Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Veterinary medicine
 Animal science
 Agricultural engineering
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural extension

Title: Individual annual reports
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054315/00001
 Material Information
Title: Individual annual reports
Series Title: Individual annual reports
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: University of Nebraska. Mission in Colombia
Publisher: Mid-American State Universities Association
Publication Date: 1969
Subject: South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054315
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Veterinary medicine
        Page 1
        Harry Mussman, project leader January-September, 1969
            Page 1a
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Ted Vera, project leader September-December, 1969
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Kenneth Preston
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        William Wolff
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
    Animal science
        Page 16
        Howard H. Stonaker, project leader January-December, 1969
            Page 16a
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Daniel D. Bullis
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Donald H. Bushman
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Gary Conley
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Richard R. Day
            Page 30
            Page 31
        C. V. Ross
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Ivan Rush
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Alex G. Warren
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Page 41
        Frank Davis, project leader January-August, 1969
            Page 41a
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Kenneth D. Frank, project leader September-December, 1969
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        George Beinhart
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Tom M. Fullerton
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Gary D. Jolliff
            Page 52
        Carl J. C. Jorgensen
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 59
        Wesley Hobbs, project leader January-December, 1969
            Page 59a
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
        William H. Collins
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
        George H. Dunkelberg
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Deane M. Manbeck
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
        Norman C. Teter
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Agricultural economics
        Page 85
        A. D. Flowerday, project leader January-August, 1969
            Page 85a
            Page 86
            Page 87
        Thomas F. Trail, project leader September-December, 1969
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
        J. J. Feight
            Page 91
            Page 92
        Marlyn Low
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Ronald E. Stoller
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Richard W. Tenney
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
        Robert Whittenbarger
            Page 101
            Page 102
    Agricultural extension
        Page 103
        Peter E. Hildebrand, project leader January-December, 1969
            Page 103a
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
        Daniel D. Badger
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
        Roger F. Burdette
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
        James L. Driscoll
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
        Michael P. Steiner
            Page 131
            Page 132
        Chris O. Andrew
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Max Bowser
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Gerald Feaster
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
Full Text

fi 72ci




FOR 1969


in cooperation with:



The Mid-America State Universities Association Cooperating


For the Period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1969

In Cooperation with:



Contracting Agencies:

United States Agency for International Development

The Ford Foundation

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation



Harry Mussman, Project Leader Jan.-Sept./69 1
Ted vera, Project Leader Sept.-Dec./69 5
Kenneth Preston 9
William Wolff 12


Howard H. Stonaker, Project Leader Jan.-Dec./69 16
Daniel D. Bullis 21
Donald H. Bushman 23
Gary Conley 27
Richard R. Day 30
C. V. Ross 32
Ivan Rush 34
Alex G. Warren 38


Frank Davis, Project Leader Jan.-Aug./69 41
Kenneth D. Frank, Project Leader Sept.-Dec./69 44
George Beinhart 47
Tom M. Fullerton 49
Gary D. Jolliff 52
Carl J. C. Jorgensen 53


Wesley Hobbs, Project Leader Jan.-Dec./69 59
William H. Collins 64
George H. Dunkelberg 69
Deane M. Manbeck 75
Norman C. Teter 81


A. D. Flowerday, Project Leader Jan.-Aug./69 85
Thomas F.Trail, Project Leader Sept.-Dec./69 88
J. J. Feight 91
Marlyn Low 93


Ronald E. Stoller 95
Richard W. Tenney 98
Robert Whittenbarger 101


Peter E. Hildebrand, Project Leader Jan-Dec./69 103
Daniel D. Badger 109
Roger F. Burdette 108
James L. Driscoll 124
Michael P. Steiner 131
Chris 0. Andrew 133
Max Bowser 138
Gerald Feaster 141




1. General Objectives

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

The teaching load for 1969 was somewhat less than in the
past. A course in histology was taught with Dr. Fernando Villafafe to
the second year students and a small group of senior students rotated
daily through the clinical laboratory. In addition, an extracurricular
course in clinical pathology was offered during the first semester.
Meeting three times weekly during the noon hour, there was an average
attendance of about 85, including veterinary students, faculty, and
laboratory personnel from ICA, the Veterinary Faculty and the Medical
School. It should be noted that the success of this course has led to
the designing of additional programs in diagnostic bacteriology and
immunology which will be offered on the same basis.

Early in the year a counterpart,
was named to work in clinical pathology and the
He assumed the responsibilities for these areas
position was vacated in September.

Dr. R. D. Velasquez,
clinical laboratory.
when the Nebraska

During the year a total of 10 students completed their
theses for graduation under my direction. Eight received "meritorious"
ratings on their work. All the theses involved studies related to
clinical pathology. One of the studies was supported by a grant from the
Ames Company.

During the year
Clinical Pathology written in
undergraduate programs. Final
delay publication by ICA until

work was completed on a book Veterinary
Spanish for use in both graduate and
revisions and placement of photos will

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

The objectives of the graduate program are the same as

1/ Departed September, 1969

- 1 -

those emphasized in the U. S.: comprehensive coursework, individual
effort, design and realization of a satisfactory thesis problem. High
standards have been set in the pathology curriculum and will be
maintained in the new microbiology program.

1.2.2. Curriculum and Courses

No courses in clinical pathology were taught during
the year. However two students continued their work on thesis problems
for which I was major professor. Dr. Fernando Botero studiedu"Vaginal
cytologic changes in the mare during estrus", while Dr. Adolfo Arboleda
investigated "Serum proteins in pure and mixed bovine infections with
Anaplasma and Trypanosoma".

Thesis goals were to design a well-controlled set of
experiments so that experience gained could be applied in subsequent
investigations. In addition, an effort was made to study problems
bearing on the improvement of the livestock industry in Colombia.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Several projects were initiated or continued with
veterinary faculty members during the year. Objectives sought in
this work, besides the new knowledge gained, were essentially the
same as those for research efforts on the part of graduate and
undergraduate theses. Studies begun included one on coagulation
defects in the canine and another or electrolyte therapy employing
various locally-available products.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

Two papers were co-authored with faculty members:
"Malignant lymphoma in the dog" and "Eosinophilic myositis in the
dog". Both will be published in the faculty journal when funds are
available. The former article will serve as a model for future
papers to be reported in the new clinical section of the journal.

1.4 Extension

Plans were in the process of being formulated for an extension
program in veterinary medicine when the clinical pathology position
terminated. It appeared that the climate had become favorable for an
effort in this direction.

- 2-

1.5 Staff Development

One degree fellowship was arranged for a counterpart, Dr.
Fernando Villafafe. He was accepted at Colorado State University
to pursue a degree program in clinical pathology.

Initial recommendations were made for short-term training
programs for Dr. Didacio Arango of the Veterinary Faculty at Bogota
and Dr. H6ctor Sanchez of Manizales. Both will begin their programs
in 1970, Dr. Arango at Iowa State and Dr. Sanchez at the University
of Missouri.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

As has been noted previously, position number 4, clinical
pathology, terminated in September 1969. The duties of project
leader were turned over to Dr. Ted Vera who will do an outstanding
job. He has an excellent veterinary group in the Nebraska Mission
and very receptive Faculty with which to work.

Since this will be my final report for the Nebraska
Colombian Project, I would like to take this opportunity to express
my appreciation to the Mission and its director, to ICA and its
administrators and to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for making
my work so personally rewarding. Thanks are also due to the fine
secretarial and laboratory personnel who assumed many responsibilities
which made the work easier. I would also express gratitude to the
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Nebraska, for its
support of the Colombian Program. Finally, a special note of
appreciation to my colleagues and the students of the Facultad de
Medicine Veterinaria y de Zootecnia their cooperation, willingness
to try something different and desire to learn made my tour an
unforgettable pleasure.

- 3-

APPENDIX A TeachingReport

Level* Hours

Degree ** Enrollment
of Resp. Ist.Sem.


Clinical Lab.

Clinical Path.






* Undergraduate or Graduate

** A Full responsibility for preparation and delivery of lectures.
B Major, but not entire, responsibility; ordinarily will have taught
more than half the classes.
C Lesser responsibility; ordinarily will have taught less than half
the classes.
D Responsibility almost exclusively advisory; ordinarily will have
taught few, if any, classes, and will have provided only minor
assistance in class preparation.

This same code will be used for all subsequent appendices.

- 4-



Teaching Report



1. General Objectives

1.1 Undergraduate teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

a. Undergraduate courses in which I participated were
infectious diseases and general bacteriology. Both were offered each
semester of the school year. The major responsibility for teaching
and coordinating infectious diseases was shared by me and my counterpart
who was named to the Veterinary Faculty at the beginning of the school
year. Lectures and laboratory instruction were presented in the course
on General Bacteriology. Professors from the.Veterinary School, F.A.O.
and commercial laboratories collaborated in this effort.

b. A lecture syllabus for infectious diseases was used
extensively during the past year. This syllabus will be divided into
several sections. A part of this syllabus will be devoted to diseases
caused by bacteria, a second'for diseases caused by fungi, and a third
for diseases caused by viruses. An artist has been contacted to assist
in preparing a suitable cover. Students showed great interest in receiving
material of this nature, becuase less time was spent in taking notes and
more emphasis was placed on seminar type discussions. Each student was
encouraged to participate in the discussions of various diseases and it
was felt that more was gained from this type of presentation. Although
Infectious Diseases is offered normally during the second semester, by
the request of the students and the Dean it also was given during the
first semester.

c. During the first part of the year, two fifth-year
Veterinary students finished their undergraduate theses and were
awarded a meritorious rating by the examination committee. One Veterinary
student completed his course work, but had not been able to fulfill his
thesis requirements for graduation because it was difficult for him to
find an advisor. I advised this student and he eventually prepared a
meritorious thesis on fluorescent antibody techniques.

1.2 Graduate teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

a. To strengthen the Graduate Programs in Veterinary

- 5-

Pathology and Microbiology by collaborating with the Graduate School on
the establishment and coordination of thesis programs.

b. To act as major advisor to Graduate Students in Veterinary

c. To participate in research related to the special problems
selected by the graduate students.

1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses

a. The graduate course, Pathogenic Bacteriology, was offered
for the first time in the Graduate Program for Pathology. Later .the course
will be given to the Graduate Students in Microbiology in the second
trimester of 1970. Seven students took the course and successfully passed.
Lectures and laboratory assignmentswere given for one semester. The course
involved the study of Pathogenic bacteria. Isolation and Identification
procedures were stressed during the first part of the semester in the
laboratory. The second part of the semester the students were given
unknown -tissues, fluids, etc. with pathogenic bacteria, and were expected
to put into practice the various diagnostic procedures to which they had
been exposed previously. This type of training prepared the students so
that they could handle problems on Pathogenic bacteria should they arise,
and familiarized them with the means available at the diagnostic laboratory
to solve such problems. Several graduate students have taken advantage
of the Microbiology laboratory facilities, and have continued to perform
part of their research there.

b. I attended meetingson the new graduate program for
Microbiology and the Director of the ICA Department of Animal Sciences has
asked me to assist him in the coordination of this program. This promises
to be a challenging assignment for the Veterinary project, and it is
expected that our Microbiologist and Pathologist will contribute rather
heavily in order to insure its success.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

Great strides have been made in Veterinary extension as the
result of a team effort. A publication committee including representatives
from the veterinary School, ICA, LIMV, and Nebraska Veterinary project was
formed. This committee has as its prime function the overall supervision
of the Veterinary Extension Program. It was agreed that a newsletter
would be the most effective means of disseminating useful and practical
information toVeterinarians and livestock owners. The newsletter will

- 6-

be published on a monthly basis with the collaboration of the ICA Infor-
mation Center.

1.6 Administratire and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA or the National University

a. A short course was given by the Microbiology staff. Fifteen
students from various laboratories in Colombia were enrolled. Practical
aspects of Microbiology were presented in various areas: Bacteriology,
Virology, Mycology, and Immunology. Students and Faculty alike were
pleased with the results and agreed that short courses of this nature
should be conducted more often.

b. An additional laboratory was provided for Microbiology as
a result of renovation of a large museum area at the Veterinary Faculty.
This .new laboratory will be utilized for Infectious Diseases and will
provide additional laboratory space for graduate students in Microbiology.
Four offices were included in this laboratory area; two were assigned to
the Department of Public Health and two for Veterinary Microbiology.

c. An examination was given to several candidates interested
in teaching Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the Veterinary School.
My counterpart was named from those individuals taking the examination.

d. I frequently attended meetings called by the ICA Director
of Animal Sciences and the Dean of the National University Veterinary
Faculty, particularly after being named Project Leader of the Nebraska
Mission Veterinary Program upon the departure of Dr. Mussman. These
have been most useful in that a genuine effort was made to clearly define
the activities and duties of the Nebraska team with the ICA veterinary
laboratory and the School of Veterinary Medicine.

- 7 -

APPENDIX A Teaching Report


Degree 1969 Enrollment
Resp. 1st Sem 2d Sem.







- 8-


1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

The responsibility of the Ambulatory Clinic in undergraduate
teaching is to provide practical experience in the art of veterinary
practice. Senior veterinary students are assigned to the A. C. on a two
weeks rotation basis. Usually there are about six students in each group.
They are divided in smaller groups of two or three students and reassigned
to one or more of the five A. C. clinicians.

It is necessary to travel long distances to reach some of
the farms which are served by the A. C. In many cases the calls which
come in are unpredictable. For these reasons it is necessary to maintain
a high degree of flexibility in scheduling and organizing the work. After
three months of working and observing the systems under which the A. C.
functions, I see many weaknesses in the present structure and a great
need for many changes. There is certainly much room for increasing the
efficiency and elevating the standards of the A. C. These problems are
not without solutions. I believe if Dr. Wolff and I can maintain the
confidence of those with whom we work, we should be successful in bringing
about many worthwhile changes.

We are exploring the possibility of establishing a branch
office near La Dorada. There is an excellent opportunity to give veterinary
service to a number of large beef cattle operations. We have the cooperation
Of1 a veterinarian employed by the Fondo Ganadero near La Dorada and this
should enable us to develop a sizeable beef cattle practice. If our plans
materialize we will dispatch a mobile unit there weekly. The students would
be required to participate in the work and live there in a rural atmosphere.

In my opinion the A. C. presently has sufficient dairy
herds in the savannah near Bogota for teaching purposes. Several herds
are under the direct supervision of our counterparts and they are providing
a high level of service to their clients.

Swine and sheep are two classes of livestock which are
seldom seen by the A. C. There are though a few swine owners near Bogota
who have indicated a desire to improve their swine programs. It would
be interesting to explore the feasibility of raising hogs on a small scale

- 9-

using modern technology. At present I do not have all the facts, but I
do believe there is a place for some swine herds near Bogot& that could
be managed profitably. If we are successful in this, these herds in
turn could serve as teaching herds for our students.

There are many sheep raised in Colombia, but seldom does
one see sizeable flocks. One does see, however, many small flocks of
five to ten animals grazing along the roadside. The sum total of these
small flocks no doubt would add up to a large number of animals. It is
possible that poor management, disease, and parasites discourage the
production of sheep on a large scale. Here again, I believe we have an
opportunity to encourage interested persons to improve their sheep
husbandry. In that way we could develop additional source material
for A. C.

The time is here when we should be training veterinarians
in the poultry industry. This industry is rapidly increasing in Colombia.
The need for veterinarians in this area was called to my attention in a
recent trip to the Cauca valley. Several large producers would employ
veterinarians full time if they were available. The work in the Central
Diagnostic Laboratories is beginning to involve poultry too. Men who
work in the laboratories should have some basic experience in the modern
methods now being employed by this very rapidly developing industry.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

Presently we do not have a program for graduate study in
veterinary clinics. I would hope that in the near future ICA and the
National University would support graduate training in veterinary clinics.
There is no other area in clinical veterinary science that offers greater
opportunities for training and research than the A. C. Case material in
the A. C. would provide excellent material for masters degree programs.
Such programs could have minors in pathology or microbiology.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

None of the clinicians in the A. C. are presently engaged
in research per se. One clinician demonstrates a high degree of personal
initiative and interest in trying new approaches to feeding and managing
dairy calves, drug evaluation and alternative methods in treating animals.
These studies can hardly be classified as research, but until such time

- 10 -

as money, laboratories and personnel are available to design and produce
quality research, clinical investigations of this type do serve to
improve the knowledge of the instructors and should be encouraged.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

In November a committee of veterinarians was organized
from ICA, the National University and the Nebraska Mission to study the
feasibility of periodically publishing useful, practical and timely
information for Colombian veterinarians. This committee has been meeting
regularly. Minutes of each meeting have been kept which helps us in
marking our progress. We now have three articles ready for publication.
The first of these should be printed and distributed in January.

Nebraska Mission extension personnel have been cooperating
with us in developing visual aids such as single concept movie films and
35 mm. colored slides. This material can be used not only for undergraduate
teaching but for short courses and meetings which we hope to organize in
various parts of the country this coming year.

1/ Arrived August, 1969

- 11 -

W. A. WOLFF 1/

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogot.

The following are some of my observations after only a
few weeks of involvement with the ambulatory clinic operation at the
National University.

a. Students assigned to the ambulatory clinic have free
time when there are no calls in the country. In the
future, we must make every effort to fill this spare time with short
seminars, slide sessions, motion pictures, etc.

b. Because of gaps in communications, students assigned
to ambulatory clinic are sometimes not notified of call
schedules, or they choose to ignore the schedules that are made. During
the regular school year, ambulatory vehicles should never leave without
the assigned students. If students refuse to go on calls, they should
receive appropriate disciplinary measures from the chief of the ambulatory

c. It is obvious that chauffers often do work on the farms
that should be done by the clinicians and students. Our
objective is to expose students to country practice. We have no business
training chauffers to be lay veterinarians.

d. Scheduling of calls, especially to the hot country, has
often been irregular. The clinicians are at fault, and
it is a poor example for the students.

e. Clinicians must place more emphasis on the economic
aspects of veterinary practice. Often the students
have no idea of'the costs of drugs, distances traveled and the value of

f. Arrangement and care of equipment in the trucks is
substandard. Care and cleanliness of equipment and
vehicles must be emphasized.

g. Students here are highly intelligent and, in general,
very receptive to the ambulatory clinic program. Thus
it is our duty to present a program that is interesting, informative, and
that will convince some of the students to offer complete veterinary
service after they graduate.
12 -

1.2 Graduate Teaching

Although there is no graduate program in the ambulatory clinic
at this time, this does not exclude possibility of developing programs
in cooperation with basic science departments. Many disease, reproduc-
tive and nutritional problems which would make good research problems
are discovered in the country.

There will undoubtedly be a graduate program in clinical
veterinary medicine in the future at National University. The ambulatory
clinic could be an integral part of such a program by giving graduate
students experience in problem solving in the field.

1.3 Research

I personally do not contemplate any basic research programs in
the near future. I believe that our efforts should be directed toward
undergraduate teaching. As previously stated, cooperative efforts in
field investigation are a definitive possibility.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. In cooperation with Plant Physiology and Veterinary
personnel on the Faculty of National University, we
will initiate a survey of toxic plants during 1970. This will be done
in selected areas in the Magdalena valley and in the more accessible
areas in the Llanos. The initial phase of this project will be
identification and classification of suspected poisonous plants.

b. In cooperation with the Fondo Ganadero del Meta, we
hope to begin some parasite control programs. We
will use fairly large groups of treated and untreated (control) calves
on several farms. With these limited programs, we hope to demonstrate
the value of parasite control.

c. A number of veterinarians in the Magdalena Valley and
in the Llanos have expressed the desire that the
ambulatory clinic, in cooperation with ICA diagnostic laboratories,
arrange 3 or 4 day short courses. We would draw on ICA and Nebraska
personnel to present topics in parasitology (gastro-intestinal, blood
and external), reproduction, and nutrition. These short-courses will
be limited to problems of beef cattle.

- 13 -

d. In cooperation with veterinarians in the internal
clinic at National University, I will assist in
presenting a 3 day short-course in Large Animal Anesthesiology. Emphasis
will be on practical field techniques in cattle. This will be by
subscription of interested veterinarians, and each will have the
opportunity to perform eery technique.

e. Members of the Reproductive Section at National
University have expressed interest in a short-course
covering reproductive diseases and obstetrics Of female cattle. We
hope to arrange this for a 2-week period during July or August of 1970,
bringing an expert here from the U. S.

f. We plan to visit other veterinary schools in Colombia
to observe the operations of their ambulatory clinics,
if any. These tours will be made with at least 2 of our counterparts.
We believe we have much to offer, and we can learn considerable from
other schools. It is possible that Nebraska-ICA efforts could be extended
to other veterinary schools, particularly with respect to ambulatory

g. At various times throughout 1970 we will visit beef
cattle operations in the North Coastal areas. We
must become familiar with all types of operations from breeding to
s laughter, processing and shipping of the final product. These tours
will be conducted by our counterparts, and we would like to have selected
undergraduate students accompany us. Financing for this should be arranged
by Nebraska. A full written report would be submitted after each tour to
ICA, National University and Nebraska.

1.6 Administrative and organizational Activities

a. The functions and services of the ambulatory clinic are
becoming well known in the Magdalena Valley and in the near
Llanos. We can take little credit for this, but we will continue the
policy of proving that good veterinary service can help stockmen produce
a better product more economically.

Distances and communication remain our principal problems.
The establishment of extension stations for the ambulatory clinic will be
given strong consideration during 1970. For veterinary service to be
really effective, it must be readily available within a reasonable length
of time. Possibilities for extensions of the ambulatory clinic exist now
in La Dorada and Villavicencio. This is not a new idea. These ideas
have been proposed several times in the past three years by Drs. Norman,
Mullenax and Trischler.

- 14 -

b. Equipment and drug control will be further emphasized during
1970. Colombians have little concept of the economics involved
when Nebraska provides what appears to be an unending supply of money.
Along this line of thinking, I suggest that no more non-expendable veterinary
equipment be purchased during 1970. We will, of course, need syringes,
needles, minor instruments, drugs, etc. Our present stock of non-expendable
equipment is more than adequate. This, along with what is currently on
order, would be sufficient stock for a busy ambulatory clinic in the States
for five years. Also, as many purchases as possible should be made locally.

c. The rotating fund of 75,000 pesos that was promised by ICA has
still not been realized. With this fund we could put the
ambulatory clinic on good financial footing and establish a system of
checks and balances.

d. The present bookkeeping and billing system is completely
inadequate. There is no log of daily work, no ledger is kept,
the bank account is not reviewed and it is impossible to compile a
financial statement. Every effort will be made to correct these
deficiencies during 1970.

e. Maintenance of ambulatory vehicles continues to present
problems. We must establish a preventive maintenance schedule
so the minor breakdowns do not interfere with the work schedule.

f. The chauffers have presented some problems, the cause of
which we must take some credit. At present, they are not
sure who are their chiefs. They take too many liberties with equipment
and with responsibilities that are rightfully those of professionals.
The chauffers use minor problems with the trucks to take a day off. We
will correct these deficiencies or change chauffers.

1/ Arrived August, 1969

- 15 -




1.1 Undergraduate teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

a. At the request of the National University, the
undergraduate course in animal breeding was given in both semesters,
although there were but two students enrolled in each semester. The
justification for this was that since the animal science program is
just beginning, there are but few students at the fifth semester level
of work, and if these courses are not given, these students cannot
finish on schedule. It has provided the opportunity to greatly revise
and improve my class notes. There are now a total of 131 students in
animal science so the student load in these courses will soon increase.

b. I was asked to accept responsibility for the course
in undergraduate genetics for both veterinary and zootecnia students
and had planned to take full responsibility for the course in the
absence of Dr. Abadia who is in the States on an M. S. fellowship.
Fortunately, the University was able to emply Dr. Armando Rodriguez
to succeed Dr. Abadla. Dr. Rodriguez has done most of the lecturing,
and we have jointly worked out a program for the course, including
the translation of a programmed text Kormondy, Introduction to Genetics.
The first translation is being done by my secretary Srta. Guerrero with
Dr. Rodriguez making revisions. I have proposed to RTAC in Mexico that
they use this translation as the basis for publishing the book in Spanish.
It appears promising at this time that arrangements can be made with
McGraw-Hill for this purpose. There are 11 students in this course.
Other things done to enrich the course have been the bringing in of
guest lecturers, such as Dr. Yunis, who is working on the cytology of
abnormalities in man in the Bogota hospitals and Dr. Bushman to lecture
on the CNA-RNA developments. I have lectured on the sections on
comparative systems of reproduction in corn, neurospora, and paramecium;
lethals in farm animals; mutations and population genetics. Mimeographed
notes (Kormondy) have been distributed to the students in this course
and they have been prepared for the students in agronomy as well. In
view of the fact that we had little time to assume the responsibility,
I feel the course has gone well. An unfortunate sequence to this
semester's work is that Purina has hired Dr. Rodriguez at a beginning
salary that he could never equal in.the faculty if present comparative
salaries continue. It is easy to anticipate the pressures that will be
on ICA and National University to hold fellowship returnees in the face
of personnel demands of growing private enterprises in agriculture.

- 16 -

1.2 Graduate Teaching

There is no graduate teaching in animal breeding at this time,
nor are there any theses being prepared (see future plans for possible

Groundwork is being laid in the active acquisitions of
journals and books in the fields of animal breeding, genetics, and
supporting fields which will be necessary for supporting graduate study
and research in animal breeding. Approximately $ 4000 has been spent
for journals, not including the purchase of a large and excellent
selection of books in these fields. Delivery is beginning on the

1.3 Research

1.3.2 Specific Projects (See Appendix B)

a. During the months of July and August Miss Guerrero
and I moved back to TibaitatA so as to be more accessible to ICA. In
consultation with plans there revisions of previous proposed beef breeding
projects were submitted to the National Beef Program. No action has
been taken on these, a situation which I have found difficult to interpret.
A considerable amount of adoption of previously suggested revised procedures
for record keeping appears to be underway. Unfortunately my ICA counterpart,
Dr. G6mez, had an extended illness. He has returned to work, however, and
is now working at the transferral of beef records to IBM cards. I have
repeatedly offered whatever assistance I may be capable of offering to
the Beef Program. There is an array of interesting opportunities to study
results from the data that have been accumulated over the years. Perhaps
in the future the enormous amount of work that needs to be done can be
undertaken vigorously. There is no doubt but that pertinent information
that can be useful to Colombian cattlemen can be extracted from the data
taken from the ICAherds over the years.

b. With Dr. Pineda in the National Dairy Program we were
able to initiate in September, an approved project on a genetic analysis
of the newly established Lucerna breed at the Hacienda Lucerna, Bugala-
grande, in the Cauca Valley. This herd of 4000 animals has been developed
from a herd initiated about thirty years ago. The herd was closed to
outside blood in 1951 following the importation of two Milking Shorthorn
bulls. Approximately 1200 cows are now being milked in this dairy under
the pasture conditions typical of the Valley. Detailed milk records have
been kept over the years, along with details .on the death losses, colors
and density of hair coats. Dr. Carlos Durin C., who offered the opportunity
to study the herd has been a prominent agriculturist in Colombia for years.

- 17 -

He is housing a clerk hired by ICA who is transcribing records and the IBM
punching is underway by ICA. We hope to gain much insight into management
and population genetics aspects of milk production under tropical conditions
from this study. Results should be obtained on interbreeding and selection
within a large crossbred foundation over a period of years under the same
management. A number of management and other environmental effects undoub-
tedly can be assessed, as well. I may be over optimistic at this point,
but I look for a number of important research findings relative to cattle
production to emerge from this, if we can carry through on the analyses.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

Upon invitation I presented papers at two short courses this
past year. One was for dairymen at Buga, held at the Sena Training Center.
The other was a Veterinary short course presented at the National Universit
in Bogota.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.2 Short term felloships

Five participants in extension animal husbandry were sent to
the U. S. for a six weeks short course in New Mexico. Dr.Cedeflo, a member
of the group, also contacted Dr. Nibler in Nebraska relative to developing
a DHIA-type program in Colombia. It is hoped that Dr. Nibler may be
invited to come here to assist in this program.

1.6 Administrative and Organization Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA and the National University

Administrative reorganization of the Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine and Zootecnia took place in October along the lines of a compromise
proposal which appears to be highly satisfactory. The Veterinary and
Zootecnia degree will be administered in different but administratively
equal departments. A third service department also was formed in the
physiological sciences, which will provide course work in anatomy, bioche-
mistry, and physiology according to the curriculum needs in zootecnia and
veterinary medicine. Meetings held in 1968 were the base for the establish-
ment of the organization as it now stands approved. This is one of the
few major reorganizations in this faculty.

In ICA a major overall reorganization has brought into Animal

- 18 -

Sciences an enormous increase in variety and size of obligations. Three
hundred professionals mostly in the health related fields are now in this

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Course Location Level Lect. Lab

Animal Breeding

General Genetics



Degree Enrollment
Resp. 1st Sem 2nd Sem

3 2 A

3 2\ C

APPENDIX B Research Projects









El Nus
La Libertad


Genetic management factors
affecting the Lucerna
dairy herd.

Beef breeding research

APPENDIX C Publications & Articles


H.H. Stonaker
Translations by
Guerrero, Arango,

H.H. Stonaker

Kormondy, E.J.
Translation by
Guerrero and

Title or Subject

Mejoramiento Animal

Animal Breeding

Introduction to

Nature of publication

Notes in Spanish for
introductory Animal
Breeding course.

Same as above in

Programmed Text for
under-graduate genetics.

- 19 -

H. H. Stonaker

H. H. Stonaker

H. H. Stonaker

H. H. Stonaker

New development in Beef
Cattle Breeding.

Genetics of dairy cattle

Genetics and Livestock

Livestock aspects in the
establishment of research
priorities for Latin Amer.

Beef Cattle Short Course,
Ibagu6, Feb. included in
Short Course Publication.

Mimeo Buga. Dairy
Cattle Short Course, Aug.

Mimeo Bogota, Aug.
Veterinary Short Course.

Int FAO-ICA Conference on
Livestock Research and
Graduate Education.
Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Aug. 1st.

- 20 -


1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.3 Palmira

The objectives outlined in the plan of work for 1969
were either partially or fully culminated.

a. Working with counterpart personnel, a course in Biochemistry
with laboratory exercises, for undergraduate students of
the National University, Palmira, was developed and taught. With the help
of counterpart personnel, a Biochemistry supplement complete with laboratory
exercises capable of being conducted routinely by the students, with the
existing resources of the National University at Palmira, was written and
published for student use.

b. An advanced nutrition course complete with laboratory
exercises was outlined in detail and submitted for
approval of the Dean in anticipation of an animal science program at

c. Advice and assistance to the research staff of ICA
and the research and teaching staff of the National
University was provided when requested. Assistance was requested only
to a limited degree by ICA while assistance was extensively requested
by the National University. Assistance was given in both classroom
instruction and on-the-farm applied research and extension problems.
This encompassed many farm visits throughout Colombia.

d. Assistance was also given with both the planning and
execution of undergraduate theses.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

With the help of Drs. Casar and Arango of the National
University, Palmira, a series of week-end farm visits were made with
a group of peace corps volunteers as a "short course" in Health Management
for those working with livestock. Reports filtering back in? i.t-.t'd these
"on the farm short courses" to be a fruitful experience for these workers.

- 21 -

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Felloswhips

a. Arrangements were made for Humberto Arango to receive
a short-term fellowship to attend a Genetics Institute
at Colorado State University during the summer of 1969. Humberto received
a degree fellowship to study at the University of Nebraska toward a
Masters degree in Animal Breeding.

b. Mario Gonzalez, who received a fellowship in 1968 to
study towards a Masters degree in Animal Nutrition at
Oklahoma State University, will complete his studies at the end of the
spring semester and will return to his duties at the National University
in the Fall Semester of 1970.

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Course Location Level Hours

Degree Enrollment
of Resp. 1st. Sem 2d Sem.

Intro. Biochemistry

Intro. Biochemistry

Feeds & Feeding

Palmira U.Grad.

Palmira U. Grad.

4 Advisory Approx. 40

Full Resp.
1st.1/2 Sem. Approx. 40

Palmira U. Grad. 3 Advisory

Approx. 20

1/ Departed April, 1969

- 22 -


1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

Due to the extreme shortage of people trained in the area
of Biochemistry I was asked by the National University to continue work
in this area.

The first semester I was in charge of one section of general
biochemistry and taught aboit one half of the lectures. During this
semester the faculty of veterinary medicine hired Cecilia Cuervo to work
in biochemistry and during the latter half of the semester most of the lectures
were given by her. This course had approximately 40 students.

The second semester I worked principally with Myriam
Sanchez of the chemistry department, in another section of general biochemis-
try, and taught a minimum (about 3 weeks) of the lectures. Most of my time
in this course was devoted to preparing a course outline and helping to
prepare lecture notes. There were 97 students in class, the majority of
whom were agronomy majors.

I feel that both of these new counterparts (Cecilia and
Myriam) have made great progress, and should now be able to teach with
little or no supervision.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

As biochemistry is one of the basic courses for graduate
study in almost any scientific field, the courses in this area are planned
to be of a service nature.

The first course in biochemistry is taught as a general
survey course and is intended to be a service course for graduate students
in animal science, agronomy, and veterinary medicine.

The second course in biochemistry is taught primarily for
animal science students majoring in nutrition and is oriented more towards
their needs.

- 23 -

As people with advanced training in biochemistry become
available more specialized courses will be offered, and it is hopedthat
within the next five years a Masters Program can be started in this area.

1.2.2 Curriculum and courses initiated

No new courses were initiated this year.

Biochemistry I is a general survey course covering the
following general topics: proteins general properties, structure, and
function; enzymes general properties, functions, mechanism of actions;
vitamins structure, function, mechanism of action, deficiency, symptoms;
metabolism, major pathways of synthesis and catabolism of carbohydrates,
lipids and proteins. This :course has been taught in conjunction with the
chemistry department. During the first semester group teaching was tried
using professors from chemistry (Arturo Gil and Evelio Paredes), ICA
(Janet Cardenas and myself) and agronomy (Camila Arriaga). In the first
semester 56 students were enrolled; 5 were from.ICA, and the remainder
were senior students from chemistry and pharmacy. Approximately 70 students
weieenrolled the second semester; 15 are graduate students from ICA. My
role in this course was largely in an advisory capacity andiI taught a
few classes on metabolism. Evelio Paredes, from.the chemistry department,
had the major teaching responsibility. Dr. Wencesiao vargas.from Agronomy,
gave some guest lectures.

Biochemistry II is taught principally for students of
animal nutrition, but is also taught in conjunction with the chemistry
department where it is offered as an elective for advanced students.

Major topics covered are: steriochemistry of the metabolic
pathways; metabolism and function of the steroids; synthesis of nucleic
acids; integration of metabolism; and synthesis and detailed function of
the c.oenzymes.

The first semester 14 students were enrolled, all of whom
were from chemistry. The second semester 20 students were enrolled, 2
are from ICA.

In addition to the students enrolled in this course several
staff members sit in on the course.

1.2.3 Teaching Methodology an( Development of Materials

The major method of teaching continues to be by lecture.
However, the use of the overhead projector to write notes in large classes
has certainly facilitated this effort,

- 24 -

Visual aids are being prepared for use with the overhead
and slide projectors. Also a "book" Vitamins and Coenzymes was prepared
for student use.

1.3 Research

During most of the year research activity was limited to
direction of thesis projects for undergraduate students in chemistry.
All of their work was done in cooperation with the poultry unit in
Tibaitata. This involved four students in three different projects:
(1) Evaluation of the natural rock phosphates of Colombia as a source
Of phosphorus; (2) Cause of diarrhea from feeding high levels of molasses;
and (3) Sources of carotene and/or santhophyls to be used in poultry diets
to color eggs. The first project has been terminated, but work is continuing
on the other two.

Toward the end of the year a closer direct involvement with ICA
was initiated. Plans were made for four major projects in poultry nutrition.
One of these is currently under way and the remainder will be initiated
within the next few weeks.

These projects include: two projects concerning the use of "new"
protein sources for poultry; restricted feeding during the growing period
of chickens to be used for reproduction; and a study to compare various
"waste products" as cheap energy sources for broilers.

One of the protein projects is being used as an M. S. thesis
problem, of which I am the thesis advisor. *

In addition a study of vitamin A requirements and availability
of this vitamin for animals on tropical pastures will be started in
November or December of this year. This work is being done in connection
with the physiology section.

1.4 Extension

Extension activities have been very limited, and consisted of a
few visits to poultry farms in Cali and Bucaramanga. These visits were
primarily to discuss feeding of cottonseed meal and restricted feeding
of growing chickens for reproductive purposes.

- 25 -

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

Two counterparts left for the U. S. to obtain Ph. D's in
biochemistry. A third counterpart passed the English exam and is scheduled
to go to the U. S. to work for a Master's degree in January.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational activities

Attempts were made to coordinate biochemistry in the three
faculties of the National University (veterinary Medicine, Agronomy and
Chemistry) and the ICA graduate school. To date this has not been
successful, and another attempt to coordinate will be made in the near
future. If coordination is not achieved it appears that I will probably
devote all of my time in 1970 to the graduate school at ICA.

* It appears that part of the studies on restricted feeding will also
be used for a masters thesis, in which I will act as the advisor.

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Course Location Level Hours

of Resp.

lst.Sem. 2nd.Sem.

Biochem. IB

Biochem. IB

Biochen. IA

Biochem. II

Biochem. UU

Bogota Undergrad.

BogotA Undergrad.

Bogotf Grad.& U.

Bogota Graduate

Bogota Graduate

- 26 -



1. General Objectives

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.2 Medellin

a. Introductory Animal Breeding.
This course was taught with Mr. Samuel Posada and a
complete course outline and notes developed with text references.

b. Swine Production. I gave this course in both semesters
of 1969 with Dr. Luis Gomez actively lecturing the second semester.

c. Animal Breeding and Population Genetics. I presented
this advanced course the 1st. semester of 1969 to seven students, and
translated the notes into Spanish.

d. Methods of Selection and Mating Systems in Animal Breeding.
I taught this advanced course the second semester to five students. The
notes from this and the previous course were combined and published in
book form.

e. Production Courses (Beef, Dairy, Sheep, Poultry). I
prepared and presented the "Breeding" Genetics and Improvement sections
of these courses.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

I prepared and helped translate an. advanced text for Animal Breeding
based on the notes of Dr. R. L. Willham of Iowa State University.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

To calculate estimates of those parameters necessary for use
in selection programs.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

a. With the data collected from the Fondo Ganadero Herd at
Montenegro I am developing weaning weight adjustment factors for sex, age,

- 27 -

of dam and season. This will make selection of beef calves possible for
the ranchers of Colombia.

b. Using this same data I will calculate selection Indices
including type, weaning weight and 18 month weight. Ranchers can use the
coefficients developed in these Indices to select their calves and to cull
their bulls and cows.

c. Data from the Cebu-Charolais herd of the International
Mining Corporation at its Frontino Mine near Segovia, Antioquia will be
collected. These records are of excellent quality and include weights
at weaning, 18 months, slaughter, carcass and organs.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

To encourage the use of genetic principles in the livestock
industry of Colombia.

1.4.2 .Specific Projects

a. Record keeping systems have been established at three

b. These records will be used in selection and mating
systems on these fincas.

c. Comparisons will be initiated between selected and
random-mated groups of animals on the same fincas.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

a. Francisco Villegas departed in January to study for an
M. S. degree at the University of Missouri in Meat Technology.

b. Sail Quintero departed in August to study toward a Ph. D.
in Animal Nutrition at the University of Nebraska.

1.5.2 Short Term Fellowships

a. Lucio Rodriguez attended the Latin American Livestock
and Poultry Conference during May 1969 at the University of Florida.

- 28 -

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to the National University

a. I organized and administered a Senior Student and Professors
Seminar. The professors and senior students present a critical seminar of
a recent article from a professional journal. Attendance is voluntary but
averages about 40.

b. I actively participated in two curriculum planning groups.
The first was at the University of Antioquia with ICA cooperation. The
second was a meeting.Of the National University administrators in the
Agricultural Sciences. I believe that Nebraska Mission participation in
these meetings can produce valuable results such as: fever courses, more
relevant courses, better sequence of courses and general updating of the
programs. Also our presence indicates interest in the institution, to
which we are assigned.

Credit Degree Enrollment ...
Course Location Level Hours of Resp Ist.Sem. 2d.Sem.

Animal Breeding and
Improvement I Medellin U 3 C 20

Swine 3 A 22

Animal Breeding and
Improvement II 4 A 7

Animal Breeding and
Improvement III 4 A 4

Beef Cattle 3 D 23

Beef Cattle 3 D 12

Swine 3 C 12

S29 -


1. General Objectives

Since arriving in January, 1969, I have worked in three general
areas of this program; teaching, dairy plant preparation and operation
(including the testing laboratory), and consultations with industry and
government agencies interested in dairy products.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Medellln

a. Teaching during the first semester consisted of
assisting classes taught by my two counterparts
in the two basic dairy courses, assisting in the preparation of classes
by furnishing technical material and explaining or analysing these
materials. Efforts were also made to improve teaching techniques .of the
counterparts with new ideas in classroom performance, visual aids, field
trips, practical plant demonstrations, etc.

b. During the second semester one of my counterparts
left the University, which forced me to take a more
active, though still minor, part in the teaching of three courses offered.
In conjunction with my counterpart we have, during this semester, developed
a more formal syllabus of notes for each course. We hope to have this in
mimeographed form for all students by the first semester of 1970. Considerable
teaching aids have been ordered and some are already in use.

c. I have also counseled three students on their
investigation projects, a requirement for graduation.

d. The majority of my time has been spent in the preparation
of the dairy plant as a teaching tool for this subject
matter. This has entailed construction, plumbing, wiring, installing,
repairing and testing equipment, ordering equipment and supplies, and
building some equipment locally. Supervision of the construction of a "model"
farm milk storage room at the University farm, Paisandu, was also carried
out and completed.

1.3 Research

The control laboratory that accompanies the dairy plant has
been put-back into operation and necessary additional materials for this

30 -

laboratory have been ordered. I have personally repaired and put back into
service several thousand dollars of equipment that were out of order.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

During 1969 visits to nine different dairy processing
plants were made. These varied from large bottling operations to one man
cheese plants. These visits have helped form a better picture of the
current industry situation and needs, and also have stimulated interest
on the part of industry in our training program at the National University.
These visits have directly or indirectly led to consultations on technical
subjects with five different private companies, plus a request from SENA
that our department give assistance to them in their program of plant
worker training.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

Dr. L. Crowe, of the University of Nebraska spent the
month of March in Medellin helping install plant equipment. Unfortunately
we were unable to make trial runs of products because of lack of water
in the dairy plant, a problem which persisted until almost the end of
the year. All equipment has been installed and supplies (bottles, cases,
caps, cartons, cheese forms, etc.) have been secured. Considerable time
has been spent on securing these items, which should not have to be
repeated in the future.

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Credit Degree of 1969 Enrollment
Course Level Hours Resp. 1st. Sem. 2nd. Sem.

Dairy Industry Undergrad. 4 C 22 14

Dairy Lab.
Methods Undergrad. 1 C 10 14

1/ Arrived January, 1969

- 31 -

C. V. ROSS 1/

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1..1 Bogota

It was my objective to assist Dr. Jaime Arenas with courses
in Livestock Judging and breeds of livestock during the first semester.
My objectives were attained.

My assistance consisted of the following:

a. Organization of the courses.

b. Introduction of superior teaching methods.

c. Development of visual aids and procurement of others
available in the United States. Many slides are now
available to Dr. Arenas and other materials were procured which will be
of great assistance in teaching.

d. To outline and assist in teaching a course in Beef
Cattle Production and Management. This was done in
cooperation with Dr. Robayo and others. This was a new course and it
is believed that it was a successful effort.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

Students were not ready for a graduate program, although one
graduate student was enrolled in the Beef Production course.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

To assist in research with beef cattle and calves.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

Two experiments were conducted as follows:

a. Supplements for Holstein calves that were weaned early.

- 32 -

This experiment was conducted in cooperation with Dr. Cedefo and involved
various levels of urea and molasses in the concentrate rations.

b. Supplements for finishing Holstein steers on oat or
corn silage in drylot. This experiment was completed
in cooperation with Dr. Patifio.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

a. To assist in conducting short courses in Beef Cattle
Production and Management.

b. To assist with demonstrations on classifying purebred
Brown Swiss cattle on farms and ranches.

c. To complete a bulletin on Beef Cattle Production and

1.4.2 Specific Projects

Projects completed were:

a. Helped to organize and conduct a highly successful
short course at Ibague. Helped prepared for another
at Monteria.

b. Assisted Dr. Arenas in five separate demonstrations
of classifying Brown Swiss Cattle.

c. A management bulletin was completed in first draft and
corrections are now being made.

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

No. of Hours Level of
Course Students Lecture Lab. Partic.

Beef Production 15 2 4 B

1/ Departed June, 1969

- 33 -


1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General

1969 has been a busy and fruitful year as we have seen
a lot of activity and many accomplishments in the Extension Animal Science
program. I feel the changes in attitude in the past year are noteworthy,
and especially in the past two years. When I first arrived in Colombia,
Extension was accepted but not promoted. Now after Colombian personnel
have seen some results of various successful extension activities, the
enthusiasm for extension is much greater. However, even though we have
seen many satisfying accomplishments in the past, we have only started.

I had the pleasure of working with one named counterpart
in beef cattle extension, Dr. Pedro Conteras. Dr. Contreras has been
very helpful to me in implementing various programs. He has also been
helpful in advising me of Colombian conditions and customs.

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Probably the biggest accomplishment during the year
was the organization and conducting of beef cattle
s-hot courses (see Appendic A). One of the first organized beef cattle
short courses ever held for Colombian beef cattle producers was offered
in February. Since that time I would estimate that over 50 similar
short courses were held throughout Colombia. It was very satisfying
to sef such an interest build up and so many short courses held. I
*was disappointed, however, that neither my counterpart nor I were
consulted on nany of them to share our experiences on the courses we
held. These short courses have not only served as a means of distributing
a lot of information, but have also been a good feedback to serve as a
qgide for future research projects.

b. Visits to farms and ranches were made to study specific
problems and also to become generally familiar with
problems in the field.

c. I have cooperated with the ICA Agricultural Engineers
in the design of various equipment for livestock. A
swine farrowing crate, cattle head gate, pertable livestock scale and
a calf tilting table were designed in cooperation with them.

- 34 -

d. I have also attended livestock fairs during the year
where many good contacts have been made with top
livestock producers.

e. It has been very satisfying to me to see the office
visits increase. I would estimate 1-2 cattlemen come
to the office daily with a host of problems and observations. Although
this is not a great number it is steadily increasing.

f. Time was spent during the year consulting with Peace
Corp volunteers on various problems that they were

g. A number of extension publications have been prepared
and published (See Appendix B).

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

I have assisted in the preparation of sending 2 graduate
students to the U. S. and at this time I am working with two applicants
who hope to leave in January.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

During July, I was named head of the National Sheep Program in
ICA; however, I did not assume this responsibility until after I returned
from vacation in'the middle of September.

Heading the sheep program was not in the 1969 program projection.
However, I was asked to give the program some help until ICA can find
someone qualified with experience to fill the position. I have accepted
this position with the understanding that I will be able to continue
with my extension work, and as soon as ICA feels that one of their men
are qualified I will go back to full time extension. The sheep position
involved routine administrative details, advising on research projects
(see Appendix C) and helping on the extension program. Fortunately, we
have a wonderful staff and I rely heavily on the heads of each experiment

- 35 -


Programmed Short Courses and Demonstrations in
and Poultry in 1969


Resp.* Held



Beef Cattle
Short Course

Sheep .Short

Swine Short C.

I. Rush





b c

Ibagu6 Feb.

Monteria July



San Jorge June



* a Major responsibility
b Assisted actively
c Advisor


Bulletins, plegables and news articles have
These are as follows:

been released.



How and When to
.~=tr.te Pigs Moncada-Rush

Performance testing
of Beef Cattle Rush-Contreras

Type of








ICA Extension

Swine farrowing

Rush, Jimenez,
Gallo, Maner

Swine Facilities Rush


Memo for
note book



INIAP Quito,
Ecuador. My
office on

- 36 -



How to obtain Better
gains by using female hormones Rush-Patifio Bulletin Nov. ICA-Extension

Rush I have given council and assistance
on several other bulletins and leaflets
however do not share authorship.


Research Projects





Two Lamb crops in
three years

Rotation of pastures
for sheep.

Level of


I. Rush

I. Rush



- 37 -


1.3 Research

In the month of August I moved to Cali and assumed the position
of Director of the ICA National Program in Poultry. No courses in poultry
are offered at the National University in Palmira, but I Am helping revise
the few lectures that are given in this subject in Animal Science,

1.3.1 Specific Projects

a. Research is going forward in house construction for
both broilers and layers. Data are being collected
country-wide by the use of recording hydro-thermographs so that more
exact plans can be prepared for economical housing in allareas. The
cooperation of all members of the Agricultural Engineering staff is

Our experiences in housing poultry in the U. S. are
not applicable here until we know for sure what conditions must be

b. The main thrust of poultry research at the various
stations is being changed toward management studies
that can be applied at once. A great deal of basic research has been
carried out and reported. The industry wants some current problems
solved, and this we propose to do. Many of the answers we bring from
the U. S. are either to questions that have not been asked, or need
to be re-checked under Colombian conditions.

c. A meeting held in Palmira in late October resulted in
a great reduction in numbers of research projects, and
we hope, an increase in quality. The accumulation of 13 years of research
in the feeding of sugar and molasses to poultry is finally being distilled
for publication in readable form.

d. Projects agreed upon for emphasis in 1970 will be
explained in the plan of work. Briefly they are:
Turkey breeding, nutrition for raising breeding chickens, house construc-
tion, use of indigenous plants in poultry feed, and poultry projects for
campesinos. Due to changes in personnel last summer, most of the 39
projects listed as research for 1969 have terminated.

- 38 -

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

I believe I am able to do more to help establish the
extension idea in Colombia in the poultry section than in the extension
program. The concept of a-useful, continuous dialogue between research
and application can only be demonstrated by practice. For the first time,
such poultry researchers as Alvarez, Santos, Ruiz and Rodriguez are
visiting poultry producers with me and they are pleased to learn that
these people have a vital interest in what ICA research can do. Each
person will be involved in a project for next year that will help solve
a problem that can affect the industry in Colombia. Without exception,
these men now want to spend time in the field observing large operations,
discussing possible solutions to problems, and extending information
both ways. Big scale operators such as Guillermo Velazco, Jorge Echeverry,
and Serrano Santamaria have agreed to act as demonstration farms for
initiative practices in 1970. This gives us far larger numbers of
chickens to work with than we could otherwise afford. My principal
effort in 1970 will be function as an extension poultryman while giving
overall encouragement and aid to research projects.

One major effort now underway is the completion of a basic,
high-school level text in poultry husbandry. Much of this has been written,
and pictures are being assembled to illustrate the narrative with scenes
in this country.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Felloswhips

In 1969 three poultry students left for the U. S. Hector
Benitez is in Nebraska for an M. S. in poultry. Jesus Ram6n is in Colorado
for the same degree and Ottomario Marin is in Texas for his Ph. D. (under
a non-Nebraska Mission fellowship). I hope some short time fellowships can
be granted in 1970.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA

My administrative duties in the poultry section are limited
to organization, aid When asked, and leadership in extension type activities.
I think it is imperative that the young men in this section take the lead
in research with as little direction as possible. They need to build
confidence in their competence.
39 -

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

In January Dr. John Quisenberry, Head, Dept. of Poultry
Science, Texas A & M University visited Colombia for two weeks. We
visited examples of the industry from farms to feed manufacturers to
university and experiment station workers. Several seminars were held,
and he was much appreciated by the industry.

Several "plegables" were written and translated, but
unfortunately the printing process is still glacially slow. If knowledge
is to be transferred to the receptive audience we have, this must be
connected. It simply is not possible to take hand written information
to each poultryman. For example, proper use of lights in laying houses
would raise production by about 6%. (This would be the equivalent of
adding 300,000 laying hens to the economy at virtually no cost. It
costs approximately $ 2.35 U. S. to raise a laying hen). This has been
pLoven by demonstrations in Colombia as well as by the wealth of research
carried on in other areas. Many people would put this information to
work if the material finally approved last April could be printed for

- 40-



1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

a. Some progress was made toward the objective of permitting
all teachers to participate in research. With the removal
of the ICA Physiology research laboratory to TibaitatA, the space made
available was designated for research by staff members.

b. Work was begun on developing one course in the faculty for
autotutorial presentation.

c. A four-course series in physiology for advanced students
specializing in physiology was agreed upon and one additional
professor hired to assi": with teaching in this area.

d. Steady progress was made toward improving the efficiency of
teaching in the area of physiology--more objective exams,
team teaching and smaller classes are being utilized. Some of these
improvements have begun to diffuse into the teaching of other subjects.

e. All teaching staff in physiology are now candidates for the
M. So or Ph. D. degree either in ICA or in schools in the
United. Et.;-s.

fo The research staff of ICA participated in undergraduate
teaching in 1969 to the extent of teaching one complete
course (advanced phsys'.ology--Rivercs) and as guest lecturers on specific
subjects (for example, the subject of fat metabolism was taught to
the undergraduate course in crop physiology by Clemencia G6mez).

go Perhaps the most significant development in undergraduate
teaching in Bogota iAwas that teaching was taken over
entirely by Colombian personnel during 1969.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses

a. During the first half of 1969, formal teaching consisted
of two courses, advanced physiology and plant nutrition.

- 41 -

With the teaching of plant growth regulators, scheduled for second semester,
1969, the six-course cycle in physiology will have been completed for the
first time.

b. Slide sets were developed for use in parts of the
graduate and undergraduate weed science courses.

c. As of July, 1969, four students were enrolled in M. S.
programs in Weed Science or Physiology with two of these
already embarked on thesis research.

d. No progress was made toward the establishment of a
viable program leading to the M. So in plant sciences
for college teachers.

1.3 Research

Progress was made toward consolidation and more efficient
organization of research under the leadership of Dr. Riveros. Only one
new ICA professional was assigned to the programs during 1969, but as
the training of the young professionals in the program continued, the
overall effectiveness of the program increased markedly. As of July
1969, six groups of experiments in crop physiology had reached publication
stage, and two others were approaching this point.

Publication in Preparation


Progress in Agronomic Education in Colombia

Growth inhibitors in Kikuyo grass

Light effect on paraquar transport

Growth inhibitors in Coquito

Physiology of herbicidal action

Herbicide selectivity

Pesticide Interactions

Fonseca and Davis

Sanchez, Jeffery, Davis

Uribe, C&rdenas, Davis

Lotero, Cardenas, Davis

Davis, Cardenas

Cardenas, Davis

Davis, G6mez, Perdomo

1.4 Extension

A packaged extension short course in weed science was developed and

- 42 -

presented by the Oregon State University program with participation by
MASUA personnel. No other significant extension activity occurred during

1.6 Administrative and organizational Activities

Except in consolidation and organization of some of the new
research programs, no great activity occurred in this area.

1/ Departed August, 1969

APPENDIX A Teaching Report


Crop. Phys.


U. Nal. Bog.

Level Hours

Undergrad. 3

Degree Enrollment
of Resp, 1st Sem. 2d Sem.

- 43 -


1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

11.1. Bogot.

a. A first step was accomplished toward providing the
soils teaching staff at National University with a
laboratory for applied and limited basic research. The basic equipment
for the above lab was ordered and should arrive in early 1970.

b. Teaching aid films applicable to undergraduate courses
were ordered and will become a part of a film training
aids library in the department of agronomy at National University Bogota.

c. The undergraduate soils courses were reviewed with the
staff and in some cases additions, reorganization or
deletion of material was suggested.

d. Methods of field investigation were discussed with a
senior class followed by actual participation of several
students in an actual field experiment.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

I did not participate in the Graduate teaching program for
two reasons, first there are sufficient well trained Colombians to
teach, and secondly only a limited number of graduate ,students were
enrolled in the soils program during 1969. A strong recruiting effort
is proposed for 1970.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Research and areas relating to research occupied the
majority of my time. The most important objective was to initiate
experiments using designs which in addition to providing fertilizer
response data also provide data for economic analysis.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. Experiments were initiated to provide information on
the efficient use of fertilizers and lime on extremely
44 -

deficient soils of the plain areas of Colombia. The majority of the
field experiments are of a type requiring more than one year's data.
Therefore, none were terminated during 1969. Experiments being
continued into 1970 areas

(1) Relationship between fertility level and susceptibility
of corn, sorghum and rice to herbicides.

(2) Yield of corn and soybeans as influenced by rate and
placement of phosphorous in acid soils of Los Llanos.

(3) Response of soybeans grown on aluminum soils to rates
and placement of lime and phosphorous.

(4) Yield of corn and sorghum varieties grown in Los Llanos
as influenced by rates of N, P, K, and Lime.

(5) The economic levels of N, P, and K for forage production
from Kikuyo grass in the Sabana de Bogota.

(6) The economic levels of N, P, K, and Lime for forage
production from rye grass in the Sabana de Bogota.

(7) The influence of N, P, and K on corn and sorghum yields
in the Tolima Valley.

(8) The influence of N, P, and'K on growth and yield of
newly established banana trees on the old United
Fruit Farm near Santa Marta.

(9) The influence of N, P, and K on yields of cotton in
the Valledupar area.

(10) Experiments involving N, P, and K on sorghum and minor
elements on cotton were started in the Tolima Valley
but were lost due to mismanagement by the former
agronomist at Nataima.

(11) Greenhouse experiments involving minor elements were
conducted for corn, rice, spinach and beans involving
soils from the Sabana de Bogota, Piedemonte area east
of Bogota, and from the Llanos.

(12) Experiments designed to compare the effectiveness of

- 45 -

a.slow release N fertilizer (Urea covered with sulfur)
were conducted at La Libertad and Nataima.

(13) The effect of N, P, and K on the economic response of
wheat in the Tunja area (in conjunction with an I. A.

b. In cooperation with area agronomists, Colombian and
Nebraska Mission staff, and CIAT it is anticipated that
experiments in the following areas will be initiated:

(1) Theeconomic relationships between weed control and
fertility in pasture production.

(2) The relationships between herbicide vs. tillage and
fertility in the establishment of new pastures, especial-
ly in areas of the North Coast and Los Llanos.

(3) To investigate the response of different soybean
varieties to different fertility levels at Monteria and
La Libertad.

1.4 Extension

No specific objectives exist for extension. Several experiments
last year were designed for field demonstrations and were used for this
purpose by area agronomists. It is anticipated that some of the experiments
in 1970 will be utilized in a similar manner.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

During 1969 I helped Dr. Camacho of ICA arrange for a two
week consulting trip for Dr. Dermot Coyne of the Department of Horticulture
at the University of Nebraska. Additional time during the year was also
spent with Dr. Robert Fox, University of Hawaii, Dr. E. J.Kamprath, North
Carolina State, Dr. Damon Boyton, of the North Carolina State Mission in
Perf, Dr. Joe Young, University of Nebraska, and Dr. W. Furtick, Oregon
State University.

- 46 -


1. General

This report is written two months after arriving for duty in
Colombia. My time has been spent in becoming familiar with program needs
and personnel. Travel to ICA locations at Monteria, Palmira, and Nataima,
and attendance at a meeting of specialists in plant physiology and weed
control held in Medellin have allowed me to see a little of Colombia and
to meet most of the professional workers. I have listened to opinions
and advice of Colombian and American colleagues, and have attempted to
evaluate my own initial impressions in the light of their suggestions.
On the basis of these experiences, I have developed a general outline
of my proposedactivities for 1970. Obviously, this outline must be
considered as highly tentative.

1970 Work Outline

At Tibaitata (70% of the time)

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.2 Present plans are for me to participate directly in the
classroom teaching of three courses in the ICA-Universidad
Nacional Graduate Program during 1970. Also, there will be counseling
of some graduate students.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 Supervision: Organization of Laboratory of Plant Physiology;
physical arrangements of equipment in available space;
development of lab procedures, training and supervision of staff and
graduate students, etc.

1.3.2 Personal projects- Those in which I will have a direct
role in planning, data collection and evaluation, and

At the National University (20% of the time)

It is expected that my duties here will not be in teaching but in
the areas of (1) coordination of classroom and laboratory teaching of
undergraduate plant physiology and (2) counseling certain junior staff

- 47 -

members of the Agronomy Faculty.

Travel (10% of the time)

I visualize this travel in two categories: (1) for the purpose of
seeing different regions of Colombia, with the field problems of various
types of crops and various climates; and (2) for the purpose of consulting
with professionals working on specific problems when such consultations
can be of assistance to our work or to theirs.

1/ Arrived October, 1969

- 48 -


1. General

The past four months since my arrival in Colombia have been spent
in becoming more proficient in the Spanish language, observing the
research and teaching activities of ICA and the National University in
weed control and plant physiology, and in becoming acquainted with the
personnel whom I will be associated with in these programs during the
next two years.

A large amount of weed control field research in the more
economically important crops of Colombia is currently being accomplished
by ICA personnel. An accumulation of data collected over the past few
years is presently being utilized as a basis for the publication of
weed control recommendations for several major crops.

Two important areas of research which have not received sufficient
attention are brush and pasture weed control and control of aquatic weeds.
I will concentrate most of my research activities within these areas
during the coming year.

Needs of both the graduate and undergraduate programs in weed
control and plant physiology are now under consideration.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

At present, undergraduate weed control at the National
University is being taught by N6stor Hern&ndez, I. A. I have visited
extensively with Dr. Hernandez concerning the needs of the program. Based
on our conversations and personal observation, undergraduate weed control
could be improved considerably by broadening the scope of the present
offering and by adding depth to the subject matter currently being
taught. I plan to participate directly with Dr. HernAndez in offering
an introductory course in weed control in September of 1970. I hope to
make available the teaching materials developed through this effort to
the Agronomy Faculties at Palmira and Medellin.

- 49 -

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

I will serve in an advisory capacity in the development
of a graduate course in weed control which will be offered in January
of 1970. The course will deal primarily with herbicide selectivity and
mode of action. I view my role in the development of this offering as
one of coordinating the immediate course objectives with the overall
objectives of the physiology graduate program. In addition, I plan to
offer technical advice as well as suggestions concerning teaching
methods in the preparation of individual units.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

A significant portion of my research time will be allocated
to studies involving control of brush and pasture weeds. Because of the
importance of the livestock industry in Colombia, expansion of research
programs in this area is essential.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. Research in pasture weed control was recently initiated
in Monteria. Some of the objectives of this and other
ICA stations are as follows:

(1) Identification of problem species. Recording of
changes in species composition following control
practices in order to evaluate long term effectiveness of the technique.

(2) Screening of herbicides for weed control including
determinations of rates and frequencies of applications
required for effectiveness, and forage crop tolerances.

(3) Evaluation of non-chemical weed control methods
which favor grassland development such as clipping
or burning alone or in combination with chemical control methods.

(4) The effect of various management practices on
pasture weed control. This will include a
comparison of fertilizer treatments as they relate to increased forage
yields as well as their effect on weed populations.

- 50 -

(5) The use of herbicides for removal of native
vegetation in order to establish crops or improved

(6) Economic feasibility studies.

The overall purpose of these studies will be to
eventually result in brush and pasture weed control recommendations for

b. A second area of research was initiated in early
December of 1969. Screening of herbicides for control
of several species of aquatic weeds in drainage canals near Tibaitat& is
.currently in progress.

All of the research planned or in progress is
coordinated with existing programs of ICA. A major objective of each
project will be to involve Colombian counterparts for purposes of training.

1.4 Extension

Dr. Jerry Doll, of ICA, is currently assessing the present
status and needs of weed control extension work in Colombia. I plan to
coordinate my research and teaching activities as much as possible with
Dr. Doll's findings and extension recommendations.

I/ Arrived August, 1969

- 51 -


1. General

These are my observations after only a few weeks in Colombia.

The following points should summarize my current understanding
and thoughts about the program in physiology as related to increased
crop yields of the North Coast:

a. Unlimited possibilities seem to exist for research projects
in the National Programs for Grain Legumes, Maiz and Sorghum
and Pastures and Forages.

b. As of December 1, 1969, I have found no Nebraska Mission
Activities in Northern Colombia with regard to physiology
and crop production.

c. With my position being new, I am finding it necessary to do
much traveling ,and study to get an orientation.

d. A trip by truck through the North Coast in January with
personnel in the physiology program and directors of
cooperating programs should provide information for intelligently
planning a useful program.

e. It is imperative to have widespread agreement on a plan of
work. Since over diversification invites failure, I will
strongly encourage ICA's program directors to set priorities.

f. I hope that my assistance in research can be concentrated
with sufficiently few scientists so that my efforts will
result in a significant increase in their research performance.

1/ Arrived September, 1969

- 52 -


1. General Objectives Accomplished in 1969

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.3 Palmira

a. Teaching of crop physiology has been conducted entirely
by my counterpart Luis Malaver. My contribution consisted
of limited class attendance, suggestions for improvement in presentation
and testing, providing needed equipment and materials, etc.

b. As one of the authors of a new Spanish text in plant
physiology, I am happy to report this text was used
successfully by students in the above classes. Revisions were made as
the semester progressed. Since the target date for this text was 1971,
we were pleased to complete it for use in 1969.

c. With much interest shown in photoperiodism and the
effect of red, far-red light on plant responses, I
prepared written laboratory experiments and provided needed equipment
to carry out these experiments in addition to the regular laboratory

d. With the help of Dean Gonzalez we. were able to set up
a separate plant physiology facility at the National
University adjacent to the existing student laboratory. This facility
housed Drs. Malaver and Castafio as well as myself. It also permitted
the setting up of the more sophisticated and expensive equipment where
professionals could oversee its use.

e. I was consulted by several undergraduate students on
possible research problems'; thesis studies and methods
for conducting the research, Considerable library activity was involved
in these studies.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

The general objective was to continue to train ICA
personnel in applied physiology with projects now underway and to
promote a broadened spectrum of new projects at Palmira. A major

- 53 -

portion of my time was devoted to this area of responsibility.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. Specific projects completed during 1969 include the

(1) Root promoting hormones on pineapple colinos

The results of this experiment were presented as a
paper before the Physiology and Weed Control Conference
in Bogota.

(2) Presentation at same conference of results on
Tolerance of Pineapple Colinos to Selected Herbicides.

(3) Induction of Pineapple Floration by Ethrel and other
Hormonal Sprays

Experimental Plots at San Isidro near Pereira were
treated on Jan. 17 with various concentratiois.of
hormones including Ethrel. 100% initiation of floration
occurred by April with two concentrations of Ethrel.
This promises to be the accepted method of field treatment,
since Ethrel can be applied during the day whereas former
materials required night applications. Results of this
and other pineapple experiments were presented to the
Tropical Sessions of the American Society for Horticultural
Science in Cali in July.

(4) Degreening of Washington Orange by Ethrel

A preliminary experiment to determine if treated oranges
can attain characteristic orange skin color. Beneficial
color changes resulted. Reported at above Tropical
Session of A.S.H.S.

(5) Pasture legumes and seed production for high altitude
areas in Colombia.

11 varieties of clovers from tropical, sub-tropical and
temperate zones of the world were planted in early 1969
at elevations of 2500 and 3000 meters at Coconuco and
Patugo in cooperation with Dr. Zambrano, Minister of

- 54 -

Agriculture and 2 dairymen of the department of Cauca.
Observation in August 1969 showed crimson clover (T.
incarnatum) to be excellent anf flowering; white clover
and two selectionsof T. subterraneum (Clare and Mt.
Baker) along with T. vesiculosum ancho to be good;
and red clover and ladino clover fair. Continuation of
these plots will indicate the possibilities of these
clovers for local seed production.

b. Specific projects initiated or underway in 1969 are
as follows:

(1) Growth and Development Study in Cacao

This study was set up as a two-year project, inasmuch
as the effect of rainfall, temperature, humidity and
shade on leaf flushing and pod production are unknown,
especially the carry over effect. Study of one year's
data, completed in August 1969 indicates a correlation
between flower initation and rainfall and an interrelation
with degree of shading.

(2) Grape varieties trials

35 varieties of table, raisin and wine grape cuttings
were imported from the U.S.D.A. in Fresno, California.
These were planted and rooted at ICA, Palmira for later
distribution to Nataima, Valle and Coconuco cooperators.
Still in rooting beds as of September 1, 1969.

(3) Vegetable varieties trials

In cooperation with Food Machinery Corporation and
Asgrow Seed International, 84 varieties of vegetable
seed with possibilities for tropical Colombian production
were imported. Trials were set up with private cooperators
when ICA showed no interest in the project. Through
the cooperation of National University, Bogota, a pamphlet
I had written describing the suggested varieties, was
mimeographed for distribution.

Just prior to leaving, I turned over the balance of
these seeds to Dr. Higuita at Tibaitat6 along with the
names of the cooperating private individuals.

- 55 -

(4) Mora (blackberry) project

Due to the efforts of Bill Keeton, a Peace Corp worker,
a study was initiated to design an individual as well
as master container to transport from mountainous
production areas to market such highly perishable
products as mora, strawberries, mushrooms,etc. Design
engineers from Carton de Colombia produced pilot models
which were used in trial shipments 'to a supermarket in
Bogota. Dr. Dunkelberg of the Nebraska Mission worked
on the design of a back pack for mules to lessen trans-
port damage down the mountain. My function was to design
into the package allowance fec.such physiologic post
harvest processes as aeration, heat of respiration,
rapidity of maturation, etc. USAID/RDO also lent advice
and assistance in this venture. ICA-Palmira was not
involved. Bill Keeton is attempting to set up a
simple cooperative among the Moreros.

(5) Carnation mother stock

Obtained 250 cuttings each of 4 virus-free carnation
varieties from Colorado State University for dissemination
to growers in the Bogota area as well as Cali area. These
were rooted and distributed during the first half of 1969.
Agapito Olea, RDO, Bogota received one half of this
importation for dissemination in the Bogota area.

1.4 Extension

My activities in extension, theoretically, should have been that of
aiding or counseling a counterpart Colombian extension horticulturist. One
was promised in 1968 but failed to materialize. Consequently, I was called
upon in increasing degree during 1969 by growers, commercial organizations
and governmental agencies for assistance. Sample activities included:

(1) Farm visitations to assist in solving production problems
on such crops as cacao, pineapple, roses, carnations, avocado,
mango, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, potato, etc.

(2) Visitation to potato storage areas on the Savannah with agri-
cultural engineers to diagnose problems in said storage.

(3) Conferences with personnel from U. S. firms with interest
in establishing subsidiaries in Colombia. An example is the

- 56 -

feasibility study for vegetable production and freezing with
Winter Gardens Freezer Co., Tennessee.

(4) Conferences with commercial organizations such as California
in Barranquilla and Fruco, Call on production problems.

(5) Conferences with governmental agencies INCORA, CVC, Minister
.of Agriculture Cauca, etc.

(6) Briefing sessions on horticultural possibilities in Santa
Marta Guajira peninsula with members of Utah State Team.

(7) Assistance with A.S.H.S. Tropical Meeting, Cali.

(8) Acting as host for 25 visiting U. S. pomologists.

(9) Presenting seminars on rural vs urban development in U. S.
for Centro Colombo Americano at the University of the Valley.

1.5 Staff.Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

Activity in this area limited to assisting five candidates
for fellowships to the U. S., four of whom left in August 1969. Helped
in filling out forms, accompanying candidates to the U. S. consul for
visas, answering personal questions, alerting them to deadlines, etc.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA or the National University

Inputs to ICA or National University consisted of counsel
and aid in developing programs. Several meetings were held with Dr.
Riveros in the expansion of the new department of physiology. Suggestions
as to needs, priorities, facilities and personnel were given. Similar
activities with National University on courses, needed equipment, facilities
and library occurred.

A visit to the Tumaco area and the former IFA station was
made with Dr. Barros, Chief of Cacao research to determine the feasibility
of transferring a portion of cacao research to this area. (Incidentally
since most of the cacao grown in Colombia comes from wet coastal regions
it seems entirely logical that the major experimental area should be there
rather than at Palmira).

- 57 -

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

a. Nearly two months of my time during 1969 was devoted
to preparation for and visitations to all parts of
Colombia with Dr. Joe Young, Chairman of Horticulture at the University
of Nebraska. We visited all major areas with horticultural potential,
obtaining first hand information. Dr. Young's extensive report and my
own subsequent conclusions were submitted to both ICA and the Nebraska

b. A very brief visit by Dr. Max Clegg, physiologist at
the University of Nebraska, permitted ICA personnel
to witness sophisticated equipment for measuring solar insolation.

1.6.3 Other

a. From time to time personnel from other U. S. agencies
and A.I.D. programs visited the Palmira Station.


b. Monthly visitations to attend staff meetings as a
representative of the Palmira group rounded out

1/ Departed August, 1969

- 58 -




1. General Objectives

The general objective of this position is to assist, as an active
participant and adviser, in the development of the Graduate Program (M.S.
level) in Agricultural Engineering at ICA-TibaitatA. My more specific
objective is to assume responsibility, in cooperation with counterpart-
trainees, for the development of the Power and Machinery Program (of
which I serve as Director). That these objectives are being accomplished
is amply supported as follows.

1.1 Undergraduate teaching

1.1.2 Medellin

During the first semester of 1969 I taught the course
"Design of Agricultural Machinery" at U.N. Medellin. Thirteen students
were enrolled. They designed and fabricated in the laboratory two
machines, a land leveler and mounted harrow, which will be manufactured
in Colombia. These students were very active in the pursuit of their
laboratory objectives.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

a. I taught four courses in the graduate program during the
year: Nomograph Design, Machinery Design, Power Applications in Agricul-
ture, and Advance Machinery Design. As the counterpart trainees were
enrolled in these courses as part of their requirements for M. S. degree
study, I had full responsibility for the teaching. However, as the
senior counterpart trainee had taken the machinery design course during
the first semester, he was able to lend significant laboratory teaching
assistance when this course was taught for new students during the
second semester.

b. It is departmental philosophy that graduate level teaching
should be aimed, generally, at the learning of techniques in the identification
and solution of problems. While this does require some acquisition of
additional basic theory, in general it emphasizes the application of known
basic theory. When such problem solving can be tied, in-so-far as
feasible, to current and applied research activities, a highly motivated
learning situation can result. This technique has been highly successful
in my teaching as is shown under the section of this report on research

- 59 -

c. Teaching laboratories and materials have been developed to
the point where they are fairly adequate. With the acquisition of equipment
on order for 1970, these facilities should be quite good. Two texts, one
in electrical power and the other in machinery utilization, have been
prepared in cooperation with the Colombian staff.

d. Three counterpart-trainees are now enrolled two-thirds time
in the graduate program. The first of these will receive his M. S. degree
in June 1970, and will assume part of the teaching load at that time.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

The general objectives of research in power and machinery, as
in other phases of the agricultural engineering program are the development
of efficient staff skills in the identification, analysis, and solution of
problems in the Colombian agricultural industry. Emphasis is placed upon
current, high priority problems.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

Student participation in staff research activities is a
highly important phase of the overall educational activity. In all of
the following activities, projects were designed, and prototypes (in the
case of machines) were fabricated and field tested when completed. Students
participated in all these phases, as part of their class assignments in
most cases.

a. Implements for small, two-wheel tractor:

(1) Moldboard plows, 10" and 12".

(2) Disc harrow and disc cultivator.

(3) Spike-tooth harrow.

(4) Row crop planter-fertilizer

(5) Row crop cultivater.

(6) Row crop (4-row) sprayer.

(7) Mower, sickle-type.

The above implements, and the small tractor, are being
manufactured commercially by Industrias Mecanicas Ricambro and Casa Inglesa

- 60 -

in Bogota. Casa Inglesa will market them with the sales financing being
provided by a 300,000 peso revolving fund provided by Caja Agraria.

b. Land levelers; 2.40 and 4.00 meter widths and in 7 and 9
meter lengths. Commercial production of these two highly successful
models will begin after January 1970 by Apolo in Medellin, and Casa
Inglesa in Bogota. These are cooperative projects with the Soil and
Water Program.

c. Potato planter and potato harvester. These two units
are nearing final completion after changes suggested as a result of
field tests. They are cooperative projects with the Potato Program of

d. Row Crop, self-propelled sprayers. A 10-row, self-
propelled sprayer for potatoes, cotton, soybeans, and horticultural
crops. This machine is nearing completion and will undergo field
testing in early 1970. If transmission problems can be economically
solved, which seems likely, this machine has a good potential acceptance
by potato and horticultural farmers, as it will cost no more than the
40 hand sprayers that it will replace, and will save the labor of 39 men.

e. Feed grinder-mixer, automatic. This electric motor or
gasoline engine powered mill is a cooperative project with the Processing
Program, and is the outgrowth of a project that the Processing Program
carried out for PINA (Proyecto Integrado de Nutrici6n Aplicada). A
company in Cali, Talleres Occidente, is interested in commercially
manufacturing it.

f. Basic tillage studies. A continuation of studies on
alternative methods of seedbed preparation. Results to-date are
promising. Studies show that use of the moldboard plow plus disc
harrow is only 71% as costly as the disc plow-disc harrow combination.
As a result of these studies, Apolo in Medellin will begin manufacturing
moldboard plows in 1970. The acquisition of our own departmental 4-wheel
tractor will greatly speed up this critical area of investigation.

g. Planter improvement. Apolo of'Medellin contracted with
us for the improvement of the seeding rate capacity of their corn planter,
and for improvement of the endurance of certain parts of their cotton
planter. The corn seeding rate study has been successfully terminated,
and the cotton planter study has just started.

61 -

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Extension activities in the promotion of the development of
the agricultural machinery manufacturing industry and the mechanization of
agriculture have been carried out with the National Planning Department of
the Government of Colombia, INCORA, Caja Agraria, other ICA experiment
stations, various manufacturing firms, and a few individual farmers.

b. Five publications have been prepared, and eight technical
aid leaflets have been released or are in the process of being printed.

c. Two short courses have been participated in, and we have
served as consultants in two INCORA regional planning meetings. We have
participated in several regional fairs with machinery research exhibits,
and in the National Agricultural Engineering Field Day.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

a. As Project Leader in Agricultural Engineering for the Nebraska
Mission, I continued to coordinate our activities with those of ICA and
the National University. In this capacity I serve as an administrative
counterpart to the Colombian Director of Agricultural Engineering of ICA.
This cooperative activity has been very successful in the eyes of the
administrators of the Nebraska Mission, ICA, and USAID. The cooperation
of the ICA administrators has been excellent on all levels, as well as
has been that from the Nebraska Mission and USAID.

b. As Director of the ICA Machinery Program, I have had the
responsibility, with the cooperation of the Director of the Agricultural
Engineering Department of ICA and my counterpart trainees, for the
development of graduate teaching, research, and extension in this area
of work. The Colombian staff in this program has increased during the
year from one to four at the present time. Three of these are two-thirds
time graduate students. The first will receive his M. S. degree in June
1970, and the other two in June 1971.

APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Credit Degree Enrollment
Course Location Level Hours of Resp. Ist.Sem. 2nd.Sem.

Machinery Design ICA Grad. 3 A 4 6

Nomograph Design ICA Grad. 1 A 7

Power Applications in
Agriculture ICA Grad. 3 A 4
62 -

Advanced Machinery Medellin Undergrad. 3

*Dr. Manbeck had the reminder of the responsibility.

- 63 -

B* 13


1. General Objectives

The objective of the Nebraska input to this program is to assist in
the development and implementation of an undergraduate academic program
in agricultural engineering. Besides the obvious accomplishment of
professional courses taught (see Teaching Report attached), there were
other efforts made for which the results are not immediately measureable.
In this regard, the following discussion is applicable.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.2 Medellin

The first Colombian-educated agricultural engineers will be
graduated in January, 1970. Twelve men are now completing degree
requirements in spite of obstacles that included student-body strikes,
laboratory limitations, and foreign professors. Further, they will be
able to make substantial professional contributions to the development of
the country.

Consulting with or advising students is considered to have almost
the same importance and time requirement as conducting formal courses; much
time was given to this demand in the latter half of the year. Student
u~e of this time is an indication of acceptance of the foreign professor
ai an effective member of the departmental staff.

The normal administration of the Department is in the hands of
National University personnel, and the guidance considered necessary was
provided in a personal, behind-the-scene manner so as to maintain a "low
profile" in deference to local sensitivities to "U.S. interference".
Specific areas of "guidance" concerned prevention of course proliferation
(both professional electives and those of a service nature), planning
relative to equipment and physical plant needs, and planning of National
University inputs necessary for program continuity.

A course entitled "Environmental Engineering" (required for the
fifth-year students in agricultural engineering) is noteworthy for two
reasons. One, it was a rather successful attempt to show the student
how to relate theory and/or research results to the solution of realistic
field problems; and secondly, the writer carried ninety-five percent plus

- 64 -

responsibility for the conduct of the course. Student reaction was

An academic counterpart in the person of Prof. Euripides Mercado
was assigned to the writer in January. The association and development
of Prof. Mercado has been one of the bright points of the year. His
professional development has been extremely rapid; for example, after
association in the course "Agricultural Systems I" during the first
semester, he was then able to perform creditably as the principal
instructor for the same course during the second semester. In addition,
he has contributed significantly to the agricultural engineering extension
efforts through the development of written materials in joint efforts with
the writer. Efforts are being made to secure him a fellowship to the
ICA Graduate School.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Within the Medellin agricultural engineering curriculum are six
credits for student investigation of problems which have not been solved
in Colombia and the solutions for which would be of value to the agricultural
industry. Those investigations for which the writer is advisor have the
requirement that the studies must be describedin both technical-paper and
extension-publication forms. This requirement will reinforce the research
and extension activities.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

The following projects are in process as "Student Investigations",
with two senior students each working under the direction of the writer.

1. "Engineered Design of Barbed-Wire Livestock Fencing for Colombia";
Objective: To determine certain engineering-significant physical
characteristics of common forms of Colombian manufactured barbed
wire for the purpose of establishing design parameters for
economical livestock fencing in the country.

2. "Comparison of Hand-and Mechanized-Cutting Techniques for Light
Land-Clearing and Pasture-Maintenance Operations"; Objective:
To make job-quality and economic comparisons between the common
hand-cutting method and the use of portable, powered cutting
units for light land-clearing and pasture-maintenance operations
on steep land.

- 65 -

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

The objective of this program phase changes with the audience. The
basic objective is to provide the public with solutions (or the information
necessary to make solutions) to common problems. A secondary objective is
to create a public awareness of the abilities of the profession and thereby
a demand for an agricultural engineering extension program that will force
the development of Colombian staff awareness of and capability in extension
work with the hope that this will be an additional force to insure program
continuity upon the departure of Nebraska personnel.

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Contributions were made to the permanent establishment of the
"Technical Aids National Service". The former is modeled on the Cooperative
Plan Exchange in the United States, while the latter is similar to the
"fact-sheet" series in some states. The following were completed in support
of these services:

(1) "Mending of Fences", Technical Aid No. (not assigned).

(2) "Fences Design", Technical Aid No. 010 (with Euripides Mercado).

(3) Contributions to various adaptations of US plans to Colombian
conditions and/or materials (in cooperation with others).

d. In addition, two bulletins were prepared in cooperation with
Hernando Lemos and Euripides Mercado:

(1) "Practical Considerations in choosing pipes to be used in
the farm".

(2) "Hydraulic ram".

c. The Agricultural Engineering Field Day on February 5 at Tibaitata
was successful in generally acquainting a selected public with agricultural
engineering efforts in Colombia. Over 500 people were exposed to displays
relative to all phases of the program, and comments indicate that considerable
interest was created in the potential of the discipline for contributing to
the development of Colombia. This success was the result of efforts of all
Nebraska Mission engineers.

- 66 -

d. Technical field assistance was limited during the year, primarily
for lack of time. However, one such effort of a continuing nature warrants
mention. A Peace Corps volunteer in Santa Fe de Antioquia has developed
several effective demonstrations of swine housing units as a result of
planning discussions in which I have participated.

e. Several materials have been started that will be carried into
1970. These include:

(1) Plan for multi-purpose building.

(2) Plan for free-stall dairy system.

(3) Bulletin on special form of building construction.

(4) Bulletin on management of free-stall dairy units.

Also, preparations for the 1970 Agricultural Engineering Field
Day have been made.

f. An "extension counterpart-in-training", Hernando Lemos, began
associations with the writer in April under an unusual agreement between
National University and ICA, National University carried his salary until
July 1, after which he became an employee of ICA. The apparent reason
was to prevent losing him to outside employee. Lemos is developing
professional, and has made contributions to our extension efforts.

g. The extension program has been hampered by its separation from
the Agricultural Engineering Department at Tibaitat&. This has been
particularly true with regard to the few opportunities to participate in
extension activities originating from there. The principal contributions
to be made from Medellin are in the development of plans and written
materials, although problems have occurred in this regard also.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.2 Short-Term Consultants

Dr. William E. Splinter, Chairman, Department of Agricultural
Engineering, University of Nebraska, made two short trips to Colombia to
review and advise on program activities. The first, in January, was
principally to get acquainted with the local conditions, although he was
able to contribute meaningful suggestions for programming. The second
visit, in November, was to lend support to our pleas for National University
support to insure program continuity upon departure of Nebraska inputs.

Mr. R. O. Gilden, Agricultural Engineering Coordinator, Federal
Extension Service, USDA, visited Colombia in August to review the "extension
program" in general and the agricultural engineering extension efforts in
particular. The gist of his conclusions was that we were proceeding in the
right direction, but more emphasis (in terms of manpower) should be given
the extension phase of agricultural engineering. This latter conclusion
is unrealistic in view of the manpower requirements of the academic

Credit Degree Enrollment
Course Location Level Hours of Resp Ist.Sem. 2d.Sem.

Systems Engineering I Med. UG 5 A 17 -
I" i" 5 D 18

Environmental Eng. Med. UG 4 A 13

Analytical Methods
(resp.for only 3 weeks) Med. UG 4 A 17

Research I & II Med. UG 3+3 A 4
(principal advisor to four students on two projects)

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1. General Objectives

a. The main objective of this assignment was to establish an agricultural
engineering program at the ICA, Palmira station. This included the develop-
ment of a nucleus staff, location and occupation of suitable quarters, acqui-
sition of basic tools and equipment, and the initiation of a program of
research and extension.

b. Another important objective was to assist the National University at
Palmira and the University of the Valley in Call in developing a joint
professional agricultural engineering curriculum. Since the courses had
previously been decided upon, the latter involved aid in staff planning
and development, selection of equipment and teaching aids, and assistance
in the design of facilities and buildings.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.3 Palmira

a. Since the staff at National University, Palmira seemed
perfectly capable of handling ag engineering service courses, no plans were
made for teaching at that institution. Assistance was to be given to the
staff in requested course improvement and in conducting research.

b. Although the joint undergraduate agricultural engineering
curriculum was initiated in August of 1968, only basic engineering courses
have been taught all at the University of the Valley by the staff of
that institution. I was asked at one time to teach a few classes in an
introductory engineering course, and agreed to do so. However, this
teaching did not materialize.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

In establishing an agricultural engineering program at ICA's
Palmira station, the logical starting point was in research since this is
the primary function of the station. The formal writing of projects was
deliberately de-emphasized since agricultural engineering was entirely new.
So little was understood about the nature of agricultural engineering it
was felt the approach should be through "doing" rather than "planning".

- 69 -

The Valley in which the Palmira station lies is relatively
fertile, fairly flat, and has a climate in which two-or more- crops can
be produced per year. Rainfall is generally sufficient for these two
crops, but is often short at the time many crops are reaching maturity,
and sometimes insufficient to allow planting at the preferred times.
Sprinkler irrigation is practiced to some extent and does overcome water
shortage at the beginning of the growing seasons. Applying water by
sprinklers is not practical in the maturing seasons unless large units
are used. These are rare. Since the land is generally flat to slightly
sloping and since ground water is abundant, our research emphasis has
been placed on surface irrigation. However, despite it's suitability,
surface irrigation is now practiced only in sugar cane, and water
efficiency there seems to be low.

Although much information is available at the station on
soils, there is almost none on infiltration rates and water-holding
capacity. Despite this fact, research efforts this past year were mainly
on the practical side of surface application. An attempt has been made
to have this lead into the determination of basic irrigation information
at a later time.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. The first project was in the basic operations of furrow
irrigation-construction of supply canals, the making of furrows, and the
use of siphons on a field scale. The need for adequate check dams and
the necessity for proper pumps and timely operations were clearly seen.
This phase will be repeated every irrigation season.

b. An H-shaped check gate has been designed and constructed
and other simpler types of canvas used. To check infiltration rates in
furrows, small 600 V-notch weirs were designed and constructed and furrow
check dams made to control the head of siphons.

c. Since siphons are not manufactured here, an apparatus has
been designed to form siphon tubes of plastic pipe which is both available
and inexpensive. While not entirely successful as yet, it shows promise and
work will be continued.

d. In cooperation with the beef cattle program, we have done
the rough leveling of about 15 hectares of land which will eventually be
plots of grass watered by border irrigation. This should be completed
next year if the neccesary equipment can be secured. Leveling or land
forming- has the potential for greatly improving both drainage and irrigation,
but is relatively new.

- 70 -

e. A bed-forming machine was designed and constructed this
past year and performs well. This allows corn to be planted on the beds
at the same time furrows are made. At first, we found it was sometimes
impossible to make furrows between flat-planted rows because of rapid
growth and excess moisture.

f. All of the above projects were carried out by working
directly with counterparts. They, in turn, have carried out projects
in which I assist. Some of the latter include the construction of an
experimental grain silo, design and construction of a pre-emergence
herbicide applicator, and a device for adding fertilizer to irrigation
water. The need for a study in the use of machinery in tillage operations
is great and this work will be carried out as soon as equipment can be
made available.

g. The poultry industry-both for egg and broiler production
is flourishing in the valley, but no adequate plans for the construction
of houses are available. Often, bad mistakes are made because of lack of
knowledge. A study of the poultry housing situation is underway and some
preliminary planning completed. This will be continued and expanded in
the future.

No publications of research results have been made except
in regular progress reports.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

The extension concept has not been fully grasped, especially
by the research workers of ICA. They seem to conceive of extension as
something to be carried out by an "extension specialist" and overlook the
great contribution they could make as subject matter specialists. In
addition, by not keeping in close touch with the farmers, cattlemen and
poultrymen they are not aware of many problems in the field indeed may
not know how much progress is being made. For this reason, objectives in
extension were threefold to give help in practical engineering, and to
show my counterparts both the need and advantages of an extension approach.

1.4.2 Specific Projects

With the broad objectives mentioned above, formal projects
were not written but extension work was handled in the best way possible
when problems arose. These were many and varied.

- 71 -

a. Several times during the year, Peace Corps Volunteers in
the area had questions of an engineering nature. One involved the design
of a carrier for a pack mule to bring berries down from mountain fields.
Another had to do with the selection and use of horsedrawn plows.

b. At another time, instruction in the various phases involved
in agricultural engineering was given to CIAT trainees. Help was given to
farmers near Palmira on drainage and other problems. Several classes were
given special students at valley University on modern agricultural methods
in the U. S.

Many contacts were made with dealers, small manufacturing
shops and fabricators of equipment. Most are very helpful and appreciate
any ideas given them. The industriousness and ingenuity exhibited is a
good sign of progress in mechanization.

c. Other contacts were made at other ICA stations, Caja Agraria,
and INCORA. Most involved drainage, irrigation, or machinery problems. One
INCORA project, Valle # 1, was interested in ideas for stump removal,seeding
methods on steep canal banks, and on control of aquatic weeds.

No formal publications have been made but some are planned
for the future.

1.6 Administration and Organizational Activities

A counterpart, Victor Porras, changed from the soils program to
agricultural engineering late in 1968. Our relations have been excellent,
cooperation is always forthcoming, and we discuss problems freely and

Luis Mario Barrios, a recent agronomy graduate joined our unit in
May. He is younger and has not had the experience of Victor but should
develop into a good engineer.

Both of the above men need advanced training in engineering and
plans have been made to accomplish this.

At first, I had a temporary office in a converted house while
Victor was still quartered in the soils department some distance away.
This made it rather difficult to work together. However, we were later
assigned most of another converted house and it has been developed into
suitable space for the temporary operation of agricultural engineering.
By adding screens and good lights the offices are fine, and a screened
porch was made into a small shop. As our basic tools began to arrive we

- 72 -

were able to work with greater efficiency.

In addition to our engineering staff we now have a secretary, two
technicians and a laborer. A telephone has been installed and we generally
have sufficient transportation.

We do feel the need for our own tractor, some basic farm machines
and an assigned plot of ground for testing machines and equipment. At our
request, plans have been made to satisfy at least a part of this need.

Construction started over a year ago on a new block of one-story
buildings. Work has been done on these buildings only intermittently and
only the foundations and frames completed. We have been promised one of
these buildings when completed.

Included in the above group of buildings was an aluminun-frame
greenhouse. As the plans were in English and quite sketchy the construction
crew had much difficulty. I worked with them about an hour a day for
several weeks, and the building is now complete except for glass.

we have done some work with the staff at National University,
Palmira, along several lines. Cooperation was given in the selection,
outline, and conduct of research projects. We have helped each other
through the loan of materials, equipment and shop facilities, and often
help each other when taking data. One example of our mutual aid occurred
when I was able to put a dynamometer into operation, which had never been
used although it was purchasednew several years ago.

Despite several conferences and discussions, we have not been able
to add any qualified engineers to the National University staff. None of
the present members have been inclined, so far, to improve their status
by attending the ICA graduate school. Although one staff member is
attending the University of Nebraska, more effort must be placed on staff
development if National is to properly meet its commitment as part of our
professional program.

I have consulted with Jose Herrera of the National University staff
on numerous occasions. Among the subjects were the selection of farm
machinery for laboratory classes and the acquisition of suitable books
for instruction.

A number of engineering books have been secured and many more are
on order. These will be invaluable for use both by our ICA section and by
National University.

- 73 -

I also had several discussions and prepared a lengthy report for
Oscar Hidalgo, the National University planning engineer. He has been
charged with the design of additional buildings for the University
including some in anticipation Of the training of students in the joint.
professional engineering program.

Our small section in Palmira participated in the engineering field
day at Tibaitata last February despite the fact that we were hardly
organized. We are planning a much larger contribution this year.

We have also cooperated with the CIAT engineers on mutual engineering
problems and they have been a great help to us. This cooperation will, no
doubt, increase as both groups improve facilities and equipment.

We have also coordinated visits by many short-term consultants from
the U. S. Dr. Splinter and Dr. Fischbach of the agricultural engineering
department at Lincoln were especially helpful. Many other visitors have
been shown around the station, particularly since I took on an additional
small duty as administrative assistant at Palmira.

In retrospect, the year has been successful in that agricultural
engineering is now an established program at Palmira. Although new, with
many weak links, it has a solid beginning. One of our greatest assets is
that more and more people in the Valley now have a better understanding
of agricultural engineering and are becoming aware of the part it can play
in agricultural development.

- 74 -


1. General Objectives

The objective of this position is to assist in developing a
professional Agricultural Engineering program at both the undergraduate
(Medellin) and graduate (Tibaitata) levels.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

-.- 1.1.2 Medellin

a. A specific goal in the Medellin undergraduate
Agricultural Engineering program was attained in
1969. After six semesters of presenting new professional courses each
semester, we have now offered all of the formal course work for the first
group of Agricultural Engineering students. When 12 students complete
their individual investigation projects they will graduate as the first
B.S. Agricultural Engineers in Colombia.

b. In arriving at this significant point in the
development of the Agricultural Engineering
program in Colombia I was fully responsible during the year for the
following courses: Principles of Ag. Machinery, Sources of Agricultural
Power, and Drainage. This is the third time that each of the first two
courses have been taught with the assistance of a counterpart. However,
each time a different person without background in this material has
been the counterpart, which means I have not been able to share the
teaching responsibility. I also had varying involvement in the following
courses: Advanced Drainage Machinery, Soil Conservation, Analytical
Methods, Tools and Materials. These four courses plus drainage were
taught for the first time in 1969. A considerable amount of student
interest and activity was demonstrated in Advanced Machinery because in
this course the students designed and constructed two implements to
meet specific agricultural needs in Colombia.

c. Student demonstrations and strikes prevented the
scheduled termination of both semesters. These
interruptions caused considerable inefficiency in our activities because
one never knew from one day to the next during these periods, if the
students would be in class or if one would have blocks of time to do
other work. However, the students in all of the courses in which I had

- 75 -

major responsibility showed sufficient interest to make up the lost time.

d. Another goal attained in 1969 was the occupation of
laboratory space solely for Agricultural Engineering.
Numerous difficulties and misunderstandings were involved but finally in
July half of the originally intended space was assigned to Agricultural
Engineering. At the same time the National University appointed a mechanic-
welder to work exclusively on Agricultural Engineering projects and in
November a University carpenter began working half-time for us. With these
shop personnel, the physical space, equipment obtained through Nebraska
Mission, and with funds donated by the Minister of Agriculture the develop-
ment of laboratory facilities has progressed quite satisfactorily during
the last half of the year, especially in the area of processing under the
direction of Luis Villa. Primarily through the efforts of Jose Chaparro,
one of my counterparts, a considerable amount of Colombian-made agricultural
equipment was given to the Agricultural Engineering Section for instructional

e. An activity related to this position is the teaching
of Machinery service courses to Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Agricultural Economics students. During 1969 four Colombian
staff members taught seven such courses to a total of about 140 students.
My responsibility in these courses has been in an advisory capacity on
objectives and teaching materials. The physical facilities discussed above
are presently adequate for Agricultural Engineering purposes but the
machinery area has been rather overburdened with the several laboratory
sections necessary each week for these students of other disciplines.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

During the second semester I flew to Bogota every Friday to
teach the course, Conservation of Natural Sources Engineering, to eight
graduate students at Tibaitata. This course is a basic study of various
engineering methods for conserving soil and water. It is essentially the
same as the course, Soil Conservation,in the Medellin undergraduate
curriculum. One problem in teaching this material is the absence of
experimental data from Colombia on which to base designs. However,
obtaining significant data requires many years of records.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

a. The principal research activities of this position
are related to the undergraduate educational efforts
in the area of machinery, drainage, and conservation.

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1.3.2 Specific Projects

During the report period I was adviser to four students
and co-adviserto two agronomy students on their investigations. The
investigation projects were:

(1) Design and construction of a hand operated vegetable

(2) Design and construction of a hand operated machine
for making agricultural concrete tile.

(3) Design and construction of a bulk milk handling

(4) Design of plates for a corn planter.

(5) Study of the irrigation potential of the surface
and underground waters at Tulio Ospina.

b. The fique project advanced considerably in 1969.
Twenty-five juice samples were obtained from
different areas in Colombia, physically processed, and sent to Georgetown
University for chemical processing and analysis of the quality of the drug
materials produced. The quality of some of the samples was encouragingly
high and a quantitative analysis of the fique products was begun. This
project will continue in 1970 if funding is available to set up and operate
a small pilot plant. Several very beneficial student research projects
could be.developed within this fique project.

c. Establishing and maintaining working relations with
manufacturing concerns in Medellin has been another
important aspect of this position. Almost all of the machinery research
projects are centered in Tibaitata but many of the high quality production
facilities for these research designs are located in Medellin.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. A very successful Agricultural Engineering Day was
held at Tibaitata in February. I was involved in
the presentation of five exhibits: the Medellin undergraduate Agricultural
Engineering Program, the world-wide resources applicable to Colombian
Agricultural Engineering problems, the fique research project, an

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underground drainage model, and surface irrigation demonstrations. Three
Medellin students were able to assist during the day. They were very
helpful and the experience gave them enthusiasm and a more vivid concept
of Agricultural Engineering to bring back to other students. The presence
of our Dean, Dr. Ospina, also demonstrated his interest and support in
the endeavors of Agricultural Engineering. Plans have begun for the
1970 Agricultural Engineering Day.

b. Jose Chaparro and I prepared two technical aid
publications on machinery. They were submitted
for publication but there were some delays in printing.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

a. Another goal first attained in 1969 was the departure
of a Medellin staff member to study for a graduate
degree in Agricultural Engineering with an ICA-Nebraska fellowship. Jose
Chaparro, one of my counterparts for over two years, left in August to
begin working towards the M. S. degree at Iowa State University. He will
emphasize the machinery design aspect of Agricultural Engineering. Since
Mr. Chaparro does not have an engineering background, he may heed up to
three years to earn the M. S. degree. However, with this degree he will
be extremely useful in the Agricultural Engineering program in Colombia
in the future.

b. Also this year students entered the graduate school
at Tibaitata for the first time with the intention
of returning to the Agricultural Engineering staff in Medellin. Two
Medellin Agronomy graduates began, but only one remained throughout the
year. It is hoped that he will have earned the M. S. degree in time to
assume the processing responsibilities of the Medellin program from Luis
Villa. Mr. Villa will leave in August 1970 to study towards the Ph. D.

1.6 Administrative and organizational activities

1.6.1 Inputs to the National University

a. The development of an undergraduate program in a
country where it has not existed before has continued
to require many hours of advising and various means of guidance. These

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activities have been frustrating at times and a great deal of patience
has been necessary. However, the results of these activities have been
quite evident in 1969 through the improvement of physical space, laboratory
equipment, staff preparation, and the increasing awareness by students,
staff, and others of th needs and possibilities of Agricultural Engineering
in Colombia. The Medellin program is good, and it has been and will be
necessary to urge the establishment of an administrative relationship
and support to maintain and increase the momentum.

b. Much time has been required for the responsibilities
as assistant in Medellin to the Director of the
Nebraska Mission Fortunately the ICA Regional
Office has done much of the paper work.

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

Visitors from off-campus were an important part of my
activities. These visitors ranged from Peace Corps Volunteers to the U.S.
Ambassador to Colombia, Mr. Vaughn. Other visitors included manufacturer's
representatives, AID officials, short-term consultants, and Dr. Splinter,
Chairman of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the University of
Nebraska. A visit by the President and Vice-President of the Board of
Regents and the President of the University of Nebraska accentuated their
interest in the Nebraska Mission in Colombia.

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APPENDIX A Teaching Report

Course Location

Principles of Ag.
Machinery Medellin

Drainage Medellin

AdvancedMachinery Medellin

Engineering TibaitatA

Sources of Ag. Power Medellin

Soil Conservation Medellin

Analytical Methods Medellin

Tools & Materials Medellin

Ag. Machinery I Medellin

Advanced Ag. Machinery "

Ag. Machinery
(Animal Science)

Ag. Mechanization
(Ag. Econ.)

Ag. Machinery II

Ag. Machinery (Agron.)
























Degree Enrollment
of Resp Ist.Sem "2d Sem











4 D

18 17




+ Dr. Hobbs assisted with this course every
++ Full responsibility for 1/3 of course
+++ Full responsibility for 1/4 of course

other Friday

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1.2 Graduate Teaching

Some help was given in developing the processing laboratories for
undergraduate work in Medellin, but my major teaching responsibilities
were concentrated at the ICA graduate school. The primary objective was
teaching the application of the basic laws of physics to the living world
of agriculture. To this end, a new "Bio-Engineering" text was written
and the course is required of all graduate students in Agricultural
Engineering, regardless of their major field of study. Special problems
and research were emphasized to give confidence in the practice of the
engineering profession. Thesis work is therefore pointed toward design
and construction; toward theory application. Since students are from
backgrounds of Agronomy, Forestry, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,
and Chemical Engineering, it is necessary to tailor the practice of
engineering to meet the lack of opportunity in their past.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Research projects solve problems of mechanization, preservation,
and mobilization in the agricultural industry through coordination of
related industries with the agricultural industry. As director of the
Agricultural Processing Programs of ICA, I organized the research into
four main projects: (1) Processes in Animal Production, (2) Processing
of Animal Products, (3) Processes in Plant Production, and (4) Processing
of Plant Products. In general the classification seems to work quite well.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. Designs of portable herringbone milking trailers were completed
and tested. Through the excellent cooperation of a farmer, Roberto Wills,
it was possible to run time and motion studies on these implements with
hand milking and with pipeline,cleaned-in-place, cow-to-tank, mechanical
milkers. The system is working smoothly and is ready for industrial
production. Riegos Tecnicos is building several units.

b. A portable scale was built for the performance testing of beef
and it is now recommended for industrial production.

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c. Minor items that can be either built on the farm or in small
shops include hog farrowing crates, farrow-to-finish swine buildings,
shades, wallows, dipping vats, calf pens, tilting squeezes for sheep and
calves, head gates, and corrals that came from designs produced under the
auspices of the National Plan Service in cooperation with research of the
engineers working on the project of processes in animal production.

d. Studies of the processing of animal products included work
on egg storage. An egg grading, cleaning and storage unit was designed
for Turipana. Although the buildings have been constructed, the money
was not allocated for the recommended refrigeration equipment according
to submitted bids. A report was prepared for Dr. Ortiz Mendez on a proposed
egg storage facility in Buga. A brief study was made of a bone meal plant
in Armenia, but the project was not pursued.

e. To increase protein consumption of the Colombian population,
PINA (Proyecto Integrado de Nutrici6n Aplicada) is working on small feed
grinding and mixing plants. Using their existing machines, we designed
a complete plant for them in Neiva. We are cooperating with the Machinery
Program in the development of a feed grinding and mixing machine to be
built in Colombia.

f. Three crews of nine advancedengineering students from American
University are working with us on the production of a farm crop drier, a
seed cotton drier, and a thresher for bean seed. These projects will
continue into next year.

g. Detailed drawings and specifications for the construction of
seed potato storage (including equipment) in Obonuco and Surbatl have been
completed and submitted to the experiment station directors as well as to
the regional directors and to ICA's Physical Planning section. Money has
not yet been allocated for the project.

1.4 Extension

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Known methods of mechanizing, preserving, and mobilizing the
agricultural industry were disseminated through publications, short courses,
and working drawings. In beef cattle short courses we emphasized equipment
to promote better handling -- better fencing, post treatment, better corrals
and holding devices, scales, and mineral feeders. At the dairy short courses
we emphasized cleanliness, cooling, milking parlors and equipment, and
overall milk shed organization to produce milk with a low bacterial count.
We distributed plans and discussed the relationship of equipment and cow

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management tomastitis. This year we contacted approximately 2,000 farmers
and specialists in beef and dairy production. In,1970, we hope to reduce
work with,cattlemen and.increase work with swine, poultry, and drying and
storage of crops. Research now current on contract with Alcan should give
us valuable extension knowledge for use next year.

b. In line with crop drying and storage needs, four technical
aids were produced. An INCORA contract with Mississippi State University
to give a short course in grain and seed handling fulfilled a need in this
area, so we dropped a,proposed plan for a short course in drying and storage.

c. The plan service and the technical aid service have been quite
helpful in presenting information. Displays at fairs in towns of Region
One have received excellent comment and support. Regional Director Barney
has been most cooperative in displaying working models of a number of items
of equipment. The Department received first prize for a display at the
Girardot fair. Displays, publications, short courses, and working drawings
encourage industry to produce equipment that makes the human hand and brain
more effective in food production and releases more human energy to be used
for improving living conditions.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.2 Short Term Consultants

Robert 0. Gilden, coordinator of Agricultural Engineering Extension in
the U. S., and I have creamed for many years of ways of establishing better
dissemination of Agricultural Engineering information in the Americas. We
have achieved a small measure of this exchange with Colombia, and, of
course with Puerto Rico, but a much greater area exists for an exchange of
technology. Our profession has too few men for them to dissipate their
energies in a small locality; good design, a new idea, a better way of
producing, should be shared. RTAC is one source of this sharing, but
too much material published by RTAC has been inapplicable, and it is often
a one-way flow from the U. S.A.

Gilden came to Colombia in 1969 to study ways and means of improving
agricultural engineering extension. He recommended action programs
sponsored by technical departments and deemphasis of method programs. He
recommended that ICA send a representative to the Southern Farm Building
Plan Exchange in the spring of 1971. This step toward mutual aid by giving
the U.S. our improved designs for land levelers, portable scales, milking
parlors, etc. will be helpful in developing the agriculture of the U.S.,
and hopefully we can obtain reciprocal ideas in Colombia.

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We should, through AID and men of good will, improve our Agricultural
Engineering publications to the benefit of all of the Americas. To do so
demands the continued discovery of new methods and new ideas and the prompt
publication of these discoveries.

Appendix A- Teaching Report


Bio-Engineering T

Process Engin. T

Location Level* Hours

'ibaitata Grad 3

ibaitata Grad 3

of Resp


1st Sem.2d. Sem.

7 1

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1. General Objectives



a. In-service and pre-induction training for ICA Extension

b. Organization and execution of short courses and field

c. Organization of the Social Science Department and develop-
ment of the three major programs Mass Communications, Rural Sociology,
and Extension Education.

d. Development of a proposed five year plan of research for
the department.

e. Departure of Colombian counterparts to the U. S. to under-
take advanced study in the areas of extension education, rural sociology,
and communications.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

A course in communications was organized for students
at National University; however, due to lack of interest the course
was dropped from the curriculum. The rigid curricula of the National
University make it extremely difficult to offer electives.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

No courses were taught
conversations were held with ICA staff
developing some elective courses to be

at the ICA graduate school. Initial
concerning the possibilities of
taught in 1970.

1.3 Research

A number of research projects were initiated during the
year; the first results of these projects will be published in 1970.

has only numbered four.
time in teaching service

on research has been limited because the staff
These professionals spend the majority of their
courses or in-service type courses to ICA and

- 85 -

other agricultural agents.

The development of a five-year plan of research projects
for the department was requested by the ICA Planning Office. This
proposal also indicated budget and staffing projections.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

To assist and provide guidance to ICA in the areas of
Rural Sociology, Mass Communications, and Extension Education all of
which are directed toward the development of a viable extension service.

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Completed during the year.

1. The final organization of the Department of
Social Sciences was completed in July.

2. Various short courses were conducted during
the year treating such subject matter areas as Extension Education,
Mass Communications, and Rural Sociology. Participants included
extension agents from ICA, INCORA, Cafeteros, and other agricultural

3. Assisted in the evaluation of a weed control
workshop at Pichilingue, Ecuador.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree fellowships

Seventeen applications were submitted for Kellogg
Fellowships. The following Colombians departed to pursue graduate study
in the U. S.

Gabriel Ojeda (ICA)
Luis Eduardo Chaves (ICA)
Jafeth Garcia (Coffee Federation)
Alvaro Gonzalez (Coffee Federation)
Fabio Zapata (UN-Medellin)
Hernan Rinc6n (ICA)
Orlando Lugo (ICA)
Joaquin Quir6s (ICA)
86 -

David Cuellar (UN Bogota)
Luis J. Jaramillo (UN Bogota)
Enrique Andrade (UN Bogota)

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA or the National University

Considerable time was spent in the formation of
a Coordination Committee for Extension to assist in coordinating research
activities of the Social Science Department with field staff of ICA.

1.6.2 Short Term consultants

A great deal of time was spent in my varied dutie
as Assistant Director of the Nebraska Mission.

1. Assisted Dean Trotter of the University of
Nebraska Home Economics Department in studying the possibilities of
recruiting a Home Economist for a two-year tour in Colombia. Dr.
Trotter, Dr. Doretta Hoffman, Dean of the College of Home Economics,
Kansas State University, and Dr. Anita Dickson, Director of Home
Economics Extension, Purdue University; composed the study group. The
group evaluated the present status of the profession of Home Economics
in Colombia, its potential, future job opportunities for graduates in
Home Economics, and the scope and nature of extension programs in Home

2. Assisted Mr. Robert Ruyle in conducting aone
week short course in the use and maintenance of TV equipment.

3. Spent five days with Dr. Jacob Tejada, Extension
Training Specialist, from New Mexico State University. The purpose of
the visit was to discuss with ICA and Nebraska staff the proposed short
term training program for ICA extension personnel in New Mexico.

4. Assisted Dr. Russ Mawby of the Kellogg Foundation
in the selection of candidates for graduate study in the U. S.

1/ Departed August, '1969'

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1. General Objectives

The major accomplishments in the area of extension include the

a. Organization and execution of five short courses.

b. Training of 75 ICA professionals and 25 agricultural
professionals from other agricultural agencies.

c. Closer integration of extension work of the Department of
Social Sciences with the Departments of Animal Science, Agricultural
Engineering, Vet. Medicine, and Agronomy--specialist training.

d. Definition of departmental policy concerning publications and

Other major accomplishments will be notedin the specific sections
which follow.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching.

Met with the professors of extension education at all three of
the faculties of National University. The course outlines were reviewed,
and some suggestions were made to improve curricula.

1.1.1 Bogota

There is currently a staff of three professors at National
University in Bogota teaching courses in Extension Education. Two
representatives of the Department of Social Sciences met with this group
and assisted in preparing course outlines for 1970.

1.1.2 Medellin

Dick Tenney and I visited the Extension Education faculty at
Medellin and talked with Dr. Pino. Universidad Nacional received great
help from Marlyn Low in developing the extension education curriculum.
They have an ambitious proposal to offer 17 courses in Extension Education;
however, this is quite unrealistic considering the number of staff and the

- 88 -

facilities available. They are presently in condition to offer three basic
courses in extension education.

1.1.3 Palmira

Dr. Mario Iglesias is in charge of Extension Education courses
at Palmira. A general course in Extension Education and Communications is
offered. Dr. Iglesias has received help from Manuel Narveez in developing
course materials and initiating several research projects.

1.1.4 Medium Level Education

The Department is currently cooperating with UNESCO in
developing extension education curriculum and teaching materials for three
agricultural training schools.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

This year no courses were taught at the ICA graduate school. However,
I am currently finishing a proposal which outlines the Social Science
Department's views concerning the development of an M. S. program beginning
next year. Several of the highlights of this proposal are noted in the
1970 work plan.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Research projects carried out in Extension Education are to
begin with a modest research program, testing hypotheses, and to encourage
early adoption of demonstrated results in ICA field programs.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

There were no research studies completed during 1969. However,
a number of projects are now being completed and the results will be
published in 1970. The data have been collected for the following projects:
(1) Survey of Extension Education Curriculum in Colombian universities,
(2) Evaluation of the impact of Field Days in Short Courses, and (3)
Evaluation of the New Mexico Training Program.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

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The overall objective is to assist the various research programs
of ICA to organize effective and viable extension programs directed toward
agricultural professionals and clientele (specialist groups). Through in-
service training programs and direct contact with ICA field staff to
develop extension programs more effectively related to the needs of
Colombian farmers.

1.4.2 Specific projects

a. Organization of five short courses to train personnel from
ICA and other agricultural agencies. A total of 100 professionals received
training during the period of September to December.

The Department assisted Ivan Rush in evaluating a beef
cattle short course held in Neiva. A new evaluation form was developed
to assist in evaluating future short courses.

The Department
Extension Committee (ICA-UN).
publish a monthly news-letter

assisted in the formation of a Vet. Medicine
The first project of this group is to
to all veterinarians.

We assisted the Department of Agricultural Engineering in
the planning and organization of their field day.

The Department begin the preparation of an Extension Service
Training Manual to be used in training courses.

I/ Arrived September, 1969

- 90 -


1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

a. Printing of publications, both popular and scientific,
for research, teaching, and extension.

b. Providing audio-visual equipment as needed for extension
and teaching.

c. Development of effective visual aids for extension and

1.4.2 Specific Projects

a. Publications. In spite of the many problems encountered
during the year some 600,000 publications came off the ICA press. This
was a notable increase over the production of the previous year. More
copies of Revista ICA, ICA Informa, leaflets, bulletins, and reprints
were run off the press than ever before.

The printing shops are still not able to keep pace with
the needs of ICA. Research workers have been encouraged to write
publications; however, there is such a backlog of publications at the
present time that it takes up to 18-months to publish some research
results. Much of the problem is due to poor efficiency caused by
inadequate space and inexperienced personnel, but is also due to a heavy
load, and equipment and personnel deficiencies.

b. Photography. A new photographer was hired and trained.
New equipment and facilities have been purchased and built. The situation
has improved; however, there is still much to be done in establishing work
priorities, production schedules, and closer coordination with press and
production schedules. Excellent photo coverage was obtained for the Ag.
Engineering Field Day and the Swine Field Day.

c. Radio. A total of some 350 radio programs were broadcast
over Radio Nacional and Radio Sutatenza. This represents a marked increase
over the number of radio programs broadcast in 1968.

d. Press. Although no exact fi 'res are available, it is
evident that major improvement have been made in roJtt-rig out press

- 91 -

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