Citation
SARIF long-range program to the 1990's

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Title:
SARIF long-range program to the 1990's
Creator:
Syarifuddin K., A.
Rachie, K. O.
Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops (SARIF)
Publisher:
Balittan-Sukarami

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )

Notes

Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
Balittan Sukarami Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Sukarami
P.O. Box 103 Padang Sukarami Research Institute For Food Crops (SARIF)
West Sumatra, Indonesia
THE SARIF LONG-RANGE PROGRAM TO THE 1990'S
By
A. SYARIFUDDIN K.
K.O. RACHIE
First Edition M a y 1985




Balittan Sukarami Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Sukarami
P.O. Box 103 Padang Sukarami Research Institute For Food Crops (SARIF)
West Sumatra, Indonesia
THE SARIF LONG-RANGE PROGRAM TO THE 1990'S
By
A. SYARIFUDDIN K.
K.O. RACHIE
edited by P.P. Antoine
M a y 1985




GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
FOREWORD
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Vii
The SARIF Mandate and Goals vii
The Strategies viii
Institutional Development ix
Conclusions x
1. AGRICULTURE IN INDONESIA
General Background 1
Agriculture in the Outer Islands: Sumatra,
a Case Study 4
Production 4
The Resource Base 5
The Farms 8
Agricultural Research in Indonesia 10
2. THE NEEDS AND CHALLENGES 11
Biological Constraints 11
Farmer Constraints 13
Institutional Constraints 15
SARIF's Facilities/Equipment 15
Manpower Development 16
Strenghtening Linkages 17
Program Development 17
Organizational Constraints 17
Budgetary Restraints 18
Limitations of the Mandate 18
Operational Procedures 19




ka
3. CURRENT STATUS OF SARIF 20
The Mandate 20
Program Development 21
Identifying Needs 22
Planning Procedure 22
The Research Programs 22
Upland Rice 22
Upland Cropping Systems 22
Other Rices 23
Palawija Crops 23
Horticultural Crops 24
Significant Achievements 24
Adopted Technologies 25
Haturing Technologies 27
Agro-Economic Studies. 29
General Program Advances 30
4. FUTURE STRATEGIES 31
Research 32
The Programs 32
The Disciplines 32
The Stations 33
Crop Improvement Strategies 34
Plant Breeding 34
Cultural Practices 34
Integrated Pest Management 35
Agro-economic Studies 35
Post-Hlarvest Handling 35
Future-Research Needs 36
5. UPLAND CROPPING/FARMING SYSTEMS 38
Characterising the Resource Base 38
Agro-Economic Studies 40
Biological field Research 41
Short-Term Activities 41
Longer Range Objectives 42




6. UPLAND RICE 50
Importance of Upland Rice 50
Goals and Objectives 50
Constraints 51
Short-Term Program 52
Validating Existing Technology 52
Transferring Available Technology 53
Removal of Constraints 53
Long-Range Program 54
Refining Continuing Research 54
Blast Disease 55
Soils and Climate 56
Upland Rice and Farming Systems 56
International Collaboration 57
7. HIGH-ELEVATION RICE 59
Potential for Cold Tolerance 59
Current Program 59
Breeding and Testing 59
Agronomic Trials 59
Future Plans 60
.Research Objectives 60
Long-Term Expectations 61
8o PALAWIJA CROPS 62
Background and Importance 62
Cereals Corn 63
Potential 63
Major Problems 64
Future Programo 65
Prospects 66
Root Crops 67
Importance 67
Production 67
Constraints 68
Future Program 68
Prospects 70




Grain Legumes 70
Importance and Production 70
Constraints 71
Future Program 73
Prospects 74
New Crops 75
Exotic cereals 75
Root/Tuber Crops 75
Food Legumes 75
Perennial Forages 76
Project Implementation 76
Conclusions on Palawija Crops 77
9. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 78
Background 78
Manpower Development 78
Current Staffing 78
Long-Term Staffing 79
Training 81
Facilities Development 83
Present Status 83
Long-Term Needs 83
Technology Transfer 84
Resource Requirements 85
Implications 86
REFERENCES 87




AJJ3 F9 RE-V -r F 5I 0198
1. AARD Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
(Jakarta)
2. AVRDC Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
(Taiwan)
3. BAPPENAS Badan Perencana Pembangunan National (National
Development Planning Agency), Jakarta
4. BARIF Banjarbaru Research Istitute for Food Crops
5. BIMAS Bimbingan Massal (Mass Guidance Program)
6. BORIF Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops
7. CAER Center for Agro-Economic Research
8. CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture
(Colombia)
9. CIMMYT International Corn and Wheat Center (Mexico) 10. CRIAS CentralResearch Institute for Animal Science
11. CRIFC Central Research Institute for Food Crops
12. CRIFI Central Research Institute for Fisheries
13. CRIIC Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops
14. CSR Center for Soils Research
15. FSP Farming Systems Program (SARIF)
16. GOI The Government of Indonesia
17. IIERP ligh-Elevation Rice Program (SARIF)
18. IADS International Agricultural Development Service
(USA)
19. ICRISAT International Crop Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (India)




20. IITA International Institute for TropicalAgriculture
(Nigeria)
21. INMAS Intensifikasi Massal (Mass Intensification,
a farm input program)
22. IRRI International Rice Research Institute
(Philippines)
23. LERIV Lembang Research Institute for Vegetable Crops
24. MARIF Malang Research Institute for Food Crops
25. MORIF Maros Research Institute for Food Crops
26. NAR-II National Agricultural Research Project 27. PELITA or Repelita : Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun
(National Five-Year Plans)
28. Sarjana University degree equivalent to Bachelor's level 29. Sarjana Muda Three-year university diploma course 30. SARIF Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops (Sumatra)
31. SARP Sumatra Agricultural Research Project
32. SURIF Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops
33. UCSP Upland Cropping Systems Program (SARIF)
34. URP Upland Rice Program (SARIF)
35. USAID United States Agency for International Development
ii




Agricultural research in Indonesia has matured to the extent that careful thought must be. given to future needs and directions. The Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops (SARIF) has, with combined support of the AARD and USAID under the SAR Project, developed a proposal for a long-range program. This has required considerable effort and the contributions of several closely involved researchers and administrators.
The 'Program' proposes a rational plan of work for the next decades Pelitas IV and V. It anticipates a gradual build-up of
research activities, an expansion of the Institute's mandate, upgrading of staff capabilities, further improvement of facilities, and more effective linkages to farmers and other agricultural agencies in Indonesia. It is rendered under the assumption that external support will be forthcoming for at least the next 8 to 10 years. Their requests are judged reasonable by
today's standards.
This Program includes a unique proposals the merging of
animal and aquaculture with annual cropping systems research to better serve the Indonesian farmer. A lesser challenge is posed by their request to include perennials in their Farming Systems Program. We perceive merit'in these proposals and will be searching for the means to integrate the diverse interests and orientations of plant and animal scientists in an effectively functioning team effort.
Formulating long-range plans requires both perceptive
thought and experience. It must also be done from a threshold of institutional development.,
The very preparation of such a program requires a basic understanding of an institution's role and mandate, the real needs of its clients, potentials for research advance, and a sagacious estimate of workable arrangements. Not least in this
complex is the interplay of human factors that will make it work.
The Central Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC) will provide backup support and help implement these long-range program plans to the full extent possible. flowever, making them
533.




work at the grass roots level in Indonesia can only be done by the Institute 'itself. This will certainly require building of strong linkages with local extension agencies, universities, and
at the political level as well. The most effective leverage for achieving these -relationships will be through mutual respect engendered by a strong, dynamic and productive research program. SARIF is beginning to achieve these linkages in the Sumatra
provinces of West Sumatra and, to a lesser extent, of Aceh but has less influence in the other provinces and islands -of Indonesia. Time and loosening of budgetary constraints is likely to allow the Institute to expand its sphere of influence.
We are generally pleased by the SARIF proposals which, we feel, could become a model for long-range development of other centers and institutions.
B.H. Siwi
Director, CRIFC
iv




Several persons have contributed directly or indirectly to this report. They have carried out consultancies or special reports on different aspects of SARIF's programs and on Sumatran agriculture or otherwise provided information used herein, made constructive comments on the contents, and lent their support and encouragement. We are particularly grateful to the following a
A. SARIF CONSULTANCIES/SPECIAL REPORTS
1. S.T. Cooper USA*
2. R.R. Hlarwood USA*
3. A. Jugsujinda SARP/IADS
4. H. Jusuf SARIF
5. I. Hanti SARIF
6. R.I. Opena NAR-I
8. W.11. Patrick USA*
9. D.H. Perry SARP/IADS
10. R.Z. Rathbone USA*
11. U.H. Scholz SARP/IADS
12. S.V.S. Shastry India* 13. R. Soenaryo BORIF
14. Subandi BORIF
15. Sumarno BORIF
16. A. Tanjung SARIF
17, J.D. Traywick SARP/IADS
* SARP Short-Term Consultants
B. OTHER CONTRIBUTIONSt
1. P.P. Antoine SARP/IADS
2. Z. Ilarahap BORIF
3. A.R. Hlurdus- USAID
4. R.H. Retzlaff NAR-II 5. 11. Rusli Hakim BORIF 6. B.11. Siwi CRIFC
7. P.S. Srinivasan SARP/IADS
Although it is difficult to differentiate among the several contributors, we are*very grateful to Dr. B.II. Siwi, Director of CRIFC, for his interest, help, suggestions and encouragement. Among our SARP colleagues, we would like to express special appreciation to Dr. P.P. Antoine, who spent considerable time reviewing, updating and editing this manuscript Mr. Jack Traywick who initially inspired this report, with whom we consulted frequently during the several stages of preparation of the manuscript and who contributed much of the information on SARIF's physical facilities, present and future and Dr. U.II.
V




Scholz, for his contribution on the natural zones ot Sumatra azu their production patterns. We would also like to acknowledge those persons who gave freely of their time and spent long hours in typing, correcting and structuring the report for publishing: Ms E. Bustamam of SARIF, Mr. P.S. Srinivasan of the SARP, Ms Sussy Surachman and Mrs Mary S. Rachie, and the NAR-II Project staff in Bogor, for contributing the time and usage of their word processor.
Finally, we would like to stress the institutional support from USAID through the SARP contract Grant and Loan funds (Project no.497-0263) in partnership with the GOI/AARD/CRIFC which have directly supported the recent rapid development of SARIF and made this report possible.
A. Syarifuddin K.
Director, SARIF
K.O. Rachie
Project Specialist, SARIF/IADS
vi




Indonesia, especially the outer islands, has enormous potential for agricultural development and production. Although most of the better lands, mainly the alluvial and volcanicderived soils, have been settled and intensively cultivated for many generations, there remain vast areas of secondary lands (Class III to V) which can be developed. In fact, the
transmigration program is already utilizing these areas, especially the podzolic soils, to resettle hundreds of thousands of landless people from overpopulated Java, Bali and Madura. During Pelita IV, some 750,000 families are programmed for
resettlement on 1.5 million hectares in the outer islands.
TilE SARIF MANDATE AND GOALS
SARIF has the national mandate for (i) upland cropping systems in the humid tropics, (ii) upland rice for long-season, infertile soils, and (Iii) high-elevation, cold-tolerant rice. These assigments pose heavy responsibilities on account of the generally low fertility levels of most upland soil areas, the heavy pressures from diseases and pests, and dearth of good technologies for annual crops in these stressful areas. Moreover, many of the new settlements with major production problems remain isolated and do not yet have a smoothly functioning agriculture infrastructure, readily accessible markets nor adequate social amenities.
SARIF is commissioned to develop a research institution that is strong and dynamic in fulfilling its duties and functions. The primary goal of SARIF's work program is tot
"Develop and communicate to user groups alternative technologies for food crops production and management of upland crops in the humid tropics and high-elevation
wetlands".
The institutional strategy for achieving this goal will be through developing skilled staff for research, and for research support, services and technology dissemination in accordance with requirements. It will also involve the development and efficient use of adequate facilities and infrastructure for research and research dissemination.
This program will remain flexible, allowing SARIF to respond better to its long-term goals, the national development program, and technological and scientific advances.
vii




THE STRATEGIES
The development of well-structured, long-term crop improvement programs requires a thorough understanding of the institutional mandate, the real needs of the clients (farmers), and the primary constraints to increased production. The
constraints to increased production in upland areas can be classified as: (i) socio-economic; (ii) physical: in soils/climate; and (iii) biological: in management, varieties and pests.
Soclo-economic nntrLnatA. Among the several socioeconomic constraints are: low levels of effective demand; lack of marketing infrastructure; inadequate or improper handling, processing, drying and storage; difficultly available credit and production inputs; and ignorance of new or unfamiliar crop technologies and various cultural.prejudices and taboos.
Physi/lliglgJiral gnti J i. The common physical
constraint for SARIF's commodities concerns the land and climate, especially the nutrient-depleted, low-pH, high-aluminum and easily eroded soils. The climate is the second factor, often being excessively wet with low solar radiation during critical periods of growth, but also being dry for several successive days, something devastating for annual crops on highly permeable soils. Biological constraints embrace a host of other problems, especially pests (insects, diseases, birds and animals), unadapted or low-yielding varieties, inappropriate cultural practices, insufficient plant nutrition and weed competition. For specific crops, the most important constraints are: (i) upland rice blast, drougth, high Al; (ii) other rices: cold tolerance, blast and/or ranging disease; (iii) corns downy mildew, low fertility, high Al, insects; (iv) soybeans: low-pH soils, rust, bean fly; (v) peanuts: viruses, leaf spots, low-pH soils; (vi) cassavas low fertility, leaf diseases, low-yielding varieties.
A9AArA.h A1roaches. SARIF has four broad categories of research approaches to deal with production constraints: (1) varietal improvement, (2) cultural practices, (3) pest management, and (4) socio-economics. The Institute's three crop improvement programs (Upland Rice, "Other" Rices and Palawija Crops) utilize three primary approaches: varietal improvement, cultural practices and pest management, while the Upland Cropping/Farming Systems Program concerns mostly the agro-socioeconomists, but does very little varietal improvement.
DKQ.d str y. SARIF's basic strategy for the short term, or through most of Pelita IV, is to develop its research capabilities and execute the current program responsibilities as effectively and efficiently as possible. For the longer term (through Pelita V), SARIF seeks a broadened mandate to better serve its clients. This would include additional projects on:
viii




1. Role of perennials in subsistence farming systems (FSP).
2. Animals/crops in small-scale farming systems (FSP).
3. Aquaculture/animals/crops in small scale farming systems
(FSP)
4. New crops for uplands in the humid tropics (PCP).
5. Microbiology to address nitrogen fixation problems in
legumes.
The first three projects will be included under the Farming Systems Program (FSP), to be "upgraded" from the Upland Cropping Systems Program. The last two areas, on "New Crops" and "Microbiology", would be added to the Palawija Crops Program.
Other areas proposed for strengthening over the longer term are mechanization, post-harvest and seed technology. Mechanization will be important as a consequence of high labor costs in outer islands. The seed production technology section will aim at promoting the seed industry as a source of the first limiting input to agricultural production and as a highly effective vehicle for carrying improved technology to the farmer.
In developing improved technologies, SARIF will first validate the current "state-of-the-art", wherever it occurs within Indonesia or abroad. This will be accomplished through intensive study of the literature (especially in English), by correspondence, deputing staff for short-term training, and participating in national and international meetings and conferences.
INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
This involves three interrelated areas: manpower, facilities and technology transfer. Facilities include construction, procurement of commodities and vehicles.
Mapower. Total manpower requirements for the short term (through Pelita IV) will be 583 staff at six qualification levels. This will include 17 doctorates and 50 Master's degrees, or 9 Ph.D's and 7 MSc's more than are presently in-service or being trained. The staffing goals for Pelita V are to increase total numbers (all levels) by 22 percent to 712 and bring the numbers of doctorates and Master's degrees to 24 and 59, respectively. Of these, it is proposed to train about half the doctorates and 20 percent of the Master's candidates abroad. All higher-degree training abroad will be administered nationally, at present by the World.Bank funded NAR-II Project.
Short-term training, both within the country and overseas, would be continued at about the current levels for the
ix




foreseeable future. About 100 SARIF staff will be trained incountry each year, both in technical and "civics" courses. Another 8 to 10 qualified staff, primarily Sarjana level and above, with adequate English, will be sent abroad for short-term "(3 months) training. Costs are expected to run to $550,000 for Pelita IV and $700,000 for Pelita V.
Fclte. Station management including construction costs are projected at U.S. $1.3 million for the remainder of Pelita IV and $0.9 million for Pelita V. Vehicles, equipment, program expansion and maintenance costs would add $1.1 million during Pelita IV and $1.9 million in Pelita V, i.e. a total of $5.2 million for the ten-year period.
Technolg4gy narn.Z. This area will receive much greater attention during Pelita IV and V when communications facilities are developed and the generation of new technology has accelerated. Costs of these expanded efforts are already included in the manpower and facilities categories described above.
Total 1. The operational (DIP) budget for SARIF is estimated at $10.35 million for the ten-year period. Total costs for the Institute are summarized below:
(ESTIHATE ($ '000)*
ITEM PELITA IV PELITA V TOTAL
Training 550.0 700.0 1250.0
Facilities 2105.0 2768.5 4873.5
Operations (DIP) 4250.0 6100.0 10350.0
TOTAL = 6905.0 9568.5 16473.5
*Considered equivalent to millions of rupiahs.
The foreign exchange component of the total budget, primarily for overseas short-term training and commodity procurement, is estimated at $1.13 million during Pelita IV and $1.85 million for Pelita V. However, this would not include any contractual arrangements with external agencies, such as the SAR Project or the international component of an upland rice research project with IRRI.
x




CONCLUSIONS
SARIF is in a particularly advantageous position to conduct research on upland rice, with several well equipped research stations, particularly Sitiung which is in the center of a new transmigration project and is located on typical red-yellow podzolic soils in a humid climate. For the same reasons, investigations can be carried out on upland crops and their management in the humid tropics. Meanwhile, the location of the Institute's headquarters at Sukarami is highly appropriate for improving high-elevation, wetland rice.
SARIF's capacity for carrying out its present responsibilities and its potential for assuming a broader mandate in the future have been greatly aided by the SAR Project, partially funded by USAID Grant and Loan funds (# 497-0263). However, continuing additional support will be needed during both Pelita IV and V to sustain the progress being made and allow the Institute to develop as an ongoing effective and dynamic institution.
The following yield and production targets should be achieved by 1994 if SARIF's mandate is broadened and required support is provided in good time:
PRESENT 1995
UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS FAVORABLE CONDITIONS
REGIONAL GOOD REGIONAL GOOD
COMMODITY PRODUCTION FARMERS PRODUCTION FARMERS
(t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha)
1. Upland Rice 1.5 3.0 2.5 4.5
2. High-Elevation Rice 2.5 4.0 3.8 6.0
3. Corn 2.0 4.0 4.0 7.0
4. Soybeans 1.3 1.8 2.0 3.2
5. Peanuts (in shell) 1.6 2.3 2.5 3.5
6. Cassava 15 30 35 45
In addition, farmers will be able to produce these crops more reliably and less expensively than at present. Time would be too short to expect significant technological developments in the new projects included under SARIF's proposed expanded mandate. Nevertheless, some technology validation and ontrapolation from other regions combined with extensive
xi




experience of local conditions would allow SARIF's researchers to define capabilities for associated livestock, poultry and aquaculture in small-scale farming systems. The FSP goal to provide income to farmers in 1995 is US$ 2,500 or more, per family.
The payback from an effectively functioning SARIF could be enormous. To put costs into perspective it has been calculated that the improvement of only one crop (upland rice), assuming a Modest" overall increase of 400 kg/ha, would return, in A l=njg y and from Sumatra alone (42% of the national crop), about
three tims entire tn-yr ost 2f SARU. Moreover, similar
returns (or better) could be realized from improvements on highelevation rice and on palawija crops.
xii




1 P (a-I I CU L_--UR r Z I= I 1UDC I)lE- a C3
GENERAL BACKGROUND
Indonesia is an archipelago composed of more than 13,000 islands located between the northern tip of Australia and southeast Asia and spanning more than 5,000 kilometers from the northeast tip of Aceh to the eastern border of Irian Jaya. Indonesia straddles the Equator with most of its coastal lowlands
having a hot, humid climate throughout the year. Agriculture is the dominant industry providing a livelihood for about 60 percent of the nation's 160 million inhabitants.
The Indonesian population is heavily skewed to the central islands of Java, Bali and Hadura. Java, with only 7 percent of
the land mass, hosts 63 percent of the population, or 687 persons per square kilometer. By contrast, the outer islands are much less crowded. For example, Sumatra comprises about one fourth of
the archipelago's land area, but had only 26.5 million or 8 percent of the population and 56 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1979 (2, 7).
Intensive farming is carried out in Java, Hadura and Bali. The area under cultivation in these three islands is about 98,850 square kilometers, accounting for almost one-half of Indonesia's total cultivated area, although occupying only 7 percent of Indonesia's total land area. Reflecting the population pressure, farm size on Java stands at 0.66 ha while off-Java farm size averages 1.55 ha (Sunsus 1!ertanian, 1973).
A dramatic difference between Java and the outer islands Is the distribution of wet rice production whereby Java produces 64 percent of the wet rice for the country (5_LaojBa k IansJL, 19831 figures apply to 1982). flowever, for dryland rice, 74 percent of the production comes from outside Java and Hadura. Sumatra has 33 percent of the outer island dryland rice hectarage, Kalimantan 26 percent and Sulawesi 10 percent. Similarly, Sumatra has 51 percent of the outer island wetland paddy harvested area, Sulawesi 19 percent and Kalimantan 17 percent. Important non-rice crops seen as having high future
*potential are corn, soybeans and cassava. Maize hectarage shows 72 percent on Java, 14 percent on Sulawesi, 7 percent on Nusa Tenggara and 4 percent on Sumatra. Soybeans and cassava are
mostly grown (over 75 percent) in Java (primarily East Java)l about 10 percent is produced in Sumatra and 6 percent in Nusa Tenggara; 6 percent of the cassava is grown in Sulawesi.
In the livestock sector (cows and buffaloes), 1979 estimates
indicate 8.89 million heads, of which 4.9 million are found in Java (56 percent) and 1.2 million in Bali and Nusa Tenggara (14 percent)i 14 percent are also found in Sulawesi. On the other hand, poultry distribution shows 61 percent in Java, 19 percent in Sumatra and 9 percent in Sulawesi (fJ.Lj k lndgnm", 1983).
1




The high population and lack of opportunities in Java, B~ali and Madura have prompted the Government to encourage transmigration to the outer islands beginning in 1939. With the
beginning of the five-year Development Plans (Re~eia.9) in 1969, approximately 35,000 hectares were identified for resettlement, mainly in South Sumatra, during Repelita I. In Repelita II and III (to April 1, 1984), the target for Sumatra was 250,000 and 500,000 hectares, respectively. Typically, these schemes clear forested lands, provide housing and subsidize food and other expenses during the first one or two years. Each family head receives about 1 to 2 hectares depending on the situation.
It is comforting to realize that, to date, the rate of growth of agriculture in the country (3.7 percent, 1971-79) is increasing faster than the growth rate of population (2.3 percent, 1971-79), and that development planners have been able to pave the way for the generation of some agricultural surpluses. In Pelita IV, agriculture is expected to grow at 3.0 percent. while rice production grew at 4.1 percent in 1982, other commodities have experienced rapid growth, especially forestry and several industrial crops like palm oil, tea, coffee,
chillies, shrimp and fresh fish. There have also been substantial investments in developing irrigation, providing the essential agricultural inputs and infrastructure such as extension, credit and improved marketing.
However, even greater progress will be required to meet the longer term goal of doubling food production by the end of the century to meet increasing international consumption needs. The achievement of PELITA'S goals should also conform to the national principles of the Trilogi Pembangunan (Trilogy of Development): more equitable distribution of earnings and increased foreign exchange in addition to increased production. Moreover; there is mounting concern about the expanding economy's long-term effects on the environment and resource base, especially on cutover
forest lands, cultivated slopes and in adjacent marine fisheries.
Sore L Oufter Inland In!esmea~
Government strategy for development has several components:
(a) continued redistribution of labor from Java to the outer
islands (b) movement to a more diversified food crop base, thus reducing dependence on rice and rice imports, (c) expansion of foreign exchange earnings while diversifying away from petroleum
product exports, and (d) ensuring a, more equitable distribution of national product.
The outer islands claim a dual role in these objectives. outer island annual growth rates, 1971-79, have been nearly 10 percent per year indicating profitable investment opportunities, particularly in manufacturing (15.7 percent) and in agriculture (5.6 percent). In agriculture, about 190,200 square kilometers of potentially arable land are available in Sumatra and Ralimantan, and their development is an important part of
2




Repolita IV. In addition, the outer islands produce the major portion of Indonesian perennial crops. Timber, rubber and coffee ware the leading non-oil exports from 1966 through 1981, all from Outer Island locations. Indonesia is the second leading rubber producer in the world (after Malaysia): rubber earned 18 percent of the total value of non-oil exports from 1978-1981. In
addition, Indonesia is the world's largest producer of coconuts and ranks in the top five for coffee, copra, palm kernels and tea. In perspective, it must be remembered that the total value of wood, rubber, coffee and tin exports equalled 17 percent of the value of petroleum and petroleum product exports in 1982/83. Hence, the continued development and diversification of agricultural exports is extremely important as oil prices decline
oEr Tnd tit 2f Devaloing lgaj r Lemri f 1h1l A
peyelopnent Bank, Economic Office, Asian Development Bank, April, 1983).
Another important growth activity for the outer islands is fishing, currently accounting for 1.6 percent of real GDP. The most productive fishing grounds are located in the Straits of Nalacca, around the coast of Kalimantan and near the Moluccas. Fish products, especially shrimps, have become increasingly important export products. They are exported mostly to Japan. Production increased by 6.5 percent from 1981 to 1982.
Smallholder agriculture and agricultural processing industries are favored by government in the outer island investment process. For example, in Repelita III, a ten-year program was launched to transform 3.2 million hectares into croprpoducing land, based mainly on smallholder plantation development in coordination with Indonesia's Transmigration Program. In particular, for Sumatra and Kalimantan, some 42,150 smallholders are expected to benefit from "nucleus estate" projects wherein a state-run or private plantation acts as the development agent for a region of smallholders.
3




AGRICULTURE IN THE OUTER ISLANDS: SUMATRA# A CASE STUDY
Since much of SARIP's work, so far, has focused on Sumatra's agricultural research and development (programs will Boon be expanded to the entire country to satisfy the national mandate), it appears important to present Sumatra's agriculture in more detail in this chapter, in order to better point out constraints
and challenges facing SARIF.
More comprehensive studies of Sumatran Agriculture are available in the 1983 Scholz's publications "The Natural Regions of Sumatra and their Agricultural Production Pattern' (22).
P rodusc t io n
Sumatra comprises about one-fouirth of the land area of Indonesia: 47.4 million hectares of which only about 4 million hectares are in farm agriculture and 1.3 million hectares are in estate crops, i.e. about 11 percent of the total area. Nevertheless, the island of Hope' produces about two-thirds of national exports.' Petroleum is the most important export commodity followed by timber, tin and various agricultural commodities.
Crops
Sumatra accounts for all of the palm oil, 93 percent of the pepper, 73 percent of the rubber, 72 percent of the coffee, 68 percent of the cloves, 21 percent of the copra and 21 percent of the cocoa produced in Indonesia. Other Sumatra crops with
significant export earnings are tobacco, tea, sugarcane, cotton, kapok, cinnamon, nutmeg, patchouli oil and vanilla. Smallholders dominate the production of rubber (80%), pepper, coffee, cloves and coconuts, while tea and palm oil are largely cultivated on estates (4, 5, 6, 7).
Annual food crops are almost entirely grown by smallholders, and Sumatra accounts for 21 percent of the rice, 14 percent of the sweet potatoes, 11 percent of the cassava, 9 percent of the soybeans, 9 percent of the peanuts and 4 percent of the corn in Indonesia (2). Rice, both paddy and upland, are widespread.
Animal Production
Animal production is comparatively low: Sumatra accounts for only 10 percent of the beef cattle and 27 percent of the
buffaloes in the country. Small ruminants, including sheep and goats, comprise 4 and 11 percent of the Indonesian production
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respectively. Sumatra also raises 26 percent of the country's chickens. Cattle, sheep, chickens and ducks are widespread, but buffaloes are concentrated in Aceh (32%), North Sumatra and West Sumatral goats are raised mainly in North Sumatra (22%) and Lampung (21%)l pigs are almost entirely confined to North Sumatra (85%) and are mainly raised for export. Livestock are largely produced by smallholders to provide food, draft power (mainly cattle), source of manure and capital appreciation. Chicken "factories" and suburban dairies are increasing rapidly to meet growing urban demands for milk products.
Fisheries
Commercial fishing is encouraged by the Government.. Sumatra accounts for 36 percent of the marine fish in Indonesia, 29 percent of the open water fish, 13 percent of fish from brackish ponds, but less than 10 percent of the fish from fresh water ponds, cages and paddies. Some marine fishing occurs in all
provinces but especially in North Sumatra (36 %) and Riau (32%)l open water fishing is concentrated in South Sumatra (46%) and the other categories are focused mainly in Aceh, West Sumatra and North Sumatra.
Forestry
Sumatra has about 16 million hectares, or 30 percent of
Indonesia's 52 million hectares, of 'production forests" (total forests 122 million ha). The major province is Riau with 5.3 million hectares of production forest. Production and exports of timber and forest products have increased rapidly in the country.
There is now. increasing concern about conservation and reforestation with national goals of 300,000 and 70,000 hectares for reforestation and rehabilitation programs, respectively (2).
T he R es ou r ce B a se
The Equator nearly equally divides Sumatra which is oriented Northwest and Southwest between about 6 degrees North and 6 degrees South Latitude, and between 95 to 108 degrees East
Longitude. Most of the land mass exists at a relatively low
elevation: within about 200 to 300 meters above sea level. However, the original people settled mainly in and along the low mountain chain, the*Bukit Barisan, up to an elevation of about 1400 meters. Some mountain peaks (and volcanoes) extend from 2000 to 2900 meters, a few peaks exceed 3000 meters and Kerinci is
3800 meters above sea level.
.The island is divided into three major topographies ionethird is mountainous, another third comprises the gently rolling to nearly flat central peneplains and the remaining third (along
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the northeast coast) consists of swamps. The good lands of the intermountain region have long been settled, but only a small portion of the highly leached soils, with a low pH, of the central peneplains are cultivated; virtually none of the swampy coastal areas have been developed. Most of the national
transmigration schemes are concentrated in the peneplains.
The Soils
The major soils types of Sumatra include red-yellow podzolic soils (ultisols with some oxisols, 47% of total area), latosols (14%), alluvial soils, regosols, andosols and organosols. The swampy areas (22% of total area) include alluvial, low-humus gley, humic-gley soils and organosols. Most of these areas are affected by tides and some lands are being planted to tidal swamp rice. Some of the swamp areas contain peat, but peat layers deeper than one meter are difficult to farm.. Other low-lying areas with a clayey base form acid-sulphate soils when drained.
Alluvial soils of the intermountain areas and alongside the rivers are generally productive depending on the parent material and internal drainage. If poorly drained, they are usually converted to paddies for irrigated rice. Other productive soils include the volcanic ash enriched andosols on mountain slopes and, to some extent, the latosols being utilized for industrial crops.
The most promising areas for development and transmigration are considered to be the central peneplains dominated by depleted, easily eroded red-yellow podzolic soils; however, some of these open lands also include lesser areas of alluvial soils, andosols and latosols. About 4 million hectares of these areas, largely podzolic soils, have already been identified as suitable for transmigration, but about 52 percent of the island (24.8 million hectares out of a total of 47.4 million hectares), may eventually have potential for agricultural development. Over 30 percent of the area mapped has a slope of less than 15 percent (suitable for perennials) and about a fourth of the area has a slope of less than 9 percent (suitable for food crops).
The Climate
The dominant climate of the island is hot and humid. Typical temperatures of the lower elevations and coastal areas fluctuate between about 22 degrees C and 33 degrees C, with a difference of less than 2 degrees C between seasons. However, elevation has a much greater effect on temperatures and cloud cover, depending on the situation.
Rainfall is comparatively abundant throughout the island, averaging 2500 mm for 70 percent of the 600 recording stations. The wettest areas are normally the western slopes of the Bukit Barisan, where 4 to 5 meters of annual rainfall are common.
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other sites and intermountain rainfall "shadows" may drop to I1y about 1500 mm per annum. Based on wet (>200 mm) and dry E<100 mm) months, about 4 percent of the island, especially the lot'coast and some eastern slopes, has more than 9 consecutive ,,-at months, 47 percent has 7 to 9 wet months, 15 percent has 5 to 6 vat months and only 2 percent (mainly North Sumatra) has less thnn 3 wet months per year.
The favorable temperature and rainfall conditions allow the production of continuous rice on 70 percent of the total area. Other 16 percent of the area is suitable for one or two crops of rice and one crop of other upland (palawija) species. About 10 percent of the area can grow one crop of rice and palawija for tho rest of the season.Four percent of the area is suitable only for one or two palawija crops (10).
Irrigation. An estimated 1.2 million hectares of land in Ouiatra were irrigated in 1977, amounting to 22.5 percent of the country's total. Most of the irrigation is of the conventional :zrvity type. Of the total irrigated area, 224,000 hectares are considered technically irrigated while 320,000 hectares are semitochnically irrigated. 480,000 hectares (58% of public works irrigation) were considered suitable for Mass Guidance and Mass intensification programs (BIMAS and INMAS) during the 1977/78 wet reason, and 275,000 hectares (about a third of the public works) w-jer classified suitable during the 1977 dry season.
The Second and Third plans include ambitious new irrigation proJects focusing on developing new systems rather than i-chabilitating existing systems which are largely completed. Greater emphasis has been given to smaller projects (less than 200 hectares of simple irrigation) and on tidal swamp
reclamation. The Directorate of Water Resource Development has identified 6 million hectares of future potential irrigation in Xndonesia, including 4 million hectares for new development and 1.3 million for tidal swamp development. About 63 percent of the gravity systems and about half the tidal swamp development would bo in Sumatra.
Environmental Zonee of Sumatra
The environmental groupings for targeting farming systems cooarch on Sumatra include, according to the description by Oldeman lit Al, 1979, (10):
1. lin cAstI. area. Climate: A and Bl zones. The southwestern coast is characterized by continuous high rainfall (over 200 mm per month, almost every month). The soils are generally alluvial and continuous paddy rice is the dominant cropping practice. Some fruits, vegetables and animal production occur on the undulating foothills.
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2. Intermountain yallrys, These are semihumid to humid (ca. 1600-2200 mm) intermediate elevations with alluvial soils or soils of volcanic origin; the climate ranges from Dl to E2. Crops range from paddy rice near the valley bottoms or on terraces with irrigation or favorable rainfall, to upland rice and other palawija crops, fruits and vegetables.
3. Baxian. Climate zones range from Bl to D2. These are high-elevation, high-rainfall sites like Sukarami and Brastagi. The soils are generally fertile (volcanic origin) and major crops include high-elevation paddy rice and cool-season (temperate) fruits and vegetables.
4. Piedmgnt. (BI climate). This foothill region lies closer to the mountains, is slopy (>10% near the mountains down to 3 to 5% near the peneplains) and have mainly latosolic soils, although some areas are alluvial or volcanic in origin. The soils, especially those of volcanic origin, have exceptionally good internal drainage and are generally better adapted for growing perennials (rubber, oil palm, spices and coffee) than annuals.
5. Pneaia Jl (primarily Bl climatic zone). This area, the largest north of the Barisan, is gently rolling, ranges from 20 to about 70 m above sea level and has mainly podzolic soils with poorer internal water drainage than in the Piedmont. Double-cropped paddy rice is the dominant system in the settled areas.
6. TranitiQn zone. This is the transition zone between the peneplains and tidal swamps. It is a seasonally flooded (or dry), true deep water rice growing area. It includes some Bl and C2 climates, the latter being drier and having a somewhat better cropping potential.
7. JATAU I sw These areas are extensive along the
northeastern coast and comprise. about a third of the total island land area. Water. (both fresh and brackish) rises and falls with the tides. Some alluvial levees, in riverine limited areas, support intensive cropping. Climates include Bl, Cl and C2 zones.
8. Another cgaghi. zone. This zone includes the lower, more seasonal rainfall areas of North Sumatra and Acehl climate ranges from Cl to E2. It is typified by the growing of one crop of paddy rice followed either by a palawija crop or by a fallow for off (dry) season grazing.
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The Farms
The 26.5 million population of Sumatra is concentrated most heavily in North Sumatra (199 inh./sq.km. ) and Lampung (106 inh./sq.km.). It is lowest in Riau, Jambi and Bengkulu (28 to 31 inh./sq.km.). The population is increasing at the rate of 2.9 percent annually, as compared to 1.6 percent for Java and 2.3 percent for all Indonesia. In 1983, there were 2.85 million farms averaging 1.13 hectare and 594 estates averaging 2213 hectares in Sumatra.
Farm size ranged from 0.81 hectare in West Sumatra to 2.55 hectares in Riau, compared with the Indonesian average of 0.99 hectare. In fact, the generally accepted limit for intensively cultivated land is only about 0.75 hectare per farm when all operations are done by hand, as they are on more than 60 percent of Sumatra farms. The percentage of the population engaged in agriculture ranges from 63 percent in North Sumatra to 87 percent in Bengkulu, averaging 70.6 percent for the entire island (Indonesia 61.6%).
Most' farm activity is devoted to crop production (90.7 % of farms) with combined crops, livestock, fish culture or timber being relatively minors only 9.3 percent mixed farming versus 13.2 percent for Indonesia. However, annual crops are often combined with perennial species (e.g. rubber, coffee, spices and fruits) on upland soils. All wetland production is in crops, but dryland cropping varies widely.
There is relatively low use of fertilizer and pesticides (ca. 20%), although these inputs are subsidized and increasing in use. Most of the land is cultivated by hand labor provided by the farm family, although 10 percent of the farms have full time workers and 30 percent employ seasonal labor. Draft animals (mainly cattle) are used on only 28 percent of the farms, compared with 52 percent for Indonesia. However, mechanical power is used on 10.5 percent of the farms compar-ed with 5.1 percent nationally. The primary reason for greater mechanization (increasing rapidly) and low labor usage in Sumatra is labor's shortage and higher cost: often three to four times the cost in Java (2, 6, 7).
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN INDONESIA.
Indonesia has a- national coordinated agricultural research network. The establishment of the Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) within the Ministry of Agriculture by Presidential Decree in 1974 was a result of an increased emphasis on the role of science and technology to support the large and vitally important agricultural sector of the nation through research.
The Ministerial Decree formalizing the charge of the specific research institutes within AARD was issued in 1975. In 1976, AARD obtained its own budget and the authority to manage the research institutes of the Ministry of Agriculture. Prior to the Presidential Decree, research was conducted within each of the Directorates General for Food Crops, Estate Crops, Forestryv Fisheries and Animal Husbandry.
AARD comprises, besides a Center for Statistics and Data Processing, and a Central Library for Agriculture and Biology, seven Central Research Institutes which, together, are composed of 24 Research Institutes.
The seven Central Research Institutes are respectively: 1) for Soil Research, 2) for Agro-Economic Research, 3) for Food Crops, 4) for Horticultural Crops, 5) for Industrial Crops, 6) for Fisheries, and 7) for Animal Husbandry.
Among these seven Central Research Institutes, the Central Research Institute for Food. Crops (CRIFC) is worth special attention, given the scope of this document. It is composed of six Research Institutes which have begun documenting and analyzing constraints in local food crop-based farming systems and initiating important applied research within their mandated fields.
For lowland rice, SURIF, located at Sukamandi in West Java, has the primary responsibility. Tidally irrigated rice, which ir seen as an important long-range prospect and goal by planners, particularly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, constitutes the primary mandate of BARIF, in Banjarbaru, Kalimantan. The food crop-based farming system for dry climates is the mandated research field of MORIF in Sulawesi. Given the great potential for palawija (nonrice food) crops, the role. of MARIF (East Java) has become particularly meaningful. BORIF, located in Bogor, West Java, has principal research responsibilities in fundamental research. Finally, SARIF, located in 'Sukarami, West Sumatra, has, in addition to its regional responsibilities, the national upland rice mandate and also conducts some research on upland and highelevation food crop-based farming systems.
The following text covers essentially the mandate and programs of SARIF.
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.._. -rl-iE IlEE D: i I4 (.i-iAZLIDSEI PkE8:
A new center like SARIF, established in 1980, faces enormous .challenges. The staff is predominantly young and has limited technical training. Facilities and equipment have been very meager or virtually non-existent up to mid-1984. Budgets have been marginal, even before the austerity policies imposed nationally in 1983, and generally ponderous to implement. Meanwhile, the biological problems of a highly diverse agriculture in a low humid tropical setting are formidable indeed. A large number of urgent production problems must be tackled concurrently, not to mention national emergencies like the brown planthopper outbreak in North Sumatra in 1983.
The deterrents to an effective agricultural research operation in SARIF can be categorized as: (I) biological
constraints (ii) constraints at the farmer's level (iii) institutional constraints (i.e. within the existing framework)i and (iv) organizational constraints (when the limitation is imposed by the parent organization). These will be
discussed broadly in the sections that follow. However, it would be impossible to anticipate and list all of the day to day problems ,occurring in different areas and circumstances. it must also be recognized that some problems, both biological and organizational, cannot be attacked frontally by the present system, but must be deferred, contracted to other agencies better equipped to deal with them, or otherwise circumvented.
B I OLOG I CAL C 0 N S TRA I NT S.
The low humid tropics pose the greatest of all challenges to annual crops researchers. The constant high temperatures and moist conditions favor a host of insect pests and diseases which
exert year-round pressures on the crop. The majority of soils have lower fertility levels than those of the drier- and more temperate regional often, they are highly leached of plant nutrients, low in organic matter, have minimal water and nutrient holding capacities and are highly fragile and easily eroded. Further complicating these factors are the large number of species grown in the same fields or on the same farm to meet the dominant subsistence farmer's multiple needs for food, animal feedstuffs, fiber, structural materials, pharmaceuticals and cash. Since growing conditions vary widely and there Is a high degree of specific adaptation within species, It is virtually impossible to provide tile ideal, adapted plant for each situation.
Some specific examples of biological and real farmer's problems are briefly described below. They are not necessarily listed in order of priority, since it is often difficult to make
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such determinations and since conditions vary greatly from location to location. They include the followings
jidi ij -jeA. Except possibly for paddy rice,
the currently available varieties of upland and high-elevation rice, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans and'peanuts are severely limited in adaptation, yield and production stability. In fact, the commercial production of most upland and coldtolerant rice, root crops and legumes are, up to the present, heavily dominated by old farmer's land races. Even the mostly improved, open-pollinated corn varieties have largely
deteriorated after several generations in farmers' fields. Of course, the spread of new, improved varieties is greatly restrained by lack of seed distribution facilities and agencies.
AILt. diseases. A wide range of plant diseases afflict upland food crops. It is not unusual for a dozen potentially serious pathogens to affect a single species when conditions are favorable. Among the most serious plant diseases, SARIF diagnosed rice blast, Helminthosporium of rice, brown spot of rice, downy mildew of corn, viruses and Cercospora leaf spot of peanuts, rust and bacterial leaf spot of soybeans, viruses of sweet potatoes and assorted leaf spot of cassava (e.g. Cercospora spp.). Several secondary diseases occur in more narrowly defined situations such as foot rot of soybeans in the poorly drained soils of Aceh, Cercospora leaf diseases of several crops (rice, peanuts, cassava), viruses of chillies and scab of wheat. However, the most vexing disease problem is typified by the unstable pathogens (like rice blast) which overcome new resistance strains within 2 or 3 years after release.
Ina 1ts. Like plant diseases, a host of insect pests
attack virtually all crop species, often from the early stages, until the crop is harvested and in storage. The most serious pests studied intensively by SARIF's scientists include the seedling fly, brown planthoppers, stem borers, plant bugs and stink bugs of rice; stemborers, plant hoppers and ear worms of corn; bean fly and pod borers of soybeansl red spider mites and scale insects of cassava; and several foliage feeders of root crops. A wide range of other insect pests of these crops can be devastating under specific circumstances when conditions favor their buildup. Less is known about nematodes, their occurrence and economic importance for upland crops.
AnlmAi RIMata. Problems with rats, birds and other large animals, especially wild pigs, are almost universal in Indonesia. Except for rats, which also attack the growing rice plants, the other animals are more important as crops approach maturity, requiring constant vigilance by the farmer. Particularly severe in newly cleared areas, especially those adjacent to forests, are wild boars. Peanut and root crops like sweet cassava and sweet potatoes are particularly vulnerable in such areas.
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Log-_L dg1. ed silLs. Upland soils are largely "problem soils or red-yellow podzolic soils (mostly ultisols in the U.S. Taxonomy or acrisols in the FAO legend). These soils are highly depleted of basic plant nutrients, have low cation exchange capacity, tend to fix phosphorus rapidly, have often a low waterholding capacity and possess high levels of aluminum and other toxic elements. Most annual food crops are susceptible to aluminum toxicity, but the solutions to the problem (e.g. Ca- and Al-tolerant varieties) are not yet practical nor easy. Another kind of problem occurs when these soils are irrigated and iron toxicity occurs as a result of the reduction of iron from the ferric to the ferrous form. This causes oranging disease of paddy rice, which is accompanied by greatly reduced yields: the symptoms can persist for several years.
&rEonion And runoff. Newly cleared forested lands in the tropics are normally low in organic matter and the nutrient reservoir is mainly in the shallow topsoil layer. Moreover, the individual soil particles, although aggregated, are not very cohesive and tend to move easily with wind and water. As a result, erosion is frequently severe unless the land is carefully handled, a crop cover is maintained and the organic matter content is built up. Deterioration may be even more rapid when conventional bulldozer clearing is done, accompanied by compaction with heavy machines and scraping or moving of the surface soil. The subsequent burning exacerbates soil homogeneity and further destroys organic matter, although plant nutrients are released for immediate plant growth. Carelessness in clearing and the subsequent severe erosion can frequently result in patches of "humid deserts" where nothing grows.
FARMER I S CONSTRAINTS
Cultural r. There is a continuing urgent need for new information on optimal cultural practices for newly
developed areas, cropping systems, crop species and varieties. Much needs to be learned about seasonal effects, soil/plant relationships, basic tillage, optimal planting dates, plantpopulations, plant nutrient requirements, weed control, plant protection and harvest, over a range of agro-ecological conditions. The need for such information is particularly urgent in newly opened lands, where problem soils are most common and recent settlers are unfamiliar with local conditions. Of rising concern is the urgent need to grow crops more efficiently and to reduce high labor costs.
H1A hnijxAUn And minimUm UiIgj. Much of farming
activities is done by hand and enormous. efforts are required to grow each crop. For example, upland rice requires at least 170 man-days of labor per ha to produce. This mean, onerous and exhausting work discourages many, especially the young, from remaining on the farm. Moreover, labor is both limited and very expensive on the outer islands, as compared to Java with which
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they compete in the market. Despite this, Ehere is little information on appropriate mechanization or use of draft animals, especially for basic tillage, inter-row cultivation, threshing, on-farm crop drying and processing, and transport. Another approach to the problem is minimum tillage (including mulching) and use of both general and specific herbicides for more efficient weed control, as well as for reduced runoff/erosion and lowering of soil surface temperatures.
Q=l d ying and prQcesainq. Both grain and bulky root crops pose serious problems of handling at harvest, particularly in a humid, hot climate. The farmer is faced with drying or otherwise preserving the produce quickly to prevent spoilage. The
customary procedure of spreading out grains and seeds to dry is both cumbersome and risky since rains come quickly and animals/birds are attracted to unguarded bulks. Root crops are even more troublesome as they run higher in water content than grains (60% to 80%), but they have the advantage of being harvested over a longer time period (particularly cassava which can remain in the ground for several months). Therefore, farmers need a low cost, minimal energy requiring system of drying and storing farm produce.
.d L.Ming ami. Very few upland farms,
especially in newly settled areas, are uniform in topography and soils, or are single-commodity enterprises. Most farms include both annual and perennial crops which are often grown in association. Livestock and aquaculture, although not in high frequency on the average, appear to have much greater potential in the future, both to upgrade the farm family diet and for the market. Obviously, cropping systems would need to be modified to accommodate and complement animal/fish production. -Perhaps the most urgent need is to expand research on forages, which would also have many other beneficial effects on land conservation and productivity. An even more immediate need is to devise production practices for combining annual and perennial crops, in separate, mixed or associated plantings depending on circumstances. Other components of such mixed systems include fruit trees, vegetables, cover crops and agro-forestry species (especially nitrogen fixing trees) for fuel, timber, forage and food.
&y3,ilia1it n. 1a2una. most advanced production technologies require some purchased inputs, especially seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. These must be available when needed, of acceptable quality and deliverable to the crop. Farmers also require credit during critical periods. Of particular concern to SARIF is the supply of viable seeds of known genetic constitution and purity, free of noxious weeds, seed-borne diseases and insect pests. Unfortunately an organized and functional seed industry network does not yet exist everywhere, although the distribution of improved paddy rice varieties has worked reasonably well. A viable seed distribution system also provides an excellent vehicle for transferring improved technologies.
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Agro-economics. Farmers as well as SARIF's researchers need a continuing update on the economics of upland agricultural production systems. At present, this type of micro-economics information is lacking for most sectors. Such studies will need to include an understanding of marketing outlets where commodities are sold off the farm. Perhaps of greatest interest to the biological scientists will be an analysis of major constraints to production and the help in the prioritizing of problem areas for further study. This agro-economics function must be considered ongoing and equally important as any of the hard sciences projects.
INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS
The institutional constraints to SARIF's operations have already been recognized and steps taken to rectify them. The first phase of institution-building is being achieved through the Sumatra Agricultural Research Project (SARP) as a combined effort between the Government of Indonesia and USAID. The Project has addressed some of the primary institutional constraints including: (a) development of facilities, (b) procurement of equipment, (c) manpower development, (d) strengthening of linkages with other related institutions, and (e) developing a viable research program. These and other operational constraints will be briefly describedin the sections that follow.
SARIF's Facilities/Equipment
Construion. Up to 1983, facilities for carrying out field crop research were almost totally lacking except for a few old, rundown buildings at Bandar Buat (Padang), Sukarami, Rambatan and Taman Bogo. Electricity and water were non-existent or very sporadic at all sites. The farms at Kayu Agung (South Sumatra), Pasar Miring (near Medan) and Lampineung (Aceh) remained only empty fields. Therefore, major construction works were planned and begun at Sukarami, Sitiung, Lampineung and Pasar Miring from 1981 to 1983. The second stage of construction, scheduled for completion by April 1986, will include completion of Sukarami and Sitiung, renovation of Rambatan (West Sumatra) and Taman Bogo (Lampung), and a wholly new station at Kayu Agung. Construction at Sumani (near Solok) was completed by the end of 1982 but under a separate project: the World Bank supported National Agricultural Research project (NAR-I). However, much remains to be done on station development in terms of laying out fields, constructing roads, erecting boundary fences, installing irrigation drainage systems and providing electrical power and domestic water.
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When completed, these field stations will be adequate to initiate active research programs, but may not function at full capacity until some further additions are made to laboratories, mesh houses and living quarters for staff and laborers.
t and t. The limitations of equipment and transport have proven an even greater deterrent than building facilities. Only a few aging vehicles (trucks, buses and 4-wheel jeeps) were available to SARIF up to 1984. At that time, several light pickups and the first SARP equipment order were received. The most important field machinery and tractors arrived and were placed in service by mid-1982. This equipment, including generators for electrical power at isolated stations, will greatly expedite land development, primary tillage, inter-row cultivation, pesticide applications, transport and readying lands for experiments. Subsequent orders (2 to 4) will provide much needed scientific instruments, experimental field plot machines, office equipment (including computers), library and communication materials (books, journals, equipment) and supporting services (e.g. -cafeteria/kitchen equipment). Since the amount of these orders is large, some of the stations for which equipment is intended do not yet have completed facilities, and equipment/instrument operators must be trained. As a result, only limited use of some equipment will be made in 1985. However, as experience is gained and ongoing critical needs are identified, it will be necessary to augment and replace some of these items.
Manpower Development
As of December 1984, SARIF listed 525 staff of which only 224 were confirmed. Only 4-staff members, including the Director, hold a doctorate degree (UPLB) and 21 staff have Master's degrees (3 from UPLB, 2 from the USA). In addition, 39 staff members received short-term overseas training (2 to 6 months), mainly at International Agricultural Research Centers, while 163 staff had received short-term training in Indonesia. Nine staff are continuing their studies for the doctorate (2 at UPLB, 6 in Indonesia, 1 in the USA); and 26 staff are working on their Master's degrees (2 at UPLB and 24 in-country). This, however, is only a beginning and at least triple this number of higher degrees would be required to man the Institute's research program during the coming decade. In addition, there will be a need for a continuing flow of short-term training, both in-country and overseas, during Repelitas IV and V. Of course, such accelerated training exacts a heavy toll on the ongoing programs, as staff are constantly leaving for varying periods of time. This problem is particularly acute in the early stages as the strongest leaders tend to go first.'
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Strengthening Linkages
SARIF has developed excellent linkages at all official levels in West Sumatra, including the Governor's office, Dinas Pertanian and Extension Services, and Andalas University. Unfortunately, the Institute has not yet effected similar influences in other Provinces, although a good start has been made in Aceh. This may be due to the slow progress in establishing facilities at SARIF's substations, the comparatively low number of trained and experienced researchers and the recent budgetary constraints (national austerity policy) which are limiting travel. Moreover, the Institute's Director has had an exceptionally heavy burden in both early institution-building and establishing an effective research program.
Program Development
Considerable progress has been achieved in research, as highlighted earlier. Advances were made against formidable odds, inadequately trained manpower, frequent staff departures for training (often at inconvenient times), severe budgetary restrictions and virtually non-existent facilities, equipment and instruments. This situation has also forced many younger, untrained staff to assume heavy responsibilities, greatly exceeding their training and background and necessitating
"heroic" efforts including long hours of hard work. It has also obliged thelnstitute to maintain a discipline-oriented organizational structure, rather than the more efficient commodity-based or mission-oriented research, in order to retain the guidance and inputs of a comparatively few experienced researchers across several programs.
Some research disciplines have languished for lack of training experience and facilities. One example is plant breeding which has relied on national coordinators (located at BORIF, SURIF or some other distant stations), for both primary leadership and source of genetic stocks. Lack of facilities for handling, organizing and preserving experimental seeds has made it difficult to preserve seed viability, even for one season.
ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
Public institutions like SARIF are, like similar organizations in other countries, subject to several procedural restraints necessary in large bureaucracies. Three operational constraints are likely to affect the realization of SARIF's goals in the future. They include: (a) limitations of budget and delays in receiving operational funds (b) lack of a clear and sufficiently broad mandate; and (c) restrictive operational procedures. They are briefly discussed in the following sections.
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Budgetary Restraints
Interim reductions and delays in funding during the past four years have been costly in terms of the amount and quality of construction at SARIF stations.
The imposition of austerity measures consequent to the oil crisis has also had a severe impact on the Institute's programs and activities. The most critical stricture has perhaps been on travel. Staff have been unable to move as freely as they should particularly outside West Sumatra, to keep up with day to day research problems occurring at distant points or to bring about the much needed cohesion and teamwork with staff at stations, such as those in Aceh, North Sumatra and Lampung. Not to mention the other islands of Indonesia, other provinces of Sumatra like Bengkulu, Riau, Jambi and South Sumatra (without SARIF field stations) are hardly ever visited.
Reduced budgets have also had more subtle effects on operations. Hore costly experiments have been deferred, work at outstations has suffered for lack of supervision and equipment (especially vehicles), and facilities have not been maintained an needed.
Limitations of the mandate
SARIF has a broad mandate for "improving upland (annual) crops of the humid tropics, including the most important palawija cro-ps of the region (corn,_cassava, soybean and peanuts). For the time being, this responsibility applies more specifically to Sumatra since there is no provision for travel for SARIF-directed work on other islands. The second aspect of the SARIF mandate is the national responsibility for the programs on upland and high-elevation rice. Until now, the assertion of national primacy in these two commodities remains somewhat tenuous as a consequence of limited trained staff, budgetary constraints and lack of facilities or equipment.
An even more serious longer term problem is to relate the Institute's research and technology transfer roles to the broader needs of farmer clients. Food crop agriculture is generally organized in small family units (average size of 0.6 ha.) and is either (M) wholly or partly dominated by paddy rice (either continuous 2 to 3 crops/year or paddy rice followed by one or two upland crops during the drier season or (ii) primarily upland cropping with little or no bunded and/or irrigated paddies.
Of course, there are many other special production areas like tidal swamp rice, highland vegetable production and small orchard production (black pepper, cloves, coffee, and other specialty crops) or various combinations thereof and with subsistence crops. Host farmers, especially in upland areas have (or should have) some livestock and grow several perennial
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species for a wide range of uses, especially tor marketing ott the farm. In addition, many farms have good potential for aquaculture on account of* the abundant rainfall.
The problem is that SARIF has neither the mandate for perennials or livestock/aquaculture nor very much influence with
the research agencies responsible for those commodities. Yet, it is very difficult to foresee how the Institute can effectively serve the best interests of both its farmer clients and the country agricultural economy without taking into account the
total farming system and all the commodities involved therein. For example, current practice frequently involves the close
association of annuals and perennials, the growing of specific plants to serve animals needs, and the adoption of cropping practices compatible with fish or livestock (like prudent use of
farm chemicals).
Operational Procedures
Loosening of budgetary strictures, especially the expedient transfer of funds to the Institutes, is urgently needed to increase operational efficiencies. Moreover, there must be
recognition of the necessity to allocate resources for the maintenance of facilities and equipment, together with a system assuring that such earmarked resources accomplished their purpose.
The *unit system" of rewarding workers for work output does not appear most conducive to scientific endeavours. It often leads to stifling individual initiative and to designing experiments more for the purpose of reaping easy unit credits than for the intrinsic value for agriculture of the research itself. There is an urgent need for a better system which can generate scientific incentive through stressing the satisfactions derived from true inquiry and results that directly benefit the
farmer. There is also a need for a method of rewarding such accomplishments.
For the longer term, interdisciplinary -teamwork must be
fostered and encouraged. This will necessitate analyzing production problems as a whole for the complete farming system
and providing incentives for closer collaboration between several scientific disciplines. The ideal would be the creation of multidisciplinary teams of scientists which include, in addition
to the plant/soil scientists, socio-economists, animal scientists, fisheries specialists and other biological or physical scientists (e.g. meteorologists) concerned with the problem area and its many ramifications.
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-. C UF<-EIEN- ST IA-LJS OFC SAF Until late 1983, SARIF was assigned national responsibility for upland -rice, high-elevation rice and upland cropping systems. The five major programs were s (1) upland rile (2) other rices, including irrigated, high-elevation, deep-water and tidal-swamp rice (3) palawija crops: maize, wheat, .cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, peanuts (and some minor legumes)l (4) horticultural crops and (5) upland cropping systems. Of these programs, upland rice received most attention on account of its importances total production of food nutrients exceeds that of all other upland crops combined in Sumatra and SARIF has the allIndonesian mandate for improving this commodity.
The SARIF mandate was further modified in late 1983 when horticultural crops and the high-elevation stations were brought under the Lembang Research Institute for Vegetables, LERIV, in W. Java. The irrigated and deep water rice improvement were included under SURIF (Sukamandi) and BARIF (Banjarmasin, Kalimantan) respectively; and the SARIF environmental mandate was more narrowly defined as "Upland Cropping/Farming Systems for Humid Climates".
Specific research objectives are focused on research
designed to stabilize and increase food production. Since
farm size per family is small, the improved technologies must cater primarily to the needs of small farmers. SARIF must also consider the two kinds of agriculture established and
transmigrant.
Established agriculture is mainly confined to long-term indigenous systems on better lands. In contrast, transmigration agriculture in developing new lands, predominantly on the forested, red-yellow podzolic soils. The needs, problems and challenges of the latter are much greater than for established agriculture and SARIF is presently giving primary attention to developing viable production systems for these secondary lands. Transmigrants are the "poorest of the poor" among the Indonesian farming community and their production problems on the fertilitydepleted secondary lands are particularly acute. Their
difficulties are compounded by minimal capital, limited infrastructural support, lack of sustainable production technologies and inexperience in the new environment.
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P ROG R AM D EV ELO0P ME NT
The guiding principles of SARIF's research programs are to address real farmer's problems and biological constraints to increasing production at reduced costs. Its current goals are more concerned with expanding and stabilizing production than
seeking quick yield increases requiring exceptionally high, and frequently uneconomic, purchased inputs. The underlying reason for this approach is that small, largely subsistence farmers, invest mainly their own efforts (including their family's) in the enterprise. Their primary concern is to assure a year-round supply of food and to maximize production per unit of effort
(labor). In these situations, usually with minimal draft or mechanical power, efficiency of production rather than yield POr s& is of paramount concern, and one medium-size family using hand
labor can seldom manage more than about 0.75 ha. Thus, it may be more important to have a rustict rapidly growing, broad-leaved variety of upland rice that competes well with weeds and is
compatible in complex crops associations, than a more advanced, high-yielding strain that is more exacting in husbandry demands and less tolerant of multi-species production systems.
Identifying Needs
Research is focused on the most important problems of food crop production in upland areas. These include several areas of
critical importance to small farmers, which may be identified by addressing some of the following questions:
1. Which crop(s) and cultivar(s) will provide the best returns for inputs invested, and simultaneously meet the farmer's needs for subsistence?
2. What method 'of crop management and fertilizer usage produces optimal returns for different crops and growing conditions?
3. How can pests (insects, diseases, birds, other animals) be most effectively and economically managed to minimize losses?
4. How can cropping practices and land cultivation be carried out to both avoid degrading the environment and gradually improve the soil productive capacity?
5. What are the best methods of on-farm processing (drying, preserving, extracting), storing and marketing the excess farm produce?
6. How can farmers increase their work efficiency,
especially on heavy onerous tasks that constrain total production, like basic tillage, planting, weed control and harvesting?
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7. What are the relationships between annual crop production and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at the better established stations, is underway to answer some of these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why. However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research that can be carried out.
Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized according to the basic commodity programs involving an interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall research plan. This involves (i problem identification through first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii) prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct measurements and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.
THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS
Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFt
Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop) are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth, seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices. Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.
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Upland Cropping Systems
This program serves a pivotal role relative to the other programs. The objectives are to develop economically-viable and environmentally-sound production systems involving both SARIF's mandated crops and other species including perennial crops. At present, major attention is given to upland crops in the problem soils of the transmigration districts, but other areas and systems are also studied (e.g. soybeans after rice on the north coast. of Aceh). Research underway includes evaluating multiple cropping systems, long-term plant nutrient use, the role of lime in current and future production; utilizing various cropping associations, relays and sequences; growing of mulches and green manures or leguminous cover crops; and adapting soil and water conservation practices like terracing, contour planting and minimum tillage. The cropping systems program includes sections in rural socio-economics and agro-climatology, which are considered essential to develop the agricultural data base of the systems.
Palawija Crops
These include all secondary annuals grown in rotation or intercropped with upland rice, or as off-season crops in rainfed rice paddies. The major species of interest are the cereals (corn, sorghum and wheat), root crops (cassava and sweet potatoes) and legumes (soybeans, peanuts, mungbeans and cowpeas). National leadership for these crops rests with MARIF (Malang) and BORIF (Bogor), but several specific problems are under investigation at SARIF stations. The major problems of corn are downy mildew and low yields in problem soil areas. In the case of wheat, the lack of low temperatures, problem soils, leaf rust and scab are among the primary constraints to increased production. Soybeans are susceptible to rust, bacterial diseases, the bean fly, pod borers and problem soils (especially low pH and high Al). Peanuts suffer from viruses, assorted leaf diseases (Cercospora, rust, bacterial wilt) and poorly drained soils. Cassava is attacked by insects (especially spider mites. and scale insects) and leaf diseases (bacterial wilt and blight, and Cercospora). Sweet potato is sometimes attacked by scab, viruses, stem borer, weevils (the root) and assorted leaf feeding insects. These several problems are approached mainly through varietal improvement with strong backing from national programs in Java and through agronomic (cultural practices) experimentation. The option of using chemical pesticides on these crops is available, but is not always economical.
Other Rices
Primary leadership for irrigated rice is vested at Sukamandi, in West Java. However, the special problems of highelevation rice have been mandated to SARIF. The latter concerns mainly cold tolerance manifested by floral sterility and blast
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disease, both of which are being approached through varietal improvement and better cultural practices. Increasing yield of rainfed paddy rice (shallow and deep water types) involves extensive testing of new germplasm from SURIF (Sukamandi), BARIF (Banjarmasin) and IRRI, and collaboration in the IRRI/IFDC fertilizer testing (INSFFER) program. However, an area of special concern is the soil problems developing in newly flooded rice paddies, especially in low pH soils with potential iron toxicity (*oranging disease'). Experiments involving increased levels of lime and other plant nutrients, addition of organic matter, mid-season drainage and use of tolerant varieties are underway to alleviate this problem. Except for high-elevation rice, diseases like blast are less serious in paddy rice. However, various insects cause problems from time to time and are usually controlled through timely application of pesticides, although a serious outbreak of a new race of brown planthopper (Race 3) occurred in North Sumatra in 1982. The principal approach to control this new race is through resistant varieties.
Horticultural Crops
There are two sections of horticultural activities: those for the North Sumatran highlands at Brastagi and Gurgur, and those in Central Sumatra at Sukarami and Bukittinggi. The
stations at Brastagi (1450m) and Gurgur (1250m) concentrate on potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, citrus, bananas and-ornamentals. At Sukarami, the focus is on chillies (cabe) and other vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. The improvement of potatoes involves testing of new varieties (introduction) and developing optimal cultural practices for production and pest control (with pesticides). In the case of chillies, a collection of more than 200 landraces has been made in Sumatra which, together with introductions from other regions and countries, is being screened for resistance to viruses, adaptation, performance and quality at Sukarami and other sites. The strategy for improving several other species is to collect/introduce new genetic stocks, evaluate them for adaptation and potential under a range of growing conditions and, finally, to develop optimal cultural practices for Sumatran conditions. Sometimes, a specific pest like PZutella xylo.tellA of cabbage becomes sufficiently limiting that it merits special attention and application of alternate methods of management, including biological control.
SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS
Several improvements in Sumatran agriculture can already be attributed to SARIF activities and scientists, often in
collaboration with national commodity programs and international agricultural research centers like IRRI and AVRDC. These advances have been made despite the lack of trained manpower, equipment and facilities. These deficiencies are being rectified through the expanded SARIF program (SAR Project) jointly supported by GOI and USAID.
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The pace of crop production improvements should accelerate over the next two to three years, as facilities are constructed and equipment is procured. In the meantime, contributions made by SARIF, which have already been widely accepted by Sumatran farmers or have recently been transferred, but appear to be spreading, will be identified and analyzed. A second category includes 'maturing" technologies that may be ready for transfer within the next one or two years. A third section highlights associated agro-economic studies completed and underway. Finally, a brief mention is made of General Program Advances covering a large body of preliminary or exploratory research on component technologies.
Adopted Technologies
The major impact of SARIF and the Sumatran Agricultural research stations has been in terms of improved germplasms. However, other management tools like the use of fertilizers, chemical pesticides and some cropping practices developed by the research establishment have also been widely accepted. The most noteworthy of these are briefly summarized below:
Pady rie varietal improvement. The testing and release of IRRI paddy varieties in the 1970's, most recently IR-36 and IR-42, have had a major impact on Sumatran food production, allowing exports to rice-short areas from excess-producing provinces of West Sumatra, Aceh and Lampung. More recently, the screening of brown planthopper (BPH) resistance strains has resulted in identifying IR-56 as resistant to the new BPH race which had devastating effects in North Sumatra. An emergency shipment of several tons of IR-56 was airlifted to Medan in 1983 to speed the replacement of older BPH-susceptible rice varieties.
Cold-tolerant igje. A new cold-tolerant rice, Batang Agam, derived from a cross between IR-36 and Sirandah Merah, made at IRRI and selected from the F.2 generation onwards in Sumatra, was named and released in 1983. In advanced yield trials, at elevations from about 800 to 1400 meters above sea level, it significantly exceeds the yield of the best available local and other strains with which it was compared. It also demonstrates a high level of floret fertility under low-temperature stresses. Although partially susceptible to blast disease, Batang Agam has been widely distributed in Indonesia wherever low temperatures limit rice production. Sumatra alone has a potential highelevation (>800m) rice production of an estimated 500,000 ha.
Pad r. pxrod.kion. Research on high yielding production systems of irrigated rice, utilizing appropriate levels of fertilizers and chemical pesticides (when necessary), recommended planting dates and plant populations, and practicing effective water management and weed control, has contributed to the near doubling of yields on Sumatra's irrigated rice lands during the last decade.
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r1eandizk prodaction. Studies on upland rice production systems have contributed important information on seasonal effects on production and pest dynamics, cultural practices, optimal use of inputs for different growing conditions and appropriate cropping associations. Although clearly superior improved varieties were not yet available by 1983/84, the Package" of improved practices incorporated into an optimal cropping system has been introduced and adopted by several progressive farmers in the Sitiung area..
Soyba In Aceh. One of the fastest growing annual food crops in Sumatra is soybeans, on the North coast of Aceh:either continuously cropped or following rice when irrigation water is not sufficient for the second rice crop. The economics are favorable, production levels are high (up to 2.lt/ha.), and there is a ready nearby market in Medan. SARIF has assigned a cadre of researchers to Aceh to work closely with provincial and extension services in developing soybean production technology for the region. They have already demonstrated and introduced to farmers the superiority of zero tillage over full tillage, the superiority of 'Local' and Orba varieties, the use of Rhizobial inoculation when planting soybeans in new lands, optimal plant populations (>500,000 plants/ha.), seed furrow granular insecticides like Curater 3G for bean fly control, foliage insecticides like Endosulfan for pod insects and optimal fertilizers (eg. 30-60-60) for the area.
Corn producion. -Improved corn composite varieties like improved Harapan and Arjuna, combined with recommended cultural practices including 400 kg/ha of fertilizers, consistently produce high yields (>3 t/ha) and have contributed to welldefined corn growing centers like those at Payakumbuh in West Sumatra, Lampung and at higher elevations west of Medan, North Sumatra. Superiority of zero tillage over full tillage of corn grown after rainfed paddy rice has also been demonstrated.
1Ma 1 cropping .stems. f The SARIF has contributed to the development and refining of a multiple cropping system involving associations of upland rice (7 rows) interplanted with corn (2 m apart), cassava (4m) and legumes (following rice /corn) to provide virtual year-around soil coverage, continuous production, and a diversity of crops for both subsistence and marketing.
Liming agd soils. A substantial body of evidence has been accumulated on the benefits of liming acid soils, especially the latosols and red-yellow podzolic soils of the Sumatran central peneplains. Typical crop responses range from 40 percent and upwards for upland rice, 100 percent for corn and peanuts, and up to 300 percent for soybeans. Even cassava shows benefits from liming low-pH soils. In fact, some high Al/low Ca-susceptible crops which would normally be failures, produce up to ten-fold yield increases with even modest applications of lime (2t/ha).
The technology of liming is highly advanced but still awaits the industrial development of West Sumatra's vast
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limestone (including dolomitic limestone) deposits: some o1 Lijew are located as near as 50 kilometers from the Sitiung
transmigration area, on the main trans-Sumatran Highway at Sungai Dareh. A source of readily available, inexpensive lime would greatly. accelerate technology advances and production increases and would substantially increase the range of crop species that could be grown successfully in acid soil areas.
Maturing Technologies
Advanced technologies nearing release to the farmer have usually involved several seasons of observations, testing and experience. Several recent research advances likely to impact on Indonesian agriculture in the near future are expected to include the following:
URIAnd Zrij yarieties. The Institute's primary focus on upland rice has been hampered by the dearth of clearly superior improved strains for both experimental purposes and commercial use. However, the in-flow selection and intensive testing of new germplasm from BORIF, IRRI and other sources has increased greatly during the past 2 to 3 years. Some of the new materials exhibit superior tolerance to aluminum and drought, resistance to blast and brown spot, and are consistently higher-yielding than widely grown local strains. The best of these new lines being considered for release in 1984 include:
B 3906 F 13 13 St 37 B 3913 F 16 20 St 12
NAPA 40 Krad St 12
Yield testing in the Sitiung area has resulted in grain yields of 1.6 t/ha, representing a 55 to 147 percent yield advantage over farmer's varieties. They are also intermediate in height, stem thickness and leaf width, distinct advantages in current farmer production practices. Of course, blast disease, the nemesis of upland rice, is expected to recur after two or three years, but at that time, new resistant materials should be available.,New high-elevation ricem. Further development of improved cold-tolerant rice has resulted in the identification of new strains nearing farmer release, considered superior to the earlier released Batang Agam variety. By late 1984, a second release was made of the cold-tolerant Batang Ombilin variety. Two new lines B2980b-Sr-2-6-2-3-2 and B3853e-Sr-8-7-3 are emerging as second generation advances for the high-elevation production zones.
gjnngg disjeae 2 91r e. Alleviation of rangingg disease' of rice on newly opened, low-pH soil paddies has been investigated from different approaches. Tolerant genetic materials like IR-36, B3913b-16-20-St-12 or B2980b-St2-6-2-3-2, combined with higher applications of phosphates and
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lime, and with additions of organic matter and mid-season drainage have been shown helpful in reducing losses from iron (and aluminum?) toxicity under these conditions.
Advanced sybean production. Second generation advances on soybean production technologies show considerable potential for helping sustain high yields and reducing production costs. The new package is expected to include cultivars like Galunggung and some aluminum-tolerant strains, minimum tillage, mulching and herbicides (like Treflan, Lasso and Grammoxone) for reduced costs of tillage and weed control. The package will also include fine tuning of seed furrow granular insecticides (Curater or Furadan), fertilizer use and planting practices.
C reduction package. New developments nearing release
include improved varieties like Arjuna, Hybrid Taiwan, H-6 (and recently some privately produced hybrids) for different growing conditions. Other practices showing considerable promise include more effective pest control, especially several species of planthoppers, optimal timing of cultural practices, control of weeds (both by hand and with herbicides) and the use of straw mulching to reduce runoff, weed growth, evapotranspiration and soil surface temperatures.
8Qt_ cr2 Some new sweet potato clones (eg. CI 17-5 and CI 916-46 OP-Sr-11) for intermediate and higher elevations (500 meters and up) combine both acceptable qualities and high yields. Associated investigations on both sweet potato and cassava have demonstrated the need for better fertilizer balance, especially a high requirement for potassium (up to 120 kg K20/ha).
Horticultural r12&., Several incremental advances have been made on high-elevation horticultural crops at Sukarami. These include the identification of virus-resistant strains of chillies (like cv.200) and a high-yielding, good quality tomato (AV-24). Other noteworthy developments include the use of iA~1llua
thuringienensis for non-toxic control of the cabbage looper, ElutalljA Xylgatlla, the use of clear plastic covers for offseason chillies and optimal fertilization and other cultural practices for a range of highland vegetables.
Wheat. Wheat is not yet grown commercially in Sumatra, although observation trials have been carried out at Sukarami and other high elevations in West Sumatra for several years. These investigations were further advanced with the planting of 25entry yield nurseries at five, locations in West Sumatra in 1983 (Rasyidin Azwar: Ph.D thesis at UPLB). Only the three higher elevations (Talang-650m, Sukarami=950m, Alahan Panjang-1250m) were harvested, but they produced trial mean yields of 11.2 q/ha, 23.6 q/ha and 12.0 q/ha, respectively. Best yields were obtained at Sukarami, with nine entries exceeding 24.5 q/ha. and three strains (Titmouse S, C.213-13 and C.212-59) yielding 31 to 33 q/ha. These excellent results elicited considerable local
interest and a special wheat field day was held at Sukarami on July 23, 1983.
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Agro-Economic Studies
The inclusion of an agro-economic unit in the SARIF has greatly strengthened the biological research program. This area adds a new dimension in terms of identifying significant needs and maintaining closer contact and knowledge of Sumatra's major agricultural production sector. Recent agro-economic studies include surveys and analysis of high-payoff activities with small farmers in West and North Sumatra, and in Lampung. Defined area studies have now been carried out on : (i) corn growers of Payakumbuh (Bukittinggi area of West Sumatra), (ii)
intermediate and higher elevation corn in North Sumatra, (iii) soybean production and marketing on the North coast of Aceh, (-iv) irrigated rice growers around Solok (West Sumatra), (v) newly settled transmigrant settlers at Sitiung, and (vi) long established transmigration projects in Lampung. Several papers on-these studies are being prepared for publication. Some of the interesting findings are briefly described below:
Corn produion in North 5-umatlra. Producers in North Sumatra achieved the highest average yields (3t/ha.) in Sumatra. Fertilizer inputs there are also quite high (450 ha. of TSP and urea per ha.) and the high elevations (mostly above 800 m) appear to favor high yields with lower levels of peat and disease stresses. However, low-elevation corn production (south of Medan) appears to be increasing with the available seed and fungicide package (for early control of downy mildew). Breakeven yields for this technology were calculated at 2.5 t/ha when two crops are grown per year, and at 1.6 t/ha when three crops are grown annually. Price stability in North Sumatra is maintained through exports to the Jakarta market.
Sobean producing in A&ch. Soybean production is actively encouraged by the Government to reduce the large imports of this commodity totalling about a third of the current one million tons annual consumption. The North coast of Aceh is particularly well suited to producing soybeans on account of the generally favorable growing conditions, the economic advantage over rice (particularly in the second season when irrigation is limited), and a highly accessible and stable market in the Medan area. Grain brokers actively seek out producers and arrange transport to market. Soybeans are in high demand in Sumatran urban markets, both for direct human consumption and as a component for animal feedstuffs, especially poultry and, to a lesser extent
for pigs (only in Medan)
ianilajita 2L inpRut. Recent surveys indicate that
several potentially profitable technologies are known to farmers, but are not employed for want of necessary inputs available on time, and of reliable quality. The most obvious needs
(bottlenecks) identified are the availability of fungicides and seeds of improved varieties of corn and soybeans. Other inputs like fertilizers, herbicides and mechanization are expected to become more important as production expands in future.
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j. jj. Small scale mechanization in beeoming increasingly available in- the highland areas of West Bumatra through a rental market. Mechanical threshers (like the IRRI coaxial flow type) showed an internal rate of return of more than 30 percent, while small motorized tillers were profitable only under greater capacity usage. The more rapid turnaround time with mechanization increases cropping intensity while reducing costs.
rof-it-abilit 2L cru. Studies of cropping practices in the transmigration area at Sitiung has shown that farmers are obliged to grow most of their own subsistence crops, especially rice and corn, but these are not necessarily the most profitable commodities. Upland rice is particularly demanding of labor inputs with present technologies. It is estimated that upwards of 170 man-days/hectare are required to grow a crop which may yield only 700 to 1000 kg/ha. On the other hand, peanuts, at about Rp. 1,200/kg, and cassava, at only Rp. 15/kg, are much more profitable in terms of returns on cost of production. In the case of cassava, a new starch factory at Sitiung has stimulated considerable expanded production since there is now a ready market for manufacturing tapioca.
Cr acties. The agro-economics unit has also
initiated some preliminary studies of older transmigration and spontaneous settlements in Lampung Province. The object is to learn more about the *maturation" process of developing these new lands to determine which production patterns endure over time, establish the continuing needs of long-term settlers and identify priority research areas.
General Program Advances.
Because of the urgency of developing a viable and sustainable technology for the new transmigration projects,a broad range of field experiments are carried out during three cropping seasons, each year, at several agro-ecological sites in Sumatra, especially in the Sitiung area and the Sitiung Station. In 1983/84, for example, SARIF's research program totalled 225 units (district experiments at a single site). The studies which have been completed and the current work underway represent a vast amount of important information on agricultural practices, real farmer's problems and research methodologies gained by SARIF's staff. This knowledge and experience will contribute to increasingly effective research aimed at achieving higher levels of productivity and more consistent yields of basic food crops. Most of these results are described in the SARIF annual reports and are also highlighted in the Sumatra Agricultural Research Project (SARP) 2nd and 4th Quarterly Reports.
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4j. FJUrUREZ TIES
The strategies proposed for the further development of SARIF toward providing more effective service to its clients may be classified ans (I) short-term, for the next.3 to 5 years, to about 1989 (through Pelita IV), and (ii) long-range, from 1989 into the mid-1990's (Pelita V). The first stage will continue through the extension phase of the GOI/USAID funded SAR Project and well beyond the mid-term of Pelita IV, while the longer range goals would carry well into Pelita V (terminating in 1994). Since it is easier to see the larger problems, but more difficult to determine physical needs and availability of resources over the longer term, somewhat shorter projections are made for station development than for research programs and manpower.
The most important short-term objective will be to develop an effectively functioning research program within the boundaries of the present mandate. The longer range program would continue these objectives and also proposes an expansion of the mandate to allow SARIF to fulfill. its target and better serve Its clients. flowever, the achievement of the research programs will depend on completion of station development and construction, procurement of commodities, training of staff and the strengthening of linkages as detailed in the SAR Project scheduled for completion by April 1986.
A broad description of SARIF and its goals, objectives and program to the 1990's was presented to the AARD for inclusion in Pelita IV. It describes four aspects of the future programs (I) research, (ii) staff development, (iII) infrastructure and facilities development, and (iv) technology transfer. The
research aspects, both short-term and long-range, will be amplified further in this section.
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RESEARCH
The Programs
- SARIF's revised. research mandate comprises four major problem areas including s
1. lIland Cropping/Farmina Systems humid limatngAl.
This research covers upland rice, non-rice (palawija) crops, other (perennial) crops and animals relevant to dryland agriculture in the humid tropics. The target of this program is the development of systems
for a minimum income of U.S.$ 2,500 per family.
2. UJiAnd ain. The target of this program is the
development of a technology for medium input, stable
production of good-quality rice at 3t/ha.
3. RighJ-El.ation Ri_ Iwetindsal. The objective is
to develop technology for the stable production of good
quality rice at yield levels of 5t/ha.
4. Pala iia r The objective is improved technology
for non-rice food crops in upland areas with a wet
climate and rainfed bunded areas.
The Disciplines
Research teams for the four major programs include seven disciplines t (i) plant breeding, (ii) agronomy, (iii) entomology, (iv) plant pathology, (v) plant physiology, (vi)
agro-economics and (vii) post-harvest technology and mechanization. Research support includes (a) administration, (b) laboratory services, (c) communications/library, (d) experiment station management and (e) workshops. The Institute projects its research leadership to include 16 Ph.D's of which 13 have completed their studies or are currently being trained, and 50 M.Sc's of which 21 have completed the degree and 26 are in training by the end of Repelita IV.
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The Field Stations
The Research and Technology Transfer programs will be carried out mainly at the seven SARIF field stations located in three provinces as follows:
1. lSukarami IWeat Sumatral Institute headquarters, center
for major research services and high-elevation
irrigated rice.
2. Stmani (Heat- Sumatra Sub-institutes pests of upland
rice and palawija crops.
3. Sitijung jaWest Sumatra), Sub-institutes dryland cropping
and farming systems, upland rice and palawija crops in
a wet climate.
4. Rambatan IWest Sumatral, Experimental Farm: Upland
rice and palawija crops in conditions of intermediate
rainfall (1800 mm) and elevation (600 m).
5. TA~an BQ ILampunal Experimental Farms dryland areas,
upland rice, palawija crops in a medium wet climate
(2500 mm) and low elevation.
6. Lampinng (Aceh), Experimental Farms rainfed bunded
lands at low elevations.
7. Bandar a (West Sumatra), Experimental Farm: seed
production and crossing rice.
Considerable research is also being carried out in farmers' fields, particularly at Sitiung and North Aceh. It should also be noted that SARIF was originally responsible for and participated in the development of three stations in North Sumatra: Brastagi and Gurgur for high-elevation crops, mainly vegetables, fruits and ornamentals, and Pasar Miring near Medan, for irrigated rice and palawija crops on bunded rainfed lands; in South Sumatra at Kayu Agung near Palembang for tidal swamp rice and in Jambi at Puding for coastal swamp conditions (terminated in the late planning stage). These stations are scheduled to be transferred shortly to other institutes having primary responsibilities for these commodities and problem areas.
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CROP IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
Plant Breeding
Among the various crop improvement strategies, plant breeding is the most effective and practical approach and therefore is frequently the option of choice It is the first line of defense against major biological pests like blast disease, brown planthopper, seedling fly and sheath blight of rice downy mildew and other diseases of corn; viruses, Cercospora, rust and bacterial leaf spots of legumes; foliage diseases. and some insect pests of root crops viruses of chilliesl and scab of wheat. Plant breeding is also the most practical approach to increasing varietal tolerances to drougth, low pH, aluminum and iron toxicities in annual crops, especially in rice, corn and soybeansl enhancing the product quality of all crops and improving adaptation, yield and agronomic characters of plants to better fit various agro-production systems.
SARIF scientists recognize the wide range of variability existing in most crop species and aim to exploit this diversity through aggressive efforts to introduce, collect and evaluate ready-made germplasm from both national and international sources as the first step in genetic improvement. However, the incoming flow of new germplasms sometimes approaches current capacities to handle, evaluate and test them. Therefore, SARIF is not justified yet in starting .active recombination activities for all commodities and growing conditions. The exceptions are in
upland and high-elevation rice, and in corn, for the unique and stressful, low-pH, high-Al conditions of the latosols and redyellow podzolic soils (oxisols and ultisols). IRRI's
participation on upland rice improvement at SARIF is expected to have a major impact on production of this crop in Indonesia, if not globally.
Cultural Practices
SARIF's second line approach is through improved crop husbandry, especially those aspects the small farmer can do himself and which require modest or minimal purchased inputs. Virtually all crops respond to timely sowings, appropriate combinations of plant nutrients carefully applied, early weed control and effective pest management. It is also becoming obvious that management practices like sowing-regulated plant nutrient applications and cropping associations or sequences, can help reduce damage from-some diseases and pests. Therefore, cultural practices are under study, not only for their contributions to the productivity of commodities, but also for their effects on the intensity of infection of diseases like blast, rust, viruses and bacterial agents and on the infestations of insects like planthoppers, stink bugs, leaf feeders and stem borers.
34




Basic soil and water problems, especially on red-yellow podzolfc soils, latosols and newly irrigated low-pH soils, are of immediate concern and are being addressed through combinations of cultural practices and tolerant varieties. The rapid degradation of newly cleared lands through erosion of the all too limited enriched topsoil, combined with rapid leaching of plant nutrients, is also of major concern, especially in transmigration areas. Preliminary investigations of these problems by SARIF scientists are focused on careful tillage, contour planting, terracing, interplanting with perennials and use of organic mulches to reduce runoff, increase retention of soil fertility in the upper soil horizons, reduce evapotranspiration and lower soil surface temperatures.
Integrated Pest Management
Pest management is currently under intensive study to better understand the dynamics of the major pests and diseases, and to learn how to reduce crop damage below economic levels. Concurrently, the occurrences of diseases and insectpests are being studied in various cropping situations and agronomic experiments, to determine the conditions and factors involved in attack. Other experiments focus on kinds, methods and timing of pesticide intervention.
Agro-Economic Studies
In the field of agro-economics, several studies are underway on defined area systems like the maize growers near Bukittinggi, the established paddy rice producers near Solok, the recently settled transmigration farmers in Sitiung and the older and "mature" transmigration settlers in Lampung Some preliminary results of these studies are discussed briefly in Chapter 3. SARIF also participates in PATANAS, which is now underway in West Sumatra.
Post-Harvest HandlingPost-harvest problems constitute another field of longer term interest to SARIF, both in connection with the processing and storing of rice and other grains, and in the handling of more perishable products like roots, fruits and vegetables. Current research is limited to studies of rice-harvesting conditions and their effects on grain quality and viability. These investigations will be greatly expanded as staff are trained and equipment and facilities become available.
35




FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
The problems of diverse agricultural systems in thetropicst especially in the low humid tropics., are virtually unlimited and SARIF has hardly begun to tackle all of them. While current lines of research must accelerate, certain areas of potentially great importance should be included in both the immediate and longer term programs. These concern the urgent need-to protect the resource base: prevent soil degradation and make more effective use of inputs, especially purchased fertilizers and pesticides. These may be broadly described as gollowst
1. Limeston. Much of Sumatra consists of low-pH soils
withall attendant problems. of aluminum, iron and manganese toxicities, and low nutrient availability.
However, the island has rich reserves (virtually mountains) of limestone, including dolomitic limestone, readily available for use. The application of lime could greatly increase production efficiency especially
in combination with other plant nutrients.
2. Eereniial grQpa. Perennials like rubber, oil and
coconut palms, coffee, cloves, pepper and several fruits are superbly-adapted to the low humid tropics, including the red-yellow podzolic upland soils.
Moreover, perennials greatly aid in stabilizing the soil and the production system. By comparison, many annuals are fragile and difficult to grow under these circumstances. Therefore, more research is needed on cropping systems combining both annual and perennial
species.
3. Minimi. tU.JAg. Hand tillage, inter-row cultivation
and weed control are mean and onerous tasks which greatly limit farmer productivities. Moreover, clean cultivation frequently exacerbates soil degradation in humid climates.Therefore,much greateremphasis needs to be given to minimal tillage systems utilizing bot general and selective herbicides like paraquat, glyphosate (Roundup), atrazine and others, both i primary tillage and as weed control agents. Minimal tillage systems should also include beneficial, and
compatible.cover crops.
4. Ggie _ER21. There are many possibilities for
compatible, nutrient-mobilizing cover crops, especially several species of both woody and herbaceous perennial legumes. Many.of these can be grown as barrier strips and utilized both for green manure and forage. Other species of legumes may be intercropped with annuals and perennials to help capture plant nutrients from the air (N) and deeper soil layers (P and K), in addition to the benefits of providing continuous cover
36




5. Cay . There are vast
potentials for increasing domestic animal and fresh water fish as well as crops in upland humid areas.
Ruminants would be particularly advantageous in view of the great abundance of unused vegetation and crop residues being produced. Moreover, there are rapidly developing needs for draft animals to increase production efficiencies. There also exists
considerable scope for producing fresh water fish in farm ponds as a final "trapm for runoff nutrients and animal wastes. However, the addition of animals and fish will both alter and increase the dimensions of
cropping practices and systems.
It may not be possible to initiate research in all of these new areas until the end of Pelita IV or in Pelita V. However, some aspects like cover cropping, green manures and minimal tillage could be started immediately, since current tillage systems are excessively laborious and inefficient, and hazardous to the resource base. Moreover, any reduction in the present fertilizer subsidy would necessitate the adoption of more efficient production systems than the present heavy reliance on cheap plant nutrients. Therefore, studies are being initiated on a broad range of legume cover crops and on more efficient methods of doing primary tillage, mainly through the use of appropriate herbicides and "mulchingO with both organic residues and living plants.
Fuurg plan- The future work plans of the four research programs include both ongoing activities and new projects proposed for phasing-in by the end of this decade or in the early 1990's (Pelita V). These plans and proposals are further described in Chapters 5 to 8.
37




C3 ir;-r E -1 E
The primary objectives of the Upland Cropping/Farming .ytems'Programs (UCSP and FSP) are "to develop alternative crop technologies for the management of the soil, water and other natural resources, allowing farmers to enjoy a reasonable living while observing good principles of resource conservation and environmental harmony in the humid upland areas'. The primary crops will be upland rice and palawija crops and the major focus will be on red-yellow podzolic soils with both level and rolling topography, and on rainfed bunded lands.
The UCSP will be concerned both with long-established agriculture and the cultivation of newly cleared lands. The latter are often more fragile and pope formidable challenges because of difficult soil problems combined with high rainfall and heavy pest pressures. Compounding these problems are often lack of social and service infrastructure and long distances-to markets in these "frontier" areas. Since the newly opened lands are etsily and irreparably damaged by improper clearing operations, the UCSP must also study better methods of land clearing and development as Well as efficient methods of rEhabilitating acutely degraded areas (8). Some work has been done on sustaining production in fragile environments, but mostly with high input levels (11, 14); some authors, however, suggest lower inputs systems (3, 15, 26).
The Upland Cropping/Farming Systems programs will function both in a direct exploratory mode, as well as in the capacity of the "ultimate verifier" of SARIF's technology. It will also provide the cover/umbrella for resource base information and recordings, e.g. meteorology, soil classification, agro-economics and other social science programs, and for related non-food crop salence disciplines like perennial trees, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The UCS program will be responsible for problem Identification, program targeting, staff orientation, and for fostering linkages with other institutions.
C ARACTERI Z ING TII E RESOURCE BASE
According to Barwood, 1980, (17) the-first step in farming systems research is the-identification of specific agroproduction complexes. lie suggested a hierarchy of classification consisting of climate, land form, soil type and socio-economics goupings. lie also proposed sixteen on-farm research sites clustered around the sub-institutes of which half the sites would be located in the piedmont and central peneplains to reflect SARIF's priorities. These priorities for improvement of farming systems.are in descending order, of importance t
38




1. Dryland farming systems :
a. Upland rice
b. Other upland food crops
2. High-elevation rice and upland cropping systems (above
500m)
3. Lowland rice-based systems (irrigated and bunded
rainfed paddies)
4. Deep water and tidal swamp systems.
Of these, SARIF has a clear mandate for upland and highelevation systems (items 1 and 2), while SURIF (Sukamandi, West Java) is responsible for lowland rice systems and BARIF (Banjarmasin, Kalimantan) has the national mandate for tidal swamp systems.
Environmental Parameters
The environmental parameters relevant to farming systems include both physical and socio-economic conditions. There are four such macro-determinants and several "micro-determinants" affecting farmers' decisions in specific situations and areas. The macro-determinants include:
1. Rainf all xf 9_UAmo and duatiQn. Oldeman (10) classifies rainfall according to a system based on the number of months above 200 mm (wet) and below 100 mm rainfall (dry). Upland rice normally requires 2 to 3 months above 200 mm rainfall, while sorghum and soybean can survive moisture levels below 100 mm/month if moisture is well distributed. Of course, other factors like rainfall intensity, temperature, wind, slope and soil permeability directly affect the amount of water available to the crop.
2. Land frm = tohpgraphy. This macro-determinant includes slope, elevation, soil permeability and rainfall. The major land forms, e.g. as defined in Sumatra by Scholz (12, 22) and defined by Verstappen, include :(i) western coastal plain, (ii) intermountain valleys, (iii) B. Barisan, (iv) piedmont, (v) peneplain, (vi) transition flooding zone, (vii) tidal swamps, and (viii) North coastal area.
3. SD[I types. The major soil types must be in conjunction with land forms and are more important in management than as a determinant of crops and systems. Virtually any soil that can be levelled and made impermeable can grow paddy rice, whereas permeable upland soils can often be modified by organic matter incorporation and irrigation to grow most crops.
4. Soclo-economic f Such factors as population
density, labor availability, markets and infrastructure have
39




major effects on farming systems and practices. Social or ethnic groupings paL la (e.g. Minangkabau, Batak, Javanese) can also influence the system, but often are secondary in importance to other socio-economic factors.
These factors can be used to define major agro-production complexes, with some overlapping of zones. Within these zones, micro-determinants -like field-to-field variations in topography, coil type, farm size, distance to the market and other factors can be readily adjusted at the local level and by the farmers themselves.
AGRO-ECONOHIC STUDIES
Agricultural economics (attached to the UCS/FS Program has several important goals including: (1) identifying important constraints in current farming technologies to overcome these constraints (25). Achieving these objectives will require close collaboration with the Institute's biological researchers, especially those in agronomy, pathology, post-harvest technology and cropping systems.
Several related areas of research will be vital to agricultural economics. These may be defined in three broad categories:
1. jaka nhuina Aand manA amrnk. The Institute's
economists have had some experience in gathering data through field surveys, but need to improve the use and storage of the data. Key indicators by province should be available "on line" with a computer including major commodity price series, provincial inflows and outflows.of commodities, major crop production statistics and some.population estimates.
2. Croppig/rLarming sygL m. r. earch. The Institute's economists will be directly involved in field testing of technologies with their biological scientists colleagues. This can follow procedures for setting up farmer-level experiments and for testing and evaluating systems results developed at IRRI. This area would probably require the near full-time of two researchers and would be the agricultural economists' major contribution to SARIF's programs.
3. 2Topil reerc project. Farmer's problems are quite specific in nature and require specific technical solutions. Therefore, economists must work closely with biologists to formulate field questions for farmers and for evaluating the results. In this way, economists can help identify and prioritize major problem areas.
40




The course of activities described above should produce information on the farm profitability of technology and also maintain information about important trends that affect the longer term evaluation of technologies. The availability of a micro-computer with appropriate software will make this job easier as it both facilitates the storage and retrieval of data, as well as aiding the analytical process.
BIOLOGICAL FIELD RESEARCH
Short-Term Activities
Cropping systems field research during the next few years (the short run) will continue and refine current experimentation on cropping practices. This includes a multidisciplinary approach to the following problem areas:
1. n iAninfiLau1nflf- There is some
information on an optimal system of annual cropping for seasonal rainfall patterns. This involves a formula for the association of upland rice, corn, cassava and legumes. However, there is a need for continued fine-tuning and modification for varying conditions and farmer's needs, and for modifications enabling the inclusion of new improved varieties and new crop species including vegetables (1,19, 26).
2. k1an ntrit on. The optimal use of fertilizer and lime for the range of growing conditions, soils, seasons, *crops and their uses is a major and continuing activity. The increasing flow of new, higher-yielding varieties will also justify higher inputs. Further development will occur as lime deposits are developed and made available for agriculture. Some
investigations have already been carried out in similar environments (11, 14, 15).
3. Rege.ratIL c q. Low-input cropping practices
involving the use of legumes as green manures, alley cropping and "living mulches" for capturing atmospheric nitrogen and recycling other nutrients from the deeper soil layers will be greatly expanded during the next few years. Other aspects will include use of mulches and animal and industrial wastes.
4. Effient tj J JA_".j The high cost of labor, limitations on cultivated area/man-year, problem soils, difficult weed problems (e.g. alang alang) and erosion are cogent reasons for intensifying work on more efficient tillage practices. These will certainly involve minimal tillage, terracing, mulching, use of herbicides and appropriate mechanization. The stress will be on sustaining (or better, increasing) productivity, increasing labor efficiency and reducing costs.
41




S. R management. Cropping systems must be vitally
conerned with managing pests and diseases at economical levels and without adversely affecting either the environment or people and animals in the system. Major emphasis will 5e given to the ue of cultural practices combined with resistant or tolerant varieties. The use of biological agents and less toxic pesticides will also be stressed.
Considerable progress has been made on management of annual crops in Indonesia as shown in Figure 5-1. These schemes
illustrate widely utilized systems for irrigated rice, unirrigated/moderate slopes (less than 8%), and unirrigated/ steeper slopes (above 8%). However, considerably more work is needed on integration of annuals with perennials, livestock and fish culture for a range of conditions.
Longer Range Objectives
Cropping systems research must understand and consider the total needs of the subsistence farmer and his family. These include food, feedstuffs, structural materials, firewood, medicines and cash sales. The interrelationships of these needs are shown in Figure 5-2. The commodities grown are annuals, perennials (forages, fruits, and trees), vegetables and specialty crops; animal production including aquaculture must also be integrated into the farming system. Sometimes, a single farm in the tropics may involve 40 to 60 plant species and up to a dozen animals including fish. Perennials (trees) are particularly important in the more humid tropics as illustrated in Figure 5-3. The ultimate objective is to enable the farm to provide minimum income equivalent to U.S.$2,500 per family per year.
Three new projects are proposed to be added to the UCSP by h end of Repelita'IV or by the early 1990's thereby expanding theme activities to a fully fledged Farming Systems Program ~(PSP). They include t 1) .perennials, 2) integrated plant/animal systems, and 3) aquaculture:
1. Pefenniala. Most upland farming systems in Indonesia include both annuals and perennials; these are often grown in close association. Among the latter are rubber, coconut, coffee, loves and pepper as cash cropsi fruits, especially jackfruit, papaya, mango, and pineapple are grown primarily for
-ubsistence: and trees like lyxJid. Sesban Leuc.aena and
Ia species have many uses for nutrient recycling, soil
stabilization, fuelwood, lumber and sometimes for food. A
typical small farm system involving coconuts is illustrated in Piguro 5-4. However, there is still very little information at percent on the role of these perennials in the farming system on optirum systems for their intercropping. This area of research will receive increasing attention by SARIF during both Pelitas IV
n V.
42




Figure 5-1. Cropping systems schemes for three different environments
in Indonesia .(af ter Simmons: .13).
Oct. J oJn
. Apr. AA
t Irvoe
nice nice C-1-12. UrrpaI I~w&So
Vo I I I Ne6
Mb .w 1kre
I Mill. (Rows NO
Maie &A*A
* Mixed Ciapping As In 2. b. lire Croos ior Food & COOL. c. Fodder for Stacic PauihIY & S=all ~A~moii There & Inrcorlani:AISa Wrk~ Mio: 7 Dairy Coin.1 DeveIC metI
4.3




Figure 5-2. An Agricultural system (after Simmons: 13).
4




Figure 5-3. The Role of Trees in-Farming Systems. (after Simmons: 13).
No"Wol rood O-W
t
Nckwd _FE
FMd. Peffnorwwv rwylbw
bvim ed As OwMaloood
VAOCCIO
PaNed
Anrvid P Wvgd
cWhoem" ckAKvrIMM
DM.W. C, b.. C Wh CJOOL
FRA I"L
1. hv.DCCL Pool MvK shwo & L60 FWCOL EMkn C4mhd an SCHOOL son kvnon (LtIwo. &;qdftSOdL 6V OC&" 41ft[OehOffW6-"h ovrwk, crux W*:^W!S"UA
L - - - - - - -
45




*Figure S-4. Small Farmer Coconut-Based Systems (after Simmons: 1)
ed r ornr e-g -- --
Rice P~iO)G SMall
"iucs ondc1afti Coconuts Old. TOfIL
Cas Weedy.Unorodctive
IThnnEstate Sector. -------Enone' 2 Weion fordc
1E~dslh Rplntfo 1CcroCosh1 II
46




2. In kLatd RIaLLaaim I ima. Livestock is a
component of most small farms in Indonesia, but there is vast scope for increasing production at all levels : beef/dairy, small ruminants and poultry. Not only is there a rising demand for animal food products, but there is also a need for draft animals, manure and by-products (e.g. skins, wool...). Moreover, the presence of livestock in the farming enterprise adds a major dimension to the cropping system. It makes use of surplus foodstuff and allows the inclusion of soil-conserving, nutrientrecycling forage crops in the rotation. Total productivity is enhanced, and often with reduced inputs. Research on
crops/livestock systems could be started with experiments on tropical forages during Pelita IV, but more complex studies are not likely to develop until the early 1990's. In the outer islands there is nearly unlimited potential for both large and small ruminants and for poultry (2, 3,.22).
3. Aquai aulitur. Fresh water fish and crustaceans form the third component of the crop/livestock complex. Many of the same arguments for the inclusion of livestock in the system also apply to aquaculture if the farm has surplus water and a place to store it. Strategically placed farm ponds with fish provide an excellent "sink" for utilizing runoff plant nutrients, animal wastes and even surplus food and feedstuffs as shown in Figure 5-5. (9). Under favorable circumstances, some studies on aquaculture may be included in the Farming System Program in Pelita IV, but chances for initiating meaningful research will be much better in Pelita V.
The scope of work and activities envisaged for the Institute's Farming Systems Program would be grossly excessive if undertaken simultaneously. However, the FSP is the most logical Wcoverl for all of them. If these proposals are then recognized as valid and approved, the ultimate organization including establishing new programs or subprograms can be determined later. A much more difficult problem will be to develop the mechanism for collaboration and integration with more distant scientific field like animal science and aquaculture. Perhaps the best starting point would be tropical forage crops in which both plant and animal sciences have a common interest*
A final consideration is how FSP research is directed: from the researcher to the farmer (referred to as 'upstream") or farm level studies and feedback at each step in the process ("downstream'). The latter approach, as depicted in Figure 5-6, is highly recommended by contemporary Farming Systems specialists to assure relevance of. the research and a high degree of acceptance by the farmer.
47




Wiguxe 5-5. Nutrient flux in an integrated aquaculture system (Pullin. R. S. V. and Z. H. Shehadeh. 1980.. Integrated Agriculture-Mquaculture Farming Systems. ZCLA1UM M anila, Phillipines.)
Animal manure
~ietrlaNutrients Undigested
dissolve fraction eaten
In water by fish
Euton by
*microbenthos Absor'bed by Fish waste
ILarge Phyloptonkton -.--Zooplankton
plants Insect larvae
Ea ySilvjCoP Bi g hl~ Corp
grass carp
Euan by feeding
bottom fisht
(e.O. common
corp, mud Corp)
I____ ___as ~R-enter soil
Fish wastes on the podbottom or water nutrient
pond pathways
A dispsmtmat@ eepmtcntdan of the bzeakoim of ekW Runs" in fish ponds and Its outylant pathways In the polyeultu"r ku~~CN~o housesancap
Otaamatc ~peeetain o asmal~a~ Isield fmig ysemempoyngisatonbetee to evl pol Pilgdsa ~,ra~l~1 n th ceomi plin Thetand
Pont8




Figure 5-6. Schematic framework for farming systems research at the farm level: Downstream farming systems research (Norman, D. W. and E. Gilbert. 1981. A General Overview of Farming Systems Research. pp. 18-34 in Shaner, et.al., READINGS IN FAPI4ING SYSTEMS RESEARCH{ AND DEVELOPMENT. Consortium for International Development. Tucson. Arizona.) FARING SYSTEM
RESEARCH STAGES /EXTERNAL
' I INSTITUTIONS
S Description or CURRENT EARNINGdiagnosis of present SYSTEMl I
farming system (Hypothesis formulation)
I
2. Design of impi-oved .xperlment.Station Trials. BODY OF
systems I 0 IOWLEDGE
Tral a t FamLee
"I
I I
3. Testing of. improved Trials at Farm Level -- I
systems
Farmers' Testing -----
II I
I. I I
! I
4 !I
4. Extension of improved MODIFIED FARMING SYSTEM -- -- --- -J
farm system




Upland rice is grown on an estimated 1.5 million hectares An Indonesia. Of this total, 0.45 million hectares or 42 percent re in Sumatra, according to Shastry (23). About three quarters of the upland rice area is under wet climate. An additional 12 million hectares is considered as potential land for cultivating upland rice in Indonesia: mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, S.E. Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Studies carried out by Scholz (12,22) Lnd others suggest that much of the anticipated expansion of v'pland rice will occur on secondary lands, in rainfed conditions. ihese lands have generally been cleared rather recently and have oharacteristics similar to the depleted, low-pul, red-yellow podzolic soils.
While yields of wetland irrigated rice have increased steadily during the last decade in Indonesia, tile national average for upland rice has remained around I ton/ha and the yield has shown great variability from year to year. Blast disease and drought are considered the main- constraints to improving the stability of production. Low yields can also be attributed in part to the depleted fertility of the soil. Newly opened lands frequently show drastic yield reduction in the course of 3 to 4 years, often forcing farmers to abandon them. However, technologies have been developed to sustain productivity over long periods when upland rice is cultivated as part of a cropping pattern (11, 14, 15). This proposed research effort seems to be realistic as crop management technologies have riready been developed at upland rice-based cropping pattern test vites. Research is needed on an understanding of the mechanism cnd environmental conditions that cause blast incidence.
This chapter, especially the sections on research, is based In part on the discussions and recommendations of the joint PRI/AARD Rice meetings held in January 1983 and March 1984.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
If it is assumed that upland rice would be largely confined to the 'secondary" rainfed lands, !problems, goals and objectives cculd be more easily defined. However, it is equally important to consider the needs, capabilities and limitations of the Indonesian farming community that will be involved in growing upland rice. Based on the needs of. both the biological environment and SARIF's clients (the Indonesian farmers), tile broad goal of an upland rice improvement program may be defined
nTo generate and deliver economically viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable technologies designed to increase and stabilize the production of upland
rice on secondary, rainfed lands of Indonesia.'
50




The overall objective of this research effort will be to increase upland rice production in a way that is acceptable to and will result in better income to farmers. Every effort will be made to use existing experiences and research information to improve ongoing production programs. New research will attempt
at quickly identifying constraints to production and developing solutions within a relatively short (2-3 years) period of time. A longer term research effort will be required to carry out the major breeding effort to develop adapted upland rice varieties that have acceptable blast resistance and appropriate complementary management practices.
Problems of upland rice are complex and difficult to resolve. Therefore, the new technologies which are presently generated will require at least five to ten years to perfect and deliver. Their objectives shall take into account any changes in socio-economic conditions, political/national developments, farmer's capabilities and growing conditions likely to occur over the next ten to twenty years. It may eventually be assumed that transmigration programs will accelerate and upland rice production will be confined mainly to secondary lands, with 1800 to 3000 mm annual rainfall, typified by the red-yellow podzolic soils, and located between sea level and about 600 meters elevation. It is also unlikely that economic conditions will continue favoring massive inputs, particularly of imported fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. In fact, there is a global trend to reduce agricultural inputs, and this situation is likely to be exacerbated as Indonesian export earnings decline or are increasingly utilized for other priority purposes.
CONSTRAI NTS
There are at least five major constraints to improving yields of upland rice. These are broadly defined as follows:
1. Prouctive stability. Susceptibility to pests are the major concern. They include blast and other leaf spots (Cercospora and Helminthosporium); insects, especially seedling fly, stink bug and brown planthopperi -and physical or chemical stresses like drought, elemental toxicities (Al, Fe, Mn) and lowfertility soils.
2. L&-yieldin. aility. Many varieties of upland rice do not respond to favorable growing conditions when available: they tend to lodge, have low-tillering capacity and produce excessive vegetative growth when fertility levels are high.
3. Ag..r.Mna CmaracterA. Often, the available upland rice germplasm does not fit the season (too late or early), tends to lodge, is susceptible to shattering, produces too few tillers of uneven maturity and has inadequate seed dormancy; it also germinates unevenly, grows slowly and does not compete well with weeds.
51




4. x ain gua lt. Most land races of upland rice in Indonesia have acceptable, sometimes excellent, grain quality, but other varieties are not always favored by consumers. The cooking qualities, amylose content, milling outturn, grain size/shape and other appearance factors are all important.
5. Socio-economic fato. Several socio-economic factors influence Indonesian farmers on whether and how they will grow upland rice. These include markets, economic returns, needs of the farmer and his family-and availability of inputs.
The growing of upland rice will probably never be as productive nor predictable as irrigated rice, although some countries report that upland rice is more economical. For
example, Brazil claims that production costs of upland rice are only about 60 percent that of paddy rice. Nevertheless, upland rice is subject to several important and complex problems among which blast disease and soil/climatic factors are the most difficult to resolve.
Several approaches to blast control are under investigation, but the Ogene rotation' concept provides a workable procedure at the outset. Multiline varieties or varietal mixtures may also be useful, but have not yet been fully explored. Pyramiding
resistant genes is an alternate strategy that has not yet proven effective. Chemical controls are possible but seldom economic.
Soil problems including low water-holding capacity, low pH, high Al and low availability of plant nutrients, especially N and P, constitute the second-order priority (20). However, these deterrents are amenable to improvement through both cultural practices and breeding. The availability of extensive lime deposits, especially in central Sumatra, and judicious use of fertilizers offer good'opportunities for improving soil conditions. Moreover, reasonable levels of Al tolerance has been identified in some germplasms and could probably be enhanced genetically.
SHORT-TERM PROGRAM
Validating Existing Technology
Thq initial phases of upland rice improvement will focus on validating the available technology from all sources. Concurrently, some crossing will be done to accelerate adaptation to the more stressful conditions. However, the primary thrust at this stage will be to move useful technology from the research institutes to farmer's fields as quickly as possible, to identify and remove production constraints that may be solved with existing technology, and to develop the staff and facilities for longer term breeding and production problems. These activities will be carried out under conditions typical of the major upland rice growing regions, but with special emphasis to the red-yellow podzolic soils typical of the Sitiung transmigration area.
52




Transferring Available Technology
Considerable research has already been started by SARIF's Rice and Cropping Systems Programs. Cropping patterns, including for upland rice, that are productive, acceptable to and more economical for the farmers have been developed. Widespread adoption is dependent upon the development of production programs and their implementation through the agricultural services. Because truly superior upland rice varieties resistant to blast have not yet been developed for most conditions in Indonesia, there has been little incentive to increase seed production and develop appropriate production programs. However, when
considered within the context of year-round cropping patterns, the available improved varieties and technologies are significant and can contribute to a stable and profitable upland agriculture.
The sources of currently available technology include IRRI, with which a special and close linkage will develop; it may also include other international or regional centers like IITA and WARDA in West Africa, CIAT in Colombia and leading national programs or institutions in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Central America, Brazil and France (IRAT). Representatives of SARIF have started participating in international upland rice meetings and conferences. In fact, Sukarami was the venue for a session of the International Upland Rice Meeting in February 1985.
Removal of Constraints
The rapid identification and removal of constraints to upland rice production, using available technologies and research procedures, is the second pillar of the short-term program. This activity will involve the participation of several disciplines and programs including socio-economics. It is also proposed that the SARIF program be closely linked with an international team (preferably from IRRI) in a long-term project.
The existing cropping systems sites and major upland riceproducing areas should be characterized through soil and climatic classifications. Moreover, assessments of yield losses and determination of economic threshholds for major pests and diseases would be carried out at appropriate sites. Existing technologies for chemical control of blast, fertilizer and lime placement, soil and water conservation, and residue and green manure management would be further evaluated on site for agronomic and economic acceptability.
Plant breeding, although a long-term approach, may begin immediately as it should be possible to improve performance of both exotic and traditional upland land races through selection within the available germplasm. Simultaneously, an aggressive crossing program will be started to increase diversity and develop advanced parental stocks for further genetic manipulation. The principal source of parentals will be the
available breeding materials (already in the pipeline),
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indigenous land races, international nurseries (IURON and other IRTP materials) and genetic stocks obtained directly from several sources. This base will be greatly expanded as seed storage and handling facilities are installed at SARIF stations.
The research effort would be mostly devoted to development of research methodologies for blast research, laboratory and field screening techniques and identification of genetic materials for breeding purposes and crosses.
Blist. The importance of blast in upland rice is such that immediate efforts are necessary to deal with the problem. The available genetic stocks and all incoming materials must be screened for blast reaction under a range of growing conditions and sources of inoculum. Cultural practices like N management, time of sowing, inter-cropping scheme, plant populations and presence of wild hosts (weeds) will be studied for their effects on blast incidence. Earlier maturing varieties and mixtures of varieties will also be evaluated as possibilities for reducing the spread and economic loss.
Another approach will be' through chemical controls applied both as seed treatments and variously timed foliar sprays. Systemic fungicides which, when applied at the right stage of development, have proven effective in controlling and/or reducing the damage done by the blast organism have been developed. This management practice, even though already proven to be effective, does constitute an outlay of funds and/or inputs which many transmigrant farmers may be reluctant to use unless a careful economic analysis is made showing the benefits that will be derived. There still will be the practical problem of quality materials being made available at the right time, the right place and at a reasonable cost.
LONG-RANGE PROGRAM
The long-range program should be implemented simultaneously with the short-term activities, but would probably not begin to produce significant results before the end of Pelita IV. The core of the long-range efforts would build on and refine the primary activities described for the short-term program, with somewhat different priorities it may be expanded in scope. These aspects are further elaborated in the sections that follow.
Blast Disease
Blast will likely remain a very serious threat in the foreseeable future and an integrated approach to keeping this endemic disease under control seems to be the best technique. Every effort must be made to identify the most resistant varieties which will then be subjected to the best agronomic management practices and economical fungicidal control techniques to maximize their potential output. This integrated package of
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technology will be evaluated within the framework of the cropping systems sites which have been strategically located in different soil and climatic environments and provide a means of measuring the performance of different packages of practices under farm conditions. This will require an expanded and intensified program in plant pathology, plant breeding and crop management research with the primary focus on blast control.
The most practical long-term approach to managing blast disease will be through breeding. Two basic methods will be used: gene rotation and pyramiding resistance genes. The basic components of resistance breeding will include: (i) monitoring blast incidence throughout Indonesia; (ii) identifying and predicting races; (iii) selecting parentals from local land races, available genetic stocks and a continuing influx of new materials; (iv) carrying out recombination, screening and evaluation; and (v) implementing seed production and distribution. Related research, done mainly by pathologists, will include studies.on neck blast (epidemiology, screening methods and effect of environmental factors like temperature and dew period) and on the distribution of wild hosts (weeds) in major growing areas.
Soils and Climate.
The dominant upland rice environment in Indonesia is considered to be long-season infertile soils (LI). There are also limited areas of short-season fertile soils (SF). However, a better characterization of the soils and climates of the major upland rice growing regions is urgently needed. This will require soil classification studies combined with studies of
agro-climatic factors like rainfall distribution, temperature, humidity, solar radiation and sunshine duration. Soils data
should include internationally accepted classifications (FAO and/or Soil Taxonomy), together with more specific information on soil fertility and physical properties. Climatic data should include more refined data on rainfall (e.g. 10-day frequency distributions)i since the ma-jor factor affecting upland rice production is rainfall. Another important factor is the duration of dew as diseases like blast are favored by longer dew periods or leaf wetness. Similarly, the intensity and duration of rainfall also affect disease incidence, as well as contribute to soil erosion and runoff.
ato impo.ement, Three basic approaches to
improving upland rice for unfavorable soil and climatic conditions are proposed: (i) varietal improvement, (ii) soil fertility investigations and (iii) root development studies. The complexity and limitations of the research involved necessitate long range programming for these three approaches.
Varietal improvement will involve the search for adapted and tolerant germplasms, recombining these and evaluating/selecting segregating materials in stress screening nurseries. In addition
55




to local land races, germplasm from problem soil areas will be !cquirbd from sources around the world. The IRRI germplasm and special nurseries will be prime sources of genetic diversity. The germplasm will then be screened in special nurseries established for evaluating tolerance to low pH, aluminum, other soil problems and drought. In some instances, Al-tolerance may be assessed in special tanks in the laboratory. The promising lines from such screening will be recombined and screened under similar and increasingly stressful conditions.
Soil fertility studies will assess requirements for both macro- (N-P-K-Ca-Mg-S) and several micro-nutrients, under a range of soil/climatic conditions representative of areas where upland rice is grown in the country. These studies will also consider soil physical properties, especially excessively permeable and Impermeable conditions, water-holding capacity and fixation of elements like phosphorus (20). Fertility management trials will aim at establishing economic levels of crop nutrients under different growing conditions, management systems and varieties. They will also evaluate the role of amendments like lime and organic matter in increasing and stabilizing yields through improvement of soil structure, fertility levels and water-holding capacity. Increasing attention will be given to possibilities for reducing inputs, especially nitrogen by utilizing legumes in the system. Other possible sources of nitrogen fixation include free-living organisms in the soil rhizosphere, blue-green algae, and non-rhizobial symbionts (Spirillum spp.).
Root development is likely to be an important key to upland rice production, especially in problem soils. Extensive, rapid root growth is of vital interest, but other aspects like moisture extracting ability, tolerance to low pH and Al toxicity, penetration in heavy soils (,hardpans) and drought tolerance must also be considered. In fact, the overriding importance of roots in upland rice merits special attention by researchers, including the development of special screening techniques for breeding and other studies.
Upland Rice and Farming Systems
Cropping systems research' in the humid areas of Indonesia has developed cropping patterns and component technologies including improved upland rice varieties that are productive and acceptable to farmers. Therefore, this research area (already discussed in chapter 5) will focus on problems and development issues that require further study. The ultimate objective of this research is to develop.practical cropping systems that are stable and sustainable, hopefully'at increasing yield levels.
Farming systems research involving upland rice will be concerned with four major aspects : (i) evaluating improved varieties, (ii) increasing stability of production, (iii) developing optimal management practices for adverse soil and climatic conditions and (iv) managing of pests and diseases.. In
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this scheme, the Farming Systems Program (FSP) does the final testing before new varieties and technologies are released to the farmer. The FSP also provides feedback on production constraints and needs of the farmer to the upland rice programs.
Priorities in upland rice breeding will include the following objectives: first priority, blast resistance; second priority, acid-soil tolerance and third priority, drought tolerance. The FSP will help the breeders determine needs in specific regions, e.g. blast resistance in blast-prone areas, tolerance of low pH where problem soils occur and drought tolerance where dry spells may occur. Maturities, plant growth habits, grain quality and other desired attributes must also be taken into account. Other pests like brown leaf spot, seedling fly, brown planthopper and stink bugs may also need to be considered in varietal improvement. For example, the FSP may even help identify desired plant types: tall, rapid-growing plants with better weed-competing characteristics and less tendency to hold moisture or dew may be preferable to dwarf plants with dense foliage, that retain moisture in the foliage.
The FSP will have direct responsibilities for other problem areas connected with upland rice, like determining causes of yield instability which may include several factors other than the stresses due to blast, low pH and drought. It will also be responsible for developing management practices designed to minimize the effects of adverse soil and climatic conditions such as those involving (i) lime and fertilizer applications and placement; (ii) soil and moisture conservation through practices such as contouring, strip or slope cropping and terracing; and (iii) residue management and green manuring combined with fertilizers and lime, including the use of mulches and organic matter. Newer concepts like alley cropping with perennial woody legumes and live mulching with herbaceous non-twining legumes will also be studied.
The FSP would also become the final arbiter for rational pest management, their economic thresholds and appropriate pest control measures *to be used. Since pests and diseases are location-specific and affected by management (like mixed versus monocropping), different integrated pest management procedures would have to be worked out and evaluated for specific situations.
International Collaboration
Training. The development of an effective upland rice research program will require considerable training since SARIF's staff are young, relatively inexperienced and hold mostly Bachelors or Insinyur level degrees. Several staff will need overseas, short-term training like IRRI's upland rice research technology course of 3 1/2 months; a selected group will also need to start graduate studies, both in-country and abroad.
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follabgr with IRRI and other institutions. The
establishment of an international project on upland rice improvement at Sukarami with IRRI would have a major impact on SARIF's rice research and also on other SARIF's programs. Therefore, a project involving the direct participation of international rice scientists, including an agrononomist, plant breeder and plant pathologist, plus the appropriate short-term specialists as needed, has been proposed for external support. It is hoped that a suitable donor can be found to allow a startup in 1985/86 and a continuing research effort spread over a longterm period (ten years or longer).
Other future linkages may also include international or regional centers like IITA and WARDA in West Africa, CIAT in Colombia, and leading national institutions or programs in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Central America, Brazil and France.
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"7 1 -1-,4 1-;: L __ IIrrigated or bunded-rainfed rice is the crop of choice in many higher elevations (above about 800 meters) in Indonesia.
There is an estimated production potential of about half a million hectares particularly along the Barisan range in Sumatra,
parts of Java, central Bali and parts of Sulawesi. The primary deterrents to production involve low temperatures and blast
disease. These are manifested in a slowed growth, failure to shed pollen, floret sterility and slowed development.
SARIF, which has the national mandate for high-elevation
rice, is particularly well equipped and situated for this responsibility. Since the Institute's headquarters, located at
Sukarami, 950-1000 meters above sea level, have unusually low ambient temperatures, high rainfall and cool irrigation water,
they constitute an ideal location for research on cold tolerance. Moreover, a variety of climates and elevations (up to 1300
meters) exist within an easy one or two hour's drive from Sukarami.
CURRENT PROGRAM
Breeding and Testing
Research on high-elevation rice has been underway at Sukarami for about three to four years. The primary activity has been breeding in which screening and selection are done at Sukarami,
utilizing early generation materials provided by IRRI and other CRIFC centers, mainly BORIF and SURIF. The primary focus has been on screening and selection for cold tolerance as determined
by pollen shedding and floret sterility, and for resistance to blast. A hierarchy of observations and yield trials are carried
out at selected locations mainly at Sukarami and other sites in West Sumatra, but also at high elevations in North Sumatra, like Brastagi and Gurgur. A few more promising lines are increased and distributed to other islands and abroad for further testing.
Agronomic Trials
Several different agronomic trials are being carried out in conjunction with breeding. These include: (i) studies of
planting date and season on blast and sterility; (ii) chemical controls for blast; (iii) varietal response to fertility levels (N-P-K); (iv) nitrogen efficiency studies and (v) effect of
spatial arrangements, transplanting age and time of harvest on growth, duration, yields and grain quality.
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FUTURE PLANS
Research Objectives
Immediate plans are to considerably increase the scope and precision of the current program. The short-term (next 4 to 5 years) objective is to develop technology which, under favorable conditions and medium inputs, will allow consistent rice yields of 5t/ha of good quality. In the longer term, these maximum yields may increase marginally, but even greater stability should be achieved and at lower production costs. This objective will require special attention to the following research areas:
1. Accelerated b rding. Introduction of new germplasm and intensive screening will need to be increased several fold. Crossing will need to be done at Sukarami to increase the rate of recombination and utilize more efficient breeding methods like recurrent selection for the twin problems of cold tolerance and blast resistance.
2. Yaretal eating. Observation nurseries and yield testing will be considerably expanded during Pelita IV and V. The range of materials included in both preliminary and advanced trials will be increased and grown under a much wider range of conditions and locations,' including several sites on other islands. In addition, seeds of promising lines and varieties will be increased sufficiently to allow expanded farmer demonstrations.
3. Accel ated bx-alding. This problem will receive much more attention as some cold-tolerant but blast-susceptible varieties are already available. The primary approach will be through breeding, but chemical protectants, especially the newer systemics, will be tested -under a range of growing conditions in the region. Studies of cultural practices aimed at alleviating blast symptoms and spread will be continued and expanded when possible.
4. Manageent Investigations on optimal management
practices, including inputs like plant nutrients and pesticides, will be evaluated under a much wider range of environments including selected sites on other islands. Agro-economic
analysis of new technologies will be carried out to determine cost/benefit ratios of the separate components of the package.
5. niziQ2gy 2 oldt ~nd Some more basic studies are
needed to better understand the physiology of rice's reaction to cold and why sterility occurs. This research should involve developmental anatomy and cytological investigations if possible. Both field and laboratory studies would be needed and might be partially carried out by a SARIF graduate student with access to appropriate laboratory equipment. A possible outcome of this research may be a better selection index for cold tolerance.
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Long-Term Expectations
The current program on high-elevation rice has already made substantial progress. One new variety, Batang Agam, was released in 1983 and even better lines are in advanced stages of testing or are even being released (e.g. Batang Ombilin). There is also some information on optimal management practices for limited, defined areas, especially in West Sumatra. Environmental
conditions in other potential growing areas are not so well understood nor defined. Therefore, the program must greatly expand its coverage and study of the problems over a much wider range of conditions. If research progresses as planned, it should be possible to offer technology allowing consistent 5t/ha grain yields under high-elevation conditions anywhere in Indonesia by the end of Pelita V. This implies solving both the cold tolerance and blast problems. SARIF has an advantage in working on blast as it will also be intensively studied in its upland rice program, efforts that will become mutually complementary.
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=8. PA AW J CFROPS
BACKGROUND
Three major groups of plants comprise "palawija" crops the cereals, roots/tubers and food legumes. To these groups may be added perennials, tree crops and forages also utilized for green manure and soil cover. Realistically, there are therefore five broad groups of plants utilized integrally in Indonesian and Sumatran farming systems. Many farmers will grow one to several representatives of each category on their holdings which typically may include: (1) an area of primary cultivation where the major staple (rice, corn, root crops and legumes) are grown, often in association; (2) kitchen garden of about 0.1 to 0.25 ha where intensively cultivated food crops (vegetables, fruits, spices, perennials) are grown; and (3) perennial cash crops of perhaps a hectare or more (coconuts, rubber, oil-palm, timber, coffee, fruits for market, cloves). While recognizing the interdependence of all these species and other components of the farming system like domestic animals and aquaculture, the specific problems and needs for improvement of the three groups of annual, "non-rice" food crops, will be examined.
Palawija crops are important and have unrealized potential in Sumatra. Nevertheless, national responsibility for their improvement is lodged with other institutes, especially BORIF (Bogor), SURIF (Sukamandi) and. MARIF (Malang). Therefore, these and other sources would provide most of the basic technologies which SARIF would validate and verify for Upland Farming Systems conditions. The exception may be maize or corn for which distinct varieties will be required for the principal growing regions and for stressful conditions like those of the red-yellow podzolic soils.
The overall goal of palawija crops improvement will be to develop them as important components of cropping systems in upland areas with a humid climate, and in rainfed bunded lands. The research will focus primarily on corn, cassava, sweet potato, soybean and peanuts. In addition, there are several "new crops" which merit a modest Investment for preliminary exploration. The various commodities will be briefly discussed under the headings:
(i) cereals, (ii) root crops, (iii) legumes, and (iv) "new crops".
CEREALS
Three primary plant species comprise other upland cereals of potential commercial interest in Sumatra: corn 1Z.a may-el, sorghum (.gJrnhm biJl.Qrl and wheat ITrJ.iijUm RA"t1zum.. Of these, only corn is grown to any extent and is included in national records. However, there is good potential for sorghums,
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and even for bread wheats or triticales in certain areas. Wheat
can be effectively grown at the higher elevations, above about 800 meters, but it must then compete with highland rice and cool weather horticultural crops. Sorghum may have the greatest potential for expansion on account of its superior adaptation to
Sumatran growing conditions and greater tolerance of stresses, particularly to waterlogged soils, drougthy periods and problem soils. However, there is considerable incentive for increasing wheat production since imports are increasingly (recently about
1.5 million metric tons annually).
CORN
Maize or corn was grown on 115,000 hectares in Sumatra as an
average for the 12-year period 1968-1979 (most recently on 124,796 ha in 1979). This represents 4.3 percent of the national production. Production for 1979 was 157,785 tons for an average yield of 1,264 kg/ha, or slightly less than the national average of 1390 kg/ha. The principal producing areas in 1979 were in the provinces of Lampung (77,300 tons) and -North Sumatra (54,237 tons), with the other provinces producing only 2,631 to 6,311 tons in that year. The GOI proposes that corn production
increase by 5.6 percent per annum to meet food self-sufficiency goals (4,7,29).
Corn is used mainly for food (as the second or third primary staple), especially in the transmigration areas. Some of the crop is consumed as roasting ears, but most of the dry grain
finds its way to the market both for human and animal consumption. The preferred grain color is yellow and somewhat flinty. A major advantage of corn is its high-yielding
potential, compatibility with upland cropping systems and comparative freedom from bird attack.
Potential
Subandi (28) suggests that corn should have excellent potential for production in the transmigration areas. Sumatra has
an estimated 3.5 million hectares suitable for transmigration settlement during the next 16 years. If approximately 1.3
million ha of this area is utilized for food crops, one-third of which is planted to maize, the increased area planted to maize would be more than 400,000 ha. Assuming current average yields of 1.2 t/ha, the estimated increase in production would be approximately 480,000 tons.
The possibilities for increasing corn yields in Sumatra are
also substantial, considering the success of the national BIMAS program on rice intensification. Therefore, it should be
possible to double yields to 2.5 t/ha with advanced technology and reasonable' inputs under intensification, with yields o;aVeraging 2.5 t/ha. This would represent an annual increase of 37,500 tons per year over the 16-year development- period.
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Major Problems.
The primary deterrent to increasing maize production in outer islands may be the unfavorable marketing situation. According to Baharsyah and Cummings (2), the net return per hectare for corn in 1976/77 was only Rp. 53,500 compared with Rp. 82,100 for soybeans and Rp. 168,000 for rice. The selling price of corn at the farmer's level varies from only 40 to 60 percent of the consumer's cost in the cities. A further problem is the scattered, small-lot corn production which increases the transportation and marketing costs.
y ti l mJ. imr Present low yields and yield instability are attributable to the unavailability of good quality seed of improved varieties adapted to local conditions and resistant to pests. Closely allied to the need for improved varieties is seed production and distribution with direct linkages to the maize breeders, for genetically reliable nucleus seeds.
Pests. Corn is fortunate in not being highly susceptible to several important pest problems in Indonesia. One of the
exceptions is downy mildew, a serious problem throughout southeast Asia. Downy mildew is a difficult disease in that good, stable, vertiola resistance is not available and the pathogen readily overcomes single gene resistance. Other
important pests are not yet well documented nor has their economic damage potential been quantified. However, stem borers and unidentified viruses have been noted as requiring continued surveillance and further study. Moderation of pest attack by economic means and with minimal degradation to the environment needs to be stressed. This can be achieved through appropriate cultural practices, biological. controls and judicious use of pesticides, but each of these approaches needs to be worked out for the different agro-climatic conditions, seasons, pest dynamics, and plant host types.
2xrodutign mna .mnt. The reasons for unnecessarily lowyield levels include lack of inputs, especially fertilizers, unavailability of seeds of improved varieties, and sub-optimal cultural practices. At present,. there is very little information on economic levels of plant nutrients and lime for the broad range of climates, soils, seasons and cropping patterns in upland areas. Similarly, there is an urgent need to work out the most effective methods of land preparation, weed control, plant populations, planting dates, and plant associations/sequences for the varying needs of farmers ,and growing conditions. In this regard, the need for earlier varieties maturing in 85 to 90 days to better fit local cropping systems has been stressed. Effective and minimal effort control of weeds in corn is a key production factor where this crop is grown mainly with hand labor. In this respect, corn has a major advantage in lending itself to both minimum tillage and 'toilage' through using general and comparatively inexpensive specific herbicides (e.g. atrazine). However, this technology needs to be examined for
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economic feasibility and worked out for the different agroproduction complexes.
Agro-economics. There is very limited information on several agro-economic aspects of corn production in outer islands such as Sumatra. Examination of the incentive structure including maize prices, input availability and competition from other activities must be undertaken. Linkage of corn production to rising long-term demand for livestock feed holds some promise of increasing profitability. Demand from this source is rising in Indonesia and production appears to be gradually increasing in some areas.
Due to the bulkiness of corn, its unit value falls rapidly if distance to market is great. Many areas, especial-ly outer islands, await road improvements which will lower this cost, increasing profitability simultaneously for several bulky or perishable crops.
There is evidence that, in farmers' fields, corn responds well to nitrogen with an average input level among growers of about 100 kilograms of urea per hectare. Hence, initial evidence points to a major constraint to production from fertilizer supplies.
Better understanding is needed on final demand for corn in Indonesia. Data on income elasticity of demand and substitutions in comparison with soybean and wheat would improve the understanding of the longer term role of this commodity among food crops in this country.
Future Program
Corn is the second most important cereal in Indonesia and destined to increase in the years ahead. It is generally well adapted and has potential for producing more calories and quality protein on a hectare/day basis than most other annual food crops. Moreover, particularly rapid progress is at present being made on
-tropical corn, in terms of developing a broad range of plant types, adaptive features and grain qualities: multiple resistances to insect pests and diseases, and high-lysine protein for improved nutritional value. These developments can be readily exploited by tropical plant scientists for a wide range of growing conditions and uses. For these reasons the following research program on corn is proposed for the next 8 to 10 years:
1. Cgrn brjgedng. SARIF's corn scientists will work closely with corn breeders (BORIF and MARIF) and CIMMYT (Thailand) in developing composite breeding projects for upland conditions, especially the major corn-growing areas.
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2. M pact. The new improved corn varieties
will require the development of optimal cultural practices for specific environments and farmer's needs. These packages of technology will include both mixed cropping and monoculture as required for different conditions. The upland cropping systems program-will assume primary responsibility for these studies.
3. Peat managgm at. Downy mildew is a major deterrent in some corn-growing areas and will be approached both by breeding and use of systemic fungicides. Other pests like stem borers and several species of leaf hoppers will probably require the judicious use of biological and chemical pesticides. Studies of pest management regimes for different areas will also become the responsibility of the UCSP.
4. Ago-gconomig studies. Corn production often is only marginally profitable in Sumatra.. Therefore, the agricultural economists (attached to the UCSP) will carry out a continuing series of studies on adoption of technology, marketing
conditions, and on consumption and use.
5. Sed product. The availability of good quality seeds of recommended varieties is a primary deterrent to corn production in Sumatra. Therefore, the corn breeder in collaboration with other agencies will encourage and assist with the production of certified and breeder's seeds of recommended varieties.
Prospects
This program of research should produce technologies which, if followed, could result in consistent yields of up to 3 t/ha in stressful environments (like the red-yellow podzolic soils) and up to 5 to 6 t/ha in better soil areas, by the early 1990's. Moreover, grain quality will be greatly improved by converting to high-lysine varieties, and new varieties will be easier and less expensive to grow. These developments are likely to increase corn production more rapidly than most other annual food crops. Therefore, corn improvement will receive highest priority among SARIF's palawija crops. It is further suggested that major improvement efforts on other palawija cereals be left to other CRIFC institutes and the international centers for the next 8 to 10 years, except possibly for some limited exploratory studies.
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ROOT CROPS
Importance
Root and tuber crops are among the mostefficient plant sources of caloric energy for human consumption. It has been estimated that two to three times the caloric energy can be produced for about half the cost of the best adapted cereal. Moreover, some root crops are more productive under stressful conditions, like fertility-depleted soils and limited or irregular moisture supply. It is hypothesized that at least part of these advantages are attributable to the simpler more direct metabolic process involved in starch accumulation and because the plant is not dependent on the development of reproductive organs as the principal sink for photosynthates.
Root crops also share some major drawbacks compared with seed crops. The product (root) requires more energy to harvest (dig), is bulky and high in moisture content, difficult to store, and may have a very short shelf life, although some crops like cassava can be "stored in the ground" for several months until needed. As a human food, root crops are usually rated lower in preference than the dominant cereals, especially rice and wheat. They tend to be lower in protein, especially cassava, and therefore require careful supplementation if they form a significant portion of the staple diet.
Production
There are two root crops of major importance in upland areas cassava Janihot s iulenta) and sweet potato (Ipoembatata. In Sumatra, for example, the cassava-harvested area in 1980 was estimated at 149,117 ha or 10.6 percent of the total harvested area in Indonesia. Production was recorded as 1.6 million tons with an average yield of 9.7 t/ha. This production means that cassava was the most important palawija crop in Sumatra. The major producing provinces were Lampung with 89,488 ha and 984,368 tons; North Sumatra with 24,831 ha and 237,141 tons; and South Sumatra with 17,466 ha and 176,407 tons. Production in the other five provinces ranged from 2,000 to 5,000 ha and 17,000 to 50,000 tons of roots each. Production has increased by about 16 percent during the past five years (4,7).
Sweet potato production in Sumatra appears to have declined by as much as 234 percent of the harvested area over the past five years. The 1980 production was estimated at 289,610 tons from 33,579 ha for an average of 8.6 t/ha. This production was about 14 percent of the Indonesian total. The major producing provinces were North Sumatra with 176,060 tons from 19,782 ha; South Sumatra with 36,053 tons from 4,144 ha; and Lampung with 20,236 tons from 2,353 ha. The other five provinces ranged from about 7000 tons to 18,500 tons on about 1000 to 2300 ha. The recent decline in sweet potato production is at least partly attributable to competition from other crops like rice where
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irrigation has developed, and from more profitable upland crops including upland rice, maize, cassava and legumes (4,7).
Constraints
Cassava and sweet potatoes share the constraints of difficult planting (vegetatively), high-energy harvest (digging), rapid deterioration after harvest (especially cassava), high moisture content and bulky product. Moreover, the market for root crops is not well developed: for example, they are usually marketed by volume rather than weight and industrial uses are just beginning to develop.
Cassava. The primary production problems of cassava include low-yielding, inferior-quality varieties, inadequate management practices and pests. Among the latter are red spidermites (Tetranychus apj_, cassava bacterial blight or CBB (Xanth~mona manihoti), bacterial wilt or BW (Pseudomonas solonacearum) and brown leaf spot (Cercospora hemmingsii.
ERL p_&AkQ. Sweet potato is even more laborious to plant than cassava, although the harvested root does have a longer shelf life. Improper handling causing skinning and bruising also accelerates deterioration in storage. Other production problems include inadequate soil fertility and cultural practices and pests. Among the major pests are scab IElsinoe sp), leaf curl virus (SPLCV), the stem borer (Omvis anastomsalis Guen) and the sweet potato weevil (Cylas formica-ius leganthus).
Institutional problems of the root crops are the limited amount of research being carried out at both the national and international levels, weak technical linkages, difficulties of transferring germplasm safely, and dearth of trained researchers (24, 27).
Future Program
Root crops research in upland areas must be closely tied to the national program headquartered at Bogor (CRIFC/BORIF). According to the agreed upon division of responsibilities, BORIF is primarily responsible for more basic research, supply of germplasm and a coordinating function. SARIF will be
responsible for upland varietal improvement, area-specific management practices (plant nutrient and cultural practices), regional pest management research, post-harvest technology, socio-economic studies and technology transfer. SARIF will collaborate closely with BORIF and other research institutes in the country, especially SURIF, MARIF, MORIF and BARIF. The broad problem areas, improvement objectives and research strategies proposed for SARIF are discussed in a consultancy report on "Other Upland Crops" (18).
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The primary focus of SARIF's root crops efforts will be on cassava, on account of its overall importance: total production, its role in the cropping system and its versatility of use. However, it is also proposed to continue some varietal testing of sweet potato germplasm provided by BORIF and to increase planting stocks of promising strains for general distribution. Responsibilities for cassava improvement will be shared by the Palawija Crops and Upland Cropping Systems Programs. The focus of these efforts will be along the following lines:
1. Agro-economnics. Through marketing studies and farmer surveys, the economists will endeavor to understand how cassava is grown, consumed and marketed. Special attention will be given to industrial processing areas where starch factories have been or will be established. These studies will help predict future potential for policy makers, provide useful information on production and processing costs, and identify constraints production for CRIFC (including SARIF) and other researchers.
2. tl Imrovement. SARIF will rely heavily on BORIF
and other sources for basic germplasm, but may do some selecting from true seed nurseries, particularly for stressful conditions like those in the red-yellow podzolic soils, and where specific pests become important constraints. However, varietal testing will be greatly increased to identify better adapted strains with acceptable quality for both direct consumption and starch.
3. klgdinaemt Racice_. These investigations will be carried out by the UCSP. Optimal cultural practices
will be sought for both associated and sole cropping (the latter for starch production). Requirements for major nutrients and lime will be determined for different environments and production situations. Better methods of weed control will be studied. Associations with new crops, especially with perennial legumes, will be investigated to reduce runoff and recycle nutrients.
4. Pent management. The root crops generally have fewer serious pest problems than cereals or legumes. Nevertheless, some leaf spots, red spider mites and scale insects can be troublesome under certain conditions. In some areas, gappy strands are a consequence of several factors. One solution is the selection of clean, healthy planting stakes and their dipping in a "cocktail" of insecticides/fungicides prior to planting. Solutions to other pest problems will be sought through combinations of biological controls, cultural practices and resistant varieties.
5. P esthandling. The high-moisture root crops
deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Except in the vicinity of starch factories, the problems of transporting, storing and marketing bulky wet roots are major production constraints. It is therefore proposed that SARIF collaborate closely with BORIF and other CRIFC institutes in developing practical, on-farm processing methods. There is a particularly urgent need for lowcost methods of chipping and drying. Both solar energy and
69




burning biomass wastes (surplus wood, rice hulls) could be used as sources of heat.
The specific goals of research are ambitious. For cassava, varietal improvement yields of 30 t/ha with high carbohydrate content (35%) are sought; also desired is the resistance to the red mite, CBB and BW. A further objective is earliness (8 months) and good adaptation to upland conditions. In the case of sweet potato, the yields under favorable conditions should reach 25 t/ha; the roots should be relatively high in carbohydrates (25-30%), protein (6%) and Vitamin "C". In addition, new varieties must be adapted to upland growing conditions; if possible, these varieties, should be resistant to scab, stem borer and weevil (24,28).
Prospects
The possibilities for increasing production of root crops are considerable according to Soenaryo (28). He points out that cassava yields can be increased by 22 percent above the present national average through application of improved cultural practices alone; when improved high-yielding varieties are included in the packagee, the increase amounts to 71 percent; and when appropriate plant nutrients are added, yields can be increased up to 242 percent of present averages.
Sweet potatoes respond even better to new technologies. Improved cultural practices can result in 89 percent increase in yields, while the addition of high-yielding varieties boosts this level to 274 percent. These innovations coupled with recommended fertilizer may increase yields to 427 percent of the current level.
The production of root crops 'is expected to increase upland at least as rapidly as other palawija crops. Cassava is likely to develop more rapidly than sweet potatoes or other root/tuber species on account of its potentially higher yields, better tolerance to stresses and compatibility in local cropping systems. Therefore, SARIF must assure an accelerated improvement effort on these crops, closely tied to BORIF, national and international programs (especially in Brazil and Nigeria).
GRAIN LEGUMES
Importance and Production
Several species of grain legumes comprise the third important group of "other upland crops". They include mainly soybeans, peanuts, mungbeans, cowpeas, and rice beans. For example, the harvested area of grain legumes in Sumatra during 1980 totalled 118,549 ha apportioned as follows:
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CROP AREA (ha)
Soybeans 62,984
Peanuts 43,167
Mungbeans 12,398
Yields are generally low: 8.1 kwt/ha for-soybeans, 9.1 kwt for peanuts and about 4.5-6.0 kwt for mungbeans. Sumatra contributes approximately to nine percent of the national production of soybeans and peanuts. During Pelitas I and II, production of peanuts and soybeans increased more rapidly in Sumatra than in the rest of the country. Cowpeas and rice beans are also promising on account of their quick maturity and high quality, but production remains too low to be included in national statistics (18, 30, 31).
The principal growing areas for soybeans in Sumatra in 1976 were Lampung (28,900 tons or 60.7%) and North Sumatra (8,600 tons or 10.1%). South Sumatra produced 3,500 tons (7.3%), while Aceh and West Sumatra each produced about 2,800 tons (5.9%). In the case of peanuts, North Sumatra produced over half the total or 16,600 tons (51.6%), while Aceh, with 4,080 tons (12.7%), West Sumatra with 4,030 tons (12.6%), and Lampung with 3,770 tons (11.7%), together made up 37 percent of the remaining production (2, 4, 5, 7).
Consumer demand for grain legumes appears to be rising as national income increases. Moreover, they form an important component in the cropping system and generally require less inputs than cereals. Therefore, production and marketing prospects for both soybeans and peanuts are good. During 1976/77, net returns from grain legumes in Indonesia averaged Rp 82,100/ha for soybeans, Rp 124,500/ha for peanuts, and Rp 66,500/ha for mungbeans as compared to Rp 53,500/ha for maize and Rp 49,600/ha for cassava. Even more modest returns from mungbeans are attractive given its comparatively short growing period (6070 days).
Constraints
Nitro-en fixation. Grain legumes are inherently more complex than cereals or root crops since they involve two very different biological systems, closely integrated and dependent on each other, but each with its own specific requirements. These are the legume plant itself and the associated symbiont a nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium spp). Thus, in order to make meaningful progress on legume improvement, the problems inherent in both organisms must be addressed. Fortunately, Rhizobium research has expanded greatly in recent years and there is at least one international program specifically mandated for biological nitrogen fixation in tropical crops, the NiFTAL Project in Maui, Hawaii. The NiFTAL and other laboratories,
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especially at international centers like IITA, ICRISAT, CIAT and AVRDC, are beginning to develop improved strains of Rhizobium for the different grain legumes and tropical growing conditions.
Seed -ibJi.ty. A second very serious deterrent to the production of some grain legumes is rapid seed deterioration in ambient storage. Soybeans are notorious for this problem and some cultivars rapidly lose germination after only three months of storage under hot and humid conditions.
LProhlm R~il.. Legumes fare better than cereals and root crops on fertility-depleted soils, on account of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. However, they can have even more acute needs for nutrients like calcium, phosphorus and molybdenum (required specifically for nitrogen fixation) than the nonlegumes. Moreover, several legumes are highly sensitive to low pH and aluminum toxicity.
.QatuLni. Legumes are generally prone to drought, particularly during key stages of growth like flowering and early pod setting. They are also highly sensitive to flooding and waterlogging, although soybeans may be somewhat better off in this respect. Moreover, they do not flower, set seed well, nor produce quality grain during humid weather. Bright, sunny days (assuming adequate moisture) are much preferred during the critical periods of flowering and grainfilling.
Reat.. Grain legumes are at least as susceptible to several pests as cereals and root crops. These include a number of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. In addition, two or three nematode species (especially root knot nematodes) and several insects can cause serious damage at all stages of plant growth including the seeds, seedlings, actively growing plants, flowers and developing pods. Particularly vulnerable are the flowers and tender, green pods.
Soybeans are particularly vulnerable to rust (PEhakpra pachyrizi and leaf spots (Xanthomonas solanearUm). in Indonesia, while peanuts are susceptible to viruses (especially Peanut Mottle Virus or PMV), rust (Lucinia sp), bacterial wilt
iXAn2thm2nA1 aQIAnnALrml and leaf spots iCa1AarA sp)
mungbeans are mostly affected by scab (Fisinoe sp), leaf spots (Cecopoga sp) and powdery mildew.
Among the major insect pests of the legumes are the seedling fly (Ar myza sp), pod borer I trella sinckeniellA and H.axauA tentlalis), pod sucking -insects (Riptortu linearis and Prodenia litur.al and various storage insects. Thrips may also infest the flowers and cause undetermined yield losses through feeding and flower abortion.
Management. Optimal management practices have not yet been developed for the different crops, varieties and agro-production complexes of upland areas. Particularly important are plant nutrients: combinations, rates, methods and times of application.
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Concurrently, there is an urgent need to better understand other factors like land preparation, weed control, seeding rates, row spacings, pest protection and the implications of complex cropping practices, especially in associated, relay and sequence plantings with other species. These aspects must also be
considered in the context of the varied agroclimatic conditions of upland areas and the specific needs of the farmers.
Socio-economics. Grain legumes like other important crops are greatly affected by market demand. These need to be better understood to ascertain potential demand and to formulate recommendations for policy makers. Other factors requiring study include consumption and use patterns and the slow rate of technology transfer on upland areas.
Future Program
The SARIF legume program, in close collaboration with the CRIFC national coordinating centers at BORIF, SURIF and MARIF, must address the primary constraints to production of these crops. These efforts should focus heavily on soybeans and peanuts, although some minimal efforts could be invested in mungbeans, cowpeas, pigeon peas and lima beans, mainly for preliminary and exploratory studies, as time permits. The
following major research areas will be pursued during the next 8 to 10 years:
1. Agro-economlcs. The economists, as members of the UCSP, will conduct studies of marketing and surveys of management practices and consuumption patterns for grain legumes. This will allow them to identify and prioritize constraints to production for researchers and formulate recommendations for policy makers. They will also determine why some technologies are accepted slowly or not at all by farmers.
2. _arietal imRpvmnt SARIF's legume specialists will collaborate closely with MARIF, BORIF and SURIF on evaluating and testing new genetic stocks and varieties. While most of the actual crossing will be done at those institutes and elsewhere, early generation materials will be evaluated and selected in target areas. Of particular interest to SARIF are the more stress-tolerant genetic stocks for the podzolic soils areas like around Sitiung, with low pH, high Al and low available P and Ca. Other specific problems of breeding concern will be viruses and leaf spots of peanuts; bean fly, pod borer, bacterial blight and rust of soybeans; and rapid loss of seed viability in soybeans.
3. Management. There is considerable scope for increasing legume production through improved cultural practices. Lime and phosphorus will probably be the major elemental
deficiencies; but certain micronutrients, especially molybdenum and zinc, may also be limiting. Other aspects include the role of legumes in the cropping system: sequences and associations,
73




planting times and methods, tillage, mulching, weed control, pest management and post-harvest handling.- The UCSP could be directly
involved in these investigations.
4.. Higrolol_g.. Legume improvement has an additional dimension: the concurrent improvement of the symbiotic N-fixing complex. SARIF will need to test new strains of Rhizobium in different soil and climatic regions and cultural practices conducive to optimal nitrogen fixation. New developments in microbiology will be watched carefully, like the advances on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (for increasing the availability of major nutrients). It may also be necessary for SARIF (or another CRIFC agency) to assume interim responsibility for providing commercial lots of Rhizobium inoculum for growers.
S. e maaagrment. Legumes are frequently highly susceptible to diseases and pests. Breeding is the approach of choice for most diseases but insects are usually less amenable to genetic resistance. The first role of SARIF's plant protectionists will be to study pest dynamics in order to determine when and how certain organisms become economically important. Pest management methods will be developed as a combination of resistant or tolerant varieties, appropriate cultural practices, biological controls, and judicious use of chemical pesticides. The guideline for these studies will be minimal costs and avoidance of highly toxic materials. The UCSP will have the leading role in carrying out and evaluating the non-breeding aspects of this research.
6. PoQs h %t handling. The problems of harvesting, drying, processing, and storing legume seeds are similar to those of the cereals, although soybeans seeds also viability quickly when stored under hot and humid conditions. Moreover, legume seeds are easily damaged (split) during handling, especially when overdried. Therefore, some investigations on post-harvest handling, particularly on inexpensive methods of crop drying, are urgently needed. The focus of these studies will be on using solar energy and burning crop residues as the source of heat for drying. This area of investigations would be directed by the
UCSP or FSP.
Prospects
The targets for legume research during the next two Pelitas will be technologies allowing consistent yields of 1.3 to 1.8 t/ha of soybeans under stressful conditions (i.e. on red-yellow podzolic soils,) and 2.0 to 3.2 t/ha in more favorable environments like on the north coast of Aceh. For peanuts these yield levels should approach 1.6 to 2.3 t/ha of unshelled nuts in the stressful conditions and at least 3.0 t/ha elsewhere.
Soybeans and peanuts are important components of Sumatran cropping systems and production is expected to increase more rapidly as a consequence of a continuing favorable market and
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demand. The major researchable problems relate to favorable and unfavorable growing conditions depending mainly on soil and climate. It should be possible to "borrow heavily" on genetic stocks and technologies developed elsewhere for the more favorable conditions (18, 30, 31). In contrast, technologies for less favorable conditions (podzolic soils), are expected to be limited, both nationally and globally. Therefore, SARIF would be justified in concentrating much of its legume improvement efforts at Sitiung (podzolic soils).
A further constraint to production is beyond the present scope of SARIF: commercial seed sources and availability of other inputs, especially Rhizobium inoculum, pesticides and fertilizers. Seed sources are particularly important in the case of soybeans where seeds do not retain satisfactory viability for more than 1 or 2 months when stored under ambient conditions in the low elevation, humid tropics.
NEW CROPS
There is a large number of Onewo and exotic annual and perennial crops which may be well adapted and useful in upland farming systems. These include species with potential for food, fiber, animal feed, industrial products, medicines, soil cover, green manure and other purposes (18, 19). Even some formerly unadapted species like wheat may, through continuing improvement advances, find a niche in the agriculture. Among the most
promising non-woody species deserving to be "looked at" (related to UFS), are the following:
Exotic Cereals.
Foremost among these species are tropical wheat and its promising new relative, triticale. Sorghums would also have potential, particularly on heavier soils where corn is at a disadvantage. Other possibilities include ragi millet .lieuaine coacna1., a malting species the nutritious amaranthus grain (a "dicotyledonous cereal"), adlay (CoLix lachryma-iobi) and Japanese millet .Echinocoa co.num).
Root/Tuber Crops.
These include some less familiar aroids (mainly C2gqs and Xanthosom spp.); the true yams IDioscoresi spp.); arrowroots ilarantaceae), and the Peruvian parsnip (ArragacLa sp.). Some true yams and arrowroots have exceptionally desirable and easily digested starches.
75




Food Legumes.
Among the most promising members-of this group of plants are likely to be: seed type cowpeas (Vigna unauiculata). pigeon peas iajA.u ca.an)l lima beans (Phaseolus 1iUAaJ1 dry beans (PhaseolUS vulgariaL for intermediate elevations; and possibly scarlet runner bean (Ph.coccineus) for higher elevations. Other choices for cooler growing conditions would be chickpeas 1Wic arigtinum), broad beans LYiga fabaI and edible peas LPians sativum). The lower elevations could probably make better use of winged beans (Psoohocarpus tetrag.onglobus) and the African yam bean (Sphenosty li sten garpai. International sources of this germplasm include ICRISAT (India), ICARDA (Syria), IITA (Nigeria) and CIAT (Colombia).
Perennial Forages.
Rapid advances in tropical forages and their production systems, especially for problem soil areas like those in Sumatra's central peneplains, are being made by international institutes like CIAT (Colombia), Embrapa (Brazil) and CSIRO (Queensland, Australia).. Promising grass species include Andrpogon gayanua, several Brachiaria spp, Melinis sp., Panicum maximum and Hyparchenia sp. There are also several promising new forage legumes for these conditions 5yloJanthbe (6 spp), Desmodium (several spp), Arachis, Pueraria, Zornia, Galactia, .GlZiaR and other species. CIAT has recently released a
promising strain of Andrg.gqn stan a and a composite of Stylosanthes capitata strains named "Capica".
Project Implementation
These possibilities for the "new" crops in upland areas are enormous, while the initial investment on researching them would be minimal. Although there are inevitable limitations of facilities and personnel, a modest investment in observation nurseries and some exploratory research could pay off handsomely in contributing to upland agriculture. One approach would be to appoint a junior research officer responsible to a committee of program heads who would establish a "New Crops Garden" at three or four selected SARIF stations. The "Garden" would consist of single (or possibly two) replications of small plots of each of the new crop introductions. The research coordinator could be assisted by the station managers (or their designates) and detailed morpho-phenotypic and other interesting studies could be recorded with the help of university students, perhaps as part of their academic requirements. As part of this evaluation, farmers would be encouraged to visit the "Garden" during field days or other events to get their reactions on whether any of the entry species might prove commercially useful. In this way, these gardens might be grown with minimal trouble and expense.
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CONCLUSIONS ON PALAWIJA CROPS
There are presently five major palawija crops extensively grown in upland areas and several other species-with undetermined potential. All of these crops have possibilities for greatly increased production by virtue of expanding demands for human consumption, the rapidly growing livestock industry and the important role fof these crops in cropping systems. Palawija crops, especially the legumes, also add to the diversity and nutritional values of rice-based diets.
SARIF will mount a major effort to improve palawija crops for upland conditions in collaboration with other CRIFC centers which have national mandates for these crops. This Institute will also seek guidance and assistance from the international centers responsible for global research on these crops (this will be done in conjunction with the appropriate Indonesian coordinator for specific commodities). In general, the SARIF will rely on other sources of technology for more favorable growing conditions; meanwhile, it will focus proportionally greater efforts on solving production problems at less-favorable sites (like Sitiung) where external technologies are limited.
Keys to success will include the further development of the Institute's facilities and manpower development. The latter will feature continued stress on both long- and short-term training, particularly overseas. Other areas requiring urgent development to meet the Institute's short- and long-term goals include seed production and mechanization systems.
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E- I E'I ; I J -: D I' ='kL._ DE I E ._ =. IEI ,,
The realization of SARIF's goals and objectives will require both completing the present SARP work plans and obtaining new institution-building programs to address the Institute's expanded mandate. The Institute's physical facilities will have been greatly improved.by. the end of the SARP, but further development, including manpower training, will be needed by the end of the present decade to meet the expanded goals. It will also be
necessary to refurbish and renovate some aging buildings and to begin replacing worn and obsolete equipment by the beginning of Pelita V.
There are three distinct categories of development besides
research which must be considered in the long-range program. These include:
1. Manpower development
2. Facilities development
3. Technology transfer
The manpower category. includes, not only staff engaged directly in research, but also those needed for administration
and supporting services (16). Facilities development will cover all buildings, equipment and station improvements (roads, wells, irrigation and drainage, power supply, fences,. land clearing and shaping). Technology transfer. functions with its base in communications will sometimes share facilities and equipment with research, but will also require special training (21). These will be further discussed in the following sections.
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
Current Staffing
SARIF had only 1 Ph.D, 16 M.Sc's, 79 SjiAjan, 15 SaJ.a2 L1i1SA and 258 high school graduates by the end of December 1983
(16). of these, all the higher degree staff, but only 48 Sarjana, 5 Sarjana Ruda, 105 high school and 40 middle/junior school graduates had attained permanent positions by early 1984. The rest were-Still on probation or holding temporary ("honorer") positions. By the and of 1984, 218 of the 475 SARIF staff were
confirmed.
Not to mention in-country training, the SAR project will
have contributed to overseas training of at least 5 Ph.D's and 6 M.Sc's, and to the short-term overseas training of about 45 staff members (the majority being Sarjana or higher) by April 1986.
howeverr, considerably more doctorates and master's level staff will be required to carry out SARIF's programs by 1988/89 as
indicated in Table 9-I:
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Table 2-i. SARIF'S STAFF REQUIREMENTS BY THE END OF PELITA IV.
Sar- Sarj. High Middle
Discipline Ph.D M.Sc jana Muda School School Total
1. Director 1 1
2. Plant Breeding 3 9 6 20 10 48
3. Agronomy 3 9 12 18 7 49
4.. Entomology 3 7 4 12 4 30
5. Pathology 2 7 4 12 3 28
6. Physiology 2 7 4 12 5 30
7. Economics 2 5 5 8 20
8. Post Harvest/ 1 3 2 4 3 13
Mechanization
9. Statistics 2 1 4 7
10. Laboratory 1 5 9 10 25
11. Communications 1 2 8 2 13
12. Workshop 1 1 7 16 25
13. Administration 4 9 27 29 69
14. Experiment Stations 4 2 69 150 225
Total 17 50 53 14 210 239 583
Long-Term Staffing
SARIF will require additional staff during Pelita V to man the new program activities including additional projects in research, strengthened technology transfer, and some additional support for administration. It is also proposed to upgrade several research posts and add a microbiologist (for legume improvement) at the M.Sc level. The new manpower target for Pelita V is summarized in Table 9-2.
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Table -. SARIF'S TOTAL STAFF REQUIREMENTS PELITA V Sar- Sarj. High Middle
Discipline Ph.D M.Sc.jana Muda School School Total
1. Director 1 1
2. Plant Breeding 5 10 8 26 15 64
3. Agronomy 5 10 10 24 12 61
4. Entomology 3. 8 5 12 6 34
5. Pathology 3 8 5 12 4 32
6. Physiology 3 8 5 12 5 33
7. Microbiology 1 2 3 3 9
8. Economics 2 5 5 9 3 24
9. Post Harvest/ 1 4 4 6 4 19
Mechanization
10. Statistics 2 1 4 7
11. Laboratory 1 2 5 9 10 27
12. Communications 1 2 4 6 3 16
13. Workshop 3 3 8 16 30
14. Administration 5 11 31 32 79
15. Experiment 7 5 84 180 276
Stations
Total 24 59 67 23 246 293 712
Ng rear p~t aind actiities. The additional
capability in the expanded Farming Systems Program (FSP) would permit the Institute to develop new projects on perennial crops integrated with annuals and crop/animal/aquaculture production
systems and strengthen the post-harvest/mechanization section. This will necessitate close collaboration between CRIFC and the Central Research Institutes responsible for animal sciences and aquaculture (CRIAS and CRIFI). It is proposed that the two
latter institutions depute staff (M.Sc level) to SARIF to represent their participation in these activities. Post-harvest
problems are particularly critical in humid climates and increasing appropriate mechanization will be essential to allow Sumatran farmers to cope with the labor shortage and rising production costs.
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The additional projects and staffing in Palawija Crops would
allovt greater conc entration on corn and legumes improvement and developing some modest, preliminary investigations on "New Crops'. This includes a new section on microbiology to support the legume improvement research and facilitate some commercial supplies of inoculum in Sumatra. It would also support limited
opportunistic explorations on promising new and exotic crop plants as discussed under Chapter B.
Reerch support armcs other staff positions would
strengthen the research support services, especially seed production technology? laboratory analysis and communications functions which will need to expand rapidly over the next several years. Seed production is destined to become a major agricultural input and will be vital to the prompt adoption of new technologies. Laboratory analytical services will become increasingly important as SARIFs -research activities expand and become more sophisticated. To assure that these analytical services utilize the latest and most efficient methods and become a "full partner" in the Institute's programs, it is proposed to raise the laboratory manager's position to the Ph.D level. Similarly, the head of communications should be upgraded to the Master's level in view of the importance of this function to both research and technology transfer.
The structural organization of the research support units will be designed to assure both a high level of efficiency and free access by all the Institute's programs. This will be done by appointing unit heads at a level somewhat below that of the program leaders. They would also report directly to a "neutral" administrator for instructions and arbitration of conflicting requests.
Expanded station develpment. Strengthening the Institute's technology transfer function is an activity requiring additional staff. Generally, the existing research services would be adequate for the expanded program, but Administration would
require some modest additional support in terms of second level staff as shown in Table 9-2.
The field operations budget must also be increased to accommodate the expanded program and staff. The increased cost of additional staff is estimated at about 30 percent above that of Pelita IV, assuming a higher proportion of trained staff (e.g. Ph.D's increased from 17 to 24); this, together with heavier travel schedule for both research and technology transfer, implicates proportionately greater costs: at least 35 to 40
percent above the inflation-adjusted current budget.
Training
Responsibilities for long-term, overseas training were transferred to the National Agricultural Research (lAR-II) project effective April 1984, while the GOI directly supports all
81




in-country training. However, the SAR Project will continue funding short-term overseas training until April 1986. Up to 10 three-month fellowships will be offered each year, but a major deterrent to both short- and long-term training has been English capability. This-has prompted the offering of on-side, intensive English courses to Sukarami staff, a project destined to be continued at least into the 1990's.
Long-term trai1nng. As of December 1984, SARIF had 4 Ph.D's and .8 MSc's in service, while an additional 9 doctoral and 26 Master's candidates were continuing their studies at universities both in Indonesia and abroad. If all are successful and return as planned, there should be 8 Ph.D's and 42 M.Sc's in residence at SARIF's stations by about mid-term of Pelita IV. Concurrently, an additional 9 Ph.D's and 7 M.Sc's should begin graduate training as soon as possible to reach the target of 17 doctorates and 50 Master's level staff members by the end of Pelita IV. Of the new staff for training, it is hoped that at least 4 doctoral and 2 Master's candidates would be trained abroad.
The training/recruitment targets for Pelita V would include an additional 7 doctorates and 9 Master's degrees, of which 4 Ph.D's and 2 MSc's should be trained outside Indonesia at first class graduate institutions. However, there must be an allowance for normal attrition candidates failing their studies, being diverted elsewhere or retiring. For these reasons, the training targets should be about 25 to 30 percent higher than indicated.
Short-term training. The excellent results derived from short-term overseas training fully justify continuing this
-program at the rate of 8 to 10 new fellowships of approximately three months each year. Under this program, several additional staff will need to be trained in research methodologies for upland rice breeding, integrated pest management, and rice fertilization studies at IRRI. In addition, increasing numbers of staff will be trained in other research areas and centers, especially at ICRISAT, IITA, CIAT, CIMMYT and AVRDC. The total costs of this training will run to about $50,000 per year or $5000 per fellowship. In-country technical training is expected to be continued at the rate of 35 or more persons per year while an additional 60 to 70 staff will be enrolled in Civil Service and Civics (14) courses each year.
FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT
SARIF's facilities, construction, station development and equipment will have improved and expanded greatly by the SARP's termination in 1986. All building construction projects on the nine stations should be completed, together with considerable farm development work including boundary fencing, field roads, irrigation and drainage canals, culverts and bridges, land clearing and shaping.
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METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
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METS1 unknownx-mets 22f14282e5d53d9493eb94412cff0890 107666
UF00054350_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID long-range ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Front Cover
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PDIV2 2 Title
PAGE2
PDIV3 3 Table of Contents
PAGE3
PAGE4
PAGE5
PAGE6 4
PDIV4 Glossary terms and abbreviations Chapter
PAGE7 i
PAGE8 ii
PDIV5 5 Foreword
PAGE9 iii
PAGE10 iv
PDIV6 Acknowledgements 6
PAGE11 v
PAGE12 vi
PDIV7 Executive summary 7
PAGE13 vii
PAGE14 viii
PAGE15 ix
PAGE16 x
PAGE17 xi
PAGE18 xii
PDIV8 1. Agriculture Indonesia 8
PAGE19
PAGE20
PAGE21
PAGE22
PAGE23
PAGE24
PAGE25
PAGE26
PAGE27 9
PAGE28 10
PDIV9 2. The needs challenges
PAGE29 11
PAGE30 12
PAGE31 13
PAGE32 14
PAGE33 15
PAGE34 16
PAGE35 17
PAGE36 18
PAGE37 19
PDIV10 3. Current status
PAGE38 20
PAGE39 21
PAGE40 22
PAGE41 23
PAGE42 24
PAGE43 25
PAGE44 26
PAGE45 27
PAGE46 28
PAGE47 29
PAGE48 30
PDIV11 4. Future strategies
PAGE49 31
PAGE50 32
PAGE51 33
PAGE52 34
PAGE53 35
PAGE54 36
PAGE55 37
PDIV12 5. Upland croppingfarming systems
PAGE56 38
PAGE57 39
PAGE58 40
PAGE59 41
PAGE60 42
PAGE61 43
PAGE62 44
PAGE63 45
PAGE64 46
PAGE65 47
PAGE66 48
PAGE67 49
PDIV13 6. rice
PAGE68 50
PAGE69 51
PAGE70 52
PAGE71 53
PAGE72 54
PAGE73 55
PAGE74 56
PAGE75 57
PAGE76 58
PDIV14 7. High-elevation
PAGE77 59
PAGE78 60
PAGE79 61
PDIV15 8. Palawija crops
PAGE80 62
PAGE81 63
PAGE82
PAGE83 65
PAGE84 66
PAGE85 67
PAGE86 68
PAGE87 69
PAGE88 70
PAGE89 71
PAGE90 72
PAGE91 73
PAGE92 74
PAGE93 75
PAGE94 76
PAGE95 77
PDIV16 9. Institutional development
PAGE96 78
PAGE97 79
PAGE98 80
PAGE99 81
PAGE100 82
PAGE101 83
PAGE102 84
PAGE103 85
PAGE104 86
PDIV17 References
PAGE105 87
PAGE106 88
PAGE107 89
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1