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Seasonal response of vegetable crops for selected cultivars in North Florida

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Title:
Seasonal response of vegetable crops for selected cultivars in North Florida
Creator:
Halsey, L. H ( Lawrence Henry ), 1915-
Kostewicz, S. R
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Vegetable Crops Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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English
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30 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Horticultural crops -- Florida ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 30).
General Note:
"Vegetable crops research report 1-1976."
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"March 1976."
General Note:
"This work was supported by funds from the IFAS Rural Development Center."
Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
Statement of Responsibility:
L.H. Halsey, S.R. Kostewicz

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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida




-40003
March 1976 Vegetable Crops
Research Report 1-1976
Seasonal Response of Vegetable Crops
for Selected Cultivars
in North Florida
I. Legumes
Vegetable Crops Department L. H. Halsey
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville 32611 S. R. Kostew icz
This work was supported by funds
from the IFAS Rural Development Center.




Seasonal Response of Vegetable Crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. I. Legumes
by
l/
L. H. Halsey and S. R. Kostewicz-Reports of warm season vegetable crop performance in north Florida have
been for crops produced in traditional spring and fall growing periods, limited mostly to late March and early April and to August plantings. Yield trials of legumes have included green bean and southern pea primarily with little information available on lima bean or green pea, as reported by Bryan, Halsey, Valli and Young (1-5). They concluded that acceptable yields of leguminous crops could be obtained from spring plantings made as soon as danger of frost declined and in late summer if adequate time was allowed to ensure harvest before killing frost occurred.
The objectives of the work reported here were to generate data on the response of various leguminous crops to a series of plantings over the entire warm-season growing period. Production potential of each of the crops at seasons other than the traditional early spring and late summer plantings was evaluated. Cultivar response within each crop was also determined.
I/Associate Professor, Horticulture and Assistant Extension Vegetable Specialist,
Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
The authors wish to acknowledge the valuable technical assistance rendered by
C. Lamar Bryant in the development and conduct of the work reported here.




-2
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plantings of green bean, lima bean, edible soybean, green pea and southern
peas were made at three-week intervals at the Horticultural Unit near Gainesville, from March 19 September 5, 1974, and at one-month intervals from March 19 September 23, 1975. This period includes the entire frost-free growing season in an average year. Two cultivars of each crop were included at earlier plantings, with a third cultivar added to most of the later plantings. The soil was fumigated with MC-33 for control of soil-borne pests. Fertilizer of 6-8-8 (plus minor elements) analysis was incorporated at the time of bedding at 1200 lbs per acre rate. Supplemental applications of potassium were made after blooming at intervals of 7-10 days to off-set loss by leaching. The crops were irrigated during periods of low rainfall. For pest control a program of spraying was maintained as nearly at 7-day intervals as weather permitted.
Green beans were harvested at the snap stage of maturity. Pods of all other legumes were harvested at the green-shell stage of maturity. Multiple harvests were made of all types except soybeans, which were harvested once. With the other crops, harvests were made one, tw,,o, or three times weekly as the pods developed. Successive blooming of the peas and beans required numerous harvests over extended periods of time. Yields were adjusted to per-acre equivalents of marketable
grade (individual plot size was 4' x 30' in 1974 and 4' x 20' in 1975).




-3
GREEN BEAN
1974. With early plantings of green bean, 'Sprite' was better than 'Miami'. However, all through the summer, 'Sprite' plants were so seriously affected by bean rust (r__om)ces phaseoli) that no yields were obtained until plantings of August and September. Although 'Sprite' was superior to 'Miami' in the spring, the reverse was true in the fall.
1975. Yields were lower than in 1974. The effect of rust on all cultivars was less severe than in 1974, with at least some yield obtained from 'Sprite'. 'Harvester' yields were much higher than the other cultivars only in late summer. 'Blue Lake 47' responded very favorably to conditions of the May 21 planting. 'Miami' was relatively consistent at most planting times.
Time required to reach maturity was relatively consistent with all plantings. Harvest period was variable and not related to time of planting in 1974, but more consistent in 1975, as shown by the more lengthy harvest period in early and late plantings.




-4
Table 1. Performance of green bean
cultivars for sequential
planting in 1974.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting Mijami Sprite
*Mar. 19 226 281
*Apr. 9 219 242
*Apr. 30 107 **
May 21 229 **
Jun. 12 119 **
Jul. 2 102 **
Jul. 22 77 **
*Aug. 12 110 42
*Sep. 5 229 144
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 59 57
*Apr. 9 56 52
*Apr. 30 40 **
May 21 42 **
Jun. 12 57 **
Jul. 2 48 **
Jul. 22 51 **
*Aug. 12 53 56
*Sep. 5 56 56
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 10 12
*Apr. 9 8 12
*Apr. 30 14 **
May 21 20 **
Jun. 12 7 **
Jul. 2 15 **
Jul. 22 9 **
*Auig. 12 21 21
*Sep. 5 16 16
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 4 5
*Apr. 9 4 5
*Apr. 30 2 0
May 21 5 0
Jun. 12 2 0
Jul. 2 4 0
Jul. 22 3 0
*Aug. 12 6 4
*Sp 5 5 5
*Traditional planting months for
north Florida area.
**No yield.




-5
GREEN BEAN
250 Miami .-...
Sprite
*
200
JU
II
100 I i. a*
150 i
g I g -. :
- I
-
so i i i.
0.*
MAR APR APR MAY JUN JUL JUL AUG SEP 19 9 30 21 12 2 22 14 5
1974 PLANTING DATE
Fi. 1. Effect of planting date on yield of green bean
cultivars in 1974.




-6
Table 2. Performance of green bean cultivar for sequential
planting in 1975.
Yield--Bushels Per Acre
Date of Sprite Miami Harvester Blue Lake Eagle planting 47 57
*Mar. 19 39 56 73 *- *: **
*Apr. 22 71 110 44 **
May 21 15 45 223 40
Jun. 17 12 73 ** 85 62 91
Jul. 22 20 35 25 47 44 47
*Aug. 19 40 i1 218 ** ** **
*Sep. 23 49 47 151 ** ** **
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 69 69 69 ** ** **
*Apr. 22 66 66 66
May 21 51 51 ** 51 51
Jun. 17 55 50 ** 50 59 50
Jul. 22 56 56 62 50 69 50
*Aug. 19 63 67 63 ** **
*Sep. 23 49 49 49 ** ** **
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 7 7 7 ** ** **
*Apr. 22 24 24 24 ** ** **
May 21 5 5 *- 24 k. 5
Jun. 17 4 14 14 5 9
Jul. 22 6 6 7 6 10 6
*Aug. 19 19 18 19 ** ** **
*Sep. 23 11 3 11 ** ** **
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 2 2 2 ** **
*Apr. 22 1 1 1 ** k* **
May 21 4 4 7 ** 3
Jun. 17 3 4 4 2 3
Jul. 22 3 3 2 2 2 2
*Aug. 19 6 6 6 ** ** **
*Sep. 23 3 3 3 *" ** **
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.
**No yield.




-7
GREEN BEAN Sprite- Miami
250- Harvester *
Blue Lake 47 ---=== Blue Lake S7 in 200, Eagle .*
',' 150
0
1~ 00 "MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP 19 22 21 17 22 19 23
1975 PLANTING DATES
Fic. 2. Effect of planting date on yield of green bean
cultivars in 1975.




-8
LIMA BEAN
1974. The production of lima beans was at good levels for all cultivars through almost all of the cropping season with 'Jackson Wonder' consistently better. Late summer yields declined, with that of Sept. 5 severely limited by cold weather. The yields of the May 12 planting were reduced due to insect damage to foliage.
1975. As with 1974 there was a gradual decline in yield through the
summer. Yields of the August planting for 'Jackson Wonder' and 'Thorogreen' were similar to early spring production, with good response of 'Jackson Wonder' in spite of the hot weather.
Time required for maturity was more variable than with green bean indicating a greater response to changes in the environment. Midsummer plantings in 1974 and early plantings in 1975 showed strong ability of the lima bean plants to make successive crops through successive bloomings, as indicated by the longer harvest periods and higher yields.




-9
Table 3. Performance of lima bean cultivars for sequential planting in 1974.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting Jackson Wonder Fordhook 242 Thorogreen
*Mar. 19 194 261 **
*Apr. 9 304 227 **
*Apr. 30 346 270 **
May 21 181 150 **
Jun. 12 440 397 143
Jul. 2 364 344 167
Jul. 22 157 213 33
*Aug. 12 208 179 125
*Sep. 5 57 24 52
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 84 84 **
*Apr. 9 63 63 **
*Apr. 30 76 76 **
May 21 86 86 **
Jun. 12 67 71 77
Jul. 2 69 69 69
Jul. 22 55 60 55
*Aug. 12 72 72 72
*Sep. 5 74 74 74
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 45 45 **
*Apr. 9 14 14 **
*Apr. 30 55 55 **
May 21 39 39 **
Jun. 12 91 87 90
Jul. 2 70 70 78
Jul. 22 67 66 12
*Aug. 12 40 40 40
*Sep. 5 13 13 13
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 6 8 **
*Apr. 9 3 3 **
*Apr. 30 7 8 **
May 21 4 5 **
Jun. 12 14 14 12
Jul. 2 12 12 11
Jul. 22 10 10 3
*Aug. 12 6 6 6
*Sep. 5 3 3 3
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.
**Not planted.




-10
LIMA BEAN
500 Jackson Wonder Lm s
Fordhook 242 Thorogreen rAw'. 400
300
200
100
0
MAR APR APR MAY JUN JUL JUL AUG SEP
19 9 30 21 12 2 22 14 5
1974 PLANTING DATE
Fig. 3. Effect of planting date on yield of lima bean cultivars in 1974.




Table 4. Performance of lima bean cultivars for
sequential planting in 1975.
Date of Yield--Bushels Per Acre
planting Jackson Wonder Fordhook 242 Thorogreen
*Mar. 19 314 307 352
*Apr. 22 296 177 212
May 21 341 106 148
Jun. 17 258 58 156
Jul. 22 121 20 101
*Aug. 19, 330 42 209
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 84 84 84
*Apr, 22 66 66 66
May 21 65 65 65
Jun. 17 64 69 64
Jul. 22 62 62 62
*Aug. 19 73 83 76
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 110 110 110
*Apr. 22 52 52 42
May 21 66 66 47
Jun. 17 21 16 21
Jul. 22 7 7 7
*Aug. 19 10 1 7
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 8 9 8
*Apr. 22 12 12 12
May 21 10 10 10
Jun. 17 5 4 5
Jul. 22 2 2 2
*Aug. 19 3 1 2
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.




-12
LIMA BEAN
500 Jackson Wonder . .
Fordhook 242 .mm
,s 40Thorogreen r, r
S400
"-300-g
" g H
200 q "'
Ca
100 I
10
MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG 19 22 21 17 22 19
1975 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 4. Effect of planting date on yield of lima bean
cultivars in 1975.




-13
EDIBLE SOYBEAN
1974. Yields of edible soybeans were low at the first planting, increased sharply through the third planting, then decreased gradually to nearly the original low by the ninth planting.
1975. Yield pattern was very similar to 1974, with the April planting the best, and declining thereafter. 'Verde' was generally the lowest, while the other three cultivars were variable in response to planting time.
Table 5. Performance of edible soybean cultivars for sequential planting
in 1974.
Soybean Yields Soybean Harvests
Date of Bushels per acre Days to harvest Days harvest period
planting Early Green Verde Early'Green Verde Early Green Verde
*Mar. 19 95 104 78 84 1 1
*Apr. 9 287 174 66 66 1 1
*Apr. 30 396 372 74 75 1 1
May 21 381 317 77 77 1 1
Jun. 12 325 319 66 66 1 1
Jul. 2 298 280 72 72 1 1
Jul. 22 229 189 73 78 1 1
*Aug. 12 193 171 71 71 1 1
*Sep. 5 177 114 66 73 1 1
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.




-14
EDIBLE SOYBEAN 500 Early Green ,
Verde
Disoy 400
<300
LLJ
2 300
-I a
100
0
MAR APR APR MAY JUN JUL JUL AUG SEP
19 9 30 21 12' 2 22 14 5
1974 PLANTING DATE
Fig. 5. Effect of planting date on yield of edible
soybean cultivars in 1974.




-15
Table 6. Performance of edible soybean cultivars
for sequential planting in 1975.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting Early Green Emerald Kanrich Verde
*Mar. 19 149 ** 205 132
*Apr. 22 210 256 185 210
May 21 165 218 152 140
Jun. 17 2?3 167 180 130
Jul, 22 160 112 175 139
*Aug. 19 200 132 120 149
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 84 ** 84 84
*Apr. 22 76 85 76 79
May 21 75 82 68 75
Jun. 17 71 77 71 71
Jul. 22 79 83 72 78
*Aug. 19 70 70 70 70
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.
**No planting.




-16
EDIBLE SOYBEAN 500 Verde m
Early Green Kanrich wAr
400 Emerald mm
. 300
200
100
0
MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG
19 22 21 17 22 19
1975 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 6. Effect of planting date on yield of edible
soybean cultivars in 1975.




-17
GREEN PEA
1974. The yield of green pea declined rather rapidly for successive plantings during the spring, with no plantings during the summer.. Plants were small and very few pods were set in the April plantings. Only 'Little Marvel' produced any pods in the August 14 planting. 'Little Marvel' required less time to develop.
1974-75. Production through the fall months was relatively low, with
greatly increased yields starting 'With November plantings. 'Wando' and 'Green' Arrow' were better than 'Little Marvel' and usually required longer to reach first harvest.
1975. As in the previous warm season no plantings were made in MayAugust period. Yields in early spring and fall were low with 'Wando' showing better.




-18
Table 7. Performance of green pea cultivars
for sequential planting in 1974.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting Little Marvel Wando Green Arrow
*Mar. 19 69 213 **
*Apr. 9 55 58 **
*Apr. 30 49 73 **
May 21 ** ** **
Jun. 12 ** ** **
Jul. 2 ** ** **
Jul. 22 ** ** **
*Aug. 14 10
*Sep. 5 32 155 133
Days to Mature
*Mar. 19 58 70 **
*Apr. 9 76 87 **
*Apr. 30 42 56 **
May 21 ** ** **
Jun. 12 ** ** **
Jul. 2 ** ** **
Jul. 22 ** ** **
*Aug. 14 72
*Sep. 5 56 74 74
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 21 17 **
*Apr. 9 24 24 **
*Apr. 30 6 28 **
May 21 ** ** **
Jun. 12 ** ** **
Jul. 2 ** **
Jul. 22 ** ** **
*Aug. 14 1
*Sep. 5 32 32 32
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 5 6 **
*Apr. 9 5 5 **
*Apr. 30 2 3 **
May 21 ** ** **
Jun. 12 ** ** **
Jul. 2 ** ** **
Jul. 22 ** ** **
*Aug. 14 1 6
*Sep. 5 8 7 7
*Traditional planting months for north
Florida areas.
**No planting.
***No yield.




-19
GREEN PEA Little Marvel ,..m 250 Wando
Green Arrow Aw-A 200
-150
V')
=J
100
Ca
50
0
MAR APR APR MAY JUN JUL JUL AUG SEP 19 9 30 21 12 2 22 14 5
1974 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 7. Effect of planting date on yield of green pea
cultivars in 1974.




-20
Table 8. Performance of green pea cultivars
for sequential planting in 1974-75.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting* Little Marvel Wando Green Arrow
Sep. 25 50 41 43
Oct. 14 50 102 81
Nov. 4 7 42 52
Nov. 25 112 164 233
Dec. 16 86 170 230
Jan. 6 159 235 235
Jan. 27 130 214 223
Feb. 17 102 149 112
Days to Mature
Sep. 25 51 97 97
Oct. 14 51 65 65
Nov. 4 128 122 122
Nov. 25 93 114 114
Dec. 16 79 85 85
Jan. 6 71 78 78
Jan. 27 64 72 72
Feb. 17 57 71 71
Days Harvest Period
Sep. 25 46 22 22
Oct. 14 28 63 63
Nov. 4 7 20 20
Nov. 25 35 11 11
Dec. 16 34 28 28
Jan. 6 35 28 28
Jan. 27 29 14 14
,Feb. 17 22 8 8
Number of Harvests
Sep. 25 6 4 3
Oct. 14 6 7 7
Nov. 4 2 4 4
Nov. 25 6 6 3
Dec. 16 6 4 4
Jan. 6 6 4 4
Jan. 27 5 3 3
Feb. 17 3 2 2
*All dates suitable for planting.




-21
GREEN PEA
Little Marvel -250 Wando
Green Arrow w *-200
150
0J Li
10
50
SEP OCT NOV NOV DEC JAN JAN FEB
25 14 4 25 16 6 27 17
1974-75 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 8. Effect of planting date on yield of green pea
cultivars in 1974-75.




-22
Table 9. Performance of green pea cultivars
for sequential planting in 1975.
Date of Yield--Bushels per Acre
planting Little Marvel Wando Green Arrow
Mar. 19 30 36 15
Apr. 22 30 19
May 21 *
Jun. 17 *
Jul. 22 *
Aug. 19 *
Sep. 23 21 9 21
Days to Mature
Mar. 19 48 55 62
Apr. 22 59 59
May 21 *
Jun. 17 *
Jul. 22 *
Aug. 19 *
Sep. 23 41 75 75
Days Harvest Period
Mar. 19 7 15 1
Apr. 22 3 3
May 21 *
Jun. 17 *
Jul. 22 *
Aug. 19 *
Sep. 23 10 6 6
Number of Harvests
Mar. 19 2 3 1
Apr. 22 2 2
May 21 *
Jun. 17 *
Jul. 22 *
Aug. 19 *
Sep. 23 2 1 1
*No planting.




-23
GREEN PEA 250 L ttle Marvel -.
Wando 2Green Arrow
200 WAWA
LU
" 150
U)
LUJ
100
50
MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG- SEP 19 22 21 17 22 19 23
1975 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 9. Effect of planting date on yield of green pea
cultivars in 1975.




-24
SOUTHERN PEA
1974. Yields of southern pea were good through the July 2 planting, with highest values for the April 30 planting (third planting). Plantings 6, 7, and 8 were less, while no. 9 was quite low due to cold.
1975. Southern pea yields were similar to those of 1975 for spring and early summer, but better than 1974 for late summer plantings. Very little difference between cultivars was evident, except for the May planting.
Time required for maturity was reasonably uniform except for the effect of cool weather on the September planting. Southern peas blooming period was rather lengthy with lengthy harvest periods required at nearly all planting times.




-25
Table 10. Performance of southern pea cultivars for sequential planting in 1974.
Yield--Bushels per Acre Date of Purple Hull Knuckle Zipper
planting Pinkeye Purple Hull Cream
*Mar. 19 378 ** 372
*Apr. 9 313 ** 424
*Apr. 30 539 ** 485
May 21 295 337 414
Jun. 12 274 289 343
Jul. 2 206 118 151
Jul. 22. 167 246 240
*Aug. 12 239 362 157
*Sep. 5 65 100 17
Days to Harvest
*Mar. 19 55 ** 61
*Apr. 9 47 ** 56
*Apr. 30 62 ** 64
May 21 57 62 62
Jun. 12 55 57 64
Jul. 2 55 51 60
Jul. 22 58 53 53
*Aug. 12 61 61 61
*Sep. 5 74 82 74
Days Harvest Period
*Mar. 19 29 ** 29
*Apr. 9 34 ** 41
*Apr. 30 37 ** 39
May 21 23 23 23
Jun. 12 35 28 26
Jul. 2 10 6 16
Jul. 22 10 10 12
*Aug. 12 25 25 25
*Sep. 5 16 8 16
Number of Harvests
*Mar. 19 12 9
*Apr. 9 14 ** 14
*Apr.,30 14 ** 13
May 21 11 11 11
Jun. 12 12 8 9
Jul. 2 5 3 5
Jul. 22 5 5 6
*Aug. 12 7 7 6
*Sep. 5 3 2 2
*Traditional planting months for north Florida areas.
**No planting.




-26
- SOUTHERN PEA
500 0 P. Hull Pinkeye =,no
Zipper Cream Knuckle P. Hull r 400
300
200. [
aO 100
0
MAR APR- APR MAY JUN JUL JUL AUG SEP 19 9 30 21 12 2 22 14 5
1974 PLANTING DATE
Fig. 10. Effect of planting date on yield of southern pea
cultivars in 1974.




-27
Table 11. Performance of southern pea cultivars for sequential planting in 1975.
Yield--Bushels per Acre
Date of Purple Hull Zipper Knuckle
planing Pinkcye Cream Purple Hull
Mar. 19 271_ 289 345
Apr. 22 223 243 294
May 21 127 96 187
Jun. 17 169 182 173
Jul. 22 202 233 244
Aug. 19 294 253 300
Days to Mature
Mar. 19 77 82 77
Apr. 22 57 66 59
May 21 54 58 61
Jun. 7 59 59 62
Jul. 22 52 59 56
Aug. 19 55 65 62
Days Harvest Period
Mar. 19 16 11 16
Apr. 22 15 23 19
May 21 14 10 15
Jun. 17 26 26 32
Jul. 22 17 17 13
Aug. 19 21 18 21
Number of Harvests
Mar. 19 65 5 6
Apr. 22 7 5 7
May 21 7 5 4
Jun. 17 9 7 7
Jul. 22 6 5 5
Aug. 19 7 5 6




-28
SOUTHERN PEA 500 Zipper Cream n.
P.H. Pinkeye = Knuckle P.H. ,w 400
S300
S200
100
0
MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG
19 22 21 17 22 19
1975 PLANTING DATES
Fig. 11. Effect of planting date on yield of southern pea
cultivars in 1975.




-29
SUMMARY
The pattern of response of the legumes to climatic differences associated with dates of planting were varied and sometimes inconsistent. Acceptable yields of green bean were obtained from 'Miami' in 1974 during the off-season (May-July) while 'Sprite' produced nothing. In 1975 both cultivars were relatively low in yield throughout the test. 'Blue Lake 47' and 'Harvester' performiance indicate potentials that need further study.
With lima bean in 1974, the 'off-season' yields were roughly similar to those
of traditional planting dates, with 'Jackson Wonder' a bit more responsive in the hot weather. The yields in 1975 for the 'off-season' period were lower, although still at acceptable levels.
The yield pattern of edible soybean was consistently high for both years for the hot weather periods, with early and late planting date production depressed by cool temperature and/or daylength effects.
From the results of plantings of green pea in 1974 and 1975 it was evident that the temperature restraints were severe, with only a limited range suitable for good production. Plants of green pea failed to develop in the hot weather 'of season.'
Southern pea production was limited to some degree by hot weather during
the 'off-season,' but yields were at acceptable levels for all plantings except that of Sept. 5, 1974, which was limited by cold temperatures.




-30
Literature Cited
1 Bryan, H. H. 1966. Effect of plastic mulch on the yield of several
vegetable crops in North Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 79:
139-146.
3. Halsey, L. H. 1957-64. Florida Agricultural Exp, Sta. Ann. Reports.
1957-1964.
3. Valli, V. J., H. H. Bryan, H. W. Young and D. R. Davis. 1965. The
effect of shade on the bioclimate and production of vegetable crops.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 78: 95-101.
4. Young, H. W. 1961. Production of spring vegetables under shade. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 209-216.
5. Young, H. W. 1962. Time of planting and harvesting of tender vegetable
crops in the Quincy, Florida area. Proc, Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 218-220.