• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Program overview
 Program evolution and current...
 Research program
 Project statements
 The budget
 Futute directions
 Appendix






Title: Background information for the Semi-Arid Tropics Program review, Niamey, Niger
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054346/00001
 Material Information
Title: Background information for the Semi-Arid Tropics Program review, Niamey, Niger
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Texas A&M University, Soil and Crop Sciences Department
Affiliation: Texas A&M University -- Soil and Crop Sciences Department
Publisher: Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Niger -- Niamey
Africa
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054346
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Program overview
        Page 3
        Original objectives and current focus
            Page 3a
        The setting
            Page 3a
            Page 4
            Page 5
    Program evolution and current organization
        Page 6
        Program evolution
            Page 6a
            The planning phase
                Page 6a
            The implementation phase
                Page 6a
            The operational phase
                Page 7
            Activites at the secondary sites
                Page 8
                Page 9
            Recent development
                Page 10
                Page 11
        Current organization
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
    Research program
        Page 15
        The original approach and its evolution
            Page 15a
            Page 16
        Research areas and project interlinkages
            Page 17
            Soil water and fertility management
                Page 17
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Baseline data studies
                Page 21
                Page 22
                Page 23
            Integrative studies: Land evaluation
                Page 24
                Page 25
    Project statements
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The budget
        Page 59
        Summary of total expenditures up to date
            Page 60
        Balance for FY4
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Report for FY5
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
        Budget for FY6
            Page 66
            Page 67a
            Page 67b
        Budgets by Project
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
    Futute directions
        Page 79
        Historical perspective
            Page 79a
        The goal of the SM-CRSP in semi arid Africa
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Appendix
        Page 83
        Page 83a
        Page 84
Full Text





Background Information
for the
Semi-Arid Tropics
Program Review
Niamey, Niger


Prepared by
Texas A&M University
July, 1986


TROPSOILS


h/l~c~;k'R"---e












INDEX


Page
PREFACE .................................................... 1

PROGRAM OVERVIEW

Original objectives and current focus ................. 3
The setting ........................................... 3

PROGRAM EVOLUTION AND CURRENT ORGANIZATION

Program evolution ......................................
The planning phase ............................... 6
The implementation phase ......................... 6
The operational phase ............................ 7
Activities at secondary sites .................... 8
Recent developments .............................. 10

Current organization .................................. 12

RESEARCH PROGRAM

The original approach and its evolution ............... 15

Research areas and project interlinkages ............. 17
Soil water and fertility management............... 17
Base line data studies ........................... 21
Integrative studies: land evaluation ............. 24

Project statements
A .2 . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . 28
A .4 . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
A .5 . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. . 3 1
A .6 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
A .8 .............................................. 34
A .1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8
B .1 .. .. .. .. . ... .. . . .. . 39
B .2 . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1
B .3 ... .......... .............. ...... ... ......... 42
B .4 . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4
B .5 .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 4 6
B .7 . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8
B .9 ...... ..... .. ..... ......... ... .. .. ............ 50
B .1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1
B .13 ............................................. 54
C.1 .......................... ............... .... 56













THE BUDGET

Summary of total expenditures up to date .............. 60
Balance for FY4 ....................................... 60
Report for FY5 ....................................... 63
Budget for FY6 ........................................ 66
Budgets by project .................................... 68

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Historical perspective ................................ 79
The goal of the SM-CRSP in semi arid Africa ........... 80

APPENDIX ................................................... 83












PREFACE


This report has been prepared as a working tool
for the External Evaluation Panel which will be reviewing
the TROPSOILS-SAT research program in Niger in July, 1986.
Its main objective is to collect and summarize into a
single document, basic material needed to provide a concise
reference for use in the evaluation of on-going and
completed research and for the general operation of the
program.

The report includes five chapters: "Program
Overview", "Program Evolution and Current Organization",
"Research Program", "The Budget" and "Future Directions". An
appendix is included listing all staff and collaborators.
General background information about Niger, the main
TROPSOILS-SAT research site, is also attached.

The first two chapters covering "Program Overview"
and "Program Evolution and Current Organization" describe
the setting and summarize the history of the SAT program
from its planning stages up through current status. Emphasis
is given to the description of the difficulties faced during
the start-up phase of the program in Africa, the evolution
of institutional linkages, and current constraints.

The chapter titled "Research Program" attempts to
fully describe TROPSOILS-SAT's research activities on-campus
and overseas. After a short description of the Program's
goal and its evolution through five years of planning and
operation, general areas of research are identified, and the
linkages with specific research projects are outlined.
Single "Project Statements" are presented for each research
project, according to guidelines provided by the Management
Entity. They have been edited with the information provided
by each Project Leader. As you will note, several research
activities, which have been described as single projects in
previous reports, have been consolidated into more
comprehensive, multiple-objective projects. This will
facilitate reporting, reviewing and budgeting. You will also
notice that achievements and relevance of research being
conducted at Lubbock is described in greater detail since
this site will not be visited by the EEP.

The chapter titled "The Budget" briefly covers the
fiscal status of the program, with a summary of expenditures
from its origin up to date. Fiscal years 4 and 5 are
treated more in detail: a significant difference between
expenditures and budget occurred during FY4; as a
consequence, significant modifications to the budget were
dictated for the current fiscal year (FY5). Individual
budgets for on-going or proposed research projects are
attached.
1












The chapter titled "Future Directions" presents a
summary of future research direction of the SAT program as
envisioned by the P.C. and our team of scientists.

This report has been prepared and edited by Ruben
Puentes, our Program Manager.


E. C. A. Runge, Head.
Soil & Crop Sc. Dept.










































2









PrograM Overview








1. PROGRAM OVERVIEW


1.1 Original objective and current focus.

TROPSOILS' goal is to develop and adapt' soil
management technology that will reduce constraints to plant
growth and to ensure that this technology is agronomically,
economically, and ecologically sound for developing
countries in the tropics. Within this framework, several
research components were originally identified and
considered in all agro-ecological zones. They were very
general in nature. They included: 1. Improving the land
resource data base, 2. Field research to develop and
evaluate long-term effects of soil and water management
practices, 3. Soil fertility evaluation, 4. Development
of technical soil classification systems, and 5. Improved
delivery systems including data banks and a documentation
center.

For the semi-arid tropic (SAT) program, the
original mandate was also very broad in scope. Specific
research components included: 1. Development of low-input
systems that maximize the use of available soil water, 2.
Erosion control, prevention, and reclamation, 3. Practices
to prevent or reduce detrimental effects of surface
capping, 4. Management of soils with low activity clays to
prevent secondary acidity, and 5. Supplemental irrigation,
when appropriate. After three years of field research, the
scope of the TROPSOILS SAT program has been significantly
narrowed due to a better understanding of what should be
its function within the network of national and
international research organizations in Africa and the
current budgetary constraints. This will be discussed
later in this report. The current focus mainly encompasses
applied research on soil--wa:er-fertility interactions in
order to develop, adapt and evaluate soil management
practices to increase food production for the semi-arid
tropics on a sustained basis. The rationale for the
evolution of the research objectives will be discussed in
depth in other chapters of this report; (2.1, Program
Evolution and 3., Research Program).

1.2 The setting.

Several alternatives were originally considered
for the establishment of research sites for the SAT
program. They included Bambey (Senegal), Ouagadougou
(Burkina Faso), Niamey (Niger), Samaru (Nigeria), Southern
Sudan, Morogoro (Tanzania), Lusaka (Zambia), Northeastern
Brazil, Maha Illupalamia (Sri Lanka) and India. West
Africa, and particularly the Sahel, was selected as the
priority zone and the final choice was reduced to Burkina
Faso and Niger. Finally, Niger became the primary research
site, with secondary activities in Mali and Northern
Cameroon. Representative agro-ecological conditions and








1. PROGRAM OVERVIEW


1.1 Original objective and current focus.

TROPSOILS' goal is to develop and adapt' soil
management technology that will reduce constraints to plant
growth and to ensure that this technology is agronomically,
economically, and ecologically sound for developing
countries in the tropics. Within this framework, several
research components were originally identified and
considered in all agro-ecological zones. They were very
general in nature. They included: 1. Improving the land
resource data base, 2. Field research to develop and
evaluate long-term effects of soil and water management
practices, 3. Soil fertility evaluation, 4. Development
of technical soil classification systems, and 5. Improved
delivery systems including data banks and a documentation
center.

For the semi-arid tropic (SAT) program, the
original mandate was also very broad in scope. Specific
research components included: 1. Development of low-input
systems that maximize the use of available soil water, 2.
Erosion control, prevention, and reclamation, 3. Practices
to prevent or reduce detrimental effects of surface
capping, 4. Management of soils with low activity clays to
prevent secondary acidity, and 5. Supplemental irrigation,
when appropriate. After three years of field research, the
scope of the TROPSOILS SAT program has been significantly
narrowed due to a better understanding of what should be
its function within the network of national and
international research organizations in Africa and the
current budgetary constraints. This will be discussed
later in this report. The current focus mainly encompasses
applied research on soil--wa:er-fertility interactions in
order to develop, adapt and evaluate soil management
practices to increase food production for the semi-arid
tropics on a sustained basis. The rationale for the
evolution of the research objectives will be discussed in
depth in other chapters of this report; (2.1, Program
Evolution and 3., Research Program).

1.2 The setting.

Several alternatives were originally considered
for the establishment of research sites for the SAT
program. They included Bambey (Senegal), Ouagadougou
(Burkina Faso), Niamey (Niger), Samaru (Nigeria), Southern
Sudan, Morogoro (Tanzania), Lusaka (Zambia), Northeastern
Brazil, Maha Illupalamia (Sri Lanka) and India. West
Africa, and particularly the Sahel, was selected as the
priority zone and the final choice was reduced to Burkina
Faso and Niger. Finally, Niger became the primary research
site, with secondary activities in Mali and Northern
Cameroon. Representative agro-ecological conditions and








political stability were important elements considered.

A. The Primary Research Site : Niger

Most of the TROPSOILS research in Niger lies
within the Sahel bioclimatic zone: an extensive semi-arid
belt immediately south of the Sahara Desert. The
population density of this part of Niger is about 20 to 25
persons per square kilometer and more than 90% of these
people are involved in subsistence agriculture. The
primary food crop is pearl millet (Pennlsetum Spp_.) which
is often intercropped with cowpeas. Other crops include
peanuts, sorghum, maize, rice, and manioc. Pastoral
grazing of sheep, goat, and cattle are another major
agricultural enterprise. The growing of crops is almost
entirely done by hand labor. The sandy soils are easily
tilled and animal or mechanical traction for agriculture is
rare.

The climate is characterized by a June to
September rainy season and a dry season throughout the
remainder of the year. Rainfall is irregular and normally
comes in the form of convective storms. As much as 100 mm
of rain may fall during a single rainfall event. There are
periods of strong, dry harmattann" winds which bear dust
from the Sahara during the dry season. Potential
evapotranspiration is approximately 2000 mm annually while
annual rainfall is only 300 to 600 mm with drastic
variability from year to year. Temperature is warm year
round and averages 29 C in Niamey, the capital of Niger.

Forests in the Sahel are diminishing due to
human, and/or grazing pressures. Current vegetation is
grasses and thorny bushes with scattered trees. In many
areas barren crusted soils are left where vegetative cover
has receded, increasing runoff and elevating soil and air
temperatures. The landscape is composed of laterite-capped
plateaus and ancient sand-filled valleys. There are many
problems associated with the soils on these landscapes.
Large areas of soil are high in sand and have low soil
water storage. Crops grown in these areas are subject to
sandblasting and burial during early stages of growth.
Soils with higher clay content form crusts immediately
after rains so that 80% or more of subsequent rainfall is
lost to runoff. The crusting also causes problems in crop
establishment.

Chemically, the soils are also deficient for
most crop production systems. They are acid, low in
available phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, and
organic matter. They are often high in free iron oxides
and exchangeable aluminum. Considerable microvariablility
exists, causing difficulty in interpretation of cropping
systems research results.










The climate is harsh and rainfall is erratic
and has decreased 30-40 % during the p t decade. Air
temperatures commonly exceed (O Cnd soil temperatures at
5 cm depth often exceed 50 C. With no inputs, yields of
local crop varieties exceed those of introduced varieties.
Local varieties have been selected by farmers over time
that can produce under the local soil conditions and harsh
climate of the area.

B. Secondary Research Sites:

1. Mali: The primary location of research in Mali
is at the Cinzana research station located about 100 miles
northeast of Bamako on the Niger River, just past Segou.
Mean annual rainfall is around 550 mm per year and the
landscape is vegetated by a savanna woodland. The station
is characterized by low relief with a toposequence of
several distinctly different soils. Soils at the lowest
point of the landscape are poorly drained and fine-textured
with some shrink-swell properties. Soils on the crests are
excessively-drained, coarse textured, and yellowish-red in
color. These latter soils are quite similar to the
sand-plain soils in Niger.

2. Cameroon: Northern Cameroon has extensive
areas of Vertisols which are clayey soils that express
considerable shrinking and swelling upon drying and
wetting. Such soils are rare in Niger but otherwise
extensive in the semi-arid tropics. The Maroua region
where TROPSOILS research has been initiated has annual
rainfall of around 800 mm which decreases northerly to less
than 500 mm on the southern shore of Lake Chad. Mean
annual temperature is approximately 28 C. The parent
material of the lowland soils (many of which are Vertisols)
is primarily lacustrine sediments deposited when the shore
of Lake Chad occurred much further to the south than it
does today. Sorghum, millet, peanuts, and cotton are the
major crops grown in the region.

3. Supporting domestic research: Supporting
domestic research is also conducted at the Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station, near Lubbock and at the
main campus of TAMU at College Station.

In summary, with research being conducted in
zones with total annual rainfall from 800 to 300 mm, with
soils varying from sandy Alfisols to Vertisols, the
TROPSOILS SAT program is covering most of the variation
in agroecological conditions of the semiarid tropics in
Africa.








PrograM Evolution
and
Current Organization








2. PROGRAM EVOLUTION AND CURRENT ORGANIZATION


2.1 Program evolution

A. Planning Phase:

The Planning Entity originally developed a
program which included: 1. a soil physicist; 2. a soil
fertility specialist, and 3. a ground cover agronomist.
Each of these three positions were to work equally between
the countries involved (originally, these countries were
Niger and Burkina Faso). Finally each position was to
operate under the ICRISAT umbrella with ICRISAT to serve as
the primary collaborating institution. The arrangement was
supported and agreed to by the USAID missions in Niamey and
Ouagadougou in 1980.

B. The Implementation Phase:

Two years elapsed from the time that the
Planning Entity proposed the arrangements outlined above
and the arrival of Texas A&M/ME representatives in West
Africa to initiate discussions on implementation of the
program. Much had changed in the interim.

Changes in key USAID/Niamey personnel and the
resignation of the ICRISAT West Africa coordinator made it
necessary to revise original plans. The initial response
from USAID/Ouagadougou was negative toward re-initiation of
discussions. Subsequent discussions with ICRISAT,
USAID/Niamey and AID/Washington authorities discouraged us
from using the original plan to work under the ICRISAT
umbrella. USAID/Niamey argued strongly that we should work
directly with INRAN (the National Agronomic Research
Institution). It was finally decided among all parties
involved that it would be best if TROPSOILS operated under
the AID bilateral agreement with the Government of Niger;
however, TROPSOILS would, at our insistence, develop
separate memorandums of agreement with ICRISAT and INRAN.
By early 1982 we had finally arrived at a focus on
soil-water research within the farming systems context at
e S (IRISAT Sahelian Center). Tre memorandum of
agreement with ICRISAT was signed in early 1983.
Discussions with INRAN focused on similar research needs,
that of soil and water. The memorandum of agreement with
INRAN was also signed in early 1983.

The TROPSOILS commitment to both INRAN and
ICRISAT for 1983 was to place a senior soil physicist in
Niger who would develop a research program shared equally
between both institutions. It was further understood that
discussions would continue during 1983 to determine the
type of position to be filled next.








2. PROGRAM EVOLUTION AND CURRENT ORGANIZATION


2.1 Program evolution

A. Planning Phase:

The Planning Entity originally developed a
program which included: 1. a soil physicist; 2. a soil
fertility specialist, and 3. a ground cover agronomist.
Each of these three positions were to work equally between
the countries involved (originally, these countries were
Niger and Burkina Faso). Finally each position was to
operate under the ICRISAT umbrella with ICRISAT to serve as
the primary collaborating institution. The arrangement was
supported and agreed to by the USAID missions in Niamey and
Ouagadougou in 1980.

B. The Implementation Phase:

Two years elapsed from the time that the
Planning Entity proposed the arrangements outlined above
and the arrival of Texas A&M/ME representatives in West
Africa to initiate discussions on implementation of the
program. Much had changed in the interim.

Changes in key USAID/Niamey personnel and the
resignation of the ICRISAT West Africa coordinator made it
necessary to revise original plans. The initial response
from USAID/Ouagadougou was negative toward re-initiation of
discussions. Subsequent discussions with ICRISAT,
USAID/Niamey and AID/Washington authorities discouraged us
from using the original plan to work under the ICRISAT
umbrella. USAID/Niamey argued strongly that we should work
directly with INRAN (the National Agronomic Research
Institution). It was finally decided among all parties
involved that it would be best if TROPSOILS operated under
the AID bilateral agreement with the Government of Niger;
however, TROPSOILS would, at our insistence, develop
separate memorandums of agreement with ICRISAT and INRAN.
By early 1982 we had finally arrived at a focus on
soil-water research within the farming systems context at
e S (IRISAT Sahelian Center). Tre memorandum of
agreement with ICRISAT was signed in early 1983.
Discussions with INRAN focused on similar research needs,
that of soil and water. The memorandum of agreement with
INRAN was also signed in early 1983.

The TROPSOILS commitment to both INRAN and
ICRISAT for 1983 was to place a senior soil physicist in
Niger who would develop a research program shared equally
between both institutions. It was further understood that
discussions would continue during 1983 to determine the
type of position to be filled next.








2. PROGRAM EVOLUTION AND CURRENT ORGANIZATION


2.1 Program evolution

A. Planning Phase:

The Planning Entity originally developed a
program which included: 1. a soil physicist; 2. a soil
fertility specialist, and 3. a ground cover agronomist.
Each of these three positions were to work equally between
the countries involved (originally, these countries were
Niger and Burkina Faso). Finally each position was to
operate under the ICRISAT umbrella with ICRISAT to serve as
the primary collaborating institution. The arrangement was
supported and agreed to by the USAID missions in Niamey and
Ouagadougou in 1980.

B. The Implementation Phase:

Two years elapsed from the time that the
Planning Entity proposed the arrangements outlined above
and the arrival of Texas A&M/ME representatives in West
Africa to initiate discussions on implementation of the
program. Much had changed in the interim.

Changes in key USAID/Niamey personnel and the
resignation of the ICRISAT West Africa coordinator made it
necessary to revise original plans. The initial response
from USAID/Ouagadougou was negative toward re-initiation of
discussions. Subsequent discussions with ICRISAT,
USAID/Niamey and AID/Washington authorities discouraged us
from using the original plan to work under the ICRISAT
umbrella. USAID/Niamey argued strongly that we should work
directly with INRAN (the National Agronomic Research
Institution). It was finally decided among all parties
involved that it would be best if TROPSOILS operated under
the AID bilateral agreement with the Government of Niger;
however, TROPSOILS would, at our insistence, develop
separate memorandums of agreement with ICRISAT and INRAN.
By early 1982 we had finally arrived at a focus on
soil-water research within the farming systems context at
e S (IRISAT Sahelian Center). Tre memorandum of
agreement with ICRISAT was signed in early 1983.
Discussions with INRAN focused on similar research needs,
that of soil and water. The memorandum of agreement with
INRAN was also signed in early 1983.

The TROPSOILS commitment to both INRAN and
ICRISAT for 1983 was to place a senior soil physicist in
Niger who would develop a research program shared equally
between both institutions. It was further understood that
discussions would continue during 1983 to determine the
type of position to be filled next.








C. The Operational Phase:


We knew that the TROPSOILS Program in Niger
would be too small during its early phase to justify major
in-country administrative and logistical support. Thus we
arranged a working relationship with Purdue University to
provide this support. Purdue is the prime contractor for
the Niger Cereals Research Project with INRAN. After one
year operating this way, a TROPSOILS office was established
at Niamey.

The TROPSOILS soil physicist (Dr. Robert G.
Chase) arrived in Niger in early March, 1983. Dr. Chase
had just completed a four month orientation/preparation
period which included one month in Texas (College Station
and Lubbock), one month at ICRISAT (Hyderabad) and two
months in France for language training. His Plan of Work
included research to be conducted both at the ISC and at
the INRAN research station at Kolo.

The strategy of splitting TROPSOILS research
between INRAN and ISC the first year ran into immediate
problems. TROPSOILS found itself in the middle of a
conflict between ICRISAT and INRAN. The primary problem
was that INRAN was unhappy with the ICRISAT posture in
Niger which involved aspects of both philosophy and
personalities. The controversy did help us to crystallize
our thinking in terms of future staffing for TROPSOILS.
Follow-up discussions with both INRAN and ICRISAT led to
the agreement that TROPSOILS would place a second soil
physicist in Niger who would work primarily with INRAN.
Dr. Chase would then move full-time to the ISC in 1984
working primarily on soil-water-atmosphere-plant relations.
The TROPSOILS soil physicist attached to INRAN would
conduct research in soil and water conservation.
Subsequently, the second soil physicist, Dr. Naraine
Persaud, was recruited and arrived in Niger in March, 1984.
in general, the subsequent-overailt-re-ationships between
TROPSOILS, INRAN, and ICRISAT have been most cordial and
mutually supportive.

A recurring concern in all our discussions with
host country administrators and USAID mission officials was
clarification of the role of a CRSP. The host
country/USAID perspective, in the beginning, was that the
CRSP was to function as a "technical assistance" project.
Our position, of course, was to emphasize the meaning of
the words "collaborative" and "support" in the CRSP
acronym. We stressed that Collaborative meant that
TROPSOILS and the host country institution would develop
research programs of mutual concern, using shared
resources. Support meant that TROPSOILS would bring in
additional resources which would accelerate and sharpen
on-going soil management research program in the host









country. The concepts of "technical advisor"/"counterpart"
relationships inherent in "technical assistance" were not
to be part of the CRSP model. TROPSOILS and host country
soil scientists were to work on an equal basis on research
Qf-mutual interest. Indications are that this working
philosophy is now well accepted in Niger.

Considerable effort, during this start-up
period, has been expended in identifying other donor and
locally supported programs which were concerned with soils.
This has resulted in either collaborative agreements or
linkages with IFDC, CARE, IRAT, the Tillage Laboratory of
the Agricultural University of Wageningen/Netherlands, the
USAID/Forest Land Use Project, and the University of
Niamey.

D. Activities at the secondary sites.

a. Mali

For several years there have been expressions
of interest from officials in Mali for assistance from
Texas A&M University, and particularly from TROPSOILS, in
their soil and water management research program. From the
very beginning, Dr. Frank Calhoun, TROPSOILS' P.C. for the
SAT Program, was involved in all discussions and
developments. Concurrence was obtained from AID/Washington
to explore the potential value of TROPSOILS activities in
Mali, and in 1983 formal negotiations were initiated.

A Memorandum of Agreement was drafted in 1984
and it was finally signed in 1985. From the beginning,
there was unanimous agreement that the program would be
more effective if conducted in cooperation with INTSORMIL;
hence, all the considerations have been within this
context, and the MOA was signed by both, TROPSOILS and
INTSORMIL and the IRE (Institute of Rural Economy) from
Mali. There are significant differences in the
operational procedures between both CRSPs, particularly
with reference to signatories to agreements with
collaborating institutions and to disbursement of funds.
To avoid confusion from the Mali officials it was agreed
that the INTSORMIL model would be followed.

The arrangement for operation and funding of
the program in Mali was somewhat different from the one at
the primary research site (Niger). This was due to the
type of agreement signed and the lower level of funding.

Funds initially committed (less than $30,000
for the first year) did not allow TROPSOILS to post a TAMU
senior scientist at Mali. Research would be conducted
mainly by Malian scientists, eventually with the help of









TAMU junior scientists (graduate students) within the
framework of a "Work Plan" mutually approved by TROPSOILS
and IRE scientists. Funding/would be provided by the CRSP
to partially support local research activities, including
equipment, supplies, a vehicle, and training for Malian
scientists. Following the ME's recommendations and in
order to insure minimum risk for both program and
financial operations, periodic visits to Mali by TAMU
scientists posted either in Niger or College Station would
be arranged.

There was a MOA signed in 1976 between the IRE and
ICRISAT to conduct agricultural research. The strategy by
TROPSOILS was to conduct collaborative research in close
relationship with these two institutions. As an example,
Mamadou Doumbia a native from Mali, was trained in soil
management at TAMU with the support of an ICRISAT
scholarship. After completion of his undergraduate
program, Doumbia continued at TAMU for his M.Sc. degree
under TROPSOILS' sponsorship. He is currently in Mali,
performing his field work at the Cinzana Experimental
Station.

There are several elements which justify
TROPSOILS involvement in Mali. Some of them are technical.
Soil management research at the IRE station at Cinzana
provides TROPSOILS the opportunity to work with soils that
are loamier in texture than the sandy soils of Niger.
Rainfall regime is also different as it was stated under
"The setting". In addition, there are some other USAID
sponsored agricultural projects in Mali including a Farming
Systems Research and Extension Project through SECID. TAMU
is a subcontractor of SECID in this project, and the Chief
of Party is Dr. Robert Chase, former TROPSOILS' senior
scientist in Niger, who has been transferred by TAMU to
Bamako. The apparent political stability in Mali when
compared to neighboring countries is another favorable
condition.

b. Cameroon:

TROPSOILS involvement in Cameroon represents a
target of opportunity. The soil order Vertisol occupies
large areas of the semi-arid tropics; however, this group
of soils is not extensive in Niger. Vertisols dominate
vast tracts of land in northern Cameroon. Bernard Yerima,
a native of Cameroon, had completed a M.Sc. program at TAMU
in 1984, with his research on the Vertisols of the Pacific
coast of El Salvador. His colleagues in the Cameroon
Ministry of Agriculture informed him of reforestation
problems encountered by ONAREF (National Office for Forest
Regeneration) in northern Cameroon on these soils. TAMU
submitted a proposal to ONAREF to conduct a collaborative
study on the properties of these soils and interpretations
for forest regeneration and agriculture. The proposal was









accepted and Mr. Yerima, under TROPSOILS' sponsorship, will
complete his research in 1986. As will be discussed under
"Future Directions", a formal collaborative research
program will soon be submitted to Cameroon authorities if
funding is available.

E. Recent Developments

Two elements coincided at the end of 1985,
creating an important shift in the operations of the
TROPSOILS SAT program: 1. the departure of Dr. Frank
Calhoun, and 2. a significant budget shortfall.

Dr. Frank Calhoun was TROPSOILS SAT Principal
Coordinator from 1983 through March 1986. He left TAMU to
take a position at The Ohio State University. His
decision was known earlier in October 1985, and during the
last three months of his stay at College Station he worked
actively with Dr. E.C.A. Runge (Department Head) and Ruben
Puentes (TROPSOILS Program Manager) implementing the best
way to handle the transition period prior to the hiring of
his replacement.

The second problem was a shortfall in FY4
budget (1984-1985). It has been evident since the start of
the SAT program, that its budget had been managed with some
looseness. In part, this was unavoidable in order to
accomplish the difficult task of building a research
structure in Niger, with almost no local support.
Communication and shipping costs, for example, were much
higher than expected, and few savings could be made on
these items without severely affecting overseas program
operations. The reorganization of International
Agricultural Programs by TAMU introduced additional
problems, with outstanding obligations incurred prior to
September 1, 1984, being billed during FY4. The Texas A&M
Research Foundation (TAMRF) took control of handling funds
for TROPSOILS-SAT in September 1984, but during the first
period of its administration, their monthly reports were
difficult to interpret, and the information provided was
neither sufficient nor timely enough to adopt appropriate
corrective measurements in order to avoid budgetary
problems. Prior to 1985, Dr. F. Calhoun had been working
with only the help of a part time secretary. She left
TROPSOILS SAT in November 1984. In January 1985, a new
full time Secretary (Gloria Northcutt) and a Program
Manager (Ruben Puentes) were hired and a revision of the
management of the program started. It was found that
accounts and associated budgets had not been broken down to
the user level. This was an important constraint under
which each Project Leader and the P.C. operated (see 5.2).
In June 1985 TAMRF met with Dr. F. Calhoun and Ruben
Puentes to communicate that a deficit had been projected
for the end of FY4. Several alternatives were evaluated to










avoid the shortfall, however the warning was too late, the
money had been already encumbered and there was no way to
reduce overexpenditures for FY4 below the $212,000 level.

Total expenditures for FY4 (excluding old,
FY3's bills) totaled approximately $888,000. This was the
amount needed to operate the program at this stage. The
proposed budget for the following fiscal year (FY5) was
$695,000, but an additional reduction in the CRSP's budget
was expected due to Gramm-Rudman-Holling legislation. As a
consequence, a reduction in yearly expenditures for the SAT
program were estimated at least by $180,000. In addition,
the M.E. and the P.C. agreed to make additional savings in
order to partially cover the deficit of the previous year.
This level of expenditure reduction could not be obtained
without some major adjustments in the program. As a
consequence, several immediate actions were taken:

1. The P.C. position would remain vacant during
FY5 after Dr. F. Calhoun's departure. Dr. E.C.A. Runge
would take the responsibility of the overall coordination
of the project with the assistance of the Program Manager.
Dr. L. Hossner was appointed as Acting Coordinator.

2. The Program Manager was requested to reorganize
the budgeting system and implement an "in-house" accounting
system. As a result of joint discussions, the Director of
the TAES agreed to hire an additional clerical person for
the Head Office to take care of the accounting at the
departmental level and to help the Program Manager with
this "in-house" bookkeeping. This position, which would be
supported from the TAMRF's share of indirect costs, has not
been filled to date.

The actions toward the reorganization of the
budgeting and accounting systems are described in greater
depth in the Chapter 4, "The Budget" and in the Project
Statement "Cl". In summary, they include:

a. Breakdown of budgets and accounting at the
users' level.

b. Bookkeeping system at the departmental
level, parallel to the one carried out by
TAMRF.

c. New approval procedure for expenditures.

d. Improved reporting system to Project
Leaders.

e. Shift from a "petty cash" to a "revolving
account" system for overseas operations.










3. Activities at Niger were also reorganized. It was
decided that at this time, with the current budget
constraints, it was not possible to support two *senior
scientists overseas. After a thorough evaluation by the
P.C. and the M.E. of Dr. Chase's program in collaboration
with ICRISAT and Dr. Persaud's activities with INRAN, it
was decided that the ICRISAT program_ was the one that
should be modified and curtailed. The nature of the
reea-ch-76-being conducted by Dr. -Persaud, its relevance
toward TROPSOILS SAT goal, current status and
achievements of his projects were considered. But the fact
that INRAN is the main National Agricultural Research
Institute was the key consideration in the final decision.
Dr. Chase was requested to come to the U.S. and remain at
Lubbock to work on the final report for his program. He
was subsequently relocated by TAMU as Chief of Party of the
Mali Farming System Research and Extension Project, at
Bamako.

4. The TROPSOILS' office at Niamey was closed. Office
budget expenditures accounted for a significant proportion
of the total overseas operational costs. With the phase
down of the ICRISAT-related program, and with the offer of
office space at the INRAN headquarters, the TROPSOILS
office was closed. Non-TROPSOILS funding was obtained for
the reduced clerical support.

5. Additional sources of funding were explored to
reinforce available "core-funds". Examples are the
agreement signed with USAID/Niger to support the INRAN Soil
Laboratory Assistance Program and the proposal implemented
with SAFGRAD and OICD (USDA) for technology transfer (ACPO
Program), which is ready for approval. At the same time,
funds from Strengthening Grants (AID's Program Support
Grant) are being used to partially cover travel expenses
for senior scientists visiting other TAMU research sites in
Africa. They can then visit TROPSOILS' research sites with
a minimum cost to the CRSP.

2.2 Current organization

Dr. E.C.A. Runge is responsible for the overall
coordination of the program after the departure of Dr. F.
Calhoun. This includes direct responsibility for
coordination of primary and secondary research sites,
senior and junior scientists and all institutional
linkages. Dr. L. Hossner has been appointed as acting
program coordinator. Six project leaders are in charge of
various aspects of the research program: Dr. N. Persaud,
Dr. C. Wendt, Dr. L. Hossner, Dr. L. Wilding, Dr. A. Onken
and Dr. R. Lascano. Dr. N. Persaud is located in Niamey,
Niger. Drs. Wendt, Onken. and Lascanoo are located in
Lu bbock. Drs. Wilding and Hssnter are located at the TAMU
main campus, at College Station and they conduct their
--------------










research through junior scientists posted overseas.

On campus personnel, mainly Drs. Hossner and
Wilding are responsible for coordination of graduate
pursuits by junior scientists and in training of junior and
senior scientists overseas in the areas of soil fertility
and soil resources. The program administration is being
handled from College Station. Ruben Puentes is the program
manager and Gloria Northcutt is the secretary.
Responsibilities of the College Station office are
described in the project. Cl: "Program Management".

The Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF) is in
charge of administering the grant. TAMRF's
responsibilities include:

a. Contracting with research sponsors.

b. Keeping fiscal records in accordance with
the research grant.

c. Bookkeeping and fiscal support.

d. Billing sponsors.

e. Providing periodic financial statements
for the P.C. and M.E.

f. Monitoring and reporting status of cost
sharing requirements.

g. Taking care of payments of all overseas
allowances and insurances to long term
overseas personnel.

TAMRF personnel involved with the TROPSOIL program
are Steve Garrett, Sandy Wheaton and Juanita Shihadeh.

Logistical and technical backstopping has been
conducted from Lubbock. These activities can be
categorized in five areas:

1. Purchasing and shipping

All major and most minor items of equipment and
supplies that must be obtained in the U.S. for overseas
operation are purchased from Lubbock and shipped to Africa
after testing and eventual calibration.

2. Computer programming

Programming support, including both software
development and problem solving, is provided to TROPSOILS'
scientists posted overseas. The level of assistance in










this area, which was high in the initial stages of the
program, is now restricted to occasional troubleshooting
via telex.

3. Equipment fabrication

Equipment that can not be obtained commercially or
for which the commercial cost is too high, is fabricated at
Lubbock. The best example is the rainfall simulator now
located in Niger.

4. General technical support

General technical support includes technical advice
provided to overseas personnel (senior and junior
scientists), in response to problems with equipment
operation.

5. Training

Training conducted at Lubbock mainly consists of
training provided to junior scientists enroute to overseas
assignments.

Personnel involved in backstopping activities
from Lubbock include Robert Lascano, Stan Hicks, Danny
Meason, Jimmy Mabry, Norma Piwonka, and Donna Holdren,
under the leadership of Dr. C. Wendt.









Research PrograM











3. RESEARCH PROGRAM


3.1 The original approach and its evolution.

The research program for TROPSOILS-SAT started with a very
broad set of goals. As mentioned in the Program Overview,
original objectives included soil characterization and
classification, wind and water erosion control, and development
of--so-iT~and crop mana e n practices under water stress
conditions illr---nanfjed a gi. The possibility of
supplemental irrigation was also considered. Priorities among
these different goals were not clearly defined at the starting
point. Some uncertainties about specific research needs from
the national institutions coupled with lack of first hand
information about some basic aspects of the behavior of a
completely new ecosystem partially explained this lack of
specificity in the initial approach. However, a program with a
limited budget OIa tb TROPSQ)I SAT-LQ uld not pretend to cover
the wide range of activities originally proposed.

African agriculture has probably been less affected by
technological change in the past two decades than agriculture on
any other continent. No country in the Sahel has shown a clearly
visible departure from the production trend line that could be
attributed to the adoption of an improved technology package.
So far, the region has experienced nothing like the "Green
Revolution" in Asia, and there is no evidence that when
technological change comes to Africa, it will follow a similar
pathway 1/. Favorable conditions which were available in Asia
and parts of Latin America, such as infrastructure,
possibilities for irrigation and availability of water and
fertilizers are absent. Labor availability and possibilities of
mechanization are also different. Within this framework, the
task for the breeder is much more difficult, and the soil
scientist's is crucial for the development of low input soil and
crop management technology.

For these reasons, some experts think that the whole
question of research methodology for food production in Sub-
Saharan Africa needs to be rethought and that no spectacular
achievements should be expected in the short term. The shotgun
approach to finding solutions has produced no significant
increase in agricultural production. The crop-specific approach
which has been the focus of some research programs has not


1/ Christensen Ch., A. Dommen, N. Horenstein, S. Pryor, P.
Riley, S. Shapouri and H. Steiner (1981). Food problems and
prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa and Middle East Branch,
International Economic Division, E.R.S., U.S.D.A., Foreign
Agricultural Economic Report No. 166.












yet resulted in viable technology packages. A new approach to
agricultural research incorporating a strong sense of 3diction
and-nvo1ving interdisciplinary efforts is badlneede&. The
TROPSOI1S-SAT program, with some difficulty, has been trying to
fil-nd-it niche within the framework of international research
institutions and national research organizations. The bulk of
the actual research task will obviously fall to the national
research networks where they exist (INRAN in the case of Niger,
for example). They know traditional farming systems that cannot
be neglected as part of the foundation for developing an
appropriate technology. However, they must develop their ability
to generate their own production solutions. Efforts to transfer
large-scale production systems founded on alien objectives have
seldom achieved their intended results 2/ at least in Africa.
The input from international organizations and bilateral
agreements should be focused to guide, encourage and facilitate
local or regional efforts and provide expertise in specific
matters, when needed.

As a result of this thinking, the scope of the program has
been significantly narrowed following three years of operation.
Additional factors for this evolution were: (1) Our close
contact with scientists from collaborating institutions (INRAN,
Niger; IRE, Mali; ICRISAT, IRAT, ORSTOM, etc); (2) Basic
information gathered from the initial research; and (3)
Recognition of farmers' needs through direct observation and
conacts. 7All hese factors allowed TROSOILS' senior scientists
'E6--ocus the program. Some of the original objectives were
abandoned, new objectives were introduced and priorities among
the different components of the program were established.

Within the framework of the general goal of TROPSOILS ( "to
develop and adapt improved soil management technology which is
agronomically, ecologically and economically sound for
developing countries in the tropics"), the focus of the SAT
component was confined to soil water and fertility studies in
order to develop and adapt low input soil management practices
to increase food production on a sustained basis. Increased food
production and a slow down or reversal of land degradation
represented a dual challenge for the TROPSOILS-SAT.




2/ Mabbut J. A. (1980). Research and training for management of
arid lands. The United Nations University. NRTS-13/UNUP-198.












To support this appliedresearchaffort, some fundamental
studies were immediately recognized as having a high priority.
It is extremely risky to establish a whole research program on
soil and water management with important gaps on the soil and
agroclimatic data bases. Some basic information was available
although it was necessary to process it in order to make it
useful. This was particularly true for agroclimatological
characteristics. Soil information, on the other hand, was both
scarce and -d-ispersed, and usually, generalized and of
questionable reliability. In addition, some fundamental pieces
of research were also needed dealing with plant behavior under
the singular set of ecological conditions of the Sahelian
environment.

Finally, interpretative, integrative studies dealing with
land suitability evaluation for specific land uses were
identified by national scientists as an important field of
research. As this kind of activity would integrate all research
findings, identify research gaps and have an immediate practical
application in land use planning, it was decided to include it
within our research program.

It was not an easy task to articulate a research program
focused on soil water and fertility management, considering the
problem of natural resource degradation and filling the gaps of
fundamental knowledge under the constraints of a limited budget
and minimun local logistical and technical support. The
following is a brief summary of the linkages among specific
topics of research included in each component of the TROPSOILS-
SAT program.


3.2 Research areas and projects interlinkages


3.2.1 Soil water and fertility management: technology
development and evaluation.

(Research activities under this heading had been previously
grouped under the title "Modification of the soil-plant-
atmosphere system in semi-arid environments")

The target of the TROPSOILS-SAT program is to develop or
adapt appropriate soil water and fertility management practices
for the Saheian environment. The final goal is to increase food
production on a sustained basis, considering the risks of land
degradation of alternative land uses. Management practices /
should be evaluated within the framework of the socioeconomical
mte promoiebytgnational in +it_ ionsQ fj l/ IF C/ _

Two main areas of research were identified: a) soil and
water management technology development and evaluation for
rainfed agriculture and b) soil and water technology
development and evaluation for degraded Sahelian forest lands.












To support this appliedresearchaffort, some fundamental
studies were immediately recognized as having a high priority.
It is extremely risky to establish a whole research program on
soil and water management with important gaps on the soil and
agroclimatic data bases. Some basic information was available
although it was necessary to process it in order to make it
useful. This was particularly true for agroclimatological
characteristics. Soil information, on the other hand, was both
scarce and -d-ispersed, and usually, generalized and of
questionable reliability. In addition, some fundamental pieces
of research were also needed dealing with plant behavior under
the singular set of ecological conditions of the Sahelian
environment.

Finally, interpretative, integrative studies dealing with
land suitability evaluation for specific land uses were
identified by national scientists as an important field of
research. As this kind of activity would integrate all research
findings, identify research gaps and have an immediate practical
application in land use planning, it was decided to include it
within our research program.

It was not an easy task to articulate a research program
focused on soil water and fertility management, considering the
problem of natural resource degradation and filling the gaps of
fundamental knowledge under the constraints of a limited budget
and minimun local logistical and technical support. The
following is a brief summary of the linkages among specific
topics of research included in each component of the TROPSOILS-
SAT program.


3.2 Research areas and projects interlinkages


3.2.1 Soil water and fertility management: technology
development and evaluation.

(Research activities under this heading had been previously
grouped under the title "Modification of the soil-plant-
atmosphere system in semi-arid environments")

The target of the TROPSOILS-SAT program is to develop or
adapt appropriate soil water and fertility management practices
for the Saheian environment. The final goal is to increase food
production on a sustained basis, considering the risks of land
degradation of alternative land uses. Management practices /
should be evaluated within the framework of the socioeconomical
mte promoiebytgnational in +it_ ionsQ fj l/ IF C/ _

Two main areas of research were identified: a) soil and
water management technology development and evaluation for
rainfed agriculture and b) soil and water technology
development and evaluation for degraded Sahelian forest lands.











Technology for rainfed agriculture.

Small farmers are responsible for the bulk of grain
production in the Sahel. Rainfed millet and sorghum production
is the most common land use system from the regions of higher
rainfall up to approximately the 300 mm isohyet. It is
traditional and extensive, with tools and techniques that have
undergone very little change for centuries. This can be
considered as a subsistence sector, where the objective function
of each unit is to minimize the risk of production fao iai jn a
naturally dit-ficU- and unpredictable environment. Although the
first priority is to cover family demands, part of the crop is
sold or traded for basic items like salt and cloth 3/. Men,
women and children all form part of the production unit's labor
force. The attitude toward risk and the mechanisms used to
alleviate risk are important structural aspects. Unexpected
results obtained by extension programs operating in this
subsistence sector ofrainfed agriculture can often be ascribed
to a lack of understanding of objective functions. Several
authors, however, have shown the rationality of decisionmaking
by Sahelian farmers confronted with the recommendation of such
extension programs. Resource constraints may prevent most
farmers from adopting the full recommended improved technology
package, and better results may be achieved using available
resources to farm larger areas less intensively and 'through
exnng the rang cropsrown. Thus, there is no reason to
X believe that merely providing inputs like fertilizers will be
sufficient to induce the rainfed agriculture subsistence sector
to adopt them.

Millet is the most widespread food crop. It is well adapted
to the semiarid tropics and, as the most drought-resistant and
tolerant major crop, can be counted upon to provide a minimal
yield even in very bad years. In Niger, millet is the most
common crop on sandy soils. Although the main research efforts
have been in breeding, no technological breakthrough has
occurred in the improvement of millet varieties. Limited
research has been carried out on most agronomic practices with
the exception of fertilization, and this has contributed to the
lack of improvement in millet production systems at the farm
level 4/. IRAT and ICRISAT have millet research as one of their
mandates. Plant breeders have found, however, that genetic
materials from India did not do well in Africa, and no direct
transfer of plant material is possible 5/.



3/ Ancey G. (1975). Niveaux de decision et functions objectives
en milieu rural Africain. AMIRA, No. 3, INSEE, Paris.

4/ Fussell L. K. (1983). Millet agronomic research in the
Sahelian zone. Review Meeting on Farming System Research for
West Africa.

5/ Christensen C. et al., op. sit.












Variety evaluation and technology package development'have to
be done in situ, but African soils where millet is grown are
understood even less well than in India, with scientists only
now becoming aware of the complexity of the soil water
management plant interaction.

TROPSOILS-SAT research activities dealing with soil water,
fertility and crop management in rainfed agriculture include
experiments on a wide range of agronomic practices:

a. Cropping systems, including crop sequences and
intercropping
b. Tillage
c. Fertilization
d. Residue management
e. Biomass control (tillering management)
f. Microclimate modification
g. Rainfall/runoff management

These experiments are grouped in several, interdependent
projects. The most comprehensive is "Evaluation and/or
development of low to intermediate input soil, water or crop
management practices to irease and/or stabilize yields of
rainfed crops" (Project B.5). It is being conducted by Dr.
Persaud in several locations in Niger, and most of these
agronomic practices and their interactions are being tested. The
project "Increasing available soil water and crop yield, through
tillage and fertilization" (B.13) by Dr. Wendt in Mali attacks
similar problems. "Rooting pattern studies on millet and
cowpeas" (B.9), by Dr. Hossner, also deals with water/fertility
interactions in intercropping systems. Soil fertility and its
interactions are basic research topics in project B11 ("Water
use efficiency and soil fertility interactions") by Dr. Onken.
The project "Tillage practices to control sandblasting and
improve water use" (B.1) by Dr. R. Chase is focused toward soil
surface modifications, and particularly, the use of a modified
version of the Texas sandfighter. The representativeness and
possibilities of extrapolation of research developments from all
these projects is assured by basic studies on characterization
of soil and climate of research sites (covered in projects A.1
and A.8).

Microclimate modification is another approach to increase
and/or stabilize crop yields. This is the topic of project B~.T
"Modification of agroclimate and crop phenology between rows of
Neem tree windbreaks" by Dr. Persaud. It has been also studied
by Dr. Lascano within his project "Water and energy balance in a
bare soil" (A.5).

Runoff management can result in a more efficient use of
rainfall waters, increasing crop yields and alleviating the
problem of water erosion. This can be done through surface
modification at the farm level (strip cropping, water
harvesting, sandfighting, etc) or at the small watershed level.











This is the topic of the project "Rainfall management to
increase crop yields" (B.2) by Dr. Persaud in Niger. The
sandfighter experiment (B.1) also explores these effects.
Furrow-diking is one of the treatments included in the
fertility/tillage experiment at Mali (B.13). Fundamental studies
on soil physical properties, soil water balance, watershed
hydrology and geomorphology are supportive to this research
(projects A.1, A.2, A.5, A.6 and A.8).


Technology for degraded, forest lands.

The process of desertification is obvious and measurable
all along the Sahel. The desert does not usually move forward in
a straight line, but spreads like a skin disease, in blotches
and spots 6/. There is evidence indicating that there exists an
element of the desertification process that is natural. But
there is no doubt that mankind is the great accelerator of the
change. He is speeding up the process through improper land use
and overgrazing, most of these activities associated with his
desperate attempts to supply basic food and fuel needs.

The dual challenge, food production and resource
conservation in the Sahel cannot be approached through the
manipulation of~onTy a few components of the system. There is no
easy soIluion-to a very complex problem; no simple political
choice; no ideal economic alternative; no single appropriate
technology; and no solution which does not involve serious
social and cultural adjustments 7/. It has been stated that a
holistic approach is necessary; one that goes beyond-inational
boundaries to deal with the Sahel as a region; one that
encompases the totality of its life, resources and
relationships; and one that considers its numerous links to
adjacent regions and beyond 8/. Within this framework, it would
be utopic to expect a spectacular input from TROPSOILS-SAT
activities on this matter with the current staffing and budget.
The strategy is to collaborate with other institutions,
providing the expertise of our scientists, particularly in the
area of soil water management.



6/ Thatcher P. S. (1979). Desertification: the greatest single
environmental threat. UNEP Desertification Control Bull. Vol. 2,
No. 1.

7/ Thomas G. (1980). The Sahelian/Sudanian zones of Africa:
Profile of a fragile environment. New Mexico St. University Int.
Pub. Series, Tech. Information Publ. 0001-81.

8/ Fauck R. (1977). Soil erosion in the Sahelian zone of Africa:
Its control and its effect on agricultural production. Proc. of
the Int. Symposium on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region.
U. of California, Riverside.











TROPSOILS has, however, some specific research efforts
closely related with the reclamation of degraded forest soils.
These activities deal mainly with :

a. Forest rejuvenation
b. Runoff management on degraded soils

Through the project "Rejuvenation of crusted forest soils"
(B.3) in Niger, by Dr. Chase, selected mulch, tillage and runoff
controlling treatments are being tested. This is a cooperative
activity with INRAN and the AID/Niger funded project FLUP
(Forest Land Use Project). Basic research on the water and
energy balance of these soils (project A.4) is supportive to
these studies.


3.2.2 Base line data studies

(Research activities under this heading had been previously
grouped under the tittle "Characterization of the soil-plant-
atmosphere system in semi-arid environments")

The challenge to double food production in 20 years, and
yet protect the resource base in this fragile environment,
cannot be met with the present knowledge base 9/. Of course, the
TROPSOILS-SAT program cannot include a comprehensive research
effort emcompassing areas like ecosystem analysis, energy flow,
nutrient cycling, etc. Besides, this is not its mandate.
However, most of the applied research grouped under 3.1, which
represents the main effort of the SAT program toward the
fulfillment of its goal, require some support from fundamental
studies. Without this base line data studies, most of the
technology development efforts would include an element of
uncertainty that the program cannot afford. Perhaps, the most
clear example would be the characterization of TROPSOILS'
research sites from the standpoint of soil and climate. Without
this information, extrapolation of research results to other
Sahelian regions would not be possible.

The following is a short summary of TROPSOILS-SAT basic
research activities, and their linkages with the applied
research program.

Three areas of research can be identified within the base
line data studies: a) agroclimatic data base, b) soil data base
and c) plant behavior under semi arid environments.






9/ Thomas G., op sit.












Agroclimatic data base


The overriding environmental factor in the characterization
of the Sahelian region is climate, particularly rainfall. The
extreme variability of precipitation in time and space and the
extremely high annual evapotranspiration in relation with
rainfall have significant effects on crop yields and on the date
of start and length of the growing season. Accordingly, two
fields of study were identified as needed: a) quantification of
rainfall patterns and legth of the growing season, and b) soil
water balance studies.

The project "Quantification of rainfall patterns and
hydrology of representative cropped soils of Niger" (A.1), by
Dr. Persaud, covers the topics:

a. Spatial and temporal variation of wet/dry periods
b. Frequency distribution of wet/dry periods
c. Overall trends of wet/dry periods
d. Periodicities and patterns of wet/dry periods

This project represents an effort for quantifying relevant
aspects of the Sahelian climate in relation with agriculture,
and to characterize important parameters of the growing season
on a probabilistic basis. This information is essential for soil
water management technology development and evaluation. The
linkages with projects B.5, B.7 and B.9 are evident. As regional
characteristics of the growing season have an overriding
influence on the suitability of the land to specific uses, the
information obtained from A.1 will be highly useful for the
"land evaluation" component in project A.8.

There are several projects related to the soil water
balance under semi arid environments: projects A.4 ("Water
and energy balance in Sahelian soils"), A.5 ("Water and energy
balance in a bare soil") and A.6 ("Water and energy balance of
crops with an incomplete canopy cover"), by Drs. Chase and
Lascano. As the measurement of the different components of the
soil water balance is often impractical, a modeling approach has
been choose with climatic data as main input. Estimations of
evaporation from bare soil and evapotranspiration from
incomplete canopy and relevant crops will also provide valuable
information to technology development projects B.5, B.7 and B.9.


Soil data base.

Characterization of the soil resources is the second
component of the base line data studies in support of the
technology development effort. Many of the difficulties which
must be overcome in order to develop crop management packages
for the Sahel are soil related. Soils are highly fragile,
drought and commonly exhibit chemical toxicities and/or
nutrient deficiencies. Several of these soil properties are











closely related' to geomorphology and hydrology. Spatial
variability in most of these properties is a common feature. In
addition, the representativeness of target research sites must
be assessed to be able to extrapolate research results.
Fundamental studies have been initiated in two main areas: (a)
soil characterization and classification, and (b)
surface/subsurface hydrology of small watersheds and dallols.

Soil characterization and classification are permanent
activities. They include:

a. Soil inventories of research sites and research
stations.
b. Soil-geomorphology relationships.
c. Spatial variability studies.
d. Dust inputs.

Project A.8, by Dr. Wilding, includes all these topics.
Projects A.2 and B.4 deal specifically with the variability
problem. Soil variability over short distances is hampering the
interpretation of research results both at INRAN and ICRISAT
research stations. Eolian dust inputs from the Sahara Desert are
postulated as renewal vectors for nutrients. The relationship
with those projects dealing with water/fertility interactions
(B.5, B.11 and B.13) is obvious.

Activities related with surface/subsurface hydrology are
conducted both on cropped and forest soils. However, dallols and
small watersheds associated with scarps from lateric plateaus
are target areas. Studies include:

a. Quantifying physical/hydrological properties.
b. Moisture balance of bare and cropped soils in
different agroecological Sahelian zones.
c. Surface hydrology in small watersheds.
d. Groundwater studies.
e. Soil crusting studies.

The quantification of physical/hydrological properties of
major cropped and forest soils, and the characterization of
their water balance is supportive to all projects dealing with
the development of appropriate soil, water and crop management
technologies. These activities are included in projects A.1, A.4
and A.8.

Surface hydrology of small watersheds is a basic study in
support of our efforts to develop appropriate techniques toward
intensive utilization of valleys collecting runoff from
lateritic plateaus. Both, fundamental and applied research are
included in Project B.2. The soil/geomorphology component of
project A.8 is also related with this topic.

One alternative for the intensification of land use in the
dallols -is the development of small irrigation projects,
particularly in those areas with shallow water tables. Although













irrigation is not a TROPSOILS-SAT priority research topic at
this time, our expertise can provide a significant input through
studies on water table fluctuations and water quality. This is
one objective in project A.8.

Finally, soil crusting is an important constraint both to
crop production and forest rejuvenation. Project A.11 deals with
this problem.



Plant behavior under semi-arid environments

In order to develop soil water and fertility management
technology for the Sahel, a thorough understanding of the plant
response to water stress is needed. Specific areas of research
which have been identified as needed for technology development
include:

a) water efficiency in relationship with soil
fertility, for different cultivars
b) root development under different soil
moisture and chemical conditions.

There are no specific projects in the TROPSOILS-SAT program
covering these two topics. Nevertheless, water efficiency and
water use are important components of project B.11; root
development studies are included in projects B.5 and B.9.





3.2.3 Integrative studies: land evaluation

Land suitability can be defined as the fitness of a given
area of land for a defined kind of land use. The assessment is
performed on the assumption that the defined land use will be
sustained and that the environmental quality must be preserved
or improved on the site and in adjacent areas. INRAN scientists
have expressed their interest in developing land suitability
schemes for rainfed sorghum and millet. The topic has been
tentatively included as a part of project A.8, although due to
its comprehensiveness, an independent project may be implemented
in the future.











The framework for land evaluation developed by FAO will be
used as a model 10/. There are some examples of land suitability
schemes for semiarid conditions, as those developed for Sudan
11/, Zambia 12/, and Burkina Faso 13/. However, they can be used
only as models. Key elements of the evaluation scheme are the
definition and description of land use types and the
technological levels assumed, and both of them have to be
described and defined within the constraints and conditions of
the country, or even, at a regional level. Project A.1 will
supply basic information on climate and characteristics of the
growing season which will be matchet with crop requirements.
Projects B.2, B.5, B.7 and B.13 will provide technological
components which will be utilized for the definition of land use
types and technological levels.


3.3 Project statements.

The following is a list of "Project Statements" prepared
with information provided by Project Leaders.
















10/ FAO (1976). A framework for land evaluation. Soil Res. Bull.
No. 32. Rome.

11/ Van Der Kevie W. (ed) (1976). Manual for land suitability
classification for agriculture. Soil Survey Administration,
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources. Democratic
Republic of Sudan.

12/ Kalina C. and W. J. Veldkamp (1986). Quantified land
evaluation in Zambia. ISSS Workshop on Quantified Land
Evaluation, Washington D.C.

13/ Driessen P. M. and C. A. Van Diepen (1986). WOFOST, a
procedure for estimating the production possibilities of land
use systems. ISSS Workshop on Quantified Land Evaluation,
Washington D.C









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: A.1

Title:

Quantification of rainfall patterns and hydrology of representative
cropped soil of Niger.

Objectives:

1. Quantify temporal variation and distribution, overall trends and
periodicities, patterns of wet and dry spells of rainfall and length of
the growing season.

2. Measure and /or catalog the physical and hydrological properties
of major cropped soils in Niger, quantifying moisture loss patterns and
rain-use efficiency.

3. Estimate evapotranspiration of economically important crops from
climatic data.

Applicability:

Objective_l. Statistical analysis of daily rainfall records are usef
for identifying seasonal rainfall patterns, length of growing period, and
risks associated with monsoonal rainfall gradients. These results provide
valuable information for the development of rational soil and
water-management practices for rainfed agriculture: estimation of runoff
and moisture balances, design of rainfall networks, planning of
experiments and minimization of risks by response farming using seasonal
predictors.


Objective 2. Soil hydrological characteristics are essential to
estimate soil water storage and balance components in the field in
evaluation of suitability for irrigation. They need to be measured in the
field since laboratory genratoeated data are often not representative of the
field situation.

Objective 3. Crop evapotranspiration (ET) information is vital for
irrigation dpignn scheduling, and for estimating crop water deficits,
during the growing season.


Project Leader:
Collaborators:


Naraine Persaud (Texas A&M University)
I. Alfari (Service Meteorologie)
M. Ouattara (INRAN)
M. Gandah (INRAN)
A. Adoulaye (INRAN)
W. Payne (TAMU)
J. Landeck (TAMU)


Research Site: Niger


'"~4~















Relevance:


Results of these studies can be used by breeders in introduction and/or
development of varieties suited to the environmental constraints and risks
in Niger. Such information as stated elsewhere are sine qua non to the
successful planning and designing of management of small watersheds which
abound in Niger. They allow a more detailed and quantitative insight into
the agroecology of dryland cereal production in Niger and provides the
essential basis for rational development or transfer of soil-water
management concepts and practices. As an example, it was the preliminary
results of these studies that led to the concept of judicious biomass
reduction to conserve water during growth of the millet crop (see project
B.5); a technique which preliminary results indicate may have potential as
a low-input water-conservation practice.

Accomplishments:

The analysis of rainfall records has allowed the definition of the
growing season for eleven locations in Niger.

A possible forward predictor of rainfall pattern during the growing
season was developed.

Objectives 2/3

Relevance:

The results of the these studies are essential to development of
practical soil-water management techniques and assessment of short-term
seasonal drought conditions. It is hypothesized that on the sandy soils of
Niger the behaviour of the zero-plane of flux which is being evaluated in
this study is an important determinant of soil moisture utilization by
cereals under rainfed conditions.

Accomplishments:

SInformation on physical and hydrological properties of some of the most
common cropped soils in Niger has been collected and moisture loss patterns
have been quantified.

Future plans:

SStudies will continue upon completion.

0









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number : A.2

Title: Scaling soil hydraulic properties.

Objective:

Scale soil hydraulic properties using algorithms based on the concept
of similar media.

Applicability:

In general, scaling of soil hydraulic properties can be used for two
purposes. First, to simplify and combine measured soil hydraulic properties
of numerous locations within an experimental unit into representative means.
The scale factor then relates the measured data at each location to the
representative means. The second purpose is the prediction of soil-water
flow in the experimental area as a function of the scaling factor. Once the
distribution is known, key values of the scaling factor can be used in
dynamic simulation models to predict the variability of hydraulic processes.

Project Leader: Dr. Robert Lascano (Texas Agricultural Experiment Station)
Collaborator: Leo Stroosnijder (Wageningen Agricultural University)

Research Site: TAES, Lubbock

Achievements and relevance:

Results obtained suggest that distribution of soil hydraulic properties
is neither normal nor log normal. Futhermore, from the semivariance of the
scaling factor, the data suggest that the scale factor has spatial structure
and that the values are related up to 20 m. This property indicates that
the scale factor is not randomly distributed.

The method being proposed can be used provided there is an experimental
verification of the calculated soil-water retention curves. The advantage
is in its simplicity and ease of use. It has widespread application to
characterize the variability associated with the hydraulic properties of a
soil using dynamic models of the flow of water and heat.

Future Plans:

This project has been completed.








PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: A.4 (Includes projects A.4 and A.7 from previous reports)

Title: Water balance and energy in Sahelian soils.

Objectives:

1. To characterize energy and water balance of Sahelian forest soils
under wooded and barren conditions. -~- 6

2. To characterize water and energy balance in agricultural soils with
different surface treatments. /

Applicability:

1. Forest soils

By comparing aerial photographs from 1950 and 1979, we have estimated
that the area covered by trees in the forests near Niamey, Niger, has
decreased dramatically during this 29 year period. Because forest lands
represent sources of animal fodder, fire-wood, gum, medicines and many other
domestic and commercial byproducts, the loss of this resource has direct
impact on lives of rural inhabitants as well as on the soil and
environmental factors of the area. The crusted, barren soils left as
vegetation recedes causes severe water runoff from rainstorm events,
decreasing soil water recharge and increasing soil erosion downslope. Soil
temperatures increase greatly, influencing the environment of the entire
forest. In order to reverse this form of desertification, we must
understand how the system functions by studying energy and water balances
and soil properties of areas within and between vegetated and barren forest
soils.

2. Agriculture soils

Millet varieties which have been brought from other countries have
shown inconclusive behavior when tested in Niger. Differences in soil
temperature regime may have some influence in this response.

Project Leader: Robert Chase (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: Mamadou Issaka (INRAN)
Phil Serafini (ICRISAT)
A. Bationo (IFDC)
J. Heermans (FLUP)
J. Seve (FLUP)

Research site: Niger








Achievements and relevance:


1. Forest soils

Soil temperature profiles at the time of maximum and minimum
surface soil temperature show that, before the rainy season began, the bare
trees reduced peak surface soil temperatures by 7 C. During the rainy
season, the soil temperature profiles show a marked effect of vegetation on
soil temperature throughout the profile: difference in surface soil
temperatures between vegetated and barren areas can approach 10 C. Natural
vegetation and applied mulch also decreased soil temperature fluctuations at
2 cm depth.

Water infiltrates deeper in soils that are vegetated than in barren
soils. During the rainy season, data collected shows that relative humidity
between the middle of the vegetated and an area three meters away from the
tree line (2 m elevation) frequently reached 10% or more during the day
while air temperatures differed by 3-4 C. Hot, drier air moving from the
barren areas may have an effect on the evapotranspiration within the
vegetated areas they surround. After the rainy season, heat flux increases
temperatures in the deep soils, as shown by the slope of the temperature
curves.

Mulching a barren forest soil surface has a positive effect on soil
temperature. While the soil temperature at 2 cm depth in the experimental
site was usually around 5 C cooler than the crusted control soil before
mulching; once mulched, temperature fluctuations in the mulched soil
decreased in magnitude and the mulched soil temperature at this depth became
5 up to 12 C cooler than the crusted control within a few days.

2. Agricultural soils

Although interpretation of results was difficult due to extreme
variability, it can be concluded that during the cropping season, the soil
at 50 cm. depth is about 15 and 5 C warmer than soils at like depth in Texas
and India. (Results of crop yield data were inconclusive due to
variability) There are millet and sorghum breeding programs both in Texas
and India, with the hope to use selected varieties in the Sahel. These
differences in soil temperature, which affect soil chemistry, soil
microbiology and plant physiology, must be taken into account when selecting
for germplasm to be evaluated in the Sahel.

Future plans:

This project has been suspended.










PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: A. 5

Title: Water and energy balance in a bare soil.

Objective:

Mechanistically calculate and describe the water and energy balance of
a bare soil with a simulation model using as input soil physical properties
and daily weather variables.

Applicability:

The characterization of the water balance of bare soils is necessary to
quantify the processes involved for water management of the area under
investigation. These include water loss due to evaporation and drainage and
water gains due to rainfall and capillary rise integrated over the soil
profile. Of particular importance is the amount of water lost due to
evaporation, and the amount of plant available water stored in the soil
profile. The measurement of the different components of the water balance
as a function of time is difficult and often not practical. One solution to
this problem is to use a physical model that mechanistically describes the
system. In this way the gains and losses of water can be followed with time
and their relative magnitude can be evaluated.

Personnel/Institution: Robert Lascano (Texas Agric. Exper. St.)
Collaborators: C. Van Bavel (TAMU)

Research Site: TAES, Lubbock, Texas

Achievements and relevance:

From our results it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm used
in the model correctly calculates daily and cumulative evaporation over
time. This is a significant result because it enables us to calculate daily
evaporation rates from weather data and soil hydraulic properties.
Generally the measurement of evaporation is difficult and by using models
that mechanistically describe the process of soil evaporation it is now
possible to fill data gaps when measurements are not available.

Future plans:

This project has been completed.








PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: A.6

Title: Water and energy balance of crops with an incomplete canopy cover

Objective: Predict water use by crops with a partial canopy in a semiarid
climate.

Applicability:

In semiarid areas of the world crops depend upon stored soil water and
rainfall as the supply of water used in the processes of transpiration and
evaporation. Frequently, these crops are exposed to severe water and nutrient
shortages than invariably limit crop production and thus yield. In order to
quantify crop production in semiarid areas the interactions of the soil with
the crop and its climate has to be included. These studies will provide an
estimate of the levels of production (yield) that can be achieved given a
quantity of water. This objective applies to the agronomic conditions of both
the High Plains of Texas and of West Africa.

The components of the system are divided in two balances, water and energy.
Each balance is given by the quantification of its inputs and outputs with the
realization that we are dealing with a system that is continuously changing. The
integration of these balances is accomplished using mechanistic simulation
models that aid us in the interpretation of our experimental results.
Furthermore due to the nature of the models used, which are not site specific,
they can be applied directly to different geographic areas.

Project Leader: Robert J. Lascano (Texas Agricultural Experiment Station)
Collaborators: C. Van Bavel (TAMU)
J.M. Baker (TAMU)
J.L. Hatfield (USDA, ARS)

Research Site: Lubbock, Texas

Accomplishments and Relevance:

To date this project has addressed two specific studies. The first one
was the characterization of the water and energy balance of a bare soil. The
results of this work are summarized in the following publication:

Lascano, R.J. and C.H.M. van Bavel. 1986. Simulation and measurement
of evaporation from a bare soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (In press).

This study dealt with a comprehensive method for the simultaneous solution
of the equation of continuity for water and heat in a soil system. The
solution is obtained at frequent, fixed intervals and the moisture and tempe-
rature profiles are printed when desired. The distinguishing characteristic
of the model is that it generates the instantaneous evaporation rate, from the
ambient weather and the momentary values of soil moisture and temperatures. The
evaporative flux is found by a combination method, that is, a combination of
the surface energy balance and a model of the fluxes above and below that
surface. Inputs to the model are the soil hydraulic properties and the time-
dependent weather variables: global radiation, air temperature, relative humi-
dity, wind speed, and amount and duration of rainfall.








This model represents a comprehensive, yet a fairly simple model of water
disposition in a bare soil profile under the sequential impact of rain storms
and other atmospheric influences, as they occur from hour to hour. This model
is a precursor of similar work for a crop. However, it is emphasized that a
critical test of the simple case, e.g. bare soil, was needed before the
complexities of the hydrology of a crop could be studied.

The second study, currently in progress, deals with the water and energy
balance of a crop with an incomplete canopy cover. The main purpose of this
study is the measurement of water use evapotranspirationn) as a function of
S time for a cotton crop. Again, this is a simple model that can be used to
evaluate the water use of any crop as the soil water reserves are depleted and
as the soil is replenished by rainfall or irrigation. It is a working model
that can be used to study the soil-plant-water relations of a row crop and to
evaluate the separation of soil evaporation from plant transpiration. This
model can also be used to evaluate the water use of a millet crop, which is
characterized for its wide row spacing and low leaf area throughout the growing
season. A preliminary report of this work will be presented in the American
Society of Agronomy meetings in New Orleans, LA.

Other accomplishments have been summarized in the following publications:

Van Bavel, C.H.M., R.J. Lascano, and J.M. Baker. 1985. Calibration
of two-probe gamma-gauge densitometers. Soil Sci. 140:393-395.

Lascano, R.J., J.L. Hatfield, and C.H.M. van Bavel. 1986. Field cali-
bration of neutron meters using a two-probe gamma density gauge.
Soil Sci. (In Press).

Future Plans:

This project is addressing the long term objective of evaluating crop pro-
duction in semiarid climates to both the conditions of the High Plains of Texas
and of West Africa. From the production point of view these two system are
subject to similar constraints, water and nutrient, that limit crop yields.
However, due to the complexities associated with the evaluation of the inter-
actions of the soil with the crop and climate a mechanistic approach has been
selected to first study individual components and then their interactions.

Experimentally this project has studied the water and energy balance of a
bare soil and of a cotton crop with an incomplete canopy. That is, we have
started with a simple system, e.g., bare soil, and then added the crop to
study evapotranspiration as a precursor of studying dry matter (yield) pro-
duction. Currently, we have evaluated the water and energy interaction and
have not addressed the production of dry matter as affected by soil nutrients
and water availability. These studies represent the future plans of this
project. Because of the approach we have selected to study crop production we
will be able to quantify production levels as a function of soil water and
nutrient availability for semiarid climates. Furthermore, this project makes
use of the information that is being collected by the soil-water fertility
project of Dr. Onken and Dr. Wendt.

Ideally, through graduate students, the postulated theories should be tested
and evaluated in Niger, West Africa. This would be an agronomic experiment in
which the interaction of soil water with nutrients, and yield of a millet crop
S/would be studied. The results obtained from these experiments could directly
S be applied to make management recommendations to farmers.


E.-4e^f (?)









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project lumber: A.8

Title: Soil Resource Evaluation in the Semi-arid Tropics.

Objectives:

1. Establish baseline soil resource conditions for major soils and
targeted research sites in the semi-arid tropics to facilitate
understanding of soil water/fertility interactions and technology
transfer.

2. Establish the quantity and composition of dust inputs into
semi-arid tropics as a nutrient renewal vector to soil
water/fertility interactions.

3. Integrate soil, climate and plant interactions into a land
evaluation model closely tied to toposequence/land use
relationships for millet and sorghum.

Applicability:

Soil resources in the Sahel region of Africa are highly fragile,
drought and commonly exhibit chemical toxicities and/or nutrient
deficiencies. Soil and climatic constraints pose the major
limitations to agricultural development. Soil physical, chemical and
mineralogical conditions control soil water/fertility interactions,
which in turn are closely interlinked to topography/geomorphology/
hydrology. This is well demonstrated by current land use patterns.
The purpose of this project is to establish baseline soils information
that documents the classification of soil resources, establishes their
pertinent properties relative to soil water/fertility interactions
and assesses representivity of target research sites relative to
surrounding areas. Development of a land evaluation scheme
synergistically intergrating soil, climate and plant interactions
would facilitate technology transfer and enhance applicability of
current TropSoils research efforts.

Eolian dusts from harmattann" winds from northern and eastern
Sahara Desert during the dry season and high intensity convectional
storms during the rainy season have been postulated to enrich soils
with nutrients. Thus, a system of dust traps to verify or negate this
hypothesis has been established in Niger at two research sites.

Project Leader: Larry P. Wilding (Texas A&M University)

Collaborators: Elisabeth Bui, (Texas A&M University)
Bernard Yerima, (Texas A&M University)
Anne Pfordresher, (Texas A&M University)
Ruben Puentes (Texas A&M University)

Research Sites: Niger, Mali and Cameroon.











Accomplishments and Relevance:


Soil resources at target research sites in Niger and Cameroon
have been classified and analyzed for pertinent physical, chemical and
mineralogical properties that are germaine to soil water/fertility
interactions. A total of 51 pedons, 258 samples, and 9600 analyses
have been completed for this purpose. The Soil Survey of the ICRISAT
Center was the first project completed and served as a benchmark for
subsequent soil/geomorphological studies of surrounding uplands and of
the Dallol Bosso. This work verified the following soil resource
conditions in Niger:

1. The thickness of sand over ironstone, a subsurface
impediment, is critical to water movement and plant rooting
volume; laterite strongly controls land use for agricultural
purposes.

2. Plant response is highly spatially variable over lateral
distances of a few meters reflecting soil spatial variability
in chemical properties.

3. Most upland soils are red, well oxidized, sandy, acid, weakly
structural, low activity clay systems that strongly covary in
soil thickness, base status, erosivity and available water
content with landform (geomorphology). Better croplands
occur in lower topographic positions with laterite-capped
plateaus relegated to pastorial rangelands and forests.

4. Most of the clays in these soils are easily water dispersible
which is responsible for clay enrichment in subsoils, sandy
surface horizons, and propensity to form surface crusts and
dense, hard subsoils when exposed by wind or water erosion.

5. Management implications of the upland resources are: low
nutrient and water retention, weakly buffered soil systems,
weakly structured soils, strong susceptibility to wind and
water erosion, easily induced compaction and crusting (or
sealing) surfaces, chemical toxicities (Al and possibly Mn)
and phosphorous deficiencies.

6. Soils in the Dallol Bosso (fossil valley of sandy alluvium
which has been wind-sculptured into low dunes and abandoned
channels) are spatially more variable in texture, drainage
and mineralogy than those of the ICRISAT Center. Watertables
during the rainy season occur at 1 to 7 m below the surface.
The soils of dunal landforms are well-oxidized, well drained,
deep sands with little or no subsoil clay enrichment.
Depressed areas of abandoned lakes or channels are more
variable in texture (sands to clay loams), less well-drained,
less acid and have clays with higher sorption capacity than
dunal analogues. The latter soils are also seasonally
reduced and subject to surficial accumulation of salts and
ironstone layers that pose constraints to agriculture
development.









In general, these soils are highly susceptible to wind
erosion, especially in the northern drier sectors below 300
to 400 mm precipitation; however, in central and southern
sectors with increased precipitation, they are unique soil
resources capable of more intensive cropping with potential
for small-scale subsistence irrigation and intercropping
between forested windbreaks as practiced in the Maggia
Valley.

Preliminary results indicate that dust inputs to the Sahel may
significantly impact nutrient renewal. The CEC and exchangeable Ca,
Mg, Na and K are from 10 to 30 fold higher from dusts than similar
properties for surface soils of the area.

Expressed on an area basis for the 3 month collection period,
this would represent 35 kg/ha of Ca, 5 kg/ha Mg, 5 kg/ha Na and 17
kg/ha of K. The dust samples are essentially 100% base saturated.
X-ray diffraction data indicates a significant component of smectite
(high-charge clays) associated with dominance of kaolinite clay in the
dust samples. Clay contents of the dust range form 11 to 28%.

Vertisols in the Cameroon are clayey, cracking soils with
physically restrictive compact subsoils. They have neutral to
slightly alkaline pH's and essentially base-saturated high charge
(smectite) clay systems. Extractable phosphorous and trace elements,
notably Zn, are deficient. Seasonal flooding and reduction are also
restrictive management conditions. Without management systems to
conserve water, fertilizer amendments or profile modification, these
soil resources appear poorly suited for reforestation purposes.

During the past four years, the PI has served in a backstopping
role as a soil resource specialist with graduate students (Bill Payne,
Christope Zoango, Jim Gardner, John Wendt, Larry West and Jonathon
Landeck) and INRAN scientists, Ouattara and Annou. Training was
provided to demonstrate the importance of profile morphological,
physical and chemical properties to design, data collection and
interpretation of soil water/fertility research results. Soils were
examined in pits, described, sampled, and classified according to Soil
Taxonomy and the FCC System.

Mr. Bernard Yerima, from the Cameroon, has completed defense of
his Ph. D. dissertation entitled "Soil Genesis, Phosphorous and
Micronutrient Status of Selected Vertisols and Associated Alfisols of
North Cameroon" and will graduate in August, 1986. Ms. Elisabeth Bui
has drafted a copy of her Ph.D. dissertation entitled "Relationships
between Stratigraphy, Geomorphology and Pedology in the Dallol Bosso,
Niger (West Africa)" and will complete her degree by September 31,
1986. Both students were supported under the auspices of this
project.










Future Plans:


Following are plans projected for the next year under this
project:

1. Dust trap monitoring will be continued at the present two
locations -- Chikal and Sadore', and the addition of two more
sites will be considered. Plans will be made to collect dry
dust from specific storm events to contrast with total wet
and dry dust infall. After the 1st years data have been
analyzed, a decision will be made concerning the need to
continue with collection at both 3.5- and 7.5-m levels and at
four sampling periods. At this same time, a determination
will be made relative to using different trap designs (i.e.,
the vane trap used at the ARS Wind Erosion Laboratory, Big
Spring, TX). This effort should be continued for 3 to 5
years based on present probable significance to soil
water/fertility interactions.

2. Work will be initiated on a land evaluation model to
integrate soil, climate and plant interactions for millet and
sorghum. The model will be specifically adapted to the
semi-arid tropics and closely linked to geomorphology/
topography/land use relationships. It will be adapted from
the FAO Framework for Land Evaluation and the Sanchez-Couto-
Boul Fertilizer Capability System using Soil Taxonomy as the
basis for model development. Available P, soil acidity,
water capture and storage, and climatic factors appear to be
the major constraints to millet and sorghum production in
this region. Thus, parameters that would be important to
this model would include, among others, rainfall and growing
season probabilities, soil texture, effective soil depth,
CEC, pH, exchangeable Al, available P, soil crusting, wind
and water erosivity, and topographic position. The model
would be applied at selected collaborator research and
extension centers in Mali, Niger and possibly the Cameroon.
Ms. Anne Pfordresher, M.S. student, will provide leadership
to this project in collaboration with Dr. Persaud, Dr. Manu,
Mr. Ouattara and Ruben Puentes.

3. At three to four locations in the Dallol Bosso, permanent
access tubes will be installed to monitor seasonal watertable
fluctuations and impact on water quality. Sites would be
chosen in paired dunal terraces and adjacent channels. At
least one of the channel sites would be associated with soils
under the influence of salt accumulation. This work would be
in concert with Dr. Manu, Soils Laboratory, INRAN.

4. The PI will continue to serve the project in a backstopping
role. He will provide soil resource counsel and training to
graduate students including Jessica Davis Rainey and Mamadou
Doumbia and collaborating scientists. He will also work with
Mr. Bernard Yerima in program expansion into the Cameroon.









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: A.11

Title: Surface crusts under semiarid environments.

Objective:

Elucidate and model surface soil sealing and crust formation processes
under semiarid environments.

Applicability:

Sealing of surface layers and thin superficial crusts, that form in
coarse and moderately coarse-textured soils, are deterrents to water
infiltration and recharge in many soils of the semiarid tropics. Their
presence enhances surface runoff, erosion and desertification.

Occurrence of crusting conditions and their detrimental effect appear
to be most pronounced on thin soils of coarse or moderately-coarse texture
occupying plateaus or valley segments where erosion has been pronounced. In
both situations it results in enhanced desertification and decreased biomass
production.

Information gained may well have applicability to other regions of the
world with crusting problems. Comparative studies with crusting soils of
Texas with Niger conditions will permit evaluation and verification of
generalized or specific mechanisms.

Project Leader: Frank Calhoun (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: J. Dixon (TAMU)
H. Shadfan (TAMU)
D.C. Golden (TAMU)
E. Bui (TAMU)

Research Site: College Station

Achievements and relevance:

From experiments employing soils samples from Niger and Texas, it was
found that the strength of surface crusts formed was much higher in Texas
soils, and that the hardening process in the two sets of samples may be
controlled by different factors. It was also found that the microrelief of
the soil surface has a significant impact on crusting: sand and silt crusts
are formed in sloping areas where clay crusts are formed in lower, flat
areas.

Future plans:

This project has been suspended.










PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number : B..

Title: Tillage practices to control sandblasting and improve water use.

Objective:

To increase crop yield by improving the status of soil water and
controlling seedling sandblasting and burial using selected tillage
treatments.

Applicability:

Water is a primary constraint in rainfed agricultural production
systems. Conservation efforts in such areas should be aimed at increasing
infiltration and decreasing evaporation. The common methods of increasing
infiltration is through tillage. Techniques such as plowing immediately
after rainfall to prevent crust formation and subsoiling and furrow diking
to prevent runoff are commonly practiced. Such practices, where
appropriate, need to be accelerated in the Sahel.

Early crop establishment on sandy soils is an important goal to farmers
and has been shown to be effective in increasing yield. Violent winds which
precede early-season rainstorms cause extensive damage to young millet
seedlings.

The "sandfighter," used in a similar environment in west Texas, was
readily accepted by the ICRISAT scientists to stablize the soils before
planting at the ISC. It was also observed that, in sandfighted fields, weed
populations were reduced and rainfall redistribution (runoff) was improved
as compared with controls.

However, for the Sahelian farmers to benefit from the research, the
tool must be adapted to animal traction. Required modifications were
developed from 1983-85. From the positive effects seen at ISC, USAID
personnel associated with Niger's National Extension Service have expressed
interest in testing a modified sandfighter on Niger's extension farms.

Prpject Leader: Robert Chase (Texas A&M University)


Research Site: Niger

Achievements and relevance:

The tractor drawn sandfighter was seen to be successful in stabilizing
the sandy soils at the ICRISAT S.C. and at the INRAN's Kolo Station.

These tests confirmed that the sandfighter is as effective at low
(animal traction) speeds as at intermediate speeds. High working speeds,
needed in Texas soils, were less effective.









It was also observed that the sandfought fields had a higher
infiltration rate than adjacent fields. While no standing water was seen in
the previously sandfought field, surface runoff was observed in the control.
The importance of these effects in Sahelian "dune soils" has not yet been
evaluated but the consequences of surface crusting and runoff in slightly
siltier soils, frequently found in other parts of the Sahel, is well known.

Passage of the sandfighter caused considerable damage to millet crops
when pulled over the plants. Unlike its use in cotton (in Texas) for millet
it must be designed as on interrow tool and be used at the same time as
planting, as soon after a rainfall as possible. However competition for
labor between planting and sandfighting at this critical period would
preclude the use of this tool at the time when it would do its best in
protecting germinating millet seedlings.

A new prototype of "animal-drawn sandfighter" was developed with
removable planting tynes. While making holes for proper seed and fertilizer
placement, the machine stabilizes the surface between rows. It was tested
with the aid of ILCA researchers. Results indicate that this model can
stabilize one half hectare per hour while eliminating the need for the local
planting tool and speeding up the planting process. Its use could,
therefore, help to relieve the labor bottleneck in the planting season.

Future plans:

This project has been completed.








PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: B.2

Title: Rainfall management to increase crop yields.

Objective:

Improve management of rainfall to enhance infiltration/rainfall and
ET/infiltration ratios.

Applicability:

Seeds are often sown in dry soil. If rainfall less than the 15-20 mm
required for germination is received, the stands are spotty and replanting
is necessary. If a series of sloping ridges impervious to water could be
created to shed water into adjacent untreated strips of soil, the problem
might be alleviated and the stands and yields stabilized.

In many parts of Niger, the landscape is characterized by elevated
hardened laterite surfaces adjacent to lower areas of colluvium and
alluium which are cultivated in sorghum and millet. During rains, the
water rushes from the impervious laterite areas into the valleys below
causing severe gullying and sedimentation problems in small dams for
irrigation. If the water could be spread or impounded and allowed to
infiltrate in the valleys, the potential exists to increase sorghum and
millet production by overcoming the erratic rainfall. At the same
time sedimentation and erosion problems would be alleviated.

Project Leader: N.araine Persau (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: Christophe Zaongo (Texas A&M University)

Research Site: Niger

Achievements and relevance:

Millet and sorghum response to a contour strip method of water
harvesting (CSWH) was tested. Results have shown large increases in yield
due to the effect of CSWH techniques. Seedling survival and more efficient
water storage and water use can be achieved.

Future plans:

Results from the CSWH experiment will be processed and field work will
be continued to completion.

A new experiment will be initiated. The principle of water harvesting
at the farm field level, which supported the CSWH experiment, will be
applied at the small watershed level. Extensive impervious laterite
plateaus will be evaluated as water harvesting areas for intensive
agriculture into small watersheds below. Studies will be initiated for the
quantification of surface hydrology of these watersheds using data from
simulated rainfall.










PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: B.3

Title: Rejuvenation of crusted forest soils.

Objective:

Rejuvenate crusted forest soils by selected mulch and tillage
treatments.

Applicability:

A cooperative research project was begun in April, 1983, between
AID/Niger mission-funded Forest Land Use Project (FLUP), INRAN and TROPSOILS
to study methods of halting and reversing desertification in the Guesselbodi
Forest.

Crusted soil surfaces mulched with tree branches had considerable
termite activity and residual surface deposits of leaves and sand trapped by
the mulch. The mulch treatment thus affords the potential of becoming an
economical method of rejuvenating forest in the Sahel. Studies need to be
continued for a period of time to determine the long term effects on the
vegetation and on the soil physical and chemical characteristics.

Although tree branches, which comprise one half of the weight of
trees harvested in the Sahel, are a waste product in commercial firewood
harvesting, they are still in limited supply. Optimal methods for the use
of this resource must be defined if they continue to appear useful in the
rejuvenation of Sahelian forests. Proximity of mulched plots to a vegetated
area, total area mulched, and mulch density appear to have important effects
on plant establishment and production in these treated plots. These factors
must be defined before an effective strategy for forest rejuvenation can be
defined.

Project Leader: Robert Chase (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: Eric Boudouresque (Universite d' Orleans, Orleans, France)
John Heermans (Forest and Land Use and Planning Project)

Research site: Niger

Achievements and relevance:

a. Surface treatments

Tillage, mulches and tillage-mulch treatments were tested. Results
indicate that tillage is not as effective in the regeneration of degraded,
barren forest soils, as is mulching with tree branches. This is a relevant
finding because the use of branches, a waste product of commercial firewood
harvesting, may be feasible.










Wind and rainstorms play an important role in the rejuvenation process
because they wash and/or blow sand, leaves and seeds into the plots. The
branch mulch stabilizes these transported materials and the result is a
favorable environment to plant establishment. Termite activity is also
important, opening stable macropors in the crusted soil.

b. Runoff control

As a part of a demonstration work with FLUP, several water
harvesting structures were tested. Contour rock dikes, banquettes and
diggetts were constructed. Some of these methods have been used in
traditional agriculture in other parts of Africa, although on very different
soils. Vegetation was established at the sites for the first time in many
years. The water front in the treated area extended to an average depth of
145 cm while in the untreated area, which remained barren, moisture
penetrated to a depth of 45 cm. average.

Future plans:

This project will be continued by FLUP scientists and a German graduate
student. It will include a larger water-harvesting experiment in the Maggia
Valley, in collaboration with CARE and INRAN.









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: B.4


(Includes projects A.3 and B.4 from previous
reports).


Title:


Causes and control of pronounced plant growth variability over short
distances.

Objectives:

1. Characterization of spatial variability of crops and soil
properties using geostatistical methods.

2. Optimization of sampling techniques.

3. Correction of crop growth variability and yield loss upon
findings on sources of variability.

Applicability:

A serious obstacle to evaluate data obtained from research plots in
Niger is the variability, e.g. large coefficients of variation of measured
parameters.

Optimizing soil sampling (collecting representative data with a minimum
of samples) is the goal of all soil scientists. This is particularly
important in Africa where laboratory facilities are poor or distant and
transportation is difficult and expensive. High frequency sampling can be
analysed using geostatistical methods to determine the optimum distance
between soil samples in the field which was sampled.

Results from highly variable fields and those with lower variability
will give scientists a basis for their sampling program. In addition, this
data represents a baseline with which to compare the results of
interventions made in an attempt to decrease soil variability in sampled
fields.


Project Leader:

Collaborators:


Lloyd Hossner (Texas A&M University)
(Robert Chase*)
Leslie Fussell (ICRISAT)
Mamadou Issaka (INRAN)
Michael Klaij (Wageningen Tillage Lab)
Eugene Perrier (ICARDA)
Mamadou Doumbia (TAMU)


Research Site: Niger & Mali

(* up to 12/1986)








Achievements and relevance:


At ICRISAT, TROPSOILS' research has identified three soil properties,
i.e. pH, Al saturation and surface crust, which are highly correlated with
poor crop growth, causing high variability in research fields. Mn levels
may be an additional factor. Methods must be found to test these small and
scattered pockets of soil to decrease variability in research lots and
increase farmer's yield. With s-bbjective, research is being conducted,
both in Niger and Mali. 7

Future plans:

Solution of the spatial variability problem could greatly enhance
millet and sorghum production in the Sahel. Experiments designed toward the
correction of spatial variability will continue. Data collected to date
indicate that the major source of variability in those fields studied is
exchangeable Aluminum. Soils are sandy and have a low effective cation
exchange capacity. The most effective methods to neutralize exchangeable
Aluminum in these soils is low levels of lime applied in association with
phosphate and gypsum. The soils are sandy and only slightly buffered.
Field studies are being conducted at two locations in Niger and one location
Mali to evaluate phosphate and lime application to correct soil
acidity problems and eliminate spatial variability. A number of acid
tolerant sorghum lines are being tested this summer in Mali.









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number : B. 5

Title:

Evaluation and/or development of low to intermediate input soil,
water, or crop management practices to increase and/or stabilize yields of
rainfed crops.

Objective:

Maximize efficient use of water through manipulation of soil and crop.

Applicability:

It is estimated that millet and sorghum require approximately 300 mm
of available soil moisture to reach maturity. Short-term drought stress
during the growing season is frequent and can lower yields or result in
total crop failure. Practices such as bare fallow, residue management,
biomass control, minimum tillage, response farming, etc. can be used to
enhance rain-use efficiency and crop yields.

Project Leader: Naraine Persaud (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators : M. Ouattara (INRAN)
M. Gandah (INRAN)

Research Site: Niger

Relevance:

The development, adaptation and evaluation of soil, water and crop
management practices has been identified as the main goal of the TROPSOILS
- SAT program.

Information about the response of millet and other crops to different
soil moisture deficits and crop- mangement practices (cropping sequence,
f~reITzatin, tillage, til er removal, etc.) is essential toward this
goal. The need exists--to understand the effects of these practices on
so-i-moisture storage, soil-moisture use pattern by the crop,
sgl-mo atir- loss patterns, fertilizer-use efficiency, etc., so that they
can be adapted to increasing or stabilizing rainfed crop yields.

Accomplishment:

Up to now, only the biomass control experiment (tiller removal) has
produced preliminary results. Other experiments have been recently
initiated.

During the growth cycle of millet plants many tillers are produced, the
mean number depending on the particular genotype. It seems that the
traditional local varieties in Niger have been selected for high tillering
capacity, probably because: 1. the millet residues are used for housing,












village industry and the animal feed at the end of the season, 2. the
semi-erect leaves function as rainfall harvesting surfaces, 3. the
tillers provide additional surface for photosynthesis thus compensating
for the short growing period. Whether these rationalizations are factual
or not can only be decided by future investigation; however it seems safe
to assume that the tillers, only a small percentage of which produce
fertile heads, play an important part in the growth, development and yield
of millet grown in the special agroecological conditions of Niger.

From a soil-water conservation viewpoint the tillers transpire water
and if not productive, they widen the ratio of water used per unit grain
yield. Through this experiment we are:

1. Studying the effect of tiller removal on the growth and yield of
several millet varieties under different soil-water conditions and
levels of fertilizer application.

2. Investigating the effect of tiller removal on soil-moisture use
efficiency.

3. Looking for varietal differences and interactions with soil moisture
content and fertilizer levels.

The results of this experiment will indicate whether tiller removal
has a potential as a low-input technique for soil-water management. If
proven successful it will increase the resiliency of the millet grower by
helping him to tailor his crop biomass to the varying local rainfall
pattern. The yield may also be stabilized, and in addition, the tillers
removed may be used as animal fodder.

STwo experiments were conducted: one under irrigation by sprinklers
During February to May of 1985 and one under rainfed conditions during
July to September of 1985. The yield results show a positive increase in
fieldd under rainfed conditions due to tiller removal and indicate that
these studies should be extended.

It must be emphasized that it is too early to make any statements on
the usefulness or practicability of this technique. Much more
experimentation is needed to understand the mechanism involved, to establish
its usefulness, and its extension to farmer's fields.

Future plans:

Studies on tiller removal will be continued up to completion. Two new
experiments have been initiated:

a. Influence of cropping sequence in a 2-year rotation on soil
moisture status, growth and yield of millet and cowpea on the sandy
soils of Niger.

b. Response of pearl millet to soil moisture deficit in different
agroclimatological zones of Niger.










PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: B.7

Title: Modification of agroclimate and crop phenology between rows of
neem tree windbreaks.

Objective:

Determine if and how cereal growth and yield are modified when alley
cropped between neem-tree windbreak rows.

Applicability:

The CARE Maggia Valley shelterbelt/windbreak plantings of Neem trees
provide an opportunity for studying the role of shelterbelts and
windbreaks in Niger for improving crop growth and yield of millet. There
appears to be an increasing interest to extend these plantings.
Motivation may be due mainly to a perceived increase in comfort and
protection for themselves, their dwellings, and animals as a result of
being shielded from high winds and dust rather than a perception of the
possible effect of the trees in moisture conservation, crop growth, and
yields.

Careful studies are needed to understand the effects of the present
windbreak rows on the physical environment of the crop and to relate these
effects to crop growth and yield. Such studies will provide a rational
basis for further plantings and; thus, optimize benefits from expended
time, money, effort, and land removed from production.

Project Leader: Naraine Persaud (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: Steve Long (CARE)
Mamadou Ouattara (INRAN)

Research Site: Niger

Achievements and relevance:

Tree windbreaks, by modifying the influence of hot, dry, dessicating
winds in Niger serve as a semi-permanent method for soil-water conservation
and for ameliorating wind erosion. The trees if harvested rationally can
provide much-needed fuel wood without seriously impairing their wind
protective efficiency.

This project has not been completed yet. Only preliminary results are
available. Results will reveal the usefulness, if any, of the trees In
term of their modification of the physical environment and crop growth.
Such information is indispensable in planning layout of future plantings
and subsequent management of these plantings.







Preliminary results have shown that yields depend on distance from tree
rows. Overall yields between the tree rows were higher than outside
although difference was not statistically significant. Partial pollarding
has proved to be the best harvest method, with the lowest loss of
efficiency.


Future plans:
Studies will continue up to completion.


iis*GI1~'









PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: B.9

Title: Rooting pattern studies on millet and cowpeas.

Objective:

Increase crop utilization of soil water by changing rooting patterns
through placement of appropriate rates of applied plant nutrients.

Applicability:

Certain varieties of millet work well when intercropped with certain
varieties of cowpea, the common Sahelian intercropping system, while other
varieties do not. This is undoubtedly due to competition between the roots
of the plants for water and/or nutrients. Exactly how this happens and, in
fact, general root pattern of these crops within an intercropping system are
not well understood. It would be of great benefit to plant breeders and
agronomists if these root patterns could be described and plant competition
mechanisms better understood.

Project Leader: Lloyd Hossner (Texas A&M University)
Collaborators: Jessica Davis (Texas A&M University)
Andrew Manu (INRAN-TAMU)
Naraine Persaud (Texas A&M University)

Research Site: Niger

Achievements and relevance:

This project will be initiated in 1986's growing season.

Future plans:

Studies will be initiated to predict which crops and varieties would
make a good intercrop in a particular environment based on rooting patterns
and responses to the variables which affect root growth. The study will
evaluate root distribution of at least three varieties of millet and cowpea
and to correlate horizontal and vertical root distribution to soil physical
and chemical properties. Soil properties will include temperature,
moisture, strength, aluminum, calcium, phosphorus and pH. Measurements will
be made using meter square root-trench profiles on 10 cm x 10 cm grid.











PROJECT STATEMENT


Project No.: B.ll

Title: Water use efficiency and soil fertility relationships.

Objectives:

1. Enhance water use efficiency of crops with applied plant nutrients and
cultivar selection.
2. Improve soil physical and chemical properties through use of
fertilizers and soil amendments.

Applicability:

The reactions of nutrient within these soils under the extreme temperature
regimes experienced in the Sahel is unknown. A procedure for obtaining
dissolution rate constants has been developed and the rate constants correlated
with sorghum response to fertilizer phosphorus. The use of dissolution rate
constants offers a method of studying phosphorus reactions in soils as they
relate to plant responses and can be applied to optimizing phosphorus-use and
water-use efficiency in soils.

Project Leader: Arthur Onken (Texas Agric. Exp. St.)
Collaborators: Charles Wendt (Texas Agric. Exp. St.)

Research Sites: Mali and Lubbock, Texas

Accomplishments and relevance:

Research has shown that nutrient deficiencies under rainfed conditions
results in poor utilization of available water in both the African Sahel and
Texas High Plains. It has been shown that five-fold increases in forage
production can result from proper N and P fertilization. Water use
efficiencies (biomass/ET) have been increased 8% under dryland conditions at
Lubbock, Texas with proper fertilizer practices. While research tends to
indicate that biomass/unit of water transpired changes only in cases of severe
nutrient deficiencies, research is lacking concerning plant nutrition
requirements necessary to obtain maximum dry matter production per unit of
water when water is limiting. It is well recognized that nutrient deficiencies
(particularly N and P) greatly inhibit crop production in Sahelian Africa.
Further, information is lacking relative to fertility level-water level
interactions and the role newly identified nutrient use efficient cultivars
might play in water use efficiencies.

Studies in greenhouse pots (12 L), minilysimeters (75 L) in rainout
shelters and rainfed field plots were conducted to determine the effects of
available water and soil fertility on water use efficiency (WUE) of sorghums
differing in nutrient use efficiencies and fertilizer response. Grain sorghum
cultivars identified, in previous research at Lubbock, as differing in grain
production per unit of available N under low N availability (nitrogen use
efficiency, NUE), responsiveness to applied N (SC325, SC630, R6956, and 77CS1)
and under low P availability (MB9-41, TX2536, SC167 and SC175) were utilized
for these studies.











Results from pot and lysimeter studies wherein evaporation was suppressed
have shown consistent differences between lines in WUE as defined by dry matter
produced per unit of water transpired. WUE was also influenced by water and
fertility levels and their interactions. For example, when grown in N deficient
soil under limited water conditions SC630 and SC325 had higher WUE's than
77CS1. However, under adequate water 77CS1 had a higher WUE than SC630 and
SC325. Under P and water deficient conditions MB9-41 and SC167 used less water
per gram of dry tissue than TX2536. No significant differences were found
between these genotypes when adequate water was available. In studies
involving genotype, water levels and N levels, the data indicated that N rate,
genotype, water level, and the interactions of genotype x N rate, water x
genotype, and water x genotype x N rate had significant effects on WUE.
Increasing N rates increased WUE. The three way interaction was apparently due
to the lack of response of 77CS1 to increasing N rates.

Data from field studies show significant differences between genotypes in
grain produced per inch of water (water requirement, WR) used under low and
high fertility. A highly significant (R2 = 0.90) positive linear
relationship was found between grain yield and WR. Thus, factors affecting WR
will affect yields. An interaction between genotype and fertility level on WR
was found in the field studies as in the pot and lysimeter studies resulting in
the following conclusion. If fertilization is to be effective in improving WR,
it must be applied to sorghum genotypes responsive to fertilizer applications.
These results indicate important potential opportunities for increasing crop
production in the Sahel with limited capital.

Technology to use a hydraulic press for measuring leaf water potential in
drought studies with sorghums was developed. The equipment and its use have
been transferred to Mali and instructions in its use given to Malian
technicians at the Cinzana Experiment Station to evaluate drought tolerance in
sorghums.

Research to determine the effects of soil temperature on phosphorus
reactions in an Alfisol from the Cinzana Experiment Station are underway. The
measurement being used (dissolution rate constant in EDTA) has been correlated
to grain sorghum responses to fertilizer phosphorus applied to Texas High
Plains Alfisols.

Future Plans:

The focus of this research is to determine the interactions between soil
nutrient supply, available soil water, and sorghums of varying nutrient use
efficiencies on water use efficiency and in understanding the mechanisms
involved. Previous research under this project indicates their importance
relative to increasing crop production where less than optimum rainfall and low
soil fertility are primary constraints, as in the African Sahel.

Three field studies will be conducted. Two studies will be conducted on
nutrient deficient soil under rainfed conditions. To define the interaction of
fertility level and genotype under low available water on water requirement
(WR), sorghum genotypes of known differences in nitrogen use efficiency and N
fertilizer response will be grown on N deficient soil with and without N
fertilizer. Water use will be determined by neutron probe and WR calculated.
A similar study will be conducted on a phosphorus deficient soil.










The third field study is designed to define the interaction between
available soil water and fertility on water requirement. A study composed of 3
water levels (rainfed, 50% of Et and 100% of ET) and 3 N levels (0, 20 and 80
lbs/a) in factorial combination will be conducted on a N deficient soil. Water
use will be determined by neutron probe. Plant measurements will include, dry
weight, leaf area and N content at head initiation, 50% bloom and black layer.
In addition periodic measurements will be made of photosynthesis, leaf
conductance and leaf water potential. A single sorghum hybrid will be used.

A minilysimeter study will be conducted in a rainout shelter to
investigate the three way interaction of available soil water x N fertility
level x genotype. Two genotypes selected for differences in N and water level
response will be planted to minilysimeters treated in factorial combination
with 2 water levels and 3 N levels. Water use will be determined by weighing.
Roots will be washed from the lysimeters at black layer following harvest of
above soil material. Dry weights and N content will be determined on all plant
material.

The study that has been started to determine the effects of temperature on
phosphorus reactions in soil from Mali will be continued. Dissolution rate
constants are being determined periodically in EDTA solution following
application of monocalcium phosphate and a series of wetting and drying cycles.

Strengthening Grant funds have been obtained to determine the chemical
characteristics of soils from the Cinzana Experiment Station in the Malian
Sahel. These data will result in a greater understanding of Malian soils and
aid substantially in TROPSOILS research planning.

It is obvious that available water and soil chemistry-fertility problems
on both cultivated and non-cultuvated soil are limiting agricultural production
in the Sahel. These initial studies are directed at grain sorghum, however,
should resources become available in the future, similar data will be obtained
for other crops.













PROJECT STATEMENT


Project No.: B.13

Title: Increasing available soil water and crop yield through tillage and
fertilization.

Objective: Develop appropriate tillage and fertilizer techniques to increase
available soil water ana crop yield under rainfed conditions.

Applicability:

Water is the major limiting factor in agricultural production in the
semiarid areas of the world. In developed countries tillage techniques,
engineering structures, and cropping systems have been developed to increase
soil water storage and crop yields. Problems common to the semiarid areas of
Africa and the United States include evaporation crusting, runoff and wind
erosion. Mechanical and residue management techniques developed in Western
Texas to decrease evaporation crusting, runoff and wind erosion can be modified
and adapted to the Sahel.

In the Sahel, low soil pH and fertility as well as water are limiting
factors in agricultural production. Previous research has shown that
application of nutrients can result in five-fold increases in range grass
growth in Mali. Chemical amendments and fertilizers will need to be applied
judiciously in the Sahel due to the fragile nature of the soils.

Due to the cost of tillage and fertilizers in West Africa, studies are
needed to determine what combinations are most economically feasible to
increase crop yields.

Project Leader: Charles W. Wendt (Texas Agri. Exp. St.)
Collaborators: Arthur B. Onken (Tex. Agric. Exp. St.)
Donald McCool ARS-USDA, Pullman, Washington.
Mamadou Simpara IER, Mali.

Research Sites: Mali and Lubbock, Texas

Accomplishments and Relevance:

TROPSOILS funds were transferred to Mali in the Summer of 1984. With a
portion of these funds, sites for both soil management and runoff studies were
selected at Cinzana in 1985. The site selected by M. Simpara is a loam with a
clay subsoil. The site is higher in nitrogen and phosphorus than the adjacent
sandy soils. The pH ranges from 5-6. At the end of the rainy season in 1984,
a portion of the area was plowed. Infiltration determined with a ring
infiltrometer was 100 mm/hr in the plowed soils, and 3 mm/hr in the unplowed
soils. Tillage treatments were moldboarding, ridging, and control. Sorghum
yields on the moldboard and ridge--plot-r-were 3000 kg/hr, while little sorghum
grew on the untilled plots. The demonstration showed the impact of tillage and
the need for tillage research. At the end of the 1985 cropping season tillage
treatments were installed for an extensive tillage-fertility study in 1986.
The study includes 3 fertility levels and four tillage practices with 4
replications of each treatment.














The overseas program is backstopped by research to augment the research in
Mali. One area of research is concerned with the effect of fertilizer
placement of phosphorus fertilizer on soil water extraction and crop yield. To
date, there has been some increase in soil water extraction by phosphorus
placed 45 cm deep but no increase in yield. This is not surprising because we
have received timely rains during the past 2 years. Deep placement of
phosphorus is apparently beneficial during dry years.

Strengthening Grant funds are being used to pursue other areas of research
applicable to the Sahel. One area is allelopathy or the effect of residues of
the proceeding crop on succeeding crops. This research has just been
initiated. However, it does appear that sorghum residues inhibit the
/germination of sorghum and other cro psaecies. As rotation schemes are
developed for Africa, the knowledge of allelopathy will be very important.

A trip was made to Cinzana to locate a site for some runoff plots. A good
site was located at Cinzana. Plans are to install the plots early in 1987.
Treatments will include flat ridged and tied ridges; cropped and uncropped
areas; mulched and clean tilled areas.

Future Plans:

There have been problems with funding, personnel changes and assignment of
responsibilities in the Mali project. Hopefully, these have been resolved and
an orderly evolving research program can be pursued.

The tillage-fertility program should be viewed as the first step in
adapting some of the technological concepts developed in the semiarid areas of
West Texas to the semiarid areas of Mali. In addition to tillage, mulching and
fertility studies breaking crusts mechanically should be evaluated. In the
Cinzana area, there is an excess of residue which is often burned that could be
used in the stubble mulch concept. The crusting causes low infiltration and
runoff. Simple tools to break the crust immediately after rains could increase
infiltration, soil water storage, and yield.

Attempts are being made in Mali to use engineering structure such as
terracing to prevent runoff. Problems exist in stabilizing the terraces on
sandy soils. Research is needed to determine what grass species will stabilize
the terraces.

Little information is available on the water balance and soil erosion as
influenced by various surface treatments. Such information would be available
from the planned runoff plots. Dr. McCool or his graduate student is planning
to assist in the installation of the runoff plots. Information from these
plots will aid in designing better cultural practices as well as provide much
needed information on the water balance in the Sahel.

As indicated in the applicability statement, fertility and chemistry
problems can be severe in the Sahel. This project will be closely allied with
the fertility-water interaction project under the direction of Dr. Onken to
develop the best fertility response for the water available from a particular
tillage practice. The project will also be coordinated with the mechanistic
modeling effort of Dr. Lascano to facilitate technology transfer to the Sahel
of West Africa.











PROJECT STATEMENT


Project Number: C.1

Title: Project Management

Objective:

Assistance to the Project Coordinator in the overall management of
TROPSOILS -SAT program.

Applicability:

Due to the events previously discussed in Chapter 2 "Program evolution
and current organization" (the departure of Dr. Frank Calhoun and budgetary
problem during FY4, see 2.1E) the management office at College Station had
to increase its dedication and efficiency in order to better assist Dr.
E.C.A. Runge, who took care of the overall coordination, to avoid further
problems with the budget and provide an adequate logistial support to all
TROPSOILS SAT Project Leaders.

The following is a list of some of the activities which are conducted
from this office:

a. Budgeting:

A general annual budget for the TROPSOILS SAT program is
prepared according with the guidelines provided by the P.C. and
funding availability arranged with the M.E.

b. Accounting:

Accounts (domestic and overseas) are set up for each Project
Leader. An "in-house" bookkeeping system is maintained. Monthly
expenditures are checked with budgets and any disagreement is
immediately communicated to the Project Leader. The "in-house"
accounting system is permanently checked with TAMRF's monthly
reports and any disagreement is discussed with TAMRF's personnel.

c. Expenditure approval:

All expenditures (equipment, supplies, travel, etc.) must go
through the Management Office for approval. Depending on the kind
and amount of the requests, they are submitted either to the M.E.,
to the P.C. or are approved by the Program Manager.

d. Travel arrangements:

All travel authorization requests go through the Management
Office. International travel requests are submitted to the M.E.
for AID approval. Domestic travel is approved by the P.C. Most
travel arrangements (ticket purchase, hotel reservations, advance
requests, etc.) are processed in this office. Usually round trip
tickets for overseas posted junior and senior scientists are











purchased at the U.S. and sent via PTA to Africa in order to
obtain lower rates and better connections.

e. Communications:

Special emphasis has been given to improve communications among
personnel posted in Africa, staff in College Station and Lubbock,
AID missions, the M.E., etc. Most of this activity is handled
from the Management Office via Telex or telephone.

f. Assistance to graduate students:

Considerable time is devoted to assist graduate students,
particularly while they are posted overseas. This includes
facilitation of communication with advisors in the U.S.,
registration "in absentia" to TAMU, insurances, billiographic
materials, assistance in shipping or storing personnel effects and
a wide variety of administrative matters.

g. Visitors and meetings:

This office handles most arrangements for TROPSOILS related
technical and administrative meetings and visitors coming to TAMU.
This includes travel and hotel arrangements, itineraries, agendas,
car rental, airport transportation, etc.

h. Reporting:

Periodic administrative and financial reports are prepared when
requested from the M.E., the P.C. or from TAES' authorities.
Technical reports are also prepared or edited with the assistance
of Project Leaders and the P.C.

i. Bibliographic services:

A small library is being organized at this office with emphasis on
semiarid agriculture and particularly, soil and water management.
TROPSOILS graduate students are the main users. Occasionally,
bibliographic material is requested by scientists posted overseas:
publications are photocopied from the main library and
immediately submitted to the requester. Some bibliographic lists
have been prepared by request from senior scientists, using the
computerized system available at TAMU's main library.

j. Computer services:

The initial Zenith Z-100 system has been updated with the purchase
of an IBM compatible Z-148. The Z-100 is now being used as a
telex terminal or for fast document transfer with Lubbock
Experimental Station. It is also always available as a
wordprocessor for graduate students and, as it is linked with
TAMU's mainframe, it can be used for statistical work. A software
library is being organized for the new Z-148, it includes
wordprocessor, spreadsheet (mainly used for program accounting),










data management, graphic and statistical packages and
miscellaneous utilities.


Project Leader:

Collaborator:


Ruben Puentes (Texas A&M University)
(Program Manager)
Gloria Northcutt (Texas A&M University)
(Part time TROPSOILS' Secretary)


Achievements and relevance:

Although this fiscal year will end in three months, it is apparent
that the lack of adjustment between expenditures and budget has been
controlled. All Project Leaders have expended within the possibilities of
their budgets and in fact, some savings are expected in several accounts.
This has been the main goal of this office for this year.

Future plans:


Budgeting, bookkeeping and reporting have been taking most
of the Program Manager. The hiring of a replacement for Dr.
position might alleviate reporting activities and improve the
the reports produced.


of the time
F. Calhoun's
quality of


If the proposed "Accounting Assistant" position for the Soil & Crop
Sciences Department is not filled, the computerized, "in-house" bookkeeping
system will be adjusted and our secretary be trained for his utilization.
This will give the Program Manager some extra time to better assist the
P.C. and to start developing more creative and useful activities.










The


Budge t







5 THE BUDGET


5.1 Summary of total expenditures up to date

Table 5.1 is a summary of total expenditures to date
from information provided by TAMRF.




Table 5.1 Subgrantee Financial Report up to June 1986.


Category Total budget This period Cumulative expenditures
amount (June/86) up to date
Salaries S 758,290.86 S 12.593.7* S 753.L16.27
Fringe Benefits 138,723.56 1,781.76 152,057.91
Allowances -0- -0- -0-
Overhead .'6,084.24 -..-1.22 .09,5-7.19
Transportation 224,928.00 5,376.27 328,049.6
Supplies and Equip. 887,.21.85 894.89 400,66..56
Other Direct Costs 47,3551.49 3,591.49 509,997.8'
Grand Total S2,919,000.00 i 28,679.37 S2,553,.33.23


5.2 Balance for FY4

TROPSOILS SAT's budget for the fiscal period 84-85
(FY4) was $675,000. Total amount billed for the same
period was $1,046,317.83. However, within this total for
FY4 there are several bills which should have been paid
from FY3 budget. From data supplied by TAMRF, this amount
would reach $158,460.00. In consequence, actual
expenditures for FY4 would be $887,857.83, and actual
overexpenditure would total $212,857.83.

The following is a list of the most significant
reasons which have been considered as determinants of this
budgetary problem:

a. Inadequate fiscal information prior to and
immediately following the transfer of
responsibility for the SM-CRSP -from TAMU
international Programs to TAMRF.

b. Accounts and associated budgets had not been
broken down at the user level. This was an
important constraint under which each Project
Leader operated. They had little or no idea as to
funds they had available. At the same time, this
made the task very difficult for the P.C. because
there was a long lag time in obtaining







5 THE BUDGET


5.1 Summary of total expenditures up to date

Table 5.1 is a summary of total expenditures to date
from information provided by TAMRF.




Table 5.1 Subgrantee Financial Report up to June 1986.


Category Total budget This period Cumulative expenditures
amount (June/86) up to date
Salaries S 758,290.86 S 12.593.7* S 753.L16.27
Fringe Benefits 138,723.56 1,781.76 152,057.91
Allowances -0- -0- -0-
Overhead .'6,084.24 -..-1.22 .09,5-7.19
Transportation 224,928.00 5,376.27 328,049.6
Supplies and Equip. 887,.21.85 894.89 400,66..56
Other Direct Costs 47,3551.49 3,591.49 509,997.8'
Grand Total S2,919,000.00 i 28,679.37 S2,553,.33.23


5.2 Balance for FY4

TROPSOILS SAT's budget for the fiscal period 84-85
(FY4) was $675,000. Total amount billed for the same
period was $1,046,317.83. However, within this total for
FY4 there are several bills which should have been paid
from FY3 budget. From data supplied by TAMRF, this amount
would reach $158,460.00. In consequence, actual
expenditures for FY4 would be $887,857.83, and actual
overexpenditure would total $212,857.83.

The following is a list of the most significant
reasons which have been considered as determinants of this
budgetary problem:

a. Inadequate fiscal information prior to and
immediately following the transfer of
responsibility for the SM-CRSP -from TAMU
international Programs to TAMRF.

b. Accounts and associated budgets had not been
broken down at the user level. This was an
important constraint under which each Project
Leader operated. They had little or no idea as to
funds they had available. At the same time, this
made the task very difficult for the P.C. because
there was a long lag time in obtaining









reconciliation of the overseas accounts which
operated under a petty cash system. When
reconciliation was finally accomplished, a larger
amount had been spent than had been anticipated.

c. Some misunderstandings about the total budget
approved for the SAT program.

Five accounts were open for FY4 and three of them
were either "multi-user" or "multi-purpose".

00: for_College_Statioin. It was used by Dr.
Calhoun, Dr. Dixon and Dr. Wilding (research
activities) and to cover all expenditures from
the Management Office, including Dr. Calhoun's
salary.

01: for Niger. It was used by both Dr. Chase and
Dr. Persaud including research activities plus
the budget of the Niamey office.

02: forLubbock. (a) It was used by Dr. Wendt,
both for research expenditures (Lascano and
Wendt's projects) plus logistical and technical
backstopping for overseas activities.

03: for_Lubback. (b) It was used by Dr. Onken
for research.

04: forMali. It was used only for research.







Table 5.2 and Fig. 5.1 show the totals per account
and generalized categories. The breakdown of these
expenditures by categories (Table 5.2 and Fig. 5.2) shows
the significance of payroll in our budget: 35% of the
total (or 42% of the total direct costs). Communications
and shipping was another important item: 9% of the total
(and 14% of the total direct costs for the Niger account).
The "other" category looks high for the overseas' account
(01). The reason is that it included most of the expenses
from TROPSOILS' office at Niamey.
















Table 5.2


TROPSOILS' EXPENSES FOR FY4


9012-004 9012-003 9012-002 9012-000 9012-001 TOTAL PERCENTAGE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAYROLL $4000.00 $20678.06 $65293.20 $118042.511 $162964. 45 $370978.22 35%
EQUIPMENT $346.35 $31795.58 $32141.93 3%
SUPLIES $2000.00 $10198.52 $9571.84 '14829.97 $83787.33 $120387.66 12%
TRAVEL $3000.00 $2926.81 $16171.12 $63462.01 $50066.67 $135626.61 13%
COMM/SHIPPING $480.00 $392.25 $4696.79 $9647.17 $75877.28 $91093.49 9%
LIVING ALLOW/EXP. .$2665.53 $17462.73 $20128.26 2%
OnlIER $320.83 $451.55 $5791.86 $100677.73* $107241.97 10%
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IOTAL DIRECT COSTS $9480.00 $34862.82 $96184.50 $214439.05 $522631.77 $877598.14 84%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INDIRECT COSTS $1138.00 $11156.08 $30779.00 $67346.35 $58300.26 $168719.69 16%
- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL $10618.00 $46010.90 $126963.50 $281785.40 $580932.03 $1046317.83
PERCENTAGE 1% 4% 12% 27% 56%


Accounts: 9012-000 College Station Notes: # It includes "graduate assistanships"
9012-001 Niger for junior scientists.
9012-002 Ibbock/Wendt It includes Niamey Office expenses
9012-003 l.ubbock/Onken
9012-004 Mali







Figure 5.1


TROPSOILS SAT EXPENSES FY4


XI.GE5
1 88
1 .60
1. 4
1 .00
80
.60
.40
28
e6


Wig, Wit
rf N-O -
s-- -2 --3^ 5 U i --c 4.'l




E f
S^ "^It3':li 3'-
c ^^i-iS^S?!-
^^$88ls^SiB8^


Expenditure categories

P: Payroll
E: Equipment
S: Supplies
T: Travel
C: Communication & shipping
L: Living allow. & expenditures
0: Other direct costs


Figure 5.2


Accounts

#O:College Station
#1:Niger
#2:Lubbock/Wendt
#3:Lubbock/Onken
#4:Mali


TROPSOILS' EXPENSES FY4


Percenvtciges per categor i es

5.3 Report for FY5.

Several modifications in the operation and management
of the program were decided to avoid further budgetary
problems (see also Chapter 2, 2.1E). Budgets and accounts
were set up at the user level for FY5. Total budget was
$695,000.00 and it was split as shown in Table 5.3.
Individual budgets were also broken down on a monthly basis
for a better expenditure control.


Pa.yro i I
35
O vjer he.,d
T
T r-cE-e L
13
Supp i es
12
O-ther cl i rect
10
CoM/Sh i Fp
9
Equ i pser* t
3
Liiin2 A"E
2














Table 5.3 Original breakdown of the budget for FY5.

Account# Object Responsible Amount

005 Management office Calhoun 63,630
006 Logistical back up Wendt 31,000
007 Niamey office Chase 35,070
008 Soil physical research Wendt 51,000
(Lubbock)
009 Soil chemistry research Onken 24,000
(Lubbock)
010 Pedology research Wilding 34,000
011 Niger research I Chase 212,000
012 Niger research II Persaud 198,000
013 Mali research Wendt 40,300

TOTAL: 695,000


Slight modifications to this initial breakdown were
needed during the operation of FY5: some minor budget
transfers and the split of the Mali account in overseas and
domestic subaccounts (013 and 014) with their own budgets.
The decisions to suspend the ICRISAT related research
program in Niamey, to transfer Dr. R. Chase to a different
program and to close the Niamey office (March, 1986) forced
further adjustments in the budget.

Fig. 5.3 shows a comparison of the breakdown of the
TROPSOILS' budgets for FY4 and FY5 by percentages per
categories. The shrink in the budget was reflected in a
significant shift in the structure of costs, with payroll
participation increasing from 35% in FY4 to almost 67% in
FY5. Living allowance (closely related with personnel)
also increased; all other categories decreased their
participation. All decisions on expenditure control for
FY5 were taken trying to avoid affecting personnel
commitments.










Fig. 5.3


Expenses:




I fig
40.9, 0


per-cen tages by cc.tesGi


10.0


Corn Li-o Oth Oue


MFY5


Fig. 5.4


BUDGET US EXPENSES,
X1I. QE4


FY5: OcTTFeb


9.00
8. 00 ~ .
7.00Ml

5.00 am


3. 8 W

I. m id ram M;
i ...JLJ. mun ss.uj a
0-5 06 ? as 09 10 11 12 13 14
5l:JC3GET a EXPENS ES
Di str- i buti onr per accoun-ts














Fig. 5.4 shows both the budget and expenses for the
first five months of FY5 (up to February/86, prior to the
new assignment for Dr. Chase and closure of accounts 07 and
011). As it can be inferred from the comparison, the level
of expenditures was in good agreement for the partial
budget for this period and no major changes are expected
the rest of the fiscal year.

5.4 Budget for FY6

The proposed budget for the SAT program for next
fiscal year (FY6) is $425,000. This amount is not
sufficient to maintain our current level of activities,
which has been already decreased this year. Major
adjustments would be needed and there exists a risk that
important research projects might be affected. To solve
this problem, the program has been trying to save some
funds from the current fiscal year. These savings,
combined with additional funds which have been already
requested .at the Board of Directors meeting at Atlanta
totaled the $618,000 level which is considered the minimum
needed for our program.




FY6 present budget $ 425,000
Carry forward from FY5 (estimated) 90,516
Additional funds requested 102,520

Total for FY6 $ 618,036



The following is a table showing the breakdown of
these funds, by projects. You will note that several
projects have been discontinued, and funding is requested
for a selected, high priority list. Detailed budgets by
projects are also attached.

If additional funds are obtained, they would be
allocated to project A.6 (not considered in the previous
list) and to the Cameroon program which is only partially
funded through project A.8.










A. PROJECTS INCLUDED IN PROPOSED FY6 BUDGET.

Project # Title Total


Quantification of rainfall patterns $
and hydrology of representative
cropped soils of Niger.


52,686


A8 L2>


B2


M i a<& B4
AO< 84
94/4?


Soil resource evaluation in the
semiarid tropics.

Rainfall management to increase
crop yields.

Causes and control of pronounced
plant growth variability over
short distances.


$ 61,594 (*)


$ 76,599


S 48,539


B5 IV' Evaluation and/or development of
low intermediate input soil, water
or crop management practices to
increase and/or stabilize yields of
rainfed crops.


Modification of agroclimate and
crop phenology between rows of
neem tree windbreaks.

Rooting pattern studies in millet
and cowpeas.

Water use efficiency and soil
fertility relationships.

Increasing available soil water
and crop yield through tillage
and fertilization.


S 88,372






$ 32,343




3 40,895


S 42,173


3 63,095


Project management


Contingency


Total


3 29,000

$ 616,036


B. PROJECTS NOT-INCLUDED IN PROPOSED FY6 BUDGET


(*) Cameroon expansion in A8

A2 Scaling soil hydralic
properties

A4 Water and energy balance in
Sahelian soils


Additional funding needed

Completed


Suspended


67a


Al /


B7 AP


)Jep441AC-**


B9


Bil


Bi3


$ 82,743










A5 JLdWater and energy balance in
a bare soil


Water and energy balance of
crops with incomplete canopy
cover


All p1 W&urface crusts under semiarid
CJ environments

BI (1 Tillage practices to control
sandblasting and improve water
use

B3 C Rejuvenation of crusted,
forest soils


Completed



Funding needed



Suspended


Completed




Suspended


67b














TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: Al

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: Naraine Persaud


Quantification of rainfall patterns and
hydrology of representative cropped soils
of Niger.

Research site: Niger


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, Fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

Naraine Persaud Guyana Niger Current Project Leader 20% 10.416

William Payne i U.S. C.S. Current Research.Assist.100% 1.






Total (overhead included) $ 30.928
Total (overhead included) $ 30.928


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US /DOM

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


4928

2,688

1,008

3.584

1,344

1,200


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


816

---

6.190

(included)



$52.686














TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: A6

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1. 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: R. Lascano


Water and energy balance of crops
with an incomplete canopy cover.

Research site: Lubbock and Niger or Mali


be recruited)

11 11

"I "


--Work


Work
Citizen Location


Lubbock



"


Appointment
Date


10/1/a86

summer/87

summer/87


Job Effort,
Classification Percent


Student Worker 50Z

00%

1002


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Fringe Post
Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total


4,500 630 5.130

2,500 350 2,850

2,500 350 2.580


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


1,500



1, 500





1 500


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


NOTE: This project does not have
funding with the current
budget.


4,190



$20,240


Name


(to

II
"













TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: A8

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: Larry Wilding


Name

Anne Pfordresher

(to be recruited)

Bernard Yerima


Work
Citizen Location

U.S. C.S./Niger

C.S.

Cameroon Cameroon


Appointment
Date

10/01/86

ASAP

10/01/86


Soil resource evaluation in the
semiarid tropics.


Research site: Niger, Mali and Cameroon

From CRSP Funds, dollars
Job Effort, Fringe Post
Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

Research Assist. 100Z 12,676

Technician 50% 12,080

Research Assist. 100Z 20,000,(3)


Total (overhead included)


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing
k() It includes
and one for

(2) It includes


-~-~--- ____ Shipping

:2 77 Consulting

660 Other Direct Cost

9,900 (1) Overhead



980 TOTAL
two trips to Africa; one for the P.L.
a Junior scientist.

Laboratory facilities (SEM, plasma analysis, e


1,528 (2)

(included)



$61,596
(3) Partial funding, additional funds are
required.


$44,756













TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B2

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project. Leader: Naraine Persaud


Work
Name .Citizen Location

Naraine Persaud Guyana Niger
Burkina C.S./
ChriStophe Zaongo Faso Niger


Appointment
Date

current

current


Rainfall management to increase
crop yields.


Research site: Niger

From CRSP Funds, dollars
Job Effort, Fringe Post
Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

Project Leader 30Z 15,624

Research Assist.OOZ 12.00-


0--
S12,768 12,768




Total (overhead included) $ 40392
Total (overhead included) E 40 392


8. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US/Dom.

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


10,392

4,597'

1 ,512

5,376

2,016

1.800


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


1,224

-----

9,285

(included)



S76,594


I


I













TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B.5

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: Naraine Persaud


Evaluation and/or development of low
to intermediate input soil, water or
crop management practices to increase
and/or stabilize yields of rainfed crops.


Research site; NIGER


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total




Naraine Persaud Guyana Niger current Project Leader 40% 20,832

17,024 17,024





Total (overhead included) $ 37,856


B. lION PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US/Dom

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


13,856

8,376

2,016

7, 168

2,688

2,400


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


1,632



12,380

(included)



$ 88,372


I t

















PROJECT NUMBER: B.7

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Projec.t Leader; Naraine Persaud


TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET
Modification of agroclimate and
and crop phenology between rows
of neem cree windbreaks.

Research site: NIGER


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, Fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Tutjl

Naraine Persaud Guyana Niger current Project Leader 10% 5,208

Steve Long U.S. Niger 09/01/86 Research Assist. 100% 12,000

4,256 4,256





Total (overhead included) 21.464


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US /Dom

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


2,464

1 ,344"

504

1, 792

672

600


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


408

-----

3.095

(included)




$ 32,343


a I I












TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B.9

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1. 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: Lloyd Hossner


Rooting patterns studies
in millet and cowpeas.

Research site: NIGER


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, Fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

Jessica Davis U.S. Niger current Reserach Assis. 100Z 12,000

4,435








Total (overhead included) $ 16,435


B. i1ON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US /Dom

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


5,420

4 230,.

4 .480

? .580
650

1 ,000


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


1.300



4 800

(included)


$ 40,895













TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B.11

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Proje'ct Leader: Art Onken


Water use efficiency and
soil fertility relationships

Research site: MALL and Lubbock


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

(to be recruited) Lubbuck 10/01/86 Research Assoc. 50% 18,004

Norman Piwonka U.S. Lubbock current Technician 50% 11,457







Total (overhead included) $ 29,461


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing


-.UOO-- ---
,000

1 .980

5 280

792

700


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


--------

960

(included)



$ 42,173


* I >


*













TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B.13

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader: Chrles Wendt


Increasing available soil water and
crop yield through tillage and
fertilization.

Research site: MALI and Lubbock


Work
Citizen Location


Name


Appointment
Date


Job Effort, tringe
Classification Percent Salary Benefits


From CRSP Funds, dollars
.Post
Differential Allowances Overhead Total


(to be recruited) Lubbock 10/01/86 Research Assoc. 50% 18.004

Norman Piwonka U.S. Lubbock current Technician 50% 11,457

Local staff Mali Mali current Tech. labor 100% 5,000





Toral (overhead included) $ 14.461


8. NON PERSON

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, II

Communica

Printing


NNEL


---------- Shipping Iuuu
7.350 Consulting ----

S 2,640 Other Direct Cost 5,200 (1)

NT. 8o280 Overhead (included)

tions .i4

1.980 TOTAL $ 63,095 (2)

(1) It includes training for local scientists.
(2) $ 16,570 from this total will be delivered to and adminiscraced by
local scientists (I.R.E.)


^^^


7


I


1 0












TROPSOILS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: B. 4

DAFE OF COVERAGE: October 1. 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Project Leader; Lloyd Hossner


Causes and control oi pronounced
plant growth variability over
short distances.

Research site: NIGER and MALI


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, Fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead rota


James Gardiner U.S. Niger current Research Assist. 100 10,864

Mamadou Dbumbia Mali Mali current Research Assisc. 100% 10,864

3,500 3,500





Total (overhead included) $ 25


8. HON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US/Dom

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing

(I) iL includes


5,150



2.056
5,280

880

1,000

laboratory support and daca


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL

processing


1,645

-------


5.500 (1)
(included)




$ 48,539


A I I














TROPSO1LS
BUDGET WORKSHEET


PROJECT NUMBER: c. _

DATE OF COVERAGE: October 1, 1986 September 30, 1987

A. PERSONNEL Projet Leader: CA Runge
Project Leader: E.C.A. Grunge


Project Management

(College Station)


-4











.4
'"i
















*'LS


B. NON PERSONNEL

Equipment

Supplies

Travel, US

Travel, INT.

Communications

Printing

(1) For the P.C.


1,320

3,752

1,000

5 280 (1)
6,600

------


Shipping

Consulting

Other Direct Cost

Overhead



TOTAL


1,000

(included)



$ 82.743


I .


From CRSP Funds, dollars
Work Appointment Job Effort, Fringe Post
Name Citizen Location Date Classification Percent Salary Benefits Differential Allowances Overhead Total

(to be recruited) C.St. ASAP P.C. 40Z 25,326

Ruben Puences Uruguay C.Sc. current Program Manager 100Z 28,644

Gloria Northcut U.S. C.St. current Secretary 00% 9,821





Total (overhead included) $ 63,791










Future


Directions








5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS


5.1 Historical perspective

The current status of development of science and technology
in food production in semiarid tropical Africa, and particularly
the Sahel, can be partially explained by reviewing what targets
have been pursued by agricultural research in these regions.
There is no risk in generalizing that, from the beginning of the
colonial period until the decade of 1920's, agricultural growth
was based on exploiting African natural resources. Since then,
the shift toward a science base approach, with the establishment
of several research institutions (i.e., the Empire Cotton
Growing Corporation, throughout Brittish colonies), was mainly
focused toward export crops, such as cotton, oil palm, etc.
Research on food crops was almost non-existent. Natural resource
conservation also received very low consideration. Agricultural
research in countries without export commodities was minimal:
there were 714 American and Canadian Doctoral dissertations and
M.Sc. theses for Nigeria over the period 1886-1974; for the same
period, only 4 have been reported for Niger 12/. No major
changes occurred up to the 1950's with the establishment of
regional research stations in common agroecological zones (i.e.,
the West African Rice Research Station, at Sierra Leona). Many
of the regional research stations were nationalized and
incorporated into national research systems after independence,
during the 1960's. This marked the beginning of a slow shift
toward food crops. This trend was accelerated with the
establishment of a network of International Agricultural
Research Centers (IARCs): IITA, in Nigeria, in 1967; ILCA in
Ethiopia, in 1973. In 1975 ICRISAT started a cooperative program
in Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), and in 1981 it was decided to
start a second center for the Sahelian zone in Niger.

Research efforts toward food crops, mainly sorghum and
millet, are not only recent but are strongly focused on
breeding programs. With these cereals, major problems have been
encountered in most of the attempts for importing high-yielding
varieties and hybrids from other continents. Soil-related
problems have frequently been identified as limiting plant
growth and production.

Some "improved" technologies have been developed. However,
many of them, which have been proven effective in increasing
yields and yield stability at the research station level, have
never been adopted by farmers. Usually, they include management
practices which are not consistent with farmers' goals or with
their concept about optimal soil and crop management under



12/ Sims M. and A. Kagan (1976). American and Canadian Doctoral
Dissertations and Master's Theses on Africa, 1886-1974.
Walthman, Massachusetts, African Studies Association.








conditions of environmental uncertainty found in the Sahel.
Indigenous knowledge and traditional technologies have usually
been neglected. Interest in the value of traditional farming
systems by social and technical scientists is also very recent
13/.


5.2 The goal of the SM-CRSP in semi arid Africa.

TROPSOILS inception in this region has been very timely. It
began its operations into an evolving international agricultural
research system as a new and needed component. The significance
played by the soil-water-fertility component for the development
of appropriate crop management technologies has been fully
reco nized h national and regional agricultural instutes.
Extended periods of drought, which are recurrent in the Sahel,
have accentuated the need for assistance in this area of
expertise. Texas A&M University, with the tremendous capability
of its resource base including its professional expertise,
research facilities and administrative support structure, and
with similarities in agroecological conditions, is in an optimal
position to provide leadership. The modus operandi of the CRSP,
promoting a collaborative and interactive approach with Host
Country institutions, other U.S. bilateral assistance programs
and international centers provides the structure for this
contribution to alleviate the food problems of the region.

Budget constraints at this time do not allow TROPSOILS-SAT
to develop a fully comprehensive program on soil-water-fertility
interactions. Priority areas have been recognized and the
limited funds available have been allocated to develop a
research program focused toward the solution of the most
critical agronomic problems which are hampering the development
of appropriate technology packages.

Within this framework, our efforts will be focused on the
following goals:

1. To consolidate the program in Niger as our primary research
site.

Niger, as one of the less developed nations in the Sahel,
is a challenge for TROPSOILS-SAT efforts. The difficulties of
doing research in a country where logistical and technical
support is minimal must be fully recognized when evaluating the
program. Our efforts in institution-building activities must be
given egual value to those toward-tchn-logy generation. A major

--------------------- ------ -----------------

13/ Brokensha D. W., D. M. Warren and 0. Werner (eds) (1980).
Indigenous knowledge systems and development. Univ. Press of
America; Landham, Maryland.








lesson to be learned is that long term investments are necessary
to develop effective research programs in the Sahel, and that
the collaborative approach which characterizes the CRSP
initiative is the most effective.


2. To expand the area of activities to other countries in the
region.

It has been determined that the TROPSOILS-SAT effort will
be more effective if collaborative programs with other Sahelian
countries are initiated rather than to increase our level of
activity in Niger. Our current involvement in Niger seems to be
appropriate relative to the capability that local institutions
have to assimilate our potential inputs. The development of
secondary research sites has additional advantages. Some
country-specific problems may impede or deviate the focus on the
real problems of the region. In addition, a wider range in
agroecological conditions can be covered.

Mali and Cameroon have been selected as target countries
for increased future involvement. These are not unknown
countries for the TROPSOILS-SAT program: research activities
have already been initiated in both nations. Our involvement in
Mali is in its second year and for the first time, a TROPSOILS
junior scientist has been posted in the country. As a target of
opportunity, a very specific research project on soil management
was conducted in Northern Cameroon by a Cameroonian Ph.D.
student with TROPSOILS support. A formal agreement for further
collaborative research with a national institution is being
explored.


3. To concentrate efforts on user-oriented research.

The TROPSOILS-SAT program, as many other agricultural
research programs, not only in Africa but elsewhere, has been
criticized for conducting a disproportionate volume of
fundamental research. In the case of the TROPSOILS-SAT program,
such criticism is not justified. The peculiarities of the
Sahelian environment have been extensively discussed. Although
great similarities with some areas of semi arid Texas are
apparent, important differences exist. Reliable background
information is scarce. Some principles from other semi arid
regions in the world, the Middle East, Southwestern U.S., etc,
do not apply for the Sahel. A technology development research
program cannot be started with such degree of basic uncertainty.
TROPSOILS scientists have been trying to restrict basic research
to the minimun needed. However, at the initial stages, fundamental
studies are unavoidable. In the case of TROPSOILS-SAT, important
research findings have justified our approach

For the future, the proportion of fundamental research will
be decreased and the program will pursue a strong user
orientation. However, to conduct applied research is not a








justification of the program in itself. As has already been
stated in this report, many of the technological packages which
have been developed at the research station level have never
been adopted by farmers. TROPSOILS-SAT is exploring new
approaches, and this is reflected in its research projects. For
example, experiments are being implemented in farmer fields
(i.e., experiments inlnprjNct-B.4-)c ontro and operation of on-
farm research is much more difficulthan experiments a he
research station. It may also be more difficult to use
traditional statistical methods for the interpretation of
r'esuts. However, the- advantages of working at the farm level
justify the additional effort. The consideration of indigenous
knowledge is another component of this strategy. Some
experiments have been designed to improve or adjust, through
modern technology, soil and crop management practices which have
been used by local farmers for centuries (i.e, some experiments
in project B.2). Finally, a close contact with the technology
transfer sector will provide important feedback for technology
generation. TROPSOILS-SAT is ready to start a collaborative
program with SAFGRAD (Semi Arid Food Grain Research-and
Development). The project will promote more effective linkages
between the technological development and transfer processes by
putting emphasis on strengthening relationships between research
conducted by regional institutions (TROPSOILS-SAT, ICRISAT,
etc.) and SAFGRAD countries national extension services, via the
ACPO program (Accelerated Crop Production Officers).













APPENDIX






r 1 "


Name
Last, First, Middle

Gardiner, James
Bronson

Payne, William
Albert

Zaongo, Christophe
Guy Ludovic

Doumbia, Mamadou
Diosse

Wendt, John


TropSoils Personnel Engaged

Country of Degree
Citizenship Program

U.S.A. M.S.


U.S.A.



Burkina Faso



Mali


U. S.A.


M.S.



M.S.



M.S.



M.S.


In Academic Degree-Oriented Programs

Initiation Completion Research
Date Date*l Location*2

May 1983 July, 1987 Niger


May 1984



May 1984



June 1985



Jan. 1983


Davis, Jessica U.S.A. Ph.D Jan. 1985
Gwyn

Bui, Elisabeth U.S.A. Ph.D Jan. 1983
Nathalie

Yerima, Bernard Cameroon Ph.D May 1983
P.K.

Gandah, Mohamadou Niger M.S. Aug. 1985

Landeck, Jonathan U.S.A. M.S. Feb. 1982

Louis, Pierre Haiti M.S. Sept. 198;

Marcelin, Fritz Haiti M.S. Sept. 1982

* 1 Actual or projected.
* 2 Site of the major portion of research for the thesis.
* 3 Give approximate percent of support from each source.


Dec. 1986



Dec. 1986



Dec. 1987



Aug. 1986

May 1988



Aug. 1986



Aug. 1986



Dec. 1987


Aug. 1984

May 1985

Aug. 1985


Niger



Niger



Mali



Niger

Niger



Niger



Cameroon



Niger

Niger

Haiti

Haiti


Source (s) of
Financial Support*3


TropSoils 100%



TropSoils 100%



TropSoils 100%



TropSoils 100%


TropSoils


TropSoils
TAMU


TropSoils


100%

80%
20%

100%


TropSoils 80%
TAMU 20%

Purdue/USAID 100%


TropSoils 100%

USAID/Haiti 100%

USAID/Haiti 100%


a t 14 ,


2


2







































TAMU. ersnnel currentlyinvennd Cwith TROPSOILS .SAT



Dr. E.C.A. Runge Soil and Crop Sc. Dept., Head; P.C.


* L. Hossner
* N. Persaud
. C. Wendt
* L. Wilding
* A. Onken
* R. Lascano
Puentes
Northcutt
Holdren
Piwonka
Mabry
Meason


Professor, Soil Fertility; Acting P.C.
Senior Scientist posted in Niger
Professor, Soil Physics
Professor, Pedology
Professor, Soil Fertility
Research Associate
Research Associate, Program Manager
Secretary
Secretary
Technician
Technician
Technician




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