• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Glossary of terms and abbrevia...
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Executive summary
 Agriculture in Indonesia
 The needs and challenges
 Current status of SARIF
 Future strategies
 Upland cropping/farming system...
 Upland rice
 High-elevation rice
 Palawija crops
 Institutional development
 Reference






Title: SARIF long-range program to the 1990's
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 Material Information
Title: SARIF long-range program to the 1990's
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Syarifuddin K., A.
Rachie, K. O.
Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops (SARIF)
Publisher: Balittan-Sukarami
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
    Glossary of terms and abbreviations
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
        Page vi
    Executive summary
        Page vii
        The SARIF mandate and goals
            Page vii
        The strategies
            Page viii
        Conclusions
            Page xi
            Page xii
        Institutional development
            Page ix
            Page x
    Agriculture in Indonesia
        Page 1
        General background
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Agriculture in the outer islands: Sumatra, a case study
            Page 4
            Case study
                Page 4
            The resource base
                Page 5
                Page 6
                Page 7
                Page 8
            The farms
                Page 9
        Agriculture research in Indonesia
            Page 10
    The needs and challenges
        Page 11
        Biological constraints
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Farmer constraints
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Institutional constraints
            Page 15
            SARIF's facilities/equipment
                Page 15
            Manpower development
                Page 16
            Strengthening linkages
                Page 17
            Program development
                Page 17
        Organizational constraints
            Page 17
            Budgetary restraints
                Page 18
            Limitations of the mandate
                Page 18
            Operational procedures
                Page 19
    Current status of SARIF
        Page 20
        The mandate
            Page 20
        Program development
            Page 21
            Identification needs
                Page 22
            Planning procedure
                Page 22
        The research programs
            Page 22
            Upland rice
                Page 22
            Upland cropping systems
                Page 22
            Other rices
                Page 23
            Palawija crops
                Page 23
            Horticultural crops
                Page 24
        Significant achievements
            Table of Contents 2
            Adopted technologies
                Page 25
                Page 26
            Maturing technologies
                Page 27
                Page 28
            Agro-economic studies
                Page 29
            General program advances
                Page 30
    Future strategies
        Page 31
        Research
            Page 32
            The program
                Page 32
            The disciplines
                Page 32
            The field stations
                Page 33
        Crop improvement strategies
            Page 34
            Plant breeding
                Page 34
            Cultural practices
                Page 34
            Integrated pest management
                Page 35
            Agro-economic studies
                Page 35
            Post-harvest handling
                Page 35
        Future research needs
            Page 36
            Page 37
    Upland cropping/farming systems
        Page 38
        Characterizing the resource base
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Agro-economic studies
            Page 40
        Biological field research
            Page 41
            Short-term activities
                Page 41
            Longer range objectives
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
    Upland rice
        Page 50
        Importance of upland rice
            Page 50
        Goals and objectives
            Page 50
        Constraints
            Page 51
        Short-term program
            Page 52
            Validating existing technology
                Page 52
            Transferring available technology
                Page 53
            Removal of constraints
                Page 53
        Long range program
            Page 54
            Refining continuing research
                Page 54
            blast disease
                Page 55
            Soils and climates
                Page 56
            Upland rice and farming systems
                Page 56
            International collaboration
                Page 57
                Page 58
    High-elevation rice
        Page 59
        Potential for cold tolerance
            Page 59
        Current program
            Page 59
            Breeding and testing
                Page 59
            Agronomic trials
                Page 59
        Future plans
            Page 60
            Research objectives
                Page 60
            Long term expectations
                Page 61
    Palawija crops
        Page 62
        Background and importance
            Page 62
        Cereals - corn
            Page 63
            Potential
                Page 63
            Major problems
                Page 64
            Future programs
                Page 65
            Prospects
                Page 66
        Root crops
            Page 67
            Importance
                Page 67
            Production
                Page 67
            Constraints
                Page 68
            Future program
                Page 68
                Page 69
            Prospects
                Page 70
        Grain legumes
            Page 70
            Importance and production
                Page 70
            Constraints
                Page 71
                Page 72
            Future program
                Page 73
            Prospects
                Page 74
        New crops
            Page 75
            Exotic cereals
                Page 75
            Root/tuber crops
                Page 75
            Food legumes
                Page 75
            Perennial forages
                Page 76
            Project implementation
                Page 76
        Conclusion on Palawija crops
            Page 77
    Institutional development
        Page 78
        Background
            Page 78
        Manpower development
            Page 78
            Current staffing
                Page 78
            Long-term staffing
                Page 79
                Page 80
            Training
                Page 81
        Facilities development
            Page 82
            Present status
                Page 83
            Long-term needs
                Page 83
        Technology transfer
            Page 84
        Resource requirements
            Page 85
        Implications
            Page 86
    Reference
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
Full Text



Balittan Sukarami
P.O. Box 103 Padang
West Sumatra, Indonesia


Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Sukarami
Sukarami Research Institute For Food Crops (SARIF)


THE SARIF LONG-RANGE



PROGRAM TO THE 1990'S






By







A. SYARIFUDDIN K.


K.O. RACHIE










First Edition

Ma y 1985








Balittan Sukarami
P.O. Box 103 Padang
West Sumatra, Indonesia


Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Sukarami
Sukarami Research Institute For Food Crops (SARIF)


THE SARIF LONG-RANGE


PROGRAM


TO THE 1990'S


A. SYARIFUDDIN K.

K.O. RACHIE


edited by


P.P. Antoine


M a y 1985










GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Vi

The SARIF Mandate and Goals vii
The Strategies viii
Institutional Development ix
Conclusions xi


1. AGRICULTURE IN INDONESIA

General Background 1

Agriculture in the Outer Islandes Sumatra,
a Case Study 4
Production 4
The Resource Base 5
The Farms 8

Agricultural Research in Indonesia 10

2. THE NEEDS AND CHALLENGES 11
Biological Constraints 11

Farmer Constraints 13

Institutional Constraints 15
SARIF's Facilities/Equipment 15
Manpower Development 16
Strenghtening Linkages 17
Program Development 17

Organizational Constraints 17
Budgetary Restraints 18
Limitations of the Mandate 18
Operational Procedures 19


TABLE& DE CONTENTS







3o CURRENT STATUS OF SARIF 20

The Handate 20

Program Development 21
Identifying Needs 22
Planning Procedure 22

The Research Programs 22
Upland Rice 22
Upland Cropping Systems 22
Other Rices 23
Palawija Crops 23
Horticultural Crops 24

Significant Achievements 24
Adopted Technologies 25
Maturing Technologies 27
Agro-Economic Studies. 29
General Program Advances 30


4. FUTURE STRATEGIES 31

Research 32
The Programs 32
The Disciplines 32
The Stations 33

Crop Improvement Strategies 34
Plant Breeding 34
Cultural Practices 34
Integrated Pest Management 35
Agro-economic Studies 35
Post-Harvest Handling 35

Future-Research Needs 36


5. UPLAND CROPPING/FARMING SYSTEMS 38

Charaoterising the Resource Base 38

Agro-Economic Studies 40

Biological field Research 41
Short-Term Activities 41
Longer Range Objectives 42






Pape
6. UPLAND RICE 50

Importance of Upland Rice 50

Goals and Objectives 50

Constraints 51

Short-Term Program 52
Validating Existing Technology 52
Transferring Available Technology 53
Removal of Constraints 53

Long-Range Program 54
Refining Continuing Research 54
Blast Disease 55
Soils and Climate 56
Upland Rice and Farming Systems 56
International Collaboration 57


7. HIGH-ELEVATION RICE 59

Potential for Cold Tolerance 59

Current Program 59
Breeding and Testing 59
Agronomic Trials 59

Future Plans 60
.Research Objectives 60
Long-Term Expectations 61


80 PALAWIJA CROPS 62

Background and Importance 62

Cereals Corn 63
Potential 63
Major Problems 64
Future Programe 65
Prospects 66

Root Crops 67
Importance 67
Production 67
Constraints 68
Future Program 68
Prospects 70







Grain Legumes 70
Importance and Production 70
Constraints 71
Future Program 73
Prospects 74

New Crops 75
Exotic cereals 75
Root/Tuber Crops 75
Food Legumes 75
Perennial Forages 76
Project Implementation 76

Conclusions on Palawija Crops 77


9. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 78

Background 78

Manpower Development 78
Current Staffing 78
Long-Term Staffing 79
Training 81

Facilities Development 83
Present Status 83
Long-Term Needs 83

Technology Transfer 84

Resource Requirements 85

Implications 86


REFERENCES





G iOSSARF Y OF1 -ERIIS 1Alxl
A% IJ3REV I A-r I O I S

1. AARD Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
(Jakarta)
2. AVRDC Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
(Taiwan)
3. BAPPENAS Badan Perencana Pembangunan National (National
Development Planning Agency), Jakarta

4. BARIF Banjarbaru Research Institute for Food Crops

5. BIMAS Bimbingan Massal (Mass Guidance Program)

6. BORIF Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops

7. CAER Center for Agro-Economic Research

8. CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture
(Colombia)

9. CIMMYT International Corn and Wheat Center (Mexico)

10. CRIAS CentralResearch Institute for Animal Science

11. CRIFC Central Research Institute for Food Crops

12. CRIFI Central Research Institute for Fisheries

13. CRIIC Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops

14. CSR Center for Soils Research

15. FSP Farming Systems Program (SARIF)

16. GOI The Government of Indonesia

17. IERP ligh-Elevation Rice Program (SARIF)

18. IADS International Agricultural Development Service
(USA)

19. ICRISAT International Crop Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (India)








20. IITA


21. INMAS


22. IRRI


23.

24.

25.

26.

27.


28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.


LERIV

MARIF

MORIF

NAR-II

PELITA


Sarjana

Sarjana

SARIF

SARP

SURIF

UCSP

URP

SAID


International Institute for TropicalAgriculture
(Nigeria)

Intensifikasi Massal (Mass Intensification,
a farm input program)

International Rice Research Institute
(Philippines)

Lembang Research Institute for Vegetable Crops

Malang Research Institute for Food Crops

Maros Research Institute for Food Crops

National Agricultural Research Project

or Repelita : Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun
(National Five-Year Plans)

University degree equivalent to Bachelor's level

Muda Three-year university diploma course

Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops (Sumatra)

Sumatra Agricultural Research Project

Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops

Upland Cropping Systems Program (SARIF)

Upland Rice Program (SARIF)

United States Agency for International Development









FOrL E: W F D


Agricultural research in Indonesia has matured to the extent
that careful thought must be. given to future needs and
directions. The Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops
(SARIF) has, with combined support of the AARD and USAID under
the SAR Project, developed a proposal for a long-range program.
This has required considerable effort and the contributions of
several closely involved researchers and administrators.

The 'Program' proposes a rational plan of work for the next
decades Pelitas IV and V. It anticipates a gradual build-up of
research activities, an expansion of the Institute's mandate,
upgrading of staff capabilities, further improvement of
facilities, and more effective linkages to farmers and other
agricultural agencies in Indonesia. It is rendered under the
assumption that external support will be forthcoming for at least
the next 8 to 10 years. Their requests are judged reasonable by
today's standards.

This Program includes a unique proposals the merging of
animal and aquaculture with annual cropping systems research to
better serve the Indonesian farmer. A lesser challenge is posed
by their request to include perennials in their Farming Systems
Program. We perceive merit'in these proposals and will be
searching for the means to integrate the diverse interests and
orientations of plant and animal scientists in an effectively
functioning team effort.

Formulating long-range plans requires both perceptive
thought and experience. It must also be done from a threshold of
institutional development.

The very preparation of such a program requires a basic
understanding of an institution's role and mandate, the real
needs of its clients, potentials for research advance, and a
sagacious estimate of workable arrangements. Not least in this
complex is the interplay of human factors that will make it work.
The Central Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC) will
provide backup support and help implement these long-range
program plans to the full extent possible. However, making them


ili







work at the grass roots level in Indonesia can only be done by
the Institute itself. This will certainly require building of
strong linkages with local extension agencies, universities, and
at the political level as well. The most effective leverage for
achieving these relationships will be through mutual respect
engendered by a strong, dynamic and productive research program.
SARIF is beginning to achieve these linkages in the Sumatra
provinces of West Sumatra and, to a lesser extent, of Aceh but
has less influence in the other provinces and islands of
Indonesia. Time and loosening of budgetary constraints is likely
to allow the Institute to expand its sphere of influence.

We are generally pleased by the SARIF proposals which,
we feel, could become a model for long-range development of other
centers and institutions.


B.H. Siwi
Director, CRIFC







1<1 G LJ L.. 13 EL GE 11- 2V 14I T 8


Several persons have contributed directly or indirectly to
this report. They have carried out consultancies or special
reports on different aspects of SARIF's programs and on Sumatran
agriculture or otherwise provided information used herein, made
constructive comments on the contents, and lent their support and
encouragement. We are particularly grateful to the following a


A. SARIF CONSULTANCIES/SPECIAL REPORTS


S.T. Cooper
R.R. Harwood
A. Jugsujinda
H. Jusuf
I. Hanti
R.I. Open
W.I1. Patrick
D.H. Perry
R.Z. Rathbone
U.H. Scholz
S.V.S. Shastry
R. Soenaryo
Subandi
Sumarno
A. Tanjung
J.D. Traywick


USA*
USA*
SARP/IADS
SARIF
SARIF
NAR-I
USA*
SARP/IADS
USA*
SARP/IADS
India*
BORIP
BORIF
BORIF
SARIF
SARP/IADS


SARP Short-Term Consultants


B. OTHER CONTRIBUTIONSt


P.P. Antoine
Z. hlarahap
A.R. Hurdus-
R.H. Retzlaff
II, Rusli Hakim
B.II. Siwi
P.S. Srinivasan


SARP/IADS
BORIF
SAID
NAR-II
BORIF
CRIFC
SARP/IADS


Although it is difficult to differentiate among the several
contributors, we are-very grateful to Dr. B.1I. Siwi, Director of
CRIFC, for his interest, help, suggestions and encouragement.
Among our SARP colleagues, we would like to express special
appreciation to Dr. P.P. Antoine, who spent considerable time
reviewing, updating and editing this manuscript; Mr. Jack
Traywick who initially inspired this report, with whom we
consulted frequently during the several stages of preparation of
the manuscript and who contributed much of the information on
SARIF's physical facilities, present and future and Dr. U.II.


1.
2.
3.
4,
5.
6.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.







Scholz, for his contribution on the natural zones ot Sumiata ainu
their production patterns. We would also like to acknowledge
those persons who gave freely of their time and spent long hours
in typing, correcting and structuring the report for publishing:
Ms E. Bustamam of SARIF, Mr. P.S. Srinivasan of the SARP, Ms
Sussy Surachman and Mrs Mary S. Rachie, and the NAR-II Project
staff in Bogor, for contributing the time and usage of their word
processor.

Finally, we would like to stress the institutional support
from USAID through the SARP contract Grant and Loan funds
(Project no.497-0263) in partnership with the GOI/AARD/CRIFC
which have directly supported the recent rapid development of
SARIF and made this report possible.



A. Syarifuddin K.
Director, SARIF

K.O. Rachie
Project Specialist, SARIF/IADS







2=X~C1JT-I qIp SL.Jz-IYI-igF


Indonesia, especially the outer islands, has enormous
potential for agricultural development and production. Although
most of the better lands, mainly the alluvial and volcanic-
derived soils, have been settled and intensively cultivated for
many generations, there remain vast areas of secondary lands
(Class III to V) which can be developed. In fact, the
transmigration program is already utilizing these areas,
especially the podzolic soils, to resettle hundreds of thousands
of landless people from overpopulated Java, Ball and Madura.
During Pelita IV, some 750,000 families are programmed for
resettlement on 1.5 million hectares in the outer islands.


THE SARIF MANDATE AND GOALS

SARIF has the national mandate for (i) upland cropping
systems in the humid tropics, (ii) upland rice for long-season,
infertile soils, and (iii) high-elevation, cold-tolerant rice.
These assignments pose heavy responsibilities on account of the
generally low fertility levels of most upland soil areas, the
heavy pressures from diseases and pests, and dearth of good
technologies for annual crops in these stressful areas.
Moreover, many of the new settlements with major production
problems remain isolated and do not yet have a smoothly
functioning agriculture infrastructure, readily accessible
markets nor adequate social amenities.

SARIF is commissioned to develop a research institution
that is strong and dynamic in fulfilling its duties and
functions. The primary goal of SARIF's work program is tot

"Develop and communicate to user groups alternative
technologies for food crops production and management
of upland crops in the humid tropics and high-elevation
wetlands".

The institutional strategy for achieving this goal will be
through developing skilled staff for research, and for research
support, services and technology dissemination in accordance with
requirements. It will also involve the development and efficient
use of adequate facilities and infrastructure for research and
research dissemination.

This program will remain flexible, allowing SARIF to respond
better to its long-term goals, the national development program,
and technological and scientific advances.







2=X~C1JT-I qIp SL.Jz-IYI-igF


Indonesia, especially the outer islands, has enormous
potential for agricultural development and production. Although
most of the better lands, mainly the alluvial and volcanic-
derived soils, have been settled and intensively cultivated for
many generations, there remain vast areas of secondary lands
(Class III to V) which can be developed. In fact, the
transmigration program is already utilizing these areas,
especially the podzolic soils, to resettle hundreds of thousands
of landless people from overpopulated Java, Ball and Madura.
During Pelita IV, some 750,000 families are programmed for
resettlement on 1.5 million hectares in the outer islands.


THE SARIF MANDATE AND GOALS

SARIF has the national mandate for (i) upland cropping
systems in the humid tropics, (ii) upland rice for long-season,
infertile soils, and (iii) high-elevation, cold-tolerant rice.
These assignments pose heavy responsibilities on account of the
generally low fertility levels of most upland soil areas, the
heavy pressures from diseases and pests, and dearth of good
technologies for annual crops in these stressful areas.
Moreover, many of the new settlements with major production
problems remain isolated and do not yet have a smoothly
functioning agriculture infrastructure, readily accessible
markets nor adequate social amenities.

SARIF is commissioned to develop a research institution
that is strong and dynamic in fulfilling its duties and
functions. The primary goal of SARIF's work program is tot

"Develop and communicate to user groups alternative
technologies for food crops production and management
of upland crops in the humid tropics and high-elevation
wetlands".

The institutional strategy for achieving this goal will be
through developing skilled staff for research, and for research
support, services and technology dissemination in accordance with
requirements. It will also involve the development and efficient
use of adequate facilities and infrastructure for research and
research dissemination.

This program will remain flexible, allowing SARIF to respond
better to its long-term goals, the national development program,
and technological and scientific advances.







THE STRATEGIES


The development of well-structured, long-term crop
improvement programs requires a thorough understanding of the
institutional mandate, the real needs of the clients (farmers),
and the primary constraints to increased production. The
constraints to increased production in upland areas can be
classified as: (i) socio-economic; (ii) physical: in
soils/climate; and (iii) biological: in management, varieties and
pests.
Socio-economic constrants. Among the several socio-
economic constraints areas low levels of effective demand; lack of
marketing infrastructure; inadequate or improper handling,
processing, drying and storage; difficultly available credit and
production inputs; and ignorance of new or unfamiliar crop
technologies and various cultural.prejudices and taboos.

Physical/igolgical constraints. The common physical
constraint for SARIF's commodities concerns the land and climate,
especially the nutrient-depleted, low-pH, high-aluminum and
easily eroded soils. The climate is the second factor, often
being excessively wet with low solar radiation during critical
periods of growth, but also being dry for several successive
days, something devastating for annual crops on highly permeable
soils. Biological constraints embrace a host of other problems,
especially pests (insects, diseases, birds and animals),
unadapted or low-yielding varieties, inappropriate cultural
practices, insufficient plant nutrition and weed competition.
For specific crops, the most important constraints are: (i)
upland rice blast, drougth, high Al; (ii) other rices: cold
tolerance, blast and/or ranging disease; (iii) corns downy
mildew, low fertility, high Al, insects; (iv) soybeans: low-pH
soils, rust, bean fly; (v) peanuts: viruses, leaf spots, low-pH
soils; (vi) cassavas low fertility, leaf diseases, low-yielding
varieties.
Research approaches. SARIF has four broad categories of
research approaches to deal with production constraints: (1)
varietal improvement, (2) cultural practices, (3) pest
management, and (4) socio-economics. The Institute's three crop
improvement programs (Upland Rice, "Other" Rices and Palawija
Crops) utilize three primary approaches: varietal improvement,
cultural practices and pest management, while the Upland
Cropping/Farming Systems Program concerns mostly the agro-socio-
economists, but does very little varietal improvement.

Broad sarateov. SARIF's basic strategy for the short term,
or through most of Pelita IV, is to develop its research
capabilities and execute the current program responsibilities as
effectively and efficiently as possible. For the longer term
(through Pelita V), SARIF seeks a broadened mandate to better
serve its clients. This would include additional projects on:


viii






CONCLUSIONS


SARIF is in a particularly advantageous position to conduct
research on upland rice, with several well equipped research
stations, particularly Sitiung which is in the center of a new
transmigration project and is located on typical red-yellow
podzolic soils in a humid climate. For the same reasons,
investigations can be carried out on upland crops and their
management in the humid tropics. Meanwhile, the location of the
Institute's headquarters at Sukarami is highly appropriate for
improving high-elevation, wetland rice.

SARIF's capacity for carrying out its present responsibili-
ties and its potential for assuming a broader mandate in the
future have been greatly aided by the SAR Project, partially
funded by USAID Grant and Loan funds (# 497-0263). However,
continuing additional support will be needed during both Pelita
IV and V to sustain the progress being made and allow the
Institute to develop as an ongoing effective and dynamic
institution.

The following yield and production targets should be
achieved by 1994 if SARIF's mandate is broadened and required
support is provided in good time:

PRESENT 1995
UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS FAVORABLE CONDITIONS

REGIONAL GOOD REGIONAL GOOD
COMMODITY PRODUCTION FARMERS PRODUCTION FARMERS
(t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha)

1. Upland Rice 1.5 3.0 2.5 4.5

2. High-Elevation Rice 2.5 4.0 3.8 6.0

3. Corn 2.0 4.0 4.0 7.0

4. Soybeans 1.3 1.8 2.0 3.2

5. Peanuts (in shell) 1.6 2.3 2.5 3.5

6. Cassava 15 30 35 45


In addition, farmers will be able to produce these crops
more reliably and less expensively than at present. Time would
be too short to expect significant technological developments in
the new projects included under SARIF's proposed expanded
mandate. Nevertheless, some technology validation and
extrapolation from other regions combined with extensive







experience of local conditions would allow SARIF's researchers to
define capabilities for associated livestock, poultry and
aquaculture in small-scale farming systems. The FSP goal to
provide income to farmers in 1995 is US$ 2,500 or more, per
family.

The payback from an effectively functioning SARIF could be
enormous. To put costs into perspective it has been calculated
that the improvement of only one crop (upland rice), assuming a
"modest" overall increase of 400 kg/ha, would return, inj a single
year and from Sumatra alone (42% of the national crop), about
three tines t h entire ten-year cost 2f SARIE. Moreover, similar
returns (or better) could be realized from improvements on high-
elevation rice and on palawija crops.






1. Role of perennials in subsistence farming systems (FSP).

2. Animals/crops in small-scale farming systems (FSP).

3. Aquaculture/animals/crops in small scale farming systems
(FSP)

4. New crops for uplands in the humid tropics (PCP).

5. Microbiology to address nitrogen fixation problems in
legumes.

The first three projects will be included under the Farming
Systems Program (FSP), to be "upgraded" from the Upland Cropping
Systems Program. The last two areas, on "New Crops" and
"Microbiology", would be added to the Palawija Crops Program.

Other areas proposed for strengthening over the longer term
are mechanization, post-harvest and seed technology.
Mechanization will be important as a consequence of high labor
costs in outer islands. The seed production technology section
will aim at promoting the seed industry as a source of the first
limiting input to agricultural production and as a highly
effective vehicle for carrying improved technology to the farmer.

In developing improved technologies, SARIF will first
validate the current "state-of-the-art", wherever it occurs
within Indonesia or abroad. This will be accomplished through
intensive study of the literature (especially in English), by
correspondence, deputing staff for short-term training, and
participating in national and international meetings and
conferences.

INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT


This involves three interrelated areas: manpower, facilities
and technology transfer. Facilities include construction,
procurement of commodities and vehicles.

Manpower. Total manpower requirements for the short term
(through Pelita IV) will be 583 staff at six qualification
levels. This will include 17 doctorates and 50 Master's degrees,
or 9 Ph.D's and 7 MSc's more than are presently in-service or
being trained. The staffing goals for Pelita V are to increase
total numbers (all levels) by 22 percent to 712 and bring the
numbers of doctorates and Master's degrees to 24 and 59,
respectively. Of these, it is proposed to train about half the
doctorates and 20 percent of the Master's candidates abroad. All
higher-degree training abroad will be administered nationally, at
present by the World.Bank funded NAR-II Project.

Short-term training, both within the country and overseas,
would be continued at about the current levels for the







foreseeable future. About 100 SARIF staff will be trained in-
country each year, both in technical and "civics" courses.
Another 8 to 10 qualified staff, primarily Sarjana level and
above, with adequate English, will be sent abroad for short-term
'(3 months) training. Costs are expected to run to $550,000 for
Pelita IV and $700,000 for Pelita V.

Facilities. Station management including construction costs
are projected at U.S. $1.3 million for the remainder of Pelita IV
and $0.9 million for Pelita V. Vehicles, equipment, program
expansion and maintenance costs would add $1.1 million during
Pelita IV and $1.9 million in Pelita V, i.e. a total of $5.2
million for the ten-year period.

Technology nAlLanf. This area will receive much greater
attention during Pelita IV and V when communications facilities
are developed and the generation of new technology has
accelerated. Costs of these expanded efforts are already
included in the manpower and facilities categories described
above.

Tota resources. The operational (DIP) budget for SARIF is
estimated at $10.35 million for the ten-year period. Total costs
for the Institute are summarized below:


(ESTIMATE ($ '000)*
ITEM PELITA IV PELITA V TOTAL

Training 550.0 700.0 1250.0

Facilities 2105.0 2768.5 4873.5

Operations (DIP) 4250.0 6100.0 10350.0

TOTAL = 6.905.0 9568.5 16473.5

*Considered equivalent to millions of rupiahs.


The foreign exchange component of the total budget,
primarily for overseas short-term training and commodity
procurement, is estimated at $1.13 million during Pelita IV and
$1.85 million for Pelita V. However, this would not include any
contractual arrangements with external agencies, such as the SAR
Project or the international component of an upland rice research
project with IRRI.






1. GFtRI CUL.JL-LJU E Il IXI>DCOIES Z I


GENERAL BACKGROUND
Indonesia is an archipelago composed of more than 13,000
islands located between the northern tip of Australia and
southeast Asia and spanning more than 5,000 kilometers from the
northeast tip of Aceh to the eastern border of Irian Jaya.
Indonesia straddles the Equator with most of its coastal lowlands
having a hot, humid climate throughout the year. Agriculture is
the dominant industry providing a livelihood for about 60 percent
of the nation's 160 million inhabitants.

The Indonesian population is heavily skewed to the central
islands of Java, Ball and Hadura. Java, with only 7 percent of
the land mass, hosts 63 percent of the population, or 687 persons
per square kilometer. By contrast, the outer islands are much
less crowded. For example, Sumatra comprises about one fourth of
the archipelago's land area, but had only 26.5 million or 8
percent of the population and 56 inhabitants per square kilometer
in 1979 (2, 7).

Intensive farming is carried out in Java, Hadura and Ball.
The area under cultivation in these three islands is about 98,850
square kilometers, accounting for almost one-half of Indonesia's
total cultivated area, although occupying only 7 percent of
Indonesia's total land area. Reflecting the population pressure,
farm size on Java stands at 0.66 ha while off-Java farm size
averages 1.55 ha (Sensus Pertanian, 1973).

A dramatic difference between Java and the outer islands is
the distribution of wet rice production whereby Java produces 64
percent of the wet rice for the country (SLtLaBl-tk .nd.nJaal,
19831 figures apply to 1982). However, for dryland rice, 74
percent of the production comes from outside Java and Hadura.
Sumatra has 33 percent of the outer island dryland rice
hectarage, Kalimantan 26 percent and Sulawesi 10 percent.
Similarly, Sumatra has 51 percent of the outer island wetland
paddy harvested area, Sulawesi 19 percent and Kalimantan 17
percent. Important non-rice crops seen as having high future
'potential are corn, soybeans and cassava. Maize hectarage shows
72 percent on Java, 14 percent on Sulawesi, 7 percent on Nusa
Tenggara and 4 percent on Sumatra. Soybeans and cassava are
mostly grown (over 75 percent) in Java (primarily East Java)l
about 10 percent is produced in Sumatra and 6 percent in Nusa
Tenggaral 6 percent of the cassava is grown in Sulawesi.

In the livestock sector (cows and buffaloes), 1979 estimates
indicate 8.89 million heads, of which 4.9 million are found in
Java (56 percent) and 1.2 million in Ball and Nusa Tenggara (14
percent)i 14 percent are also found in Sulawesi. On the other
hand, poultry distribution shows 61 percent in Java, 19 percent
in Sumatra and 9 percent in Sulawesi (Sta.isik Ind.nesia, 1983).






1. GFtRI CUL.JL-LJU E Il IXI>DCOIES Z I


GENERAL BACKGROUND
Indonesia is an archipelago composed of more than 13,000
islands located between the northern tip of Australia and
southeast Asia and spanning more than 5,000 kilometers from the
northeast tip of Aceh to the eastern border of Irian Jaya.
Indonesia straddles the Equator with most of its coastal lowlands
having a hot, humid climate throughout the year. Agriculture is
the dominant industry providing a livelihood for about 60 percent
of the nation's 160 million inhabitants.

The Indonesian population is heavily skewed to the central
islands of Java, Ball and Hadura. Java, with only 7 percent of
the land mass, hosts 63 percent of the population, or 687 persons
per square kilometer. By contrast, the outer islands are much
less crowded. For example, Sumatra comprises about one fourth of
the archipelago's land area, but had only 26.5 million or 8
percent of the population and 56 inhabitants per square kilometer
in 1979 (2, 7).

Intensive farming is carried out in Java, Hadura and Ball.
The area under cultivation in these three islands is about 98,850
square kilometers, accounting for almost one-half of Indonesia's
total cultivated area, although occupying only 7 percent of
Indonesia's total land area. Reflecting the population pressure,
farm size on Java stands at 0.66 ha while off-Java farm size
averages 1.55 ha (Sensus Pertanian, 1973).

A dramatic difference between Java and the outer islands is
the distribution of wet rice production whereby Java produces 64
percent of the wet rice for the country (SLtLaBl-tk .nd.nJaal,
19831 figures apply to 1982). However, for dryland rice, 74
percent of the production comes from outside Java and Hadura.
Sumatra has 33 percent of the outer island dryland rice
hectarage, Kalimantan 26 percent and Sulawesi 10 percent.
Similarly, Sumatra has 51 percent of the outer island wetland
paddy harvested area, Sulawesi 19 percent and Kalimantan 17
percent. Important non-rice crops seen as having high future
'potential are corn, soybeans and cassava. Maize hectarage shows
72 percent on Java, 14 percent on Sulawesi, 7 percent on Nusa
Tenggara and 4 percent on Sumatra. Soybeans and cassava are
mostly grown (over 75 percent) in Java (primarily East Java)l
about 10 percent is produced in Sumatra and 6 percent in Nusa
Tenggaral 6 percent of the cassava is grown in Sulawesi.

In the livestock sector (cows and buffaloes), 1979 estimates
indicate 8.89 million heads, of which 4.9 million are found in
Java (56 percent) and 1.2 million in Ball and Nusa Tenggara (14
percent)i 14 percent are also found in Sulawesi. On the other
hand, poultry distribution shows 61 percent in Java, 19 percent
in Sumatra and 9 percent in Sulawesi (Sta.isik Ind.nesia, 1983).







The high population and lack of opportunities in Java, Bali
and Madura have prompted the Government to encourage
transmigration to the outer islands beginning in 1939. With the
beginning of the five-year Development Plans (Repelitas) in 1969,
approximately 35,000 hectares were identified for resettlement,
mainly in South Sumatra, during Repelita I. In Repelita II and
III (to April 1, 1984), the target for Sumatra was 250,000 and
500,000 hectares, respectively. Typically, these schemes clear
forested lands, provide housing and subsidize food and other
expenses during the first one or two years. Each family head
receives about 1 to 2 hectares depending on the situation.

It is comforting to realize that, to date, the rate of
growth of agriculture in the country (3.7 percent, 1971-79) is
increasing faster than the growth rate of population (2.3
percent, 1971-79), and that development planners have been able
to pave the way for the generation of some agricultural
surpluses. In Pelita IV, agriculture is expected to grow at 3.0
percent. While rice production grew at 4.1 percent in 1982,
other commodities have experienced rapid growth, especially
forestry and several industrial crops like palm oil, tea, coffee,
chillies, shrimp and fresh fish. There have also been substantial
investments in developing irrigation, providing the essential
agricultural inputs and infrastructure such as extension, credit
and improved marketing.

However, even greater progress will be required to meet the
longer term goal of doubling food production by the end of the
century to meet increasing international consumption needs. The
achievement of PELITA'S goals should also conform to the national
principles of the Trilogi Pembangunan (Trilogy of Development):
more equitable distribution of earnings and increased foreign
exchange in addition to increased production. Moreover; there is
mounting concern about the expanding economy's long-term effects
on the environment and resource base, especially on cutover
forest lands, cultivated slopes and in adjacent marine fisheries.

Sources 2f Quter Island Investment

Government strategy for development has several components:
(a) continued redistribution of labor from Java to the outer
islands (b) movement to a more diversified food crop base, thus
reducing dependence on rice and rice imports, (c) expansion of
foreign exchange earnings while diversifying away from petroleum
product exports, and (d) ensuring a more equitable distribution
of national product.

The outer islands claim a dual role in these objectives.
Outer island annual growth rates, 1971-79, have been nearly 10
percent per year indicating profitable investment opportunities,
particularly in manufacturing (15.7 percent) and in agriculture
(5.6 percent). In agriculture, about 190,200 square kilometers
of potentially arable land are available in Sumatra and
Kalimantan, and their development is an important part of







:. plita IV. In addition, the outer islands produce the major
portion of Indonesian perennial crops. Timber, rubber and coffee
were the leading non-oil exports from 1966 through 1981, all from
Outer Island locations. Indonesia is the second leading rubber
producer in the world (after Malaysia)i rubber earned 18 percent
of the total value of non-oil exports from 1978-1981. In
addition, Indonesia is the world's largest producer of coconuts
and ranks in the top five for coffee, copra, palm kernels and
tea. In perspective, it must be remembered that the total value
of wood, rubber, coffee and tin exports equalled 17 percent of
the value of petroleum and petroleum product exports in 1982/83.
Hence, the continued development and diversification of
agricultural exports is extremely important as oil prices decline
o(ey indicators 21f Iafloping oHmber Countries Qf th1 l ian
Development Bank, Economic Office, Asian Development Bank, April,
1983).

Another important growth activity for the outer islands is
fishing, currently accounting for 1.6 percent of real GDP. The
most productive fishing grounds are located in the Straits of
Malacca, around the coast of Kalimantan and near the Moluccas.
Fish products, especially shrimps, have become increasingly
important export products. They are exported mostly to Japan.
Production increased by 6.5 percent from 1981 to 1982.

Smallholder agriculture and agricultural processing
industries are favored by government in the outer island
investment process. For example, in Repelita III, a ten-year
program was launched to transform 3.2 million hectares into crop-
producing land, based mainly on smallholder plantation
development in coordination with Indonesia's Transmigration
Program. In particular, for Sumatra and Kalimantan, some 42,150
smallholders are expected to benefit from "nucleus estate"
projects wherein a state-run or private plantation acts as the
development agent for a region of smallholders.








AGRICULTURE IN THE OUTER ISLANDS: SUMATRA, A CASE STUDY


Since much of SARIF's work, so far, has focused on Sumatra's
agricultural research and development (programs will soon be
expanded to the entire country to satisfy the national mandate),
it appears important to present Sumatra's agriculture in more
detail in this chapter, in order to better point out constraints
and challenges facing SARIF.

More comprehensive studies of Sumatran Agriculture are
available in the 1983 Scholz's publications "The Natural Regions
of Sumatra and their Agricultural Production Pattern" (22).


Production


Sumatra comprises about one-fourth of the land area of
Indonesia: 47.4 million hectares of which only about 4 million
hectares are in farm agriculture and 1.3 million hectares are in
estate crops, i.e. about 11 percent of the total area.
Nevertheless, the "Island of Hope" produces about two-thirds of
national exports. Petroleum is the most important export
commodity followed by timber, tin and various agricultural
commodities.


Crops

Sumatra accounts for all of the palm oil, 93 percent of the
pepper, 73 percent of the rubber, 72 percent of the coffee, 68
percent of the cloves, 21 percent of the copra and 21 percent of
the cocoa produced in Indonesia. Other Sumatra crops with
significant export earnings are tobacco, tea, sugarcane, cotton,
kapok, cinnamon, nutmeg, patchouli oil and vanilla. Smallholders
dominate the production of rubber (80%), pepper, coffee, cloves
and coconuts, while tea and palm oil are largely cultivated on
estates (4, 5, 6, 7).

Annual food crops are almost entirely grown by smallholders,
and Sumatra accounts for 21 percent of the rice, 14 percent of
the sweet potatoes, 11 percent of the cassava, 9 percent of the
soybeans, 9 percent of the peanuts and 4 percent of the corn in
Indonesia (2). Rice, both paddy and upland, are widespread.


Animal Production

Animal production is comparatively low: Sumatra accounts for
only 10 percent of the beef cattle and 27 percent of the
buffaloes in the country. Small ruminants, including sheep and
goats, comprise 4 and 11 percent of the Indonesian production








AGRICULTURE IN THE OUTER ISLANDS: SUMATRA, A CASE STUDY


Since much of SARIF's work, so far, has focused on Sumatra's
agricultural research and development (programs will soon be
expanded to the entire country to satisfy the national mandate),
it appears important to present Sumatra's agriculture in more
detail in this chapter, in order to better point out constraints
and challenges facing SARIF.

More comprehensive studies of Sumatran Agriculture are
available in the 1983 Scholz's publications "The Natural Regions
of Sumatra and their Agricultural Production Pattern" (22).


Production


Sumatra comprises about one-fourth of the land area of
Indonesia: 47.4 million hectares of which only about 4 million
hectares are in farm agriculture and 1.3 million hectares are in
estate crops, i.e. about 11 percent of the total area.
Nevertheless, the "Island of Hope" produces about two-thirds of
national exports. Petroleum is the most important export
commodity followed by timber, tin and various agricultural
commodities.


Crops

Sumatra accounts for all of the palm oil, 93 percent of the
pepper, 73 percent of the rubber, 72 percent of the coffee, 68
percent of the cloves, 21 percent of the copra and 21 percent of
the cocoa produced in Indonesia. Other Sumatra crops with
significant export earnings are tobacco, tea, sugarcane, cotton,
kapok, cinnamon, nutmeg, patchouli oil and vanilla. Smallholders
dominate the production of rubber (80%), pepper, coffee, cloves
and coconuts, while tea and palm oil are largely cultivated on
estates (4, 5, 6, 7).

Annual food crops are almost entirely grown by smallholders,
and Sumatra accounts for 21 percent of the rice, 14 percent of
the sweet potatoes, 11 percent of the cassava, 9 percent of the
soybeans, 9 percent of the peanuts and 4 percent of the corn in
Indonesia (2). Rice, both paddy and upland, are widespread.


Animal Production

Animal production is comparatively low: Sumatra accounts for
only 10 percent of the beef cattle and 27 percent of the
buffaloes in the country. Small ruminants, including sheep and
goats, comprise 4 and 11 percent of the Indonesian production







respectively. Sumatra also raises 26 percent of the country's
chickens. Cattle, sheep, chickens and ducks are widespread, but
buffaloes are concentrated in Aceh (32%), North Sumatra and West
Sumatra; goats are raised mainly in North Sumatra (22%) and
Lampung (21%)I pigs are almost entirely confined to North Sumatra
(85%) and are mainly raised for export. Livestock are largely
produced by smallholders to provide food, draft power (mainly
cattle), source of manure and capital appreciation. Chicken
"factories" and suburban dairies are increasing rapidly to meet
growing urban demands for milk products.

Fisheries

Commercial fishing is encouraged by the Government. Sumatra
accounts for 36 percent of the marine fish in Indonesia, 29
percent of the open water fish, 13 percent of fish from brackish
ponds, but less than 10 percent of the fish from fresh water
ponds, cages and paddies. Some marine fishing occurs in all
provinces but especially in North Sumatra (36 %) and Riau (32%);
open water fishing is concentrated in South Sumatra (46%) and the
other categories are focused mainly in Aceh, West Sumatra and
North Sumatra.


Forestry

Sumatra has about 16 million hectares, or 30 percent of
Indonesia's 52 million hectares, of "production forests" (total
forests 122 million ha). The major province is Riau with 5.3
million hectares of production forest. Production and exports of
timber and forest products have increased rapidly in the country.
There is now increasing concern about conservation and
reforestation with national goals of 300,000 and 70,000 hectares
for reforestation and rehabilitation programs, respectively (2).


The Re s o u r c e B a s e


The Equator nearly equally divides Sumatra which is oriented
Northwest and Southwest between about 6 degrees North and 6
degrees South Latitude, and between 95 to 108 degrees East
Longitude. Most of the land mass exists at a relatively low
elevation: within about 200 to 300 meters above sea level.
However, the original people settled mainly in and along the low
mountain chain, the'Bukit Barisan, up to an elevation of about
1400 meters. Some mountain peaks (and volcanoes) extend from 2000
to 2900 meters, a few peaks exceed 3000 meters and Kerinci is
3800 meters above sea level.

The island is divided into three major topographies s one-
third is mountainous, another third comprises the gently rolling
to nearly flat central peneplains and the remaining third (along







the northeast coast) consists of swamps. The good lands of the
inter mountain region have long been settled, but only a small
portion of the highly leached soils, with a low pH, of the
central peneplains are cultivated; virtually none of the swampy
coastal areas have been developed. Most of the national
transmigration schemes are concentrated in the peneplains.

The Soils

The major soils types of Sumatra include red-yellow podzolic
soils (ultisols with some oxisols, 47% of total area), latosols
(14%), alluvial soils, regosols, andosols and organosols. The
swampy areas (22% of total area) include alluvial, low-humus
gley, humic-gley soils and organosols. Most of these areas are
affected by tides and some lands are being planted to tidal swamp
rice. Some of the swamp areas contain peat, but peat layers
deeper than one meter are difficult to farm. Other low-lying
areas with a clayey base form acid-sulphate soils when drained.

Alluvial soils of the intermountain areas and alongside the
rivers are generally productive depending on the parent material
and internal drainage. If poorly drained, they are usually
converted to paddies for irrigated rice. Other productive soils
include the volcanic ash enriched andosols on mountain slopes
and, to some extent, the latosols being utilized for industrial
crops.

The most promising areas for development and transmigration
are considered to be the central peneplains dominated by
depleted, easily eroded red-yellow podzolic soils; however, some
of these open lands also include lesser areas of alluvial soils,
andosols and latosols. About 4 million hectares of these areas,
largely podzolic soils, have already been identified as suitable
for transmigration, but about 52 percent of the island (24.8
million hectares out of a total of 47.4 million hectares), may
eventually have potential for agricultural development. Over 30
percent of the area mapped has a slope of less than 15 percent
(suitable for perennials) and about a fourth of the area has a
slope of less than 9 percent (suitable for food crops).

The Climate

The dominant climate of the island is hot and humid.
Typical temperatures of the lower elevations and coastal areas
fluctuate between about 22 degrees C and 33 degrees C, with a
difference of less than 2 degrees C between seasons. However,
elevation has a much greater effect on temperatures and cloud
cover, depending on the situation.

Rainfall is comparatively abundant throughout the island,
averaging 2500 mm for 70 percent of the 600 recording stations.
The wettest areas are normally the western slopes of the Bukit
Barisan, where 4 to 5 meters of annual rainfall are common.







rIh: other sites and intermountain rainfall "shadows" may drop to
nly about 1500 mm per annum. Based on wet (>200 mm) and dry
<1O00 mm) months, about 4 percent of the island, especially the
UWst'coast and some eastern slopes, has more than 9 consecutive
-et months, 47 percent has 7 to 9 wet months, 15 percent has 5 to
6 vat months and only 2 percent (mainly North Sumatra) has less
than 3 wet months per year.

The favorable temperature and rainfall conditions allow the
production of continuous rice on 70 percent of the total area.
haother 16 percent of the area is suitable for one or two crops
of rice and one crop of other upland (palawija) species. About
10 percent of the area can grow one crop of rice and palawija for
the rest of the season.Four percent of the area is suitable only
;* one or two palawija crops (10).

Irrigation. An estimated 1.2 million hectares of land in
Sumatra were irrigated in 1977, amounting to 22.5 percent of the
country's total. Most of the irrigation is of the conventional
:rcvity type. Of the total irrigated area, 224,000 hectares are
considered technically irrigated while 320,000 hectares are semi-
tochnically irrigated. 480,000 hectares (58% of public works
irrigation) were considered suitable for Mass Guidance and Mass
Intensification programs (BIMAS and INMAS) during the 1977/78 wet
season, and 275,000 hectares (about a third of the public works)
wero classified suitable during the 1977 dry season.

The Second and Third plans include ambitious new irrigation
projects focusing on developing new systems rather than
habilitatingng existing systems which are largely completed.
Greater emphasis has been given to smaller projects (less than
200 hectares of simple irrigation) and on tidal swamp
reclamation. The Directorate of Water Resource Development has
identified 6 million hectares of future potential irrigation in
Xndonesia, including 4 million hectares for new development and
1.3 million for tidal swamp development. About 63 percent of the
gravity systems and about half the tidal swamp development would
be in Sumatra.

Environmental Zonec of Sumatra

The environmental groupings for targeting farming systems
E~coarch on Sumatra include, according to the description by
Oldeman at Al, 1979, (10):
1. Western coastal area. Climate: A and Bl zones. The
southwestern coast is characterized by continuous high rainfall
(over 200 mm per month, almost every month). The soils are
generally alluvial and continuous paddy rice is the dominant
cropping practice. Some fruits, vegetables and animal production
occur on the undulating foothills.






2. Intermountain yallgas. These are semi-humid to humid
(ca. 1600-2200 mm) intermediate elevations with alluvial soils or
soils of volcanic origin; the climate ranges from Dl to E2.
Crops range from paddy rice near the valley bottoms or on
terraces with irrigation or favorable rainfall, to upland rice
and other palawija crops, fruits and vegetables.

3. Barisan. Climate zones range from 81 to D2. These are
high-elevation, high-rainfall sites like Sukarami and Brastagi.
The soils are generally fertile (volcanic origin) and major crops
include high-elevation paddy rice and cool-season (temperate)
fruits and vegetables.

4. Piedmont. (Bl climate). This foothill region lies
closer to the mountains, is slopy (>10% near the mountains down
to 3 to 5% near the peneplains) and have mainly latosolic soils,
although some areas are alluvial or volcanic in origin. The
soils, especially those of volcanic origin, have exceptionally
good internal drainage and are generally better adapted for
growing perennials (rubber, oil palm, spices and coffee) than
annuals.

5. Peneplaina (primarily Bl climatic zone). This area,
the largest north of the Barisan, is gently rolling, ranges
from 20 to about 70 m above sea level and has mainly
podzolic soils with poorer internal water drainage than in the
Piedmont. Double-cropped paddy rice is the dominant system in
the settled areas.

6. Transition zona. This is the transition zone between the
peneplains and tidal swamps. It is a seasonally flooded (or dry),
true deep water rice growing area. It includes some Bl and C2
climates, the latter being drier and having a somewhat better
cropping potential.

7. Tidal swap ALA. These areas are extensive along the
northeastern coast and comprise about a third of the total
island land area. Water.(both fresh and brackish) rises and
falls with the tides. Some alluvial levees, in riverine limited
areas, support intensive cropping. Climates include 81, Cl and
C2 zones.

8. Northern coastal zone. This zone includes the lower,
more seasonal rainfall areas of North Sumatra and Aceh;
climate ranges from Cl to E2. It is typified by the growing of
one crop of paddy rice followed either by a palawija crop or by a
fallow for off (dry) season grazing.






The Farms


The 26.5 million population of Sumatra is concentrated most
heavily in North Sumatra (199 inh./sq.km. ) and Lampung (106
inh./sq.km.). It is lowest in Riau, Jambi and Bengkulu (28 to
31 inh./sq.km.). The population is increasing at the rate of 2.9
percent annually, as compared to 1.6 percent for Java and 2.3
percent for all Indonesia. In 1983, there were 2.85 million
farms averaging 1.13 hectare and 594 estates averaging 2213
hectares in Sumatra.

Farm size ranged from 0.81 hectare in West Sumatra to 2.55
hectares in Riau, compared with the Indonesian average of 0.99
hectare. In fact, the generally accepted limit for intensively
cultivated land is only about 0.75 hectare per farm when all
operations are done by hand, as they are on more than 60 percent
of Sumatra farms. The percentage of the population engaged in
agriculture ranges from 63 percent in North Sumatra to 87 percent
in Bengkulu, averaging 70.6 percent for the entire island
(Indonesia 61.6%).
Most farm activity is devoted to crop production (90.7 % of
farms) with combined crops, livestock, fish culture or timber
being relatively minors only 9.3 percent mixed farming versus
13.2 percent for Indonesia. However, annual crops are often
combined with perennial species (e.g. rubber, coffee, spices and
fruits) on upland soils. All wetland production is in crops, but
dryland cropping varies widely.
There is relatively low use of fertilizer and pesticides
(ca. 20%), although these inputs are subsidized and increasing in
use. Most of the land is cultivated by hand labor provided by
the farm family, although 10 percent of the farms have full time
workers and 30 percent employ seasonal labor. Draft animals
(mainly cattle) are used on only 28 percent of the farms,
compared with 52 percent for Indonesia. However, mechanical
power is used on 10.5 percent of the farms compared with 5.1
percent nationally. The primary reason for greater mechanization
(increasing rapidly) and low labor usage in Sumatra is labor's
shortage and higher cost: often three to four times the cost in
Java (2, 6, 7).







AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN INDONESIA.


Indonesia has a-national coordinated agricultural research
network. The establishment of the Agency for Agricultural
Research and Development (AARD) within the Ministry of
Agriculture by Presidential Decree in 1974 was a result of an
increased emphasis on the role of science and technology to
support the large and vitally important agricultural sector of
the nation through research.

The Ministerial Decree formalizing the charge of the
specific research institutes within AARD was issued in 1975. In
1976, AARD obtained its own budget and the authority to manage
the research institutes of the Ministry of Agriculture. Prior to
the Presidential Decree, research was conducted within each of
the Directorates General for Food Crops, Estate Crops, Forestryo
Fisheries and Animal Husbandry.

AARD comprises, besides a Center for Statistics and Data
Processing, and a Central Library for Agriculture and Biology,
seven Central Research Institutes which, together, are composed
of 24 Research Institutes.

The seven Central Research Institutes are respectively
1) for Soil Research, 2) for Agro-Economic Research, 3) for Food
Crops, 4) for Horticultural Crops, 5) for Industrial Crops, 6)
for Fisheries, and 7) for Animal Husbandry.

Among these seven Central Research Institutes, the Central
Research Institute for Food- Crops (CRIFC) is worth special
attention, given the scope of this document. It is composed of
six Research Institutes which have begun documenting and
analyzing constraints in local food crop-based farming systems
and initiating important applied research within their mandated
fields.

For lowland rice, SURIF, located at Sukamandi in West Java,
has the primary responsibility. Tidally irrigated rice, which ir
seen as an important long-range prospect and goal by planners,
particularly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, constitutes the primary
mandate of BARIF, in Banjarbaru, Kalimantan. The food crop-based
farming system for dry climates is the mandated research field of
MORIF in Sulawesi. Given the great potential for palawija (non-
rice food) crops, the role of MARIF (East Java) has become
particularly meaningful. BORIF, located in Bogor, West Java, has
principal research responsibilities in fundamental research.
Finally, SARIF, located in Sukarami, West Sumatra, has, in
addition to its regional responsibilities, the national upland
rice mandate and also conducts some research on upland and high-
elevation food crop-based farming systems.

The following text covers essentially the mandate and
programs of SARIF.






"rIl-IE IPIEE D IS A'lD (CI-I AL..L..EINl EIS

A new center like SARIF, established in 1980, faces enormous
.challenges. The staff is predominantly young and has limited
technical training. Facilities and equipment have been very
meager or virtually non-existent up to mid-1984. Budgets have
been marginal, even before the austerity policies imposed
nationally in 1983, and generally ponderous to implement.
Meanwhile, the biological problems of a highly diverse
agriculture in a low humid tropical setting are formidable
indeed. A large number of urgent production problems must be
tackled concurrently, not to mention national emergencies like
the brown planthopper outbreak in North Sumatra in 1983.

The deterrents to an effective agricultural research
operation in SARIF can be categorized as: (1) biological
constraints> (11) constraints at the farmer's level; (ili)
institutional constraints (i.e. within the existing framework);
and (iv) organizational constraints (when the limitation is
imposed by the parent organization). These will be
discussed broadly in the sections that follow. However, it would
be impossible to anticipate and list all of the day to day
problems occurring in different areas and circumstances. It
must also be recognized that some problems, both biological
and organizational, cannot be attacked frontally by the
present system, but must be deferred, contracted to other
agencies better equipped to deal with them, or otherwise
circumvented.


BI OLOG ICAL CONSTRAINT S

The low humid tropics pose the greatest of all challenges to
annual crops researchers. The constant high temperatures and
moist conditions favor a host of insect pests and diseases which
exert year-round pressures on the crop. The majority of soils
have lower fertility levels than those of the drier- and more
temperate regions often, they are highly leached of plant
nutrients, low in organic matter, have minimal water and nutrient
holding capacities and are highly fragile and easily eroded.
Further complicating these factors are the large number of
species grown in the same fields or on the same farm to meet the
dominant subsistence farmer's multiple needs for food, animal
feedstuffs, fiber, structural materials, pharmaceuticals and
cash. Since growing conditions vary widely and there is a high
degree of specific adaptation within species, it is virtually
impossible to provide the ideal, adapted plant for each
situation.
Some specific examples of biological and real farmer's
problems are briefly described below. They are not necessarily
listed in order of priority, since it is often difficult to make






"rIl-IE IPIEE D IS A'lD (CI-I AL..L..EINl EIS

A new center like SARIF, established in 1980, faces enormous
.challenges. The staff is predominantly young and has limited
technical training. Facilities and equipment have been very
meager or virtually non-existent up to mid-1984. Budgets have
been marginal, even before the austerity policies imposed
nationally in 1983, and generally ponderous to implement.
Meanwhile, the biological problems of a highly diverse
agriculture in a low humid tropical setting are formidable
indeed. A large number of urgent production problems must be
tackled concurrently, not to mention national emergencies like
the brown planthopper outbreak in North Sumatra in 1983.

The deterrents to an effective agricultural research
operation in SARIF can be categorized as: (1) biological
constraints> (11) constraints at the farmer's level; (ili)
institutional constraints (i.e. within the existing framework);
and (iv) organizational constraints (when the limitation is
imposed by the parent organization). These will be
discussed broadly in the sections that follow. However, it would
be impossible to anticipate and list all of the day to day
problems occurring in different areas and circumstances. It
must also be recognized that some problems, both biological
and organizational, cannot be attacked frontally by the
present system, but must be deferred, contracted to other
agencies better equipped to deal with them, or otherwise
circumvented.


BI OLOG ICAL CONSTRAINT S

The low humid tropics pose the greatest of all challenges to
annual crops researchers. The constant high temperatures and
moist conditions favor a host of insect pests and diseases which
exert year-round pressures on the crop. The majority of soils
have lower fertility levels than those of the drier- and more
temperate regions often, they are highly leached of plant
nutrients, low in organic matter, have minimal water and nutrient
holding capacities and are highly fragile and easily eroded.
Further complicating these factors are the large number of
species grown in the same fields or on the same farm to meet the
dominant subsistence farmer's multiple needs for food, animal
feedstuffs, fiber, structural materials, pharmaceuticals and
cash. Since growing conditions vary widely and there is a high
degree of specific adaptation within species, it is virtually
impossible to provide the ideal, adapted plant for each
situation.
Some specific examples of biological and real farmer's
problems are briefly described below. They are not necessarily
listed in order of priority, since it is often difficult to make






such determinations and since conditions vary greatly from
location to location. They include the followings

High-yielding varieties. Except possibly for paddy rice,
the currently available varieties of upland and high-elevation
rice, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans and'peanuts are
severely limited in adaptation, yield and production stability.
In fact, the commercial production of most upland and cold-
tolerant rice, root crops and legumes are, up to the present,
heavily dominated by old farmer's land races. Even the mostly
improved, open-pollinated corn varieties have largely
deteriorated after several generations in farmers' fields. Of
course, the spread of new, improved varieties is greatly
restrained by lack of seed distribution facilities and agencies.

1ALnt diseases. A wide range of plant diseases afflict
upland food crops. It is not unusual for a dozen potentially
serious pathogens to affect a single species when conditions are
favorable. Among the most serious plant diseases, SARIF diagnosed
rice blast, Helminthosporium of rice, brown spot of rice, downy
mildew of corn, viruses and Cercospora leaf spot of peanuts, rust
and bacterial leaf spot of soybeans, viruses of sweet potatoes
and assorted leaf spot of cassava (e.g. Cercospora spp.). Several
secondary diseases occur in more narrowly defined situations such
as foot rot of soybeans in the poorly drained soils of Aceh,
Cercospora leaf diseases of several crops (rice, peanuts,
cassava), viruses of chillies and scab of wheat. However, the
most vexing disease problem is typified by the unstable pathogens
(like rice blast) which overcome new resistance strains within 2
or 3 years after release.
Insect e~ats. Like plant diseases, a host of insect pests
attack virtually all crop species, often from the early stages,
until the crop is harvested and in storage. The most serious
pests studied intensively by SARIF's scientists include the
seedling fly, brown planthoppers, stem borers, plant bugs and
stink bugs of rice; stemborers, plant hoppers and ear worms of
corn; bean fly and pod borers of soybeans red spider mites and
scale insects of cassava; and several foliage feeders of root
crops. A wide range of other insect pests of these crops can be
devastating under specific circumstances when conditions favor
their buildup. Less is known about nematodes, their occurrence
and economic importance for upland crops.

AnimAl pea fa. Problems with rats, birds and other large
animals, especially wild pigs, are almost universal in Indonesia.
Except for rats, which also attack the growing rice plants,
the other animals are more important as crops approach
maturity, requiring constant vigilance by the farmer.
Particularly severe in newly cleared areas, especially those
adjacent to forests, are wild boars. Peanut and root crops like
sweet cassava and sweet potatoes are particularly vulnerable in
such areas.






Ltpw-~H depleted soils. Upland soils are largely "problem
soils" or red-yellow podzolic soils (mostly ultisols in the U.S.
Taxonomy or acrisols in the FAO legend). These soils are highly
depleted of basic plant nutrients, have low cation exchange
capacity, tend to fix phosphorus rapidly, have often a low water-
holding capacity and possess high levels of aluminum and other
toxic elements. Most annual food crops are susceptible to
aluminum toxicity, but the solutions to the problem (e.g. Ca- and
Al-tolerant varieties) are not yet practical nor easy. Another
kind of problem occurs when these soils are irrigated and iron
toxicity occurs as a result of the reduction of iron from the
ferric to the ferrous form. This causes ranging disease of paddy
rice, which is accompanied by greatly reduced yields: the
symptoms can persist for several years.

Erosion and runoff. Newly cleared forested lands in the
tropics are normally low in organic matter and the nutrient
reservoir is mainly in the shallow topsoil layer. Moreover, the
individual soil particles, although aggregated, are not very
cohesive and tend to move easily with wind and water. As a
result, erosion is frequently severe unless the land is carefully
handled, a crop cover is maintained and the organic matter
content is built up. Deterioration may be even more rapid when
conventional bulldozer clearing is done, accompanied by
compaction with heavy machines and scraping or moving of the
surface soil. The subsequent burning exacerbates soil
homogeneity and further destroys organic matter, although plant
nutrients are released for immediate plant growth. Carelessness
in clearing and the subsequent severe erosion can frequently
result in patches of "humid deserts" where nothing grows.

FARMER S CONSTRAINTS

Cultural practices. There is a continuing urgent need for
new information on optimal cultural practices for newly
developed areas, cropping systems, crop species and varieties.
Much needs to be learned about seasonal effects, soil/plant
relationships, basic tillage, optimal planting dates, plant
populations, plant nutrient requirements, weed control, plant
protection and harvest, over a range of agro-ecological
conditions. The need for such information is particularly urgent
in newly opened lands, where problem soils are most common and
recent settlers are unfamiliar with local conditions. Of rising
concern is the urgent need to grow crops more efficiently and to
reduce high labor costs.

H1AhanizxAtn n And minimum UilliAg. Much of farming
activities is done by hand and enormous. efforts are required to
grow each crop. For example, upland rice requires at least 170
man-days of labor per ha to produce. This mean, onerous and
exhausting work discourages many, especially the young, from
remaining on the farm. Moreover, labor is both limited and very
expensive on the outer islands, as compared to Java with which






they compete in the market. Despite this, Ehere is little
information on appropriate mechanization or use of draft animals,
especially for basic tillage, inter-row cultivation, threshing,
on-farm crop drying and processing, and transport. Another
approach to the problem is minimum tillage (including mulching)
and use of both general and specific herbicides for more
efficient weed control, as well as for reduced runoff/erosion
and lowering of soil surface temperatures.

crop drying and processing. Both grain and bulky root crops
pose serious problems of handling at harvest, particularly in a
humid, hot climate. The farmer is faced with drying or otherwise
preserving the produce quickly to prevent spoilage. The
customary procedure of spreading out grains and seeds to dry is
both cumbersome and risky since rains come quickly and
animals/birds are attracted to unguarded bulks. Root crops are
even more troublesome as they run higher in water content than
grains (60% to 80%), but they have the advantage of being
harvested over a longer time period (particularly cassava which
can remain in the ground for several months). Therefore, farmers
need a low cost, minimal energy requiring system of drying and
storing farm produce.

In.AArAd Larming a.anlma. Very few upland farms,
especially in newly settled areas, are uniform in topography and
soils, or are single-commodity enterprises. Most farms include
both annual and perennial crops which are often grown in
association. Livestock and aquaculture, although not in high
frequency on the average, appear to have much greater potential
in the future, both to upgrade the farm family diet and for the
market. Obviously, cropping systems would need to be modified to
accommodate and complement animal/fish production. Perhaps the
most urgent need is to expand research on forages, which would
also have many other beneficial effects on land conservation and
productivity. An even more immediate need is to devise
production practices for combining annual and perennial crops, in
separate, mixed or associated plantings depending on
circumstances. Other components of such mixed systems include
fruit trees, vegetables, cover crops and agro-forestry species
(especially nitrogen fixing trees) for fuel, timber, forage and
food.
&Anilnabi1it nf. inutaa. Host advanced production
technologies require some purchased inputs, especially seeds,
fertilizers and pesticides. These must be available when needed,
of acceptable quality and deliverable to the crop. Farmers also
require credit during critical periods. Of particular concern to
SARIF is the supply of viable seeds of known genetic constitution
and purity, free of noxious weeds, seed-borne diseases and insect
pests. Unfortunately an organized and functional seed industry
network does not yet exist everywhere, although the distribution
of improved paddy rice varieties has worked reasonably well. A
viable seed distribution system also provides an excellent
vehicle for transferring improved technologies.






Aaro-economics. Farmers as well as SARIF's researchers need
a continuing update on the economics of upland agricultural
production systems. At present, this type of micro-economics
information is lacking for most sectors. Such studies will need
to include an understanding of marketing outlets where
commodities are sold off the farm. Perhaps of greatest interest
to the biological scientists will be an analysis of major
constraints to production and the help in the prioritizing of
problem areas for further study. This agro-economics function
must be considered ongoing and equally important as any of the
hard sciences projects.


INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS


The institutional constraints to SARIF's operations have
already been recognized and steps taken to rectify them. The
first phase of institution-building is being achieved through the
Sumatra Agricultural Research Project (SARP) as a combined effort
between the Government of Indonesia and USAID. The Project has
addressed some of the primary institutional constraints
including: (a) development of facilities, (b) procurement of
equipment, (c) manpower development, (d) strengthening of
linkages with other related institutions, and (e) developing a
viable research program. These and other operational constraints
will be briefly described in the sections that follow.


SARIF's Facilities/Equipment

Construction. Up to 1983, facilities for carrying out field
crop research were almost totally lacking except for a few old,
rundown buildings at Bandar Buat (Padang), Sukarami, Rambatan and
Taman Bogo. Electricity and water were non-existent or very
sporadic at all sites. The farms at Kayu Agung (South
Sumatra), Pasar Miring (near Medan) and Lampineung (Aceh)
remained only empty fields. Therefore, major construction works
were planned and begun at Sukarami, Sitiung, Lampineung and Pasar
Miring from 1981 to 1983. The second stage of construction,
scheduled for completion by April 1986, will include completion
of Sukarami and Sitiung, renovation of Rambatan (West Sumatra)
and Taman Bogo (Lampung), and a wholly new station at Kayu Agung.
Construction at Sumani (near Solok) was completed by the end of
1982 but under a separate project: the World Bank supported
National Agricultural Research project (NAR-I). However, much
remains to be done on station development in terms of laying out
fields, constructing roads, erecting boundary fences, installing
irrigation drainage systems and providing electrical power and
domestic water.






Aaro-economics. Farmers as well as SARIF's researchers need
a continuing update on the economics of upland agricultural
production systems. At present, this type of micro-economics
information is lacking for most sectors. Such studies will need
to include an understanding of marketing outlets where
commodities are sold off the farm. Perhaps of greatest interest
to the biological scientists will be an analysis of major
constraints to production and the help in the prioritizing of
problem areas for further study. This agro-economics function
must be considered ongoing and equally important as any of the
hard sciences projects.


INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS


The institutional constraints to SARIF's operations have
already been recognized and steps taken to rectify them. The
first phase of institution-building is being achieved through the
Sumatra Agricultural Research Project (SARP) as a combined effort
between the Government of Indonesia and USAID. The Project has
addressed some of the primary institutional constraints
including: (a) development of facilities, (b) procurement of
equipment, (c) manpower development, (d) strengthening of
linkages with other related institutions, and (e) developing a
viable research program. These and other operational constraints
will be briefly described in the sections that follow.


SARIF's Facilities/Equipment

Construction. Up to 1983, facilities for carrying out field
crop research were almost totally lacking except for a few old,
rundown buildings at Bandar Buat (Padang), Sukarami, Rambatan and
Taman Bogo. Electricity and water were non-existent or very
sporadic at all sites. The farms at Kayu Agung (South
Sumatra), Pasar Miring (near Medan) and Lampineung (Aceh)
remained only empty fields. Therefore, major construction works
were planned and begun at Sukarami, Sitiung, Lampineung and Pasar
Miring from 1981 to 1983. The second stage of construction,
scheduled for completion by April 1986, will include completion
of Sukarami and Sitiung, renovation of Rambatan (West Sumatra)
and Taman Bogo (Lampung), and a wholly new station at Kayu Agung.
Construction at Sumani (near Solok) was completed by the end of
1982 but under a separate project: the World Bank supported
National Agricultural Research project (NAR-I). However, much
remains to be done on station development in terms of laying out
fields, constructing roads, erecting boundary fences, installing
irrigation drainage systems and providing electrical power and
domestic water.






When completed, these field stations will be adequate to
initiate active research programs, but may not function at full
capacity until some further additions are made to laboratories,
mesh houses and living quarters for staff and laborers.

Equipment a.nd transport. The limitations of equipment and
transport have proven an even greater deterrent than building
facilities. Only a few aging vehicles (trucks, buses and 4-wheel
jeeps) were available to SARIF up to 1984. At that time, several
light pickups and the first SARP equipment order were received.
The most important field machinery and tractors arrived and were
placed in service by mid-1982. This equipment, including
generators for electrical power at isolated stations, will
greatly expedite land development, primary tillage, inter-row
cultivation, pesticide applications, transport and readying
lands for experiments. Subsequent orders (2 to 4) will provide
much needed scientific instruments, experimental field plot
machines, office equipment (including computers), library and
communication materials (books, journals, equipment) and
supporting services (e.g. cafeteria/kitchen equipment). Since
the amount of these orders is large, some of the stations for
which equipment is intended do not yet have completed facilities,
and equipment/instrument operators must be trained. As a result,
only limited use of some equipment will be made in 1985. However,
as experience is gained and ongoing critical needs are
identified, it will be necessary to augment and replace some of
these items.


Manpower Development

As of December 1984, SARIF listed 525 staff of which only
224 were confirmed. Only 4 staff members, including the Director,
hold a doctorate degree (UPLB) and 21 staff have Master's degrees
(3 from UPLB, 2 from the USA). In addition, 39 staff members
received short-term overseas training (2 to 6 months), mainly at
International Agricultural Research Centers, while 163 staff had
received short-term training in Indonesia. Nine staff are
continuing their studies for the doctorate (2 at UPLB, 6 in
Indonesia, 1 in the USA); and 26 staff are working on their
Master's degrees (2 at UPLB and 24 in-country). This, however, is
only a beginning and at least triple this number of higher
degrees would be required to man the Institute's research program
during the coming decade. In addition, there will be a need for
a continuing flow of short-term training, both in-country and
overseas, during Repelitas IV and V. Of course, such accelerated
training exacts a heavy toll on the ongoing programs, as staff
are constantly leaving for varying periods of time. This problem
is particularly acute in the early stages as the strongest
leaders tend to go first.





Strengthening Linkages


SARIF has developed excellent linkages at all official
levels in West Sumatra, including the Governor's office, Dinas
Pertanian and Extension Services, and Andalas University.
Unfortunately, the Institute has not yet effected similar
influences in other Provinces, although a good start has been
made in Aceh. This may be due to the slow progress in
establishing facilities at SARIF's substations, the comparatively
low -number of trained and experienced researchers and the recent
budgetary constraints (national austerity policy) which are
limiting travel. Moreover, the Institute's Director has had an
exceptionally heavy burden in both early institution-building and
establishing an effective research program.


Program Development

Considerable progress has been achieved in research, as
highlighted earlier. Advances were made against formidable odds:
inadequately trained manpower, frequent staff departures for
training (often at inconvenient times), severe budgetary
restrictions and virtually non-existent facilities, equipment
and instruments. This situation has also forced many younger,
untrained staff to assume heavy responsibilities, greatly
exceeding their training and background and necessitating
"heroic" efforts including long hours of hard work. It has also
obliged thelnstitute to maintain a discipline-oriented
organizational structure rather than the more efficient
commodity-based or mission-oriented research, in order to retain
the guidance and inputs of a comparatively few experienced
researchers across several programs.

Some research disciplines have languished for lack of
training experience and facilities. One example is plant
breeding which has relied on national coordinators (located at
BORIF, SURIF or some other distant stations), for both primary
leadership and source of genetic stocks. Lack of facilities for
handling, organizing and preserving experimental seeds has made
it difficult to preserve seed viability, even for one season.



ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

Public institutions like SARIF are, like similar
organizations in other countries, subject to several procedural
restraints necessary in large bureaucracies. Three operational
constraints are likely to affect the realization of SARIF's
goals in the future. They include: (a) limitations of budget and
delays in receiving operational funds; (b) lack of a clear and
sufficiently broad mandate; and (c) restrictive operational
procedures. They are briefly discussed in the following sections.





Strengthening Linkages


SARIF has developed excellent linkages at all official
levels in West Sumatra, including the Governor's office, Dinas
Pertanian and Extension Services, and Andalas University.
Unfortunately, the Institute has not yet effected similar
influences in other Provinces, although a good start has been
made in Aceh. This may be due to the slow progress in
establishing facilities at SARIF's substations, the comparatively
low -number of trained and experienced researchers and the recent
budgetary constraints (national austerity policy) which are
limiting travel. Moreover, the Institute's Director has had an
exceptionally heavy burden in both early institution-building and
establishing an effective research program.


Program Development

Considerable progress has been achieved in research, as
highlighted earlier. Advances were made against formidable odds:
inadequately trained manpower, frequent staff departures for
training (often at inconvenient times), severe budgetary
restrictions and virtually non-existent facilities, equipment
and instruments. This situation has also forced many younger,
untrained staff to assume heavy responsibilities, greatly
exceeding their training and background and necessitating
"heroic" efforts including long hours of hard work. It has also
obliged thelnstitute to maintain a discipline-oriented
organizational structure rather than the more efficient
commodity-based or mission-oriented research, in order to retain
the guidance and inputs of a comparatively few experienced
researchers across several programs.

Some research disciplines have languished for lack of
training experience and facilities. One example is plant
breeding which has relied on national coordinators (located at
BORIF, SURIF or some other distant stations), for both primary
leadership and source of genetic stocks. Lack of facilities for
handling, organizing and preserving experimental seeds has made
it difficult to preserve seed viability, even for one season.



ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

Public institutions like SARIF are, like similar
organizations in other countries, subject to several procedural
restraints necessary in large bureaucracies. Three operational
constraints are likely to affect the realization of SARIF's
goals in the future. They include: (a) limitations of budget and
delays in receiving operational funds; (b) lack of a clear and
sufficiently broad mandate; and (c) restrictive operational
procedures. They are briefly discussed in the following sections.





Strengthening Linkages


SARIF has developed excellent linkages at all official
levels in West Sumatra, including the Governor's office, Dinas
Pertanian and Extension Services, and Andalas University.
Unfortunately, the Institute has not yet effected similar
influences in other Provinces, although a good start has been
made in Aceh. This may be due to the slow progress in
establishing facilities at SARIF's substations, the comparatively
low -number of trained and experienced researchers and the recent
budgetary constraints (national austerity policy) which are
limiting travel. Moreover, the Institute's Director has had an
exceptionally heavy burden in both early institution-building and
establishing an effective research program.


Program Development

Considerable progress has been achieved in research, as
highlighted earlier. Advances were made against formidable odds:
inadequately trained manpower, frequent staff departures for
training (often at inconvenient times), severe budgetary
restrictions and virtually non-existent facilities, equipment
and instruments. This situation has also forced many younger,
untrained staff to assume heavy responsibilities, greatly
exceeding their training and background and necessitating
"heroic" efforts including long hours of hard work. It has also
obliged thelnstitute to maintain a discipline-oriented
organizational structure rather than the more efficient
commodity-based or mission-oriented research, in order to retain
the guidance and inputs of a comparatively few experienced
researchers across several programs.

Some research disciplines have languished for lack of
training experience and facilities. One example is plant
breeding which has relied on national coordinators (located at
BORIF, SURIF or some other distant stations), for both primary
leadership and source of genetic stocks. Lack of facilities for
handling, organizing and preserving experimental seeds has made
it difficult to preserve seed viability, even for one season.



ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

Public institutions like SARIF are, like similar
organizations in other countries, subject to several procedural
restraints necessary in large bureaucracies. Three operational
constraints are likely to affect the realization of SARIF's
goals in the future. They include: (a) limitations of budget and
delays in receiving operational funds; (b) lack of a clear and
sufficiently broad mandate; and (c) restrictive operational
procedures. They are briefly discussed in the following sections.







Budgetary Restraints

Interim reductions and delays in funding during the past
four years have been costly in terms of the amount and quality of
construction at SARIF stations.

The imposition of austerity measures consequent to the oil
crisis has also had a severe impact on the Institute's programs
and activities. The most critical stricture has perhaps been on
travel. Staff have been unable to move as freely as they should,
particularly outside West Sumatra, to keep up with day to day
research problems occurring at distant points or to bring about
the much needed cohesion and teamwork with staff at stations,
such as those in Aceh, North Sumatra and Lampung. Not to mention
the other islands of Indonesia, other provinces of Sumatra like
Bengkulu, Riau, Jambi and South Sumatra (without SARIF field
stations) are hardly ever visited.

Reduced budgets have also had more subtle effects on
operations. More costly experiments have been deferred, work at
outstations has suffered for lack of supervision and equipment
(especially vehicles), and facilities have not been maintained as
needed.

Limitations of the mandate

SARIF has a broad mandate for "improving upland (annual)
crops of the humid tropics", including the most important
palawija crops of the region (corn, cassava, soybean _and
peanuts). For the time being, this responsibility applies more
specifically to Sumatra since there is no provision for travel
for SARIF-directed work on other islands. The second aspect of
the SARIF mandate is the national responsibility for the programs
on upland and high-elevation rice. Until now, the assertion of
national primacy in these two commodities remains somewhat
tenuous as a consequence of limited trained staff, budgetary
constraints and lack of facilities or equipment.

An even more serious longer term problem is to relate the
Institute's research and technology transfer roles to the broader
needs of farmer clients. Food crop agriculture is generally
organized in small family units (average size of 0.6 ha.) and is
either (1) wholly or partly dominated by paddy rice (either
continuous 2 to 3 crops/year or paddy rice followed by one or
two upland crops during the drier season or (ii) primarily
upland cropping with little or no bunded and/or irrigated
paddies.
Of course, there are many other special production areas
like tidal swamp rice, highland vegetable production and small
orchard production (black pepper, cloves, coffee, and other
specialty crops) or various combinations thereof and with
subsistence crops. Host farmers, especially in upland areas,
have (or should have) some livestock and grow several perennial







Budgetary Restraints

Interim reductions and delays in funding during the past
four years have been costly in terms of the amount and quality of
construction at SARIF stations.

The imposition of austerity measures consequent to the oil
crisis has also had a severe impact on the Institute's programs
and activities. The most critical stricture has perhaps been on
travel. Staff have been unable to move as freely as they should,
particularly outside West Sumatra, to keep up with day to day
research problems occurring at distant points or to bring about
the much needed cohesion and teamwork with staff at stations,
such as those in Aceh, North Sumatra and Lampung. Not to mention
the other islands of Indonesia, other provinces of Sumatra like
Bengkulu, Riau, Jambi and South Sumatra (without SARIF field
stations) are hardly ever visited.

Reduced budgets have also had more subtle effects on
operations. More costly experiments have been deferred, work at
outstations has suffered for lack of supervision and equipment
(especially vehicles), and facilities have not been maintained as
needed.

Limitations of the mandate

SARIF has a broad mandate for "improving upland (annual)
crops of the humid tropics", including the most important
palawija crops of the region (corn, cassava, soybean _and
peanuts). For the time being, this responsibility applies more
specifically to Sumatra since there is no provision for travel
for SARIF-directed work on other islands. The second aspect of
the SARIF mandate is the national responsibility for the programs
on upland and high-elevation rice. Until now, the assertion of
national primacy in these two commodities remains somewhat
tenuous as a consequence of limited trained staff, budgetary
constraints and lack of facilities or equipment.

An even more serious longer term problem is to relate the
Institute's research and technology transfer roles to the broader
needs of farmer clients. Food crop agriculture is generally
organized in small family units (average size of 0.6 ha.) and is
either (1) wholly or partly dominated by paddy rice (either
continuous 2 to 3 crops/year or paddy rice followed by one or
two upland crops during the drier season or (ii) primarily
upland cropping with little or no bunded and/or irrigated
paddies.
Of course, there are many other special production areas
like tidal swamp rice, highland vegetable production and small
orchard production (black pepper, cloves, coffee, and other
specialty crops) or various combinations thereof and with
subsistence crops. Host farmers, especially in upland areas,
have (or should have) some livestock and grow several perennial






species for a wide range of uses, especially tor marketing ott
the farm. In addition, many farms have good potential for
aquaculture on account of the abundant rainfall.

The problem is that SARIP has neither the mandate for
perennials or livestock/aquaculture nor very much influence with
the research agencies responsible for those commodities. Yet, it
is very difficult to foresee how the Institute can effectively
serve the best interests of both its farmer clients and the
country agricultural economy without taking into account the
total farming system and all the commodities involved therein.
For example, current practice frequently involves the close
association of annuals and perennials, the growing of specific
plants to serve animals needs, and the adoption of cropping
practices compatible with fish or livestock (like prudent use of
farm chemicals).

Operational Procedures

Loosening of budgetary strictures, especially the expedient
transfer of funds to the Institutes, is urgently needed to
increase operational efficiencies. Moreover, there must be
recognition of the necessity to allocate resources for the
maintenance of facilities and equipment, together with a system
assuring that such earmarked resources accomplished their
purpose.

The "unit system" of rewarding workers for work output does
not appear most conducive to scientific endeavours. It often
leads to stifling individual initiative and to designing
experiments more for the purpose of reaping easy unit credits
than for the intrinsic value for agriculture of the research
itself. There is an urgent need for a better system which can
generate scientific incentive through stressing the satisfactions
derived from true inquiry and results that directly benefit the
farmer. There is also a need for a method of rewarding such
accomplishments.

For the longer term, interdisciplinary teamwork must be
fostered and encouraged. This will necessitate analyzing
production problems as a whole for the complete farming system
and providing incentives for closer collaboration between several
scientific disciplines. The ideal would be the creation of
multidisciplinary teams of scientists which include, in addition
to the plant/soil scientists, socio-economists, animal
scientists, fisheries specialists and other biological or
physical scientists (e.g. meteorologists) concerned with the
problem area and its many ramifications.







.3- CU tJREITE STATLJS OF SAF=R: I:=-


THE MANDATE


Until late 1983, SARIF was assigned national responsibility
for upland -rice, high-elevation rice and upland cropping
systems. The five major programs were s (1) upland rice (2)
other rices, including irrigated, high-elevation, deep-water and
tidal-swamp rice (3) palawija crops: maize, wheat, .cassava,
sweet potatoes, soybeans, peanuts (and some minor legumes)l (4)
horticultural crops; and (5) upland cropping systems. Of these
programs, upland rice received most attention on account of its
importance total production of food nutrients exceeds that of
all other upland crops combined in Sumatra and SARIF has the all-
Indonesian mandate for improving this commodity.
The SARIF mandate was further modified in late 1983 when
horticultural crops and the high-elevation stations were brought
under the Lembang Research Institute for Vegetables, LERIV, in W.
Java. The irrigated and deep water rice improvement were included
under SURIF (Sukamandi) and BARIF (Banjarmasin, Kalimantan)
respectively; and the SARIF environmental mandate 'was more
narrowly defined as "Upland Cropping/Farming Systems for Humid
Climates",
Specific research objectives are focused on research
designed to stabilize and increase food production. Since
farm size per family is small, the improved technologies must
cater primarily to the needs of small farmers. SARIF must also
consider the two kinds of agriculture: established and
transmigrant.
Established agriculture is mainly confined to long-term
indigenous systems on better lands. In contrast, transmigration
agriculture is developing new lands, predominantly on the
forested, red-yellow podzolic soils. The needs, problems and
challenges of the latter are much greater than for established
agriculture and SARIF is presently giving primary attention to
developing viable production systems for these secondary lands.
Transmigrants are the "poorest of the poor" among the Indonesian
farming community and their production problems on the fertility-
depleted secondary lands are particularly acute. Their
difficulties are compounded by minimal capital, limited
infrastructural support, lack of sustainable production
technologies and inexperience in the new environment.







.3- CU tJREITE STATLJS OF SAF=R: I:=-


THE MANDATE


Until late 1983, SARIF was assigned national responsibility
for upland -rice, high-elevation rice and upland cropping
systems. The five major programs were s (1) upland rice (2)
other rices, including irrigated, high-elevation, deep-water and
tidal-swamp rice (3) palawija crops: maize, wheat, .cassava,
sweet potatoes, soybeans, peanuts (and some minor legumes)l (4)
horticultural crops; and (5) upland cropping systems. Of these
programs, upland rice received most attention on account of its
importance total production of food nutrients exceeds that of
all other upland crops combined in Sumatra and SARIF has the all-
Indonesian mandate for improving this commodity.
The SARIF mandate was further modified in late 1983 when
horticultural crops and the high-elevation stations were brought
under the Lembang Research Institute for Vegetables, LERIV, in W.
Java. The irrigated and deep water rice improvement were included
under SURIF (Sukamandi) and BARIF (Banjarmasin, Kalimantan)
respectively; and the SARIF environmental mandate 'was more
narrowly defined as "Upland Cropping/Farming Systems for Humid
Climates",
Specific research objectives are focused on research
designed to stabilize and increase food production. Since
farm size per family is small, the improved technologies must
cater primarily to the needs of small farmers. SARIF must also
consider the two kinds of agriculture: established and
transmigrant.
Established agriculture is mainly confined to long-term
indigenous systems on better lands. In contrast, transmigration
agriculture is developing new lands, predominantly on the
forested, red-yellow podzolic soils. The needs, problems and
challenges of the latter are much greater than for established
agriculture and SARIF is presently giving primary attention to
developing viable production systems for these secondary lands.
Transmigrants are the "poorest of the poor" among the Indonesian
farming community and their production problems on the fertility-
depleted secondary lands are particularly acute. Their
difficulties are compounded by minimal capital, limited
infrastructural support, lack of sustainable production
technologies and inexperience in the new environment.






PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


The guiding principles of SARIF's research programs are to
address real farmer's problems and biological constraints to
increasing production at reduced costs. Its current goals are
more concerned with expanding and stabilizing production than
seeking quick yield increases requiring exceptionally high, and
frequently uneconomic, purchased inputs. The underlying reason
for this approach is that small, largely subsistence farmers,
invest mainly their own efforts (including their family's) in
the enterprise. Their primary concern is to assure a year-round
supply of food and to maximize production per unit of effort
(labor). In these situations, usually with minimal draft or
mechanical power, efficiency of production rather than yield art
as is of paramount concern, and one medium-size family using hand
labor can seldom manage more than about 0.75 ha. Thus, it may be
more important to have a "rustic", rapidly growing, broad-leaved
variety of upland rice that competes well with weeds and is
compatible in complex crops associations, than a more advanced,
high-yielding strain that is more exacting in husbandry demands
and less tolerant of multi-species production systems.

Identifying Needs

Research is focused on the most important problems of food
crop production in upland areas. These include several areas of
critical importance to small farmers, which may be identified by
addressing some of the following questions:

1. Which crop(s) and cultivar(s) will provide the best
returns for inputs invested, and simultaneously meet the farmer's
needs for subsistence?

2. What method'of crop management and fertilizer usage
produces optimal returns for different crops and growing
conditions?

3. How can pests (insects, diseases, birds, other animals)
be most effectively and economically managed to minimize losses?

4. How can cropping practices and land cultivation be
carried out to both avoid degrading the environment and gradually
improve the soil productive capacity?

5. What are the best methods of on-farm processing (drying,
preserving, extracting), storing and marketing the excess farm
produce?

6. How can farmers increase their work efficiency,
especially on heavy onerous tasks that constrain total
production, like basic tillage, planting, weed control and
harvesting?






7. What are the relationships between annual crop production
and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and
animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at
the better established stations, is underway to answer some of
these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being
characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production
zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why.
However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff
greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research
that can be carried out.

Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized
according to the basic commodity programs involving an
interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant
breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest
technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A
step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall
research plan. This involves (i) problem identification through
first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and
other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii)
prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their
relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct
measurement; and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program
based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research
capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the
preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which
are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.

THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFi

Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing
areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop)
are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth,
seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices.
Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development
of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of
cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil
amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures
are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is
grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special
problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.






7. What are the relationships between annual crop production
and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and
animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at
the better established stations, is underway to answer some of
these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being
characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production
zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why.
However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff
greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research
that can be carried out.

Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized
according to the basic commodity programs involving an
interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant
breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest
technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A
step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall
research plan. This involves (i) problem identification through
first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and
other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii)
prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their
relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct
measurement; and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program
based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research
capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the
preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which
are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.

THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFi

Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing
areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop)
are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth,
seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices.
Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development
of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of
cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil
amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures
are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is
grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special
problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.






7. What are the relationships between annual crop production
and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and
animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at
the better established stations, is underway to answer some of
these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being
characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production
zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why.
However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff
greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research
that can be carried out.

Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized
according to the basic commodity programs involving an
interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant
breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest
technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A
step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall
research plan. This involves (i) problem identification through
first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and
other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii)
prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their
relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct
measurement; and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program
based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research
capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the
preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which
are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.

THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFi

Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing
areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop)
are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth,
seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices.
Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development
of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of
cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil
amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures
are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is
grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special
problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.






7. What are the relationships between annual crop production
and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and
animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at
the better established stations, is underway to answer some of
these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being
characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production
zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why.
However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff
greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research
that can be carried out.

Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized
according to the basic commodity programs involving an
interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant
breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest
technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A
step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall
research plan. This involves (i) problem identification through
first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and
other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii)
prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their
relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct
measurement; and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program
based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research
capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the
preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which
are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.

THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFi

Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing
areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop)
are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth,
seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices.
Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development
of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of
cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil
amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures
are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is
grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special
problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.






7. What are the relationships between annual crop production
and the other Farming Systems components such as perennials and
animals?
Considerable research, especially field experimentation at
the better established stations, is underway to answer some of
these questions. Existing systems of agriculture are also being
characterized in agro-economic surveys of discrete production
zones to better understand what farmers are doing and why.
However, present limitations of facilities and trained staff
greatly restrict the amount and precision of biological research
that can be carried out.

Planning Procedure
Field and laboratory research is presently organized
according to the basic commodity programs involving an
interdisciplinary approach. Specialists in agronomy, plant
breeding, pathology, entomology, physiology and post- harvest
technology study the different aspects of the same problem. A
step-wise procedure is followed in developing the overall
research plan. This involves (i) problem identification through
first-hand observations in the field, feedback from extension and
other farmer service agencies and surveys among farmers; (ii)
prioritization of problem areas through assessment of their
relative importance: by farmer surveys or through direct
measurement; and (iii) joint planning of the experimental program
based the prioritization of problem areas, SARIF's research
capabilities and other factors. The later phase involves the
preparation of preliminary plans by individual researchers which
are then reviewed in detail by the entire research staff.

THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Five commodity programs have now been established at SARIFi

Upland Rice
The principal problems of upland rice in the major growing
areas of Indonesia (SARIF has the national mandate for this crop)
are judged to be blast disease, aluminum toxicity, drougth,
seedling fly, low soil fertility and poor cultural practices.
Experiments are designed to correct these problems: development
of improved, resistant/tolerant varieties, improvement of
cultural practices, efficient use of plant nutrients and soil
amendments, and intervention with pesticides when other measures
are inadequate. Since much of the upland rice in Indonesia is
grown on secondary lands, SARIF will focus mostly on the special
problems of transmigrants on the red-yellow podzolic soils.






Upland Cropping Systems


This program serves a pivotal role relative to the other
programs. The objectives are to develop economically-viable and
environmentally-sound production systems involving both SARIF's
mandated crops and other species including perennial crops. At
present, major attention is given to upland crops in the problem
soils of the transmigration districts, but other areas and
systems are also studied (e.g. soybeans after rice on the north
coast of Aceh). Research underway includes evaluating multiple
cropping systems, long-term plant nutrient use, the role of lime
in current and future production; utilizing various cropping
associations, relays and sequences growing of mulches and green
manures or leguminous cover crops; and adapting soil and water
conservation practices like terracing, contour planting and
minimum tillage. The cropping systems program includes sections
in rural socio-economics and agro-climatology, which are
considered essential to develop the agricultural data base of the
systems.

Palawija Crops

These include all secondary annuals grown in rotation or
intercropped with upland rice, or as off-season crops in rainfed
rice paddies. The major species of interest are the cereals
(corn, sorghum and wheat), root crops (cassava and sweet
potatoes) and legumes (soybeans, peanuts, mungbeans and cowpeas).
National leadership for these crops rests with MARIF (Malang) and
BORIF (Bogor), but several specific problems are under
investigation at SARIF stations. The major problems of corn are
downy mildew and low yields in problem soil areas. In the case
of wheat, the lack of low temperatures, problem soils, leaf rust
and scab are among the primary constraints to increased
production. Soybeans are susceptible to rust, bacterial
diseases, the bean fly, pod borers and problem soils (especially
low pH and high Al). Peanuts suffer from viruses, assorted leaf
diseases (Cercospora, rust, bacterial wilt) and poorly drained
soils. Cassava is attacked by insects (especially spider mites.
and scale insects) and leaf diseases (bacterial wilt and blight,
and Cercospora). Sweet potato is sometimes attacked by scab,
viruses, stem borer, weevils (the root) and assorted leaf feeding
insects. These several problems are approached mainly through
varietal improvement with strong backing from national programs
in Java and through agronomic (cultural practices)
experimentation. The option of using chemical pesticides on
these crops is available, but is not always economical.

Other Rices

Primary leadership for irrigated rice is vested at
Sukamandi, in West Java. However, the special problems of high-
elevation rice have been mandated to SARIF. The latter concerns
mainly cold tolerance manifested by floral sterility and blast






Upland Cropping Systems


This program serves a pivotal role relative to the other
programs. The objectives are to develop economically-viable and
environmentally-sound production systems involving both SARIF's
mandated crops and other species including perennial crops. At
present, major attention is given to upland crops in the problem
soils of the transmigration districts, but other areas and
systems are also studied (e.g. soybeans after rice on the north
coast of Aceh). Research underway includes evaluating multiple
cropping systems, long-term plant nutrient use, the role of lime
in current and future production; utilizing various cropping
associations, relays and sequences growing of mulches and green
manures or leguminous cover crops; and adapting soil and water
conservation practices like terracing, contour planting and
minimum tillage. The cropping systems program includes sections
in rural socio-economics and agro-climatology, which are
considered essential to develop the agricultural data base of the
systems.

Palawija Crops

These include all secondary annuals grown in rotation or
intercropped with upland rice, or as off-season crops in rainfed
rice paddies. The major species of interest are the cereals
(corn, sorghum and wheat), root crops (cassava and sweet
potatoes) and legumes (soybeans, peanuts, mungbeans and cowpeas).
National leadership for these crops rests with MARIF (Malang) and
BORIF (Bogor), but several specific problems are under
investigation at SARIF stations. The major problems of corn are
downy mildew and low yields in problem soil areas. In the case
of wheat, the lack of low temperatures, problem soils, leaf rust
and scab are among the primary constraints to increased
production. Soybeans are susceptible to rust, bacterial
diseases, the bean fly, pod borers and problem soils (especially
low pH and high Al). Peanuts suffer from viruses, assorted leaf
diseases (Cercospora, rust, bacterial wilt) and poorly drained
soils. Cassava is attacked by insects (especially spider mites.
and scale insects) and leaf diseases (bacterial wilt and blight,
and Cercospora). Sweet potato is sometimes attacked by scab,
viruses, stem borer, weevils (the root) and assorted leaf feeding
insects. These several problems are approached mainly through
varietal improvement with strong backing from national programs
in Java and through agronomic (cultural practices)
experimentation. The option of using chemical pesticides on
these crops is available, but is not always economical.

Other Rices

Primary leadership for irrigated rice is vested at
Sukamandi, in West Java. However, the special problems of high-
elevation rice have been mandated to SARIF. The latter concerns
mainly cold tolerance manifested by floral sterility and blast






disease, both of which are being approached through varietai
improvement and better cultural practices. Increasing yield of
rainfed paddy rice (shallow and deep water types) involves
extensive testing of new germplasm from SURIF (Sukamandi), BARIF
(Banjarmasin) and IRRI, and collaboration in the IRRI/IFDC
fertilizer testing (INSFFER) program. However, an area of
special concern is the soil problems developing in newly flooded
rice paddies, especially in low pH soils with potential iron
toxicity rangingig disease"). Experiments involving increased
levels of lime and other plant nutrients, addition of organic
matter, mid-season drainage and use of tolerant varieties are
underway to alleviate this problem. Except for high-elevation
rice, diseases like blast are less serious in paddy rice.
However, various insects cause problems from time to time and are
usually controlled through timely application of pesticides,
although a serious outbreak of a new race of brown planthopper
(Race 3) occurred in North Sumatra in 1982. The principal
approach to control this new race is through resistant varieties.

Horticultural Crops

There are two sections of horticultural activities: those
for the North Sumatran highlands at Brastagi and Gurgur, and
those in Central Sumatra at Sukarami and Bukittinggi. The
stations at Brastagi (1450m) and Gurgur (1250m) concentrate on
potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, citrus, bananas and-ornamentals. At
Sukarami, the focus is on chillies (cabe) and other vegetables,
fruits and ornamentals. The improvement of potatoes involves
testing of new varieties (introduction) and developing optimal
cultural practices for production and pest control (with
pesticides). In the case of chillies, a collection of more than
200 landraces has been made in Sumatra which, together with
introductions from other regions and countries, is being
screened for resistance to viruses, adaptation, performance and
quality at Sukarami and other sites. The strategy for improving
several other species is to collect/introduce new genetic stocks,
evaluate them for adaptation and potential under a range of
growing conditions and, finally, to develop optimal cultural
practices for Sumatran conditions. Sometimes, a specific pest
like PlutellA xylostella of cabbage becomes sufficiently limiting
that it merits special attention and application of alternate
methods of management, including biological control.

SIGNIFICANT ACHI EVEMENTS

Several improvements in Sumatran agriculture can already be
attributed to SARIF activities and scientists, often in
collaboration with national commodity programs and international
agricultural research centers like IRRI -and AVRDC. These
advances have been made despite the lack of trained manpower,
equipment and facilities. These deficiencies are being rectified
through the expanded SARIF program (SAR Project) jointly
supported by GOI and USAID.







3o CURRENT STATUS OF SARIF 20

The Handate 20

Program Development 21
Identifying Needs 22
Planning Procedure 22

The Research Programs 22
Upland Rice 22
Upland Cropping Systems 22
Other Rices 23
Palawija Crops 23
Horticultural Crops 24

Significant Achievements 24
Adopted Technologies 25
Maturing Technologies 27
Agro-Economic Studies. 29
General Program Advances 30


4. FUTURE STRATEGIES 31

Research 32
The Programs 32
The Disciplines 32
The Stations 33

Crop Improvement Strategies 34
Plant Breeding 34
Cultural Practices 34
Integrated Pest Management 35
Agro-economic Studies 35
Post-Harvest Handling 35

Future-Research Needs 36


5. UPLAND CROPPING/FARMING SYSTEMS 38

Charaoterising the Resource Base 38

Agro-Economic Studies 40

Biological field Research 41
Short-Term Activities 41
Longer Range Objectives 42






The pace of crop production improvements should accelerate
over the next two to three years, as facilities are constructed
and equipment is procured. In the meantime, contributions made
by SARIF, which have already been widely accepted by Sumatran
farmers or have recently been transferred, but appear to be
spreading, will be identified and analyzed. A second category
includes "maturing" technologies that may be ready for transfer
within the next one or two years. A third section highlights
associated agro-economic studies completed and underway.
Finally, a brief mention is made of General Program Advances
covering a large body of preliminary or exploratory research on
component technologies.


Adopted Technologies

The major impact of SARIP and the Sumatran Agricultural
research stations has been in terms of improved germplasms.
However, other management tools like the use of fertilizers,
chemical pesticides and some cropping practices developed by the
research establishment have also been widely accepted. The most
noteworthy of these are briefly summarized below,

Paddy ri.c varietal improvement. The testing and release of
IRRI paddy varieties in the 1970's, most recently IR-36 and
IR-42, have had a major impact on Sumatran food production,
allowing exports to rice-short areas from excess-producing
provinces of West Sumatra, Aceh and Lampung. More recently, the
screening of brown planthopper (BPH) resistance strains has
resulted in identifying IR-56 as resistant to the new BPH race
which had devastating effects in North Sumatra. An emergency
shipment of several tons of IR-56 was airlifted to Medan in 1983
to speed the replacement of older BPH-susceptible rice varieties.

Cold-tolerant jrij. A new cold-tolerant rice, Batang Agam,
derived from a cross between IR-36 and Sirandah Merah, made at
IRRI and selected from the F.2 generation onwards in Sumatra, was
named and released in 1983. In advanced yield trials, at
elevations from about 800 to 1400 meters above sea level, it
significantly exceeds the yield of the best available local and
other strains with which it was compared. It also demonstrates a
high level of floret fertility under low-temperature stresses.
Although partially susceptible to blast disease, Batang Agam has
been widely distributed in Indonesia wherever low temperatures
limit rice production. Sumatra alone has a potential high-
elevation (>800m) rice production of an estimated 500,000 ha.

Paddy rJLc production. Research on high yielding production
systems of irrigated rice, utilizing appropriate levels of
fertilizers and chemical pesticides (when necessary), recommended
planting dates and plant populations, and practicing effective
water management and weed control, has contributed to the near
doubling of yields on Sumatra's irrigated rice lands during the
last decade.






Upland rie production. Studies on upland rice production
systems have contributed important information on seasonal
effects on production and pest dynamics, cultural practices,
optimal use of inputs for different growing conditions and
appropriate cropping associations. Although clearly superior
improved varieties were not yet available by 1983/84, the
"package" of improved practices incorporated into an optimal
cropping system has been introduced and adopted by several
progressive farmers in the Sitiung area..
Soybeans In Aceh. One of the fastest growing annual food
crops in Sumatra is soybeans, on the North coast of Aceh:either
continuously cropped or following rice when irrigation water is
not sufficient for the second rice crop. The economics are
favorable, production levels are high (up to 2.lt/ha.), and there
is a ready nearby market in Medan. SARIF has assigned a cadre of
researchers to Aceh to work closely with provincial and extension
services in developing soybean production technology for the
region. They have already demonstrated and introduced to farmers
the superiority of zero tillage over full tillage, the
superiority of "Local" and Orba varieties, the use of Rhizobial
inoculation when planting soybeans in new lands, optimal plant
populations (>500,000 plants/ha.), seed furrow granular
insecticides like Curater 3G for bean fly control, foliage
insecticides like Endosulfan for pod insects and optimal
fertilizers (eg. 30-60-60) for the area.

Corn production. Improved corn composite varieties like
improved Harapan and Arjuna, combined withrecommended cultural
practices including 400 kg/ha of fertilizers, consistently
produce high yields (>3 t/ha) and have contributed to well-
defined corn growing centers like those at Payakumbuh in West
Sumatra, Lampung and at higher elevations west of Medan, North
Sumatra. Superiority of zero tillage over full tillage of corn
grown after rainfed paddy rice has also been demonstrated.

UQIan jd cropping systems. The SARIF has contributed to the
development and refining of a multiple cropping system involving
associations of upland rice (7 rows) interplanted with corn (2 m
apart), cassava (4m) and legumes (following rice /corn) to
provide virtual year-around soil coverage, continuous production,
and a diversity of crops for both subsistence and marketing.

iminng acid soils. A substantial body of evidence has been
accumulated on the benefits of liming acid soils, especially the
latosols and red-yellow podzolic soils of the Sumatran central
peneplains. Typical crop responses range from 40 percent and
upwards for upland rice, 100 percent for corn and peanuts, and up
to 300 percent for soybeans. Even cassava shows benefits from
liming low-pH soils. In fact, some high Al/low Ca-susceptible
crops which would normally be failures, produce up to ten-fold
yield increases with even modest applications of lime (2t/ha).

The technology of liming is highly advanced but still
awaits the industrial development of West Sumatra's vast






limestone (including dolomitic limestone) deposits: some or tliiem
are located as near as 50 kilometers from the Sitiung
transmigration area, on the main trans-Sumatran Highway at Sungai
Dareh. A source of readily available, inexpensive lime would
greatly accelerate technology advances and production increases
and would substantially increase the range of crop species that
could be grown successfully in acid soil areas.


Maturing Technologies

Advanced technologies nearing release to the farmer have
usually involved several seasons of observations, testing and
experience. Several recent research advances likely to impact on
Indonesian agriculture in the near future are expected to include
the followings

UPRAnd rJi varieties. The Institute's primary focus on
upland rice has been hampered by the dearth of clearly superior
improved strains for both experimental purposes and commercial
use. However, the in-flow selection and intensive testing of new
germplasm from BORIF, IRRI and other sources has increased
greatly during the past 2 to 3 years. Some of the new materials
exhibit superior tolerance to aluminum and drought, resistance to
blast and brown spot, and are consistently higher-yielding than
widely grown local strains. The best of these new lines being
considered for release in 1984 includes

B 3906 P 13 13 St 37
B 3913 F 16 20 St 12
NAPA 40 Krad St 12

Yield testing in the Sitiung area has resulted in grain
yields of 1.6 t/ha, representing a 55 to 147 percent yield
advantage over farmer's varieties. They are also intermediate in
height, stem thickness and leaf width, distinct advantages in
current farmer production practices. Of course, blast disease,
the nemesis of upland rice, is expected to recur after two or
three years, but at that time, new resistant materials should be
available. --

Hew high-elevation ricfm. Further development of improved
cold-tolerant rice has resulted in the identification of new
strains nearing farmer release, considered superior to the
earlier released Batang Agam variety..By late 1984, a second
release was made of the cold-tolerant Batang Ombilin variety.
Two new lines B2980b-Sr-2-6-2-3-2 and B3853e-Sr-8-7-3 are
emerging as second generation advances for the high-elevation
production zones.

Ranging disease 2f rice. Alleviation of rangingg disease"
of rice on newly opened, low-pH soil paddies has been
investigated from different approaches. Tolerant genetic
materials like IR-36, B3913b-16-20-St-12 or B2980b-St-
2-6-2-3-2, combined with higher applications of phosphates and







lime, and with additions of organic matter and mid-season
drainage have been shown helpful in reducing losses from
iron (and aluminum?) toxicity under these conditions.

Advanced soybean production. Second generation advances on
soybean production technologies show considerable potential for
helping sustain high yields and reducing production costs. The
new package is expected to include cultivars like Galunggung and
some aluminum-tolerant strains, minimum tillage, mulching and
herbicides (like Treflan, Lasso and Grammoxone) for reduced costs
of tillage and weed control. The package will also include fine
tuning of seed furrow granular insecticides (Curater or Furadan),
fertilizer use and planting practices.

Ca production package. New developments nearing release
include improved varieties like Arjuna, Hybrid Taiwan, H-6 (and
recently some privately produced hybrids) for different growing
conditions. Other practices showing considerable promise include
more effective pest control, especially several species of plant-
hoppers, optimal timing of cultural practices, control of weeds
(both by hand and with herbicides) and the use of straw mulching
to reduce runoff, weed growth, evapotranspiration and soil
surface temperatures.

HBoQ crol2 Some new sweet potato clones (eg. CI 17-5 and
CI 916-46 OP-Sr-11) for intermediate and higher elevations (500
meters and up) combine both acceptable qualities and high yields.
Associated investigations on both sweet potato and cassava have
demonstrated the need for better fertilizer balance, especially a
high requirement for potassium (up to 120 kg K20/ha).
Horticultural .ros., Several incremental advances have been
made on high-elevation horticultural crops at Sukarami. These
include the identification of virus-resistant strains of chillies
(like cv.200) and a high-yielding, good quality tomato (AV-24).
Other noteworthy developments include the use of Baci1llua
thurinaienensis for non-toxic control of the cabbage looper,
Plutella xoateJg lla, the use of clear plastic covers for off-
season chillies and optimal fertilization and other cultural
practices for a range of highland vegetables.

Wheat. Wheat is not yet grown commercially in Sumatra,
although observation trials have been carried out at Sukarami and
other high elevations in West Sumatra for several years. These
investigations were further advanced with the planting of 25-
entry yield nurseries at five, locations in West Sumatra in 1983
(Rasyidin Azwar: Ph.D thesis at UPLB). Only the three higher
elevations (Talang-650m, Sukarami=950m, Alahan Panjang-1250m)
were harvested, but they produced trial mean yields of 11.2
q/ha, 23.6 q/ha and 12.0 q/ha, respectively. Best yields were
obtained at Sukarami, with nine entries exceeding 24.5 q/ha. and
three strains (Titmouse S, C.213-13 and C.212-59) yielding 31
to 33 q/ha. These excellent results elicited considerable local
interest and a special wheat field day was held at Sukarami on
July 23, 1983.






Agro-Economic Studies


The inclusion of an agro-economic unit in the SARIF has
greatly strengthened the biological research program. This area
adds a new dimension in terms of identifying significant needs
and maintaining closer contact and knowledge of Sumatra's major
agricultural production sector. Recent agro-economic studies
include surveys and analysis of high-payoff activities with small
farmers in West and North Sumatra, and in Lampung. Defined area
studies have now been carried out on : (i) corn growers of
Payakumbuh (Bukittinggi area of West Sumatra), (ii)
intermediate and higher elevation corn in North Sumatra, (iii)
soybean production and marketing on the North coast of Aceh, (iv)
irrigated rice growers around Solok (West Sumatra), (v) newly
settled transmigrant settlers at Sitiung, and (vi) long
established transmigration projects in Lampung. Several papers
on-these studies are being prepared for publication. Some of the
interesting findings are briefly described below:

Corn production in North Sumatra. Producers in North
Sumatra achieved the highest average yields (3t/ha.) in Sumatra.
Fertilizer inputs there are also quite high (450 ha. of TSP and
urea per ha.) and the high elevations (mostly above 800 m) appear
to favor high yields with lower levels of pest and disease
stresses. However, low-elevation corn production (south of
Medan) appears to be increasing with the available seed and
fungicide package (for early control of downy mildew). Break-
even yields for this technology were calculated at 2.5 t/ha when
two crops are grown per year, and at 1.6 t/ha when three crops
are grown annually. Price stability in North Sumatra is
maintained through exports to the Jakarta market.

Soybean production in Aceh. Soybean production is actively
encouraged by the Government to reduce the large imports of this
commodity totalling about a third of the current one million
tons annual consumption. The North coast of Aceh is particularly
well suited to producing soybeans on account of the generally
favorable growing conditions, the economic advantage over rice
(particularly in the second season when irrigation is limited),
and a highly accessible and stable market in the Medan area.
Grain brokers actively seek out producers and arrange transport
to market. Soybeans are in high demand in Sumatran urban
markets, both for direct human consumption and as a component for
animal feedstuffs, especially poultry and, to a lesser extent
for pigs (only in Hedan) .

AiAilAbhiJtt fL inputs. Recent surveys indicate that
several potentially profitable technologies are known to farmers,
but are not employed for want of necessary inputs available on
time, and of reliable quality. The most obvious needs
(bottlenecks) identified are the availability of fungicides and
seeds of improved varieties of corn and soybeans. Other inputs
like fertilizers, herbicides and mechanization are expected to
become more important as production expands in future.






ahan.ajgia. Small scale mechanization in becoming
increasingly available in the highland areas of West Sumatra
through a rental market. Mechanical threshers (like the IRRI
coaxial flow type) showed an internal rate of return of more than
30 percent, while small motorized tillers were profitable only
under greater capacity usage. The more rapid turnaround time
with mechanization increases cropping intensity while reducing
costs.

Profitability oL cfr a. Studies of cropping practices in
the transmigration area at Sitiung has shown that farmers are
obliged to grow most of their own subsistence crops, especially
rice and corn, but these-are not necessarily the most profitable
commodities. Upland rice is particularly demanding of labor
inputs with present technologies. It is estimated that upwards
of 170 man-days/hectare are required to grow a crop which may
yield only 700 to 1000 kg/ha. On the other hand, peanuts, at
about Rp. 1,200/kg, and cassava, at only Rp. 15/kg, are much more
profitable in terms of returns on cost of production. In the
case of cassava, a new starch factory at Sitiung has stimulated
considerable expanded production since there is now a ready
market for manufacturing tapioca.
Current actiities. The agro-economics unit has also
initiated some preliminary studies of older transmigration and
spontaneous settlements in Lampung Province. The object is to
learn more about the "maturation" process of developing these new
lands to determine which production patterns endure over time,
establish the continuing needs of long-term settlers and identify
priority research areas.

General Program Advances.
Because of the urgency of developing a viable and
sustainable technology for the new transmigration projects,a
broad range of field experiments are carried out during three
cropping seasons, each year, at several agro-ecological sites in
Sumatra, especially in the Sitiung area and the Sitiung Station.
In 1983/84, for example, SARIF's research program totalled 225
units (district experiments at a single site). The studies which
have been completed and the current work underway represent a
vast amount of important information on agricultural practices,
real farmer's problems and research methodologies gained by
SARIF's staff. This knowledge and experience will contribute to
increasingly effective research aimed at achieving higher levels
of productivity and more consistent yields of basic food crops.
Most of these results are described in the SARIF annual reports
and are also highlighted in the Sumatra Agricultural Research
Project (SARP) 2nd and 4th Quarterly Reports.







4. FUTURE ST RAFTEAG X ES


The strategies proposed for the further development of SARIF
toward providing more effective service to its clients may be
classified as i (i) short-term, for the next.3 to 5 years, to
about 1989 (through Pelita IV), and (ii) long-range, from 1989
into the mid-1990's (Pelita V). The first stage will continue
through the extension phase of the GOI/USAID funded SAR Project
and well beyond the mid-term of Pelita IV, while the longer range
goals would carry well into Pelita V (terminating in 1994).
Since it is easier to see the larger problems, but more difficult
to determine physical needs and availability of resources over
the longer term, somewhat shorter projections are made for
station development than for research programs and manpower.

The most important short-term objective will be to develop
an effectively functioning research program within the boundaries
of the present mandate. The longer range program would continue
these objectives and also proposes an expansion of the mandate to
allow SARIF to fulfill its target and better serve its clients.
However, the achievement of the research programs will depend on
completion of station development and construction, procurement
of commodities, training of staff and the strengthening of
linkages as detailed in the SAR Project scheduled for completion
by April 1986.
A broad description of SARIF and its goals, objectives and
program to the 1990's was presented to the AARD for inclusion in
Pelita IV. It describes four aspects of the future programs (i)
research, (ii) staff development, (iii) infrastructure and
facilities development, and (iv) technology transfer. The
research aspects, both short-term and long-range, will be
amplified further in this section.


31 .







RESEARCH


The Programs

SARIF's revised. research mandate comprises four major
problem areas including s

1. Ulland Cropping/Farmina Systems (humid limakteA1.
This research covers upland rice, non-rice (palawija)
crops, other (perennial) crops and animals relevant
to dryland agriculture in the humid tropics. The
target of this program is the development of systems
for a minimum income of U.S.$ 2,500 per family.

2. Upland Biei. The target of this program is the
development of a technology for medium input, stable
production of good-quality rice at 3t/ha.

3. High-Elv.Ation Ri wetlandss. The objective is
to develop technology for the stable production of good
quality rice at yield levels of 5t/ha.

4. Palawiia Cros. The objective is improved technology
for non-rice food crops in upland areas with a wet
climate and rainfed bunded areas.



The Disciplines

Research teams for the four major programs include seven
disciplines t (i) plant breeding, (ii) agronomy, (iii)
entomology, (iv) plant pathology, (v) plant physiology, (vi)
agro-economics and (vii) post-harvest technology and
mechanization. Research support includes (a) administration, (b)
laboratory services, (c) communications/library, (d) experiment
station management and (e) workshops. The Institute projects its
research leadership to include 16 Ph.D's, of which 13 have
completed their studies or are currently being trained, and 50
M.Sc's of which 21 have completed the degree and 26 are in
training by the end of Repelita IV.







RESEARCH


The Programs

SARIF's revised. research mandate comprises four major
problem areas including s

1. Ulland Cropping/Farmina Systems (humid limakteA1.
This research covers upland rice, non-rice (palawija)
crops, other (perennial) crops and animals relevant
to dryland agriculture in the humid tropics. The
target of this program is the development of systems
for a minimum income of U.S.$ 2,500 per family.

2. Upland Biei. The target of this program is the
development of a technology for medium input, stable
production of good-quality rice at 3t/ha.

3. High-Elv.Ation Ri wetlandss. The objective is
to develop technology for the stable production of good
quality rice at yield levels of 5t/ha.

4. Palawiia Cros. The objective is improved technology
for non-rice food crops in upland areas with a wet
climate and rainfed bunded areas.



The Disciplines

Research teams for the four major programs include seven
disciplines t (i) plant breeding, (ii) agronomy, (iii)
entomology, (iv) plant pathology, (v) plant physiology, (vi)
agro-economics and (vii) post-harvest technology and
mechanization. Research support includes (a) administration, (b)
laboratory services, (c) communications/library, (d) experiment
station management and (e) workshops. The Institute projects its
research leadership to include 16 Ph.D's, of which 13 have
completed their studies or are currently being trained, and 50
M.Sc's of which 21 have completed the degree and 26 are in
training by the end of Repelita IV.







RESEARCH


The Programs

SARIF's revised. research mandate comprises four major
problem areas including s

1. Ulland Cropping/Farmina Systems (humid limakteA1.
This research covers upland rice, non-rice (palawija)
crops, other (perennial) crops and animals relevant
to dryland agriculture in the humid tropics. The
target of this program is the development of systems
for a minimum income of U.S.$ 2,500 per family.

2. Upland Biei. The target of this program is the
development of a technology for medium input, stable
production of good-quality rice at 3t/ha.

3. High-Elv.Ation Ri wetlandss. The objective is
to develop technology for the stable production of good
quality rice at yield levels of 5t/ha.

4. Palawiia Cros. The objective is improved technology
for non-rice food crops in upland areas with a wet
climate and rainfed bunded areas.



The Disciplines

Research teams for the four major programs include seven
disciplines t (i) plant breeding, (ii) agronomy, (iii)
entomology, (iv) plant pathology, (v) plant physiology, (vi)
agro-economics and (vii) post-harvest technology and
mechanization. Research support includes (a) administration, (b)
laboratory services, (c) communications/library, (d) experiment
station management and (e) workshops. The Institute projects its
research leadership to include 16 Ph.D's, of which 13 have
completed their studies or are currently being trained, and 50
M.Sc's of which 21 have completed the degree and 26 are in
training by the end of Repelita IV.







The Field Stations


The Research and Technology Transfer programs will be
carried out mainly at the seven SARIF field stations located in
three provinces as follows:

1. Sukarami IWeat Sumatra)t Institute headquarters, center
for major research services and high-elevation
irrigated rice.

2. Sumani I(Hat- Sumatra)t Sub-institute: pests of upland
rice and palawija crops.

3. Sitiung (West Sumatra), Sub-institute: dryland cropping
and farming systems, upland rice and palawija crops in
a wet climate.

4. Rambatan (West Sumatral, Experimental Farm: Upland
rice and palawija crops in conditions of intermediate
rainfall (1800 mm) and elevation (600 m).

5. Taman Bogo~ Lampunal Experimental Farm: dryland areas,
upland rice, palawija crops in a medium wet climate
(2500 mm) and low elevation.

6. Lamplinmung (Aceh), Experimental Farm: rainfed bunded
lands at low elevations.

7. Bandar DiA= (West Sumatra), Experimental Farm seed
production and crossing rice.

Considerable research is also being carried out in farmers'
fields, particularly at Sitiung and North Aceh. It should also be
noted that SARIF was originally responsible for and participated
in the development of three stations in North Sumatra: Brastagi
and Gurgur for high-elevation crops, mainly vegetables, fruits
and ornamentals, and Pasar Miring near Medan, for irrigated rice
and palawija crops on bunded rainfed lands; in South Sumatra at
Kayu Agung near Palembang for tidal swamp rice; and in Jambi at
Puding for coastal swamp conditions (terminated in the late
planning stage). These stations are scheduled to be transferred
shortly to other institutes having primary responsibilities for
these commodities and problem areas.







CROP IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES


Plant Breeding
Among the various crop improvement strategies, plant
breeding is the most effective and practical approach and
therefore is frequently the option of choice. It is the first
line of defense against major biological pests like blast
disease, brown planthopper, seedling fly and sheath blight of
rice downy mildew and other diseases of corn; viruses,
Cercospora, rust and bacterial leaf spots of legumes; foliage
diseases and some insect pests of root crops; viruses of
chillies; and scab of wheat. Plant breeding is also the most
practical approach to increasing varietal tolerances to drougth,
low pH, aluminum and iron toxicities in annual crops, especially
in rice, corn and soybeans; enhancing the product quality of all
crops and improving adaptation, yield and agronomic characters
of plants to better fit various agro-production systems.
SARIF scientists recognize the wide range of variability
existing in most crop species and aim to exploit this diversity
through aggressive efforts to introduce, collect and evaluate
ready-made germplasm from both national and international sources
as the first step in genetic improvement. However, the incoming
flow of new germplasms sometimes approaches current capacities to
handle, evaluate and test them. Therefore, SARIP is not
justified yet in starting active recombination activities for
all commodities and growing conditions. The exceptions are in
upland and high-elevation rice, and in corn, for the unique and
stressful, low-pH, high-Al conditions of the latosols and red-
yellow podzolic soils (oxisols and ultisols). IRRI's
participation on upland rice improvement at SARIF is expected to
have a major impact on production of this crop in Indonesia, if
not globally.

Cultural Practices
SARIF's second line approach is through improved crop
husbandry, especially those aspects the small farmer can do
himself and which require modest or minimal purchased inputs.
Virtually all crops respond to timely sowings, appropriate
combinations of plant nutrients carefully applied, early weed
control and effective pest management. It is also becoming
obvious that management practices like sowing-regulated plant
nutrient applications and cropping associations or sequences, can
help reduce damage from some diseases and pests. Therefore,
cultural practices are under study, not only for their
contributions to the productivity of commodities, but also for
their effects on the intensity of infection of diseases like
blast, rust, viruses and bacterial agents and on the infestations
of insects like planthoppers, stink bugs, leaf feeders and stem
borers.







CROP IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES


Plant Breeding
Among the various crop improvement strategies, plant
breeding is the most effective and practical approach and
therefore is frequently the option of choice. It is the first
line of defense against major biological pests like blast
disease, brown planthopper, seedling fly and sheath blight of
rice downy mildew and other diseases of corn; viruses,
Cercospora, rust and bacterial leaf spots of legumes; foliage
diseases and some insect pests of root crops; viruses of
chillies; and scab of wheat. Plant breeding is also the most
practical approach to increasing varietal tolerances to drougth,
low pH, aluminum and iron toxicities in annual crops, especially
in rice, corn and soybeans; enhancing the product quality of all
crops and improving adaptation, yield and agronomic characters
of plants to better fit various agro-production systems.
SARIF scientists recognize the wide range of variability
existing in most crop species and aim to exploit this diversity
through aggressive efforts to introduce, collect and evaluate
ready-made germplasm from both national and international sources
as the first step in genetic improvement. However, the incoming
flow of new germplasms sometimes approaches current capacities to
handle, evaluate and test them. Therefore, SARIP is not
justified yet in starting active recombination activities for
all commodities and growing conditions. The exceptions are in
upland and high-elevation rice, and in corn, for the unique and
stressful, low-pH, high-Al conditions of the latosols and red-
yellow podzolic soils (oxisols and ultisols). IRRI's
participation on upland rice improvement at SARIF is expected to
have a major impact on production of this crop in Indonesia, if
not globally.

Cultural Practices
SARIF's second line approach is through improved crop
husbandry, especially those aspects the small farmer can do
himself and which require modest or minimal purchased inputs.
Virtually all crops respond to timely sowings, appropriate
combinations of plant nutrients carefully applied, early weed
control and effective pest management. It is also becoming
obvious that management practices like sowing-regulated plant
nutrient applications and cropping associations or sequences, can
help reduce damage from some diseases and pests. Therefore,
cultural practices are under study, not only for their
contributions to the productivity of commodities, but also for
their effects on the intensity of infection of diseases like
blast, rust, viruses and bacterial agents and on the infestations
of insects like planthoppers, stink bugs, leaf feeders and stem
borers.







CROP IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES


Plant Breeding
Among the various crop improvement strategies, plant
breeding is the most effective and practical approach and
therefore is frequently the option of choice. It is the first
line of defense against major biological pests like blast
disease, brown planthopper, seedling fly and sheath blight of
rice downy mildew and other diseases of corn; viruses,
Cercospora, rust and bacterial leaf spots of legumes; foliage
diseases and some insect pests of root crops; viruses of
chillies; and scab of wheat. Plant breeding is also the most
practical approach to increasing varietal tolerances to drougth,
low pH, aluminum and iron toxicities in annual crops, especially
in rice, corn and soybeans; enhancing the product quality of all
crops and improving adaptation, yield and agronomic characters
of plants to better fit various agro-production systems.
SARIF scientists recognize the wide range of variability
existing in most crop species and aim to exploit this diversity
through aggressive efforts to introduce, collect and evaluate
ready-made germplasm from both national and international sources
as the first step in genetic improvement. However, the incoming
flow of new germplasms sometimes approaches current capacities to
handle, evaluate and test them. Therefore, SARIP is not
justified yet in starting active recombination activities for
all commodities and growing conditions. The exceptions are in
upland and high-elevation rice, and in corn, for the unique and
stressful, low-pH, high-Al conditions of the latosols and red-
yellow podzolic soils (oxisols and ultisols). IRRI's
participation on upland rice improvement at SARIF is expected to
have a major impact on production of this crop in Indonesia, if
not globally.

Cultural Practices
SARIF's second line approach is through improved crop
husbandry, especially those aspects the small farmer can do
himself and which require modest or minimal purchased inputs.
Virtually all crops respond to timely sowings, appropriate
combinations of plant nutrients carefully applied, early weed
control and effective pest management. It is also becoming
obvious that management practices like sowing-regulated plant
nutrient applications and cropping associations or sequences, can
help reduce damage from some diseases and pests. Therefore,
cultural practices are under study, not only for their
contributions to the productivity of commodities, but also for
their effects on the intensity of infection of diseases like
blast, rust, viruses and bacterial agents and on the infestations
of insects like planthoppers, stink bugs, leaf feeders and stem
borers.





Basic soil and water problems, especially on red-yellow
podzol~c soils, latosols and newly irrigated low-pH soils, are of
immediate concern and are being addressed through combinations of
cultural practices and tolerant varieties. The rapid degradation
of newly cleared lands through erosion of the all too limited
enriched topsoil, combined with rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, is also of major concern, especially in transmigra-
tion areas. Preliminary investigations of these problems by
SARIF scientists are focused on careful tillage, contour
planting, terracing, interplanting with perennials and use of
organic mulches to reduce runoff, increase retention of soil
fertility in the upper soil horizons, reduce evapotranspiration
and lower soil surface temperatures.


Integrated Pest Management

Pest management is currently under intensive study to better
understand the dynamics of the major pests and diseases, and to
learn how to reduce crop damage below economic levels.
Concurrently, the occurrences of diseases and insectpests are
being studied in various cropping situations and agronomic
experiments, to determine the conditions and factors involved
in attack. Other experiments focus on kinds, methods and timing
of pesticide intervention.


Agro-Economic Studies

In the field of agro-economics, several studies are underway
on defined area systems like the maize growers near Bukittinggi,
the "established" paddy rice producers near Solok, the recently
settled transmigration farmers in Sitiung and the older and
"mature" transmigration settlers in Lampung Some preliminary
results of these studies are discussed briefly in Chapter 3.
SARIF also participates in PATANAS, which is now underway in West
Sumatra.


Post-Harvest Handling

Post-harvest problems constitute another field of longer
term interest to SARIF, both in connection with the processing
and storing of rice and other grains, and in the handling of more
perishable products like roots, fruits and vegetables. Current
research is limited to studies of rice-harvesting conditions and
their effects on grain quality and viability. These investiga-
tions will be greatly expanded as staff are trained and equipment
and facilities become available.





Basic soil and water problems, especially on red-yellow
podzol~c soils, latosols and newly irrigated low-pH soils, are of
immediate concern and are being addressed through combinations of
cultural practices and tolerant varieties. The rapid degradation
of newly cleared lands through erosion of the all too limited
enriched topsoil, combined with rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, is also of major concern, especially in transmigra-
tion areas. Preliminary investigations of these problems by
SARIF scientists are focused on careful tillage, contour
planting, terracing, interplanting with perennials and use of
organic mulches to reduce runoff, increase retention of soil
fertility in the upper soil horizons, reduce evapotranspiration
and lower soil surface temperatures.


Integrated Pest Management

Pest management is currently under intensive study to better
understand the dynamics of the major pests and diseases, and to
learn how to reduce crop damage below economic levels.
Concurrently, the occurrences of diseases and insectpests are
being studied in various cropping situations and agronomic
experiments, to determine the conditions and factors involved
in attack. Other experiments focus on kinds, methods and timing
of pesticide intervention.


Agro-Economic Studies

In the field of agro-economics, several studies are underway
on defined area systems like the maize growers near Bukittinggi,
the "established" paddy rice producers near Solok, the recently
settled transmigration farmers in Sitiung and the older and
"mature" transmigration settlers in Lampung Some preliminary
results of these studies are discussed briefly in Chapter 3.
SARIF also participates in PATANAS, which is now underway in West
Sumatra.


Post-Harvest Handling

Post-harvest problems constitute another field of longer
term interest to SARIF, both in connection with the processing
and storing of rice and other grains, and in the handling of more
perishable products like roots, fruits and vegetables. Current
research is limited to studies of rice-harvesting conditions and
their effects on grain quality and viability. These investiga-
tions will be greatly expanded as staff are trained and equipment
and facilities become available.





Basic soil and water problems, especially on red-yellow
podzol~c soils, latosols and newly irrigated low-pH soils, are of
immediate concern and are being addressed through combinations of
cultural practices and tolerant varieties. The rapid degradation
of newly cleared lands through erosion of the all too limited
enriched topsoil, combined with rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, is also of major concern, especially in transmigra-
tion areas. Preliminary investigations of these problems by
SARIF scientists are focused on careful tillage, contour
planting, terracing, interplanting with perennials and use of
organic mulches to reduce runoff, increase retention of soil
fertility in the upper soil horizons, reduce evapotranspiration
and lower soil surface temperatures.


Integrated Pest Management

Pest management is currently under intensive study to better
understand the dynamics of the major pests and diseases, and to
learn how to reduce crop damage below economic levels.
Concurrently, the occurrences of diseases and insectpests are
being studied in various cropping situations and agronomic
experiments, to determine the conditions and factors involved
in attack. Other experiments focus on kinds, methods and timing
of pesticide intervention.


Agro-Economic Studies

In the field of agro-economics, several studies are underway
on defined area systems like the maize growers near Bukittinggi,
the "established" paddy rice producers near Solok, the recently
settled transmigration farmers in Sitiung and the older and
"mature" transmigration settlers in Lampung Some preliminary
results of these studies are discussed briefly in Chapter 3.
SARIF also participates in PATANAS, which is now underway in West
Sumatra.


Post-Harvest Handling

Post-harvest problems constitute another field of longer
term interest to SARIF, both in connection with the processing
and storing of rice and other grains, and in the handling of more
perishable products like roots, fruits and vegetables. Current
research is limited to studies of rice-harvesting conditions and
their effects on grain quality and viability. These investiga-
tions will be greatly expanded as staff are trained and equipment
and facilities become available.






FUTURE RESEARCH


The problems of diverse agricultural systems in the-
tropics, especially in the low humid tropics, are virtually
unlimited and SARIF has hardly begun to tackle all of them.
While current lines of research must accelerate, certain areas of
potentially great importance should be included in both the
immediate and longer term programs. These concern the urgent
need-to protect the resource bases prevent soil degradation and
make more effective use of inputs, especially purchased
fertilizers and pesticides. These may be broadly described as
follows

1. Limeatone. Much of Sumatra consists of low-pH soils
withall attendant problems. of aluminum, iron and
manganese toxicities, and low nutrient availability.
However, the island has rich reserves (virtually
mountains) of limestone, including dolomitic limestone,
readily available for use. The application of lime
could greatly increase production efficiency especially
in combination with other plant nutrients.

2. Eerennial ~LQp.. Perennials like rubber, oil and
coconut palms, coffee, cloves, pepper and several
fruits are superbly adapted to the low humid tropics,
including the red-yellow podzolic upland soils.
Moreover, perennials greatly aid in stabilizing the
soil and the production system. By comparison, many
annuals are fragile and difficult to grow under these
circumstances. Therefore, more research is needed on
cropping systems combining both annual and perennial
species.

3. Minimal tilage., Band tillage, inter-row cultivation
and weed control are mean and onerous tasks which
greatly limit farmer productivities. Moreover, clean
cultivation frequently exacerbates soil degradation in
humid climates.Therefore,much greateremphasis needs
to be given to minimal tillage systems utilizing bot
general and selective herbicides like paraquat,
glyphosate (Roundup), atrazine and others, both i
primary tillage and as weed control agents. Minimal
tillage systems should also include beneficial, and
compatible .cover crops.

4. iear Q2,. There are many possibilities for
compatible, nutrient-mobilizing cover crops, especially
several species of both woody and herbaceous perennial
legumes. Many of these can be grown as barrier strips
and utilized both for green manure and forage. Other
species of legumes may be intercropped with annuals
and perennials to help capture plant nutrients from
the air (N) and deeper soil layers (P and K), in
addition to the benefits of providing continuous cover


NEEDS





5. CrnELZanimanlmlnal acl a satasma. There are vast
potentials for increasing domestic animal and fresh
water fish as well as crops in upland humid areas.
Ruminants would be particularly advantageous in view of
the great abundance of unused vegetation and crop
residues being produced. Moreover, there are rapidly
developing needs for draft animals to increase
production efficiencies. There also exists
considerable scope for producing fresh water fish in
farm ponds as a final "trap" for runoff nutrients and
animal wastes. However, the addition of animals and
fish will both alter and increase the dimensions of
cropping practices and systems.

It may not be possible to initiate research in all of these
new areas until the end of Pelita IV or in Pelita V. However,
some aspects like cover cropping, green manures and minimal
tillage could be started immediately, since current tillage
systems are excessively laborious and inefficient, and hazardous
to the resource base. Moreover, any reduction in the present
fertilizer subsidy would necessitate the adoption of more
efficient production systems than the present heavy reliance
on cheap plant nutrients. Therefore, studies are being initiated
on a broad range of legume cover crops and on more efficient
methods of doing primary tillage, mainly through the use of
appropriate herbicides and "mulching" with both organic residues
and living plants.

Future Eliaa. The future work plans of the four research
programs include both ongoing activities and new projects
proposed for phasing-in by the end of this decade or in the
early 1990's (Pelita V). These plans and proposals are further
described in Chapters 5 to 8.




S5. .=LJC L. IJID I C IRO I=L I I. S/lI= l"dl1 I I IMIG
SYSTEM IS
The primary objectives of the Upland Cropping/Farming
'; ems*Programs (UCSP and FSP) are "to develop alternative crop
technologies for the management of the soil, water and other
natural resources, allowing farmers to enjoy a reasonable living
while observing good principles of resource conservation and
environmental harmony in the humid upland areas'. The primary
crops will be upland rice and palawija crops and the major focus
will be on red-yellow podzolic soils with both level and rolling
topography, and on rainfed bunded lands.

The UCSP will be concerned both with long-established
agriculture and the cultivation of newly cleared lands. The
latter are often more fragile and pose formidable challenges
because of difficult soil problems combined with high rainfall
and heavy pest pressures. Compounding these problems are often
lack of social and service infrastructure and long distances -to
markets in these "frontier" areas. Since the newly opened lands
are easily and irreparably damaged by improper clearing
operations, the UCSP must also study better methods of land
clearing and development as Well as efficient methods of
rehabilitating acutely degraded areas (8). Some work has been
done on sustaining production in fragile environments, but mostly
with high input levels (11, 14), some authors, however, suggest
lower inputs systems (3, 15, 26).

The Upland Cropping/Farming Systems programs will function
both in a direct exploratory mode, as well as in the capacity of
the "ultimate verifier" of SARIF's technology. It will also
provide the cover/umbrella for resource base information and
recordings, e.g. meteorology, soil classification, agro-economics
and other social science programs, and for related non-food crop
science disciplines like perennial trees, animal husbandry and
aquaculture. The UCS program will be responsible for problem
identification, program targeting, staff orientation, and for
fostering linkages with other institutions.



C AARACTERI Z I G TIIE RESOURCE BASE

According to Barwood, 1980, (17) the.first step in farming
systems research is the-identification of specific agro-
production complexes. le suggested a hierarchy of classification
consisting of climate, land form, soil type and socio-economics
groupings. lie also proposed sixteen on-farm research sites
clustered around the sub-institutes of which half the sites
would be located in the piedmont and central peneplains to
reflect SARIF's priorities. These priorities for improvement of
naming systems are in descending orderof importance t




S5. .=LJC L. IJID I C IRO I=L I I. S/lI= l"dl1 I I IMIG
SYSTEM IS
The primary objectives of the Upland Cropping/Farming
'; ems*Programs (UCSP and FSP) are "to develop alternative crop
technologies for the management of the soil, water and other
natural resources, allowing farmers to enjoy a reasonable living
while observing good principles of resource conservation and
environmental harmony in the humid upland areas'. The primary
crops will be upland rice and palawija crops and the major focus
will be on red-yellow podzolic soils with both level and rolling
topography, and on rainfed bunded lands.

The UCSP will be concerned both with long-established
agriculture and the cultivation of newly cleared lands. The
latter are often more fragile and pose formidable challenges
because of difficult soil problems combined with high rainfall
and heavy pest pressures. Compounding these problems are often
lack of social and service infrastructure and long distances -to
markets in these "frontier" areas. Since the newly opened lands
are easily and irreparably damaged by improper clearing
operations, the UCSP must also study better methods of land
clearing and development as Well as efficient methods of
rehabilitating acutely degraded areas (8). Some work has been
done on sustaining production in fragile environments, but mostly
with high input levels (11, 14), some authors, however, suggest
lower inputs systems (3, 15, 26).

The Upland Cropping/Farming Systems programs will function
both in a direct exploratory mode, as well as in the capacity of
the "ultimate verifier" of SARIF's technology. It will also
provide the cover/umbrella for resource base information and
recordings, e.g. meteorology, soil classification, agro-economics
and other social science programs, and for related non-food crop
science disciplines like perennial trees, animal husbandry and
aquaculture. The UCS program will be responsible for problem
identification, program targeting, staff orientation, and for
fostering linkages with other institutions.



C AARACTERI Z I G TIIE RESOURCE BASE

According to Barwood, 1980, (17) the.first step in farming
systems research is the-identification of specific agro-
production complexes. le suggested a hierarchy of classification
consisting of climate, land form, soil type and socio-economics
groupings. lie also proposed sixteen on-farm research sites
clustered around the sub-institutes of which half the sites
would be located in the piedmont and central peneplains to
reflect SARIF's priorities. These priorities for improvement of
naming systems are in descending orderof importance t




1. Dryland farming systems :


a. Upland rice
b. Other upland food crops

2. High-elevation rice and upland cropping systems (above
500m)

3. Lowland rice-based systems (irrigated and bunded
rainfed paddies)

4. Deep water and tidal swamp systems.

Of these, SARIP has a clear mandate for upland and high-
elevation systems (items 1 and 2), while SURIF (Sukamandi, West
Java) is responsible for lowland rice systems and BARIF
(Banjarmasin, Kalimantan) has the national mandate for tidal
swamp systems.

Environmental Parameters

The environmental parameters relevant to farming systems
include both physical and socio-economic conditions. There are
four such macro-determinants and several "micro-determinants"
affecting farmers' decisions in specific situations and areas.
The macro-determinants include:

1. Rainfall Amount and dmratio-n. Oldeman (10) classifies
rainfall according to a system based on the number of months
above 200 mm (wet) and below 100 mm rainfall (dry). Upland rice
normally requires 2 to 3 months above 200 mm rainfall, while
sorghum and soybean can survive moisture levels below 100
mm/month if moisture is well distributed. Of course, other
factors like rainfall intensity, temperature, wind, slope and
soil permeability directly affect the amount of water available
to the crop.

2. Land form or topooraphy. This macro-determinant includes
slope, elevation, soil permeability and rainfall. The major land
forms, e.g. as defined in Sumatra by Scholz (12, 22) and defined
by Verstappen, include :(i) western coastal plain, (ii)
intermountain valleys, (iii) B. Barisan, (iv) piedmont, (v)
peneplain, (vi) transition flooding zone, (vii) tidal swamps, and
(viii) North coastal area.

3. SDIl tves. The major soil types must be in conjunction
with land forms and are more important in management than as
a determinant of crops and systems. Virtually any soil that can
be levelled and made impermeable can grow paddy rice, whereas
permeable upland soils can often be modified by organic matter
incorporation and irrigation to grow most crops.

4. Socio-economic factors. Such factors as population
density, labor availability, markets and infrastructure have






...jor effects on farming systems and practices. Social or ethnic
groupings PAr asa (e.g. Minangkabau, Batak, Javanese) can also
influence the system, but often are secondary in importance to
other socio-economic factors.
These factors can be used to define major agro-production
complexes, with some overlapping of zones. Within these zones,
micro-determinants like field-to-field variations in topography,
coil type, farm size, distance to the market and other factors
can be readily adjusted at the local level and by the farmers
themselves.


AGRO-ECONOMIC STUDIES

Agricultural economics (attached to the UCS/FS Program has
several important goals including: (1) identifying important
constraints in current farming technologies to overcome these
constraints (25). Achieving these objectives will require close
collaboration with the Institute's biological researchers,
especially those in agronomy, pathology, post-harvest technology
and cropping systems.
Several related areas of research will be vital to
agricultural economics. These may be defined in three broad
categories:

1. nana ganthriing and maannamnnt. The Institute's
economists have had some experience in gathering data through
field surveys, but need to improve the use and storage of the
data. Key indicators by province should be available "on line"
with a computer including major commodity price series,
provincial inflows and outflows of commodities, major crop
production statistics and some.population estimates.

2. Cropping/arming systems research. The Institute's
economists will be directly involved in field testing of
technologies with their biological scientists colleagues. This
can follow procedures for setting up farmer-level experiments and
for testing and evaluating systems results developed at IRRI.
This area would probably require the near full-time of two
researchers and would be the agricultural economists' major
contribution to SARIF's programs.
3. Topical research project. Farmer's problems are quite
specific in nature and require specific technical solutions.
Therefore, economists must work closely with biologists to
formulate field questions for farmers and for evaluating the
results. In this way, economists can help identify and
prioritize major problem areas.







The course of activities described above should produce
information on the farm profitability of technology and also
maintain information about important trends that affect the
longer term evaluation of technologies. The availability of a
micro-computer with appropriate software will make this job
easier as it both facilitates the storage and retrieval of data,
as well as aiding the analytical process.



BIOL GICAL FIELD RESEARCH


Short-Term Activities

Cropping systems field research during the next few years
(the short run) will continue and refine current experimentation
on cropping practices. This includes a multidisciplinary
approach to the following problem areas:

1. ~Cr ing naanfialianLaagfuennc There is some
information on an optimal system of annual cropping for seasonal
rainfall patterns. This involves a formula for the association
of upland rice, corn, cassava and legumes. However, there is a
need for continued fine-tuning and modification for varying
conditions and farmer's needs, and for modifications enabling
the inclusion of new improved varieties and new crop species
including vegetables (1,19, 26).

2. ant nutrition. The optimal use of fertilizer and lime
for the range of growing conditions, soils, seasons, crops and
their uses is a major and continuing activity. The increasing
flow of new, higher-yielding varieties will also justify higher
inputs. Further development will occur as lime deposits are
developed and made available for agriculture. Some
investigations have already been carried out in similar
environments (11, 14, 15).
3. RegenerativE croRping. Low-input cropping practices
involving the use of legumes as green manures, alley cropping and
"living mulches" for capturing atmospheric nitrogen and recycling
other nutrients from the deeper soil layers will be greatly
expanded during the next few years. Other aspects will include
use of mulches and animal and industrial wastes.
4. Efficient JtilJ ag The high cost of labor, limitations
on cultivated area/man-year, problem soils, difficult weed
problems (e.g. alang alang) and erosion are cogent reasons for
intensifying work on more efficient tillage practices. These will
certainly involve minimal tillage, terracing, mulching, use of
herbicides and appropriate mechanization. The stress will be on
sustaining (or better, increasing) productivity, increasing labor
efficiency and reducing costs.







The course of activities described above should produce
information on the farm profitability of technology and also
maintain information about important trends that affect the
longer term evaluation of technologies. The availability of a
micro-computer with appropriate software will make this job
easier as it both facilitates the storage and retrieval of data,
as well as aiding the analytical process.



BIOL GICAL FIELD RESEARCH


Short-Term Activities

Cropping systems field research during the next few years
(the short run) will continue and refine current experimentation
on cropping practices. This includes a multidisciplinary
approach to the following problem areas:

1. ~Cr ing naanfialianLaagfuennc There is some
information on an optimal system of annual cropping for seasonal
rainfall patterns. This involves a formula for the association
of upland rice, corn, cassava and legumes. However, there is a
need for continued fine-tuning and modification for varying
conditions and farmer's needs, and for modifications enabling
the inclusion of new improved varieties and new crop species
including vegetables (1,19, 26).

2. ant nutrition. The optimal use of fertilizer and lime
for the range of growing conditions, soils, seasons, crops and
their uses is a major and continuing activity. The increasing
flow of new, higher-yielding varieties will also justify higher
inputs. Further development will occur as lime deposits are
developed and made available for agriculture. Some
investigations have already been carried out in similar
environments (11, 14, 15).
3. RegenerativE croRping. Low-input cropping practices
involving the use of legumes as green manures, alley cropping and
"living mulches" for capturing atmospheric nitrogen and recycling
other nutrients from the deeper soil layers will be greatly
expanded during the next few years. Other aspects will include
use of mulches and animal and industrial wastes.
4. Efficient JtilJ ag The high cost of labor, limitations
on cultivated area/man-year, problem soils, difficult weed
problems (e.g. alang alang) and erosion are cogent reasons for
intensifying work on more efficient tillage practices. These will
certainly involve minimal tillage, terracing, mulching, use of
herbicides and appropriate mechanization. The stress will be on
sustaining (or better, increasing) productivity, increasing labor
efficiency and reducing costs.






5. Est management. Cropping systems must be vitally
S;.:.od with managing pests and diseases at economical levels
nand without adversely affecting either the environment or people
and animals in the system. Major emphasis will 5e given to the
use of cultural practices combined with resistant or tolerant
varieties. The use of biological agents and less toxic
pesticides will also be stressed.
Considerable progress has been made on management of annual
crops in Indonesia as shown in Figure 5-1. These schemes
illustrate widely utilized systems for irrigated rice,
unirrigated/moderate slopes (less than 8%), and unirrigated/
steeper slopes (above 8%). However, considerably more work is
needed on integration of annuals with perennials, livestock and
fish culture for a range of conditions.

-'ng~er Range Objectives

Cropping systems research must understand and consider the
total needs of the subsistence farmer and his family. These
include food, feedstuffs, structural materials, firewood,
medicines and cash sales. The interrelationships of these needs
are shown in Figure 5-2. The commodities grown are annuals,
perennials (forages, fruits, and trees), vegetables and specialty
crops; animal production including aquaculture must also be
integrated into the farming system. Sometimes, a single farm in
the tropics may involve 40 to 60 plant species and up to a dozen
animals including fish. Perennials (trees) are particularly
Important in the more humid tropics as illustrated in Figure
5-3. The ultimate objective i's to enable the farm to provide
riniium income equivalent to U.S.$2,500 per family per year.
Three new projects are proposed to be added to the UCSP by
the end of Repelita-IV or by the early 1990's thereby expanding
theme activities to a fully fledged Farming Systems Program
(PSP). They include t 1) .perennials, 2) integrated plant/animal
systems, and 3) aquaculture:
1. Perennials. Most upland farming systems in Indonesia
include both annuals and perennials; these are often grown in
clone association. Among the latter are rubber, coconut, coffee,
loves and pepper as cash crops; fruits, especially jackfruit,
-.paya, mango, and pineapple are grown primarily for
subsistence: and trees like glyrcidia. Sesbania, Leucaena and
-7lia species have many uses for nutrient recycling, soil
stabilization, fuelwood, lumber and sometimes for food. A
typical small farm system involving coconuts is illustrated in
Figuer 5-4. However, there is still very little information at
present on the role of these perennials in the farming system on
StL-iim systems for their intercropping. This area of research
-ill receive increasing attention by SARIF during both Pelitas IV
n.d V.








Figure 5-1.


Cropping systems schemes for three different
in Indonesia (after Simmons: 13).


environments


Oct. Jton Apr. JAA

L hiked I I
I I
Sirigtgoon (

SI I
I I
I I I


I ( INW
SI I New




1 Unkqoled. Modwerte Sop
I I
I I I




I Iodlllol

Mix Coasoo Retoyed


1-
I- i .
SMolze (RI) Ng
lcs (Ron..) Peonut Coe

.Couova (Reloved nws)j


A UnlkTgoled.SteocxrSopes


a Tfroced. wllh ConolCr Legunt.
Mixed Cropping As In 2
b. Tree Croos for Food & Caos
C. Fodder ar Slock Poullry & Smll
Anlmoal Ihere & nImcoront: Also
Wort Buioia 7 Doiry Coitne DevewloI enl..


S43


I _










Figure 5-2.


An Agricultural System (after Simmons: 13).







Figure 5-3. The Role of Trees in-Farming Systems. (nfter Simmons: 13).


I I
1 I










:I Fafe FnAn leiI
.beICr lr h Wow V" Ol


tI e
I I
I -o--U* U-
















Figure 5-4. Small Farmer Coconut-Based Systems (after Simmons: 13).





r -... .. ... .... .. -, ..... -





Este Smll Otew Enleprise
Sector Formers -- e.g. FoowC.nw..
S Rlce PolcheL Smnol
S. esicciL Rihng.



Coe Food DrkkFueaL
ol&oct Woon
By-Productl
--- ~Hondlcroft Coconuts Old. Ton,
Cash Weedy, Unoroduce.
Running Ou: Wlde
SLolVorvionr I
CCoh-Subsistence

SExisting Cconut M'n:n
951% o 9.6 Mho In SE
I Anaa eSmol-
SFoner For Lorger
Thon Estote Sector.
'l ro I ^ -- I I ---ll- -- -- lll






2. Int iaatad RIAnZtaninml Aatimfs. Livestock is a
component of most small farms in Indonesia, but there is vast
scope for increasing production at all levels : beef/dairy, small
ruminants and poultry. Not only is there a rising demand for
animal food products, but there is also a need for draft animals,
manure and by-products (e.g. skins, wool...). Moreover, the
presence of livestock in the farming enterprise adds a major
dimension to the cropping system. It makes use of surplus
foodstuff and allows the inclusion of soil-conserving, nutrient-
recycling forage crops in the rotation. Total productivity is
enhanced, and often with reduced inputs. Research on
crops/livestock systems could be started with experiments on
tropical forages during Pelita IV, but more complex studies are
not likely to develop until the early 1990's. In the outer
islands there is nearly unlimited potential for both large and
small ruminants and for poultry (2, 3,.22).

3. Aquaculture. Fresh water fish and crustaceans form the
third component of the crop/livestock complex. Many of the same
arguments for the inclusion of livestock in the system also apply
to aquaculture if the farm has surplus water and a place to store
it. Strategically placed farm ponds with fish provide an
excellent "sink" for utilizing runoff plant nutrients, animal
wastes and even surplus food and feedstuffs as shown in Figure
5-5. (9). Under favorable circumstances, some studies on
aquaculture may be included in the Farming System Program in
Pelita IV, but chances for initiating meaningful research will be
much better in Pelita V.

The scope of work and activities envisaged for the
Institute's Farming Systems Program would be grossly excessive if
undertaken simultaneously. However, the FSP is the most logical
"cover" for all of them. If these proposals are then recognized
as valid and approved, the ultimate organization including
establishing new programs or subprograms can be determined later.
A much more difficult problem will be to develop the mechanism
for collaboration and integration with more distant scientific
field like animal science and aquaculture. Perhaps the best
starting point would be tropical forage crops in which both plant
and animal sciences have a common interest.

A final consideration is how FSP research is directed: from
the researcher to the farmer (referred to as "upstream") or farm
level studies and feedback at each step in the process
("downstream"). The latter approach, as depicted in Figure 5-6,
is highly recommended by contemporary Farming Systems specialists
to assure relevance of. the research and a high degree of
acceptance by the farmer.










rIgPUre 5-5.


Nutrient flux in an integrated aquaculture system
(Pullin, R. S. V. and Z. H. Shehadeh. 1980..
Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Farming
Systems. ICLARM Manila, Phillipines.)


Animal manure

Baceria Nutrients Undigested
dissolve fraction ealen
in water by fish


Eatln by
microbenthos Absorbed by Fish waste


Large Phytoplankton ---t-Zooplankton
S plants Insect larvae


Ealen by Silve crp Big hod corp


melobenlhos
end worms
E



Eaten by feeding
bottom fish
(e.gO common
arp, mud carp)


i


lten by
ass carp


I.


I ________ -----Re-enter


Fish wastes on the pond bottom


soll


or water nutrient
pathways


SA disprmm tloc pmcsnutlton of the breakaowa of annul musnan In fi~ ponds and tu aotrant pathways In the polycultnr
of Qde3 and sommonn ucrp


Dis pmmatl re ptseentatlon of a smallsUcae Intelp ted mfa( ing system employing rotation between two level plou o land. as
pirs.vlei In the central plin of Thailand.











Figure 5-6. Schematic framework -for farming systems research at the farm level:
Downstream farming systems research (Norman, D. W. and E. Gilbert.
1981. A General Overview of Farming Systems Research. pp. 18-34
in Shaner, et.al., READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVEIL-
OPMENT. Consortium for International Development. Tucson. Arizona.)
ur if**V CVT iU


ri ni


rt~nrllu oI.SLn
RESEARCH STAGES

1 Description or
diagnosis of present
farming system





2. Design of improved
systems


3. Testing of. improved
systems


4. Extension of improved
farm system


EXTERNAL
INSTITUTIONS


CURRENT EARNING
SYSTEM
(Hypothesis formulation)


I.


Fxperiment. Station Trn
S. -




I "


lals.

L,.


Trials at Farm Level -
S1 *
Farmers' Testing
I


SI




KI1OWLEDGE


*
I' I
I
------ *.

I


DEFIED F G SYSTEM
I I I I
4 II
MODIFIEDD FARJIING SYSTEM "-....... -.-,---J








Upland rice is grown on an estimated 1.5 million hectares
in Indonesia. Of this total, 0.45 million hectares or 42 percent
are in Sumatra, according to Shastry (23). About three quarters
of the upland rice area is under wet climate. An additional 12
million hectares is considered as potential land for cultivating
upland rice in Indonesia: mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, S.E.
Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Studies carried out by Scholz (12,22)
-d others suggest that much of the anticipated expansion of
upland rice will occur on secondary lands, in rainfed conditions.
Thene lands have generally been cleared rather recently and have
characteristics similar to the depleted, low-pl, red-yellow
podzolio soils.

While yields of wetland irrigated rice have increased
steadily during the last decade in Indonesia, the national
average for upland rice has remained around 1 ton/ha and the
yield has shown great variability from year to year. Blast
disease and drought are considered the main constraints to
,,proving the stability of production. Low yields can also be
attributed in part to the depleted fertility of the soil. Newly
opened lands frequently show drastic yield reduction in the
course of 3 to 4 years, often forcing farmers to abandon them.
However, technologies have been developed to sustain productivity
over long periods when upland rice is cultivated as part of a
cropping pattern (11, 14, 15). This proposed research effort
seems to be realistic as crop management technologies have
ilroady been developed at upland rice-based cropping pattern test
sites. Research is needed on an understanding of the mechanism
and environmental conditions that cause blast incidence.

This chapter, especially the sections on research, is based
in part on the discussions and recommendations of the joint
ZRRI/AARD Rice meetings held in January 1983 and March 1984.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
If it is assumed that upland rice would be largely confined
to the "secondary" rainfed lands, problems, goals and objectives
could be more easily defined. However, it is equally important
to consider the needs, capabilities and limitations of the
Indonesian farming community that will be involved in growing
upland rice. Based on the needs of. both the biological
environment and SARIF's clients (the Indonesian farmers), the
broad goal of an upland rice improvement program may be defined

"To generate and deliver economically viable,
environmentally sound and socially acceptable technologies
designed to increase and stabilize the production of upland
lice on secondary, rainfed lands of Indonesia."


46P U1I rL i~ k 3 RI C>








Upland rice is grown on an estimated 1.5 million hectares
in Indonesia. Of this total, 0.45 million hectares or 42 percent
are in Sumatra, according to Shastry (23). About three quarters
of the upland rice area is under wet climate. An additional 12
million hectares is considered as potential land for cultivating
upland rice in Indonesia: mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, S.E.
Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Studies carried out by Scholz (12,22)
-d others suggest that much of the anticipated expansion of
upland rice will occur on secondary lands, in rainfed conditions.
Thene lands have generally been cleared rather recently and have
characteristics similar to the depleted, low-pl, red-yellow
podzolio soils.

While yields of wetland irrigated rice have increased
steadily during the last decade in Indonesia, the national
average for upland rice has remained around 1 ton/ha and the
yield has shown great variability from year to year. Blast
disease and drought are considered the main constraints to
,,proving the stability of production. Low yields can also be
attributed in part to the depleted fertility of the soil. Newly
opened lands frequently show drastic yield reduction in the
course of 3 to 4 years, often forcing farmers to abandon them.
However, technologies have been developed to sustain productivity
over long periods when upland rice is cultivated as part of a
cropping pattern (11, 14, 15). This proposed research effort
seems to be realistic as crop management technologies have
ilroady been developed at upland rice-based cropping pattern test
sites. Research is needed on an understanding of the mechanism
and environmental conditions that cause blast incidence.

This chapter, especially the sections on research, is based
in part on the discussions and recommendations of the joint
ZRRI/AARD Rice meetings held in January 1983 and March 1984.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
If it is assumed that upland rice would be largely confined
to the "secondary" rainfed lands, problems, goals and objectives
could be more easily defined. However, it is equally important
to consider the needs, capabilities and limitations of the
Indonesian farming community that will be involved in growing
upland rice. Based on the needs of. both the biological
environment and SARIF's clients (the Indonesian farmers), the
broad goal of an upland rice improvement program may be defined

"To generate and deliver economically viable,
environmentally sound and socially acceptable technologies
designed to increase and stabilize the production of upland
lice on secondary, rainfed lands of Indonesia."


46P U1I rL i~ k 3 RI C>








Upland rice is grown on an estimated 1.5 million hectares
in Indonesia. Of this total, 0.45 million hectares or 42 percent
are in Sumatra, according to Shastry (23). About three quarters
of the upland rice area is under wet climate. An additional 12
million hectares is considered as potential land for cultivating
upland rice in Indonesia: mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, S.E.
Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Studies carried out by Scholz (12,22)
-d others suggest that much of the anticipated expansion of
upland rice will occur on secondary lands, in rainfed conditions.
Thene lands have generally been cleared rather recently and have
characteristics similar to the depleted, low-pl, red-yellow
podzolio soils.

While yields of wetland irrigated rice have increased
steadily during the last decade in Indonesia, the national
average for upland rice has remained around 1 ton/ha and the
yield has shown great variability from year to year. Blast
disease and drought are considered the main constraints to
,,proving the stability of production. Low yields can also be
attributed in part to the depleted fertility of the soil. Newly
opened lands frequently show drastic yield reduction in the
course of 3 to 4 years, often forcing farmers to abandon them.
However, technologies have been developed to sustain productivity
over long periods when upland rice is cultivated as part of a
cropping pattern (11, 14, 15). This proposed research effort
seems to be realistic as crop management technologies have
ilroady been developed at upland rice-based cropping pattern test
sites. Research is needed on an understanding of the mechanism
and environmental conditions that cause blast incidence.

This chapter, especially the sections on research, is based
in part on the discussions and recommendations of the joint
ZRRI/AARD Rice meetings held in January 1983 and March 1984.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
If it is assumed that upland rice would be largely confined
to the "secondary" rainfed lands, problems, goals and objectives
could be more easily defined. However, it is equally important
to consider the needs, capabilities and limitations of the
Indonesian farming community that will be involved in growing
upland rice. Based on the needs of. both the biological
environment and SARIF's clients (the Indonesian farmers), the
broad goal of an upland rice improvement program may be defined

"To generate and deliver economically viable,
environmentally sound and socially acceptable technologies
designed to increase and stabilize the production of upland
lice on secondary, rainfed lands of Indonesia."


46P U1I rL i~ k 3 RI C>






The overall objective of this research effort will be to
increase upland rice production in a way that is acceptable to
and will result in better income to farmers. Every effort will
be made to use existing experiences and research information to
improve ongoing production programs. New research will attempt
at quickly identifying constraints to production and developing
solutions within a relatively short (2-3 years) period of time.
A longer term research effort will be required to carry out the
major breeding effort to develop adapted upland rice varieties
that have acceptable blast resistance and appropriate
complementary management practices.

Problems of upland rice are complex and difficult to
resolve. .Therefore, the new technologies which are presently
generated will require at least five to ten years to perfect and
deliver. Their objectives shall take into account any changes in
socio-economic conditions, political/national developments,
farmer's capabilities and growing conditions likely to occur
over the next ten to twenty years. It may eventually be assumed
that transmigration programs will accelerate and upland rice
production will be confined mainly to secondary lands, with 1800
to 3000 mm annual rainfall, typified by the red-yellow podzolic
soils, and located between sea level and about 600 meters
elevation. It is also unlikely that economic conditions will
continue favoring massive inputs, particularly of imported
fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. In fact, there is a
global trend to reduce agricultural inputs, and this situation
is likely to be exacerbated as Indonesian export earnings decline
or are increasingly utilized for other priority purposes.

CONSTRAINTS

There are at least five major constraints to improving
yields of upland rice. These are broadly defined as follows:
1. Productive stability. Susceptibility to pests are the
major concern. They include blast and other leaf spots
(Cercospora and Helminthosporium); insects, especially seedling
fly, stink bug and brown planthopper -and physical or chemical
stresses like drought, elemental toxicities (Al, Fe, Mn) and low-
fertility soils.

2. Low-vielding ability. Many varieties of upland rice do
not respond to favorable growing conditions when available: they
tend to lodge, have low-tillering capacity and produce excessive
vegetative growth when fertility levels are high.

3. Agronomic characters. Often, the available upland rice
germplasm does not fit the season (too late or early), tends to
lodge, is susceptible to shattering, produces too few tillers of
uneven maturity and has inadequate seed dormancy; it also
germinates unevenly, grows slowly and does not compete well with
weeds.







4. 2tain guaIity. Most land races of upland rice in
Indonesia have acceptable, sometimes excellent, grain quality,
but other varieties are not always favored by consumers. The
cooking qualities, amylose content, milling outturn, grain
size/shape and other appearance factors are all important.

5. Socio-economic factors. Several socio-economic factors
influence Indonesian farmers on whether and how they will grow
upland rice. These include markets, economic returns, needs of
the farmer and his family and availability of inputs.

The growing of upland rice will probably never be as
productive nor predictable as irrigated rice, although some
countries report that upland rice is more economical. For
example, Brazil claims that production costs of upland rice are
only about 60 percent that of paddy rice. Nevertheless, upland
rice is subject to several important and complex problems among
which blast disease and soil/climatic factors are the most
difficult to resolve.

Several approaches to blast control are under investigation,
but the "gene rotation" concept provides a workable procedure at
the outset. Multiline varieties or varietal mixtures may also be
useful, but have not yet been fully explored. Pyramiding
resistant genes is an alternate strategy that has not yet proven
effective. Chemical controls are possible but seldom economic.

Soil problems including low water-holding capacity, low pH,
high Al and low availability of plant nutrients, especially N and
P, constitute the second-order priority (20). However, these
deterrents are amenable to improvement through both cultural
practices and breeding. The availability of extensive lime
deposits, especially in central Sumatra, and judicious use of
fertilizers offer good opportunities for improving soil
conditions. Moreover, reasonable levels of Al tolerance has been
identified in some germplasms and could probably be enhanced
genetically.

SHORT-TERM PROGRAM

Validating Existing Technology[

The initial phases of upland rice improvement will focus on
validating the available technology from all sources.
Concurrently, some crossing will be done to accelerate adaptation
to the more stressful conditions. However, the primary thrust at
this stage will be to move useful technology from the research
institutes to farmer's fields as quickly as possible, to identify
and remove production constraints that may be solved with
existing technology, and to develop the staff and facilities for
longer term breeding and production problems. These activities
will be carried out under conditions typical of the major upland
rice growing regions, but with special emphasis to the red-yellow
podzolic soils typical of the Sitiung transmigration area.







4. 2tain guaIity. Most land races of upland rice in
Indonesia have acceptable, sometimes excellent, grain quality,
but other varieties are not always favored by consumers. The
cooking qualities, amylose content, milling outturn, grain
size/shape and other appearance factors are all important.

5. Socio-economic factors. Several socio-economic factors
influence Indonesian farmers on whether and how they will grow
upland rice. These include markets, economic returns, needs of
the farmer and his family and availability of inputs.

The growing of upland rice will probably never be as
productive nor predictable as irrigated rice, although some
countries report that upland rice is more economical. For
example, Brazil claims that production costs of upland rice are
only about 60 percent that of paddy rice. Nevertheless, upland
rice is subject to several important and complex problems among
which blast disease and soil/climatic factors are the most
difficult to resolve.

Several approaches to blast control are under investigation,
but the "gene rotation" concept provides a workable procedure at
the outset. Multiline varieties or varietal mixtures may also be
useful, but have not yet been fully explored. Pyramiding
resistant genes is an alternate strategy that has not yet proven
effective. Chemical controls are possible but seldom economic.

Soil problems including low water-holding capacity, low pH,
high Al and low availability of plant nutrients, especially N and
P, constitute the second-order priority (20). However, these
deterrents are amenable to improvement through both cultural
practices and breeding. The availability of extensive lime
deposits, especially in central Sumatra, and judicious use of
fertilizers offer good opportunities for improving soil
conditions. Moreover, reasonable levels of Al tolerance has been
identified in some germplasms and could probably be enhanced
genetically.

SHORT-TERM PROGRAM

Validating Existing Technology[

The initial phases of upland rice improvement will focus on
validating the available technology from all sources.
Concurrently, some crossing will be done to accelerate adaptation
to the more stressful conditions. However, the primary thrust at
this stage will be to move useful technology from the research
institutes to farmer's fields as quickly as possible, to identify
and remove production constraints that may be solved with
existing technology, and to develop the staff and facilities for
longer term breeding and production problems. These activities
will be carried out under conditions typical of the major upland
rice growing regions, but with special emphasis to the red-yellow
podzolic soils typical of the Sitiung transmigration area.







Transferring Available Technology


Considerable research has already been started by SARIF's
Rice and Cropping Systems Programs. Cropping patterns, including
for upland rice, that are productive, acceptable to and more
economical for the farmers have been developed. Widespread
adoption is dependent upon the development of production programs
and their implementation through the agricultural services.
Because truly superior upland rice varieties resistant to blast
have not yet been developed for most conditions in Indonesia,
there has been little incentive to increase seed production and
develop appropriate production programs. However, when
considered within the context of year-round cropping patterns,
the available improved varieties and technologies are significant
and can contribute to a stable and profitable upland agriculture.

The sources of currently available technology include IRRI,
with which a special and close linkage will develop; it may also
include other international or regional centers like IITA and
WARDA in West Africa, CIAT in Colombia and leading national
programs or institutions in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Central
America, Brazil and France (IRAT). Representatives of SARIF have
started participating in international upland rice meetings and
conferences. In fact, Sukarami was the venue for a session of
the International Upland Rice Meeting in February 1985.


Removal of Constraints

The rapid identification and removal of constraints to
upland rice production, using available technologies and research
procedures, is the second pillar of the short-term program. This
activity will involve the participation of several disciplines
and programs including socio-economics. It is also proposed that
the SARIF program be closely linked with an international team
(preferably from IRRI) in a long-term project.

The existing cropping systems sites and major upland rice-
producing areas should be characterized through soil and climatic
classifications. Moreover, assessments of yield losses and
determination of economic thresholds for major pests and
diseases would be carried out at appropriate sites. Existing
technologies for chemical control of blast, fertilizer and lime
placement, soil and water conservation, and residue and green
manure management would be further evaluated on site for
agronomic and economic acceptability.

Plant breeding, although a long-term approach, may begin
immediately as it should be possible to improve performance of
both exotic and traditional upland land races through selection
within the available germplasm. Simultaneously, an aggressive
crossing program will be started to increase diversity and
develop advanced parental stocks for further genetic
manipulation. The principal source of parentals will be the
available breeding materials (already in the pipeline),







Transferring Available Technology


Considerable research has already been started by SARIF's
Rice and Cropping Systems Programs. Cropping patterns, including
for upland rice, that are productive, acceptable to and more
economical for the farmers have been developed. Widespread
adoption is dependent upon the development of production programs
and their implementation through the agricultural services.
Because truly superior upland rice varieties resistant to blast
have not yet been developed for most conditions in Indonesia,
there has been little incentive to increase seed production and
develop appropriate production programs. However, when
considered within the context of year-round cropping patterns,
the available improved varieties and technologies are significant
and can contribute to a stable and profitable upland agriculture.

The sources of currently available technology include IRRI,
with which a special and close linkage will develop; it may also
include other international or regional centers like IITA and
WARDA in West Africa, CIAT in Colombia and leading national
programs or institutions in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Central
America, Brazil and France (IRAT). Representatives of SARIF have
started participating in international upland rice meetings and
conferences. In fact, Sukarami was the venue for a session of
the International Upland Rice Meeting in February 1985.


Removal of Constraints

The rapid identification and removal of constraints to
upland rice production, using available technologies and research
procedures, is the second pillar of the short-term program. This
activity will involve the participation of several disciplines
and programs including socio-economics. It is also proposed that
the SARIF program be closely linked with an international team
(preferably from IRRI) in a long-term project.

The existing cropping systems sites and major upland rice-
producing areas should be characterized through soil and climatic
classifications. Moreover, assessments of yield losses and
determination of economic thresholds for major pests and
diseases would be carried out at appropriate sites. Existing
technologies for chemical control of blast, fertilizer and lime
placement, soil and water conservation, and residue and green
manure management would be further evaluated on site for
agronomic and economic acceptability.

Plant breeding, although a long-term approach, may begin
immediately as it should be possible to improve performance of
both exotic and traditional upland land races through selection
within the available germplasm. Simultaneously, an aggressive
crossing program will be started to increase diversity and
develop advanced parental stocks for further genetic
manipulation. The principal source of parentals will be the
available breeding materials (already in the pipeline),







indigenous land races, international nurseries (IURON and other
IRTP materials) and genetic stocks obtained directly from several
sources. This base will be greatly expanded as seed storage and
handling facilities are installed at SARIF stations.

The research effort would be mostly devoted to development
of research methodologies for blast research, laboratory and
field screening techniques and identification of genetic
materials for breeding purposes and crosses.

Blast. The importance of blast in upland rice is such that
immediate efforts are necessary to deal with the problem. The
available genetic stocks and all incoming materials must be
screened for blast reaction under a range of growing conditions
and sources of inoculum. Cultural practices like N management,
time of sowing, inter-cropping scheme, plant populations and
presence of wild hosts (weeds) will be studied for their effects
on blast incidence. Earlier maturing varieties and mixtures of
varieties will also be evaluated as possibilities for reducing
the spread and economic loss.

Another approach will be through chemical controls applied
both as seed treatments and variously timed foliar sprays.
Systemic fungicides which, when applied at the right stage of
development, have proven effective in controlling and/or reducing
the damage done by the blast organism have been developed. This
management practice, even though already proven to be effective,
does constitute an outlay of funds and/or inputs which many
transmigrant farmers may be reluctant to use unless a careful
economic analysis is made showing the benefits that will be
derived. There still will be the practical problem of quality
materials being made available at the right time, the right place
and at a reasonable cost.

LONG- RANGE PROGRAM

The long-range program should be implemented simultaneously
with the short-term activities,,but would probably not begin to
produce significant results before the end of Pelita IV. The
core of the long-range efforts would build on and refine the
primary activities described for the short-term program, with
somewhat different priorities; it may be expanded in scope.
These aspects are further elaborated in the sections that follow.


Blast Disease

Blast will likely remain a very serious threat in the
foreseeable fuEure and an integrated approach to keeping this
endemic disease under control seems to be the best technique.
Every effort must be made to identify the most resistant
varieties which will then be subjected to the best agronomic
management practices and economical fungicidal control techniques
to maximize their potential output. This integrated package of







indigenous land races, international nurseries (IURON and other
IRTP materials) and genetic stocks obtained directly from several
sources. This base will be greatly expanded as seed storage and
handling facilities are installed at SARIF stations.

The research effort would be mostly devoted to development
of research methodologies for blast research, laboratory and
field screening techniques and identification of genetic
materials for breeding purposes and crosses.

Blast. The importance of blast in upland rice is such that
immediate efforts are necessary to deal with the problem. The
available genetic stocks and all incoming materials must be
screened for blast reaction under a range of growing conditions
and sources of inoculum. Cultural practices like N management,
time of sowing, inter-cropping scheme, plant populations and
presence of wild hosts (weeds) will be studied for their effects
on blast incidence. Earlier maturing varieties and mixtures of
varieties will also be evaluated as possibilities for reducing
the spread and economic loss.

Another approach will be through chemical controls applied
both as seed treatments and variously timed foliar sprays.
Systemic fungicides which, when applied at the right stage of
development, have proven effective in controlling and/or reducing
the damage done by the blast organism have been developed. This
management practice, even though already proven to be effective,
does constitute an outlay of funds and/or inputs which many
transmigrant farmers may be reluctant to use unless a careful
economic analysis is made showing the benefits that will be
derived. There still will be the practical problem of quality
materials being made available at the right time, the right place
and at a reasonable cost.

LONG- RANGE PROGRAM

The long-range program should be implemented simultaneously
with the short-term activities,,but would probably not begin to
produce significant results before the end of Pelita IV. The
core of the long-range efforts would build on and refine the
primary activities described for the short-term program, with
somewhat different priorities; it may be expanded in scope.
These aspects are further elaborated in the sections that follow.


Blast Disease

Blast will likely remain a very serious threat in the
foreseeable fuEure and an integrated approach to keeping this
endemic disease under control seems to be the best technique.
Every effort must be made to identify the most resistant
varieties which will then be subjected to the best agronomic
management practices and economical fungicidal control techniques
to maximize their potential output. This integrated package of




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