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Title: Standard watermelon variety evaluation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054252/00007
 Material Information
Title: Standard watermelon variety evaluation
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida,
University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Publication Date: Spring 1996
Copyright Date: 1996
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Watermelons -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Watermelons -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -1997
General Note: Description based on: 1991; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054252
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62705961
lccn - 2005229321
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Table of Contents
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        Front cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 8
        Page 9
    Back Cover
        Page 11
Full Text



/- UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, FL 34203
GCREC-Bradenton Research Report BRA 1996-18


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences




STANDARD WATERMELON VARIETY EVALUATION
SPRING 1996


D. N. Maynard







GCREC Research Report BRA 1996-18


STANDARD WATERMELON VARIETY EVALUATION
SPRING 1996

D. N. Maynard'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Standard seeded watermelons weigh from 18 to 35 lb and represent most of the commercial crop
grown in Florida. Icebox watermelons weigh 6 to 12 lb each and are grown on a small acreage.
Seedless watermelons, weighing 12 to 18 lb, also are grown in Florida on a limited scale. Florida
produced 8.25 million cwt of watermelons of all types from 33,000 harvested acres in 1994-95 which
provided an average yield of 250 cwt/acre. The average price was $7.49/cwt resulting in a crop value
exceeding $61 million which accounted for 4.2% of the gross returns to the state's vegetable growers
(Geuder and Pugh, 1996).

Until recently, the Florida crop was about equally divided among open pollinated and hybrid
varieties of 'Crimson Sweet', 'Charleston Gray', and 'Jubilee' types. A noticeable decline in
'Charleston Gray' and 'Jubilee' production has been replaced largely by increases in production of
'Allsweet' and blocky 'Crimson Sweet' types.

The purpose of this trial was to evaluate some of the recently introduced commercial and
experimental hybrids of the Crimson Sweet and Allsweet types.

Materials and Methods

Soil samples from the experimental area obtained before fertilization were analyzed by the
University of Florida Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (Hanlon and DeVore, 1989): pH = 7.2 and
Mehlich I extractable P = 42 (High), K = 15 (Very Low), Mg = 115 (High), Ca = 803 (Adequate),
Zn = 3.3 (Adequate), Cu = 1.8 (Adequate), and Mn = 2.5 (Deficient) ppm.

The EauGallie fine sand was prepared in early February by incorporation of 0-1.2-0 lb N-P205-K20
per 100 linear bed feet (lbf). Beds were formed and fumigated with methyl bromide:chloropicrin,
67:33 at 2.3 lb/100 lbf. Banded fertilizer was applied in shallow grooves on the bed shoulders at 3.1-
0-4.3 lb N-P20O-K20/100 lbf after the beds were pressed and before application of the black
polyethylene mulch. The total fertilizer applied was equivalent to 148-60-206 Ib N-P20s-K20/acre.
The final beds were 32 in. wide and 8 in. high and were spaced on 9 ft centers, with four beds
between seepage irrigation/drainage ditches which were on 41 ft centers. The standard watermelons
were planted in rows adjacent to the ditches and also served as pollenizers for seedless watermelons
that were being evaluated in the two center beds of each land.


'Professor and Vegetable Extension Specialist.


December







Watermelon seeds were planted on 12 March in holes punched in the polyethylene mulch at 3 ft in-
row spacing. Twenty-nine entries (Table 1) were included in the replicated trial. The 24 ft long
plots had eight plants each and were replicated three times in a randomized complete-block design.
Weed control in row middles was by cultivation and applications of paraquat. Pesticides were
applied as needed for control of silverleafwhitefly endosulfann and esfenvalerate) and gummy stem
blight (chlorothalonil and metaxyl-chlorothalonil).

Watermelons were harvested 3-4 June, 10-12 June, and 19-21 June. Marketable fruit (U.S. No. 1
or better) according to U.S. Standards for Grades of Watermelons (U.S. Dept. Agr., 1978) were
separated from culls and counted and weighed individually. Soluble solids determinations were
made with a hand-held refractometer on six fruit of each entry at each harvest, and the incidence of
hollowheart was recorded for these fruits. The resulting data were subjected to analysis of variance
and mean separation was by Duncan's multiple range test.

Results and Discussion

Temperature during the experimental period was near normal. Rainfall was greater than normal
which did not provide good watermelon growing conditions (Table 2). Also, there was considerable
wind early in the season which caused some plant loss and necessitated some resetting.

Early yields (first of three harvests) ranged from 0 for 'Royal Sweet' to 195 cwt/acre for WM 8007
(Table 3). Fifteen other entries had yields similar to those of WM 8007 while 20 other entries had
yields similar to those of 'Royal Sweet'. Average fruit weight varied from 13.7 lb for 'Summer
Flavor 420' to 29.8 lb for 'Sultan'. Soluble solids ranged from 9.9% for 'Mardi Gras' to 12.5% for
'Royal Majesty'. The incidence of hollowheart varied from 0 in several entries to 50% in 'Royal
Star' which also exhibited the most severe hollowheart with 0.3 in. flesh cracks.

Total yields varied from 245 cwt/acre for 'Royal Majesty' to 439 cwt/acre for WM 8007. Yields of
all entries except LF 1402, 'Summer Flavor 510', and 'Royal Majesty' were similar to those of WM
8007. Average fruit weight ranged from 15.8 lb for LF 1408 to 26.9 lb for 'Royal Sweet'. Eight
other entries had average fruit weight similar to that of 'Royal Sweet'. Soluble solids concentration
for the entire season ranged from 10.1% for 'Summer Flavor 500' to 12.2% for 'Royal Sweet'.
Seventeen other entries had soluble solids concentrations similar to those of 'Royal Sweet'.
Seasonal average soluble solids for all entries exceeded the 10% specified for optional use to
designate very good internal quality in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Watermelons (U.S. Dept.
Agr., 1978). The incidence of hollowheart was highest in WM 8032 and the severity greatest in LF
1390, but each was significantly different from only one other entry.

The proportion of fruit in market weight classes is shown in Table 4. More than 50% of the fruit of
'Baron', 'Carnival', 'Regency', 'Royal Flush', 'Summer Flavor 510', 93-32, and 94-08 were in the
desirable medium size 18-26 lb weight class. At least 80% of the fruit of 'Carnival', HSR 602,
'Regency', 'Royal Star', 'Royal Sweet', 'Sangria', 'Sultan', 'Summer Flavor 500', WM 8032, WM
8043, 93-32, and 94-08 exceeded 18 lb.

Watermelon yields were lower than those obtained at this location in recent years (Maynard, 1991,
1992, 1993, 1994, 1995). Weather conditions, especially early in the season are believed to have
caused the lower than expected yields. However, yields were higher than the state average yield of
220 cwt/acre for the 1990-91 through 1994-95 seasons.







Based on results of this and previous trials, the following 'Allsweet' type and blocky 'Crimson
Sweet' type varieties are expected to perform well in Florida: 'Fiesta', 'Regency', 'Royal Star',
'Royal Sweet', and 'Sangria'. 'Mardi Gras', 'Carnival', and 'Royal Flush' performed well in the
1996 GCREC trials and should be considered in planning for the 1997 season. 'Starbrite' has
performed well in past trials and seed is being advertised for the 1997 season.

Note

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and should not be used
as recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
and no endorsement is implied.

Acknowledgement

The author appreciates the financial support for watermelon variety evaluation provided by Abbott
& Cobb, Inc., American Sunmelon, Asgrow Seed Co., Harris Moran, Petoseed, Rogers Seed Co.,
Sakata America Seed Co., Shamrock Seed Co., Sunseeds Co., and John C. Van Diepen.

Literature Cited

Geuder, J. K. and N. L. Pugh. 1996. Florida Agricultural Statistics. Vegetable Summary, 1994-95.
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Orlando.

Hanlon, E. A. and J. M. DeVore. 1989. IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory Chemical
Procedures and Training Manual. Fla. Coop. Ext. Circ. 812.

Maynard, D.N. 1991. Standard watermelon variety evaluation. Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center Res. Rept. BRA1991-18.

Maynard, D. N. 1992. Standard and icebox watermelon variety evaluations, spring 1992. Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA 1992-19.

Maynard, D. N. 1993. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1993. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1993-20.

Maynard, D. N. 1994. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1994. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1994-22.

Maynard, D.N. 1995. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1995. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA 1995-23.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995. Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Res.
Rept. BRA1996-6.

U.S. Dept. Agr. 1978. U.S. Standards for Grades of Watermelons. Washington, D.C.







Based on results of this and previous trials, the following 'Allsweet' type and blocky 'Crimson
Sweet' type varieties are expected to perform well in Florida: 'Fiesta', 'Regency', 'Royal Star',
'Royal Sweet', and 'Sangria'. 'Mardi Gras', 'Carnival', and 'Royal Flush' performed well in the
1996 GCREC trials and should be considered in planning for the 1997 season. 'Starbrite' has
performed well in past trials and seed is being advertised for the 1997 season.

Note

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and should not be used
as recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
and no endorsement is implied.

Acknowledgement

The author appreciates the financial support for watermelon variety evaluation provided by Abbott
& Cobb, Inc., American Sunmelon, Asgrow Seed Co., Harris Moran, Petoseed, Rogers Seed Co.,
Sakata America Seed Co., Shamrock Seed Co., Sunseeds Co., and John C. Van Diepen.

Literature Cited

Geuder, J. K. and N. L. Pugh. 1996. Florida Agricultural Statistics. Vegetable Summary, 1994-95.
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Orlando.

Hanlon, E. A. and J. M. DeVore. 1989. IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory Chemical
Procedures and Training Manual. Fla. Coop. Ext. Circ. 812.

Maynard, D. N. 1991. Standard watermelon variety evaluation. Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center Res. Rept. BRA1991-18.

Maynard, D. N. 1992. Standard and icebox watermelon variety evaluations, spring 1992. Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA 1992-19.

Maynard, D. N. 1993. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1993. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1993-20.

Maynard, D. N. 1994. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1994. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1994-22.

Maynard, D.N. 1995. Standard watermelon variety evaluation, spring 1995. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1995-23.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995. Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Res.
Rept. BRA1996-6.

U.S. Dept. Agr. 1978. U.S. Standards for Grades of Watermelons. Washington, D.C.












Entry

Royal Sweet


Sangria


Sultan


Summer Flavor
420

Summer Flavor
500

Summer Flavor
510

W5023


W5025


WM 8007


WM 8032

WM 8038

WM 8043

93-32

94-08

94-52

95-03


Description


Oblong. Wide, dark-green stripes on light-green
background.

Elongated. Light-green stripes on dark-green
background. 'Allsweet' type.

Blocky/oval. Distinct, dark-green stripe on
light-green background.

Oblong. Wide, dark-green stripes on light-green
background.

Blocky/oblong. Wide, indistinct dark-green
stripes on a light-green background.

Blocky. Indistinct light-green stripe on dark-
green background.

Elongated/blocky. Indistinct light-green stripe
on dark-green background. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated/blocky. Indistinct light-green stripe
on dark-green background. 'Allsweet' type.

Oval. Wide, indistinct dark-green stripes on a
light-green background. 'Allsweet' type.

Blocky. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated/oval. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated/blocky. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated. 'Allsweet' type.

Elongated. 'Allsweet' type.


Source

Petoseed


Rogers


Harris Moran


Abbott & Cobb


Abbott & Cobb


Abbott & Cobb


Pioneer


Pioneer


Rogers


Rogers

Rogers

Rogers

Sakata

Sakata

Sakata

Sakata








6

Table 2. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the spring of 1996 and the 42-
year averages (Stanley, 1996).


Average Daily Temperature (oF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1996' 42-yr avg 1996' 42-yr avg 1996' 42-yr avg

March 75 78 52 55 5.50 3.45
April 81 82 58 60 1.58 1.83
May 88 87 67 64 9.52 2.86
June 90 89 70 70 11.75 7.96


'Field seeded 12 March 1996. Last harvest 21 June 1996.









Table 3. Early and total yields, average fruit weight, soluble solids and the incidence and severity ofhollowheart of standard watermelons. Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center, Bradenton. Spring 1996.


EARLY HARVEST' TOTAL HARVEST
Avg. Fruit Soluble Avg. Fruit Soluble
Weight Weight Solids Hollowheart Weight Weight Solids Hollowheart
Entry (cwt/A)2 (Ib) (%) (%) (in.)3 (cwt/A)2 (lb) (%) (%) (in.)3


WM 8007
94-52
Mardi Gras
WM 8038
Carnival


195 a4
87 b-e
132 a-c
127 a-c
153 ab


26.6 ab
26.6 ab
22.6 a-c
21.8 a-d
20.6 a-d


10.7 b-e
10.7 b-e
9.9 e
11.1 a-e
11.5 a-e


17b
Ob
Ob
17b
17b


0.1 b
Ob
Ob
0.2 a
0.1 b


439 a
432 ab
429 ab
407 a-c
371 a-c


23.4 a-f
23.9 a-f
22.8 b-g
20.1 f-h
22.1 b-g


11.1 b-f
10.7 d-g
10.4 e-g
11.1 c-g
11.5 a-d


12b
Ob
Ob
8b
7b


0.1 b
Ob
Ob
0.1 b
0.1 b


WM 8043 93 a-e 28.8 ab 10.0 de 25 b 0.1 b 371 a-c 25.0 a-c 10.2 fg 17 ab 0.1 b
Royal Flush 136 a-c 19.5 a-d 11.4 a-e 0 b 0 b 366 a-c 18.9 g-i 11.5 a-d 0 b 0 b
HSR 602 130 a-c .23.4 a-c 10.9 a-e 0 b 0 b 364 a-c 24.6 a-e 11.4 a-d 8 b 0.1 b
WM 8032 119 a-d 24.1 a-c 11.1 a-e Ob Ob 364 a-c 24.7 a-d 11.1 b-g 33 a 0.1 b
Summer Flavor 500 39 c-e 19.9 a-d 10.4 c-e 0 b 0 b 358 a-c 25.3 ab 10.1 g 0 b 0 b

95-03 93 a-e 19.9 a-d 11.8 a-c 0 b 0 b 340 a-c 21.3 b-h 11.6 a-d 11 b 0.1 b
93-32 64 b-e 22.8 a-c 11.4 a-e 0 b 0 b 337 a-c 21.9 b-h 11.1 b-f 6b 0.1 b
Baron 91 a-e 17.0 a-d 11.7 a-d Ob Ob 335 a-c 19.8 f-h 11.6 a-d 6b 0.1 b
W5023 103 a-e 20.5 a-d 11.0 a-e 0 b 0 b 334 a-c 20.1 f-h 11.0 c-g 0 b 0 b
Summer Flavor 420 64 b-e 13.7 b-e 11.2 a-e 0 b 0 b 333 a-c 20.6 e-h 11.6 a-d 8b 0.1 b

Fiesta 101 a-e 23.6 a-c 11.0 a-e 0 b 0 b 321 a-c 21.0 c-h 11.1 c-g 0 b 0 b
94-08 125 a-c 23.6 a-c 11.7 a-d 0 b Ob 318 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.3 a-e 0 b 0 b
Royal Star 31 c-e 28.7 ab 10.9 a-e 50 a 0.3 a 302 a-c 24.7 a-c 11.3 a-e 7 b 0.1 b
Royal Sweet Oe NH NH NH NH 297 a-c 26.9 a 12.2 a 0 b 0 b
Sultan 78 b-e 29.8 a 11.6 a-e 0 b 0 b 296 a-c 24.7 a-d 11.9 a-d 0 b 0 b








Table 3 (continued).


EARLY HARVEST' TOTAL HARVEST
Avg. Fruit Soluble Avg. Fruit Soluble
Weight Weight Solids Hollowheart Weight Weight Solids Hollowheart
Entry (cwt/A)2 (lb) (%) (%) (in.)3 (cwt/A)2 (lb) (%) (%) (in.)3

LF 1408 86b-e 18.0 a-d 12.3 ab Ob Ob 287 a-c 15.8 i 11.4 a-d Ob Ob
LF 1390 61 b-e 18.4 a-d 11.9 a-c Ob Ob 287 a-c 17.9 h-i 11.3 a-e 11 b 0.7 a
W5025 58 b-e 20 a-d 11.7 a-d Ob 0 b 277 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.5 a-d 13 b 0.1 b
Ferrari 51 b-e 18.2 a-d 11.4 a-e 0 b Ob 266 a-c 20.7 d-h 11.5 a-d 11 b 0.3 ab
Regency 12 de 18.2 a-d 11.1 a-e Ob Ob 264 a-c 21.6 b-h 12.1 ab 1 b 0.1 b

Sangria 116 a-d '19.1 a-d 11.8 a-c b Ob 263 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.7 a-c 7b 0.1 b
LF 1402 39c-e 18.9 a-d 12.1 a-c b Ob 256 bc 19.9 f-h 11.7 a-c b Ob
Summer Flavor 510 99 a-e 18.8 a-d 10.4 c-e Ob Ob 247 c 19.2 g-i 10.2 fg 7b 0.1 b
Royal Majesty 108 a-e 20.8 a-d 12.5 a 0 b 0 b 245 c 20.4 f-h 12.0 a-c 7 b 0.2 b


'Early harvest represents the first of three harvests.
2Acre = 4840 lbf.
3Average width of fruit cracks of those fruit sampled.
4Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.








Table 4. Fruit weight distribution of the total yield of standard watermelons. Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center, Bradenton. Spring 1996.

Fruit Wt (lb)
12.1-18.0 18.1-24.0 >24
Entry Percentage of fruit

Baron 32 56 12
Carnival 12 68 20
Ferrari 45 35 20
Fiesta 46 33 21
HSR 602 0 50 50

LF 1390 57 39 4
LF 1402 47 47 6
LF 1408 85 15 0
Mardi Gras 21 40 39
Regency 17 56 27

Royal Flush 34 62 4
Royal Majesty 33 50 17
Royal Star 0 36 64
Royal Sweet 0 36 64
Sangria 17 50 33

Sultan 11 39 50
Summer Flavor 420 29 50 21
Summer Flavor 500 20 25 55
Summer Flavor 510 33 61 6
W5023 42 33 25

W5025 32 36 32
WM 8007 25 25 50
WM 8032 9 41 50
WM 8038 33 43 24
WM 8043 0 45 55

93-32 18 52 30
94-08 18 55 27
94-52 22 30 48
95-03 33 42 25







The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
Z The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
L A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
U Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
" A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
Q An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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