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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Environmental effects on characters...
 Intergeneric hybridization in sugarcane...
 Canal point variety update...
 1988-89 sugarcane variety...
 Breeding for resistance to ratoon...
 Breeding for rust resistance
 Yield comparison of CP72-1210 and...
 Metarhizium: A fungus that attacks...
 Influence of depth to water table...
 EAA water quality project...
 Factors affecting future sugar...


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Sugarcane growers seminar
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054444/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sugarcane growers seminar
Series Title: Belle Glade EREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Belle Glade EREC (Fla.)
Everglades Research and Education Center
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Everglades Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service.
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Creation Date: 1989
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Sugarcane -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Sugarcane -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Annual
General Note: Description based on: 1989; title from cover.
General Note: Last issue consulted: 1993.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001831947
oclc - 40943253
notis - AJQ6045
lccn - 2003229204
System ID: UF00054444:00001

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Environmental effects on characters evaluated in early stages of selection
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Intergeneric hybridization in sugarcane breeding program
        Page 5
    Canal point variety update (1989)
        Page 6
    1988-89 sugarcane variety trials
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Breeding for resistance to ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Breeding for rust resistance
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Yield comparison of CP72-1210 and CP78-1247 and its relationship to sugarcane rust
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Metarhizium: A fungus that attacks insects and its potential for sugarcane grub control
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Influence of depth to water table on yield of sugarcane grown on a sandy soil
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    EAA water quality project update
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Factors affecting future sugar legislation
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/so



BELLE GLADE EREC RESEARCH REPORT; j
EV-1989-3 i

1989

SSUGARCANE

GROWERS

SEMINAR
EVERGLADES RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
BELLE GLAD.A, FLORIDA
MAY 25, 1989









1989 SUGARCANE GROWERS SEMINAR


THURSDAY, MAY 25, 1989
EVERGLADES RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA

PROGRAM PAGE

Environmental Effects on Characteristics Evaluated in Early 1
Stages of Selection.
C. W. Deren, Plant Breeder, IFAS, Everglades REC
J. D. Miller, Plant Breeder, USDA Sugarcane Field Station
P. Y. P. Tai, Plant Breeder, USDA Sugarcane Field Station

Intergeneric Hybridization in Sugarcane Breeding Programs. 5
P. Y. P. Tai, Plant Breeder, USDA Sugarcane Field Station

Canal Point Variety Update 1989. 6
B. Glaz, Agronomist, USDA Sugarcane Field Station

1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trials. 7
F. J. Coale, Extension Agrononist, IFAS, Everglades REC
M. F. Ulloa, Agronomist, New Hope Sugar Coop.

Breeding for Resistance to Ratoon Stunting Disease in Sugarcane. 13
M. J. Davis, Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Tropical REC
J. L. Dean, Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Tropical REC

Breeding For Rust Resistance. 20
J. D. Miller, Plant Breeder, USDA Sugarcane Field Station

A Yield Comparison of CP72-1210 and CP78-1247 and Its 22
Relationship to Rust.
R. N. Raid, Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Everglades REC
D. L. Anderson, Sugarcane Nutritionist, IFAS, Everglades REC
F. J. Coale, Extension Agronomist, IFAS, Everglades REC

Metarhizium: A Fungus That Attacks Insects and Its Potential 27
for Sugarcane Grub Control.
R. N. Raid, Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Everglades REC
R. H. Cherry, Sugarcane Entomologist, IFAS, Everglades REC

Influence of Depth to Water Table on Yield of Sugarcane 30
Grown on a Sandy Soil.
D. J. Pitts, Agric. Engineer, IFAS, Southwest Florida REC
F. J. Coale, Extension Agronomist, IFAS, Everglades REC
D. L. Myhre, Soil Scientist, IFAS, Gainesville
J. M. Grimm, Biologist, IFAS, Southwest Florida REC

EAA Water Quality Project Update. 35
F. T. Izuno, Irrigation Engineer, IFAS, Everglades REC

Factors Affecting Future Sugar Legislation. 39
J. Alvarez, Agricultural Economist, IFAS, Everglades REC








Environmental Effects on Characters Evaluated in
Early Stages of Selection

C. W. Deren, J. D. Miller and P. Y. P. Tai

INTRODUCTION

Selection of clones in the early stages of the Florida Sugarcane breeding

program at Canal Point is based solely on obvious physical attributes of a clone

such as stalk size (diameter and height), disease reaction, stalk number, lodg-

ing, etc. No mill samples are taken, so selection is essentially for biomass.

Certain characteristics that are selected against, such as stalk cracks, pithi-

ness, and holes (tube), are perceived as detrimental but the effect environment

has on their expression is questionable. In addition, the relationship of pith-

iness and holes to yield is not satisfactorily understood.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of environment on

stalk diameter, cracks, pith and holes. Since water is a major feature of the

Everglades environment and variable in our research fields, it was chosen as our

environmental treatment. Specifically we sought to: 1) develop preliminary

sampling and procedural information for a multi-location experiment, 2) obtain

some preliminary estimates of the effect of environment on the characters under

study and 3) investigate the relationship of pith and holes to yield.

MATERIALS & METHODS

Twelve sugarcane clones were selected for their various expression of

cracks, pith, holes and diameter (Table 1). Single-eye pieces were germinated

in flats in the greenhouse in the winter of 1988 and then transplanted into ten-

gallon plastic cans containing 50% field soil and 50% masonry sand on March 21,

1988. Each can had one stool.

Pots were arranged in three water treatments, flood, control, and dry.

Clones were randomized and replicated eight times per treatment. In the flooded

treatment, the cans were placed in rubber feed tubs which were 20 cm deep. Cans








were saturated at least once daily to the point where the feed tub and can over-

S flowed. Thus, with no drainage the soil was flooded until evapotranspiration

reduced the water level. Since the feed tubs were always full, the soil always

was flooded within 15-20 cm of the soil surface. The control treatment was a

daily watering with a drip system that we use for our clones for crossing, where

excess water could drain from the cans. The dry treatment was watered by rain-

fall and supplemented when stress symptoms were obvious. Water treatments com-

menced on June 3, 1988 when plants were well-established and tillered.

From the 16-20 of September 1988 measurements were taken on cracks, diame-

ter, pith, holes, stalk weight, stalk volume and stalk count. Diameter was

measured at the center of the internode perpendicular to the eye at about 1.5 m

above ground. Four stalks were measured per stool. The number of cracks were

counted for each stalk of a three-stalk sample. Diameter of holes or pith was

measured at the top, middle, and bottom of each stalk of a two-stalk sample.

Another two-stalk sample was weighed, measured for volume, and milled to extract

juice, which was also weighed. Volume of cane was measured by weight of water

displaced when a sample was totally submerged in a tank. Stalk density was

calculated as stalk weight divided by volume and extraction was calculated as

juice weight divided by stalk weight.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Components of yield such as diameter and stalk weight were significantly

different by treatment, which is logical since these components would be

expected to differ with the general vigor and growth of the plant. Density as

calculated by stalk weight divided by volume was significantly different between

clones, with clones having a greater proportion of pith or hole being less dense

S than those.without pith or holes. There was no difference in density between

treatments, indirect evidence that pith and holes did not increase or decrease








by treatment. However, the relative proportion the diameter of pith and hole to

stalk diameter was greatest in the flooded treatment for ten of the twelve

clones, which would imply a treatment effect on pith and holes. The discrepancy

may be due to our use of only a two stalk sample for most evaluation. Clones

which had been selected for very large proportion of pith remained virtually the

same in all treatments. However, the clone MISC., which had a large hole, had

almost a 66% greater hole in the wet treatment than in the control. Cracks were

significantly different between treatments with ten clones having the highest

number of cracks in the control treatment and nine clones having the lowest

number of cracks in the dry treatment. It appeared that favorable growing

conditions favor cracking, but only clones which are predisposed to cracking

will do so.

CONCLUSION

Preliminary analysis and conclusions show that environment does affect

expression of pith, hole, and stalk cracks but does so primarily in clones which

express these traits to a large degree. Pithy or cracky clones may be more

severely affected in different environments, but clones which manifest little or

no cracking or pithiness appear to do so consistently over environments. Clones

appear to become more pithy or have larger holes with wetter conditions. The

relationship of these characters to yield shows appears that they may reduce

yields when highly expressed, but the importance of a moderate expression of

pith or hole has yet to be determined. Larger samples and a wider range of

expression of characters will be useful in a subsequent multi-location

experiment.








Table 1. Clones selected for various stalk characters


Clone

57-603

72-1210

84-1840

85-1773

MISC.

X 84-579

X 84-589

X 84-633B

X 84-633C

X 84-633D

X 84-633E

X 84-84


Character

large diameter

slight hole and crack

cracky

thin

large hole

mod. pith few cracks

pithy

thin, solid

solid

very pithy

cracky

mod. pith










Intergeneric Hybridization in Sugarcane

Breeding Program

P.Y.P. Tai

USDA-ARS

Sugarcane Field Station

Canal Point, FL

ABSTRACT



The most economic and effective improvement of sugarcane is through genetic

manipulation. Breeding has made significant contributions in cane and sugar

yields, disease and insect tolerance, stress tolerance, and other characters.

Although we still enjoy the yield increase in sugarcane, sugarcane breeders

should take the lead in developing new information necessary to continue

increases through genetic improvement. One of the research approaches is to

transfer desirable genes from sugarcane related genera to cultivated sugarcane

clones through intergeneric hybridization. Two of the sugarcane related genera,

Miscanthus and Erianthus, are of great interest because of their wide

adaptation, relatively high stalk numbers, excellent ratooning ability, and

disease resistance. Some Miscanthus species also show superior cold tolerance.

Intergeneric hybrids may also serve as foundation breeding stocks and increase

the hybrid vigor of cultivated sugarcane in the future. The efforts of

utilizing the Miscanthus and Erianthus germplasm in the long-term breeding

program at the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, Florida, will be

briefly discussed.









Canal Point Variety Update (1989)


Barry Glaz

Agronomist
USDA Sugarcane Field Station
Canal Point, Florida

The commercial release of a Canal Point sugarcane variety
occurs 9 to 11 years after the birth of the variety. Each year
there are new crosses and new births (true seeds) that lead to the
planting of about 100,000 seedlings. We select about 10,000
seedlings by visual characteristics and plant them in Stage I at
Canal Point. There are about 1000 varieties in Stage II, also
chosen by visual inspection. Yields estimated in Stage II
determine the most promising 131 varieties to plant in Stage III
in the following year. There are Stage III experiments planted at
4 locations in replicated tests. Stage III sampling and yield
estimation occurs in plant cane and first ratoon. The 8-10 most
promising Stage III varieties then advance to Stage IV. There are
Stage IV experiments at 9 locations.. We harvest Stage IV
experiments from plant cane through second ratoon. The Florida
Sugarcane Variety Committee approves all variety advances after
Stage II. The committee advances varieties that yield at least as
well as the commercial check (CP 70-1133), unless there are
problems. High fiber content or disease susceptibility are two
major reasons for not advancing high-yielding varieties. Also, the
committee may advance varieties that are not high yielding but that
have other favorable characteristics. High sugar content early in
the harvesting season or suitability to mechanical harvesting are
two such characteristics. This presentation will summarize the
following Stage IV varieties: CP 81-1384, CP 82-1172, CP 82-1592,
CP 82-2043, CP 84-1062 CP 84-1198, CP 84-1322, CP 84-1591, and CP
84-1861.










1988-89 SUGARCANE VARIETY TRIALS


Frank J. Coale and Modesto Ulloa


The current University of Florida, IFAS, commercial
sugarcane variety trial program was initiated during the 1986-87
harvest season. Prior to this, a side-by-side comparison of
numerous commercial varieties that had been released in different
years was not publicly available.

During the 1988-89 harvest campaign, 5 variety trial
locations were harvested. Three locations were plant-cane crops
and 2 locations were 2nd-stubble crops. The second-stubble
harvest marks the end of a test at a given location. Cane yield
is reported as gross tons of cane per acre (TCA). The calculated
yield of sugar per gross ton of cane (S/T) and tons sugar per
acre (TSA) are based on crusher juice analysis.

Table 1 presents the yield data from New Farm, Inc. The
varieties are listed in descending order by mean TSA for the
three-crop cycle. Each TSA mean followed by the same letter is
not significantly different. At this location, CP70-1133 had the
highest mean TSA. This high productivity was due to consistently
high TCA for all three harvests. CP70-1133 had nearly the lowest
mean S/T of the 9 varieties tested at this location. The second-
best mean TSA was produced by CP78-2114. This variety was
sweeter (higher S/T) than CP70-1133 but a considerable drop in
TCA for the 2nd-stubble harvest reduced the 3-crop mean TCA by
18% in comparison to CP70-1133. The sweetest variety was CP74-
2005. The high S/T combined with an average TCA made CP74-2005
the third best overall sugar yielding variety. The most widely
grown variety in the Everglades Agricultural Area, CP72-1210,
placed 4th at this location. Again, as with CP78-2114 and CP74-
2005, the low 2nd-stubble crop TCA was the primary reason for the
3-harvest mean TSA of CP72-1210 to be less than CP70-1133.

The yield data for the South Florida Industries variety
trial are presented in Table 2. Once again, CP70-1133 had the
highest 3-harvest average TSA. CP70-1133 also had the highest
mean TCA. There was a substantial drop in TCA of all varieties,
including CP70-1133, at the 2nd-stubble harvest. At this
location, CP74-2005 had the highest mean S/T, as it did at the
New Farm, Inc. site. This attribute resulted in CP74-2005 having
the second-best mean TSA at this location. CP72-2086 had a
similar mean S/T to CP74-2005 but, low TCA prevented CP72-2086
from producing comparable TSA. The third-best sugar producing
variety was CP75-1082. This variety had the lowest mean S/T of
all the varieties tested at this location. A good mean TCA
accounted for the 3rd-place performance of CP75-1082. The
popular CP72-1210 placed 6th in sugar production at this
location. The 3 lowest yielding varieties, CP72-2086, CP78-1247,
and CP63-588, all had very large decreases in TCA between the 1st


1_1______________________









and 2nd-stubble crop harvests. CP63-588 exhibited a TCA decrease
of greater than 50% between the plant-cane, Ist-stubble, and 2nd-
stubble harvests.

The yield data from the plant-cane harvest at 20-Mile Bend
Farm are presented in Table 3. Across all varieties, this
location produced high-tonnage, low-sugar sugarcane. Again,
CP70-1133 had the highest TSA. CP78-2114 was a close 2nd-place
variety. Both of these varieties had very high TCA and average
S/T. CP72-2086 had the 3rd-highest TSA which resulted from low
TCA and the highest S/T of all of the varieties at this location.
A newly released variety, CP80-1827, was 4th-best in sugar
production. This variety had higher than average TCA and average
S/T. CP78-1247 had the lowest TCA and TSA of all the varieties
tested. This poor performance was, in part, due to severe rust
infestation on this variety at this location.

Table 4 presents the variety trial data from Closter Farms,
Inc. Across all varieties, this location produced high-tonnage,
high-sugar sugarcane. Again, CP70-1133 was the top performing
variety. CP70-1133 produced the highest TCA with an average S/T
which resulted in the highest TSA for this location. The 2nd-
best variety was CP80-1827. This newly released variety produced
slightly lower TCA and S/T than CP70-1133. CP78-2114 and CP75-
1553 were the 3rd and 4th-highest in TSA production. Another
newly released variety, CP80-1557, placed 5th. CP80-1557
produced the 3rd-highest TCA but, had the lowest S/T of all the
varieties at this location. The TCA and TSA of CP72-2086 and
CP78-1247 were the lowest of the 8 varieties tested. Both of
these varieties were affected by diseases that resulted in poor
TCA. Stand establishment and TCA of CP72-2086 were limited by
pineapple disease. CP78-1247 productivity was limited by rust
infestation.

The test at Bass & Berner is the first commercial variety
trial to be conducted on a sandy soil. The plant-cane yield data
from this sandland site are presented in Table 5. This site
produced low-tonnage sugarcane with extremely high juice sucrose
concentrations. The average S/T for the 10 varieties was 302
which corresponds to a crusher juice sucrose concentration of
20.8%. The highest TCA and TSA was produced by CP73-1547. The
TSA of CP72-2086, CP70-1133, CP80-1827, and CP75-1553 were not
significantly different from that of the top performer, CP73-
1547. CP75-1553 has the lowest S/T of the 10 varieties but had a
higher than average TCA. CP74-2005 had the highest S/T but had
very low TCA. The stand establishment of CP80-1557 was poor and
final TCA was very low.












Table 1. 1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trial, New Farm, Inc.


TWP:42S RNG:38E SEC:26 SOIL: Pahokee muck
PLANTING DATE: 10-12-85 HARVEST DATES: 1-25-87, 3-8-88, 11-5-88

VARIETY CROP TCA S/T TSA
CP70-1133 PLANT CANE 63.5 211 6.71


CP78-2114



CP74-2005




CP72-1210




CP65-357




CP75-1082




CP72-2086




CP73-1547




CP78-1247


1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN
PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN


68.5
56.3
62.7

63.2-
54.6
37.1
51.7
51.2
48.7
38.9
46.3

58.1
47.5
34.6
46.7

47.1
58.3
45.5
50.3

46.8
51.8
44.8
47.8

55.1
46.4
33.3
45.0

52.9
50.5
37.4
46.9

47.6
49.3
32.4
43.1


242
231
228

236
268
228
244
229
288
252
256

247
262
225
254

206
250
225
227

224
245
237
235

236
269
241
249

206
261
225
231

226
263
261
250


8.29
6.49
7.16 A

7.45
7.32
4.24
6.34 Al
5.88
7.02
4.90
5.93 B

7.16
6.22
4.36
5.92 B

4.85
7.28
5.12
5.75 B

5.26
6.35
5.30
5.64 B

6.51
6.24
4.03
5.59 B

5.47
6.58
5.42
5.42 B

5.38
6.48
4.24
5.37 B












Table 2. 1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trial, South Florida Industries.


TWP:43S RNG:39E SEC:34 SOIL: Pahokee muck
PLANTING DATE: 10-25-85 HARVEST DATES: 2-2-87, 12-17-87, 11-13-88

VARIETY CROP TCA S/T TSA


CP70-1133


CP74-2005




CP75-1082




CP78-2114




CP73-1547




CP72-1210




CP72-2086




CP78-1247




CP63-588


PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN

PLANT CANE
1st STUBBLE
2nd STUBBLE
MEAN


61.6
56.0
34.8
50.8

57.0
47.5
26.1
41.9

56.0
47.5
28.4
44.0

57.9
42.0
17.8
39.2

51.8
40.0
20.6
37.4

47.6
30.4
21.2
33.1

45.2
32.0
15.8
31.0

48.2
31.9
14.4
31.5

40.7
18.3
6.2
21.7


236
242
270
249

220
266
285
269

220
243
248
237

244
246
257
249

217
249
254
240

243
262
240
248

261
267
267
265

243
244
248
245

237
266
267
257


7.28
6.78
4.69
6.25 A


6.22
5.69
3.70
5.55 AB

6.22
5.82
3.53
5.19 ABC

7.05
5.18
2.29
4.84 BC

5.61
4.96
2.63
4.40 BC

5.80
4.00
2.54
4.11 C

5.90
4.27
2.10
4.09 CD

5.84
3.90
1.79
3.84 CD

4.82
2.44
0.83
2.70 D












Table 3. 1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trials, 20-Mile Bend Farm.


TWP:43S RNG:39E SEC:2 SOIL: Okeelanta muck
PLANTING DATE: 12-18-87 HARVEST DATE: 2-3-89

VARIETY CROP TCA S/T TSA

CP70-1133 PLANT CANE 77.9 195 7.60 A

CP78-2114 PLANT CANE 69.7 205 7.14 AB

CP72-2086 PLANT CANE 57.8 230 6.65 BC

CP80-1827 PLANT CANE 65.6 192 6.30 CD

CP73-1547 PLANT CANE 68.7 180 6.18 CD

CP74-2005 PLANT CANE 62.9 188 5.88 CDE

CP70-1547 PLANT CANE 52.4 203 5.33 E

CP78-1247 PLANT CANE 44.2 204 4.51 F





Table 4. 1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trials, Closter Farms, Inc.


TWP:43S RNG:37E SEC:12N SOIL: Pahokee muck
PLANTING DATE: 10-21-87 HARVEST DATE: 1-30-89

VARIETY CROP TCA S/T TSA

CP70-1133 PLANT CANE 75.6 266 10.06 A

CP80-1827 PLANT CANE 71.8 259 9.30 B

CP78-2114 PLANT CANE 61.4 264 8.11 C

CP75-1553 PLANT CANE 56.9 267 7.60 CD

CP80-1557 PLANT CANE 66.1 228 7.54 CD

CP72-1210 PLANT CANE 51.6 269 6.95 D

CP72-2086 PLANT CANE 45.9 267 6.15 E

CP78-1247 PLANT CANE 45.1 265 5.97 E












Table 5. 1988-89 Sugarcane Variety Trials, Bass & Berner.


TWP:43S RNG:33E SEC:7 SOIL: Immokalee sand
PLANTING DATE: 12-11-87 HARVEST DATE: 12-21-88

VARIETY CROP TCA S/T TSA

CP73-1547 PLANT CANE 34.2 300 5.14 A

CP72-2086 PLANT CANE 26.6 308 4.10 AB

CP70-1133 PLANT CANE 24.7 311 3.83 AB

CP80-1827 PLANT CANE 23.4 305 3.58 AB

CP75-1553 PLANT CANE 25.3 279 3.53 AB

CP78-2114 PLANT CANE 20.8 298 3.12 B

CP78-1247 PLANT CANE 20.8 295 3.08 B

CP74-2005 PLANT CANE 18.0 328 2.97 B

CP72-1210 PLANT CANE 17.3 310 2.70 B

CP80-1557 PLANT CANE 12.9 283 2.42 B







Breeding for Resistance to Ratoon Stunting Disease in Sugarcane

M. J. Davis and J. L. Davis

University of Florida, IFAS
Tropical Research and Education Center
Homestead, Florida


Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane (RSD) caused by the
xylem inhabiting coryneform bacterium, Clavibacter xyli subsp.
xyli Davis et al. (7), is widely regarded as causing greater
economic loss to the cane sugar industries of the world than any
other disease (10); yet paradoxically no other disease of
sugarcane is less conspicuous. Because sugarcane infected with
the RSD bacterium is overtly symptomless, the disease is often
unnoticed even when losses are significant. This is especially
true in Florida where drought stress, which enhances the effects
of RSD (14), is rare in sugarcane.
Published results (4,11) and more recent unpublished results
(Davis and Dean) of RSD incidence surveys in Florida, suggest
that clones emerging from the USDA-IFAS-Florida Sugarcane League
breeding program at Canal Point, Florida, go through the normal
eight years of agronomic testing essentially free of RSD, then
gradually become 100% infected over the next five or six years
after their release to the industry. At least this appears to be
true of clones having about the degree of RSD resistance as the
most widely grown clones, such as CP 72-1210 and CP 70-1133.
Recently, we have conducted RSD yield-loss trials as part of
a cooperative project with the USDA at Canal Point. The project
is funded in part by the Florida Sugarcane League, and
substantially aided by commercial sugarcane growers through
contributions of land, plot care, and harvest costs. The yield-
loss trials were necessary for assessment of the economic
necessity to control RSD under the unique conditions that prevail
in Florida.
Our RSD yield-loss estimates and those from a previous study
by Irey (12) are very close for clones tested in common on the
same soil type. When these estimates are considered together
with data on the incidence of RSD in Florida commercial cane,
they indicate that although losses are relatively small on a
percentage basis, they are large in absolute value because the
percentage applies to a large base (essentially the entire
hectarage in Florida every year). Even on a percentage basis,
the losses are large in relation to any reasonable estimate of
the cost of controlling RSD.
The four clones examined in our trials were CP65-357, CP70-
1133, CP72-1210, and CP74-2005. RSD yield-loss estimates
averaged 4.97% across all clones, locations, and years (Fig. 1).
The percent of the commercial hectarage in Florida occupied by
each of these clones was estimated by Coale and Glaz (2) from a
large sample. If the appropriate loss percentages are applied to
the appropriate hectarage of each of the four clones tested, the
loss on the 74% of the hectarage occupied by these four clones is
calculated as $24.8 million for raw sugar only. This calculation







Fig. 1. Yield
to RSD in


Reduction due
four clones


Yield Loss (Tonnes Sugar/Ha)
18T-- -


16-
14-

12-
0 i
10-

8-

6-

4-

2-


CP65-357


7







A


CP70-1133


/__


CP72-1210


CP74-2005


Clone






is based on 1988-89 production figures and 1987-88 sugar prices
(the latest available). A further unavoidable assumption is that
the four clones in the trial produced a proportion of the total
1988-89 raw sugar that would be indicated by their share of the
hectarage. This may or may not be an accurate assumption, but in
any case it would have little effect on the final estimate since
its main effect would be on the distribution of losses among
clones.
If it is assumed that losses in the four clones comprising
74% of the hectarage in Florida are close to the average for the
remaining 26% of the hectarage, then the total loss to the
Florida sugar industry in raw sugar only in 1988-89 is estimated
at $38.4 million or an average of $159 per hectare ($71 per
acre).
There are foreseeable changes, both genetic and
environmental, that could increase RSD losses in Florida. The
migration of sugarcane production from muck soils to sand soils,
a process that is already well underway, is expected to
accelerate as the organic soils subside (1). As an average of
all clones examined in our study, losses (TSH) were 3.2 times
greater on sand than on muck, a difference that was statistically
significant (p<.001). Fig. 2 shows how the soil type affected
loss in each clone. This will lead to substantial increases in
RSD-induced yield loss if the average level of clonal resistance
to RSD does not change.
Roach (13) has made the case that control of RSD through
heat treatment has been generally less than satisfactory around
the world, and that breeding for resistance would be a feasible
alternative if the technology for screening adequate populations
becomes available. In principle, there is no doubt that RSD can
be controlled by heat therapy, but it has not worked as well as
expected in practice. The reason seems to be that for success
the method requires careful control of the treating process,
inspection of the result, and great care to prevent or at least
retard reinfection. In short, a very high level of dedication to
the effort is necessary for almost everyone directly involved in
cane production. That level of dedication appears to be
difficult to sustain over the long run, particularly when the
cane looks healthy, even if diseased.
Recent research has shown that several parameters correlate
well with yield loss due to RSD (3,5,6,8,9). It appears likely
that one or more of these parameters can be utilized in a
breeding program to approximately rank clones for RSD resistance
without the prohibitive cost of yield trials on large numbers of
clones. Thus, an adequate screening procedure appears to be
attainable. RSD-induced yield losses in Florida are high enough
to assure that the cost of adding RSD to the breeding program
could be financed by 1/2 of 1% (or less) of the annual loss.
Control of RSD through breeding would be sustainable over the
long run.
Two parameters which should be very useful for screening
large numbers of clones for resistance to RSD are: (i) the
susceptibility of clones to infection by the pathogen (8) and
(ii) the extent of colonization of clones once infected (9).
Both parameters are inversely correlated to resistance. Since C.






Fig. 2. Affect of soil type on yield
reduction due to RSD in four clones.


Yield Loss (Tonnes Sugar/Ha)
2.5 ...

2-

1.5--i


0.5

0


- Sand


CP65-357


P7-1133
CP70-1133


CP72-1210
Clone


CP74-2005


El Muck










fiL


I


I







xyli subsp. xyli is not seed transmitted, sugarcane seedlings and
their subsequent clonally propagated progeny will remain free of
the pathogen until infection takes place. By experimentally
inoculating a number of seedpieces of each clone with the same
inoculum dose of the pathogen, the frequency of infection for
each clone can be determined. The extent of colonization can be
determined at the same time by estimating the population size of
the pathogen in s. extracted from infected stalks or by counting
the number of vascular bundles in stalk cross-sections. Rapid
serological techniques have recently been developed to
accommodate these measurements (3, 9).
To examine the feasibility of screening for resistance to
RSD using these two parameters, we obtained seed from 10 crosses
made by the USDA at Canal Point. The parents in these crosses
range from highly resistant to highly susceptible in response to
RSD. For most crosses, 30 clones were examined. For each of these
clones, 15 plants from approximately 30 inoculated seedpieces
were transplanted to the field and grown to maturity. As
standards, seedpieces of each parent were treated in a similar
manner. A single stalk from each of the resulting 4,455 plants
was sampled. The number of infected vascular bundles in a cross-
section of a lower internode from each stalk was determined using
the tissue-blot enzyme immunoassay (9).
For the 297 clones examined, a significant correlation (R =
0.87; P < 0.001) was detected between the frequency of infection
and the mean extent of vascular colonization (Fig. 3), suggesting
that the two parameters were in agreement. The apparent
susceptibility to RSD of clones varied considerably for individual
crosses. Many of the clones appeared to be highly resistant to
RSD, and some parents seemed to produce a higher proportion of
resistant progeny than others.
Overall, the results are evidence that breeding for
resistance to RSD "is a realistic goal. Efforts to adapt the
screening procedure for implementation into the breeding program
at Canal Point are now underway.


Literature Cited

1. Anon. 1983. Sugarcane Committee report. Florida
Agriculture in the 80's commodity committees. Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida. pp 105-116.
2. Coale, Frank J. and Barry Glaz. 1988. Florida's sugar cane
variety census. Sugar y Azucar. 83 (12):27, 30-31, 34.
3. Davis, M. J. 1985. Direct-count techniques for enumerating
Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli which causes ratoon stunting
disease of sugarcane. Phytopathology 75:1226-1231.
4. Davis, M. J., and J. L. Dean. 1984. Comparison of
diagnostic techniques for determining incidence of ratoon
stunting disease of sugarcane in Florida. Plant Disease
68:896-899.
5. Davis, M. J., J. L. Dean, and N. A. Harrison. 1988.
Distribution of clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli in stalks of
sugarcane cultivars differing in resistance to ratoon


-I .












Fig. 3. Correlation between vascular

colonization and frequency of infection.


R = 0.87

P <0.001


.- 'I- .-.,f .


LO









C
:3



C)
r




Q)
-3


7:
0


c-b
0



0


* e e


100-




80-




60




40-




20-




04


----- l-- -----C--- -----I--- -J-- -- -lI


Arcsin Frequency


** a-,. 4*.r/ -

:. 0 Se*
.. ere* *



*

* S
eec ~C~~l~ es
S ~ t
~ 0 ~ C
~ e
*~ e


* a







stunting disease. Plant Disease 72:443-448.
6. Davis, M. J., J. L. Dean, and N. A. Harrison. 1988.
Quantitative variability of clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli
populations in sugarcane cultivars differing in resistance to
ratoon stunting disease. Phytopathology 78:462-468.
7. Davis, M. J., A. G. Gillaspie, Jr., A. K. Vidaver, and R. W.
Harris. 1984. Clavibacter: a new genus containing some
phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria, including Clavibacter
xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov., and Clavibacter xyli
subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov., pathogens that cause ratoon
stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting
disease. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology
34:107-117.
8. Harrison, N. A. and M. J. Davis. 1986. Infectivity
titrations of Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli and sugarcane
cultivars differing in susceptibility to ratoon stunting
disease. Plant Disease 70:556-558.
9. Harrison, N. A. and M. J. Davis. 1988. Colonization of
vascular tissues by Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli in stalks of
sugarcane cultivars differing in susceptibility to ratoon
stunting disease. Phytopathology 78:722-727.
10. Hughes, C. G. 1974. The economic importance of ratoon
stunting disease. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol.
15:213-217.
11. Irey, M. S. 1985. Detection and incidence of ratoon
stunting disease:in commercial sugarcane plantings in
Florida. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 4:10-12.
12. Irey, M. S. 1986.. Yield Comparison of healthy and ratoon
stunting disease infected cane of six commercial sugarcane
varieties in Florida. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 6:24-
31.
13. Roach, B. T. 1987. -Observations on the incidence, effects,
and control of ratoon stunting disease. Proc. Australian
Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 1987 Conf.:109-116.
14. Rossler, L. A. 1974. The effects of ratoon stunting disease
on three sugarcane varieties under different irrigation
regimes. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 15:250-257.









Breeding for Rust Resistance


J. D. Miller

Rust was found in spring 1979 by Dr. Tai in our Stage II plots at Canal
Point.

I. Our approach for these first 10 years has been to try to eliminate rust
susceptible plants from the selection program. If a plant had any rust it
was eliminated from the program. Where has this approach gotten us? We
certainly have not eliminated rust from our breeding plots or from the
sugarcane producing area. This approach has produced many clones that
have almost gotten through the breeding programs before coming down with
severe cases of rust. The most notable example is CP 78-1247 of last
harvest season, with which several growers suffered severe yield losses in
the plant cane crop.

There are several facts that have made us question this approach to
breeding for rust resistance. 1) When rust came in there were 2 clones
well along in the increase program that took a fair amount of rust but it
did not seem to hurt their production (CP 70-1527 and CP 75-1553). While
neither of these clones have ever become major varieties I don't feel it
was due to loss of production from rust. 2) We still have about the same
number of susceptible clones in all stages of the breeding program, and 3)
we still are losing clones to "apparently new races" of the rust
organism.

II. So what other approaches are available for breeding for rust? Several
years ago Dr. Jack Dean and I went to Gainesville and met with Dr. Hank
Purdy and Dr. H. H. Luke, the small grain breeder. Dr. Luke had been
working on breeding for rust resistance for many years. He stressed
trying to breed for components of resistance such as increased latent
period (that period of time from when a spore first lands on a leaf until
it produces its first spore) and pustule size (depends upon how many
spores are produced from a single pustule). This started us thinking but
we had no techniques to measure either of these criteria in sugarcane and
the methods from small grain could not be directly applied. Therefore,
our approach to this problem was to try to get a spore counter that could
be used to measure the total number of spores produced in a unit area
which incorporates both of Luke's components of resistance if counts are
taken over a period of time.

Jim shine has worked on this problem for us in addition to his other
responsibilities. He has done an excellent job in this area and has
developed several approaches to this problem that will help to identify
and develop selection methods for these components of resistance.









III. Another approach to this problem has been suggested by Robinson. He says
basicly that vertical genes for resistance must be eliminated from the
population (that these vertical genes are the cause of the breakdown in
resistance when the pathogen overcomes the resistance to a single gene).
This is what we have been calling new races of the rust organism.
Robinson's approach is to develop genes for horizonal resistance (these
genes would each convey a minor part of this resistance to the rust
pathogen); therefore, many changes in the pathogen would be required for
the rust organism to cause serious losses on a variety with horizonal
resistance. Robinson says to cross susceptible plants and to throw out
all of the resistant plants in the first generations and then start
selecting for resistant types. This approach has been tried with wheat in
at least a couple of cases and was successful in releasing resistant
varieties after about 6 generations (in sugarcane we average a generation
about every 6 years so it is evident that things must get speeded up if we
are to survive). We currently have 10 crosses in the field that we have
100 selections each of that we will be using this technique with.

IV. Another concept that Dr. Jack Dean dug up is one of "durable resistance".
Durable resistance seems to be hard to define or rather to identify early
because it must last several years to meet the definition. In any case we
feel that the rust resistance in CP 70-1133 has certainly met that
criteria. CP 70-1133 has been grown since rust came in and while there
may have been some I personally have never seen a field that I thought
suffered any economic loss due to rust. For the past 3 to 4 years we have
found fruiting rust pustules (pustules actually producing spores) on CP
70-1133. However, their number does not seem to be increasing and the
pustules are small and produce only a few spores.

CP 70-1133 was produced from a polycross. We know the female parent, CP
56-63, and the male parent was one of the following: CL 47-83, CP 59-50,
CP 57-614, CP 56-59 or CP 56-63. We feel the most likely candidate was CP
56-59 due to its red barrel and clean leaf canopy. So we have put these
two varieties back into the breeding program and will try to make crosses
with them this fall.

In summary, we really don't know where we are going or how to get there.
We do know, however, that we need rust resistance varieties and hopefully
one or maybe all of these avenues will lead to them. In the end let me
stress through the question that was so pointedly asked me by N. I.
Simmonds: "ARE YOU GROWING GREEN LEAVES OR ARE YOU GROWING SUGAR."










YIELD COMPARISON OF CP72-1210 AND CP78-1247
AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SUGARCANE RUST

R. N. Raid, D. L. Anderson, and F. J. Coale


Sugarcane rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Syd,
was first observed on Florida sugarcane in 1979. Rust has since
become an important disease and screening for resistance has become
an integral part of the breeding program. Over the past decade,
sudden changes in cultivar susceptibility to rust have been
observed, suggesting the existence of rust variants. Cultivar
CP72-1210, which now accounts for approximately 60 percent of the
Florida sugarcane acreage, was classified as resistant when
released in 1980. It did not exhibit rust until 1983 and is
presently classified as moderately susceptible. Cultivar CP78-
1247 was also resistant when released in 1986 and is presently
classified as highly susceptible. Observations suggest that,
along with increased intensity of epidemics, the duration of rust
epidemics on CP78-1247 may be longer than those occurring in CP72-
1210. The objectives of this study were to compare the yields of
two cultivars differing in rust susceptibility. This information
may assist in elucidating the influence of sugarcane rust on yield.


Materials and Methods

Thirteen field locations were selected during the 1988-89
growing season based upon the presence of two cultivars: CP72-1210
and CP78-1247. Twelve sites were commercial sugarcane fields and
one site was an experimental plot at the Everglades Research and
Education Center in Belle Glade. The cultivars of interest were
either planted in the same field or were planted in adjacent fields
and planted within one day of each other. Estimates of stalk
populations were obtained by counting the number of harvestable
stalks within 64 ft of row per cultivar. Twenty stalks were
randomly selected per cultivar to obtain an estimate of sugarcane
yields. Stalks were also milled and analyzed for sucrose yields.

Results and Discussion

These data are presented to provide a yield comparison of two
cultivars differing in rust susceptibility. CP72-1210 was selected
for the study due to its widespread use and its availability for
comparison at a large number of locations. It is also considered
the present industry standard. CP78-1247 was selected because of
the intensity and duration of the rust epidemic existing throughout
its acreage during 1988.

Average stalk weight, estimated stalk populations, tons of
cane per acre, sugar per ton of cane, and sugar yield per acre for
the two cultivars are displayed in Figures 1-5, respectively.
Cultivar CP72-1210 had a higher average stalk weight than CP78-1247









at 10 of the 13 locations (Fig. 1). Averaged over all locations,
stalk weights were 14.3 % lower in CP78-1247 than in CP72-1210.
Estimated stalk populations were higher for CP72-1210 than CP78-
1247 at all locations (Fig. 2). Populations for CP72-1210 exceeded
30,000 stalks per acre at 11 of the 13 locations. In contrast,
CP78-1247 populations exceeded 30,000 stalks per acre at only two
locations. Mean stalk population was 31.0 % lower in CP78-1247
than in CP72-1210.

With respect to estimated tons of cane per acre, CP72-1210
resulted in higher yields at all locations (Fig. 3). Yields as low
as 15.6 tons per acre were recorded for CP78-1247, with average
tonnage being 40.3 % lower for CP78-1247 than CP72-1210. There
was little difference in yields of sugar per ton of cane for the
two cultivars (Fig. 4). Averaged over all locations, sugar per
ton of cane was 1.7 % higher in CP78-1247 than in CP72-1210.

Yields expressed as thousands of pounds of sugar per acre are
presented in Fig 5. Yields ranged from a high of 18,087 lbs/acre
for CP72-1210 at site 12 to a low of 3240 lbs/acre for CP78-1247
at site 7. Sugar yields were 39.3 % lower in CP78-1247 than in
CP72-1210.

Historical yield data from sugarcane variety trials in Florida
suggest that the yields of CP72-1210 and CP78-1247 would be similar
in the absence of rust. The above data may provide some indication
of the influence of sugarcane rust on yield. However, due to a
lack of disease severity data at all locations for both cultivars,
the differences listed above should not be interpreted as strictly
yield loss due to rust, although rust was undoubtedly a major
influence.


Acknowledgements

We are grateful to numerous Florida sugarcane growers for open
access to their land and to the Florida Sugar Cane League for grant
support. We would also like to express our appreciation to Barbara
Curry, Rosa Monroe and John Williams for their technical support.












3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5-

1.0-

0.5-

0.0-
1 2

Figure 1.


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SITE

Average stalk weight in pounds for cultivars
CP72-1210 (solid bars) and CP78-1247 (cross-
hatched bars) at 13 locations during the
1988-89 harvest.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SITE


Figure 2.


Estimated harvestable stalk populations
(thousands) per acre for cultivars CP72-1210
(solid bars) and CP78-1247 (cross-hatched
bars) at 13 locations during the 1988-89
harvest.





























1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SITE


Figure 3.


Estimated tons of cane per acre for cultivars
CP72-1210 (solid bars) and CP78-1247 (cross-
hatched bars) at 13 locations during the
1988-89 harvest.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SITE

Figure 4. Estimated yield of sugar per ton of
cane (Ibs) for cultivars CP72-1210 (solid
bars) and CP78-1247 (cross-hatched bars) at
13 locations during the 1988-89 harvest.















16



12



8-



4 I



0-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SITE

Figure 5. Estimated yield of sugar per acre (thousands
of Ibs) at 13 locations for cultivars CP72-
1210 (solid bars) and CP78-1247 (cross-
hatched bars) during the 1988-89 harvest
season.










METARHIZIUM: A FUNGUS THAT ATTACKS INSECTS AND ITS POTENTIAL
FOR SUGARCANE GRUB CONTROL

Richard N. Raid & Ronald H. Cherry


Several species of white grubs (Family Scarabaeidae) have been
reported as pests of sugarcane in Florida. Of the grubs, Liqyrus
subtropicus (Blatchley) is the primary species of economic
importance. Currently there is no known chemical control for white
grubs in Florida sugarcane, and flooding of grub-infested fields
is sometimes used for grub control.

The objective of this study was to obtain information about
Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungus that is capable of colonizing
white grubs, resulting in their death. The potential of M.
anisopliae for biological control of white grubs in Florida
sugarcane is discussed.

Materials and Methods

Field Survey: First, second and third-instar larvae were collected
at monthly intervals for nine months and observed for natural
incidence of M. anisopliae infection. Twenty-five larvae were
collected from each of five commercial fields in the Everglades
Agricultural Area (EAA) during each month.

Pathogenicity Studies: A single isolate of M. anisopliae was
obtained from three different species of sugarcane grubs: L.
subtropicus, Cyclocephala parallel Casey, and Euphoria
sepulchralis (F.). The pathogenicity of these isolates to L.
subtropicus was tested by placing third-instar larvae into soil
infested with fungal spores of each isolate. A soil treatment
receiving only sterile water served as the control. Grubs were
incubated for 25 days at 22 C and observed for symptom development
and mortality.

Pathogenesis: Based upon its performance in the pathogenicity
test, the M. anisopliae isolate obtained from L. subtropicus was
selected for further study. Third-instar larvae of L. subtropicus
were incubated in non-infested and soil infested with the selected
isolate. Grubs were observed at 2-day intervals for symptom
development and mortality for 25 days.

Results and Discussion

Field Survey: A total of 1,125 field-collected larvae were
observed for infection by M. anisopliae. Although it was not
detected in the survey, dead third-instar larvae of L. subtropicus
were occasionally observed to be colonized by the fungus in other
studies. Observations suggest that the fungus is present at very
low levels in Florida sugarcane fields.









Pathogenicity Studies: The isolate originally obtained from L.
subtropicus was the only isolate resulting in mortality of L.
subtropicus under the conditions of this study. The high mortality
caused by this isolate (78% of the 50 grubs exposed) suggests that
it may be a good candidate for further study.

Pathogenesis: Percent accumulated mortality of third-instar L.
subtopicus larvae using the isolate obtained from L. subtropicus
is presented in Figure 1. No mortality was observed in the
uninoculated checks. The high mortality (92%) agrees with that
obtained in the pathogenicity study (78%). The mortality rate due
to M. anisopliae was greatest 11 to 15 days following inoculation
and 96% of the M. anisopliae casualties were dead within 19 days.
Observations on disease development showed a decrease in grub
responsiveness to probing approximately 8-10 days following
inoculation. Approximately 24-36 hours later, infected larvae died
with the body becoming rigid but exhibiting no external fungal
signs. External white fungal growth was evident within an
additional 24-48 hours. Characteristic external green sporulation
covering the larvae was observed within 24 hours following the
development of external mycelium.

Summary


Our observations showed M. anisopliae to occur naturally in
Florida sugarcane fields, but at extremely low levels. It does not
appear to be a major mortality factor at the present time.
However, one of the isolates tested proved to be highly pathogenic
to third-instar larvae of L. subtropicus. The third-instar is the
longest enduring and most destructive stage. Additional research
is needed to determine the factors presently limiting M. anisopliae
effectiveness in Florida cane fields and to investigate the
possibilities of its use in biological control of L. subtropicus.

With respect to future prospects for biological control,
Metarhizium offers several advantages over other potential
biological control agents of white grubs. Metarhizium is easily
cultured on natural and artificial media, permitting production on
a large scale. Secondly, the fungus is not an obligate parasite,
requiring the presence of the insect host for its survival.
Metarhizium has been reported to be capable of surviving in the
soil for periods of up to two years. This could facilitate use of
the fungus as an in-furrow application at the time of planting.


Acknowledgements

We are grateful to numerous Florida sugarcane growers for open
access to their land and to the Florida Sugar Cane League for grant
support. We would also like to express our appreciation to Barbara
Curry, Myrine Hewitt, and Dale Stanford for their technical
support.









100


S70-

60 60



40

o 30

20

10

0
5 10 15 20 25
Days Since Inoculation
Figure 1. Percent accumulated mortality of L.
subtropicus third-instar larvae inoculated with
M. anisopliae.














Influence of Depth to Water Table on Yield
of Sugarcane Grown on a Sandy Soil


D. J. Pitts, F. J. Coale, D. L. Myhre, and J. M. Grimm1


INTRODUCTION

The common practice for irrigation of sugarcane in Florida
is sub-irrigation (seepage), where an artificial water table is
maintained. For organic soils, it is desirable to maintain a
relatively high water table to reduce soil oxidation. However,
if this practice is transferred to the sandy soils, it may not be
the best water management practice. Insufficient research has
been performed to determine the-optimum water table management
strategy for sugarcane grown on sandy soil.

Water table level is an important factor in determining the
amount of water pumped for seepage irrigation. The depth of the
water table has an effect on the quantity of water pumped and
also on the effectiveness of rainfall. Effective rainfall can be
defined as rainfall that is stored in the root zone and is
available to the plant to meet evapotranspiration (ET)
requirements. Effective rainfall is approximately linearly
related to the water table depth. Thus, with a lower water table
more soil volume is available to store rainfall. A lower water
table also affects pumping requirements for drainage. Water
table level, therefore, is important in determining the need for
irrigation and for drainage.


In Florida, the typical production practice is to have at
least three cane harvests from a single planting. Yield normally
decreases each year and eventually replanting is required. Water
table level may influence the rate of yield decline in ratoon
crops. If yield decrease in the ratoon crops could be slowed and
more ratoon crops produced, significant savings could be


1 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering, Southwest
Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee; Professor, Soil
Science, Gainesville; Professor, Agricultural Engineering,
Gainesville; and Assistant Professor, Agronomy, Everglades
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade. All are
with the University of Florida.









achieved. Carter and Floyd (1975) found, that on a medium-to-
fine textured alluvial soil in Louisiana, that sugarcane yields
and longevity were increased when the water table was controlled.
They used subsurface tile drainage to lower the water table and
reported an increase in the number of ratoon crops from two to
four. Shih (1987) found in a three year study comparing seepage
to drip irrigation that the second ratoon crop yield was
significantly greater (35%) with drip irrigation. One
explanation for this increased yield was the greater rooting
depth due to the lower water-table in the drip irrigated plots.

The objectives of the first year of this experiment were to
determine the influence of depth to the water table on biomass
production, sugar content, and yield for sugarcane grown on sandy
soil.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted at the Southwest Florida
Research and Education Center (SWFREC) in Immokalee, Florida.
The soil was a Malabar fine sand (Grossarenic Ochraqualf). The
experiment site was approximately 1.6 ha. The experiment was a
randomized complete block design with four replications of three
treatments. The three water level treatments were: 1) 0.45 m or
high water table (HWT), 2) 0.75 or low water table (LWT), and 3)
0.45-0.75 or declining water table (DWT). The water table
treatment levels were initiated on May 1, 1988. In the DWT
treatment, water table levels were to be reduced by 0.15 m each
year. Therefore, in year 1, DWT and LWT plots had the same water
level.

Sugarcane cultivar CP 72-1210 was hand-planted on January
24, 1988. This cultivar was selected since it was the most
common planted in South Florida. The sugarcane was planted in
rows 1.5 m apart. Seed cane pieces were approximately 0.4 m long
with 3 to 4 nodes per seed piece. Fertilizer was applied in the
furrow before planting. Additional fertilizer was applied in
three additional split applications on April 1, May 29 and June
29. Total fertilizer application was 225 kg N, 50 kg P, and 230
kg K ha-1. Weeds were controlled with hand cultivation and
recommended herbicides.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Since the DWT and HWT treatments were the same the first year
of the study, results of these two treatments were grouped
together.

Fig. 1 shows plant tiller counts for the two treatments.
Tiller population reached an average of 50 tillers per m in July,
but tiller populations declined from that peak and leveled off at









about 17 tillers per m by October. Fig. 5 compares the average
plant height between the HWT and LWT treatments. Plant height
averages were not statistically different between the two
treatments. Root density and distribution differed between the
two treatments. Roots were observed from 0 to 70-cm in the LWT
plots and from 0 to 45-cm in the HWT plots. Total root dry
weight was 34.3 mg cm-2 of soil for the LWT treatment and was
31.5 mg cm-2 for the HWT treatment. The distribution also
differed with 52% of the roots in the top 0.15 m in the LWT
treatment and 68% in the HWT treatment. A summary of these data
are given in Table 1.

A summary of yield data is given in Table 2. Total millable
stalk weight was 100 Mg ha-1 (44.5 T/ac) and 92 Mg ha-1 (41.0
T/ac) for the HWT and LWT treatments, respectively. However,
this difference was not statistically significant.

SUMMARY

Sugarcane growth, biomass and yield were not significantly
affected by depth to the water table. However, root density and
distribution was significantly different due to water table
level. If a lower water table does not negatively impact yield,
it may be a desirable alternative to the current practice of
maintaining a high water table. A lower water table may mean
less pumpage for irrigation since more soil volume is available
to store rainfall and to reduce runoff. Additional years of data
are needed to confirm these results.

LITERATURE CITED

Carter, C. E. and J. M. Floyd. 1975. Subsurface drainage and
irrigation for sugarcane. Transaction of the ASAE
16(2):279-281. St. Joseph, MI.

Myhre, D. L., D. J. Pitts, S. F. Shih, and H. W. Martin. 1989.
Distribution of Sugarcane Roots in a Sandy Soil as Affected
by Water Table Depth. (In Review)

Shih, S. F. 1987. Sugarcane Yield, Biomass, Leaf Area, and Water-
use Efficiency. ASAE Paper No. 87-2083. St. Joseph, MI.











Table 1. Summary of root weight and distribution for HWT and LWT
treatments*

Soil Depth (m)
----------------- ------- -----------------------------------------------
Treatment 0-0.15 0.15-0.30 0.30-0.45 0.45-0.60 0.60-0.70 Total
----- -------------------------------------------------------
---------------- mg cm-3 m------------------- mg cm-2
HWT 1.42 0.54 0.13 -1 31.5
LWT 1.29 0.68 0.34 0.11 0.04 34.3

1 No root development was observed below 0.45 m in HWT treatment
due to saturated soil conditions.





Table 2. Summary of sugarcane yield.1
------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------
Treatment Mg ha-1 Sucrose % Mg (sugar) ha-1
------------------------------------------------------------
HWT 100 20.1 13.8
LWT 92 20.3 12.9

1 No difference between means at the 0.05 % level.


















PLANT HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS
VARIABLE WATER-TABLE EXPERIMENT
SUGARCANE, 1988
320

280-- o-0o 45 cm LEVEL _
S-----* 75 cm LEVEL .'
240

200--

160 .

120-

80- /- 1.0 STD

40


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
MONTH











EAA WATER QUALITY PROJECT UPDATE


Forrest T. Izuno



This presentation is meant to be an informational one to
bring you up to date on the water quality BMP (Best Management
Practices) project for the EAA. The project objectives and
experimental procedures have been discussed publicly many times
in the past. The purpose of the discussion today is to fill you
in on the status of the project and to show you some of the types
of data we are generating.

To reiterate briefly, the project was conceived and funded
based on the supposition that the quality of the EAA drainage
water has been contributing to the degradation of the
environments to the north, south, east, and west. The objective
of the project is to develop and test BMPs implementable at the
farm level, that could help to alleviate the phosphorus loading
problem. After much thought and discussion, the BMPs selected
for further study were: 1) Sugarcane versus fallow fields to
determine whether sugarcane farming is a net P source or sink and
to establish the baseline P runoff concentrations from pastures
being converted to cane; 2) Lowering drainage rates to reduce
particulate P in drainage for sugarcane; 3) Reducing the amount
of fertilizer used for vegetables and altering the application
method to reduce P runoff by reducing P imports; and 4) Growing
unfertilized rice in rotation following vegetables to determine
the value of rice as a "cleansing" crop. In addition to testing
the BMPs, the project data will also establish runoff nutrient
concentrations for the above crops to augment the data developed
10 years ago.

To run the experiments, four test sites were developed,
similar in appearance to the site shown in Figure 1. All four
sites are presently operational and are yielding data. Types of
data being collected are: weather related, field water tables,
ditch water levels, plot flow rates and drainage volumes,
cultural practices, crop yields, P uptake by crops, N and P
species concentrations during pumping and grab sampling events,
and soil physical properties. The data are reduced and analyzed,
resulting in nutrient concentration relationships with rainfall,
canal stage, and turbidity at pump stations, P uptake and removal
by crops, effectiveness of BMPs, and eventually, a computer
model.

The two sites that relate to sugarcane are important in that








they will answer several important questions. The first
experimental site, a comparison between sugarcane and fallow
fields was designed to ascertain whether fertilized cane
contributes to the P runoff problem in excess of fallow drained
land. The study should also establish baseline nutrient runoff
conditions for the natural progression of cane grown following
pastures in the organic soils. The United States Sugar
Corporation has undertaken the responsibility of growing the cane
and maintaining the field plots at the Everglades Research
Center. The experimental block is illustrated in Figure 1,
including the location of planted plots and field
instrumentation. A total of 21 water level recorders and 9
autosamplers are located at the site. Prior to planting, the
field site was monitored to obtain background P levels and to
look at plot hydraulics. Much of the analyses of these data have
been completed and will be submitted to the South Florida Water
Management District at the end of June.

Examples of data resulting from the experimental sites are
shown in Figures 2 through 4. Figure 2 represents an example of
Total P (TP), Total Dissolved P (TDP), and Particulate-P (Part-P)
concentrations resulting from hourly water samples collected at
the head of plot ditch 1 during gravity drainage after about 3.5
inches of rainfall. The Figure shows that TP concentrations
averaged about 0.22 mg/l (ppm) and that Part-P was only a minor
contributor to TP.

Figure 3 shows the time averaged P concentrations at the 9
different sampling locations during the same drainage event as
used for Figure 2. Samplers 1 through 8 denote sampling points
upstream of the measurement culverts in each plot. Sampler 9 is
located on the main canal serving the site. Again, it can be
seen that TDP makes up the largest portion of TP. Total P
concentrations ranged from about 0.16 mg/l to about 0.28 mg/l in
the plot ditches. The average TP concentration in the main canal
was 0.14 mg/l.

Finally, Figure 4 shows the average P concentration
differences between events for all stations combined. The first
two sets of data were collected during stagnant periods following
ditch establishment and cleaning activities. The events of 07/20
and 08/16 are representative of pumped drainage events. The
07/22 event was sampled under gravity drainage caused by seepage
into the main canal and evaporation from the open field ditches.
Notably, the TP concentrations during periods of disturbed ditch
sediments were 0.72 and 1.20 mg/l. After the ditch banks had
stabilized, TP ranged from 0.15 to 0.22 mg/l, during both pumping
and non-pumping events.

The second sugarcane experimental site is being hosted by
the New Hope Sugar Cooperative. Since P amendment amounts are
small for sugarcane, it was decided that looking at reducing P in








drainage water by reducing P fertilizer input was frivolous.
Other factors that could affect P in drainage waters are flow
rates and water table levels. Both of these factors can be
altered by reducing the rate of drainage. This was accomplished
in four of the eight plots by installing calibrated 2" PVC
culverts at the head of each ditch. The other four plots drain
through 4" culverts. The grower's pump station provides the
necessary head differential across the culverts. The same
measurements are being taken at this site as at the cane versus
fallow site. Preliminary data have shown that the 4" versus 2"
culvert combination provides significant differences in drainage
rates. Initial data for this site will be available in the
report to be submitted to the copperating growers and the SFWMD
at the end of June.

In summary, all field sites are operational and are yielding
data to both update older data sets for farm level drainage
nutrient concentrations and to screen prospective BMPs. The
first vegetable crop season has been completed in cooperation
with South Bay Growers. The vegetable fertility site is
scheduled for replanting in the fall of 1989. Rice is scheduled
to be planted at the Roth Farms site by the end of May. The rice
crop will be following radishes in rotation.










EREC TEST SITE -- PormorCHa-
10 CISERVATION WL INTAMLLE I ROW AFTERPLA
CESCFPT1O USSCOLANTIN AND RECOERBI PLACEMEa T ----- EXPlANTAL PLOTOa AMES
FERIMAAeT2 WL.8
C0NIVMACY TCT CANAL 9


FIGURE 1: SUQARCANE VERSUS FALLOW PLOT INSTRUMENTATION AN) TREATMENTS




EREC TDP, TP, and PARTICULATE P CONCENTRATIONS
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SArMLJ LOCATIONS JULY 22 1988
0.3280
0.26 -
0,V26 1P naCL*M
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
So.12
0.10



0.04
0.02

SAMPLE 1 SAMPLBR 2 SAMPLER 3 SAMPLER 4 SAMPLER 5 SIMPLER 6 SMIP 7 StERL SAMPLER 9
AUTOSAER LOCATION

FIRE 3: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AVERAGE TDP. TP. ADM PARTICULATE P CONCENTRATION
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLOTS


EREC CONCENTRATION DIFFERENCES OVER TIME
SAMPLER 1 TDP, TP. AND PARTICULATE P JULY 22. 1988


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 5 B 1 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
ELAPSED TME FROM SANO START. Ir

FIGURE 2 PLOT 1 TDP, TP, A) PARTICULATE P CONCENTRATIONS OVER TME




EREC AVERAGE TDP, TP, and PARTICULATE P CONCENTRATIONS
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SAkPLG EVENTS


FIGURE 4: EREC AVERAGE TDP. TP. AND PARTICULATE P CONCENTRATION DFFERNCES BETWEEN EVENTS









FACTORS AFFECTING FUTURE SUGAR LEGISLATION


Jose Alvarez


The annual Sugarcane Growers Seminars have been characterized
by presentations that discuss relevant research results on
different areas of sugarcane production. Departing from tradition,
this paper summarizes the policy scenario set for the upcoming
debate concerning sugar legislation. The topic is important since
it impacts on the people working in the sugar industry and their
communities.

The Current Sugar Program

The Food Security Act of 1985, mostly known as the 1985 Farm
Bill and signed by Congress on December 23 of that year, contains
a sugar program. This piece of legislation applies to the 1986
through the 1990 crop years. Although the final version of the next
Farm Bill won't be enacted until 1990, preliminary debates are
expected during the current legislative session.

The current sugar program consists of a loan program and a
market stabilization price (MSP). The loan rate is the legislated
price per pound at which processors can obtain financing from the
government by committing raw cane sugar as collateral. If prices
are favorable, processors sell the sugar in the marketplace and
repay the loan. If not, the sugar is forfeited to the Commodity
Credit Corporation (CCC). The MSP is determined as the sum of the
loan rate plus interest charged on the loan, a freight charge, and
a small marketing incentive. Import quotas are the main instrument
used to avoid forfeitures to the CCC as they can be reduced in
times of excess supplies. The loan rate for raw cane sugar was set
at no less than 18 cents a pound for the 1986-1990 crop years,
although it could be evaluated each crop year. The MSP varies every
year and has fluctuated between 20 and over 22 cents per pound of
raw sugar (Alvarez and Polopolus 1988, pp. 21-22).

The Sugar Program Debate

The current sugar program, and its predecessors, have been the
subject of a heated debate. Jack Lackman (1989, pp. 46-47) has
summarized it in six main points with his corresponding counter-
arguments.

1. Point: The U.S. sugar program is responsible for large-
scale conversions to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and the
subsequent drop in sugar imports. Counterpoint: The conversion
would have occurred with or without the sugar program because HFCS
can be produced substantially cheaper than sugar.

2. Point: The sugar program encourages development of
sweeteners that may lead to further loss of market share.
Counterpoint: Research into new sweetener technologies will









continue regardless of whether sugar prices are supported at 18
cents or not.

3. Point: The sugar program is responsible for severe
economic, social and political problems suffered by some of our
lesser-developed trading partners. Counterpoint: Problems in the
economies of these countries should be laid at the feet of more
prosperous sugar exporters. These countries, as well as the U.S.,
are all victims of subsidized sugar dumping into world markets.

4. Point: The sugar program has contributed to world market
surpluses and low prices during the mid-1980s. Counterpoint: These
problems are purely the result of over-production and unrestrained
dumping by the European Common Market and other exporters.

5. Point: Some'domestic sugar producers are less efficient
than others and, therefore, should be eliminated by restructuring
the price support program. Counterpoint: Sixteen beet factories and
22.cane mills have been closed in the past 15 years.

6. Point: The sugar program costs U.S. consumers more than
three billion dollars per year. Counterpoint: This claim assumes
that the U.S. could buy all its sugar at dump market prices.

Factors Affecting Future Legislation

1. The U.S. budget deficit.- The huge budget deficit may force
Congress to trim spending programs, including the multi-billion
dollar outlay for agricultural subsidies resulting from the current
Farm Bill. Sugar will be no exception.

2. Industry consolidation.- An unprecedented number of mergers
and acquisitions have occurred in all segments of the sweetener
industry (producers, refiners and users) in the past few years.
Berdoulay (1989, p. 31) describes some of them: (i) Tate & Lyle's
entry into the U.S. market in both fructose and sugar, as well as
non-caloric sweeteners; (ii) three corporate entities collectively
control over 60% of the refined sugar business; (iii) about 75% of
HFCS production capacity is now controlled by three refiners; and
(iv) the consolidations in the processed food industry, as well as
in the confectionery, beverage and baking industries.

Consolidations have also occurred in the production of raw
cane sugar. Mehra (1989, p. 7) states that five corporations in
Hawaii produce 90% of the sugarcane, while two corporations in
Florida produce more than half the crop.

These trends will affect future legislation for two reasons.
First, consolidation in the sweetener industry has caused a new
balance between control of supply and buying power. Second, critics
of the sugar program argue that the benefits of the program are
unequally distributed and larger producers stand to gain more
because benefits are directly related to the amount of output.









3. Alternative sweeteners.- The current development of new
alternative sweeteners adds more confusion to the scenario. Dyer
& Co. (1989, p. 11) describe the following facts: (i) Coca-Cola won
patent approval last December for sweetener compounds that are
1,900 times as sweet as sugar and can be used in foods and
beverages. If approved by the FDA, the new discovery will affect
aspartame, which Coca-Cola uses in all of its diet beverages; (ii)
General Foods was issued a patent last November for PS 99 and PS
100, two new products which are between 2,000 and 2,500 times
sweeter than sugar and have no after taste. Although still
undergoing research, these products could be used in a variety of
ways; and (iii) Hoechst Celanese Corporation has received FDA
approval for Sunette, a low calorie sweetener that can be used in
liquid or dry applications.

Berdoulay has stated the potential impact that these products
may have on the caloric sector of the industry: "In the view of
some industry experts, the switch by sweetener users to lower cost,
non-nutritive sweeteners seems inevitable. If these assessments are
correct, then the impact will be felt in the nutritive markets"
(1989, p. 31).

The availability of several new alternative sweeteners poses
a threat to the sugar industry. Drastic changes in market shares
are expected. In this regard, members of Congress should ask
themselves the question: Is having a viable domestic industry,
along with relatively stable sugar prices, worth something to the
United States citizens and consumers?

4. U.S. foreign policy.- The Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI)
was launched in 1982 to foster democracy and development in the
countries of the region. Since import quotas are the main policy
instrument that enables the operation of the sugar program at no
cost to the government, the Caribbean countries have seen their
quotas reduced by more than 75% since 1984. In recent months,
however, quotas were increased twice for a total of about 500,000
tons.

This is a very sensitive issue for U.S. policy-makers. In the
words of one member of the CBI Sugar Group: "It is worth mentioning
that today, the U.S.S.R. and its allies are the largest importers
of [CBI] sugar. We all want the CBI to work but it is very
difficult with U.S. sugar policies taking away more trade than the
CBI has been able to generate in non-traditional exports" (Herrera
1989, p. 12).

Alternatives Being Proposed

Several alternative proposals for sugar policy reform are
being made by members of the conflicting groups. They include:

1. Suspend the 'no cost' provision and spend $400 million a
year acquiring sugar.- Hammer (1989, p. 39) believes that this
solution is not practical for two reasons. First, the money would









have to come out of a shrinking budget. Second, large outlays on
sugar will not be acceptable because they would take funds away
from other commodities.

2. Return to mandatory production controls or marketing quotas
as the sugar producers have been advocating.- Mehra (1989, p. 7)
believes that this policy would continue to place the burden of
support on consumers rather than taxpayers and it raises another
set of problems. In this regard, Hammer (1989, p. 39) mentions that
the necessity to control the expansion of the corn sweetener
industry and the introduction of the new low-calorie products
discussed above make this an unworkable alternative.

3. Reduce the price support level.- Hammer (1989, p. 39)
considers this the right choice since there is no reason to have
a support price above full cost of production and that an
appropriate safety net would keep the efficient producers in
business. Lackman (1989, p. 49) argues that lowering the support
levels from 18 to 12 cents per pound (a decrease of 33%) would put
all domestic producers out of business and even if the assumption
of some survivors is made, they would be financially crippled,
unable to invest in new technology and to even replace worn out
equipment. Mehra (1989, p. 7) acknowledges that recent attempts to
gradually lower the loan rate have not been successful because of
the historical strength of the producer lobby.

4. Return the world market to the competitive forces of supply
and demand.- Herrera (1989, p. 14) believes that this would
eventually return world sugar prices to levels that would allow all
efficient producers to operate at a profit. This policy would need
an agreement between the U.S. and the European Economic Community
eliminating government intervention in the form of subsidies and
import quotas. Lackman (1989, p. 49) recognizes that free trade
would do away with the practice of dumping below production costs.
Two basic practices are needed. First, subsidized sugar exports
must be phased out. Second, import markets, including the U.S.,
would, be. gradually opened to receive sugar priced not below
production costs and not lower than in the exporting country. Until
free trade is achieved, the U.S. must maintain its existing
production and refining capacity.

Summary and Conclusion

The issues involving sweetener policy are extremely complex.
The current sugar program is under tremendous pressures that will
probably bring about some changes in the next Farm Bill or as early
as this year. Pressures come from the U.S. budget deficit, the
increasing industry consolidation, the development of new
alternative sweeteners, and the contradiction between the program
and U.S. foreign policy. Of the four main alternatives being
proposed, a gradual reduction of the price support levels seems to
be the most likely to be implemented by this or the next Congress.
Senators William Roth (R-Delaware) and Bill Bradley (D-New Jersey)
intend to introduce a bill called "The Sugar Stabilization Act of









1989" that would reduce the loan rate from the current 18 cts. per
pound to 12 cts. over a four year period.
Besides the efforts of the sugar lobby in Washington,
producers and processors have another important way to fight for
survival: becoming even more efficient. Lowering production and
processing costs and increasing the recovery of sugar per unit of
land are two important means at their disposal. Perhaps these
Seminars can help the industry to achieve those objectives.

References

Alvarez, Jose and Leo C. Polopolus. The Nature of Government
Protection and Control in the U.S. Sugar Industry, Staff Paper 331,
Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, June
1988.

Berdoulay, Roger P. "Sweetener Users Association -A Year of
Transition," Sugar y Azucar 84:2 (February 1989), pp. 30-31.

Dyer & Co., B.W. "Facts About Sugar," Sugar y Azucar 84:2
(February 1989), pp. 6, 9-11.

Hammer, Thomas A. "Sweetener Users Association -The 101st
Congress: An Opportunity to Restore Equity to the Sugar Program,"
Sugar y Azucar 84:2 (February 1989), pp. 35, 38-39.

Herrera, Julio. "The Caribbean Sugar Exporters' View of the
U.S. Sugar Program," Sugar y Azucar 84:3 (March 1989), pp. 12, 14.

Lackman, Jack. "The U.S. Sugar Program: Common Interests for
the Future," Sugar y Azucar 84:2 (February 1989), pp. 44, 46-49.

Mehra, Rekha. "Winners and Losers in the U.S. Sugar Program,"
Resources (Winter 1989), pp. 5-7.