• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Procedures
 Summaries
 Cornell University
 University of Hawaii
 North Carolina State Universit...
 Texas A & M University
 Management entity






Title: Projects and budgets for the Soil Management CRSP 1986-1987
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Title: Projects and budgets for the Soil Management CRSP 1986-1987
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Tropsoils
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Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Procedures
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summaries
        Page 5
        Requested and projected budgets
            Page 5a
        Requested and projected budget by object category
            Page 6
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 7
    Cornell University
        Page 8
        Budget summary
            Page 9
        Requested and projected budgets-projects and dates
            Page 10
        Requested and projected budgets by object category
            Page 11
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 12
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 13
            Nitrogen availability from legume crop residues and green manures to the succeeding non-legume crops
                Page 13
                Page 14
            Evaluation of mineralization potential of legume residues through laboratory incubation studies
                Page 15
                Page 16
            Soil and crop management systems for acid Savanna soils using green manures and crop residues as nitrogen sources
                Page 17
                Page 18
            Fertilizers nitrogen movement in cerrado soils
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Ion movement in cerrado soils: The effects of Gypsum amendment on the charge properties of the soils
                Page 21
                Page 22
            Ion movement in cerrado soils: The effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the sulfur availability
                Page 23
                Page 24
            Crop water requirements in cerrados soils
                Page 25
                Page 26
            Characterization of root-restricting zones in cerrados soils
                Page 27
                Page 28
            Program backstopping
                Page 29
                Page 30
        Budget summary
            Page 31a
    University of Hawaii
        Page 31
        Requested and projected budgets and date
            Page 32
        Requested and projected Budgets by object category
            Page 33
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 34
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 35
            Soil variability in mechanically cleared forest land
                Page 35
                Page 36
            Economic evaluation of soil management technology
                Page 37
                Page 38
            Collaborative research with farmers on home gardens
                Page 39
                Page 40
            Matching crop requirements of rice, maize, soybean and peanut to soil characteristics with crop simulation models
                Page 41
                Page 42
            The influence on crop yield of inoculation of recently cleared lands with introduced and indigenous VA mycorrhizal inocula
                Page 43
                Page 44
            Modeling phosphorus-lime interactions
                Page 45
                Page 46
            Management of soil physical and hydrologic constraints to crop productivity of ultisols and oxisols of Western Sumatra
                Page 47
                Page 48
            Pasture grass and legumes for the humid tropics
                Page 49
                Page 50
            Management of organic matter in Indonesian farming systems
                Page 51
                Page 52
            Conservation-effective rainfed farming systems for the Sitiung Area, West Sumatra
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Application of expert systems to the development and transfer of soil management research
                Page 55
                Page 56
            Program backstopping
                Page 57
                Page 58
        Budget Summary
            Page 59a
    North Carolina State University
        Page 59
        Requested and projected budgets-projects and dates
            Page 60
        Requested and projected budgets by object category
            Page 61
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 62
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 63
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Continuous cropping systems: Fertility management
                Page 65
                Page 66
            Low-input crop production systems for acid soils in the humid tropics
                Page 67
                Page 68
            Legume-based pastures for acid soils in the humid tropics
                Page 69
                Page 70
            Soil management for agroforestry systems in the humid tropics
                Page 71
                Page 72
            Characterization, classification and interpretation of soils of the humid tropics
                Page 73
                Page 74
            Research network for the humid tropics
                Page 75
                Page 76
            Soil erosion and reclamation of the humid tropical steeplands
                Page 77
                Page 78
            Soil fertility management in the oxisols of Manaus
                Page 79
                Page 80
            Soil management in transmigration areas of Sumatra
                Page 81
                Page 82
            Influence of texture on P and Zn fertilization in the Cerrado of Brazil
                Page 83
                Page 84
            Comparitive soil dynamics under different management options in Ultisols of the humid tropics
                Page 85
                Page 86
            Program backstopping
                Page 87
                Page 88
    Texas A & M University
        Page 89
        Budget summary
            Page 89a
        Requested and projected budgets-projects and dates
            Page 90
        Requested and projected budgets by object category
            Page 91
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 92
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 93
            Quantification of rainfall patterns and hydrology of representative cropped soils of Niger
                Page 93
                Page 94
            Water and energy balance of crops with an incomplete canopy cover
                Page 95
                Page 96
            Soil resources evaluation in the semi-arid tropics
                Page 97
                Page 98
            Rainfall management to increase crop yields
                Page 99
                Page 100
            Evaluation and/or development of low to intermediate input soil, water, or crop management practices to increase and/or stabilize yields of rainfed crops
                Page 101
                Page 102
            Modification of agroclimate and crop phenology between rows of neem tree windbreaks
                Page 103
                Page 104
            Rooting pattern studies on millet and cowpeas
                Page 105
                Page 106
            Water-use efficiency and soil fertility relationships
                Page 107
                Page 108
            Increasing available soil water and crop yield through tillage and fertilization
                Page 109
                Page 110
            Causes and control of pronounced plant growth variability over short distance
                Page 111
                Page 112
            Project management
                Page 113
                Page 114
    Management entity
        Page 115
        Budget summary
            Page 115a
        Requested and projected budgets-projects and dates
            Page 116
        Requested and projected budgets by object category
            Page 117
        Requested and projected positions
            Page 118
        Project statements and associated budgets
            Page 119
            Management office
                Page 119
                Page 120
            Board of directors
                Page 121
                Page 122
            External evaluation panel
                Page 123
                Page 124
Full Text





Proj


ects


and Budgets


for the
Soil Management CRSP


1986-1987










TROPSOILS






TROPSOILS



PREFACE

The Agency for International Development has approved a
three-year extension, to September 1989, of the Soil Manage-
ment CRSP. In so doing, it accepted the Plan of Work and
budgets that were developed in 1984.

Current circumstances, however, suggest that funds which
will be provided by the Agency during this extension will be
substantially less than the amount requested. For example,
the budget submitted in the Plan of Work for the 1986-1987
program year is $3,489,000, whereas the projected amount that
will be received is no more than $2,579,000. For subsequent
years, the outlook is for lower amounts.

The decline in funding comes at a time when the Program
is reaching its peak in activities. Projects were developed
and implemented on the basis of an assumed funding environ-
ment, both amount and continuity, which now seems unlikely to
be realized. Thus budgets must be reduced and priority among
projects to be funded established.

The purpose of this report is to provide a documentation
on the scope of work being undertaken in 1986-1987, the cost
of conducting it, as calculated by the program coordinators,
and the level of funding that may be available, as projected
by the Management Entity. This information has been assimi-
lated to provide a reference for the Board of Directors, the
Technical Committee, and the External Evaluation Panel in
executing their responsibilities on programmatic and fiscal
matters.

Although financial support will be less than requested,
through careful selection of activities, prudent fiscal
management and dedicated efforts, major progress can be made
toward achieving the goal of the Soil Management CRSP. A
successful program is still our greatest asset in developing
a response and strategy for addressing the uncertainties of
future funding.


C. B. McCants
October 29, 1986








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Procedures . . . . ... . 1

Summaries

Requested and Projected Budgets . ... 5

Requested and Projected Budget by Object Category .. 6

Requested and Projected Positions. ... . 7

Cornell University

Budget Summary . . . . ... . 9

Requested and Projected Budgets-Projects and Dates .. 10

Requested and Projected Budgets by Object Category .. 11

Requested and Projected Positions . . ... .12

Project Statements and Associated Budgets

101. Nitrogen Availability from Legume Crop Residues
and Green Manures to the Succeeding Non-Legume
Crops . . . . ... 13

102. Evaluation of Mineralization Potential of
Legume Residues Through Laboratory Incubation
Studies . . . .... .15

103. Soil and Crop Management Systems for Acid
Savanna Soils Using Green Manures and Crop
Residues as Nitrogen Sources . ... .17

104. Fertilizer Nitrogen Movement in Cerrado Soils .19

105. Ion Movement in Cerrado Soils: The Effects of
Gypsum Amendment on the Charge Properties of
the Soils . . . .... .21

106. Ion Movement in Cerrado Soils: The Effects of
Inorganic and Organic Amendments on Sulfur
Availability . . . ... 23

107. Crop Water Requirements in Cerrados Soils . 25

108. Characterization of Root-Restricting Zones
in Cerrados Soils . . . ... 27

109. Program Backstopping . . ... 29

i









University of Hawaii


Budget Summary . . . . . 31

Requested and Projected Budgets-Projects and Date . 32

Requested and Projected Budgets by Object Category . 33

Requested and Projected Positions . . . 34

Project Statements and Associated Budgets

201. Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared
Forest Land . . . . ... 35

202. Economic Evaluation of Soil Management
Technology . . . . 37

203. Collaborative Research with Farmers on
Home Gardens . . . .. . 39

204. Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize,
Soybean and Peanut to Soil Characteristics
with Crop Simulation Models . . ... .41

205. The Influence on Crop Yield of Inoculation
of Recently Cleared Lands with Introduced
and Indigenous VA Mycorrhizal Inocula . 43

206. Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions . .. .45

207. Management of Soil Physical and Hydrologic
Constraints to Crop Productivity of Ultisols
and Oxisols of Western Sumatra . ... .47

208. Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid
Tropics . . .... . . 49

209. Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian
Farming Systems . . . . 51

210. Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming
Systems for the Sitiung Area, West Sumatra 53

211. Application of Expert Systems to the Development
and Transfer of Soil Management Research . 55

212. Program Backstopping . . ... 57









North Carolina State University


Budget Summary . . . . .. 59

Requested and Projected Budgets-Projects and Dates . 60

Requested and Projected Budgets by Object Category . 61

Requested and Projected Positions . . . 62

Project Statements and Associated Budgets

301. Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation
Tillage . . . . ... .. 63

302. Continuous Cropping Systems: Fertility
Management . . . .... 65

303. Low-Input Crop Production Systems for Acid
Soils in the Humid Tropics . . 67

304. Legume-Based Pastures for Acid Soils in the
Humid Tropics . . . ... 69

305. Soil Management for Agroforestry Systems in
the Humid Tropics . . . .... 71

306. Characterization, Classification, and
Interpretation of Soils of the Humid Tropics 73

307. Research Network for the Humid Tropics .... .75

308. Soil Erosion and Reclamation of Humid
Tropical Steeplands . . . ... 77

309. Soil Fertility Management in Oxisols of
Manaus . . . . . 79

310. Soil Management in Transmigration Areas
of Sumatra . . . . 81

311. Influence of Texture on P and Zn Fertilization
in the Cerrado of Brazil . . ... .83

312. Comparative Soil Dynamics Under Different
Management Options in Ultisols of the Humid
Tropics . . . ... .. 85

313. Program Backstopping . . . 87









Texas A & M University


Budget Summary . .. . . . 89

Requested and Projected Budgets-Projects and Dates . 90

Requested and Projected Budgets by Object Category . 91

Requested and Projected Positions .. . 92

Project Statements and Associated Budgets

401. Quantification of Rainfall Patterns and
Hydrology of Representative Cropped Soils
of Niger . . . .... .93

402. Water and Energy Balance of Crops with an
Incomplete Canopy Cover . . .. 95

403. Soil Resource Evaluation in the Semi-Arid
Tropics . . . . . 97

404. Rainfall Management to Increase Crop Yields 99

405. Evaluation and/or Development of Low to
Intermediate Input Soil, Water, or Crop
Management Practices to Increase and/or
Stabilize Yields of Rainfed Crops . ... 101

406. Modification of Agroclimate and Crop
Phenology Between Rows of Neem Tree
Windbreaks . . . . ... .103

407. Rooting Pattern Studies on Millet and Cowpeas .105

408. Water-Use Efficiency and Soil Fertility
Relationships . . . ... .107

409. Increasing Available Soil Water and Crop
Yield through Tillage and Fertilization .... .109

410. Causes and Control of Pronounced Plant
Growth Variability Over Short Distances ... 111

411. Project Management . . ... 113









Management Entity


Budget Summary . . . . .

Requested and Projected Budgets-Projects and Dates .

Requested and Projected Budgets by Object Category .

Requested and Projected Positions . . .

Project Statements and Associated Budgets

501. Management Office . .. .

502. Board of Directors . . .

503. External Evaluation Panel . . .


. 115

. 116

. 117

. 118



. 119

. 121

. 123
































PROCEDURES






TROPSOILS



PROCEDURES

Project Statements

A project statement was drafted by the Management Entity
from the information in the project outlines in "TropSoils
Program Plan, 1984-1989". These drafts were transmitted to
the appropriate Program Coordinator with a request that they
be submitted to the persons listed as the Project Leader for
review and revision. This procedure was followed, generally,
although there are indications that for a number of projects,
the Program Coordinator performed the review and revision
actions.

Requested Budgets

Each Program Coordinator was requested to develop, in
collaboration with the Project Leader, a detailed budget for
each project. A form was provided to assist in the process.
The response is reported under the "Requested" column
associated with each project budget.

Projected Available Funds

The agreements between the Management Entity and AID
specify that the four subgrants will be funded from the
original grant through December 31, 1986. Thereafter, they
will be funded from the new grant. The Management Entity
will be funded from the new grant beginning on October 1,
1986.

The unencumbered balance on October 1 of original grant
funds was estimated to be $950,000. These are distributed
among several subgrantee accounts and the Management Entity.
Approximately $200,000 of this amount is needed to fund
expenditures in excess of allocations by the University of
Hawaii.

The current base budget for the Soil Management CRSP is
$200,900 per month. Thus for the new grant, funding for the
nine-month period, January 1 September 30, would be
$1,808,000. This figure was used in developing the projected
allocation of funds to the various projects for this period.

Caution: Of the $1,808,000 projected, only $780,000 has
been allocated to the Management Entity by AID. The remain-
der is subject to adjustments arising from Congressional
action on the FY 87 budget.







Projected Allocation of Funds


A. October 1 December 31

1. Personnel

All requests for personnel positions that
were filled on October 1 were funded for this
time period.

Requests for vacant positions were
selectively funded. Those funded are a graduate
student at the University of Hawaii and a senior
scientist and partial support for a program
coordinator at Texas A & M University.
Positions not funded are: half-time technician
at Texas A & M University and a senior scientist
and three graduate students at the University of
Hawaii.

2. Non-Personnel

The requests for non-personnel objects,
were funded in full for this time period.

The remaining balance of the equipment
requests was funded in full and added to the
previously calculated amount.

B. January 1 September 30

1. Personnel

All requests for personnel positions that
were filled on October 1 were funded for this
time period, except for a technician and three
graduate student positions at North Carolina
State University.

Requests for vacant positions were
selectively funded. Those included are a
graduate student at the University of Hawaii and
a senior scientist and partial support for a
program coordinator at Texas A & M University.
Positions not funded are: half-time technician
at Texas A & M University, a graduate student at
North Carolina State University, and a senior
scientist and three graduate students at the
University of Hawaii.

2. Non-Personnel

The equipment was subtracted from the total
non-personnel request, since all equipment





TROPSOILS

requests were funded in the October 1 December
31 period. The balance was prorated for this
time period (75% of the program year) and the
resulting product was reduced by 25 percent.

3. Management Entity

The projected size of the External Eval-
uation Panel was reduced from four to three and
the total budget reduced approximately 25%.

The non-personnel funding for the Manage-
ment Office and the Board of Directors was
reduced 25% from the amount requested.

There are no funds in this budget for
contingencies.

4. Supplementary Funding

The projected budget for each project was
calculated by the formula described above and
the totals determined. The difference between
the "Projected Amount of Funding" and these
totals was distributed among the various proj-
ects on the basis of a perceived priority.
Thus, the figures in the "Total" column for a
given project are frequently higher than the
number arising from the formula calculation.

No supplements were added to the Manage-
ment Entity budgets.































SUMMARIES










Requested and Projected Budgets
All Components
1986-1987


Oct. 1-Dec. 31 Jan. 1-Sept. 30 Oct. 1-Sept. 30

Component Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


$1000

Cornell 87 97 258 237 345 334

Hawaii 161 164 484 335 645 499

NCSU 221 262 663 508 884 770

TAMU 147 163 442 380 589 543

ME 122 85 365 348 487 433



Total 738 771 2212 1808 2950 2579


1Requested

projected












Requested and Projected Budgets By Object Category
All Components
1986-1987


Personnel
Req.1 Proj.2
Req.1 Proj.2


234

535

512

380

304


1965


234

359

448

371

291


1703


Non-Personnel
Req. Proj.
Req. Proj.


x $1000

111

110

372

209

183


985


100

140

322

172

142


876


Total
Req. Proj.
Req. Pro].


345

645

884

589

487


334

499

770

543

433


2950


2579


Percent of Total

70 32

72 17

58 42

68 35

67 38


100

100

100

100

100


100

100

100

100

100


Total 67 66 33 34 100 100


1Requested

2Projected


Project
Number


Cornell

Hawaii

NCSU

TAMU

ME


Total


Cornell

Hawaii

NCSU

TAMU

ME


________________________________________
________________________________________











Requested and Projected Positions
All Components
1986-1987


Requested1 Projected

Component SS JS T/S Total SS JS T/S Total


Person Years
Cornell 2.00 2.50 .00 4.50 2.00 2.50 .00 4.50

Hawaii 3.25 6.00 3.00 12.25 2.45 4.40 2.00 8.85

NCSU 3.59 6.28 4.80 14.67 3.59 4.34 3.80 11.73

TAMU 2.15 3.50 4.50 10.15 2.15 3.50 4.00 9.65

ME 1.00 .00 3.00 4.00 1.00 .00 3.00 4.00


Total 11.99 18.28 15.30 45.57 11.19 14.74 12.80 38.73
-----------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------


assistantships)


1SS = Senior scientist
JS = Junior scientist (persons on graduate research
T/S = See individual components for identification































CORNELL UNIVERSITY







CORNELL UNIVERSITY BUDGET SUMMARY


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
BUDGET SUMMARY


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$112,280

$17,190

$61,500

$0

$0

$13,000

$2,500

$20,000

$2,000

$3,000

$1,000

$37,000

$75,297


TOTAL: $344,767 $334,100========


-'---------------------------------------


TOTAL:


$344,767


$334,100










Requested and Projected Budgets
Cornell University
1986-1987


Project Oct. 1-Dec. 31 Jan. 1-Sept. 30 Oct. 1-Sept. 30

Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


$1000

101 8 10 26 23 34 33

102 8 8 26 23 34 31

103 22 22 64 63 86 85

104 8 8 23 20 31 28

105 1 1 0 0 1 1

106 8 8 23 21 31 29

107 3 3 7 6 10 9

108 14 14 42 39 56 53

109 15 23 47 42 62 65



Total 87 97 258 237 345 334
---------------------------------------


1Requested

2Projected











Requested and Projected Budgets By Object Category
Cornell University
1986-1987


Personnel Non-Personnel Total
Project --------------- -- -------- --------------
Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


x $1000

101 20 20 14 13 34 33

102 21 21 13 10 34 31

103 78 78 8 7 86 85

104 15 15 16 13 31 28

105 0 0 1 1 1 1

106 20 20 11 9 31 29

107 0 0 10 9 10 9

108 40 40 16 13 56 53

109 40 40 22 25 62 65


Total 234 234 111 100 345 334

Percent 68 70 32 30 100 100


1Requested

2Projected












Requested and Projected Positions
Cornell University
1986-1987


Requested1 Projected
Project
Number SS JS T/S Total SS JS T/S Total


Person Years

101 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50

102 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50

103 1.00 .50 .00 1.50 1.00 .50 .00 1.50

104 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50

105 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

106 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50 .00 .50

107 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

108 .50 .00 .00 .50 .50 .00 .00 .50

109 .50 .00 .00 .50 .50 .00 .00 .50


Total 2.00 2.50 .00 4.50 2.00 2.50 .00 4.50


1SS =
JS =


Senior scientist
Junior scientist


(persons on graduate research assistantships)


T/S = Technicians and Secretaries










TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 101

Title: Nitrogen Availability from Legume Crop Residues and
Green Manures to the Succeeding Non-Legume Crops

Objectives:

1. To develop procedures for estimating potential for
legume crop residues and green manures to supply ni-
trogen to succeeding non-legume crops.

2. To estimate the effects of climate and management on
the ability of such organic materials to supply ni-
trogen to succeeding nonlegume crops.

3. To investigate some of the effects of incorporating
roots vs. tops in the use of organic sources of
nitrogen.

Applicability:

Nitrogen management is the most difficult of the nutrients.
The inorganic nitrogen not utilized during the current crop-
ping season is usually lost or incorporated into the soil
biomass. Fertilizer nitrogen is not only expensive, but time
of application is critical. Legumes and green manures have
the potential to overcome both of these disadvantages provi-
ded (1) the legume growth and nitrogen fixation can fit into
the cropping system, (2) the time and quantity of nitrogen

released from the organic residue is sufficient to meet the
needs of the growing crop.

A quantitative evaluation of the nitrogen mineralization
from organic residues permits the soil incorporation of the
residues and crop development to be timed to make maximum use
of the available N. This evaluation could then be incorpor-
ated into the N model.

The information can be used also for predicting the behav-
ior of organic residues in other parts of the world. Incor-
porating this information along with crop yield data and
climatic information, cropping systems can be developed that
maximize the use of organic N sources for crop production.

Personnel/Institution: W. S. Reid, Cornell University
R. J. Carsky, Cornell University
W. T. Bowen, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 101

Title: Nitrogen Availability from Legume Crop Residues and
Green Manures to the Succeeding Non-Legume Crops

Objectives:

1. To develop procedures for estimating potential for
legume crop residues and green manures to supply ni-
trogen to succeeding non-legume crops.

2. To estimate the effects of climate and management on
the ability of such organic materials to supply ni-
trogen to succeeding nonlegume crops.

3. To investigate some of the effects of incorporating
roots vs. tops in the use of organic sources of
nitrogen.

Applicability:

Nitrogen management is the most difficult of the nutrients.
The inorganic nitrogen not utilized during the current crop-
ping season is usually lost or incorporated into the soil
biomass. Fertilizer nitrogen is not only expensive, but time
of application is critical. Legumes and green manures have
the potential to overcome both of these disadvantages provi-
ded (1) the legume growth and nitrogen fixation can fit into
the cropping system, (2) the time and quantity of nitrogen

released from the organic residue is sufficient to meet the
needs of the growing crop.

A quantitative evaluation of the nitrogen mineralization
from organic residues permits the soil incorporation of the
residues and crop development to be timed to make maximum use
of the available N. This evaluation could then be incorpor-
ated into the N model.

The information can be used also for predicting the behav-
ior of organic residues in other parts of the world. Incor-
porating this information along with crop yield data and
climatic information, cropping systems can be developed that
maximize the use of organic N sources for crop production.

Personnel/Institution: W. S. Reid, Cornell University
R. J. Carsky, Cornell University
W. T. Bowen, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 101


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 101


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$8,633

$0

$8,400

$0

$0

$2,000

$0

$3,000

$300

$500

$0

$4,000

$7,186


TOTAL: $34,019 $33,000---------


'-----"--------------------------------
,,,,,,,,,,,,----------------------------


$34,019


$33,000


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS



PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 102

Title: Evaluation of Mineralization Potential of Legume
Residues Through Laboratory Incubation Studies

Objectives:

1. To develop and calibrate a laboratory incubation pro-
cedure which will assess the nitrogen mineralization
potential of the soil.

2. To evaluate legume residues as sources of nitrogen
using incubation/cropping experiments.

3. To evaluate an incubation procedure as a soil test for
nitrogen in field experiments.

Applicability:

These laboratory incubation and screening studies are an
integral component of the overall nitrogen management and re-
search effort. A soil test for nitrogen availability that
would predict reliably the nitrogen supply from soil organic
matter and green manure crops could be used widely for many
soil and climatic conditions. It would reduce the amount of
costly field experimental work required to predict fertilizer
nitrogen requirements of cropping systems. If this effort is
successful then the results from laboratory and field experi-
ments already underway could be used directly to translate
results to farmers.

Personnel/Institution: D. R. Bouldin, Cornell University
Allert Rose Suhet, CPAC, EMBRAPA
Jorge Quintana, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 102


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 102


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$7,376

$0

$7,500

$0

$0

$2,000

$0

$4,000

$300

$500

$0

$4,000

$7,953
------------------------------------------------


TOTAL: $33,629 $30,700---------


--------"'---"-"-------------'-------
---------'------------------------------


$30,700


TOTAL:


$33,629







TROPSOILS


PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 103

Title: Soil and Crop Management Systems for Acid Savanna
Soils Using Green Manures and Crop Residues as
Nitrogen Sources

Objectives:

1. To develop planting sequences and cropping systems to
most effectively use legume and plant residue to supply
their nitrogen requirements.

2. To evaluate the role of legumes and crop residues in
nitrogen cycling and soil organic matter maintenance.

3. To determine the effects of legumes and crop residues
on long term soil productivity.

Applicability:

Long-term studies have shown that the nitrogen requirements
of field crops grown in rotation can be supplied by legumes,
manures, mineral fertilizers, or by some combination of them.
Management of organic nitrogen sources is complicated and may
require special cropping sequences and management. Specific
input-output relationships using organic nitrogen relative to
fertilizer nitrogen need to be developed.

The specific need is to develop sources of organic nitrogen
and cropping sequences to match the nitrogen requirements of
the cropping system with the nitrogen release by the organic
nitrogen source. Various legumes will be matched to cropping
sequences to find the most effective means of providing the
required nitrogen for maximum economic crop production. We
expect to take some of the most promising results to other
regions as the project develops.

Personnel/Institution: David R. Bouldin, Cornell University
D. J. Lathwell, Cornell University
W. T. Bowen, Cornell University
F. Costa, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: July, 1986







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 103


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 103


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$41,079

$7,500

$15,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$0

$2,000

$300

$0

$500

$2,000

$15,875


TOTAL: $86,254 $85,200---------


----------------------------------------
----------------------------------------


$86,254


TOTAL:


$85,200







TROPSOILS


PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 104

Title: Fertilizer Nitrogen movement in Cerrado Soils

Objectives:

1. Develop a comprehensive description in simulation model
form of nitrogen movement and transformation in cropped
soils of the Cerrado.

2. Use the model as a guide in interpreting and designing
field experiments to increase understanding of nitrogen
fertilizer fate in Cerrado soils.

3. Use the model to develop nitrogen management recommend-
ations for other acid savanna regions.

Applicability:

Quantitative description of nitrogen behavior in agricul-
tural systems is a strong component of Cornell's continuing
research program. Nitrogen management in Cerrado soils has
been a primary focus of Cornell/EMBRAPA research efforts
during the first three years of this program. Nitrogen
simulation modeling is currently in progress as a component
of this research. This effort serves to integrate empirical
and theoretical information from the nitrogen program as well
as several other disciplines, including soil physics, micro-
meteorology and crop physiology. Its goal is to use this
information to summarize, test and extend our knowledge of
nitrogen behavior in agricultural systems to other acid
savanna regions.

Personnel/Institution: S. J. Riha, Cornell University
Elias de Freitas, CPAC, EMBRAPA
Imo Buttler, Cornell University
Deanna Osmund, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: July, 1986







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 104


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 104
-------------------------------------------------------


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


TOTAL:


$7,799

$0

$4,200

$0

$0

$2,000

$1,500

$4,000

$300

$0

$0

$3,000

$8,457

$31,256 $28,300


"-'------"-----------'-'--"'----'-'--
------------------------------~---------


--------- ----- - - - - --= =







TROPSOILS



PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 105

Title: Ion Movement in Cerrado Soils: The Effects of Gypsum
Amendment on the Charge Properties of the Soils

Objectives:

1. To estimate the sulfate and calcium retention capacity
of the A and B horizons of a dark red latosol and a
red yellow latosol from Brazil.

2. To study the effect of sulfate absorption on the devel-
opment of charges in the soil.

Applicability:

As soils are brought into cultivation and various soil
amendments are added to them, their productivity changes and
their chemical characteristics likewise change. This is
especially true of Oxisols where much of their charge charac-
teristics are variable depending on degree of weathering and
soil pH. The character of these changes and their perform-
ance likely influences the long term behavior of these soils.
The present research will supply data about the retention
characteristics and charge properties of these soils as a way
to get an understanding of some of the different variables
necessary for modeling ion movement in Oxisols.

Personnel/Institution: M. McBride, Cornell University
E. Marcano-Martinez, Cornell
University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasillia, Brazil

Date: Original: August, 1985

Revised: July, 1986







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 105


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 105


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$500

$0

$0

$350
----------------------------- --------


TOTAL: $850 $1,000-----------


"'-"-"'------"----'--'-----"-------
--------------'-----'-'------"'----'-'-


$850


$1,000


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 106

Title: Ion Movement in Cerrado Soils: The effects of
Inorganic and Organic Amendments on Sulfur
Availability

Objectives:

1. To determine the effects of adding inorganic and
organic amendments to a Cerrado oxisol in the absence
or presence of plants on:

a. the adsorption capacity of the soil by depth

b. the movement of sulfur into the subsoil

2. To describe the characteristics and rates of sulfur
mineralization in a Cerrado oxisol in response to
additions of several organic and fertilizer sources.

Applicability:

Examining the effects of inorganic and organic amendments
on sulfur availability for plant growth will provide addi-
tional information for the quantitative model for ion dis-
tribution in Cerrado soils. The additional components that
will be addressed are:

1. The effects of inorganic (i.e. besides gypsum) and or-
ganic amendments

2. The effects of plant growth on sulfur distribution

3. The contribution of sulfate mineralization to sulfate
soil levels and to sulfate distribution

By combining soil chemistry and plant nutrition components
with the soil physics and modeling parameters, a better
understanding of acid savanna soils should result. In addi-
tion, by focusing on sulfur availability with an emphasis on
the effects of organic additions, this project is linked to
Cornell's green manure nitrogen project in Brazil.

Personnel/Institution: J. M. Duxbury, Cornell University
P. P. Motavalli, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: August, 1985







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 106


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 106


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$8,633

$0

$8,400

$0

$0

$2,000

$0

$2,000

$0

$0

$0

$4,000

$5,926
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $30,959 $29,200---------


-----------------------------------


$29,200


$30,959


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 107

Title: Crop Water Requirements in Cerrados Soils

Objectives:

1. Determine the components of the water budget in cropped
Cerrados soils.

2. Quantify the effects of management practices upon
water availability and soil-water movement and their
impact upon crop yield, evapotranspiration, and
transient soil water regimes.

3. Develop and test a simplified model relating water use
to crop yield, constructed to be useful in extending
experimental results to other locations.

Applicability:

A knowledge of the influence of evapotranspiration and soil
water management on plant growth is important to agronomic
and economic evaluation of irrigation development and for
comparison of the relative benefits of water used for irri-
gation compared to other water uses. However, this rela-
tionship is quite complex and interrelated to many other
factors of which soil fertility and climate are quite
important. The work proposed here will develop a physically-
based, dynamic model to predict yield of several Cerrados
crops as related to water use. In the process, the
sensitivity of the model to soil, climate and plant input
parameters will be determined, and general guidance produced
for future field studies. The model should be immediately
useful in estimating the potential benefits of irrigation,
will identify differences in yield response on different
soils and in wet or dry years, and will produce simulations
useful in economic analysis of irrigation programs. Addi-
tionally, the model will be amenable to future modification
to reflect the influence of gypsum or nitrogen amendments
upon crop growth.

Personnel/Institution: S. J. Riha, Cornell University
R. J. Wagenet, Cornell University
Elias de Freitas, (CPAC), Planaltina,
Brazil
Areovaldo Luchiari, (CPAC), Cornell
University
Imo Buttler, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil


Date: Original: October, 1984
25






CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 107


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 107

Budget

Object Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Salaries $0

Fringe Benefits $0

Allowances $0

Consulting $0

Equipment $0

Supplies $1,000

Travel, US $0

Travel, INT $0

Communications $0

Printing $0

Shipping/Freight $0

Other Direct Cost $5,000

Overhead $4,200

TOTAL: $10,200 $8,700
TOTAL: $10,200 $8,700
-------------------------------------------------------







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 108

Title: Characterization of Root-Restricting Zones in
Cerrados Soils

Objectives:

1. Diagnose soil and management conditions that result in
the development of root-restricting zones in Cerrados
soils subjected to continuous annual cropping.

2. Determine the effects of root-restricting zones on
soil-water dynamics in the field and the resulting im-
plications for crop yields and soil erosion.

3. Identify management practices which limit the formation
of root-restricting zones.

Applicability:

Physical characteristics of medium and fine textured Cer-
rados Oxisols have generally been considered excellent for
mechanized agriculture. However, deleterious physical situ-
ations are developing in areas subjected to continuous annual
cropping. Shallow rooting in some well drained Oxisols with
improved profile chemical status, has been attributed to soil
strength, reduced macroporosity, and poor aeration rather
than aluminum toxicity or low nutrient status of the subsoil.
As a consequence, investments in lime and fertilizer may
not be utilized to a maximum extent. As a result of tillage
pans, the available subsoil moisture is not accessible. The
occurrence of severe plant moisture stress may be the most
serious consequence of soil compaction for rainfed
agriculture in the Cerrados.

The soil conditions in root-restricting zones should be
further characterized so that the actual factors limiting
root growth can be identified. An attempt should be
made to identify the natural factors or induced mechanical
and chemical processes that result in the formation of root-
restricting zones. This should furnish keys to better
management practices for avoidance and/or correction of the
problem.

Personnel/Institution: Eric R. Stoner, Cornell University
Elias de Freitas, EMBRAPA/CPAC
Victor Snyder, Cornell University

Research Site: CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984
27







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 108


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 108


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$19,380

$4,845

$9,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$0

$0

$300

$500

$0

$10,000

$9,605
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $55,630 $52,700
-------------------------------------------------------


- - - ----------- = = == =-- -- -- -- -- -







TROPSOILS


PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 109

Title: Program Backstopping

Objectives:

To provide technical support and administrative assistance
to faculty researchers and graduate students in the opera-
tional aspects of both field and campus-based projects.

Applicability:

Efficient operations require broad-based assistance by
those knowledgeable with overall working arrangements and
constraints to these concerned with narrowly defined
projects. Such assistance includes: processing purchases
of equipment, obtaining clearances for travel, assistance in
obtaining field sites at CPAC, employment of labor, pur-
chasing supplies etc. Without this support, inexperienced
persons consume substantial time in obtaining the necessary
actions, which detracts from the scientific endeavors.

Personnel/Institution: D. J. Lathwell, Cornell University
Eric R. Stoner, Cornell University

Research Site: Cornell University
CPAC, Brasilia, Brazil

Date: Original: August, 1986







CORNELL PROJECT NUMBER: 109


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NU: 3ER: 109


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$19,380

$4,845

$9,000

$0

$0

$0

$1,000

$5,000

$500

$1,000

$500

$5,000

$15,745


TOTAL: $61,970 $65,300------'--


"""'-'---'----------------'----------
----------------------------------------


$61,970


$65,300


TOTAL:





UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII BUDGET SUMMARY


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
BUDGET SUMMARY
-------------------------------------------------------


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$313,151

$81,322

$7,500

$1,000

$13,200

$21,944

$3,000

$29,000

$3,500

$2,500

$1,000

$9,500

$157,857
-----------------------------------


TOTAL: $644,474 $499,000
-------------------------------------------------------


---------------------------------------'
===-------------------------------------






























UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII










Requested and Projected Budgets
University of Hawaii
1986-1987


Project Oct. 1-Dec. 31 Jan. 1-Sept. 30 Oct. 1-Sept. 30

Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


$1000

201 4 5 12 11 16 16

202 6 5 17 15 23 20

203 24 9 73 24 97 33

204 6 12 20 8 26 20

205 8 8 22 21 30 29

206 9 14 27 15 36 29

207 12 23 37 37 49 60

208 14 11 41 29 55 40

209 11 12 35 33 46 45

210 7 8 22 18 29 26

211 22 22 65 65 87 87

212 38 35 113 59 151 94



Total 161 164 484 335 645 499


1Requested

2Projected










Requested and Projected Budgets By Object Category
University of Hawaii
1986-1987


Personnel Non-Personnel Total
Project --------------- ------------- --------------
Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


x $1000

201 10 10 6 6 16 16

202 16 16 7 4 23 20

203 90 27 7 6 97 33

204 20 6 6 14 26 20

205 23 23 7 6 30 29

206 30 16 6 13 36 29

207 43 30 6 30 49 60

208 48 35 7 5 55 40

209 40 40 6 5 46 45

210 22 20 7 6 29 26

211 50 50 37 37 87 87

212 143 86 8 8 151 94


Total 535 359 110 140 645 499

Percent 83 72 17 28 100 100


1Requested

2Projected











Requested and Projected Positions
University of Hawaii
1986-1987


Requested1 Projected
Project
Number SS JS T/S Total SS JS T/S Total


Person Years

201 .10 .00 .00 .10 .10 .00 .00 .10

202 .20 .00 .00 .20 .20 .00 .00 .20

203 .70 1.20 .00 1.90 .10 1.10 .00 1.20

204 .10 .50 .00 .60 .10 .00 .00 .10

205 .10 .50 .00 .60 .10 .50 .00 .60

206 .20 .50 .00 .70 .20 .00 .00 .20

207 .30 .50 .00 .80 .30 .50 .00 .80

208 .50 .60 .00 1.10 .50 .10 .00 .60

209 .20 .70 .00 .90 .20 .70 .00 .90

210 .60 .50 .00 1.10 .40 .50 .00 .90

211 .25 1.00 .00 1.25 .25 1.00 .00 1.25

212 .00 .00 3.00 3.00 .00 .00 2.00 2.00


Total 3.25 6.00 3.00 12.25 2.45 4.40 2.00 8.85
-----------------------------------------------------


1SS = Senior scientist
JS = Junior scientist
T/S = Project Manager


(persons on graduate research assistantships)
and Secretaries for Project 212






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 201

Title: Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land

Objective:

1. Construct semi-variograms of soil properties to deter-
mine structure in the variance of soil properties.

2. Use semi-variograms to map soil variability in the
field.

3. Use soil maps from Objective 2 to vary soil management
according to soil needs.

Applicability:

Soil variability in short distances appears to be a common
attribute of newly cleared land in the Sitiung area.

Agricultural experimentation on such highly variable land
is difficult at best. Often variability within a plot of
approximately 3 x 5 m can be greater than that occurring
between the main treatments. The result is that such varia-
tion is allocated to the error term of the ANOVA and few if
any treatments differ significantly. Perhaps more impor-
tantly the data from such experiments is of doubtful utility
in making recommendations on highly variable farmers' fields.

If the nature and character of such variation can be
understood it is probable that methods can be developed to
permit better experimentation and which may suggest practical
methods for the individual farmer to correct the numerous low
productivity areas in their gardens and fields.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: June, 1986






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 201

Title: Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land

Objective:

1. Construct semi-variograms of soil properties to deter-
mine structure in the variance of soil properties.

2. Use semi-variograms to map soil variability in the
field.

3. Use soil maps from Objective 2 to vary soil management
according to soil needs.

Applicability:

Soil variability in short distances appears to be a common
attribute of newly cleared land in the Sitiung area.

Agricultural experimentation on such highly variable land
is difficult at best. Often variability within a plot of
approximately 3 x 5 m can be greater than that occurring
between the main treatments. The result is that such varia-
tion is allocated to the error term of the ANOVA and few if
any treatments differ significantly. Perhaps more impor-
tantly the data from such experiments is of doubtful utility
in making recommendations on highly variable farmers' fields.

If the nature and character of such variation can be
understood it is probable that methods can be developed to
permit better experimentation and which may suggest practical
methods for the individual farmer to correct the numerous low
productivity areas in their gardens and fields.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: June, 1986






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 201


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 201
-------------------------------------------------------


Budget
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated--
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


TOTAL:


$5,986

$1,437

$500

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$2,958


$16,281 $15,500


---- -----------------------------------


----------------------------------------
----------------------------------------






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 202

Title: Economic Evaluation of Soil Management Technology

Objectives:

1. Preliminary economic evaluation of technology based on
farm or enterprise records.

2. Evaluation of people's time.

3. Economic evaluation of components in a farming system.

Applicability:

A more precise assessment of the financial resources of
farmers in the Sitiung area is needed to help us assess the
feasibility of new technology. Similarly economic monitoring
of on-farm research is needed, to keep scientists apprised of
the relative profitability of their proposed packages, as
compared to existing practices. A clearer understanding of
the value placed on people's time is needed, since there is
some evidence that many people's time is also important since
so much of the work undertaken in Sitiung is currently
household labor. Progress evaluating such time would
contribute to global research concerns relating to the
division of labor.

Personnel/Institution: Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii
Stephenie Kan, University of Florida

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: August, 1985






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 202


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 202


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$9,840

$2,362

$1,000

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$4,225


TOTAL: $22,827 $20,400---------


- -' - -------------------- - - - -


TOTAL:


$22,827


$20,400






TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT

Project Number: 203

Title: Collaborative Research with Farmers on Home Gardens

Objectives:

1. To gain a fuller understanding of the complex systems
represented in the home gardens of Sitiung.

2. To develop soil management technology that can improve
such systems.

3. To utilize the experience, knowledge, and labor of
women farmers more effectively in the overall project.

Applicability:

We have discovered that home gardens provide a significant
proportion of total agricultural production (between 28% and
60%, varying by location). They are a significant component
in the overall farming system. They are also the locale for
fish culture and animal production, as well as a site for
small scale home industry. There is variation in the
intensity with which home gardens are cultivated, allowing
opportunities for experimentation in the less intensively
managed areas. The complexity of home gardens necessitates
more substantive implementation of the "interdisciplinary"
aspect of the farming systems approach than we have
previously been able to accomplish; and it will provide an
important complement to our previous concentration on upland
fields.

Personnel/Institution: Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii
Fahmuddin Agus, CSR
Richard Dudley, University of Hawaii
Dan Gill, N. C. State University
Carl Evensen, University of Hawaii
Stacy Evensen, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: August, 1985






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 203


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 203


Budget
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$55,497

$13,002

$3,000

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$20,031
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $96,930 $32,900--------'


-----------------------------------"---
----------------------------------------


$96,930


$32,900


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 204

Title: Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean
and Peanut to Soil Characteristics with Crop Simu-
lation Models

Objectives:

A. Identify the minimum soil, crop and weather data
needed to predict the performance of rice, maize,
soybean and peanut cultivars in the humid tropics.

B. Test, validate and modify existing rice, maize soy-
bean and peanut cultivars in the humid tropics.

C. Use rice, maize, soybean and peanut simulation model
as screening device for varietal testing.

Applicability:

Trial and error varietal testing is slow and achieved at
high social costs. There are currently available well-
developed crop models that will simulate performance of a
cultivar in a specific location on a specific named kind of
soil. These models have been designed to replace trial and
error varietal testing with testing by simulation. Simu-
lation is not intended to replace field validation of crop
performance, but is designed to screen large numbers of
cultivars and to identify the most likely candidate for field
testing.

An effort will be made to ensure that a common "minimum
data set" is collected from this project, the erosion
project, and the phosphorus-lime project so that results from
all projects can be used to examine the interdependence of
components of the larger system.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Michael Wade, North Carolina State
University
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: October, 1984







UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 204


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 204


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$11,999

$2,561

$0

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$6,364
------------------------------------


----------------TAL:$2


- - - ---------------- - -- - -- -


$26,324


$19,700


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 205

Title: The Influence on Crop Yield of Inoculation of
Recently Cleared Lands with Introduced and Indigen-
ous VA Mycorrhizal Inocula

Objectives:

(1) To increase food crop production by field inoculation
with organic debris (considered as indigenous VA my-
corrhizal inoculum) and pot culture inoculum (Glomus
fasciculatum) in soil cleared of tropical rainforest.

(2) To exploit VA mycorrhizal fungi for reclaiming land
damaged by improper land clearing methods.

Applicability:

Vigorous mycorrhizal symbiosis are important for an
efficient utilization of soil P reserves. We expect that the
mycorrhizal status of the selected crops will be influenced
by various land clearing options, various soil treatments,
various crop residue management options, and that knowledge
of the status of the mycorrhizae symbiosis will aid in
assessing the influence of these treatments. In addition, we
expect that land clearing practices which seek to maintain
the organic matter covering will similarly help assure a high
VA mycorrhizal propagule density and also provide favorable
conditions for development of the symbiosis. We further
expect to determine which of the latter two factors is most
important.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Ruey-Shyang Huang, University of
Hawaii

Research Sites: West Sumatra, Indonesia
Honolulu, Hawaii

Date: Original: April, 1985







UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 205


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 205


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$13,942

$3,028

$500

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$7,063
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $29,933 $28,700=========


--"'--"'--- ------------------------


$29,933


$28,700


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 206

Title: Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions

Objectives:

1. Develop soil phosphorus-lime model that simulates
changes in extractable phosphorus concentration and
soil pH over time.

2. Quantify model coefficients and couple this model to
existing crop models that simulate crop growth and
development.

3. Test and validate the phosphorus-lime model in the
field using observed and simulated pH, soil P, plant P
uptake and crop performance as indices for comparison.

Applicability:

Phosphorus deficiency and aluminum toxicity are two common
constraining mismatches between crop and soil. But because
phosphorus and lime interact with each other and with water
supply, genotype, other nutrients and weather conditions, a
systems approach is required to integrate information into a
model which can simulate the effects of phosphorus or lime on
crop performance when a host of constraints is operating
simultaneously.

Until recently, systems approach could not be applied to
soil fertility research because the means to integrate a
large number of factors into a crop simulation model was not
available. Recently, mechanistic models have been developed
that simulate nitrogen dynamics and water balance and predict
the effect of plant genotype and weather on crop performance.
These models offer soil scientists an opportunity to match
crop requirements to soil characteristics in a way that
enables them to predict and control soil performance under a
wide range of biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

Personnel/Institution: Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii
I Putu Widjaja-Adhi, Center for Soils
Research

Research Sites: West Sumatra, Indonesia
Honolulu, Hawaii

Date: Original: May, 1985






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 206


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 206
------------------------------------------------~~zz====


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


$17,985

$3,998

$500

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$8,266
---------------------------------------------


TOTAL: $36,149 $29,100
-------------------------------------------------------


,,,-,,,,,,,,----------------------------
,,,,,,------,---------------------------





TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 207

Title: Management of Soil Physical and Hydrologic Constr-
aints To Crop Productivity of Ultisols and Oxisols
of Western Sumatra

Objectives:

1. To develop conservation-effective management practices
for alleviating soil physical and hydrological con-
straints.

2. To quantify the effects of conservation effective
management practices on the soil physical and hydro-
logical properties.

Applicability:

Work to date by TROPSOILS in Western Sumatra has illus-
trated that soil moisture shortages, soil erosion, and
excessive runoff are serious problems. Crops suffer from
moisture stress that eventually results in serious reductions
in yields.

Crop roots appear to be confined in the depth of tillage,
which is manually performed with a hoe to a depth of five to
six inches. This shallow rooting reduces the amount of water
that is available to the plants. Furthermore, mobile plant
nutrients that are leached by percolating water below the six
inch depth are also unavailable. There is reason to believe
that the major restriction to root development is the pre-
sence of toxic levels of aluminum below the depth of tillage.
The consensus is that crop productivity can be improved if
practical methods are developed for increasing the depth of
rooting.

On the steeper cultivated slopes, excessive runoff and soil
erosion occur quite easily. Continued removal of topsoil,
which holds the limited amount of plant nutrients, results in
a serious decline in productivity. The resource-poor farmer
cannot easily replenish the lost nutrients and other inputs
to restore soil productivity. Thus it is imperative that
management practices developed for farmers in this region be
conservation-effective to sustain economic crop production.

Personnel/Institution: Lalit Arya, University of Hawaii
Keith Cassel, North Carolina State
University
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia


Date: Original: May, 1986






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 207


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 207


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$25,914

$5,902

$1,500

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$10,867


TOTAL: $49,583 $60,100---------


----------------------------------- --


$49,583


$60,100


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 208

Title: Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics

Objectives:

(1) To determine performance and adaptability of selected
forage crops under low lime and fertilizer inputs to
reclaim and protect eroded lands.

(2) To identify forage crops and its management require-
ments that will serve as (a) high quality feed for
large and small animal ruminants, and (b) green manure
to enhance crop production in land reclamation sites.

Applicability:

Ground cover is a logical and sound way to protect cleared
land, reclaim eroded soil, provide feed for livestock and
serve as green manure for the resource-poor farmers of
Sitiung and the humid tropics. Pasture grass and legume
species that perform well and serve multiple uses can become
permanent and inexpensive components of the farming system.
This project is designed to match the environmental require-
ments of pasture grass and legumes to (1) the environmental
characteristics of the land and (2) the resource character-
istics and preference of the farmer.


Personnel/Institution: Ron Guyton, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: April, 1985







UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 208


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 208


Budget
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$30,390

$6,974

$0

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$11,837
----------------------------


TOTAL: $54,601 $40,000
------------------------------------------------------


----------'-----------------------------






TROPSOILS


PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 209

Title: Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian Farming
Systems

Objectives:

(1) To evaluate the importance of soil organic matter in
agricultural production in Indonesia.

(2) To identify optimum farming systems for the management
of organic materials.

(3) To identify the major groups of soil organisms
involved in organic matter decomposition and to
study the effects of management factors on their
numbers and activities.

Applicability:

Sustainable, low-input farming systems in Sitiung,
Indonesia must provide for maintenance of soil organic
matter. This project is designed to compare farming system
technologies in terms of inputs and persistence of organic
matter and their feasibility and attractiveness to
subsistence level farmers. An assumption to be tested is
that a permanent soil cover of vegetation or mulch will best
protect the soil and create a stable equilibrium between
organic matter and decomposition.

Findings from these studies should contribute to better
management of soil organic matter in similar sites elsewhere.
Of particular interest will be the identification of useful
tree and cover crop species and determination of their inter-
actions with intercropped food crops.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Carl Evensen, University of Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: April, 1985







UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 209


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 209


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$25,562

$6,138

$500

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

$8,788


TOTAL: $46,388 $45,100,,,,,,,,,


----------------------------------------
----------------------------------------


$46,388


$45,100


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 210

Title: Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming Systems for
the Sitiung Area, West Sumatra

Objectives:

(A) Quantify the rainfall erosion potential for major
agroenvironments in the area.

(B) Evaluate the effectiveness of alternative cropping
systems and land management practices for controlling
erosional losses.

(C) Integrate the above with other agroeconomic and socio-
economic information for use in developing productive
and stable watershed-based farming systems for the
humid tropics.

Applicability:

Soil and water conservation is a critical component of
successful rain-fed farming systems in all agroecological
zones. A systematic project is outlined that is a logical
one for networking. We, therefore, propose that similar
collaborative activities be started in due course in the
semi-arid and acid Savannah zones. A number of related
activities have already been initiated in Hawaii and ICRISAT.

Personnel/Institution: Samir A. El-Swaify, University of
Hawaii

Research Site: West Sumatra, Indonesia

Date: Original: October, 1985







UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 210


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 210


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$13,324

$2,958

$0

$100

$1,000

$1,500

$0

$1,500

$100

$100

$100

$1,000

.$6,778
-----------------------------------


TOTAL: $28,460 $26,000
------------------------,-------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------


- - - -------------- = = == = -- -- -- -------== = = =





TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 211

Title: Application of Expert Systems to the Development and
Transfer of Soil Management Research

Objectives:

1. Design and construct expert systems in soil and crop
management technology.

2. Evaluate the implementation and performance of an
expert system on soil management.

Applicability:

There is a great need to implement existing information on
management of tropical soils quickly and to conduct follow-up
research where needed.

"Expert systems" or "knowledge-based systems" offer promise
as a means of capturing not only the factual knowledge of
experts but also a portion of their reasoning. With expert
systems the facts together with the rationale on how to use
the facts can be captured in a microcomputer. This permits
persons with limited training to access the factual infor-
mation and, more importantly, apply problem-solving skills
developed and used by the experts.

This project is to complement and extend the research
effort in Indonesia as well as that of other locations, in
the humid tropics. This will be done by explicitly
incorporating research results into expert systems.

Personnel/Institution: Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii
Stephen Itoga, University of Hawaii

Research Site: Honolulu, Hawaii

Date: Original: December, 1985






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 211


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 211


Budget
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$27,912

$6,782

$0

$0

$3,200

$4,444

$3,000

$14,000

$0

$1,500

$0

$0

$26,160


TOTAL: $86,998 $87,200


-- = = = -- - - ---- - ;






TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 212

Title: Program Backstopping

Objective:

Provide necessary technical, fiscal, and administrative
support for on-site staff including the following:

-procurement of research equipment and material;
-transmittal of funds periodically for project operations;
-accounting and reporting of project expenditures;
-compilation and review of reports;
-coordinate deployment of staff with the Management Entity,
SAID, and AARD/CSR;
-ensure proper maintenance allowance for overseas staff and
dependents;
-prepare requests to the Management Entity for purchases in
excess of $1000;
-receive and process experimental data sets.

Applicability:

Backstopping of off-campus research activities involves a
working knowledge of policies and guidelines established by
the Research Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the
U.S. Agency for International Development. Computer and
laboratory facilities and personnel on the Honolulu campus
also serve as resources.

Personnel/Institution: Project Manager
Assistant Project Manager
Account Clerk
Secretariat
Programming staff

Research Site: Honolulu

Date: September 18, 1986






UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PROJECT NUMBER: 212


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 212


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$74,800

$26,180

$0

$0


$0

$2,500

$0

$0

$2,500

$0

$0

$0

$44,520


TOTAL: $150,500 $94,300


========================================







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY BUDGET SUMMARY


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
BUDGET SUMMARY

Budget
Object Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Object Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
-----------------------------------------


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$327,015

$38,490

$42,500

$55,000

$39,000

$68,000

$6,500

$71,000

$0

$0

$27,500

$41,500

$167,648


TOTAL: $884,153 $770,200
































NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY










Requested and Projected Budgets
N.C. State University
1986-1987


Project Oct. 1-Dec. 31 Jan. 1-Sept. 30 Oct. 1-Sept. 30

Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


301

302

303

304

305

306

307

308

309

310

311

312

313



Total


$1000

58

57

71

53

68

41

88

24

44

32

6

47

74


221


262


663


508


77

76

95

70

91

54

117

32

59

43

8

63

99


884


67

70

93

52

75

43

117

29

48

25

2

53

96


770


1Requested

2Projected


,,--------------------------------------
,,--------------------------------------











Requested and Projected Budgets By Object Category
North Carolina State University
1986-1987


Personnel Non-Personnel Total
Project --------------- ------------- -----
Number Req.1 Proj.2 Req. Proj. Req. Proj.


x $1000

301 43 35 34 32 77 67

302 46 42 30 28 76 70

303 63 61 32 32 95 93

304 47 29 23 23 70 52

305 49 40 42 35 91 75

306 32 26 22 17 54 43

307 65 60 52 57 117 117

308 21 21 11 8 32 29

309 29 26 30 22 59 48

310 15 9 28 16 43 25

311 3 1 5 1 8 2

312 35 34 28 19 63 53

313 64 64 35 32 99 96


Total 512 448 372 322 884 770

Percent 58 58 42 42 100 100


1Requested

2Projected











Requested and Projected Positions
North Carolina State University
1986-1987


Requested1 Projected
Project
Number SS JS T/S Total SS JS T/S Total


Person Years

301 .70 .50 .00 1.20 .70 .12 .00 .82

302 .40 .63 .30 1.33 .40 .50 .20 1.10

303 .60 .50 .20 1.30 .60 .50 .10 1.20

304 .20 1.05 .10 1.35 .20 .42 .00 .62

305 .30 .92 .20 1.42 .30 .62 .10 1.02

306 .10 .75 .25 1.10 .10 .50 .15 .75

307 .85 .00 .25 1.10 .85 .00 .00 .85

308 .00 .75 .10 .85 .00 .75 .10 .85

309 .25 .00 .20 .45 .25 .00 .10 .35

310 .00 .55 .10 .65 .00 .30 .05 .35

311 .00 .00 .10 .10 .00 .00 .10 .10

312 .19 .63 .20 1.02 .19 .63 .10 .92

313 .00 .00 2.80 2.80 .00 .00 2.80 2.80


Total 3.59 6.28 4.80 14.67 3.59 4.34 3.80 11.73


1SS = Senior scientist
JS = Junior scientist (persons on graduate research assistantships)
T/S = Technicians except Administrative Assistant and two Secre-
taries for Project 313







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 301

Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation Tillage

Objective:

To develop proper soil management practices for the main-
tenance of soil physical properties for sustained fertilizer-
based continuous crop production systems.

Applicability:

Conservation tillage, minimum tillage, no-till have been
suggested and are currently in use in many parts of the world
as management practices that could be adapted to acid soils
of the humid tropics to reduce soil erosion and conserve
water while increasing crop yields. Conservation tillage is
defined as any form of tillage which conserves natural
resources such as soil, water or energy.

Changes in the soil moisture balance, weed populations and
other physical properties affected by various conservation
tillage regimes are expected to have a pronounced effect on
soil trafficability. The number of days during the year when
the soil can be tilled without inflicting damage to soil
physical properties will vary with different tillage regimes.

The combined results of all of the above changes will
certainly have an effect on both short and long-term crop
production. We anticipate success in obtaining higher crop
yields by adoption of conservation tillage practices if
chemical weed control can be maintained.

Personnel/Institution: J. C. Alegre, NCSU, Project Leader
Jane Mt. Pleasant, NCSU
D. K. Cassel, NCSU
G. C. Naderman, NCSU
A. Aznaran, INIPA

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: April, 1985

Revised: September, 1986







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 301

Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation Tillage

Objective:

To develop proper soil management practices for the main-
tenance of soil physical properties for sustained fertilizer-
based continuous crop production systems.

Applicability:

Conservation tillage, minimum tillage, no-till have been
suggested and are currently in use in many parts of the world
as management practices that could be adapted to acid soils
of the humid tropics to reduce soil erosion and conserve
water while increasing crop yields. Conservation tillage is
defined as any form of tillage which conserves natural
resources such as soil, water or energy.

Changes in the soil moisture balance, weed populations and
other physical properties affected by various conservation
tillage regimes are expected to have a pronounced effect on
soil trafficability. The number of days during the year when
the soil can be tilled without inflicting damage to soil
physical properties will vary with different tillage regimes.

The combined results of all of the above changes will
certainly have an effect on both short and long-term crop
production. We anticipate success in obtaining higher crop
yields by adoption of conservation tillage practices if
chemical weed control can be maintained.

Personnel/Institution: J. C. Alegre, NCSU, Project Leader
Jane Mt. Pleasant, NCSU
D. K. Cassel, NCSU
G. C. Naderman, NCSU
A. Aznaran, INIPA

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: April, 1985

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 301


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 301


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$27,750

$1,691

$5,000

$5,000

$4,000

$8,000

$500

$3,000

$0

$0

$3,000

$5,000

$14,625


TOTAL: $77,566 $66,700---------


----------'--------------------------


$77,566


$66,700


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 302

Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Fertility Management

Objectives:

1. To improve the efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium and zinc applications and weed control in
fertilizer-based continuous cropping systems.

2. To determine more precisely the residual effects of
lime and phosphorus applications.

Applicability:

Long-term continuous cropping shows that high crop yields
can be obtained on a sustained basis provided the fertility
limitations are corrected by lime and fertilization based on
soil tests. This methodology produced harvests of 32 consec-
utive crops of upland rice-corn-soybeans or peanuts grown in
rotation. After 13 years of continuous cropping, soil chem-
ical properties had actually improved while no detrimental
effects on soil physical properties were detected, provided
vigorous crop growth was insured by adequate fertilization.

The maintenance of fertility in acid soils of the humid
tropics is of worldwide relevance. Integrating results into
crop models in cooperation with ARS will facilitate extrap-
olation data for comparisons with similar work done in
Sitiung, Indonesia and Manaus, Brazil providing a range for
edaphic and climatic variability within Oxisols and Ultisols
of udic, isohypothermic regimes.


Personnel/Institution:


Research Site:


F. R. Cox, NCSU, Project Leader
E. Uribe, NCSU
T. J. Smyth, NCSU
R. E. McCollum, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
S. B. Weed, NCSU
V. Ngachie, Cameroon
N. Dschang, Cameroon
A. A. Ubiera, FERQUIDO, Dominican
Republic
L. Alvarado, INIPA
M. Villavicencio, INIPA


Yurimaguas, Peru


Date: Original: October, 1984


Revised:


September, 1986
65







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 302


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 302


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$28,972

$2,893

$5,000

$5,000

$4,000

$6,000

$500

$3,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$4,000

$15,017
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $76,382 $70,300---------


-------------"---------------'-----"'-
--------------------------------'-------


$76,382


$70,300


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 303

Title: Low-Input Crop Production Systems for Acid Soils in
the Humid Tropics

Objective:

To continue developing components of low-input soil manage-
ment technology for areas with limited infrastructure, as a
transition phase between shifting cultivation and settled
farming systems.

Applicability:

In 1981, a low input technology strategy was designed,
based on the premise of introducing gradual changes in tradi-
tional shifting cultivation. Farmer interviews indicated
that weed invasion rather than fertility decline is perceived
as the main constraint for prolonging the cropping period.
Our approach is to begin just like the shifting cultivators,
but gradually introducing innovations at the time farmers
normally abandon their fields to forest fallow regrowth.

Results so far show much promise for the low input strategy
as a totally different option for acid soils in the humid
tropics from that of fertilizer-based continuous cultivation.
The low input option is likely to have a wider immediate
applicability, because of its lower risk, less demanding
market infrastructure requirements. This transition tech-
nology is likely to be widely applicable throughout the humid
tropics. Current efforts focus on the alternatives after
transition technology has declined, the potential of green
manure incorporations nutrient and weed dynamics under low
input systems.

Personnel/Institution: J. R. Benites, NCSU, Project Leader
T. J. Smyth, NCSU
P. A. Sanchez, NCSU
C. Castilla, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
M. Villavicencio, INIPA
J. R. Davelouis, UNA, La Molina

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 303


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 303


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$36,900

$4,083

$7,400

$6,000

$4,000

$8,000

$500

$3,000

$0

$0

$3,000

$4,000

$17,973


TOTAL: $94,856 $92,800---------


---------------------------------'------
--'-"---'--------"-----'--------------


$94,856


$92,800


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 304

Title: Legume-Based Pastures for Acid Soils in the Humid
Tropics

Objective:

To continue developing soil management technology compon-
ents for improved pastures production in acid soils of the
humid tropics, with emphasis on N and K nutrient recycling
and soil improvement.

Applicability:

Well-managed pastures have several positive attributes of
relevance to the humid tropics. They keep the soil pro-
tected by a plant canopy throughout the year, require low
quantities of purchased inputs per hectare, can make good
use of marginal soils unsuitable for crop production, and
produce beef and milk. Furthermore, grazing animals have the
potential to recycle most of the nutrients they consume back
to the soil.

Most research on soil-plant-animal relationships in the
lowland tropics have been conducted in semiarid tropics and
savanna ecosystems where pasture productivity during the dry
season is the primary concern. Very little work has been
done in the udic tropics where pastures grow and remain green
throughout the year. Competition between grasses and legumes
is quite different from the ustic tropics, where the grass
dries out during the dry season while legumes generally
remain green. The infinite growing season of the humid
tropics raises questions such as the role of legumes that
require specific research. Such information would be of
value to the humid tropics in general.

Personnel/Institution: P. A. Sanchez, NCSU, Project Leader
M. A. Ara, NCSU
M. A. Ayarza, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
J. R. Benites, NCSU
R. Dextre, INIPA
J. Vela, INIPA
M. Villavicencio, INIPA

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 304


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 304
-------------------------------------------------------


Budget
-Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$29,647

$2,031

$6,100

$5,000

$3,000

$5,000

$500

$2,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$2,000

$13,028
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $70,306 $51,700=========


----------------------------------------
=--,-,,,,-------------------------------


$70,306


$51,700


TOTAL:






TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 305

Title: Soil Management for Agroforestry Systems in the
Humid Tropics

Objectives:

1. To continue developing soil management components for
improved agroforestry systems on acid soils of the
humid tropics, with emphasis on N-fixing legumes,
peach palm production, alley-cropping and managed
fallows.

2. To determine the value of trees and woody shrubs in
producing food or fiber.

3. To determine whether trees improve or stabilize soil
properties in the humid tropics.

Applicability:

Shifting cultivation, an ecologically stable system when
populations are small, breaks down under increasing popula-
tion pressure. This is occurring in much of the humid trop-
ics and improvements are needed to increase both the produc-
tivity and stability of cultivation systems. Trees are
considered the natural "vocation" of the humid tropics as
illustrated by the ability of rainforests to grow and accu-
mulate large quantities of biomass on acid soils low in
nutrients. Agroforestry can be defined as growing trees with
crops or pastures either simultaneously or in sequence.

This in-depth soil research project on agroforestry in acid
soils of the humid tropics is integrated with other disci-
plines and is linked with worldwide agroforestry research
through ICRAF. The principles that evolve can be of value in
other areas where other tree species may be the priority.

Personnel/Institution: C. B. Davey, NCSU, Project Leader
P. A. Sanchez, NCSU
J. S. Alegre, NCSU
L. T. Szott, NCSU
E. C. M. Fernandez, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
J. R. Benites, NCSU

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: April, 1985

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 305


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 305


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


TOTAL:


$32,400

$2,652

$4,200

$6,000

$5,000

$8,000

$500

$7,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$6,000

$16,742


$90,494 $74,900


------ ---"------ --------------'' -


-------------------------------------'-'
,,,__,,_,_,,,,,,_,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-,-,,







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 306

Title: Characterization, Classification and Interpretation
of Soils of the Humid Tropics

Objectives:

1. To increase knowledge of soils and soil properties in
the humid tropics.

2. To characterize potential network sites to aid in
proper site selection of extrapolation work.

3. To improve the interpretation of Soil Taxonomy in
agronomic terms through the Fertility Capability Class-
ification System (FCC).

Applicability:

Knowledge of the properties and distribution of soils of
the humid tropics serves as the basis for soil management.
Proper selection of sites for extrapolation work requires
good soil characterization, classification via Soil Taxonomy
and interpretation in practical agronomic terms, via the FCC
System.

Increased knowledge about properties of humid tropical
soils will provide feedback for improving Soil Taxonomy and
other natural classification systems. Membership of NCSU
faculty involved in this project who serve on international
committees of the Soil Management Support Service provides
such a link. Our research will also relate to the FAO-led
soil reference base and framework on land evaluation.

Personnel/Institution: S. W. Buol, NCSU, Project Leader
C. W. Smith, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
P. A. Sanchez, NCSU
H. Subagyo, CRS-Indonesia
E. Salazar, FONAIAP, Venezuela
D. G. Greenland, IRRI

Research Site: Various locations in the humid tropics

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 306


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 306
--------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


TOTAL:


Budget
-Requested Recomm---ended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


$23,298

$2,299

$0

$3,000

$2,000

$3,000

$500

$7,000

$0

$0

$1,000

$2,000

$10,224

$54,321 $43,500-------------------
$54,321 $43,500


,,,,3,----------------------------------
====~=L,--------------------------------


========================================







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 307

Title: Research Network for the Humid Tropics

Objectives:

1. To validate and extrapolate available soil management
technologies to other countries beyond the TropSoils
primary research sites.

2. To develop the capability of collaborating country
personnel to conduct, interpret and report user-
oriented soil management research.

Applicability:

TropSoils has developed technology components for improved
soil management in acid soils of the humid tropics during the
last 12 years. Many of these findings are ready to be tested
across the humid tropics in order to ascertain their validity
and determine the necessary modifications to specific
physical and socio-economic situations.

Several national institutions responsible for research and
extension in humid tropical regions wish to apply TropSoils
technology to their development programs.

This project will bring together the most promising results
of TropSoils research and will promote its validation and
modifications on a systematic basis. The on-farm and on-
station research done by trained local scientists will
provide much needed feedback to TropSoils.

Personnel/Institution: T. J. Smyth, NCSU, Project Leader
J. R. Benites, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
P. A. Sanchez, NCSU

Research Site: National research institutes in the humid
tropics

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 307


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 307


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$41,483

$7,727

$3,200

$5,000

$3,000

$7,000

$500

$20,000

$0

$0

$3,000

$4,000

$22,058
-----------------------------------


TOTAL: $116,968 $116,700
-------------------------------------------------------


------------------------------------'---
--'--'--'------------"-----------------







TROPSOILS

PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 308

Title: Soil Erosion and Reclamation of Humid Tropical
Steeplands

Objectives:

1. To adapt and modify the management principles developed
at the Yurimaguas primary research site to tackle imme-
diate soil management problems faced by colonists in
humid tropical steeplands.

2. To quantify watershed hydrology of steep primary humid
forests prior to land clearing.

Applicability:

The Pichis-Palcazu region of the Central Selva of Peru is
being rapidly connected to the rest of the country through
a massive colonization project. The entity in charge
requested the direct involvement of INIPA and NCSU to
validate the Yurimaguas results under local conditions.

The main differences in relation to Yurimaguas is the
significantly higher rainfall and sloping land. Many of the
problems associated with the High Selva development are
present there.

The rapid clearing of steep soils along newly opened high-
ways is unfortunately typical of humid tropical development.
This Pichis area provides the CRSP with a unique opportunity
to conduct research on both the prevention of erosion and the
reclamation of eroded lands abandoned after shifting culti-
vation.

Personnel/Institution: D. K. Cassel, NCSU, Project Leader
H. Elsenbeer, NCSU
D. del Castillo, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
Luis Zuniga, INIPA

Research Site: Pichis Palcazu region of Peru

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 308


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 308


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$14,396

$379

$2,000

$2,000

$1,000

$2,000

$0

$2,000

$0

$0

$1,000

$1,000

$6,426
---------------------------- --------


TOTAL: $32,201 $29,600---------


----'-'--------------------------------


$32,201


$29,600


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 309

Title: Soil Fertility Management in Oxisols of Manaus

Objective:

To adapt and improve soil management practices developed
primarily in sandy Ultisols to clayey Oxisols in near ustic
humid tropical environment in Central Amazonia.

Applicability:

The near-ustic semi-evergreen seasonal forest ecosystem
occupies approximately 57 percent of the Amazon. It is
characterized by a strong 3-4 month dry season, with a total
wet season potential evapotranspiration of less than 1300 mm.
Oxisols occupy 45 percent of the Amazon Basin. This climate
is also typical of much of the African humid tropics. To test
the TropSoils results from the primary research site to the
less humid areas of Central Amazonia, an agreement was signed
between EMBRAPA, IICA and NCSU to conduct cooperative work at
EMBRAPA's UEPAE Station east of Manaus.

A chronologic design developed by this project is in its
fifth year. The potential for continued characterization of
the differences in soils, nutrient dynamics, phosphorus
sorption, vegetation and rainfall regimes between Yurimaguas
and Manaus makes it desirable that this project continue.
Recently initiated investigations on soil nitrogen dynamics
and native fruit crop fertilization should provide
information to strengthen the TropSoils soil management
options in the humid tropics. Since most experiments are
long-term in nature, continuation of this work for the
quinquennium will provide valuable information at low
marginal costs.

Personnel/Institution: T. J. Smyth, NCSU, Project Leader
R. Melgar, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
Erci de Moraes, EMBRAPA
M. Cravo, EMBRAPA

Research Site: Manaus, Brazil

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 309


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 309


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$14,337

$3,052

$6,000

$5,000

$4,000

$3,000

$500

$9,000

$0

$0

$1,000

$2,000

$10,773
------------------------------------


TTL$5,6$4-----8,400


"--"'----"-----'-------'---"--------
---------'------------------"----------


$48,400


$58,662


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 310

Title: Soil Management in Transmigration Areas of Sumatra

Objectives:

1. To adapt management principles developed at the
Yurimaguas primary research site to tackle agronomic
problems of transmigrant farmers in Sitiung, West
Sumatra.

2. To assist in developing methods for reclaiming and
maintaining soil physical properties in mechanically
cleared land.

3. To develop methods for managing and improving soil
chemical properties in continuously cultivated land.

Applicability:

Transmigration projects in the outer islands of Indonesia
constitute the largest expansion of agriculture in humid
tropical regions. The rate of deforestation and the numbers
of people involved pose problems of greater immediacy than
in the Amazon. The rationale for NCSU's role is to apply
some of the results obtained at our primary research site,
Yurimaguas, test them, validate or modify them to suit the
physical and socioeconomic conditions of this transmigration
area.

TropSoils Indonesia can make a contribution of worldwide
impact if soil management research can turn around the detri-
mental effects of lack of land clearing and soil management
technology. Much of the fertility research for sustained
annual crop production has been validated in Sitiung both in
high and low input systems. Current efforts to synthesize
the information and develop a new thrust into soil management
in agroforestry.

Personnel/Institution: E. J. Kamprath, NCSU, Project Leader
D. W. Gill, NCSU
P. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
P. Gedger, Heriyadi (CSR-Indonesia)

Research Site: Sitiung, Indonesia

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 310


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 310


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$10,962

$373

$0

$3,000

$2,000

$6,000

$0

$6,000

$0

$0

$3,000

$2,000

$9,320
------------------------------------


TOTAL: $42,655 $24,700---------


-----------'-----------'--'---"------"
-----'-----'----------------------------


$42,655


$24,700


TOTAL:







TROPSOILS
PROJECT STATEMENT



Project Number: 311

Title: Influence of Texture On P and Zn Fertilization in
the Cerrado of Brazil

Objectives:

1. To determine effect of rates of fertilizer P applied
to Oxisols and associated Entisols varying in texture
on the extractable P concentrations with time.

2. To determine effect of rates of fertilizer Zn applied
to Oxisols varying in pH and texture on the extractable
Zn concentration with time.

3. To develop a model to predict the necessary P rates to
reach and maintain adequate soil test P levels for
maximum economic returns.

4. To validate the developed model with field data.

Applicability:

Acid savanna soils show considerable variation in topsoil
texture, not only in the Cerrado but particularly in Africa
and Southeast Asia. This project tackles the issue of how
easily determined texture can be used to refine fertilizer
recommendations in soils with relatively similar fertility
constraints. Its success would provide an effective tool for
extrapolating research done in clayey Oxisols of the Cerrado
to acid savannas of other countries.

Personnel/Institution: F. R. Cox, NCSU, Project Leader
I. B. G. Lins, NCSU
P. A. Gowland, NCSU
W. S. Geoderit, EMBRAPA
E. Stoner, Cornell

Research Site: Yurimaguas, Peru

Date: Original: October, 1984

Revised: September, 1986







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 311


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 311
-------------------------------------------------------


Budget
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated
Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$1,646

$379

$0

$0

$0

$1,000

$0

$2,000

$0

$0

$500

$500

$1,446


TOTAL: $7,471 $2,000----------


----'-'---------------'-------'--'------
----------------------------------------


TOTAL:


$7,471


$2,000







TROPSOILS


PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: 312

Title: Comparative Soil Dynamics Under Different Management
Options in Ultisols of the Humid Tropics

Objective:

To determine the changes in soil physical, chemical and
biological properties that are triggered by different soil
management options.

Applicability:

The potential effects of different farming systems on soil
properties in rainforest regions are frequently mentioned in
both the scientific and popular press. Statements such as
"pastures degrade tropical soils", "trees improve soil prop-
erties", "arable crops are erosive", abound. Such questions
are of fundamental importance to guide the development of
marginal lands in the humid tropics. There are no studies
where the effects of different management systems on soil
properties can be determined in a rigorous way. The purpose
of this project is to compare systematically the effect of
what we have learned as promising options in 12 years of
research at Yurimaguas and places the options in a way they
can be compared.

The questions raised here are likely to be of considerable
relevance to an understanding on how soils change with
management in the humid tropics. The issues are not only `
relevant in soil science terms, but also in terms of govern-
mental development decisions.


Personnel/Institution:


Research Site:


P. A. Sanchez, NCSU, Project Leader
J. C. Alegre, NCSU
C. A. Palm, NCSU
C. B. Davey, NCSU
A. G. Wollum, NCSU
R. J. Scholes, NCSU
M. C. Scholes, NCSU
P. A. Gowland, NCSU
T. P. Forbes, NCSU
J. Perez, INIPA
B. Pashanasi, INIPA
A. Salazar, INIPA
M. Villavicencio, INIPA
P. Lavelle, University of Paris
J. M. Anderson, Exeter University
E. T. Elliot, Colorado State Univ.


Yurimaguas, Peru


Date: Original: April, 1985

Revised: September, 1986
85







NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT NUMBER: 312


NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Oct. 1, 1986-Sept. 30, 1987
PROJECT NUMBER: 312


Budget

Requested Recommended Approved Obligated


Object


Salaries

Fringe Benefits

Allowances

Consulting

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT

Communications

Printing

Shipping/Freight

Other Direct Cost

Overhead


$22,542

$2,226

$3,600

$4,000

$4,000

$6,000

$500

$4,000

$0

$0

$2,000

$3,000

$10,964


TOTAL: $62,832 $52,800---------


--------- -- -- -- ---- ----- ---------- ---- -


$62,832


$52,800


TOTAL:




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