 21.7% of the grubs which came out of the soil

to settle on the soil surface. These latter grubs moved to the

surface approximately 15 minutes to 2 h after the water level was

finally raised above the soil surface. These grubs appeared

comatose after a few hours on the soil surface and remained in

this condition the remainder of the flood duration. These grubs

made little attempt to climb or lodge in the sugarcane plant.

The flood mortality in the test was 100%.

In the test using the grubs in flasks to determine how long

grubs are active underwater, most grubs became sluggish after 2 h

underwater, although 100% of the grubs were still responsive to

probing. Within 24 h under water, all grubs were comatose (non

responsive to probing) and remained in this condition the

duration of the five day flood. The five grubs removed after 2

days all recovered indicating that grubs at this time were

comatose, but not dead. The water temperature during the

experiment averaged 250 C. At this temperature, most grubs would

be expected to die from 3 to 5 days (Genung 1976; Cherry et al.

1990). The 5 grubs withdrawn from the water after 5 days were

all dead. The preceding data on length of grub activity under

water are consistent with unquantified observations in the lethal









temperature tests, respiration tests, and bucket tests. In all

these tests, grubs generally became sluggish within 2 hours

underwater, and remained inactive thereafter until they

eventually drowned.

REFERENCES CITED
Avasthly, P. 1967. The problem of white grubs of sugarcane in

India. Proc. 12th Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 1321-1333.

Campbell, R., and M. Stone. 1938. Flooding for control of

wireworms in California. J. Econ. Entomol. 31: 286-291.

Cherry, R. 1984a. Flooding to control the grub Ligyrus

subtropicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Florida sugarcane.

J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 254-257.

Cherry, R. 1984b. Spatial distribution of white grubs

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Florida sugarcane. J. Econ.

Entomol. 77: 1341-1343.

Cherry, R., F. Coale, and P. Porter. 1990. Oviposition and

survivorship of sugarcane grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

at different soil moistures. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1355-

1359.

Dixon, W., and F. Massey. 1969. Introduction to statistical

analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 638 pages.

Edwards, G. 1953. Respiratory metabolism, pp. 96-146. In K.D.

Roeder (ed.), Insect Physiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,

New York.

Genung, W. 1970. Flooding experiments for control of wireworms

attacking vegetable crops in the Everglades. Fla. Entomol.

53: 55-63.









Genung, W. 1976. Flooding in Everglades soil pest management.

Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. 6: 165-172.

Gordon, R., and D. Anderson. 1981. The species of Scarabaeidae

(Coleoptera) associated with sugarcane in south Florida.

Fla. Entomol. 64: 119-138.

Hall, D. 1990. A laboratory study on flooding to control the

wireworm Melanotus communis (Gyll.) (Coleoptera:

Elateridae). Sugar y Azucar. 85(6):27.

Lane, M., and E. Jones. 1936. Flooding as a means of reducing

wireworm infestations. J. Econ. Entomol. 29: 842-850.

Sosa, O., Jr. 1984. Effect of white grub (Coleoptera:

Scarabaeidae) infestation on sugarcane yields. J. Econ.

Entomol. 77: 183-185.

Summers, T. 1977. Flooding for control of the white grub,

Bothvnus subtropicus in Florida. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane

Technol. 7:128.

Tate, R. 1979. Effect of flooding on microbial activities in

organic soils: carbon metabolism. Soil Sci. 128: 267-273.

Villani, M., and R. Wright. 1988. Use of radiography in

behavioral studies of turfgrass infesting scarab grub

species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bull. Entomol. Soc.

Amer. 34:132-144.









Table 1. Respiration of third instars of L. subtropicus under

flooded and unflooded conditions.





Treatment*
Temperature Flooded Unflooded

180 C 1.36 0.18 10.7 + 1.0

280 C 2.64 + 0.15 17.3 + 0.66


* Means + SE of mg CO2 produced by one grub in 24 h. Ten grubs

used in each of the four treatments. Analysis of variance

showed all four means were significantly different from each

other at the 0.05 P level.









Table 2. Percentage of third instars of L. subtropicus found at

different soil levels before and after flooding.




After 7 days (168 h)
Depth Before flooding* Unflooded t Flooded

Surface 0 0 21.7

0 10 cm 50 18.3 43.3

10 20 cm 50 81.7 35.0


* Frequency distributions of grubs before flooding and after 7

day flood are significantly (P < 0.005) different as analyzed

by a Chi-square contingency table to test for homogeneity

(Dixon and Massey 1969). Chi-squared = 24.6 with 2 degrees of

freedom.

t Frequency distributions of grubs in unflooded buckets versus

flooded buckets are significantly (P < 0.005) different as

analyzed with a Chi-square contingency table to test for

homogeneity (Dixon and Massey 1969). Chi-square = 50.4 with 2

degrees of freedom.









FAIRS (FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM):
A NEW FORMAT FOR THE INFORMATION AGE

Francis Ferguson, Jr., Senior Systems Programmer, FAIRS Staff
Frank J. Coale, Extension Agronomist
Richard S. Lentini, Biologist, FAIRS Staff


INTRODUCTION


FAIRS, florida Agricultural Information Retrieval System, as

its name implies, is a large computerized "database" of

agricultural information that assists extension specialists in

distributing updated information to the agricultural industry.

Actually, the "database" is a series of individual databases

pertaining to different fields of agriculture and related topics.

The objective of this seminar is to share with you the new

features and future plans of the FAIRS program, in general, with

specific emphasis on the Florida Sugarcane Database.


IFAS INFORMATION AND ELECTRONIC DISTRIBUTION


Over the years, the University of Florida presented

information to the public in traditional print format. As a

result, the material was sometimes out-of-date or in scarce

quantity. The computer age is allowing IFAS to present large

quantities of information to the public in an effective and

timely manner. This is the starting of the "information age".

To take full advantage of this, IFAS is moving toward a "generic"

approach to information handling. This approach allows a more

efficient information flow throughout the IFAS system and to the

general public.









A discussion of the evolution of electronic storage media

and the advantages of "print-on-demand" publications follows.

Along with this will be a demonstration of DISC4, the latest

FAIRS CD-ROM which will be continuously upgraded to meet the

needs of Florida's agricultural industry on a timely basis.

IFAS will eventually have a "library" of discs available to

the general public that will cover most aspects of Florida

agriculture and living.



THE FLORIDA SUGARCANE DATABASE AND THE FLORIDA SUGARCANE HANDBOOK



The "Florida Sugarcane Database" and its printed version,

the "Florida Sugarcane Handbook" was recently started. It will

be edited by Frank J. Coale, extension agronomist, with

contributions from IFAS faculty members, county extension agents,

private sugarcane researchers and the sugarcane growers. A

tentative outline of the Florida Sugarcane Database and the

Florida Sugarcane Handbook is as follows:



Database Section Subsection Status


Sugarcane Diseases Dacterial Completed
Miral Completed
Fungal Completed

Soils
Muck
Sand
Testing
Deficiencies

Varieties
Census Completed
Registrations










Subsection


Amendments
Fertilizers
Others
Application Methods
Pests
Insects
Heeds
Rodents
Nematodes

Cultural Practices
Soil Preparation
Irrigation
Cold Protection
planting
Harvesting
Ripeners

Botany
Anatomy
Physiology

History
Recent
Early

Economics
Production budget
Marketing
Policy
Specific Situations


In Preparation
In Preparation


As with any endeavor of this magnitude, its utility and

refinement depend upon feedback from its intended users. Your

suggestions and comments will be greatly appreciated.


section


Status









SUGARCANE CULTIVAR RESPONSE TO CALCIUM CARBONATE

APPLICATION ON EVERGLADES HISTOSOLS





D.L. Anderson, Sugarcane Nutritionist, University of Florida

R.N. Raid, Plant Pathologist, University of Florida

M.F. Ulloa, Agronomist Sugar Farms Co-op



INTRODUCTION

In the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), sugarcane production fields are influenced by

limestone parent materials which underlie nearly 90% of the soils. From 12 to 17% of the area of typical

production fields are influenced by these parent materials mixed into surface soils along canal spoil banks

and farm roads. Non-organic soils are limed to raise soil pH and alleviate toxicity effects of aluminum.

However, Histosols found in the EAA are highly pH buffered and excessively high quantities of limestone

are necessary to change soil pH. Therefore, pH management through liming is not practical for

consideration on Histosols. The objectives of this study was to determine the effects of pH variability

caused by calcium carbonate on yields of prominent cultivars of sugarcane and to relate this to field

conditions.



MATERIALS AND METHODS

A randomized complete block design with four commercial cultivars (CP72-1210, CP78-1247,

CP74-2005, and CP65-357) and five rates of limestone (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 tons/acre) were planted during

the Fall of 1988 on a Pahokee muck. Limestone was broadcast and incorporated to a depth of 6 inches

one week before planting. Harvesting and juice quality data (Brix, sucrose, tons cane per acre, tons sugar

per acre) were collected using conventional practices.











RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Soil pH changed from pH 4.8 to 6.9 by 582 days after application of calcium carbonate. By the

end of the first ratoon harvest (804 days after application), soil pH were as high as pH 7.36 at the 32

tons/acre application of limestone (Table 1). These ranges are similar to those observed along field edges

affected by marl spoil banks.

Yields were generally unaffected by applications of limestone. The only observed response

(P.0.05) was with CP72-1210 during the first ratoon crop (Table 2). Yield increases for CP72-1210

during the first ratoon crop increased 37% in cane yields and 34% in sugar yields. Although not

significant at the 5% level, a yield increase trend was also observed in CP78-1247 and CP74-2005 during

the plant crop.



SUMMARY

The sugarcane cultivar response to limestone application was investigated on a acid (pH 4.8)

Pahokee muck. Five rates of limestone (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 tons/acre) were incorporated and four cultivars

(CP72-1210, CP78-1247, CP74-2005, and CP65-357) were planted in 1988 using a randomized complete

block design with 4 replications. As a result of liming, after 2-3 years soil pH increased 2 pH units with

32 tons/acre of limestone. Except for first-ratoon yields of CP72-1210, plant cane and first ratoon yields

of all cultivars were unaffected (P<0.05) by application of limestone. During the first-ratoon crop,

application of limestone increased cane yields of CP72-1210 as much as 37% and sugar yields as much

as 34%. The impact of liming parent materials in an acid Histosol was shown to have a little to no effect

on the yields of most cultivars.





Appreciation is expressed to Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala, FL for donation of limestone.










Table 1. Soil pH after application of limestone to a Pahokee muck.


Limestone
Application


Days after application
582


tons/acre ----------------- pH ---------------------

0 4.79 5.02 5.63
4 5.26 5.53 6.20
8 5.50 6.01 6.72
16 5.92 6.49 7.06
32 6.36 6.88 7.36


Table 2. Response (cane and sugar, tons/acre) of four cultivars to application of limestone.


------------- CP65-357 ------------- -------------- CP72-1210 --------------
Limestone Plant Crop First Ratoon Plant Crop First Ratoon
tons/acre TPA SPA TPA SPA TPA SPA TPA SPA


0 66.1 6.85 73.6 8.82 50.6 5.22 44.7 4.97
4 62.8 6.27 76.1 8.47 54.9 5.62 61.3 6.68
8 69.2 7.36 80.3 9.12 58.2 6.05 69.9 7.74
16 70.2 7.58 79.5 9.23 53.7 5.69 68.0 7.28
32 68.5 7.48 70.7 7.83 58.7 6.21 75.0 8.27

LSDo.05 10.1 1.05 21.5 2.70 13.3 1.37 16.1 1.94


-----..-----.. CP78-1247 ------------ -------------- CP74-2005 --------------
Limestone Plant Crop First Ratoon Plant Crop First Ratoon
tons/acre TPA SPA TPA SPA TPA SPA TPA SPA


0 49.4 4.88 47.3 5.54 52.7 5.66 43.4 4.51
4 63.4 6.19 64.0 7.30 55.8 6.18 43.6 4.60
8 56.9 5.72 55.2 6.70 56.2 6.15 56.3 5.62
16 63.5 6.30 65.4 7.62 59.4 6.39 47.4 5.12
32 58.1 5.67 61.9 6.84 59.5 6.34 51.0 5.32

LSDo.o 14.2 1.30 22.5 2.74 15.4 1.81 12.9 1.32


TPA, tons cane per acre
SPA, sugar per acre










SUGARCANE CULTIVAR RESPONSE TO CALCIUM SILICATE ON
EVERGLADES HISTOSOLS

Modesto F. Ulloa, Agronomist, Sugar Farms Co-op
David L. Anderson, IFAS, Sugarcane Nutritionist


INTRODUCTION

Sugarcane field trials evaluating the response to calcium

silicate slag on Everglades Histosols have yielded promising

results since the mid 1970's. Previous researchers associated

the symptom of "freckling" to areas deficient in silica. All

work conducted during this early period was done using cultivars

that no longer have commercial importance. A site was selected

with previous history of response and planted to five cultivars.

The cultivars were selected based on commercial acreage and

degree of manifesting "freckling" disease. Our objectives were

to determine if response to slag would be equally effective

across currently grown cultivars and if any significant cultivar

slag interaction could be detected.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

A randomized complete block design with five commercial

cultivars (CP70-1133, CP72-1210, CP72-2086, CP74-2005, and CP80-

1827) and two rates of calcium silicate slag (0 and 3 tons per

acre) was planted during the Fall of 1988 at New Hope Sugar 20

Mile Bend Farm. The treatments were applied as a broadcast

preplant incorporated. Harvesting and juice quality data were

collected using conventional practices for EAA sugarcane

research. Leaf tissue samples were taken during June and July

from each plot to check for % Si content of the top visible

dewlap (TVD). Results for the commercial demonstration are also









reported in net standard tons per acre (5% trash).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Response of two crops for tons cane per acre (TCA), sugar

per ton (S/T), and tons sugar per acre (S/A) are shown in Table

I. All cultivars demonstrated increases in TCA without

significant changes in juice quality. Tissue % Si doubled with

the application of slag at the 3 ton rate as can be seen in Table

II. A demonstration to verify field test results was established

in 8 nearby commercial fields. Production records for the fields

paired with the 0 and 3 ton slag rate are given in Table III.

CONCLUSION

Current response levels indicate that the application of

calcium silicate slag at 3 tons per acre directly to sugarcane as

a soil amendment is a feasible alternative for increasing crop

yields on some Everglades Histosols. The response levels were

similar across varieties even though the degree of leaf freckling

differed. Further work should be done to better fine turn the

identification of silica deficient areas due to the high cost of

the slag treatment.















1989-90 & 1990-91 HARVIST DATA
NEW HOPE SUGAR CO-OP DIV. B (20 Nile Bend)
Calcium Silicate Slag Test (3 tons/acre)


Variety Treattent


CP70-1133 w/ slag
CP70-1133 w/o slag


CP72-1210 w/ slag
CP72-1210 w/o slag


CP80-1827 w/ slag
CP80-1827 w/o slag


CP74-2005 Y/ slag
CP74-2005 w/o slag


CP72-2086 w/ slag
CPT2-2086 w/o slag


YIELD PARAmETERS


PC S-1 PC S-1 PC S-1

81.89 71.69 194.90 237.23 7.98 8.50
72.58 61.70 190.93 235.73 6.93 7.27


56.39 59.44 202.80 239.25
42.36 50.04 198.25 241.70


79.26 71.73 190.65 238.43
70.59 61.94 191.35 246.50


63.44 65.65 187.40 226.10
54.01 51.04 180.73 229.53


67.30 70.52 216.60 246.00
55.38 54.50 204.60 241.23


5.72 7.11
4.20 6.05


7.56 8.55
6.75 7.63


5.94 7.42
4.88 5.86


7.29 8.67
5.66 6.57


LSD (0.05): 3.2 IS .46

Overall Increase or (Decrease) in Production


ALL VARIETIES W/ SLAG
ALL VARIETIES W/0 SLAG

X Increase of (Decrease):


69.66 67.81 198.47 237.40
59.58 55.84 193.17 238.94


16.91 21.43


2.74 ( .64)


6.91 8.05
5.75 6.67

20.12 20.65


Diff. in Production: 10.08 11.96 5.30 ( 1.54) 1.16 1.38

LSD .05: 2.36 IS .47
















TISSUE VALUES
x SILICA (TVD)
COLTIVAR SILICA REPLICATED TRIAL



Variety Treataent PC 89-90 S1 90-91


CP70-1133 s/ slag .54 .475
CP70-1133 w/o slag .278 .275

CP72-1210 w/ slag .675 .57
CP72-1210 w/o slag .283 .242

CP80-1827 v/ slag .547 .53
CP80-1827 w/o slag .293 .258

CP74-2005 s/ slag .59 .615
CP74-2005 w/o slag .288 .268

CP72-2086 w/ slag .727 .545
CP72-2086 w/o slag .25 .21
--------.. .... ..-- .--------------------- ...----- .... -- .---------- ........

ALL VARIETIES W/SLAG .616 .547
ALL VARIETIES W/O SLAG .278 .251


LSD .05: .145
LSD .05: .145
















Sugar Farns Co-op
Coamercial Field Test Slag 3 Tons/Ac
1988-89, 1989-90, & 1990-91 Barvest Data

PLANTCARI 1-STUBBLE 2-STUBBLE Both Crops (SZ Trash)
Variety TCA NJS TCA BJS TCiA JS Standard Tons/Acre

New Bope lone I PC S-1 S-2


1-13H-1 i 2
CP72-1210 w/slag
CP72-1210 w/o slag

New Hope 20 lile Bend Farm
3-11-3 & 4
CP72-1210 i/slag
CP72-1210 w/o slag


44.31 17.42 30.68 15.19 33.14 15.46 62.80 36.99 40.80
35.15 16.74 25.41 14.11 29.19 14.68 47.55 28.03 33.78


39.80 16.08 32.74 15.82 31.72 16.20 51.35 41.43 41.28
31.80 15.79 30.34 15.57 28.17 15.92 40.15 37.67 35.91


3-2W-7 & 8
CP72-2086 w/slag
CP72-2086 w/o slag

3-11l-1 2
CP74-2005 w/slag
CP74-2005 w/o slag


53.40 16.73
43.39 15.49


44.36 15.14 37.21 15.31 72.19 53.27 45.28
32.92 14.72 28.23 15.29 53.55 38.22 34.30


48.10 15.62 35.46 14.90
39.40 15.65 33.73 14.84


30.5 16.11 59,95 41.77 39.43
22.72 15.88 49.22 39.51 28.88


Nean Production i/slag: 46.40 16.46 35.81 15.26 33.14 15.77 61.57 43.36 41.70
Bean Production w/o slag: 37.44 15.92 30.60 14.81 27.08 15.44 47.62 35.86 33.22

Percent Ciange (X): 23.95 3.42 17.03 3.06 22.40 2.12 29.31 20.91 25.54

Increase in Production (let Standard Tons Per Acre: 13.96 7.58 8.48













BMPs FOR PHOSPHORUS LOADING REDUCTIONS IN THE EAAt
FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Forrest T. Izuno, Agricultural Engineer


THE PAST


The debate over water quality in the EAA has been on-going

for years. In the late 1970's groups of interested persons

assembled study teams and generated reports. Recommendations for

alleviating nutrient loading in the Lake Okeechobee-EAA system

were made. Not surprisingly, the recommendations included "best

management practices" (BMPs). The public uproar subsided for a

few years until re-emerging in the mid-1980's.

Originally, Lake Okeechobee was the focus of the EAA water

quality problems. The major issue debated was whether or not

drainage water backpumping to the Lake from the EAA was

responsible for accelerating the eutrophication process in the

Lake. The debate included the question of whether nutrient

loading (primarily phosphorus) or Lake stage management was

primarily responsible for the perceived changes in the Lake.

This issue remains, incidently, still unsettled in many minds.

Nevertheless, committees determined that the eutrophication of

Lake Okeechobee could be slowed by reducing P loading to the

Lake. The major outcome of the debates was the decision to

minimize drainage water backpumping from the EAA to the Lake.

Naturally, the reduction in backpumping led to further









controversy. Drainage water from the EAA still had to be dealt

with. Options discussed included retention in surface reservoirs

or deep wells, diversion to the east and west coasts, and

drainage through the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). As

expected, every option considered attracted both backers and

detractors. The EAA water quality problems that had previously

been focused on protecting Lake Okeechobee to the north, were now

shifted to the WCAs and the Everglades National Park (ENP).

Questions abounded. In fact, the same questions that arose

during the backpumping discussions were applied to the WCAs and

the ENP. Specifically: 1) is it the altered hydroperiods or P

loading, or both that is causing a change in the WCA ecosystems?

2) is there really a problem? 3) what remedies are available?

4) who is responsible for the water quality? and 5) how do we

protect the environment from P loading while maintaining adequate

water supply? Committees convened and determined that water

supply to the WCAs and ENP must be preserved and that the supply

must be of water low in P concentrations. Naturally, the

questions are still being debated today.

Although the above issues are still being discussed,

external pressure from the Federal Government led to committee

decisions that adequate water supply of acceptable water quality

could be attained through the building of regional Nutrient

Management Areas (NMAs) and implementing BMPs at the farm level.

In 1986, the University of Florida/Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), the South Florida Water

Management District (SFWMD), and the Florida Sugar Cane League









(FSCL) entered into a joint project to determine what BMPs could

be used to reduce P loading from farms in the EAA. The study

involved conceptualizing and screening practical, effective, and

scientifically based BMPs.


THE PRESENT


Presently, the debate over whether or not there is a real

problem persists. The hydroperiod versus P loading issue

continues to be debated. Yet, plans have been drawn up that

involve using NMAs and BMPs to reduce P loading in the EAA. Much

of the responsibility for reducing the loading has been placed

upon the shoulders of the agricultural community.

Results of the UF/IFAS study show that there are farming

practices that do negatively impact area waters by increasing P

concentrations or P loading in drainage water. Additionally, the

study showed that there are changes in farm nutrient and water

management practices that could help to reduce P loads and

concentrations. However, it became apparent that the baseline P

loading and concentration levels in the EAA are naturally high

due to the drainage of the organic soils. Nutrient balances

showed that, in spite of high fertilization levels, P loads to

the study sites in irrigation water and rainfall were generally

higher than P loads leaving a farm in drainage water during 1989.

In fact, the EAA could be a net assimilator of P. However,

phosphorus concentrations and loads were extremely high during

individual events for particular farming conditions, indicating

the potential for reductions. It is apparent that controlling









these major P loading periods will lead to enhanced water quality

in the EAA.

Potential BMPs focus on enhanced water and nutrient

management. Some of the BMPs deal with short-term impacts while

others focus more on the long-term. Generally, it is agreed that

it will take some time for the effects of BMP implementation to

be fully represented by drainage water P reductions. The primary

suggested BMPs can be paraphrased as: 1) adhere to calibrated

soil test recommendations; 2) avoid unintentional fertilization

of open water bodies; 3) spread all fertilizer in fields and do

not dump excesses in a concentrated area; 4) fertilize

vegetables by banding at reduced rates rather than by

broadcasting at 100% of soil test recommendations; 5) reduce

drainage pumping; 6) maintain more uniform water tables and

drainage conditions; 7) grow harvested aquatic crops during the

traditional flooded fallow periods; 8) use sugarcane and cropped

and uncropped flooded fields for temporary drainage water

storage; and 9) keep flood draindown water on the farm and use as

fertigation. The BMPs are broad and need to be refined and

combined into a farm scale implementable package.

It is estimated that BMPs can help to reduce P loading in

the EAA by 20 to 60 percent. Using BMPs aimed at P loading

reductions in both the short- and long-terms can make the EAA

farmlands even better net assimilators of P.


THE FUTURE


Much research is still needed in order to achieve BMP









implementation. Irresponsible use of the BMPs can lead to

disastrous effects on crops and water quality. In other words,

simply taking a practice listed above and implementing it will

not necessarily result in any benefits unless it is managed as

part of a comprehensive program. For example, simply retaining

water on farms to reduce loading could lead to crop failure if

not handled properly. Likewise, simply growing rice or another

aquatic crop may lead to greatly elevated P loading of area

canals if the draindown water is not properly managed. Finally,

simply reducing fertilization at a site may result in negative

impacts on crops unless soil fertility monitoring methods are

also adhered to.

Basically, there are three major areas in which immediate

research is necessary for a P loading reduction program to become

reality in the EAA. These areas are: 1) short- and long-term

effects on crops of BMP implementation; 2) farm-scale BMP

testing, efficacy assessment, and refinement; and 3) development

of water quality monitoring strategies.

The crop related research is paramount to the success of the

BMP package. Water and nutrient management changes will lead to

changes in the soil water and chemistry that could have negative

impacts on crops and soil fertility management programs will have

to be amended. Areas of farms will probably be wetter than

normal, hence requiring adapted varieties and the determination

of threshold limits. Reuse of drainage water that is high in P

for fertigation will affect crops either positively or

negatively. We must determine how best to store, use, and









release this water. Additionally, in order to make fertilizer

reduction changes for vegetables, each vegetable crop's response

to fertilizer inputs must be determined.

That BMPs can reduce P loading at the plot-scale has been

demonstrated. However, in the plots, only one BMP was managed,

and only for a single crop. In making the move to the farm-

scale, there will be many logistical problems to sort out. For

example, retaining water on farms will necessitate the enhanced

ability to move water around the farm. This increased water

movement will have to be accounted for in amended cultivational

activities. Cropping patterns and acreages may have to be

designed with more care so as to ensure that moving water to the

appropriate places can be accomplished without jeopardizing

crops.

The BMP package will have to be implemented, monitored, and

refined at the farm scale. Directly transferring P loading

reductions determined at the plot to the farm level is not

appropriate. Many of the practices will interact, some with each

other and some against, when combined in a comprehensive package.

The P reductions achievable at the farm level will have to be

determined. Additionally, demonstrating that the BMP package is

practical and effective is important and will require close work

with farm managers. Essentially, water and nutrient management

levels will rise. To what levels they will have to rise must be

determined.

Finally, whenever a regulation is passed, there must be some

method of verifying compliance. The agricultural community must










not depend on monitoring done by others, at points where they

have no control, to determine whether or not their drainage water

is improved. There is simply too much that goes on between the

farm pump stations and regional monitoring points for reliable

compliance monitoring to be accomplished. Water quality and

quantity monitoring must become a routine activity at each farm

so that the burden of achieving P reductions will not be unfairly

partitioned.

Farm level monitoring must begin now. BMP implementation

must not be rushed into without having credible baseline (pre-

BMP) data. Chances are great that when a regulation is enforced,

it will require that P reductions be made from some pre-existing

level. BMP implementation prior to establishing the baseline

period will lead to less credit to a farm than is due. The other

regulatory option is to simply set an upper limit on P discharge

from a farm. Here again, it will be necessary to establish long-

term P concentration and loading trends at the farm level to know

how much of a reduction will be necessary, and hence, how much of

a BMP program will need to be implemented. Essentially, BMP

implementation must be done in a logical, scientific, and

rational manner.

The water issues in south Florida are simply too volatile to

be treated in any manner other than with caution and scientific

awareness. Politics, legal pressures, and emotionalism have the

tendency to push science and logic to the back burner. Yet, when

the controversy settles, it is generally left up to science and

logic to provide the lasting solutions.










THE NEW SUGAR PROGRAM IN THE 1990 FARM BILL

Jose Alvarez, Agricultural Economist
Leo C. Polopolus, Agricultural Economist

INTRODUCTION

After nine months of debate and intense lobbying by all

parties concerned, Congress.approved the Food, Agriculture,

Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 (also known as the 1990 Farm

Bill), and President Bush signed it into law in November 1990.

The new Farm Bill also contains a Sugar Program which becomes

effective on October 1, 1991 and covers the 1991 through 1996

sugar crops. Although previous legislation remained essentially

unchanged, new provisions were incorporated in the new Act.

The purpose of this presentation is to summarize the main

features of the Sugar Program contained in the new Farm Bill.

This information will also appear in "Sugar in the 1990 Farm

Bill" published by the Food and Resource Economics Department at

the University of Florida in the Food and Resource Economics

Sugar Policy Series No. 6.

MAIN FEATURES OF THE SUGAR PROGRAM

Loan Program

The loan rate was frozen at the current 18 cents per pound

for the life of the Act. Efforts to reduce the loan rate, as

opposed to most other commodities, were not successful. The loan

period, however, was extended from six to nine months.

Market Stabilization Price

The Market Stabilization Price (MSP) is determined as the

sum of the loan rate plus interest charged on the loan, a freight










charge, and a small market incentive. The MSP of 21.95 cents per

pound established by USDA for the 1989-90 crop remains unchanged.

The MSP was calculated as follows:

Loan rate: 18.00 cents
Freight charge: 3.04
Interest: 0.71
Incentive factor: 0.20

Import Quotas

A minimum import quota of 1.25 million short tons, raw

value, was established, as well as marketing controls on domestic

sugar, if imports are projected to fall below 1.25 million tons.

This mechanism is in agreement with the implementation on October

1, 1990, of a two-tiered tariff scheme designed to satisfy GATT's

ruling that the U.S. sugar quotas were illegal under

international trade law.

The first step of the new program consists of sugar quotas

and a low tariff of 0.625 cents per pound for foreign imports up

to 1.725 million tons of raw sugar. The second step involves no

sugar quotas for imports in excess of 1.725 million tons for the

1990-91 sugar year. However, a tariff of 16 cents per pound will

be imposed on all sugar imports exceeding 1.725 million tons.

Re-Export Program

A new re-export program had to be designed as a result of

the implementation of a new sugar import system based on the

tariff-based quota explained in the previous section. In the

past, participants in the re-export program could import sugar

outside of the quota at world prices.

The new program requires that the raw sugar imported under

the re-export program will not fall within the import amount









authorized under the minimum tariff of 0.625 cents. The sugar

will have to come from those countries holding U.S. quotas.

Imports from other countries, subjected to the 16-cent tariff,

will not be considered as part of the re-export program.

Program Service Fee

A Program Service Fee (PSF) was imposed on sugar and other

commodities as a revenue enhancement device. Designed to start on

October 1, 1991, it will be paid to the Commodity Credit

Corporation (CCC) by "the first processor of sugar cane or sugar

beets", although the intention is that "the assessment be shared

equitably between processors and producers, based upon historical

or contractual division of returns". It amounts to one percent

(0.18 cents per pound) non-refundable PSF (marketing assessment)

of the 18-cent average loan rate for raw sugar and one percent

(0.193 cents per pound) of 19.3 cents for refined sugar to meet

budget deficit reduction goals.

Marketing Controls

Domestic marketing controls can be imposed under the 1990

Farm Bill upon not only sugar cane and sugar beet processors, but

also manufacturers of crystalline fructose from corn. If the

Secretary of Agriculture determines that foreign imports of sugar

are projected to be less than 1.25 million short tons, marketing

allotments are to be imposed upon domestic sugar cane and sugar

beet processors in a manner that is fair, efficient, and

equitable to producers, processors, and refiners. Allotments

imposed upon crystalline fructose manufacturers cannot exceed the

equivalent of 200,000 tons of sugar, and must also be allocated










in a fair, efficient, and equitable manner.

The marketing allotments must be based on: (a) actual

marketing during the 1985 through 1989 crop years; (b)

processing and refining capacity; and (c) ability to market.

Individual producer controls, known as proportionate shares,

are also authorized by the 1990 Farm Bill to align farm

production with processor marketing allotments if it is deemed

that processor allotments alone will not adequately control

output. The overall effect of these provisions (that guarantee

foreign imports of at least 1.25 million tons of sugar) will be

to diminish the trend toward slightly increased domestic acreages

for sugar cane. Instead, domestic sugar growers will more likely

focus upon improved production and processing productivity and

efficiency.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In summary, the 1990 Farm Bill (a) froze the loan rate at

the current 18 cents per pound and extended the loan period from

six to nine months; (b) left intact the MSP at 21.95 cents per

pound; (c) set a minimum import quota of 1.25 million short tons,

raw value, with a two-tiered tariff scheme; (d) redefined the re-

export program to make it consistent with the new sugar import

system; (e) imposed a program service fee of 0.18 cents per pound

on raw sugar and of 0.193 cents per pound on refined sugar; and

(f) provided for the establishment of marketing controls on sugar

if foreign imports are projected to be less than 1.25 million

short tons. The new Farm Bill, however, will be subjected to

change during 1991 if an agreement to reduce trade barriers is










reached during the Uruguay Round of negotiations of the General

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).










PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE 1990-91
SUGARCANE ENTERPRISE BUDGET

Jose Alvarez, Agricultural Economist
Thomas J. Schueneman, Extension Agent II

INTRODUCTION

Costs and returns information for sugarcane grown on muck

soils was last developed for the 1983-84 season (Alvarez and

Rohrmann, 1985). Preliminary updated figures for the 1990-91

season are summarized in this report. More detailed information

will appear in the Economic Information Report entitled "Costs

and Returns for Sugarcane Production on Muck Soils in Florida,

1990-91" to be published by the Food and Resource Economics

Department at the University of Florida later this year.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The figures in this report were developed with a

computerized sugarcane budget generator (Rohrmann and Alvarez,

1985). Since many variables influence sugarcane production in

southern Florida, several assumptions were needed in developing

this budget.

List of Assumptions

Type of grower: Independent producer.

Type of farm: A 640-acre farm.

Land distribution and yields: Table 1.

Molasses yield: 6.2 gallons per net ton of cane.

Machinery and equipment: Table 2.

Interest rate: 12% for machinery loans and operating

capital.

Fuel prices: $1.25/gal of regular gasoline and $1.20/gal of










diesel fuel.

Labor costs: $6.50/hr for labor and $7.80/hr for machinery

operator, both including fringe benefits.

Cultural practices for plant cane: Table 3.

Cultural practices for ratoon cane: Table 4.

Cost of harvesting, loading and hauling: $12/gross ton.

Land taxes: $35.06/acre, including millage tax, drainage

district tax, and the $5 self-imposed tax.

Land charge: $125/acre.

Price of sugar: 22.50 ct/lb.

Price of cane: $25.88/standard ton (22.5 x 1.15).

Price of molasses: $65/ton, or 38 ct/gal.

Other specific assumptions concerning cultural practices,

materials used, machinery efficiencies, etc., appear in the

corresponding tables.

Data Sources

Data for cultural activities, equipment used, and their

corresponding efficiencies were obtained through personal

interviews with producers and remain unchanged from the previous

budget. Updated information on costs and prices were obtained

from local producers. Additional information was provided by

local firms servicing the growers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The computer program generated a summary break-down of

production cost estimates by activity (Table 5). The first four

major headings (land preparation, planting, plant cane

cultivation, and ratoon cane cultivation) show summary numbers










from Tables 3 and 4. The source of the numbers for harvesting and

overhead activities is Table 6.

A summary of revenues and costs was also computed (Table 7).

On the revenue side, plant and first ratoon canes accounted for

about 66% of total revenues, while second ratoon cane represented

almost 27%. The contribution of molasses was close to 7% of total

revenues. Planting showed the highest percentage of all

preharvest variable costs with 9.2%, followed by ratoon cane

cultivation with 6.9%. Harvesting costs represented more than 46%

of total costs, while the figure for fixed costs was 25.6%.

Estimated variable costs represented 58.7% of estimated total

revenues, while fixed costs accounted for 20.1%. A net margin of

21.2% was a residual to the producer and includes management and

risk (Table 7).

The break-down of the returns to various factors of

production facilitates the estimation of the value of the

resources used in sugarcane production and is designed to test

the economic profitability of the sugarcane operation as an

economic unit (Table 8). Total revenue amounted to an estimate of

$1,121 per acre. Deducting variable and fixed costs (excluding

land) left $363 as the return to land, management, and risk. With

the land charge of $125 per acre, the return to management and

risk was $238 per acre.

The previous results allow the computation of costs and

returns for the different units of production. The total cost was

obtained by adding total variable and total fixed costs ($421,054

+ $144,001 = $565,055). The total net return equals total










revenues minus total variable costs minus total fixed costs

($717,251 $421,054 $144,001 = $152,196) (Table 7).

Gross acreage is the total farm acreage, or 640 acres. Net

acreage is the total acreage minus roads, ditches, and canals

(640 76 = 564). Harvested acreage is net acreage minus followed

acreage (564 81 = 483) (Table 1).

Gross tons produced amounted to 21,931. Net tons were

20,835, while the number of standard tons was 25,818 (Table 6).

Dividing total costs and total net returns by the

corresponding unit measures provides the following results:

Gross Net Harv. Gross Net Stand.
acre acre acre ton ton ton
Total cost ($) 883 1,002 1,170 25.76 27.12 21.89
Net return ($) 238 270 315 6.94 7.30 5.89

Estimates for individual farms in the area would fluctuate

from the representative farm due to factors varying from the

assumptions of this study. Among these factors, yields

(particularly sucrose), method of harvesting, and type of cane

(corporate or cooperative instead of independent cane), are the

most important ones. In addition, some economies of scale are

present in larger operations.

REFERENCES

Alvarez, Jose and Francisco Rohrmann. Costs and Returns for
Sugarcane Production on Muck Soils in Florida. 1983-84, Economic
Information Report 204, Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, January 1985.
Rohrmann, Francisco and Jose Alvarez. Sugar Cane Budget
Generator, Circular 687, Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, September 1985.









Table 1. Assumed land distribution and yields for a 640-acre
sugarcane farm on the muck soils of southern Florida,
1990-91.



Tonnage yield Sucrose yield

Land use Gross Net Stand.
tons/ % tons/ % tons/
Status Acres % acre trash acre sucrose acre


Fallow 81 12.6 -

Plant cane 161 25.2 50.91' 5 48.36 14.48 57.98

1st. ratoon 161 25.2 46.77 5 44.43 15.15 56.25

2nd. ratoon 161 25.2 38.54 5 36.61 15.09 46.13

Other 76 11.8 -

Total 640 100.0


'Half is from fallow land and half from successive planting.
Eighty-one acres at 53.89 gross tons, and 80 acres at 47.89 gross
tons, respectively, average 50.91 gross tons per acre.
bIncludes roads, canals, and ditches.











Table 2. Estimated initial investment and assumptions for machinery and equipment used on
a 640-acre sugarcane farm on the muck soils of southern Florida, 1990-91.


Fixed costs


No. of New Fuel/ Depre- Tx. &
Item units cost Life hour ciation Inter. Repair insr.

$ Yrs. Gal. ---------------$--------------

Tractor, 110-115 HP 2 48,000 12 5.2 7,200 6,336 2,880 960
Tractor, 60 HP 1 24,000 12 4.0 1,800 1,584 720 240
Disk, offset, 12', 24" 1 5,800 10 522 383 174 58
Disk, harrow, 21', 21" 2 10,000 10 1,800 1,320 600 200
Disk, 8', 24" 1 3,000 10 270 198 90 30
Chisel plow, 12', 20" 1 3,300 10 297 218 99 33
Land leveler, 8-row, 30" 1 6,300 10 567 416 189 63
Mole drain, 2-row 1 3,000 10 270 198 90 30
Furrow plow, 3-row 1 2,500 10 225 165 75 25
Covering rig 1 3,600 10 324 238 108 36
Scratcher, 3-row 2 2,600 10 468 343 156 52
Rolling cultivator 2 2,570 10 463 339 154 51
Rotary mower, 7' 1 1,800 10 162 119 54 18
Pick-up truck 1 11,650 5 2,097 769 350 117
Pump, 36" pipe, 92 HP 1 24,600 10 7.0 2,214 1,624 738 246

Total 215,890 18,679 14,250 6,477 2,159












Table 3. Preharvest cultural practices performed by different machinery and equipment to produce 161 acres of plant cane
on the muck soils of southern Florida, 1990-91.


Land preparation Planting Cultivation

Heavy Light Chisel- Ditch Lev- Mole Ferti- Furrow- Cut. Hand- Seed Scratch- Mech. Herb.
dskg. dskg. inga clean.b eling drain.c lizingd ing canee lingf cover. ing cultv. appl.h

Times over 3 9 0.3 1 2 0.5 1 1 1 1 1 12 3 1
- - - - - -Acres/day- - - - - - -
Operator 30 45 45 0 40 36 0 55 0 0 40 50 40 0
Tractor, 110-115 HP 30 45 45 0 40 36 0 55 0 0 40 0 40 0
Tractor, 60 HP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0
Labor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 0
Crew size (#) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
----------------------- -$/acre ----------- - -------
Custom hired 0 0 0 7.45 0 0 5.25 0 27.00 88.00 0 0 0 3.00
Materials 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.00 0 175.00 0 25.549 0 0 11.00

aAbout one-third of the land is assumed to be chiseled due to variations in soil depth.
bTwo miles are cleaned at $600/mile and includes soil spreading.
COne 10" diameter mole plow is pulled 2' deep every 20'.
d500 lb of 0-10-40 plus micronutrients at $160/ton.

eFive tons of cane at $35/ton plus a cutting cost of $27/acre.
fIncludes $6 for loading, $40 for hauling, and $42 for dropping.

919.5 lb of Phorate 200 at $1.71/lb.
h1 gal of Atrazine 4L at $11/gal plus $3 for custom ground application.










Table 4. Preharvest cultural practices performed by different
machinery and equipment to produce 322 acres of ratoon
cane on the muck soils of southern Florida, 1990-91.

'-~--q


Spread. Disk
fodder cult.


Times over


Operator
Tractor, 110-115 HP
Tractor, 60 HP


Custom hired
Materials


Rol. Ferti- Herb.Chisel-
cult. lizing' appl.b ingc


2 0.5


- - -- -Acres/day - - -
36 30 36 0 0 40
0 0 0 0 0 40
36 30 36 0 0 0

- - - -$/acre- - - -
0 0 0 3.50 3.00 0
0 0 0 28.00 25.23 0


a400 lb of 0-10-40 without micronutrients at $140/ton.

bone application of 1 gal of Atrazine 4L at $11/gal, plus 0.125 gal
of Evik at $9.70/gal. Another application of 0.75 gal of Atrazine,
plus 0.75 gal of Asulox at $40/gal. A charge of $3/acre is made
for custom ground application.

CAbout only one-half of the land is assumed to be chiseled due to
variations in soil depth.










Table 5. Summary of production cost estimates by activity for a 640-acre sugarcane farm on
the muck soils of southern Florida, 1990-91.




Activity Total $ $/acre Activity Total $ $/acre


LAND PREPARATIONa RATOON CULTIVATIONb
Heavy disking 2,145 13.33 Spreading fodder 1,078 3.35
Light disking 4,291 26.65 Disk cultivation 2,587 8.03
Chiseling 143 0.89 Rolling cultivation 6,467 20.08
Ditch cleaning 1,199 7.45 Fertilization 10,143 31.50
Land leveling 1,073 6.66 Herbicide application 18,180 56.46
Mole draining 298 1.85 Chiseling 536 1.67
Fertilization 7.285 45.25 Subtotal 38,991 121.09
Subtotal 16,434 102.08

PLANTINGa HARVESTINGc
Furrowing 390 2.42 Plant cane 98,358 610.92
Cutting cane 32,522 202.00 First ratoon 90,360 561.24
Seed cost & handling 14,186 88.00 Second ratoon 74.459 462.48
Seed covering and Subtotal 263,177 544.88
insecticide 4.910 30.50
Subtotal 51,990 322.92
OVERHEAD ACTIVITIESd
PLANT CANE CULTIVATIONa Edging 640 1.00
Scratching 4,656 28.92 Pest control 5,804 9.07
Mechanic. cultivation 1,455 9.04 Water control 4,200 6.56
Herbicide application 2.254 14.00 Ripener application 1.723 2.69
Subtotal 8,365 51.96 Subtotal 12,367 19.32


'To the 161 acres in plant cane.
bTo the 322 acres in first and second ratoon cane.
CTo the 483 acres in plant, first, and second ratoon cane.
dSee Table 6 for a description of the activities.










Table 6. Estimated harvesting and overhead activities costs for a
640-acre sugarcane farm on the muck soils of southern
Florida, 1990-91.


Overh.
Tons harvested Harv. activ.
Item Gross Net Stand. cost cost
- -Tons- - -
Harvesting
Plant cane 8,179 7,787 9,335 98,358
First ratoon 7,530 7,153 9,056 90,360
Second ratoon 6,205 5,895 7,427 74,459

Total 21,931 20,835 25,818 263,177


Overhead activities
Edginga 640
Rodent controlb 2,294
Borer controlc 3,510
Water control 4,200
Ripener application 1.723
Total 12,367



'Estimate based on a cost of $1/acre.
bTwo applications of 5 lb of Rodenticide AG 2% zinc phosphite per
acre to 75% of the ratoon cane (241.5 acres) at $0.85/lb and
$1/acre for application cost.
CCharges for scouting at $3.50/acre for the season for 322 acres.
Includes two insecticide applications to 161 acres at a cost of
$7.41/acre for 0.1875 gal of Guthion 2L at $23.50/gal and $3/acre
for the aircraft.
dAssumes 500 hours of operation with a fuel consumption of 7 gal/hr
at $1.20/gal of diesel fuel.

eOne application of 9 oz of Polado at $0.80/oz and $3.50/acre for
the aircraft, to 161 acres of second ratoon cane.










Table 7. Estimated revenues, costs, and margins for a 640-acre
sugarcane farm on the muck soils of southern Florida,
1990-91.



Revenues and costs
Per Per
Item acre st. ton Total Percent
-----------------------------S------


Total revenues
Plant cane
First ratoon
Second ratoon
Molasses payment

Total

Total variable costs
Land preparation
Planting
Plant cane cultivation
Ratoon cane cultivation
Overhead activities
Miscellaneous
Interest
Harvesting

Total

Total fixed costs
Machinery and equipment
Land charge
Taxes: land and drainage

Total

Summary of revenues and costs


1,501
1,456
1,194
77

1,121


25.7
81.2
13.1
60.9
19.3
20.0
26.4
411.2


241,602
234,358
192,204
49,087

27.78 717,251


0.64
2.01
0.32
1.51
0.48
0.50
0.66
10.19


16,434
51,990
8,365
38,991
12,367
12,815
16,915
263,177


657.9 16.31 421,054


64.9
125.0
35.1

225.0


1.61
3.10
0.87

5.58


41,563
80,000
22,438

144,001


Revenues
Variable costs
Gross margin
Fixed costs
Net margin


1,120.7
657.9
462.8
225.0
237.8


27.78
16.31
11.47
5.58
5.89


717,251
421,054
296,196
144,001
152,195


100.0
58.7
41.3
20.1
21.2


OTotal revenues are divided by 161 acres in plant cane and in the
two ratoons, and by 640 acres in molasses. The remaining
calculations are based on 640 acres.

bAt 12% of previous variable costs and include pick-up truck use,
office supplies, telephone, accounting services, dues, etc.


33.7
32.7
26.8
6.9

100.0


2.9
9.2
1.5
6.9
2.2
2.3
3.0
46.6

74.5


7.4
14.2
4.0

25.6










Table 8. Estimated total returns to factors of production per
gross acre for a 640-acre sugarcane farm on the muck
soils of southern Florida, 1990-91.



Item Charge Return
S1gross acre- -

Total revenues 1,121

Variable costs 658

Return to fixed costs, land, and
management and risk 463

Fixed costs 100

Return to land, and management and risk 363

Land charge 125

Return to management and risk 238
tl i -- -