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 Front Cover
 Field block locations
 Agenda
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 History of the Gulf Coast Research...
 Gulf Coast Research and Education...
 Map of facilities
 Key to facilities
 Summary of vegetable research...
 Vegetable crop improvement
 Vegetable crop protection
 Vegetable crop production
 Acknowledgement
 Back Cover














Vegetable field day
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054244/00011
 Material Information
Title: Vegetable field day
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1993
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Plants, Cultivated -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Protection of -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Diseases and pests -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Varieties -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 30th (1973); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 43rd (1999).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62706005
lccn - 2005229077
System ID: UF00054244:00011

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Field block locations
        Page i
    Agenda
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    History of the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
        Page 2
    Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Personnel
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Map of facilities
        Page 7
    Key to facilities
        Page 8
    Summary of vegetable research accomplishments
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Vegetable crop improvement
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Vegetable crop protection
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Vegetable crop production
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Acknowledgement
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA 1993-11


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Bradenton, Florida


40th


Vegetable


.D.N. Maynard, J.P. Jones, W.E. Waters, Editors


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida


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GULF COAST RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER





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FIELD BLOCK LOCATIONS









University of Florida, IFAS
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
Bradenton, Florida

40TH VEGETABLE FIELD DAY

Tuesday, May 18, 1993


Field Day Coordinators Don N. Maynard and John Paul Jones


Moderator:

8:15 AM

8:45

9:00

9:15

9:40

10:00

10:30

12:00 PM

12:45

2:15

3:45

3:45 5:00


Don N. Maynard, Extension Vegetable Specialist

Registration

Welcome and Introduction W. E. Waters

IFAS Research Overview N. P. Thompson, IFAS Intel
Dean for Research

New Release Possibilities from the Tomato Breeding
Program J. W. Scott

Update on the Tomato Mottle Virus J. E. Polston

COFFEE BREAK

Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2, or 3)

LUNCH

Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2, or 3)

Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2, or 3)

Adjourn

Individual Talks with Faculty


rim


Three tours will be available: (1) Vegetable Crop Improvement
(2) Vegetable Crop Protection
(3) Vegetable Crop Production

Tourguides: Phyllis Gilreath, Manatee County Extension
Mark Kistler, Sarasota County Extension
Russell Owens, GCREC-Bradenton









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Introduction ..................................................... 1

History of GCREC Bradenton .......................................... 2

List of Program Leaders ............................................ 3

USPS Employees .................................................. 5

Map of Facilities ................................................... 7

Key to Facilities .............................................. 8

Vegetable Research Accomplishments

Vegetable Crop Improvement ................................... 9
Vegetable Crop Protection ..................................... 17
Vegetable Crop Production .................................... 27

Tour 1: Vegetable Crop Improvement ............................... 34

Tour 2: Vegetable Crop Protection ................................ 55

Tour 3: Vegetable Crop Production ................................ 71

Acknowledgement/Grantors ............................................ 79









INTRODUCTION


On behalf of the faculty and staff, I want to welcome each of you to the
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, at Bradenton, Florida. This
Center began in 1925 as the Tomato Disease Laboratory (a one-man operation
in Palmetto), and the first ornamental programs began about 17 years
later. This Center, with the affiliated Agricultural Research and
Education Center in Dover, is a Research and Education unit of the
University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

In Bradenton, we have three grant-supported scientist positions, three
state extension specialist positions, and 14 state research scientist
positions from various disciplines of training who participate in all
phases of vegetable and ornamental horticulture. This interdisciplinary
team approach, combining several research disciplines and a wide range of
industry and faculty contacts, often is more productive than could be
accomplished with limited investments in independent programs.

The Center's primary mission is to develop new and expand existing
knowledge and technology, and to disseminate new scientific knowledge on
vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida, so that agriculture remains
efficient and economically sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist the Cooperative Extension
Service, IFAS campus departments in which Center faculty hold appropriate
liaison appointments, and other research centers in extension, educational
training, and cooperative research programs for the benefit of Florida's
producers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics, breeding, and cultivar
development and evaluation; (2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest
management for diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds and viruses; (3)
production, culture, and management of environmental stress; (4) water
use, quality, management and natural resource protection; (5) leadership
in water management, floriculture, and vegetable crops extension programs
in southwest Florida and assistance in statewide Florida Cooperative
Extension Service programs; and (6) advancement of fundamental knowledge
of disciplines represented by faculty and directing graduate student
training and special undergraduate classes.

Information presented in this publication summarizes the active research
projects on vegetable crops. We sincerely appreciate your interest and
support of these research programs, and continuously solicit your
suggestions for improvement of research and extension programs.




Will E. Waters
Center Director








HISTORY OF THE GULF COAST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center originated in the fall of
1925 with the construction of the Tomato Disease Laboratory.

Tomato Disease Laboratory: A 20 acre tract of Manatee County-owned
property in Palmetto was made available with the cooperation of the
Manatee Board of County Commissioners. Operational and construction money
and equipment were supplied by local growers. The primary objective of
the laboratory was to formulate a control of nailhead spot of tomato.
Later studies emphasized the breeding for resistance to Fusarium wilt and
the control of tobacco mosaic on tomatoes. In 1937, with expansion of the
vegetable industry in Manatee County and surrounding areas, the State
Legislature authorized new facilities for the research program.

Vegetable Crops Laboratory: In August, 1938, the Manatee County Commis-
sioners donated 80% of the purchase price of a 106 acre tract in east
Bradenton. The expanded facility and diversified vegetable crop research
led to the establishment of the Vegetable Crops Laboratory. Following
this relocation, horticultural, entomological, and soil studies were
initiated on tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, sweet corn, and other vegetables.
Since the laboratory was located in a region where gladiolus was grown
for winter cut flowers, the scope of the laboratory was broadened in 1942
to include disease problems confronting gladiolus growers.

Gulf Coast Experiment Station: In March, 1957, the State Board of Control
elevated the status of the Vegetable Crops Laboratory to a branch station
and renamed it The Gulf Coast Experiment Station. Investigations were
begun on chemical weed control, nematodes, and other soil-borne pests.
In 1954, the ornamental program was broadened to include chrysanthemums
and other commercial cut-flowers. In 1959, a 200 acre tract was acquired
8 miles east of Bradenton along State Route 70 and the Caruso Road. All
of the vegetable experimental field programs were moved to this new
location.

In 1965, after construction of office and laboratory facilities, farm
buildings, greenhouses, and a residence, all research programs were
conducted on this new farm.

Agricultural Research & Education Center-Bradenton: In 1971, the Gulf
Coast Experiment Station was renamed Agricultural Research and Education
Center to emphasize the programs of both research and education.

Gulf Coast Research & Education Center: In 1984, to reflect the
regionality of the research and education programs at Bradenton, IFAS and
the State Board of Regents renamed the center the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center.

Current programs are in progress on production problems associated with
vegetables and ornamentals grown on the sandy soils of Florida.

The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center has administrative and
research supervision over a satellite station, AREC-Dover (formerly the
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory). The Dover station is the hub
of strawberry research in Florida, including breeding, horticultural, and
pathological studies.









GULF COAST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
BRADENTON, FLORIDA

Program Leaders, Appointment Date, and Area of Specialization


Waters, Will E.,


1960. Horticulturist and Center Director.
Administration, soil and plant nutrition, and ornamental
horticulture.


Bouzar, H.,


1990. Assistant-In
bacterial pathogens of
(grant supported).


Plant Pathology. Ecology of
ornamental and vegetable crops.


Clark, G. A.,


Csizinszky, A. A.,


1986. Associate Extension Water Management Specialist.
Extension education and cooperative research on
vegetable and ornamental crops.

1976. Associate Horticulturist. Production systems,
crop management and post-harvest studies on vegetable
crops.


Evans, M. R.,


Gilreath, J. P.,


Harbaugh, B. K.,

Howe, T. K.,

Jones, J. B.,

Jones, J. P.,


Maynard, D. N.,


1990. Assistant Extension Floriculturist.
education and cooperative research for
floriculture production.


1981. Associate Horticulturist.
vegetable and ornamental crops.


Extension
commercial


Weed control of


1975. Ornamental Horticulturist. Production,
harvesting and marketing systems for ornamental crops.

1979. Coordinator, Research Programs/Services. Variety
evaluations for ornamental and vegetable crops.

1981. Plant Pathologist. Ecology and control of
bacterial diseases of ornamental and vegetable crops.


1958. Plant Pathologist. Etiology and
diseases of vegetable crops.

1985. Extension Vegetable Specialist.
educational programs and cooperative
vegetable crops.


control of


Extension
research on


Polston, J. E.,


Price, J. F.,


Schuster, D. J.,


1991. Assistant Plant Virologist. Ecology and control
of viral diseases of vegetables and ornamentals.

1978. Associate Entomologist. Identification, biology
and control of insects and mites of ornamental and
strawberry crops.

1975. Entomologist. Identification, biology and
control of insects and mites of vegetable crops.









1981. Associate Geneticist.
development and genetics.


Scott, J. W.,

Somodi, G. C.,

Stanley, C. D.,

Thome, C. R.,



Wilfret, G. J.,

VACANT


Tomato cultivar


1986. Assistant-In Plant Pathology. Ecology of
bacterial pathogens of ornamental and vegetable crops.

1979. Associate Soil Scientist. Soil-water relations
for ornamental and vegetable crops.

1992. Postdoctoral Research Scientist. Methodology for
screening and development of germplasm for resistance to
sweetpotato whitefly and tomato mottle virus (grant
supported).

1969. Geneticist. Breeding and development of new
cultivars of cut flowers and other ornamental crops.

Assistant Nematologist. Etiology and control of
nematode incited diseases of ornamentals, strawberries,
and vegetables.


VACANT


Assistant Plant Pathologist.
diseases of ornamental crops.


Etiology and control of


Agricultural Research and Education Center-Dover. Florida

Albregts, E. E., 1967. Soil Chemist. Center administration, production,
soil and plant nutrition of strawberry and vegetable
crops.

Chandler, C. K., 1987. Assistant Geneticist. Strawberry breeding and
development of new varieties of strawberry.


Emeritus Faculty Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


Burgis, D. S.,

Engelhard, A. W.,

Geraldson, C. M.,


Magie, R. 0.,


Overman, A. J.,


1946. Horticulturist Emeritus. Vegetable production,
weed control and growth regulators.

1966. Plant Pathologist. Etiology and control of
diseases of ornamental crops.

1951. Soil Chemist Emeritus. Soil nutritional problems
and their relationship with cultural methods for
vegetable production.

1945. Plant Pathologist Emeritus. Etiology and control
of diseases of ornamental crops with emphasis on
gladiolus flower and corm diseases.

1945. Nematologist Emeritus. Etiology and control of
nematode incited diseases of ornamentals and vegetables.









Marlowe, G. A., Jr.,


1976. Horticulturist Emeritus.
and Extension.


Vegetable production,


Spencer, E. S.,

Woltz, S. S.,


1944. Soil Chemist Emeritus. Administration.

1953. Plant Physiologist. Physiological
nutritional disorders and diseases of vegetables
ornamental crops.


Administrative and Professional Staff

Max W. Beeler Coordinator, Research Programs/Services
Frederick Snyder Business Manager

At***fk*fk**rkk******kkt**W*************************************************


University


uS nort Personnel


Office Staff:


Nancy J. Kost
Tracey A. Revels
Myra A. Fawbush
Patricia W. Walker
Mary Lee Huffman
Debbie Smelser


Program Assistant
Word Processing Operator
Senior Fiscal Assistant
Secretary
Clerk Typist
Clerk Typist


Service Staff:


Richard J. Thomas
Charles L. Pratt
Goodlett H. Watson


Farm Operations Staff:


Engineer
Maintenance Specialist
Maintenance Mechanic


Mark Knowles
Todd Test
Hector G. Ortiz
Diane Russ
Joyce Jones
Lisa Prouchy
Lamar R. Parrish
VACANT
VACANT


Farm Supervisor
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant


-~~~~-~-~-I---~-~- ~-~--~~~~-~










Agricultural & Engineering Assistant Staff:


VACANT
Dagmar D. Taborsky
Preston L. Young
John Hogue
Jan Watson
VACANT
VACANT
Guillermo Alverio
Brian Neuman


Agricultural Assistant Superv.
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Engineering Technician
Engineering Assistant


Biological Technician Staff:


Nancy G. West
Laverne C. Barnhill
Patricia M. Jones
Richard 0. Kelly
Karen I. Pearce
Renata E. Zalewski
Curtis A. Nagle
Gregory Danyluk
Emily E. Vasquez
VACANT
VACANT
VACANT
Russell W. Owens


Chemist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Lab Technician


AREC-Dover Staff:


Annie F. Turgeau
Alicia J. Whidden
James C. Sumler, Jr.
Larry J. Smith
Frederick D. Wenzel
Michael C. Murphy
VACANT


Secretary
Biological Scientist
Biological Scientist
Agricultural Assistant Superv.
Senior Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant
Agricultural Assistant










7'lfrJI
LC'i


7616 76



Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203


15'tB
17L1 1


(SEE INSET)









FACILITIES IN 1991 OF THE GULF COAST RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER BRADENTON


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center-Bradenton has developed excellent new facilities since 1965.
Each scientist has available office, laboratory, greenhouse and field areas as well as field and
laboratory technicians to support his/her research programs. The research facilities consist of 200
acres of sandy soil located at the main Center, 47 buildings containing 30 offices, a library, 18
laboratories, 1 headhouse, 1 large research and storage service building, 18 greenhouses, 12 storage
buildings, 4 walk-in cold rooms, 2 walk-in growth rooms, 2 large saran ranges for ornamental plants, 3
maintenance shops, 4 irrigation wells, and a fleet of vehicles and tractors. The list below is a
numerical key to facilities shown on the map on the adjacent page.


State
Building Name Building #


Office and Laboratories
Residence
Farm Maintenance
Farm Operations Building
Equipment Storage Building
Pesticide Storage Building
IPM Headhouse
oo Pesticide Weighing Facility
Horticultural Greenhouse
Entomology/Tomato Breeding Greenhse
Plant Pathology Greenhouse
Ornamental Saran House
Bulb Handling Building
Potting Shed & Implement Shelter
Headhouse-Laboratories, Offices
Plant Production Greenhouse
Ornamental Res. Saranhouse
Ornamental Genetics Greenhouse
Ornamental Greenhouse
Chemical & Golf Cart Storage
Speedling Greenhouse
Soil Sterilization Building
Air Fumigation Greenhouse
Farm Storage Building


7601
7602
7604
7605
7607
7609
7610
7611
7613
7614
7615
7616
7621
7623
7624
7625
7626
7627
7628
7629
7630
7631
7632
7633


KEY TO FACILITIES


State
Building #


g nidliuB Name


Graduate Student Housing
Entomomologv Weed Science
Tomato Breeding Greenhouse
Plant Physiology Greenhouse
Aluminum Storage Building
Tomato Processing Shed
Irrigation Storage Bldg.
Educational Pavilion
Tomato Disease Screening Gre
Soil and Media Storage
Horticultural Greenhouse (Sal
Graduate Student Housing
Open Equipment Building
Nematology Greenhouse
Pavilion Annex #1
Pavilion Annex #2
Horticultural Supply Storage
Research and Service Storage
Farm Service Building
Hazardous Chemical Storage
Vegetable Crops Greenhouse
Physiology Greenhouse


enhouse


tooth)


7634
7635
7636
7637
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657


........ Name .. .... .. # ... N


yy U ~ ..,..., ------- --


7657


~---








SUMMARY OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1990-92



PAGE VEGETABLE CROP IMPROVEMENT
10 Variety Trial Program T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters
14 Specialty Vegetable Crops D. N. Maynard
16 Tomato Breeding J. W. Scott










VARIETY TRIAL PROGRAM


T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters

Numerous vegetable variety trials have been completed since the spring of
1991, the time of the last vegetable field day at the Gulf Coast Research
& Education Center. Evaluations included cabbage (winter 1992-93),
cucumber (fall 1991, spring 1992), bell pepper (spring and fall 1991,
spring and fall 1992), fresh market tomato (spring and fall 1991, spring
and fall 1992) and cherry tomato (fall 1991 and fall 1992). All tomato
trials were done in cooperation with Dr. Jay Scott, IFAS tomato breeder.
Highlights of these trials include assessments of heat tolerant, Fusarium
race 3 resistant and bacterial spot resistant tomato hybrids developed by
the IFAS tomato breeder; screening new bacterial spot resistant bell
pepper cultivars and breeding lines from commercial sources; and
evaluation of new cultivars of cabbage and cucumber.

CABBAGE. Winter 1992-93. Thirty cultivars of cabbage were evaluated in
a replicated yield trial. Subjective evaluations characterized head
shape, density, color and other attributes. Those which were superior due
to density and lack of defects included: 'Solid Blue 780', 'Bronco',
'Gideon', 'FMX 388, 'Applause', PSR 18589, PSX 57684, 'Izalco', 'Pennant',
'Blue Vantage' and 89G-42. Yield by weight ranged from 461 crates/A for
'Solid Blue 780' (54% of plants set) to 960 crates/A for PSR 18589 (94% of
plants set). Thirteen other entries were not significantly different in
yield from PSR 18589. Marketable head weight ranged from 2.0 Ibs for
'Green Cup' to 2.9 Ibs for AMX 21029. Superior yield, head density, head
weight, plant stand and heads with a small proportion of core was produced
by PSR 18589. Other entries with exceptional yield, head density and head
weight were: 'A & C No. 5', 'Applause' and 'Gideon'.
CHERRY TOMATO. Fa7ll 1991. Two commercially available cultivars of cherry
tomato were compared to an IFAS bacterial spot resistant breeding line.
Seasonal yields after six harvests were 4380 flats/A for 'Cherry Grande',
3179 flats/A for 'Mountain Belle' and 2565 flats/A for IFAS 7333.
Seasonal average individual fruit weights were 0.8, 0.7 and 0.5 oz,
respectively.

Fall 1992. Ten IFAS breeding lines were compared to two available
cultivars. Seasonal yields after six harvests ranged from 2111 flats/A
for IFAS 7225 B to 4081 flats/A for 'Cherry Grande'. IFAS 7477 and
'Mountain Belle' were not significantly lower in yield than 'Cherry
Grande'. 'Cherry Grande' and 'Mountain Belle' had the largest individual
fruit weights, each near 0.7 oz, while all of the IFAS breeding lines were
between 0.4 and 0.6 oz. IFAS 7475 had the earliest yield of all entries.

CUCUMBER. Fall, 1991. Twenty entries of slicing cucumber were evaluated
in a replicated yield trial. Early yields from the first two of 12
harvests ranged from 45 bu/A for HSR 183 to 337 bu/A for 'Maximore 103'.
Three other entries were not significantly different from 'Maximore 103',
they were FMX 4761, 'Raider' and HSR 181. U.S. Fancy fruit from early
harvest, ranged from 19 bu/A for HSR 183 to 150 bu/A for 'Maximore 103'.
Nine other entries were similar to Maximore 103' in early fancy yields.









Total seasonal yields ranged from 977 bu/A for Sunre 3720 to 1516 bu/A for
FMX 4761. Fourteen entries were not significantly different than FMX 4761
in total yield. Total seasonal U.S. Fancy fruit yield ranged from 402 bu/A
for 'Slice Max' to 609 bu/A for 'General Lee'. There were no differences
among the entries in seasonal U.S. Fancy fruit yield.

Spring.1992. Twenty entries of slicing cucumber were examined in
replicated trial. Yields from the first two of seven harvests were
combined to assess earliness. Early marketable yields ranged from 81 bu/A
for 'Turbo' to 204 bu/A for 'MM 4-15'. Only 'General Lee', 'Signature'
and 'Turbo' yielded significantly less than 'MM 4-15' during the early
harvests. Total marketable yield after seven harvests for all grades was
similar among most of the entries. Only 'MM 4-15' at 672 bu/A was
significantly less than 'Everslice' at 905 bu/A. There were slight
differences among the entries in the yield of U.S. Fancy fruit which
ranged from 248 bu/A for 'MM 4-15' to 386 bu/A for 'Speedway'. Only 'MM
4-15', 'Blazer' and 'HSR 181' yielded significantly less U.S. Fancy fruit
than 'Speedway'.

PEPPERSWEET BELL. Spring 1991. Thirty-two sweet bell pepper entries
were evaluated in a replicated trial. Seasonal yields for three harvests
ranged from 417 cartons/A for 'Zico' to 1053 cartons/A for 'Verdel'.
Sixteen other entries were not significantly different than 'Verdel' in
total seasonal yields. At the first harvest, the total marketable yield
ranged from 65 cartons/A for 'Early Calwonder' to 402 cartons/A for
'Orobelle'. Six entries exceeded 300 cartons/A, they were 'Orobelle',
'Verdel', PR 300-3, PSX 3187, 'King Arthur' and 'Ssupersweet 860'.

Fall, 1991. This pepper trial sustained serious fruit damage inflicted by
lepidopterous larvae. Realistic yields were approximated by adjusting
yield data to ignore fruit harvested with worm damage. Singular
performance came from 'King Arthur', 'Ssupersweet 860', PR 300-7, 'Whopper
Improved', 'Orobelle', 'Verdel', PS 3187, 'Bell King', PR 89-3, and
'Ranger'. All had high seasonal and first harvest yields. 'Whopper
Improved' also had excellent wall thickness.

Spring, 1992. Thirty-one entries of bell pepper were examined in
replicated trial. Seasonal yields for three harvests ranged from 780 bu/A
for 'Jupiter' to 1621 bu/A for XPH 5985. Fifteen other entries were not
significantly different from XPH 5985 in seasonal yield. At the first
harvest, the marketable yields ranged from 31 bu/A for RNK 9131 to 505
bu/A for PR 901-3. The yield of 502 bu/A for PR 901-3 was the highest of
all 31 entries at the first harvest.

Fall,1992. Twenty-five entries of bell pepper were evaluated in
replicated trial. In addition, 29 cultigens were harvested for yield
estimates from unreplicated plots. This trial sustained damage from broad
mite infestations. Yield data was not adjusted to compensate for the
damage since many fruit buds were aborted and those fruit losses were not
easily estimated. However, harvested mite-damaged fruit were tabulated
separately to help assess the degree of destruction. Seasonal yields from
three harvests ranged from 220 bu/A for 'Capistrano' to 817 bu/A for
'Whopper Improved'. Seven entries were not significantly different than
' Whopper Improved' in total yield, they were 'Ssupersweet 860', 'King









Arthur', XPH 5936, 'Ssupersweet 862 R', PS 55887, PR 300-3, and PR 300-6.
Broad mite-damaged fruit accounted for between 1 and 35 % of harvested
fruit for the season. At the first harvest, the yields ranged from 33
bu/A for RNK 9140 to 246 bu/A for 'King Arthur'. Only 'Ssupersweet 860',
XPH 5936, PR 300-6 and 'Whopper Improved' were similar to 'King Arthur' in
early yield. Broad mite-damaged fruit accounted for between 0 to 60% of
the harvested fruit at the first harvest.

TOMATOFRESH MARKET. Spring, 1991. There were 20 replicated entries
harvested for yield comparisons. In addition, 72 observational entries
were evaluated subjectively, but not harvested. Total marketable yield
from after two harvests ranged from 1251 cartons/A for IFAS 7384 to 2195
cartons/A for XPH 5796. These yields were much lower (30-40% less) than
those achieved at this location in previous spring seasons. Bacterial
spot infection and tomato mottle virus were the main reasons for the low
yield. Half of the trial entries were not significantly different than XPH
5796 in total seasonal yield. Extra large fruit yields ranged from 644
cartons/A for 'Regency' to 1239 cartons/A for 'Solar Set'. 'Merced', IFAS
7385, PSR 864189, IFAS 7264, 'Agriset 761', 'Sunbeam', 'Cobia' and IFAS
7306 were similar to 'Solar Set' in extra large fruit yield. Fifteen of
the 20 entries were similar in early yield, but the first harvest was
timed a bit later than normal due to field day activities.

Fall, 1991. There were 17 entries in the replicated yield trial. Sixty
additional entries were also evaluated in unharvested plots. Total
marketable yields ranged from 584 cartons/A for 'Colonial' to 1702
cartons/A for IFAS 7430. Nine other entries were indistinguishable from
IFAS 7430 in total yield. Extra large fruit yield ranged from 153
cartons/A for 'Colonial' to 619 cartons/A for 'IFAS 7430. Eleven entries
were similar to IFAS 7430 in the yield of extra large fruit. Earliest
yielding entries were IFAS 7430, IFAS 7264, NVH 4466, 'Heatwave', 'Solar
Set', and 'Merced'. All of which, except 'Merced', were heat tolerant.
Spring, 1992. Twenty replicated entries were harvested for yield
assessment and 64 observation entries were evaluated without harvest.
Total marketable yields after three harvests ranged from 1979 cartons/A
for 'Spitfire' to 3271 cartons/A for IFAS 7375. Thirteen other entries
were not significantly different than IFAS 7375 in total seasonal yield.
Extra large fruit yields ranged from 984 cartons/A for 'Spitfire' to 2225
cartons/A for 'Mountain Spring'. Only 'Sunbeam', 'Olympic', IFAS 7249 B
and 'Merced' had over 2000 cartons/A extra large fruit yield and were not
significantly different than 'Mountain Spring'. First harvest yield
ranged from 379 cartons/A for IFAS 7435 to 1111 cartons/A for 'Merced'.
Only 'Sunbeam' at 934 cartons/A was similar to 'Merced' in total early
yield. However, 'Merced' stood alone in producing the greatest yield in
extra large fruit, with 1034 cartons/A.

Fall, 1992. There were 20 entries which were harvested and 50
observational entries which were not harvested. Total marketable yields
after three harvests ranged from 1047 cartons/A for HMX 1817 to 2906
cartons/A for XPH 10013. Only three other entries were similar to XPH
10013 in total yield, they were IFAS 7375, IFAS 7423 and IFAS 7249. Extra
large fruit yield ranged from 409 cartons/A for 'Bonita' to 1262 cartons/A
for XPH 10013. Eight other entries were similar to XPH 10013 in extra









large fruit yield, they were: 'Merced', IFAS 7249, PSX 805588, XPH 10005,
IFAS 7375, NVH 4471, IFAS 7430 and 'Heatwave'. First harvest yield ranged
from 206 cartons/A for 'Bonita' to 1191 cartons/A for XPH 10013. All but
two entries were similar to XPH 10013 in first harvest yield. Greatest
extra large fruit at first harvest came from: XPH 10013, IFAS 7375, NVH
4471, IFAS 7249, PSX 805588 and IFAS 7430.









EVALUATION OF SPECIALTY VEGETABLES FOR PRODUCTION
IN WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA

D. N. Maynard


The importance of specialty vegetable crops has increased substantially in
recent years. Specialty vegetables are a diverse group that includes
those vegetables grown on small acreages (formerly called minor crops),
ethnic vegetables, gourmet vegetables, and miniature vegetables.
Production of specialty vegetables offers the opportunity of
diversification for large growers and production of high-value crops by
small growers that permit them to be competitive in the market place.

The dramatic increased popularity of specialty vegetables in the U.S. is
related to a) increased awareness of ethnic vegetables among the
population at large, and increased demand by the growing Hispanic-American
and Asian-American communities; b) increased demand for new, unusual, or
exotic vegetables by young, urban professionals; c) increased demand for
gourmet vegetables by the food-service industry; and d) an increased
awareness of the health and nutritional benefits of vegetables that
contribute diversity to the diet, are high in nutrients and fiber, and low
in calories, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Since these
developments are driven by fundamental cultural, economic and demographic
forces, it can be anticipated that they will continue for some time to
come.

Summary. The commercial production potential of specialty vegetables
evaluated at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center thus far is as
shown below:

Specialty Vegetable Production Potential*

Globe artichoke 1
Asparagus 1
Calabaza 3
Cantaloupe 3
Garlic 0
Ginger 1
Leek 3
Miniature vegetables 3
Pepino 0
Plum tomato 3
Pumpkin 3
Radicchio 2
Rhubarb 2
Scotch Bonnet Pepper 2
Shallot 0
Snowpea 3
Spinach 3











Specialty Vegetable Production Potential*

Tomatillo 3
Icebox watermelon 3
Seedless watermelon 3

*0 = no production potential at this time, 3 = excellent production
potential.









TOMATO BREEDING RESEARCH


J. W. Scott


Primary emphasis here will be placed on research which is not reported
elsewhere in this manual and which is considered to be of importance.

1. Breeding line releases. Details can be found elsewhere in this
publication. These potential releases represent considerable
breeding effort. Since there are several lines with potential value
as commercial parents, and since there are many seed companies
breeding tomatoes for Florida, a major emphasis from my program will
be to make many future releases as breeding lines. This is the best
way for the lines to be widely used in the shortest time. Making
all the hybrids and testing them myself would be an unwieldy task.
Possible releases (some others also possible, bacterial spot R lines
need to be tested this summer):

Fla. 7482B Large fruited, v. smooth blossom scar, good flavor
(replacement for Fla. 7960)
Fla. 7324 Heat tolerant, good blossom scar, parent in Fla. 7249B
Fla. 7418 Heat tolerant, v. gd. blossom scar, parent in Fla. 7430
Fla. 7547 Fusarium wilt race 3 resistant
Fla. 7481 Fusarium wilt race 3 resistant, jointless

2. Variety releases.
Fla. 7421 Heat tolerant, bacterial wilt tolerant, op for tropic
regions
Micro Gold Miniature dwarf, gold fruit, companion to Micro Tom

3. Blossom end scar breeding
Three sources of nipple-like genes without leaf curl were identified
by Jan Barten in his Ph.D. work. These may be useful in future
breeding for smooth blossom scars. These are: NC 140* (from Dr.
Gardner at North Carolina State University) (n-2 gene), Fla. 890559-
24 (n-3 gene), and Fla. 894413-1 (n-4 gene). Preliminary evidence
indicates combining different nipple genes in hybrids results in
good smoothness without unwanted persistence of nipples in mature
future or leaf curl which are problems in some present varieties.

4. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt resistance

In cooperative work with J. P. Jones we have now obtained lines
resistant to Fusarium Wilt races 2 and 3 but not race 1 indicating
a linkage break on chromosome 7. We have not broken the race 2-3
linkage at this time. We have also obtained lines with race 2
resistance alone and race 1 resistance alone which resulted from a
linkage break on chromsome 11. It has long been assumed that the
race 2 resistance gene on chromosome 11 (1-2) was linked to the race
1 resistant gene (I). We now have clear evidence that this is the
case.










SUMMARY OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1990-92


PAGE VEGETABLE CROP PROTECTION
18 Vegetable Herbicide Research J. P. Gilreath
19 Vegetable Insect Control D. J. Schuster, J. E. Polston,
J. W. Scott, J. F. Price, J. H. M. Barten, C. R. Thome,
& A. A. Csizinszky

21 Biological Control of Whiteflies Research D. E. Dean and
D. J. Schuster

22 Control of Fungous Disease of Vegetables J. P. Jones, S. S. Woltz,
and J. W. Scott

23 Bacterial Spot and Bacterial Wilt of Tomato J. B. Jones, H. Bouzar,
and G. C. Somodi

24 Viral Disease Research J. E. Polston, D. J. Schuster, J. W. Scott,
C. Thome, E. Hiebert, R. J. McGovern, & D. Chellemi









VEGETABLE HERBICIDE RESEARCH


J. P. Gilreath


Nightshade Control. Extensive field trials have evaluated nightshade
control and crop injury with many herbicides, but the most promising, with
manufacturer interest in registration, are Cobra and Ignite. Research
conducted during the past 2 years was instrumental in the section 18
registration of Cobra for nightshade control in tomato and pepper middles
during the fall of 1992. A few problems have surfaced with Cobra and are
being investigated to aid the industry in the use of this product. Cobra
provides excellent preemergence and postemergence control of nightshade.
Most of the crop damage which has been observed has been been short-lived
and the plants have grown out of the injury within a few weeks. Problems
can be minimized by eliminating plant contact with Cobra.

Residual Problems with Roundup. Occasional damage from Roundup has been
observed on farms throughout the state. This problem is often associated
with double cropping where Roundup was applied broadcast to destroy the
previous crop and weeds, resulting in residual Roundup on the plastic
mulch. Research demonstrated that the observed damage most probably was
due to crop contact with Roundup on the plastic mulch. The level of
residual Roundup was sufficient to cause problems as much as 2 weeks after
application. It is recommended that growers wait at least 2 weeks after
broadcast spraying Roundup in double cropped fields before planting
sensitive crops.









VEGETABLE INSECT CONTROL


D. J. Schuster, J. E. Polston, J. W. Scott,J. F. Price,
J. H. N. Barten, C. R. Thome & A. A. Csizinszky

Sweetpotato Whitefly. A two year survey of parasitic wasps attacking the
sweetpotato whitefly in Florida was completed. Three species of parasitic
wasps (Encarsia nioricephala, E. perqandiella, Eretmocerus californicus)
were reared consistently from sweetpotato whitefly nymphs collected on 30
different plants throughout southern Florida. Parasitism on three weed
hosts (Ludwigia spp., Indiqofera sp. and Chamaesyce spp.) near commercial
tomato fields was high during the summer and fall of 1991 reaching >90%
but was less in 1992 reaching 70%. The survey data suggested that there
may be a shift in seasonal 'abundance of some of the parasitoids on some
host plants and possibly a seasonal displacement of one species by
another.

Weekly trapping in west-central Florida indicated that winter crops,
especially cabbage and potatoes, can carry the SPWF from the fall tomato
crop to the spring crop. Furthermore, early planted tomatoes,
particularly cherry tomatoes, can serve as reservoirs for the SPWF-
vectored geminivirus tomato mottle virus (TMoV) from the fall to the
spring crops. Since cucurbit crops are planted at or near the same time
as tomato in the fall but are shorter season crops than tomato, they can
serve as mid-season reservoirs of the SPWF for fall-planted tomatoes.

Plastic soil mulch painted aluminum, yellow or orange resulted in fewer
immatures of the sweetpotato whitefly and delayed symptoms of geminivirus
on tomato compared to white plastic mulch. Applying vegetable oil to the
yellow mulch resulted in fewer adults and delayed virus relative to the
mulch without oil.

More adults of the sweetpotato whitefly were observed on foliage of squash
relative to the cultivated hosts eggplant, okra, tomato and sunflower and
the wild host primrose willow, Ludwigia octavalis in the field. Percent
parasitism ranged from 25.4 to 32.6 on eggplant, squash, okra and
sunflower but was only about 11 percent on willow and tomato. Egg to
adult development of the SPWF ranged from 3 to 4 weeks on eggplant,
primrose willow (Ludwiqia octavalis), okra, squash, tomato, spurge
(Sonchus), and nightshade (Solanum americanum).

A decline in the susceptibility of the SPWF to endosulfan was detected in
commercial tomatoes despite rotations among classes of insecticides by
growers. In addition, high levels of resistance were detected for SPWF
from small research plots for both Brigade and Thiodan and cross
resistance also was detected.

In laboratory tests, E. perqandiella induced mortality of the SPWF by both
oviposition and apparent host feeding. Males were produced as
hyperparasites of females. Developmental times for females were similar
on tomato, squash and eggplant.

A twice weekly survey of unsprayed tomatoes indicated that populations of
the predators Orius, Geocoris, hemerobiids and chrysopids tended to









fluctuate with populations of SPWF adults. Spiders tended to be the first
predators detected and Orius the most abundant.

Tomato germplasm was screened in the greenhouse for resistance to TMoV and
in the field for resistance to the SPWF in both the spring and fall.
Fruit from individual plants with little or no expression of virus
symptoms and plants with low numbers of SPWF nymphs and high levels of
stickiness were harvested as selfs for the next round of selection.

Five accessions of Lvcopersicon hirsutum and two accessions of L. hirsutum
f. glabratum were evaluated for their impact on the SPWF. Highest adult
mortality and lowest oviposition occurred on the L. hirsutum accessions
LA1777, LA1927 and LA1772. Also, the lowest percentage of eggs were
deposited on lower surfaces of leaflets of these accessions.

Single plant selections from a cross between Lvcopersicon esculentum and
L. pennellii accession LA1340 varied in the amount of glandular trichome
exudate production as measured by leaf stickiness. Cuttings of these
selections were grown interspersed with TMoV infected plants in the field
and evaluated weekly for virus incidence using dot blot assay. The
stickiest plants, as well as LA1340, had a much delayed onset of disease
expression compared to less sticky selections.

The fungus, Paecilomvces fumosoroseus, was established on the SPWF on
tomato in the field following a single foliar application. Infection of
nymphs was as high as 32%.
A mixture of whey and yeast applied weekly as a foliar spray on tomato
increased the number of groups of eggs, the number of eggs per group and
the total number of eggs deposited by lacewing predators compared to
unsprayed plots.

Over 20 insecticides or insecticide combinations, including registered and
experimental products, were evaluated in field trials on tomato for SPWF
control. Pyrethroids combined with organophosphate insecticides appeared
more effective than either of the products alone. An experimental
systemic insecticide and an insect growth regulator appeared as effective
as registered alternatives.

Other Vegetable Pests. Seven new formulations of the tomato pinworm
pheromone were evaluated for mating disruption in the field. They were
compared to the registered formulation of pheromone-filled hollow fibers
mixed in adhesive and applied to tomato stakes. Three formulations,
including an easy to apply liquid, were as good as or better than the
fiber formulation.

Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis were evaluated in the laboratory
for effects on survival and development of tomato pinworm larvae. Condor
OF was more toxic than Agree, Dipel or Javelin to tomato pinworm larvae.
Newly hatched larvae that had mined a leaflet for 24 hrs before the
leaflet was treated were less affected than larvae placed upon a treated
leaflet immediately after treatment.









Thrips were collected in yellow pan traps twice weekly. Thrips species
which were trapped included Frankliniella bispinosa, Thrips tabaci, F.
williamsi F. occidentalis, E. tritici, F. fusca. The former two species
were the most abundant, peaking in March.

Pheromone components were evaluated in boll weevil traps for their
potential for attracting adults of the pepper weevil. A combination of
components was most effective.
Over 20 chemical, biological and biorational pesticides were evaluated for
control of armyworm larvae on tomato and pepper in the field. Certain
Bacillus thurinqiensis and neem products were as effective as chemical
standards in reducing the numbers of armyworm larvae and the numbers of
damaged fruit.



BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHITEFLIES RESEARCH
D. E. Dean and D. J. Schuster

Natural Enemies. The natural enemies of the sweetpotato whitefly are not
well known in Florida. A survey of the many species found feeding on some
stage of the whitefly can reveal potential biological control agents to be
used for future releases, conservation, or augmentation in the field. A
serological assay is being developed by isolating and rearing a specific
monoclonal antibody against the Sweetpotato Whitefly. With the successful
development of this assay, a tool will be available for use in conjunction
with the beneficial insect survey which will indicate to what extent the
whitefly is preyed upon by each species. The survey can then be extended
beyond the local area to regional and foreign exploration for potential
natural enemies of the whitefly, if necessary.
Commercially Available Biocontrol Agents. Evaluations of a commercially
supplied natural enemy of the sweetpotato whitefly is underway.
Comparisons are being made between an indigenous species and the
commercial species for prey preference, numbers of prey consumed,
development on a whitefly prey, compatibility with insecticides, and
attraction to whiteflies in the field. Information gained from these
studies will help in the evaluation for the effectiveness of various
predators of the whitefly and ways to manipulate them in the field so that
they are more effective in reducing whitefly numbers.









CONTROL OF FUNGOUS INCITED DISEASES OF VEGETABLES


J. P. Jones, S. S. Woltz, and J. W. Scott

FUSARIUM CROWN ROT OF TOMATO. A method was developed for rapidly and reliably
screening tomato germplasm for resistance to crown rot of tomato caused by
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. This method involves root dip-
inoculating 14-day old seedling and dibbling them into a 1:1 mix of Canadian
peat:vermiculite amended with enough calcium carbonate (approximately 0.75 g/1
of mix) to bring the mix to 4.2 4.5. The inoculated seedlings are incubated
at 72 F at 850 ft.c. illumination for 12 hours daily. Plants can be evaluated
for disease severity within 4 to 7 days after inoculation.

A factorial experimental was carried out in the field in the Fall of 1992 to
determine the effect of soil pH (4.5 vs 5.5), nitrogen source (ammonia vs
nitrate), and preplant drenches to container plants (Benlate, 0.5 and 1.0 lb/100
gal vs two biocontrol agents). The lower soil pH and ammonia-nitrogen greatly
increased disease incidence and severity compared to the higher pH and nitrate-
nitrogen. Preplant drenches did not affect disease development or yields.
However, yields were increased by the higher soil pH and nitrate-nitrogen.
CONTROL OF FOLIAR DISEASES OF TOMATO AND CUCUMBER. In growth room studies Bravo
720, Bravo 82.5, Chipco 26019, Dyrene, and Manzate 200 gave excellent control of
target spot of cucumber whereas Banner, Bravo 720, and Manzate 200 gave excellent
control of Alternaria leaf spot of cucumber.

Under field conditions during Spring 1992, target spot of cucumber was controlled
by Benlate, Bravo 720, and a combination of Benlate and Bravo 720. During the
Fall 1992 season Bravo 720, Chipco 26019, Dyrene, and Manzate 200 sprays resulted
in good control of Alternaria leaf spot in the field.

Bravo 720 and Dyrene gave excellent control of target spot on tomato foliage and
protected the fruit very well in the field during the Fall 1992 season. During
the Spring 1992 season Bravo 720, Bravo 82.5, Bravo-copper, and Dyrene controlled
early blight of tomato.









BACTERIAL SPOT AND BACTERIAL WILT OF TOMATO


J. B. Jones, H. Bouzar, and G. C. Somodi


SCREENING FOR BACTERIAL SPOT RESISTANCE. A) Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent
Assay (ELISA). Direct plating and immunofluorescence techniques to
differentiate bacterial spot-resistant tomato genotypes from susceptible
ones are effective but not efficient on a large scale. An ELISA assay
that detects Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) at
concentrations of less than 104 cells in leaf tissue was developed,
enabling rapid, accurate screening for resistant genotypes. Previous
ELISA methods detected 105-106 cells in the absence of leaf tissue. The
effective method involves macerating leaf tissue and incubation overnight
in an EDTA-lysozyme solution prior to performing ELISA. A new rinse was
developed that helped increase the sensitivity of the assay. The
procedure enables the detection of low bacterial populations, and thereby
resistant genotypes. The ELISA results correlated with direct plating,
immunofluorescence, and hypersensitivity (a measure of resistance)
indicating that the ELISA technique has great potential for bacterial spot
resistance screening.

B) Conventional Spray Inoculation Procedure. Parent lines and F2's were
tested by preconditioned seedling screens and by placing the same plants
in the field and subsequently rating them to see how accurately the
seedling screen was in predicting field performance. Seedling screen
ratings were significantly correlated with both the first and second field
ratings. Where screening ratings were greater than 6% defoliation, 90% of
the plants in the field were rated susceptible. Based on these results it
seems that plants with high disease ratings can be withdrawn from the
testing in the seedling screening stage.

CHARACTERIZATION OF XCV STRAINS. XCV strains were isolated from bacterial
spot lesions on tomato and pepper grown in Florida and the Caribbean basin
(Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Barbados,
Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica). Strains were compared
based on their resistance to copper and streptomycin, their protein and
fatty acid profiles, and their ability to hydrolyze starch and degrade
pectate. The results revealed at least two major groups of XCV strains (A
& B). According to DNA homology studies, these two groups may represent
different species causing similar diseases. Strains of XCV in Florida
have historically been pectate-/starch- (A group). Recently strains have
been isolated which are pectate+/starch+, characteristics which are
similar to B group strains. Additional work has indicated that these
strains are a new group of XCV, different from both the A and B groups.

BACTERIAL WILT (Pseudomonas solanacearum) RESISTANCE SCREENING. Field and
growth chamber studies to determine optimal conditions for bacterial wilt
screening on tomato, and field evaluation of breeding lines are in
progress.









VIRAL DISEASE RESEARCH


J. E. Polston, D. J. Schuster, J. W. Scott, C. Thome,
E. Hiebert, R. J. McGovern, D. Chellemi

Management of Tomato Mottle Virus.

1. Understanding Virus Movement and Overseasoning.

Overseasoning sources of TMoV were studied. A strong correlation
was found between abandoned tomato fields and TMoV incidence in
fields in current production. An obvious gradient in frequency of
infected plants was measured with the highest incidences closest to
the abandoned fields. Virus incidence was influenced by prevailing
wind direction with highest incidences downwind of abandoned fields.
Based on these observations, and the identification of TMoV in
volunteer tomato plants, in regrowth from herbicide-treated tomato
plants, in tomato plants in abandoned fields, and in the low
frequency of infected weed hosts, infected tomato plants are the
main overseasoning source of TMoV.

A large experiment was conducted in the Spring of 1992 and 1993 to
quantitate the distribution and movement of TMoV. Analysis of the
data is in progress, but early results support field observations.
Most of the TMoV-infected plants become infected from whiteflies
which come from outside the field and that the amount of spread
within the fields is low.

2. Developing TMoV-resistant Tomato Cultivars.

Research is in progress to develop TMoV-resistant tomato cultivars.
Several sources of resistance have been found from one species,
Lycopersicon chilensi. Selection for TMoV resistance is continuing
as crosses with L. esculentum are made.

3. Developing Whitefly-resistant Cultivars.

Research is in progress to develop whitefly-resistant tomato
cultivars. Lycopersicon pennellii germplasm has been identified
which is difficult or impossible for whiteflies to feed on due to
sticky trichomes. These plants show field resistance to infection
with TMoV. Crosses have been made with L. esculentum and selection
is in progress.

Characterization of Tomato Mottle Virus (TMoV).

1. Experimental Host Range.

A range of plants was inoculated with viruliferous whiteflies to
determine which could become infected with TMoV. These plants were
selected in order to distinguish TMoV from other geminiviruses.
Thirty nine species in eight plant families were inoculated. TMoV
was able to infect only 17 species, one of which belonged to the
Leguminosae (french bean) and the others belonged to the Solanaceae









(tomatillo, chinese lantern, various wild species of Lycopersicon).
The host range was determined to be narrow and unique compared to
other tomato-infecting geminiviruses.

2. Natural Host Range.

Field surveys and greenhouse inoculations were undertaken to
identify any hosts of TMoV which occur in or around tomato
production areas. More than 800 samples of approximately 50 weed
species were collected from areas in and around tomato fields in
West Central and South West Florida and analyzed for presence of
TMoV by nucleic acid spot hybridization. In addition possible weed
hosts grown from seed were inoculated in greenhouses and assayed for
TMoV. TMoV was detected in only one weed, yellow tropical soda
apple (Solanum viarum) but in less than 1% of the soda apple plants
assayed. Yellow tropical soda apple became infected after whitefly
inoculation with TMoV. Transmission rates from tomato to soda apple
were low (10%) as compared to those from tomato to tomato (100%).

Incidence and Distribution of Viruses in Tomato in Florida

A survey of viruses in tomatoes in the West Central and Southwest
production areas was conducted in the spring seasons of 1992 and
1993. In each year approximately 1400 samples were assayed by ELISA
and nucleic acid spot hybridization assay for ten viruses. The data
from 1992 showed that there were a number of viruses present in
tomatoes besides TMoV. Viruses that were detected were transmitted
by aphids, whiteflies or thrips. The most prevalent viruses were
potato virus Y (PVY) and TMoV. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was
detected in plants without characteristic symptoms associated with
TSWV and at a higher rate than expected. Many plants were assayed
in which more than one virus was detected. Other viruses detected
in addition to those previously mentioned were tobacco etch virus
and tomato mosaic virus. A significant percent of the samples which
displayed virus-like symptoms tested negative for the viruses
assayed. This suggests the presence of other factors which mimic
virus symptoms or the presence of at least one other virus.

Identification of Solanaceous Viruses in Yellow Tropical Soda Apple

Approximately 200 tropical soda apple plants from the fields were
sampled and assayed for 12 solanaceous viruses. Tropical soda apple
plants were found naturally infected with tomato mosaic virus,
potato virus X, potato virus Y, tomato mottle virus and cucumber
mosaic virus. This study shows that this new weed which is
spreading rapidly through Florida is a potential weed reservoir of
several tomato- and pepper-infecting viruses, and has the potential
to change the ecological dynamics of solanaceous viruses in Florida.

Development of Rapid and Sensitive Detection Assays for Geminiviruses

Two nucleic acid based assays were developed, one for the detection
of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses and the other for the specific








detection of TMoV. In addition, a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA
was developed for detection of most whitefly-transmitted
geminiviruses including TMoV.

These newly-developed techniques and two others, DNA amplification
(ie. PCR) and inclusion body visualization, were compared for their
abilities to detect TMoV. All techniques were equally accurate with
fresh infected tomato tissues. The inclusion body technique was the
fastest and cheapest method for small sample sizes. The ELISA assay
was the fastest and cheapest method for larger sample sizes. The
nucleic acid hybridization assay was the most versatile, accurately
detecting virus in both frozen and fresh tissue. DNA amplification
was the most sensitive assay.

Identification of Other Geminiviruses in Florida Crops and Weeds

Several probably new and unique geminiviruses have been found
throughout Florida in weeds and crop plants. One which presents a
serious threat is bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) which was found in
the winter of 1992/1993 infecting pole and cranberry beans in
Southeast Florida. BGMV is new to Florida and has devastated bean
production in other countries. This isolate is particularly severe
and studies are in progress to aid in its management. Other
geminiviruses have been found in weed species of Sida, Macroptilium,
and Euphorbia.









SUMMARY OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1990-92


PAGE VEGETABLE CROP PRODUCTION
28 Water Requirements and Crop Coefficients of Microirrigated Tomatoes-
G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley, A. A. Csizinszky, and A. G. Smajstrla

28 Fully Enclosed Subirrigation (FES) For Tomato Production in
Southwest Florida G. A. Clark and C. D. Stanley

28 Scheduling and Management of Microirrigated Watermelon G. A. Clark
and D. N. Maynard

28 Alternative Sprinklers for Establishment of Strawberries -
G. A. Clark, E. E. Albregts, and C. D. Stanley

29 Water Deficit Studies on Microirrigated Tomato G. A. Clark,
C. D. Stanley, and D. N. Maynard

29 Declining Water Table Management Level Effects on Production of
Fresh Market Tomatoes and Bell Peppers G. A. Clark & C. D. Stanley
29 Land Application of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) in
Irrigated Vegetable Production G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley, and
D. N. Maynard

30 Effect of Water Table Level on Vegetable Production Using the Fully
Enclosed Subirrigation (FES) System C. D. Stanley & G. A. Clark
30 Tomato and Pepper Crop Growth Model C. D. Stanley & B. L. McNeal
30 Water Requirements of Peppers C. D. Stanley & G. A. Clark
30 Preliminary Evaluation of Denitrification Potential for Seep
Irrigated Vegetable Production C. D. Stanley, B. L. McNeal, and
G. A. Clark

31 Comparative Leaching Potential of Controlled Release Fertilizer
Formulations as Affected by Seepage and Drip Irrigation Using Pepper
as an Indicator Plant C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark
31 Florida's Lake Manatee Demonstration Project [A BMP Demonstration to
Reduce Water Quality Degradation by Fertilizers (W/Particular
Emphasis on Nitrates) and Pesticides] C. D. Stanley, B. L. McNeal,
P. R. Gilreath, and G. A. Clark
32 Vegetable Crop Culture A. A. Csizinszky









WATER REQUIREMENTS AND CROP COEFFICIENTS OF
MICROIRRIGATED TOMATOES

G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley, A. A. Csizinszky,
and A. G. Smajstrla

Water balance lysimeters installed at the Gulf Coast REC were used to
measure the water requirements of fresh market, staked tomato plants. The
study was initiated in the fall of 1989 and encompassed three spring crops
and two fall crops ending with the spring 1992 season. Daily weather data
were used to calculate Penman reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop
water use coefficients (kc). While results are still preliminary, spring
season plant water use averaged 8 inches while fall season plant water use
averaged 5.6 inches, similar amounts of soil evaporation were measured.
Actual irrigation requirements will be much higher and depend on the
delivery and design characteristics of the irrigation system.

FULLY ENCLOSED SUBIRRIGATION (FES) FOR TOMATO PRODUCTION
IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA

G.A. Clark and C.D. Stanley

A method of subirrigation for field crops has been developed which uses
commercially available drip irrigation tubing as a water conveyance system
for subirrigation purposes. Drip tubes positioned on 6 m centers in a
field cropped with a sorghum cover at the Gulf Coast REC were operated
from between 10 and 24 hours per day to provide a water table within 18 to
24 inches of.the ground surface. Tubing burial tests are being conducted
to determine the effects of burial on system operation.

SCHEDULING AND MANAGEMENT OF MICROIRRIGATED WATERMELON

G.A. Clark and D.N. Maynard

Three levels of irrigation management were used to determine the effects
of moisture surplus and deficit levels on yield and quality of
microirrigated watermelon in field plots at the Gulf Coast REC. The 1991
spring was wetter than normal and results were not different among
irrigation management treatments. The 1992 spring season results
indicated that excess and deficit levels could reduce yields during low
rainfall periods and with infrequent fertigation.

ALTERNATIVE SPRINKLERS FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF STRAWBERRIES

G.A. Clark, E.E. Albregts, and C.D. Stanley

An alternative sprinkler design using lower output sprinklers for
establishment of strawberry transplants was tested during the 1991 and
1992 fall seasons at the Dover AREC. The alternative sprinkler system
results in lowered irrigation application uniformity and lower
establishment application amounts with no differences in early yield or
early dry matter production as compared to conventional sprinkler
applications.









WATER DEFICIT STUDIES ON MICROIRRIGATED TOMATO


G.A. Clark, C.D. Stanley, and D.N. Maynard

Microirrigated tomato field plots were used to determine the effects of
deficit irrigation levels on yield and quality of marketable fruit.
Adequate irrigation level plots were scheduled based upon a switching
tensiometer set at -10 cb. Four deficit treatments received 15, 30, and
45 percent less water, and no additional water throughout the growing
season following a 2 week establishment period. Initial results indicate
reduced yield and fruit size with deficit irrigation. This study is still
in progress.

DECLINING WATER TABLE MANAGEMENT LEVEL EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION
OF FRESH MARKET TOMATOES AND BELL PEPPERS

G.A. Clark and C.D. Stanley

A study has been initiated to determine the effects of a declining water
table position on yield and quality of fresh market tomatoes and bell
peppers as well as the effects on leaching of applied fertilizer to the
shallow groundwater table. Water table management is accomplished using
the fully enclosed subirrigation (FESI) system in field plots located at
the Gulf Coast REC. Tomatoes will be grown during spring 1993 production
season and bell peppers were grown during the fall 1992 production season
using standard recommendations for fertilizer as well as two elevated
levels. Fall 1992 results indicated no difference in yield when compared
to plots with water tables maintained at set positions. This study is
still in progress.

LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST (MSWC)
IN IRRIGATED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

G.A. Clark, C.D. Stanley and D.N. Maynard

A study has been initiated to determine the effects of using incorporated
municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) under drip irrigated field
conditions. The study is evaluating three compost levels (0, 30, and 60
tons per acre), two applied fertilizer levels (160 and 230 lb per acre of
nitrogen) and three water management levels (deficit, standard, and
excess). Green peppers were produced during the fall 1992 season.
Compost had an effect on fruit yield. Water management level did not
affect yield. Tomatoes will be grown during spring 1993 production
season. This study is still in progress.









EFFECT OF WATER TABLE LEVEL ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTION USING THE FULLY
ENCLOSED SUBIRRIGATION (FES) SYSTEM

C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark

Tomato and pepper crops were grown with the FES system using float switch
control set at water table depths of 18, 24, and 30 inches below the bed
surface. In addition, three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates (160, 230, and
300 Ibs/acre) were used in combination with the water table levels.
Results for both crops showed no differences in total marketable yield or
quality for either the water table depth or the N fertilizer rate, or a
combination of the factors. Soil moisture determinations showed that the
18 and 24 water table depth treatments maintained soil moisture at field
capacity in the 0-6 inch depth interval, and all water table treatments
maintained soil moisture above field capacity in the 6-12 inch depth
interval. The lower water table treatments (24 and 30 inches) required
less water to maintain and allowed more effective use of rainfall and
lessened the likelihood of bed saturation during high rainfall periods.

TOMATO AND PEPPER CROP GROWTH MODEL

C. D. Stanley and B. L. McNeal

Data collected on tomato and pepper growth characteristics are being used
to develop growth models which will be used to computer simulate growth
response to various environmental and management conditions. This project
is still in the model development stage.

WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR PEPPERS

C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark
Drainage lysimeters are being used to estimate water requirements for
green pepper plant. This study was initiated in the fall of 1992 and is
continuing. Water use information will be compared with weather data
estimating a reference ET so that a crop coefficient can be developed.
This information will be used for irrigation scheduling decisions.

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DENITRIFICATION POTENTIAL FOR SEEP
IRRIGATED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

C. D. Stanley, B. L. McNeal, and G. A. Clark

Since chlorides and nitrates in the soil solution move downward at similar
rates, a study has been initiated to determine whether the ratio of the
nitrate concentration to the chloride concentration changes with respect
to time and depth in the soil profile. Water samples are taken at two-
week intervals using multi-level sampling wells installed in subirrigated
tomatoes. A ratio decrease would most likely indicate that an amount of
nitrate is being lost through denitrification. If this is the case,
additional methods to quantify this process would be initiated.









COMPARATIVE LEACHING POTENTIAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZER
FORMULATIONS AS AFFECTED BY SEEPAGE AND DRIP IRRIGATION
USING PEPPER AS AN INDICATOR PLANT

C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark

This study was initiated in the fall of 1992. The drainage lysimeter
facility located at GCREC was used to evaluate the materials. The
facility consists of 16 independently controlled lysimeter units (24" in
diameter and 36" deep), each outfitted with self-contained irrigation and
drainage systems. Because the units are self contained, the ability to
perform a nitrogen balance is available. The study included 2 controlled-
release fertilizer treatments, and 1 conventional soluble fertilizer
treatment, subjected to two irrigation methods (seepage and drip). All
treatments were replicated 3 times, resulting in use of 15 of the 16
lysimeter units. A fresh-market green pepper crop was used for plant
nutrient uptake throughout the study (16 plants/plot, 4/barrel). Care was
taken to account for all nitrate moved by plant uptake, leaching, and
residual at the conclusion of the study. Results thus far show that
excessive drip irrigation caused a significant amount of nitrate movement
for the conventional soluble fertilizer treatment compared to both the
drip irrigated controlled-release treatments and to the seep irrigated
soluble fertilizer treatment, indicating the intensity of management for
drip irrigation that is needed to prevent nutrient leaching.

FLORIDA'S LAKE MANATEE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
[A BMP DEMONSTRATION TO REDUCE WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION BY
FERTILIZERS (W/PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON NITRATES) AND PESTICIDES]

C. D. Stanley, B. L. Mcneal, P. R. Gilreath, and G. A. Clark

The Lake Manatee Watershed Demonstration Project was established in 1990
through the interagency cooperation of the Cooperative Extension Service,
Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and the Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Service (ASCS) as part of a national USDA Water Quality
Initiative. Its primary long-term goal is to accelerate voluntary
adoption of improved agricultural management practices which minimize
nutrient (primarily nitrates) loading of Lake Manatee, a source of
drinking water for Manatee and Sarasota counties in Florida. Agricultural
activities in the watershed include citrus, fresh market vegetables and
cattle production. The objectives of this project are to be achieved by
demonstration, education, and implementation of management practices which
minimize adverse water quality impacts on the watershed. The initial
stage of the project, using cooperating growers, has been designed to
characterize the impact that present management practices have on nutrient
loading and to recommend improved management practices (IMP) to reduce the
potential for nitrates moving off site. This project has facilitated the
development and improvement of the fully enclosed subirrigation (FES)
system as an IMP.









VEGETABLE CROP CULTURE


A. A. Csizinszky


A. Fully-enclosed sub-surface irrigation system.

1. Spring season
a) Evaluation of slow-release urea source for 'Sunny'
tomato. Slow-release urea at 87, 174, 261 and 348 lb
N/Acre (acre = 8712 Ibf of mulched bed) and at 4
proportions: 0, 50, 75 and 100% of the total N applied,
did not increase tomato fruit size or marketable yields.
Early and season's total yields of extra-large and
marketable fruits were best with the conventional 70%
N03:30% NH4-N control. Extra large fruit yield with the
conventional N control was similar from 174, 261 or 348
lb N/A. Marketable yield was best with 261 lb N/A.
b) Response of 'Sunny' tomato to N and K rates and plant
spacing. Tomatoes were grown with 4N rates: 78, 157,
235, and 314 lb N/A and at 3 plant spacings: 18, 24, and
30 inches. The N:K was IN to 2 K20 with all 4 N rates.
Nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed at 71 days
after planting (DAP) with the 78 lb N/A and at the 2nd
harvest (90 DAP) with the 157 lb N/A treatment. Early
and seasonal marketable yields were similar with 157,
235 or 314 lb N/A. Extra large fruit yields were best
with 157 and 314 lb N/A. The 18- and 24-inch spacings
resulted in higher marketable yields than the 30-inch
spacing.
2. Fall season
a) Evaluation of methylene-urea for 'Solar Set' tomato.
Application of methylene urea at five proportions (0,
25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the total N and at 2 rates: 174
and 261 lb N/A, resulted in similar or reduced
marketable yields and fruit size, than the conventional
70% N03:30% NH4-N source. Tomato mottle virus symptom
development was delayed with 261 Ib N/A and with 50% and
75% methylene urea applications. Overall, the highest
early and seasonal yields for extra-large and marketable
fruits were recorded with 261 lb N/A from the
conventional NO3 and NH4-N source.

B. Semi-closed sub-surface irrigation system
1. Response of tomato to potassium sources and rates (Soring and
Fall). 'Sunny' tomatoes were grown with 3 K sources: KC1,
KNO3 and KS04 at 4 rates: 105, 210, 314, and 419 lb K20/A.
Nitrogen, from NH4NO3, was applied at 174 lb N/A and P rate
was 105 lb P05s/A for all K treatments.
In the spring, K sources affected seasonal yields of
marketable fruits only. Marketable yield was higher with KNO3
(2664 ctn/A) than with KC1 (2220 ctn/A). Yields increased
with increasing K20 rates and extra-large and marketable









totals were best with 419 lb K20/A.
In the fall, plants were inspected and rated for the presence
of apparent virus symptoms at the 1st harvest on 2 November.
Highest proportions of healthy plants (88%) were with KNO, at
314 Ib/A K20. The lowest proportion of healthy plants (31%)
were with KC1 at 105 Ib/A K20. Early and seasonal total
yields of extra large and marketable fruits were best with 314
Ib/A K20. Potassium sources had no significant effect on
yields.
2. Evaluation of slow-release N and K fertilizers for bell
pepper, cv. Jupiter. A resin-coated 18-0-18 (N-P-K,0)
fertilizer at 0, 25, 50 and 75% of the total N and K20 of 261
lb N and 261 lb K20/A was used in the fall for pepper
production. The 50% replacement of soluble N and K with slow-
release N and K increased early and seasonal total marketable
yields and fruit size.
3. Evaluation of slow-release N and K fertilizers for tomato, cv.
Sunny. Several resin-coated and sulfur plus polymer-coated N
and K sources were evaluated at two N and K rates for spring
tomatoes in various combinations and placements with the
soluble N and K sources. None of the slow-release N and K
sources improved fruit size or total marketable yields over
the soluble N and K control. Large, medium, and marketable
total yields for the season were higher with 261 lb N and 523
lb K 0/A than with 174 lb N and 348 lb K 0/A.
4. Mulch color studies for tomatoes. 'Sunny tomatoes were grown
with aluminum, yellow, yellow + cottonseed oil, orange, orange
+ petroleum based oil and black mulched beds. Tomato yields
were similar with all six mulch color treatments.









TOUR 1 VEGETABLE CROP IMPROVEMENT


PAGE TOPIC
35 General Tomato Breeding I J. W. Scott

37 Tomatillo Variety Evaluation D. N. Maynard

37 Scotch Bonnet Pepper D. N. Maynard
38 Southern Tomato Exchange Program (STEP) Tomato Trial J. W. Scott
39 Postharvest Quality Experiment J. W. Scott & Elizabeth A. Baldwin
40 Tomato Release Trial J. W. Scott
42 Watermelon Variety Evaluation D. N. Maynard

43 Seedless Watermelon Variety Evaluation D. N. Maynard
45 Summer Squash Variety Evaluation D. N. Maynard
46 Calabaza Breeding D. N. Maynard
48 Bell Pepper Cultivar Trials T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters
49 Specialty Pepper Cultivar Trials T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters
50 Tomato Cultivar Trials T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters
53 Icebox Watermelon Variety Evaluation D. N. Maynard
54 Asparagus Production Feasibility Study D. N. Maynard & G.A. Clark









GENERAL TOMATO BREEDING I


J. W. Scott
(cooperators listed with project)


Location:

Objective:


CroD:
Operations:


Block J, Lands 3,7,8,9,10,11,12

To develop commercially acceptable breeding lines with
genetic improvement not yet available to the Florida
growers.

Tomato transplanted March 19 and 22

A) Fusarium Crown Rot Resistance J. P. Jones
cooperator. Lines are in J3. This project has
been on-going for a number of years but is being
given more emphasis now since the disease is
serious in southwest Florida. We are also
evaluating new sources of resistance, this
material is in a greenhouse.

B) Male Sterility Lines are in J3. Male sterility
ms10" is being backcrossed into a few of the main
parental types to facilitate seed production for
hybrid test crossing. There may also be some
commercial potential to enhance seed production
at reduced costs. Linked markergenes a or prx-2
are being incorporated with mslO .
I
C) Parthenocarpy Lines are in J9. This is another
project which has been on-going for some time at
a modest level. These tomato lines set seedless
fruit under stress conditions. Emphasis is being
placed on obtaining good firmness and fruit size
which has not been easy.

D) Heat Tolerance These lines are in J10. Main
heat tolerance work is done during the summer.
These lines are assayed in the spring to see what
they look like in a non heat stress environment.
For instance, evaluating blossom scar roughness
is much more effective in the spring.

E) Cherry Tomatoes These lines are in Jll. A
modest amount of cherry tomato breeding is done.
The goal is to provide breeding lines to seed
companies. Almost all projects have a small
number of cherry lines. One of the main goals is
to develop cherries with good, sweet flavor.

F) Advanced Lines These lines are in J9. One goal
of the program is to develop improved inbreds









with standard disease resistances (Fusarium wilt
races 1 & 2, Verticillium wilt, gray leafspot).
Emphasis is placed on fruit size, color, flavor,
and no fruit defects and strong vines. Both
globe and flat-round types are being developed.

G) F 's These are in J7 and 8. Most F 's are grown
to obtain F2 seed as genes are being recombined.
Some may have some commercial potential and this
is noted. Often the hybrids are evaluated
primarily to determine parental value. The F,'s
involve most projects as genes are being
integrated.

Summary: Once good types are obtained, they are tested in yield
trials and trials such as the one in J12. If lines are
not good enough, they are crossed to a line which may
complement their weaknesses or if there is no merit they
are dropped. Ninety-nine percent of the lines end up
discarded.









TOMATILLO VARIETY EVALUATION
D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Transplanted:

Fumigation:

Fertilization:


Spacing:
Entry & Plot No.:





Operation:


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Transplanted:

Fumigation:

Fertilization:

Spacing:

Entry & Plot No.:



Operation:


Block J, Land 6

To evaluate the performance of four tomatillo varieties

1 February 1993

16 March 1993

MC-33 2.3 lb/100 Ibf

Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 Ibf
Banded; 18-0-25 17 lb/100 Ibf

Beds on 5 ft centers

Variety Lot No. Source

1. Tomatillo 9133 Burpee
2. Green Purple 8.33487 Rogers NK
3. Toma Verde 6093 Johnny's
4. Toma Verde 1001 Petoseed

Fruit yield will be determined at marketable maturity.

SCOTCH BONNET PEPPER
D. N. Maynard


Block J, Land 6

To evaluate in-row spacing

2 February 1993

25 March 1993

MC-33 2.3 lb/100 Ibf


Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 Ibf
Banded; 18-0-25 17 lb/100 Ibf

Beds on 5 ft centers

1. 1 ft in-row spacing
2. 2 ft in-row spacing
3. 3 ft in-row spacing
4. 4 ft in-row spacing

Fruit yield will be determined at marketable maturity.









SOUTHERN TOMATO EXCHANGE PROGRAM (STEP) TOMATO TRIAL


J. W. Scott


Location:

Objective:


Crop:

Operation:


Block J, Land 10

To provide yield and quality data on breeding lines
being considered for release by University Breeding
Programs.

Tomato transplanted March 19


A. Replicated Trial


STEP # Pedigree University

Flora-Dade -- Florida-check line (SO)
Floradel -- Florida-check line (so+)
STEP 733 Fla. 7385 Florida
STEP 737 NC 9119 North Carolina State
STEP 739 NC 9132 North Carolina State
STEP 740 Aul x 69 Auburn

B. Observational Trial

STEP # Pediqree University


Flora-Dade
Floradel
STEP 728
STEP 730
STEP 731
STEP 735
STEP 742
STEP 744
STEP 745
STEP 746
STEP 747
STEP 748
STEP 749
STEP 750
STEP 751
STEP 752


NC 9022
ISU 9010
ISU 10001
AU 59-7-2-5
ISU 10009
NC 92191
NC 92218
NC 92244
Fla. 7249B
Fla. 7375
Fla. 7482B
ISU 7042
ISU 10007
ISU 10008


Florida-check line (sj)
Florida-check line (S+)
North Carolina State
Iowa State
Iowa State
Auburn
Iowa State
North Carolina State
North Carolina State
North Carolina State
Florida
Florida
Florida
Iowa State
Iowa State
Iowa State


Replicated trial is a randomized block design with 3
blocks and 10 plants per plot. Yield data will be taken
on the replicated trial. Notes as to defects, taste,
color, firmness, and yield will be made on observation
entries and notes on the former 4 will be taken on the
replicated trial.









Summary:


Location:

Objective:




Crop:


Operation:


STEP trials are grown at several locations in the
southeastern U.S. In the observation trial,
recommendations are made to drop the line, continue to
look at it, or move it to the replicated trial. Data
are useful in assessing adaptation and making release
decisions.

POSTHARVEST QUALITY EXPERIMENT
J. W. Scott and Elizabeth A. Baldwin'


Block J, Land 11

1) To measure shelf life of several types of tomato
hybrids.
2) To measure quality parameters of several types of
tomato hybrids when harvested at different
maturity stages.

Tomato transplanted March 19, 1993 (originally on March
1, 1993)


Plint #


PePdiarpp


Comments


1 Solar Set
2 Sunny
3 Sunbeam
4 XPH 10013
5 Solimar
6 XPH 12049
7 XPH 12052
8 NC 13G-1

9 (7171x7404)F4
10 H3885


Normal Florida F,
Normal Florida F,
Normal Florida F,
Normal Florida F,
Normal Florida F,
rin F,, Asgrow
rin F,, Asgrow
holding firm from
North Carolina State
holding firm from
University of Florida
antisense no from Calaene


Completely randomized block design with 3 blocks and 12
plants per line. Fruit to be harvested mature-green,
breaker, and table ripe. All fruit will be dipped into
100 ppm chlorine solution and graded to simulate a
packing line operation. Solids, acids, and volatiles
will be measured for each group when fruit are table
ripe and at a stage after table ripe (2 weeks?). Shelf
life including deformation will also be measured on all
plots.

Summary: Experiment to be repeated in the fall. This should
provide useful information on breeding strategies which
might be used to harvest past the mature green stage and
compare quality attributes at the stages tested.



'USDA, Winter Haven.


E401
E402
E403
E404
E405
E406
E407
E408

E409
E410


Sl" .- t #-.,Cm...nt,,s


E410 10 -H. .8. ...85.. r ....... -o ...









TOMATO RELEASE TRIAL


J. W. Scott


Location:

Objective:


CroD:


Block J, Land 12

To obtain data in support of tomato releases


Tomato, transplanted March 19, 1993
February 23)


(originally on


Operation:


Dint 1 PPdiarPP


7171
7060
Caribe
H7998
Solar Set
Sunny
Colonial
Bonita
Campbell
7421
7324
7418
7482B
BSR 1
BSR 2
7549
BSR 3
7550
BSR 4
7552
BSR 5
BSR 6
BSR 7
BSR 8
7464
7547
7482B


E101
E102
E103
E104
E105
E106
E107
E113
E108
E109
E110
Elll
E111
E112
E114
E115
E116
E117
E118
E119
E120
E121
E122
E123
E124
E125
E126
E127

E128
E129
E130
E131


Control-HT, Solar Set parent
Control, Solar Set parent
Control-BWR
Control-BSR
Control-HTF1
Control
Control-j2
Control-j
Control-HTBST
HTBW
HT alone
HT alone
IMP. 7060
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
HTBST.or R
HTBST or R
HTBST or R
FCR & 13R
13R
different seed source
than #112
ms/+ j candidate
j2 globe
j2
i


zHT=heat tolerant, BW=Bacterial Wilt, R=Resistant, T=Tolerant, BS=Bacterial
Spot, FCR=Fusarium Crown Rot Resistant, 13R=Fusarium Wilt Race 3
Resistant, j2=Jointless.


Comments


7484
7422
(7220x7321)F,
7481


-1


D.nt i P n-re e-


E131 7481-









Above lines in a randomized block design with 3 blocks
and 10 plants per line. Plots will be harvested for
yield data and quality analysis to get data for release.
Trial will be repeated in the summer and fall seasons.

Summary: Fla. 7421 is going to be released as an open-pollinated
variety for possible use in bacterial wilt infested
areas of the tropics. The bacterial spot lines are
being assayed here, but after the summer probably only
one or two will prove acceptable for release. Breeding
lines likely (?) for release are Fla. 7482B, Fla. 7324,
Fla. 7418, Fla. 7547, and either Fla. 7481 or #E130.









WATERMELON VARIETY EVALUATION
D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:


Planted:

Fumigation:

Fertilization:


Spacing:


Block J, Lands 13,14,15

Todetermine yield and quality of 10 experimental lines
and 15 varieties of watermelons.

16 February 1993

MC-33 2.3 lb/100 lbf


Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 lbf
Banded; 18-0-25 15 lb/100 lbf


Beds are on 9 ft centers; in-row
plants per plot for experimental
respectively.


spacing is 3 ft; and
lines and varieties,


Entry & Plot No.:


I nt Nn


Source


1. Crimson Tide 65050 Rogers NK
2. Fiesta HTH 183 Rogers NK
3. Huck Finn 17520-12122 Ferry Morse
4. Mirage WOW 6124 Asgrow
5. Rebel Queen 17595-10220 Ferry Morse
6. Regency 1027 Petoseed
7. Royal Majesty 1025 Petoseed
8. Royal Star 1026 Petoseed
9. Royal Sweet 1415 Petoseed
10. Sangria 65031X Rogers NK
11. Starbrite PJJ9010 Asgrow
12. Sultan 125018002 Harris Moran
13. Summer Flavor #400 050231T Abbott & Cobb
14. Summer Flavor #410 098192T Abbott & Cobb
15. Summer Flavor #610 098145T Abbott & Cobb
-----Exoerimental Entries-----
Exoerimental Entries


American Sunmelon
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asarow


Operation:


Watermelons will be harvested at marketable maturity,
counted, weighed individually, assessed for internal
quality, and soluble solids determined.


01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
010


ASM
RXW
RXW
RXW
XPH
XPH
XPH
XPH
XPH
XPH


6564
104
105
106
6144
6159
6188
6189
6190
6194


346
349
389
390
391
392


V. ri v Frii a e.
ull~~ I r


010 IX 392


.w,


VlriP~V Fntripe


-----


" "m









SEEDLESS WATERMELON VARIETY EVALUATION


D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Transplanted:

Fumigation:

Fertilization:


Block J, Lands 13,14

To determine yield and quality of 22 experimental lines
and 19 varieties of seedless watermelon.

5 February 1993

8 March 1993
24 March 1993


MC-33 2.3 lb/100 Ibf


Incorporated; 0-20-0
Banded; 18-0-25 15


6 lb/100 Ibf
lb/100 Ibf


Beds are on 9 ft centers; in-row spacing is 3 ft; 7
plants per plot for experimental lines and varieties.


Entry & Plot No.:

Advanced Entries Lot No. Source

1. CLF 1003 CFREC AD
2. CLF 1006 CFREC A
3. CLF 1037 CFREC A
4. CLF 1025 CFREC AD
5. Crimson Trio 616530 Rogers NK
6. Genesis Shamrock
7. Honeyheart 1036 Petoseed
8. King of Hearts 1007 Petoseed
9. Millionaire 128937000 Harris Moran
10. Nova 147624 Sakata
11. Queen of Hearts 1009 Petoseed
12. Revelation Shamrock
13. Scarlet Trio Rogers NK
14. Ssupersweet 2532 274333-T Abbott & Cobb
15. Ssupersweet 5032 274332-T Abbott & Cobb
16. Ssupersweet 5244 OT 737 Abbott & Cobb
17. Tiffany WWM5048 Asgrow
18. Tri-X-313 American Sunmelon
19. Tycoon 128561001 Harris Moran

Experimental Entries


5077 A
7060
8907
1027"


American Sunmelon
American Sunmelon
American Sunmelon
CFREC B


Spacina:


ASM
ASM
ASM
CLF









Experimental Entries


CLF 2004
CLF 2014
CLF 1034
CLF 2041
CLF 2042
CLF 2043
HMX 7928
Pioneer W0067
Pioneer W0068
Pioneer W0069
Pioneer W2005
Pioneer W2006
RXW 701
Crimson Jewel
XPH 6202
XPH 6205
XPH 6209
XPH 6211


20011


(SWM 8702)


CFREC B
CFREC B
CFREC B
CFREC B
CFREC B
CFREC B
Harris Moran
Pioneer Seed
Pioneer Seed
Pioneer Seed
Pioneer Seed
Pioneer Seed
Rogers NK
Sakata
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow


152197


Operation:


Watermelons will be harvested at marketable maturity,
counted, weighed individually, assessed for internal
quality, and soluble solids determined.









SUMMER SQUASH VARIETY EVALUATION


D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Fertilization:


Spacing:


Block J, Land 15

To determine yield and quality of nine summer squash
varieties and advanced experimental lines.

2 April 1993

Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 Ibf
Banded; 18-0-25 15 lb/100 Ibf


Beds on 9 ft centers; in-row spacing
per plot; plot size is 15 ft.


is 3 ft; 5 plants


Entry & Plot No.:


No. Entry Lot No. Source

1 Dixie VGM 7052 Asgrow
2 Enterprise 39689-20610 Rogers NK
3 Lemon Drop L VGC 526 Asgrow
4 Pavo VGP 285 Asgrow
5 PSX 41587 1000 Petoseed
6 PSX 2287 1000 Petoseed
7 Yellow Crook neck 13585 Seminole
8 XPH 1671 VGJ 404 Asgrow
9 XPH 1733 Rux 839 Asgrow


Operation:


Squash
thrice
yield.


will be harvested at marketable maturity on a
weekly schedule and assessed for color, shape and









CALABAZA BREEDING


D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Fertilization:


Spacing:


Entry & Plot No.:


Block J, Lands 16,17

To develop short-vined calabazas with high yields of
quality fruit.

Bush types 28 March 1993
Vining types 5 March 1993

Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 Ibf
Banded; 18-0-25 15 lb/100 Ibf

Beds are on 9 ft centers; bush types are planted at 5 ft
in-row spacing; vining types are planted at 50 ft in-row
spacing.

Field No. Bush Parents


C42-1-2
C42-1-3
C42-1-4
C42-1-5
C42-1-6
C42-1-7
C42-1-9
C42-1-10
C42-1-11

C56-1-2

C58-1-1
C58-1-2
C58-1-3
C58-1-4
C58-1-5
C58-1-6
C58-1-8
C58-1-9
C58-1-10
C58-1-11

L18-4-3-6
L18-4-3-12


Burpee Butterbush

Vining Parents

Borinquen
La Primera









26. La Segunda
27. Linea C Pinta
28. Seminole
29. Soler


Operation:


Crosses between vining and bush types will
produce hybrids. All lines will be selfed
parental stocks.


be made to
to maintain









BELL PEPPER CULTIVAR TRIALS

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters


Location:

ObJective:


Crop:


Block 3, Land 18

To evaluate yield and horticultural characteristics of
bell pepper cultivars and advanced breeding lines
harvested at the mature green stage.

Bell pepper; transplanted March 18, 1993; double row;
21.5 x 10 inch plant spacing; 5 ft row spacing.

Replicated Entries


Ssupersweet 862R
FMX 1169
FMX 1153
FMX 284
HMX 2658
HMX 2660
HMX 8862
XPH 5936 (yellow)
XPH 5963
Adirmabelle
Boynton Bell (PR 300-7)
PR 300-4
PR 300-6
PR 300-3
King Arthur
Camelot
PS 3187 (red)
PS 55887 (red)
Pak Belle
Sunex 4509
Jupiter
Whopper Improved
Orobelle
Memphis
Verdel
NVH 3079


Observational Entries


31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.


HMX 2656
HMX 2657
HMX 2659
NS 43504 (yellow)
NS 43501
NS 411 (lamuyo type)
Jingle Bells (mini bell)
PSR 296491 (red)
Estima


Abbott & Cobb
Ferry-Morse
Ferry-Morse
Ferry-Morse
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
Asgrow
Asgrow
Market More
Pepper Research
Pepper Research
Pepper Research
Pepper Research
Petoseed
Petoseed
Petoseed
Petoseed
Sunseeds
Sunseeds
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK


Harris Moran
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
Neuman
Neuman
Neuman
Petoseed
Petoseed
Nunhems









40. PR 89-3
41. 0324
42. 8229


Operation:


Pepper Research
Rogers NK
Rogers NK


The replicated (4 plots per entry) and observational
trials will be harvested at the mature green stage.
Samples of fruit will be measured to determine pod
length, diameter, wall thickness and lobe number.
Yields will be computed by weight for each harvest
and for the entire season. Subjective evaluations
will be made on plant size, uniformity and habit,
foliage cover, fruit habit, fruit color and
uniformity and disease or insect incidence.


SPECIALTY PEPPER CULTIVAR TRIAL

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters


Location:

Objective:

Crop:


Block J, Land 18

To evaluate yield and horticultural characteristics
of various specialty peppers.

Jalapeno, Hungarian yellow wax, cayenne and sweet
banana types; transplanted March 18, 1993; double
row; 21.5 x 10 inch plant spacing; 5 ft row spacing.

Replicated entries


Jalapeno
Hungarian Yellow Wax
Cayenne
Jalapeno M
Jalapa
Ebano
Sweet Banana


Unknown source
Unknown source
Unknown source
Petoseed
Petoseed
Sunseeds
Unknown source


Observational Entries


8. Ole


Ferry-Morse


Operation:


The replicated (4 plots per entry) and observational
entries will be harvested at appropriate market stage.
Samples of fruit will be measured to determine pod
dimensions, wall thickness and shape characteristics.
Yields will be computed by weight for each harvest and
for the entire season. Subjective evaluations will be
made on plant size, uniformity and habit, foliage cover,
fruit habit, fruit color and uniformity, and incidence
of disease or insect pests.









TOMATO CULTIVAR TRIALS

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters


Location:

Objective:


CroD:


Block J, Lands 19,20

To evaluate yield and horticultural characteristics of
tomato cultivars and advanced breeding lines harvested
at the mature green stage or beyond.


Fresh market tomato;
single row; 24 inch
staked; not pruned.

Replicated Entries


Agriset 761
Solar Set
Sunny
XPH 10005
FMX 171
Mountain Fresh
Monte Verde
Colonial
Olympic
Passion
Bonita
Merced
HMX 2822
HMX 1817
IFAS 7375
IFAS 7430
IFAS 7249 B
Tango
Mountain Spring
NVH 4471


transplanted February 22, 1993;
plant spacing; 5 ft row spacing;


Agrisales
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Ferry-Morse
NCSU/Ferry-Morse
NCSU/Ferry-Morse
Petoseed
Petoseed
Petoseed
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK


Observational Entries


Sunbeam
Mountain Supreme
Summer Flavor 5000
Summer Flavor 6000
Solimar
XPH 10013
FMX 174
Spitfire
Big Showoff
NC 929 (indeter. cherry)
NC 9022
NC 9219
PSR 806990
PSR 864189


Asgrow
NCSU
Abbott & Cobb
Abbott & Cobb
Asgrow
Asgrow
Ferry-Morse
Ferry-Morse
Market More
NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
Petoseed
Petoseed


3.
8.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.









PSR 810790
PSR 877491
STM 2201
SSC 445
SSC 600
Sunre 6599
Sunex 6586
Sunre 6589
Sunre 6592
HMX 2823
HMX 2824
HMX 2825
IFAS 7498
IFAS 7499
Cobia
Mountain Gold
NVH 4473
RV 91-07
IFAS 7500
IFAS 7501
IFAS 7502
IFAS 7503
IFAS 7504
IFAS 7505
IFAS 7506
IFAS 7507
IFAS 7508
IFAS 7509
IFAS 7510
IFAS 7511
IFAS 7512
IFAS 7513
IFAS 7514
IFAS 7515
IFAS 7516
IFAS 7517
IFAS 7518
IFAS 7519
IFAS 7520
IFAS 7521
IFAS 7522
IFAS 7523
IFAS 7524
IFAS 7525
IFAS 7526
IFAS 7527
IFAS 7528
IFAS 7529
IFAS 7530
IFAS 7531
IFAS 7532
IFAS 7533
IFAS 7534
IFAS 7535


Petoseed
Petoseed
Sakata
Shamrock
Shamrock
Sunseeds
Sunseeds
Sunseeds
Sunseeds
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
Harris Moran
GCREC
GCREC
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
Rogers NK
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC









IFAS 7536
IFAS 7537
IFAS 7538
IFAS 7539
IFAS 7540
IFAS 7541
IFAS 7542
IFAS 7543
IFAS 7544
IFAS 7545


Operation:


GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC
GCREC


The replicated trial (4 plots per entry) will be
harvested at the mature green stage or beyond and the
fruit sized as in commercial practice. Marketable
yields will be assessed for each harvest and for the
entire season. Subjective evaluations of all entries
will be made on fruit characteristics, plant habit and
general adaptability to Florida production.









ICEBOX WATERMELON VARIETY EVALUATION


D. N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:



Planted:


Fumigation:

Fertilization:


Spacing:


Block C, Land 11


To determine yield
experimental icebox
standard variety.

22 February 1993


and quality of four advanced
watermelon lines compared to a


MC-33 2.3 lb/100 lbf

Incorporated; 0-20-0 6 lb/100 lbf
Banded; 18-0-25 15 lb/100 lbf

Beds on 10 ft centers; in-row spacing is 2
per plot; plot size is 20 ft.


ft; 10 plants


Entry & Plot No.


Entry


CLF 2001
CLF 2002
Mickylee
RXW 116
XPH 6173


Lot No


RVX 317


Source


CFREC
CFREC
Petoseed
Rogers NK
Asarow


Operation:


Watermelons will be harvested at marketable maturity,
counted, weighed individually, assessed for internal
quality, and soluble solids determined.


-~~-~I -~~--~~-~~


I


- "' -- ... 31


*









ASPARAGUS PRODUCTION FEASIBILITY STUDY

D. N. Maynard and G. A. Clark


Location:

Objective:

Planted:

Fertilization:

Spacing:
Irrigation:

Entries:









Operation:


Block L, Land 12

To determine the feasibility of commercial asparagus
production in southwest Florida

One-year old crowns planted on 18 February 1991

Preplant; 50-200-100 lbs N-P Os-K,0/acre
Fertigation; to provide 100-0-100 lbs N-P205-K20/acre

Beds on 5 ft. centers; in-row spacing is 18 in.

Drip tubing installed on bed surface

1. Apollo California Asparagus Seeds &
Transplants
2. Syn 4-362M Nourse Farms, Inc.
3. Syn 4-51 Nourse Farms, Inc.
4. Syn 4-53 Nourse Farms, Inc.
5. Syn 4-56 Nourse Farms, Inc.
6. Syn 4-MD10 Nourse Farms, Inc.
7. UC 157F, California Asparagus Seeds &
Transplants
8. Viola California Asparagus Seeds &
Transplants

Small harvests were made in winter 1992 and winter 1993.
Results are inconclusive.









TOUR 2 VEGETABLE CROP PROTECTION


PAGE TOPIC
56 Beneficial Insects Survey, Seasonal Insect Populations Monitoring -
D. E. Dean and D. J. Schuster
57 Insect Resistance in Tomato C. R. Thome, D. J. Schuster, and
J. W. Scott

58 Tomato Mottle Virus Resistance in Tomato C. R. Thome, J. W. Scott,
D. J. Schuster, J. E. Polston
59 Evaluation of Insecticides for Sweetpotato Whitefly and Leafminer
Control D. J. Schuster

60 Cucumber Scab Experiment J. P. Jones
61 Tomato Early Blight/Late Blight Experiment J.P. Jones & J.B. Jones
62 Control of Bacterial Spot with Select Bactericides J. B. Jones
64 Cobra Plant Back Experiment J. P. Gilreath

65 Evaluation of Fumigants for Mulched Tomato Productions -
J. P. Gilreath, J. P. Jones, A. J. Overman, S. S. Woltz

67 General Tomato Breeding II J. W. Scott
69 General Tomato Breeding III J. W. Scott

70 Crown Rot Experiment J. P. Jones and S. S. Woltz









BENEFICIAL INSECTS SURVEY, SEASONAL INSECT POPULATIONS MONITORING

D. E. Dean and D. J. Schuster

Location: Block B, Land 3

Objective: To determine what natural enemies of the Sweetpotato
Whitefly occur throughout the growing season and what their
responses are to changes in the whitefly populations.

Crop: Tomato, Agri-set, transplanted Sept. 25 and 30, 1993

Summary: A. Survey Method A whole plant survey of insects is
made by using a remotely tripped or timer operated
cylindrical drop trap. The trap is placed over
randomly selected plants in the plot three times a day
twice a week. The trap is triggered midmorning,
midafternoon, and near midnight, from the time the
plants are transplanted until they are senescent and
begin desiccating. This survey is being done on both
the spring and fall crops for two seasons.

B. Insect Identification Insects are removed from the
trap by the use of a pyrethrum spray and vacuumed up
by a hand held Car-vac adapted with a specimen
collection canister. Specimens are sorted into
categories and curated for identification to species
or frozen at -70 degrees C and held for a serological
assay to determine if they have been feeding on the
sweetpotato whitefly.

C. Population Monitoring The numbers of insects are
counted from each trap sample. Leaf samples are taken
from each plant and the numbers and stages of
whiteflies and other insects are counted.
Fluctuations in population numbers of the pest are
thus monitored over the crop season and analyzed for
indications of a response by natural enemies to an
increase in whitefly numbers.









INSECT RESISTANCE IN TOMATO


Location:

Objective:

Crop:

Selection:



Operation:







Summary:


C. R. Thome, D. J. Schuster, and J. W. Scott

Block B, Lands 9 and 10

To develop Lycopersicon germplasm resistant to the
sweetpotato whitefly.

Tomato, transplanted March 8.

'Sunny', 'Solar Set' susceptible standards
LA 1340; LA 716 whitefly resistant standards
(Lycopersicon pennellii)
802-852, 870-873 L. pennelli derived germplasm

Each plant has been evaluated once for density of
exudate producing leaf trichomes and will be evaluated
again. Each plant is being evaluated for stickiness of
the leaf surface and for numbers of whitefly adults,
immatures, and eggs. Plants demonstrating resistance
will be evaluated for horticultural traits. The most
promising materials will be advanced further in the
germplasm development program.

Data from last fall and the previous spring indicate
that the resistance to sweetpotato whitefly is
positively correlated with glandular trichomes from L.
pennellii which produces a sticky exudate. This
resistance is closely linked to the horticultural
characters of the wild L. pennelli parent. Preliminary
data indicate that the resistant germplasm is less
preferred by whitefly adults for feeding and
oviposition.









TOMATO MOTTLE VIRUS RESISTANCE IN TOMATO


C. R. Thome, J. W. Scott, D. J. Schuster, and J. E. Polston

Location: Block B, Lands 6, 14, 15, 16

Objective: To develop Lycopersicon germplasm with resistance to
tomato mottle virus

Operation: 'Sunny': susceptible control
'Solar Set': susceptible control
TY20: tolerant control
PI211840: tolerant control
505:LA 1932 Lycopersicon chilense resistant source:
506:LA 1938 Lycopersicon chilense resistant source:
507:LA 1959 Lvcopersicon chilense resistant source:
508:LA 1961 Lycopersicon chilense resistant source:
509:LA 1963 Lycopersicon chilense resistant source:
510:LA 1968 Lvcopersicon chilense resistant source:
511:LA 2779 Lvcopersicon chilense resistant source:
512-526 Interspecific F 's
527-799, 861-864: Tomato lines (BCS,, BC,S2, BCS3, BC2,
BC2S,) derived from L. chilense.
All plants were inoculated with tomato mottle virus by
the sweetpotato whitefly vector in a greenhouse for
three weeks prior to transplanting. At transplanting to
the field, plants with obvious virus symptoms were
eliminated. A second evaluation for virus symptom
expression was made in the field, and plants with strong
symptom expression were replaced. Each plant in the
field wV11 be rated for virus symptom expression twice
more during the growing season. Plants showing a
resistant reaction to the virus will be evaluated for
their horticultural characters. Those plants with virus
resistance and useful horticultural traits will be
selected for advancement in the germplasm development
program.
Summary: The goal of this project is to obtain homozygous tomato
lines with the highest level of resistance possible from
each accession. If the most resistant lines per
accession do not have complete resistance, they will be
intercrossed in attempts to combine genes to obtain a
greater resistance level. Once homozygous lines are
obtained with useful resistance, they will be given to
other breeders for their breeding programs and for
testing against other geminiviruses around the world.













Location:

Objective:


Crop:


Treatments:











Operation:











Summary:


EVALUATION OF INSECTICIDES FOR SWEETPOTATO WHITEFLY
AND LEAFMINER CONTROL

D. J. Schuster

Block B, Lands 10, 11, 12

Evaluate new and old insecticides alone or combined
for management of the SPWF, irregular ripening (IRR)
and geminivirus on tomato.

Tomato, cv Agriset; Transplanted March 23


1. Check (water)
2. Karate 1EC (0.031b ai)
3. Karate 1EC (0.031b ai + Monitor 4EC (0.751b ai)
4. Applaud 3.67SC (0.381b ai)
5. Applaud 3.67SC (0.251b ai) + Thiodan 3EC(1.01b ai)
alternated with Thiodan 3EC (1.01b ai)
6. Ambush 2EC (0.21b ai) + Monitor 4EC (0.751b ai)
7. Fenoxycarb 25WP (120gm ai)
8. Fenoxycarb 25WP (60gm ai)
9. Danitol 2.4EC (0.131b ai) + Monitor 4EC(O.751b ai)
10.Danitol 2.4EC (0.21b ai) + Monitor 4EC (0.751b ai)
11.ATI-720F 3%EC (20gm ai)
12.Agri-Mek 0.15EC (0.011b ai)

Treatments were begun March 30 and are being applied
weekly on a per acre basis at 200 psi. At least two
counts of crawlers, sessile nymphs and pupae of the
sweetpotato whitefly will be made on foliage samples.
All plants in each plot are inspected weekly for
tomato mottle virus and the plastic is marked with
paint for those showing definite symptoms. Fruit will
be harvested at least once and the number and weight
of all fruit and the number showing symptoms of IRR
will be determined. At least one timed count of
leafmines will be completed. Leaflets will be
collected at least once and will be held for leafminer
and parasite adult emergence.

Pyrethroids (ie. Ambush, Karate and Danitol) combined
with organophosphates (ie. Monitor) have indicated
greater efficacy against the sweetpotato whitefly than
when applied alone. Applaud is an insect growth
regulator that has indicated excellent efficacy in
past trials. Fenoxycarb has demonstrated efficacy in
laboratory trials against the tomato pinworm and may
be efficacious against the sweetpotato whitefly as
well. ATI-720F is a neem product that demonstrated
good efficacy against the beet armyworm in field
trials and against leafminers and the sweetpotato
whitefly in greenhouse trials. Agri-Mek is
efficacious against the whitefly and leafminers.









CUCUMBER SCAB EXPERIMENT


J. P. Jones


Block A, Land 9


Objective:


Treatments and
Rates (per 100
"al):


Operation:




Results:


Evaluate fungicides for
(Cladosporuium cucumerinum)
(Alternaria cucumerina)


the control of
and Alternaria


1. Bravo 720 2.0 pt
2. Bravo 825 1.82 lb
3. ASC 64216 5.6 lb
4. Bravo 720 + Fluazinam 500F 1.5 pt + 0.5 pt
5. Fluazinam 500F 0.5 pt
6. Manzate 200 2.0 lb
7. Inoculated Control
8. Dyrene 2 lb
9. Dyrene + Manzate 200 1.0 lb + 1.0 lb
10. Noninoculated control
11. Chipco 26019 1.5 lb
12. Benlate 1.0 lb

'Poinsett' cucumber seed were sown March 17, 1993.
First weekly spray was applied April 6, 1993. Scab-
infected squash and Alternaria-diseased cucumber plants
were spread in the inoculated controls on April 7 and
April 9, 1993, respectively.

Incomplete.


Location:


scab
spot









TOMATO EARLY BLIGHT/LATE BLIGHT EXPERIMENT


J. P. Jones and J. B. Jones


Location:

Objective:


Treatments and
Rates (per 100
gall:


Operation:






Results:


Block A, Land 16

Evaluate fungicides and bactericide-fungicide
combinations for the control of early and late blight of
tomato.


1. Bravo 720 2.0 pt
2. Bravo 825 1.82 lb
3. ASC 64216 5.6 lb
4. Bravo 720 + Fluazinam 500F 1.5 pt + 0.5 pt
5. Fluazinam 500F 0.5 pt
6. Manzate 200 2.0 lb
7. Inoculated control
8. Dyrene 2.0 lb
9. Dyrene + Manzate 200 1.0 lb + 1.0 lb
10. Noninoculated control
11. Manzate 200 + TBCS 1.5 lb + 4.0 lb
12. Manzate 200 + TBCS 1.5 lb + 2.0 lb

Set 'Agriset 761' in the field March 16, 1993. Sprays
were applied once weekly starting 4-6-93 after late
blight (Alternaria solani) and late blight (Phvtophthora
infestons) were found scattered throughout the plots.
Tomato foliage with late blight and early blight was
spread 4-7-93 in the inoculated control plots (treatment
7).

Incomplete.









CONTROL OF BACTERIAL SPOT WITH SELECT BACTERICIDES


J. B. Jones


Location:

Objectives:


Block A, Land 21


To determine
Gentamycin on


the effect
bacterial spot


of two formulations
of tomato and pepper.


Tomato and pepper


Treatments:









Summary:


Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Control
Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Gentamycin
Control


Plus
Plus
Plus
Plus


1.62
3.24
4.86
6.48

1.62
3.24
4.86
6.48


ai/A
ai/A
ai/A
ai/A

ai/A
ai/A
ai/A
ai/A


'Agriset 761' tomato plants and 'Jupiter' pepper plants
were inoculated in the flats March 2, 1993 and incubated
48 hr. at 28 C in a growth room under high humidity
conditions. The plants were set March 8, 1993 in a
randomized complete block design. Four rates of
Gentamicin and Gentamicin Plus are applied at 1.62,
3.24, 4.86 and 6.48 g active ingredient per acre. The
plants are sprayed once per week with the first spray
being applied March 12, 1993. As a result of the severe
damage to the pepper plants during the severe storm in
mid March, the pepper plants were removed and replanted
March 18. Plants will be rated for percent defoliation
and, if necessary, lesion counts will be determined.


Crop:









CONTROL OF BACTERIAL SPOT WITH SELECT BACTERICIDES


J. B. Jones


Location:

Objective:

Crop:

Treatments:


Block A, Land 22

To determine the effect of copper bactericides on
bacterial spot of tomato.

Tomato


ASC 64216
ASC 64216
Bravo C/M
Bravo C/M
Kocide 101
Control


4 1b/A
6 1b/A
4 1b/A
6 1b/A
(2 lb) + Dithane M-45 (1.5 lb)


Summary: 'Agriset 761' tomato plants were inoculated in the flats March
2, 1993 and incubated 48 hr. at 28 C in a growth room under
high humidity conditions. The plants were set March 8, 1993
in a randomized complete block design. The treatments
consisted of Bravo C/M (4 and 6 lb per acre), ASC 64216 (4 and
6 lb per acre), Kocide 101 (2 lb) + Dithane M-45 (1.5 lb), and
a control. The plants are sprayed once per week with the
first spray being applied March 12, 1993. Plants will be
rated for percent defoliation and, if necessary, lesion counts
will be determined.









COBRA PLANT BACK EXPERIMENT


J. P. Gilreath


Location:

Objective:


Plot size:


Cultivar:

Planting date:


Summary:


Block E, land 11


Determine if use of Cobra in row middles affects
production of cucumbers and watermelons grown as a
double crop.

30 feet by 2 beds with cucumbers in 1 bed and
watermelons in the other.

'Poinsett 76' cucumber and 'Tiger Baby' watermelon

February 22 and March 22. The first planting was pulled
due to extensive wind and cold damage after the March
12-14 wind storm and cold snap.

List of Treatments
Trt. Cobra rate Number of
No. (lb.a.i./A) applications
1. 0.0 ---
2. 0.5 1
3. 1.0 1
4. 0.5 2
5. 1.0 2

The first application of Cobra was applied October 2,
and the second occurred on November 19, 1992. No
differences were evident in the plants prior to pulling
them after the March 12-13 windstorm.









EVALUATION OF FUMIGANTS FOR MULCHED TOMATO PRODUCTION

J. P. Gilreath, J. P. Jones, A. J. Overman, S. S. Woltz


Location:

Objective:

Plot size:

Bed width:

Cultivar:

Planting date:


Block E, lands 13 & 14

Evaluate fumigants and combinations for use in tomatoes.

50 feet by single row

30 inches

'Colonial'

South one-half of each plot March 11 and March 25
(pulled first setting), north one-half of each plot
March 18


Fumiaant

1. None (UTC)

2. Methyl Bromide/
Chloropicrin (9

3. Chloropicrin

4. Basamid

5. Telone II

6. Telone C-17

7. Telone C-17

8. Telone C-17 +
Chloropicrin

9. Telone C-17 +
Vapam

10. Vapam


Vapam

Telone C-17 +
Till am


List of Treatments

Rate
(qal or lb./A)

0
400 lb.
?8/2)
200 Ib.

350 Ib.

18 gal.

21.4 gal.

35 gal.

21.4 gal.
148.9 lb.

21.4 gal.
50 gal.

100 gal.

200 gal.

21.4 gal
4.0 Ib.ai/A


Injection


Injection
Depth

n/a

8 in.


8 in.

6 in.

8 in.

8 in.

8 in.

8 in.
8 in.

8 in.
8 in.

8 in.

8 in.

8 in.
DDi 2 to 3 in.


Tillam-"









Summary: Fields were innoculated with Fusarium crown rot and
Fusarium wilt race 3 prior to test initiation. Basamid
and Tillam were applied February 24 and rototilled into
the beds. The other fumigants were applied February 25
with 3 chisels per bed for all materials except Vapam (5
chisels). Plants set 2 weeks after fumigation were
injured only slightly with Telone. The combination of
Telone and Chloropicrin were injurious for at least 3
weeks after application.









GENERAL TOMATO BREEDING II

J. W. Scott
(Cooperator listed with project)


Location:

Objective:

Crop:


Operations:


Block C, Lands 2,3,25,26,27,30,31

To develop improved lines with resistances not yet
available to the commercial growers in Florida.

Tomato, transplanted: Nematode March 10, Bacterial Spot
March 23, Bacterial Wilt March 24

A) Heat Stable Nematode Resistance Cooperators are
Gail C. Somodi and A. J. Overman. These lines
are in C2 and C3. We've been trying to
introgress (move) resistance into tomato from a
wild species (L. peruvianum). This resistance is
supposed to "hold up" under high soil
temperatures whereas varieties with Mi gene
resistance do not. Early results were
encouraging but recent results have been
confusing and discouraging. The L. peruvianum
source lines have shown a high percentage (65%)
of galled plants and breeding lines derived from
these have had similar problems.

B) Bacterial Wilt Resistance Cooperators are J. B.
Jones and Gail C. Somodi. These lines are in
C25-C27. Other lines are in A3 and A4. All
lines were inoculated with Pseudomonas
solanacearum, the causal organism. This is an
important disease of the humid tropics and
presently is a major problem in North Florida.
Resistance is quantitative with strong
environmental influences which makes breeding
especially challenging. Last fall work with Dan
Chellemi and Steve Olson in Quincy indicated our
main source of resistance is effective in that
area. This program is tied strongly to the heat
tolerance program. At present we have a very
large breeding effort. Much critical testing
will be done here in Quincy in the fall. One
line, Fla. 7421, has had consistently good
results over several years and will likely be
released this year. It is medium fruited and
blossom scar is rougher than desired so it would
not make a commercial Florida tomato. It is heat
tolerant and has excellent crack and rain check
resistance.

C) Bacterial Spot Resistance Cooperators are J. B.
Jones and Gail C. Somodi. These lines are









primarily in C30 and C31. Spring is generally
not an ideal season to select for this disease.
These plants were inoculated with Xanthomonas
campestris pv. vesicatoria, the causal organism,
on transplants and on April 9 in the field. They
will be assayed for resistance and horticultural
type. Larger populations will be tested in the
summer and fall. After a huge breeding effort
since 1983, it is hoped that a few lines may make
commercial parents. Like bacterial wilt, the
project is closely associated with heat
tolerance.

Summary: None of these resistance are easy to work with. The
nematode work is not going well but good progress has
been made with bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The
value of heterozygous bacterial wilt resistant hybrids
will be evaluated in grower fields this fall.
Heterozygous bacterial spot resistant hybrids are
intermediate in resistance to their parents. This would
be much better than presently available varieties.









GENERAL TOMATO BREEDING III
J. W. Scott
(Cooperators listed with project)


Location:

Objective:

Crop:

Operation:


Summary:


Block A, Lands 3,4,20

To develop commercially acceptable breeding lines with
resistance to Fusarium wilt race 3 or bacterial wilt.

Tomato, transplanted, Fusarium wilt resistance February
24, bacterial wilt resistance March 24.

A) Fusarium Wilt Race 3 Resistance J. P. Jones
cooperator. These lines are in A20. The plants
sustained severe damage from the March storm but
there were few resets. Much effort has been made
on this project since 1982. Now (finally)
breeding line releases of good type appear ready
(see elsewhere). There had been some problems
with fruit bruising and weak vines in this
material. The disease has not been widespread
but loss of methyl bromide may change that.

B) Bacterial Wilt Cooperators are J. B. Jones and
Gail C. Somodi. These lines are in A3 and A4.
Description of this project is given under
General Tomato Breeding II.

Both jointed and jointless Fusarium Wilt race 2
resistant lines are likely to be released as breeding
lines soon. Thus if the disease increases over the next
few years, resistant varieties should be available.









CROWN ROT EXPERIMENT


J. P. Jones and S. S. Woltz


Location:

Operation:


Treatments:


Block 0, Land 13

Determine effect of soil pH, transplant drenches, and
nitrogen-source on the development of crown rot in the
field.


Soil pH
I. 5.8
II. 4.5


Nitrogen Source
E. Nitrate
W. Ammonia


Drenches (rate/100 gal)
1. Benlate 2 lb
2. Benlate 2.5 lb
3. Banrot 1.0 lb
4 Banrot- 2.0 lb
5. None inoculated
6. None noninoculated


pH N-Source
4.5 Nit
4.5 Nit
4.5 Nit
4.5 Nit
4.5 Nit
4.5 Nit
4.5 Amm
4.5 Amm
4.5 Amm
4.5 Amm
4.5 Amm
4.5 Amm


Operation:



Results:


'Sunny' variety set as second crop February 16, 1993.
Fertilizers plugged through the mulch on March 1 and
March 29, 1993. Drenches applied to container plants
February 9, 1993.

In the first crop set in September 1992, the low pH soil
and ammonia nitrogen greatly increased the incidence and
severity of crown rot. Transplant drenches did not
affect disease development.


pH
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8


N-Source
Nit
Nit
Nit
Nit
Nit
Nit
Amm
Amm
Amm
Amm
Amm
Amm


Drench
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6


Drench
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6









TOUR 3 VEGETABLE CROP PRODUCTION


PAGE TOPIC
72 Use of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) in Drip Irrigated
Vegetable Production G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley, D. N. Maynard

72 Water Deficit Studies on Microirrigated Tomato G. A. Clark,
C. D. Stanley, D. N. Maynard

73 Comparative Leaching Potential of Controlled Release Ferilizer
Formulations as Affected by Overhead Irrigation C. D. Stanley and
G. A. Clark

73 Water Requirements for Peppers C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark
73 Surface Positioned Vs. Deep Burial of Drip Tubing For Tomato Produc-
tion G. A. Clark and C. D. Stanley

74 Scheduling and Management of Microirrigated Watermelon G. A. Clark
and D. N. Maynard

74 Long Term Effects of Burial and Use on the Hydraulic Properties of
Drip Irrigation for Use in Fully Enclosed Subirrigation G.A. Clark
and C. D. Stanley

75 Vegetable Production Using MSWC and Fully Enclosed Subirrigation
With a Declining Water Table Position G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley,
and D. N. Maynard

75 Effect of Water Table Level on Vegetable Production Using the Fully
Enclosed Subirrigation (FES) System C. D. Stanley & G. A. Clark
76 Preliminary Evaluation of Denitrification Potential for Seep
Irrigated Vegetable Production C. D. Stanley, B. L. McNeal, and
G. A. Clark

77 Slow (Controlled) Release N and K Rate for Tomato A.A. Csizinszky

78 Response of Tomato to Seaweed Sprays, Micronutrients and N and K
Rates A. A. Csizinszky









USE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST (MSWC) IN DRIP
IRRIGATED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

G.A. Clark, C.D. Stanley and D.N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:


CroD:

Summary:


Location:


Block L, Lands 1,2,3

To evaluate the effects
nutrient conservation
production.


of MSWC application on
in drip irrigated


water and
vegetable


Tomato, transplanted March 1

MSWC was applied in June 1992 and incorporated during
the summer of 1992. The experiment is designed to
evaluate three levels of MSWC application (0, 30, and 60
tons per acre), three levels of drip irrigation water
application (based on crop coefficients and measured
weather data for reference evapotranspiration), and two
levels of nitrogen application.




WATER DEFICIT STUDIES ON MICROIRRIGATED TOMATO

G.A. Clark, C.D. Stanley and D.N. Maynard


Block L, Land 4


CroD:


Objective:

Summary:


Tomato, transplants set March 1
To measure the yield and fruit quality
deficits on drip irrigated tomatoes.


effects of water


A tensiometer control treatment is being used as a well
watered condition with the tensiometer set at 10 cb.
Three deficit level treatments receive irrigation at 15,
30, and 45 percent less than the 10 cb treatment.
Another well watered treatment schedule based on
estimated crop ET will also be used for comparison.









COMPARATIVE LEACHING POTENTIAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZER
FORMULATIONS AS AFFECTED BY OVERHEAD IRRIGATION
C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark


Location:
Objectives:


Summary:


Block L, Land 5

1) Determine the characteristic release of nitrogen
over a 5-6 month growth cycle of peppers (and
citrus) using soluble dry fertilizer and
different formulations of controlled-release
fertilizers.

2) Determine if irrigation method (drip, overhead or
subirrigation) will affect the release pattern of
controlled and conventional fertilizer sources.


See Research Abstract

WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR PEPPERS
C. D. Stanley and G. A. Clark


Location:

Objective:


Summary:





Location:


Crop:


Block L, Land 5

To determine water use requirements for peppers using
drainage lysimeters as in the past, and evaluate the use
of sap flow technology as an alternative method.

See Research Abstract

SURFACE POSITIONED VS. DEEP BURIAL OF DRIP TUBING
FOR TOMATO PRODUCTION
G.A. Clark and C.D. Stanley

Block L, Land 6


Tomato, transplants set March 1


Objective:





Summary:


To determine if deep positioned (12 inches deep) low
flow drip tubes may be effective for drip irrigation
purposes. Deep positioned tubes would have less effect
on leaching of surface applied fertilizer and would be
available for multi season use without the necessity for
removal.

Low flow drip tubes were positioned in plots on the
surface and 12 inches deep. The deep tubes were
operated during plant establishment as a FESI system.
After establishment, the deep tubes in half of the plots
were disconnected and the surface tubes were connected
for standard drip irrigation run times.









SCHEDULING AND MANAGEMENT OF MICROIRRIGATED WATERMELON


G.A. Clark and D.N. Maynard


Block L, Lands 9,10,11


Watermelons, transplants set March 8


Objective:


Summary:


To evaluate watermelon fruit quality and quantity
response to different levels of drip irrigation
management based on estimated crop ET.

Five watermelon varieties are being evaluated. Drip
irrigation water applications are scheduled daily at lX,
2X, and 3X levels with the 2X rate based on estimated
crop ET. Fruit yield, sugar content, and hollow heart
will be used as evaluation parameters.


LONG TERM EFFECTS OF BURIAL AND USE ON THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES
OF DRIP IRRIGATION FOR USE IN FULLY ENCLOSED SUBIRRIGATION
G.A. Clark and C.D. Stanley


Location:

Objective:

Summary:


Block M, Lands 1,2

To determine the hydraulic stability of different drip
tubes and emitters with respect to long term burial.

Six tube types (Netafim Ram, Netafim Typhoon, Geoflow,
T-Tape, Bowsmith Gripper, and Plastro Katif) were buried
approximately 16 inches deep in June 1992. Tubes are
operated daily for 4 hours each. Periodic flow rate
checks are made to monitor hydraulic stability.


Location:


Crop:









VEGETABLE PRODUCTION USING NSWC AND FULLY ENCLOSED SUBIRRIGATION
WITH A DECLINING WATER TABLE POSITION

G.A. Clark, C.D. Stanley and D.N. Maynard


Location:

Objective:



Crop:

Summary:


Block M, Lands 4,5

To evaluate the effect of land application of municipal
solid waste compost (MSWC) on subirrigated vegetable
production with a steadily declining water table
position.

Tomato, transplanted March 1

MSWC was applied during June of 1992 to Land M4 at 60
tons per acre. The MSWC was incorporated with a
rototiller during the 1992 summer. Banded fertilizer
was applied preplant at 160, 230, and 300 lb per acre of
nitrogen (N) to both land M4 and M5 (no MSWC).


Irrigation is accomplished by a fully enclosed
subirrigation (FESI) system. A float switch in M4 is
used to operate the FESI system and maintain the water
table within a desired ranged. At the start of the
season the water table was managed at 16 to 18 inches
from the bed surface. As the season progresses, the
water table will be gradually declined a management
level at 26 to 28 inches from the bed surface.


EFFECT OF WATER TABLE LEVEL ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTION USING THE
FULLY ENCLOSED SUBIRRIGATION (FES) SYSTEM

C. D. Stanley and G. A.Clark


Location:

Objectives:












Summary:


BlockfM, Lands 6,7,8,9,10,11,12

1) Determine the effect of the depth of water table
level on subirrigated season fresh market tomato
(spring season) and green pepper (fall season)
production grown using the fully enclosed seepage
system.

2) Characterize water table fluctuation behavior
with respect to early and late-season
evapotranspiration rates

3) Determine the effect that increased N
fertilization rates have on fruit yield (quantity
and quality) with respect the water table level
treatments.

See Research Abstract









PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DENITRIFICATION POTENTIAL FOR
SEEP IRRIGATED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

C. D. Stanley, B. L. McNeal, and G. A. Clark


Location:

Objective:


Summary:


Block M, Lands 7,9,11

To determine if and to what degree denitrification is
affecting the fate of applied nitrogen for subirrigated
tomato production.


Sampling wells
has begun.
information).


have been installed and regular sampling
(see Research Abstract for more









SLOW (CONTROLLED) RELEASE N AND K RATE FOR TOMATO


A. A. Csizinszky


Location:

Objective:


Crop:


Block C, Land 10

To evaluate slow-release 40-0-0 and 12-0-36 (N-P-K)
resin coated fertilizers (Multicote) at 0, 25, 50, and
75% of the total N and K for staked, fresh-market
tomato.


Tomato, cv.
1993.


Treatments:


Agriset 761, transplanted on February 18,


Total
N K


Slow-release


Plot No. (lb/A) N and K (%)

11 174 289 0
12 261 433 0
21 174 289 25
22 261 433 25
31 174 289 50
32 261 433 50
41 174 289 75
42 261 433 75
51 174 289 0
52 261- 433 0


Phosphorous was applied at 46 lb/A (P) for all
treatments. Slow-release N and K were placed in a 4-
inch deep groove, 10 inches from the center on both
halves of the bed. Soluble N and K, from a 15-0-25
analysis fertilizer, was placed in a shallow groove on
both halves of the bed, 10 inches from the center. Soil
temperatures are measured at 4-inch depth. Soil and
tissue samples for macro and micronutrient analyses will
be collected 4 times. Fruit quality (size) and quantity
will be measured at harvest.









RESPONSE OF TOMATO TO SEAWEED SPRAYS, MICRONUTRIENTS
AND N AND K RATES

A. A. Csizinszky


Location:

Objective:



Crop:

Treatments:


Block J, Land 4

To determine the effect of 2 seaweed spray frequencies
and 2 N and K rates with and without soil-applied
micronutrients on tomato yields.

Tomato, cv. Agriset 761, transplanted on Feb. 15, 1993


D1 on Mn


Seaweed
oz/A/season
and No. of
Annl ications.


Micro-
nutrients


N and K lb/A


174
261
174
261
174
261
174
261
174
261
174
961


289
434
289
434
289
434
289
434
289
434
289
434


*"-'- _____ ** ------ .-! ----- -------

Seaweed sprays are applied from 50 to 100 gal/A
depending on plant size. Phosphorous was applied at 46
lb P per A for all treatments. Nutrient concentrations
in soil and in shoots and fruits will be analyzed
periodically during the season. Fruit size and yield
will be measured in multiple harvests.


Ap ctn. nut .


01 + IJ^









ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF INDUSTRY SUPPORT FOR THE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
PROGRAMS AT THE GULF COAST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Bradenton, Florida

The effectiveness of the research and extension programs at the
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Bradenton has been
greatly enhanced by the excellent support from various segments of
the 'agribusiness industries and producers, both locally and
nationally. This support, in the form of financial grants-in-aid,
supplies, services, or equipment, supplements existing state funds
and makes each research project at the Center far more productive
than could be realized otherwise. We sincerely appreciate your
participation in these research programs and are pleased to
acknowledge your support.

Listed below are the names of agencies, firms, or individuals who
have contributed significantly to the research programs during the
past two years. We trust that our records are complete and say
again, "Thank you for your confidence."


Abbott & Cobb, Inc.
Abbott Laboratories
A. Duda & Sons, Inc.
AgriDyne Technologies
Agrisales, Inc.
Agri-Tech Services
Agrolinz Inc.
Agtrol Chemical Products
Allied Colloids
American Cyanamid
American Nursery Labels
American Sunmelon
American Takii
Arthur Andres
Artesian Farms
Asgrow-Florida Co.
Asgrow Seed (Upjohn)
ATO Atochem
BASF Wyandotte Corp.
George Ball Company
Ball Seed
Bates & Sons
Berol Nobel Industries
Bio Fac Inc.
Biosys
Bodger Seeds Ltd.
J. R. Brooks & Son
Campbell Soup
Capella Farms
Ceder Chemical Co.
Chapin Watermatics
Chemical Dynamics, Inc.
CIBA-GEIGY


Feasterville, PA
North Chicago, IL
Oviedo, FL
Salt Lake City, UT
Plant City, FL
Bradenton, FL
Memphis, TN
Houston, TX
Suffolk, VA
Princeton, NJ
Port Orange, FL
Hinton, OK
Salinas, CA
Sanford, FL
Ruskin, FL
Plant City, FL
Kalamazoo, MI
Philadelphia, PA
Parsippany, NJ
West Chicago, IL
West Chicago, IL
Lake Placid, FL
Stenungsund, Sweden
Mathis, TX
Palo Alto, CA
Lompoc, CA
Homestead, FL
Camden, NJ
Pompano Beach, FL
Memphis, TN
Watertown, NY
Plant City, FL
Greensboro, NC










CIL

Cities Service Company
Daehnfeldt, Inc.
Dorsing Seed
Dosatron International, Inc.
Dover Hardware
Dow Elanco
DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
Ecke Poinsettias
Ecogen Inc.
Ellenton Nursery Growers
Elsberry Farms, Inc.
Elsberry Greenhouses
EM Industries
ESSO Chemical Canada

Farm Credit
Fermone Corporation Inc.
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Florida Bell Pepper Growers Exchange
Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Florida Foundation Seed Producers
Florida Fruit & Vegetable Assoc.
Florida Nurserymen & Growers Assoc.
Florida Ornamental Growers Assoc., Inc.
Florida Seedsmen & Garden Supply Assoc.
Florida Strawberry Growers Assoc., Inc.
Florida Tomato Committee
Florikan, ESA, Inc.
FMC Corporation
FNGA Manasota Chapter
Fred C. Gloeckner and Co., Inc.
Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, Inc.
H. Ghesquiere

Goldsmith Seed, Inc.
Grace Sierra Horticultural Products
Green Cay Farms
Griffin Corp.
G. C. Grimes Seeds
Ellis Hall Farm
Happiness Farms, Inc.
Harllee Farms
Harllee-Gargiulo, Inc.
Roger Harloff
Harris Moran Seed Co.
Helena Chemical
John Henry Co.
High Yield Bromine
HMS Soil Fumigation, Inc.
Hoechst-Celanese
Hunsader Brothers
ISK Biotech


London, Ontario
Canada
Atlanta, GA
Albany, OR
El Centro, CA
Clearwater, FL
Dover, FL
Midland, MI
Wilmington, DE
Encinitas, CA
Langhorne, PA
Ellenton, FL
Ruskin, FL
Ruskin, FL
Hawthorne, NY
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada
Lakeland, FL
Phoenix, AZ
Modesto, CA
Immokalee, FL
Tallahassee, FL
Greenwood, FL
Orlando, FL
Orlando, FL
Sun City, FL
Yalaha, FL
Plant City, FL
Orlando, FL
Sarasota, FL
New York, NY
Sarasota, FL
New York, NY
New York, NY
Simcoe, Ontario,
Canada
Gilroy, CA
Milpitas, CA
Delray Beach, FL
Valdosta, GA
Smethport, PA
Dover, FL
Lake Placid, FL
Palmetto, FL
Palmetto, FL
Bradenton, FL
Pleasanton, CA
Tampa, FL
Lansing, MI
Plant City, FL
Palmetto, FL
Somerville, NJ
Bradenton, FL
Marietta, GA










Kay Mukai Research Foundation
Kennco Manufacturing, Inc.
Koppert B.V.

L&B Farms
Manatee Fruit Company
Market More, Inc.
Melamine Chemicals, Inc.
Merck & Co., Inc.
Micro Flo Comp
Miles Inc.
Monsanto Agricultural Products Co.
Mycogen
Natural Beauty of Florida
Neuman Seeds
Netafim Irrigation
NOR-AM Chemical Co.
Norcal Nursey Inc.
Nunhems Seed
Orban's Nursery
Pacific Land Co.
Pan American Seed Co.
Parkesdale Farms, Inc.
Park Seed Co.
Pepper Research Inc.
Perfection Farms
Petoseed Co., Inc.
Pine Island Organics
Carl & Ron Pippin Farm
The Plant Farm
Plants, Inc. of Sarasota
Plants of Ruskin
Producers Fertilizer Co.
Pursell Industries
Rainbow Flowers
Reasoner's Tropical Nurseries, Inc.
Reliable Peat
Rhone-Poulenc Chemical Co.
Rogers NK Seed Company
Rogers NK
Rohm & Haas Company
Roquette Corp.
Royal Sluis, Inc.
Sakata Seed America, Inc.
San Diego State University
Scentry Inc.
Scherer's Plant Farm
Schwartz Farms
O.M. Scott & Sons
Shamrock Seed
SHARE Program
Sigma One Corporation

Sizemore & Alexander Inc.


Watsonville, CA
Ruskin, FL
Berkel EN Rodenrijs,
The Netherlands
Bradenton, FL
Palmetto, FL
Palmetto, FL
Donaldsonville, LA
Rahway, NJ
Lakeland, FL
Kansas City, MO
Altamonte Sprg., FL
San Diego, CA
Apopka, FL
El Centro, CA
Altamonte Springs,FL
Wilmington, DE
Redbluff, CA
Lewisville, IO
Bradenton, FL
Immokalee, FL
W. Chicago, IL
Plant City, FL
Greenwood, SC
Belle Glade, FL
Bradenton, FL
Saticoy, CA
Pine Island, FL
Dover, FL
Sarasota, FL
Sarasota, FL
Ruskin, FL
Palmetto, FL
Sylacaugo, AL
Sun City, FL
Oneco, FL
Orlando, FL
New Brunswick, NJ
Gilroy, CA
Minneapolis, MN
Philadelphia, PA
Gurnee, IL
Salinas, CA
Morgan Hill, CA
San Diego, CA
Billings, MT
Clearwater, FL
Sarasota, FL
Marysville, OH
Salinas, CA
Gainesville, FL
Research Triangle
Park, NC
Plant City, FL










Sluis & Groot
S & M Farm Supply
Southern Agricultural Chemicals Co.
Southwest FL Water Management Dist.
Speedling, Inc.
Albert & Helen Stankie
Strano Brothers, Inc.
Sun Country Produce
SUN Refining & Marketing Co.
Sunseeds
Sunshine Gardens
T-Systems Corp.
Taylor & Fulton Greenhouses
Taylor & Fulton Packing House
Todd International
Tropicana Products, Inc.
Uniroyal Chemical Co.
United Agric. Products
Universal Enterprises
USDA-US-Israel Binational Agric. Res.
& Development Fund (BARD)
USDA-New Crops Program
USDA-Tropical & Subtropical Agric.
USDA-Horticultural Sci. Institute
V-J Growers Supply
Valent U.S.A. Corp
Vandenburg Bulb Co.
Vaughan's Seeds
Vigoro Industries
Walden-Sparkman, Inc.
Waller Flowerseed
Westbridge Agricultural Products
West Coast Packing Co.
Whisenant Farms
Williamson Berry Farms, Inc.
Williford Farms
Yoder Brothers
Zeneca


Fort Wayne, IN
Princeton, FL
Rubonia, FL
Brooksville, FL
Sun City, FL
Ft. Pierce, FL
Florida City, FL
San Diego, CA
Marcus Hook, PA
Lodi, CA
Ormond Beach, FL
San Diego, CA
Ellenton, FL
Palmetto, FL
Apollo Beach, FL
Bradenton, FL
Middlebury, CT
Fort Valley, GA
Sarasota, FL

Beltsville, MD
Beltsville, MD
Washington DC
Beltsville, MD
Apopka, FL
Orlando, FL
Chester, NY
Downers Grove, IL
Winter Haven, FL
Dover, FL
Guadalupe, CA
San Diego, CA
Palmetto, FL
Parrish, FL
Dover, FL
Ruskin, FL
Alva, FL
Wilmington, DE







Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center
Bradenton, Florida


Vegetable

Field Day






UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences




Neal P. Thompson, Interim Dean for Research
John Woeste, Dean for Extension
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida


Printing Credits:


IFAS Educational Media and Services
University of Florida
Gainesville


Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results
and should not be used as recommendations for crop production. Where trade
names are used, no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.