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Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Creation Date: 1998
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Bedding plants -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Bedding plants -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1994-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Winter 1997-1998.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62677465
lccn - 2005229094
System ID: UF00054205:00008

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Summary
        Page 7
    Note
        Page 7
    Acknowledgement
        Page 8
    Literature cited
        Page 8
    Tables
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The gulf coast research and education center
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






I- e-

'- o UNIVERSITY OF
5 oFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th Street East,Bradenton, FL 34203
GCREC-Bradenton Research Report BRA-1998-07
Marston Sciencr
L r


OCT 6 1998

University of Florida
i
SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING
PLANT TRIALS, WINTER 1997-98


T. K. Howe









GCREC Research Report BRA 1998-07


June 1998


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS WINTER 1997-98


T. K. Howe'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203


Performance of flowering bedding plant cultivars in demonstration plots has been evaluated two to
three times per year at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Bradenton, FL since 1982.
In the winter (December-April) of 1997-98, 211 entries from 10 genera, supplied by eleven
companies, were examined in nonreplicated nine-plant plots. This trial allowed the variety trials
program coordinator, along with interested growers, seed companies, landscapers, breeders, and
extension service master gardeners to view new releases from commercial breeders and to make
preliminary assessments of cultivar suitability for use in central Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seeds were sown in a peat:vermiculite medium (see below) and germinated under environmental
conditions as required for each species. Seedlings were transplanted to Todd() planter flats (1.5 x
1.5 x 2.5 inch cells, model 128) filled with peat:vermiculite medium (l:l,v:v) amended with
dolomite, super-phosphate, and hydrated lime at 11.3, 5.6, and 2.8 lb/cu yd, respectively. Plants
were treated with soluble fertilizers, as appropriate, after the appearance of the first true leaf. Plants
were not treated with growth regulators.

Raised beds of EauGallie fine sand were formed on November 18 and Osmocote) 18-6-12 slow
release fertilizer was broadcast across the width of the bed at a rate of 59 lb/1000 ft2 and was
incorporated three to four inches deep. Beds were fumigated (methyl bromide: chloropicrin, 66:33)
and covered with white on black polyethylene film. Finished beds were 2.7 ft wide and 8 inches
high on 5 ft centers. Irrigation water was supplied by subsurface seepage from lateral ditches spaced
every 42 ft.

Sowing dates are included in the trial summary table. Transplants were planted in the field on 8
December, when roots were well-developed and filled the cells of the plantar flats. Nine plants per
plot were placed, based on estimated mature dimensions, in beds on 12 inch centers in three rows
across each bed (staggered layout), or on 9 inch centers in three rows across the bed. Pesticides
azadirachtinn, Bacillus thuringiensis, avermectin, acephate, thiophanate-methyl, iprodione,
mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl plus 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole) were used
preventively or on demand for lepidopterous larvae, bacterial and fungal pathogens.


1Research Program Coordinator, Variety Trials.










This flower trial emphasized the performance of cultivars in ground beds under full sun, therefore
no manipulation of the plants such as the application of growth retardants or pinching of the apical
buds was undertaken. Measured parameters included flower size and mature plant dimensions.
Subjective ratings were assigned for floriferousness, plant uniformity, lodging and overall
appearance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the winter, average daily temperatures were near normal as compared with the 44-year mean
(Table 1). Particularly unusual was the record-breaking rainfall in December of 11.94 inches, which
was 9.65 inches above normal, followed by 10.26 inches in January (7.44 inches above normal), 5.91
inches in February (2.95 inches above normal), and 8.16 inches in March (4.79 inches above
normal). April was the only month with below average precipitation at 0.10 inches. Disease
problems were virtually nonexistent even with the excessive rain.

A complete listing of companies that contributed seed and their designations as referenced in the
summary table are found in Table 2.

The following discussion highlights and augments the information found in Table 3. Focal points
of the discussion include entries with superior performance or new introductions.

* Dianthus x chinensis. (Pinks). Sakata Seed America released a new series of dianthus for
1998-99, the 'Diamond' series. Although there were no lines from other companies for
comparison in the trial, the five varieties were impressive in their flower coverage, longevity
of flowering, reflowering time, and vividness of color. 'Diamond Blush Pink' flowers are
similar in color to 'First Love' in which buds open white and the flower darkens to pink then
rose with age. Good flower coverage lasted well into March, then ceased for about a ten day
to two week period, after which time they again flowered abundantly. Plants were rated on
February 25, and again on April 9 after the second flush of flowers. As a group, the
'Diamond' series was extremely uniform with respect to plant size and flowering once
mature. 'Diamond Purple' flowered the earliest, while 'Diamond Scarlet' has the smallest
divergence of flowering.

* Godetia whitneyi. (Satinflower). 'Grace' is a tall, cut flower series. Transplants were
contributed by Florida Southern University. Flowering was extremely erratic beginning in
early February and ending late March. 'Grace Lavender' and 'Grace Lavender with Eye'
were indistinguishable from one another with respect to flower color. Three cultivars,
'Grace Lavender with Eye', 'Grace Red' and 'Grace Rose/Pink', had the best overall ratings.
'Grace Red' and 'Grace Rose/Pink' were the most uniform and lodged the least. 'Grace
Lavender with Eye' was very bushy and full despite some lodging.

* Gypsophila muralis. (Baby's Breath). 'Gypsy' produced very tight globe-shaped plants
with light lavender pink flowers. Although a double-flowered cultivar, it produced about
50% single flowers. New foliar growth tended to cover existing flowers. Plants were at peak
performance during March and early April.











Linaria marocanna. (Toadflax). As a series the 'Fantasy' linaria is superb. All cultivars
exhibited excellent flowering, little to no lodging and superior plant uniformity. Unlike in
the 1996-1997 winter trial (Howe and Waters, 1997), plants of 'Fantasy' were very full and
sturdy.

Lobelia erinus. The 'Palace' series exhibited extremely erratic flowering throughout the
winter months. Flowering began in some plants as early as December 15 and started for
others as late as March 29. Plants were globe-shaped early in the season, but the canopies
opened up later for all but 'Palace Blue'. 'Palace White' had leaves which were strapped and
deformed, however no causal agent was identified.

Mimilus x hybridus. The average flowering date for Ball Seeds's experimental mimulus
plants was February 15. A mixed color selection, the gold-flowered plants flowered more
prolifically than the red- or rose-flowered plants. Flowering was erratic, with a divergence
of flowering of 32 days. Overall, it was an interesting, low-growing, colorful ground cover
plant.

Nicotiana alata. (Flowering Tobacco). The 'Havana' series was free-flowering from the
end of February (peak appearance) until mid-April when the trial was terminated. Sturdy and
full, plants were presentable at the end of the trial, but a depletion of fertilizer in the trial
beds caused chlorosis. 'Havana' colors were well-matched as a group with respect to mature
appearance, but not in flowering times.

Pelargonium x hortorum. (Geranium, Seed-propagated). Twenty-eight seed-propagated
geraniums performed well as a group in the winter months. Most secured overall ratings of
8 or greater at their peak on March 26. Particularly attractive cultivars were: 'Avanti
Apricot', 'Avanti Cherry', 'Avanti Red', 'Avanti Rose', 'Maverick Light Salmon',
'Sensation Mixed' and 'Venus'. Although the 'Avanti' cultivars had eye appeal, they were
extremely erratic in their flowering as a group. The 'Horizon' and 'Maverick' cultivars
flowered more consistently.

Pelargonium x hortorum. (Geranium, Cutting-propagated). The 'Americana' and 'Eclipse'
series were the only vegetative geraniums evaluated. These were received as liners and
grown on in 2x2-inch containers before transplanting to the field. Divergence of flowering
was high for all vegetative geraniums; however, their field performance was superior (9)
to excellent (10) for all but three of the eleven cultivars. Flowering was better in the
'Americana' than 'Eclipse' series.

Pelargonium petalum. (Ivy-leaved Geranium). 'Summertime Lilac' was a creeping ivy-
leaved geranium with a striking foliage pattern where the center of each leaf was mahogany
bordered by dark green. The flowers were lavender with purple speckles. Flowering
sequence was sporadic with no continuous flower coverage.

Trachymene coeruela. (Didscus, Blue Lace Flower). The 'Lacy' series would have been
an attractive group except for the plants' propensity to be very brittle and snap off at the soil











line. Peak flowering occurred at the end of March. Overall ratings were poor for 'Lacy
White' and 'Lacy Pink' due to plant losses.

Viola cornuta. (Viola). Five major viola series were examined: 'Jewel', 'Penny',
'Princess', 'Sorbet', and 'Splendid'. In early February, at peak flowering, plant habits were
defined for each series. 'Jewel' cultivars were the most upright with less carpeting habit. The
'Penny' cultivars were variable in plant habit. 'Princess' cultivars provided more of a carpet
appearance. The 'Sorbet' series produced plants which were compact, individual (plants
barely touching each other) and taller than 'Jewel', 'Penny' or 'Princess'. Nine of the twelve
'Sorbet' colors were extremely well-matched in size and habit. Only 'Sorbet YTT' (slightly
less vigor), 'Sorbet Yellow Frost' (larger plants, more irregular appearance) and 'Sorbet
Blackberry Cream' (larger plants with a wavy canopy) were unlike the others. The 'Splendid'
cultivars had a creeping habit which was displayed even in late February. Overall ratings at
the end of February were best for the 'Sorbet' and 'Penny' series. At the end of the season,
April 9, nearly all cultivars of all series were similar in height. Only four colors of the
'Sorbet' series, 'Sorbet Blackberry Cream', 'Sorbet Blueberry Cream', 'Sorbet Lemon
Chiffon' and 'Sorbet yellow Frost' stood out as taller than the rest of the viola trial. Also at
the end of the trial, 'Jewel' and 'Penny' cultivars tended to remain individual, while the other
series had become thick mats of vegetation. The 'Princess' series had the least number of
flowers in April. Other observations included: 'Splendid White' was not white, but cream
with gold highlights; 'Sorbet Yellow Frost' was mismatched to the other 'Sorbet' colors due
to its vigor; 'Princess Yellow' lacked weather tolerance; 'Princess Purple and Gold' was very
lush and thick compared with other 'Princess' colors; 'Penny Violet Beaconsfield' had bigger
leaves and flowers and was bulkier in growth than other 'Penny' cultivars. Favorite colors
were: 'Penny Azure Wing', 'Penny Blue', and 'Sorbet Blue Heaven'.

Viola wittrockiana. (Pansy). One hundred and eight pansy cultivars from twenty-two series
were evaluated. It was an excellent season for pansies despite the frequently heavy rainfall.
Plant dimensions were measured February 9 and ratings were assigned February 25. Peak
performance was during the month of February; season's end was considered to be April 9.
The following were the highlights for each series:

The 'Accord' series started flowering in early January on average. Plant habit was compact
and individual. 'Accord Violet with Face' was least like its counterparts in the series
because it formed a dense mat on the beds rather than remaining separate. Overall ratings
ranged from "good" to "excellent". Plant uniformity was the strongest trait of the series.
'Accord Clear Rose' was not comparable to any other rose pansy in trial; it can be more
accurately described as a clear wine red with yellow eye. Flowers of 'Accord Red Wing' had
long pedicles and were placed well above the foliage. 'Accord Daffodil Mixture' was noted
as having poor weather (rain) tolerance in both February and March.

Large-flowered 'Atlas' cultivars first flowered mainly in mid January. Divergence of
flowering was greater than two weeks for all but a single color. Overall ratings were "fair"
to "good" for all but 'Atlas Blue Splash', which was intolerant to rain. 'Atlas Primrose' was
a mixed-shades selection of cream or pale yellow.











'Baby Bingo' cultivars prominently displayed flowers on long pedicles. Only a single
cultivar was given an overall rating less than "very good". The divergence of flowering was
high for certain cultivars. 'Baby Bingo Sky Blue' and 'Baby Bingo Light Blue' had the
shortest flowering window. 'Baby Bingo Winter Blues Mix' was a bit of a surprise because
of the unexpected use of 'Baby Bingo Yellow' in this custom blend.

'Bedder Light Blue' did not gain as high marks as it did last winter (Howe and Waters,
1997), but was rated as "very good" overall with a short divergence of flowering and very
good floral display.

The 'Bingo' series was inconsistent as a group and recovered slowly from the repeated
rainfall events. Two in particular, 'Bingo Red with Blotch' and 'Bingo Pink Shades', were
rain intolerant. 'Bingo Light Rose with Blotch' was a mix of shades of rose. 'Bingo Pink
Shades' was also a mix of shades but with one unusual color, one plant produced flowers that
were cream with a gold face. 'Bingo Red and Yellow' had some plants with very long
peduncles which gave an uneven look to the flower coverage. Two favorites were: 'Bingo
White with Blotch' which was very striking in appearance with very large flowers with large
prominent purple faces, and 'Bingo Yellow with Blotch' which had large, bright flowers.

'Clear Sky Formula Mix' produced a thick mat of vegetation on the bed, but individual
colors in the mix varied in plant habit, flowering and plant size which lowered ratings.

'Crystal Bowl Supreme' was introduced this year as an earlier flowering version of 'Crystal
Bowl'. When the eight colors of 'Crystal Bowl Supreme' were in trial compared with a
single planting of 'Crystal Bowl Mixed Colors', seven of the 'Crystal Bowl Supreme'
selections were not earlier to flower than the standard 'Crystal Bowl Mixed Colors'.
However, 'Crystal Bowl Supreme' colors, except 'Crystal Bowl Supreme Pink Shades', had
greater plant uniformity, flowering and overall ratings than 'Crystal Bowl Mixed Colors'.

'Delta Blue with Blotch' was one of only two pansies rated as perfect "10's" in this trial. It
was very weather tolerant, had excellent flower presentation and was extremely uniform.
'Delta Light Blue with Blotch' and 'Delta Yellow with Blotch' were rain intolerant. 'Delta
Light Blue with Blotch' was inconsistent in color from one plant to the next; some were
"marina" types. 'Delta Victorian Shades' was a mix of very muted, pale colors: yellow with
rose tones, cream with rose faces, yellow with red-purple face, and a yellowish rose.

'Fama Primrose' and 'Fama Purple' were given "excellent" ratings overall and had
"excellent" plant uniformity. However, they did not necessarily appear to belong to the same
series. 'Fama Primrose' (not a true primrose, but not gold either) was a very unique and
attractive color with flowers on long pedicles. 'Fama Purple' had very dark foliage and
flowers borne on short pedicles.

'Glory Blue' was "superior" in overall performance, but it had a divergence of flowering ol
50 days. Uniform, compact plants with well-displayed flowers on long pedicles made this
cultivar very attractive. 'Glory Beaconsfield' flowers were variable in trueness to type with











respect to flower color as was 'Glory Rose with Blotch'. 'Glory Red with Blotch' and 'Glory
White with Blotch' were rain intolerant.

The large-flowered 'Happy Face' series had one cultivar which had much smaller flowers
than the others in the series, 'Happy Face Blue'. 'Happy Face Red' had poor weather
tolerance.

The entire 'Imperial' series produced very tight, compact plants. It was also the only series
which had a flowering window of 14 days or less. Rain intolerance was noted for 'Imperial
Frosty Cherry' and 'Imperial Gold Improved', but good weather tolerance was seen in
'Imperial Silver Princess Improved' and 'Imperial Purple & Yellow'. 'Imperial Frosty
Cherry' had much rust or yellow in the faces of the flowers rather than a true cherry color.

'Majestic Giants Blue Shades' was not shades of blue, but rather a consistent dark purplish-
blue with face. 'Majestic Giants Yellow with Blotch' was rain intolerant, whereas 'Majestic
Giants White with Blotch' was rain tolerant. The mixed colors selection was irregular in
appearance, primarily due to height differences among the individual colors.

The 'Maxim Supreme' series was introduced this year as an early version of the 'Maxim'
series. The 'Maxim Supreme' cultivars were, on average, 12 days earlier than the standard
'Maxim Formula Mixed' and had smaller flowering windows. The blue, red and yellow
selections of 'Maxim Supreme' were rain intolerant in February, but not so in April when
field notes indicated good landscape appearance.

'Purple Rain' was the other pansy cultivar to score a perfect "10" in overall ratings. It
flowered early and had a very narrow 5-day flowering window. Plants were thick and lush
with prolific flowering and withstood the weather well.

The 'Rally' series was fairly inconsistent as a group. 'Rally Light Blue with Blotch' had
color variability, and 'Rally Lilac Cap' had a lot of yellow intruding into flower color pattern.
However, 'Rally Orange' had a dark, clean color- an extremely nice, clear orange. Flower
size varied in 'Rally Pure White'. 'Rally Orange with Blotch' and 'Rally White with Blotch'
were less rain tolerant then the others in the series.

'Silhouette Mixed' and 'Skyline Formula Mix' colors seemed well-matched within their
respective mixtures.

'Super Majestic Blue Cap' had a purple rather than a blue cap. Additionally, the flowers
drooped such that the floral presentation suffered. 'Super Majestic Giants Mixed' received
borderline acceptable marks for plant uniformity.

The 'Universal Plus' series had good rain tolerance in February (except for 'Universal Plus
White'), whereas by season's end four of the cultivars ('Universal Plus Marina', 'Universal
Plus Orange', 'Universal Plus Primrose' and 'Universal Plus Citrus Mixture') showed rain
intolerance. 'Universal Plus Lavender' flowers tended to cup inward and plants had an










upright habit. 'Universal Plus Marina' had a very well-defmed color pattern. 'Universal
Plus Orange' had good depth of color. The three custom mixtures were variable with respect
to plant sizes, with 'Universal Plus Mariner Mix' the being most consistent of the three.

'Wink Red & Yellow' and 'Wink Purple & White' were not similar in plant habit. 'Wink
Red & Yellow' produced very compact, individual, isolated plants, whereas 'Wink Purple
& White' produced thick, bushy, thickly matting plants.

All three 'Ultima Beacon Bicolor' cultivars produced thick mats on the beds. 'Ultima Blue
Beacon Bicolor' was noted for poor weather tolerance in February but not at the end of the
season.

SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on "excellent" to "superior" overall ratings (9 or above) for the
winter of 1997-98 was exhibited by: Dianthus 'Diamond' series; Godetia 'Grace Rose/Pink';
Linaria 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy Speckled Pink', 'Fantasy White', 'Fantasy Yellow'; Nicotiana
'Havana Carmine Rose', 'Havana Lilac Rose'; Pelargonium (seed) 'Avanti Apricot', 'Avanti
Cherry', 'Avanti Red', 'Avanti Rose', 'Maverick Light Salmon', 'Maverick White'; Pelargonium
(vegetative) six of the seven 'Americana' cultivars, 'Eclipse Light Salmon', 'Eclipse Red'; Viola
cornuta 'Jewel Blue with Face', 'Jewel Maroon & Yellow', 'Jewel Purple with Face', 'Penny Azure
wing', 'Penny Blue', 'Penny Violet Beaconsfield', 'Penny Violet Flame', 'Penny Yellow', 'Sorbet
Blueberry Cream', 'Sorbet Blue Heaven', 'Sorbet Coconut', 'Sorbet French Vanilla', 'Sorbet
Lavender Ice', 'Sorbet Lemon Chiffon', 'Sorbet Sunny Royale'; Viola wittrockiana 'Accord Red
Wing', 'Accord Violet with Face', 'Baby Bingo Beaconsfield', 'Baby Bingo Denim', 'Baby Bingo
Sky Blue', 'Bingo White with Blotch', 'Delta Blue with Blotch', 'Delta Red with Blotch', 'Delta
White with Blotch', 'Fama Primrose', 'Fama Purple', 'Glory Blue', 'Glory Yellow/Red Blotch',
'Happy Face Purple', 'Imperial Purple & Yellow', 'Majestic Giants White with Blotch', 'Purple
Rain', 'Rally Pure White', 'Rally Yellow', 'Universal Plus Mariner Mixture', 'Wink Purple &
White', 'Ultima Beacon Bicolor Mix' and 'Ultima Yellow Beacon Bicolor'. Many of these
cultivars were recently released to the bedding plant industry.

The author's individual favorites were: Pansies 'Delta Blue with Blotch' and 'Purple Rain', Violas
'Sorbet Lemon Chiffon' and 'Sorbet Blue Heaven'. The author's series favorites were: Dianthus
'Diamond', Linaria 'Fantasy', Geranium (vegetative) 'Americana', and Violas 'Penny' and
'Sorbet'.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.










upright habit. 'Universal Plus Marina' had a very well-defmed color pattern. 'Universal
Plus Orange' had good depth of color. The three custom mixtures were variable with respect
to plant sizes, with 'Universal Plus Mariner Mix' the being most consistent of the three.

'Wink Red & Yellow' and 'Wink Purple & White' were not similar in plant habit. 'Wink
Red & Yellow' produced very compact, individual, isolated plants, whereas 'Wink Purple
& White' produced thick, bushy, thickly matting plants.

All three 'Ultima Beacon Bicolor' cultivars produced thick mats on the beds. 'Ultima Blue
Beacon Bicolor' was noted for poor weather tolerance in February but not at the end of the
season.

SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on "excellent" to "superior" overall ratings (9 or above) for the
winter of 1997-98 was exhibited by: Dianthus 'Diamond' series; Godetia 'Grace Rose/Pink';
Linaria 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy Speckled Pink', 'Fantasy White', 'Fantasy Yellow'; Nicotiana
'Havana Carmine Rose', 'Havana Lilac Rose'; Pelargonium (seed) 'Avanti Apricot', 'Avanti
Cherry', 'Avanti Red', 'Avanti Rose', 'Maverick Light Salmon', 'Maverick White'; Pelargonium
(vegetative) six of the seven 'Americana' cultivars, 'Eclipse Light Salmon', 'Eclipse Red'; Viola
cornuta 'Jewel Blue with Face', 'Jewel Maroon & Yellow', 'Jewel Purple with Face', 'Penny Azure
wing', 'Penny Blue', 'Penny Violet Beaconsfield', 'Penny Violet Flame', 'Penny Yellow', 'Sorbet
Blueberry Cream', 'Sorbet Blue Heaven', 'Sorbet Coconut', 'Sorbet French Vanilla', 'Sorbet
Lavender Ice', 'Sorbet Lemon Chiffon', 'Sorbet Sunny Royale'; Viola wittrockiana 'Accord Red
Wing', 'Accord Violet with Face', 'Baby Bingo Beaconsfield', 'Baby Bingo Denim', 'Baby Bingo
Sky Blue', 'Bingo White with Blotch', 'Delta Blue with Blotch', 'Delta Red with Blotch', 'Delta
White with Blotch', 'Fama Primrose', 'Fama Purple', 'Glory Blue', 'Glory Yellow/Red Blotch',
'Happy Face Purple', 'Imperial Purple & Yellow', 'Majestic Giants White with Blotch', 'Purple
Rain', 'Rally Pure White', 'Rally Yellow', 'Universal Plus Mariner Mixture', 'Wink Purple &
White', 'Ultima Beacon Bicolor Mix' and 'Ultima Yellow Beacon Bicolor'. Many of these
cultivars were recently released to the bedding plant industry.

The author's individual favorites were: Pansies 'Delta Blue with Blotch' and 'Purple Rain', Violas
'Sorbet Lemon Chiffon' and 'Sorbet Blue Heaven'. The author's series favorites were: Dianthus
'Diamond', Linaria 'Fantasy', Geranium (vegetative) 'Americana', and Violas 'Penny' and
'Sorbet'.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author thanks Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd., Daehnfeldt, Floranova, G. S.
Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Florida Nurserymen & Growers Assoc., Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed,
Sakata Seed America, S&G Seeds/Novartis, Suncoast Greenhouses, Inc. and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1997 and 1998. The author also recognizes the efforts of Lisa Heredia
and Deena Combs without whose diligence this work could not have been completed.


LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1997. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall and
winter 1996-1997. GCREC-Bradenton Res. Rept. BRA1997-10.

Stanley, C. D. 1998. Weather report for 1997, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, FL. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1998-02.





Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the winter of 1997-98 and the 44-year
averages (Stanley, 1998).


Average Daily Temperature (fF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1997-98z 44-yr avg 1997-98Z 44-yr avg 1997-98z 44-yr avg

December 72 74 54 52 11.94 2.29
January 73 72 54 50 10.26 2.82
February 73 74 52 52 5.91 2.96
March 76 78 54 55 8.16 3.37
April 82 82 60 60 0.10 1.78










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author thanks Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd., Daehnfeldt, Floranova, G. S.
Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Florida Nurserymen & Growers Assoc., Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed,
Sakata Seed America, S&G Seeds/Novartis, Suncoast Greenhouses, Inc. and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1997 and 1998. The author also recognizes the efforts of Lisa Heredia
and Deena Combs without whose diligence this work could not have been completed.


LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1997. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall and
winter 1996-1997. GCREC-Bradenton Res. Rept. BRA1997-10.

Stanley, C. D. 1998. Weather report for 1997, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, FL. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1998-02.





Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the winter of 1997-98 and the 44-year
averages (Stanley, 1998).


Average Daily Temperature (fF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1997-98z 44-yr avg 1997-98Z 44-yr avg 1997-98z 44-yr avg

December 72 74 54 52 11.94 2.29
January 73 72 54 50 10.26 2.82
February 73 74 52 52 5.91 2.96
March 76 78 54 55 8.16 3.37
April 82 82 60 60 0.10 1.78








9

Table 2. Seed suppliers with designations referenced in Table 3.


Company/Supplier Designation

American Takii TAK
301 Natividad Road, Salinas, CA 93906
Ball Seed Company BLL
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
E. Benary Seed of America, Inc. BEN
1444 Larson Street, Sycamore, IL 60178
Bodger Seeds, Ltd. BOD
1800 No. Tyler Avenue, So. El Monte, CA 91733-3618
Daehnfeldt DFT
P.O. Box 947, Albany, OR 97321
Floranova FLO
P.O. Box 1362, 106 Third Street, San Juan Bautista, CA 95045
Goldsmith Seeds GLD
P.O. Box 1349, 2280 Hecker Pass Hwy., Gilroy, CA 95020
PanAmerican Seed PAN
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
S&G Seeds/Novartis S&G
5300 Katrine Avenue, Downers Grove, IL 60515
Sakata Seed America SAK
18095 Serene Drive, Morgan Hill, CA 95037
Waller Flowerseed Co. WAL
P.O. Box 70, Guadalupe, CA 93434










Table 3. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, winter 1997-98.


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plant"' Ratings"
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing' Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Floweringt Lodging' Overall'


Dianthus x chinensis
Diamond Series
Diamond Blush Pink SAK
Diamond Carmine Rose SAK
Diamond Pink SAK
Diamond Purple SAK
Diamond Scarlet SAK
Godetia Whitney (Satinflower)
Grace Series
Grace Lavender SAK
Grace Lavender with Eye SAK
Grace Red SAK
Grace Rose/Pink SAK
Grace Salmon SAK
Grace White SAK
Gvpsophila muralis (Baby's Breath)
Gypsy DFT


Linaria marocanna (Toadflax)
Fantasy Series
Fantasy Blue TA
Fantasy Magenta Rose T/
Fantasy Speckled Pink TA
Fantasy White TA
Fantasy Yellow T/
Lobelia erinus
Palace Series
Palace Blue B
Palace Blue with Eye B
Palace White B
Royal Palace B
Mimulus x hybridus
Ball Experimental Mix BI
Nicotiana alata (Flowering Tobacco)
Havana Series


10-14
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-14


NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

10-1


10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1


10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1


10-24 12-8


Havana Appleblossom DFT 10-14 12-8
Havana Carmine Rose DFT 10-14 12-8


1-20 19
1-14 24
1-15 16
1-11 30
1-24 10


Feb-Mar
Feb-Mar
Feb-Mar
Mar
Feb-Mar
Feb-Mar -

12-24 22


12-9 0
12-10 6
12-8 0
12-10 7
12-9 7


2-15 32


9.5/9.0
10.0/9.0
9.5/9.5
10.0/9.5
10.0/9.0


8.0
7.5
9.0
9.0
7.5
7.5


0.4 4.2 8.7 7.0/8.5


9.5
8.0
9.5
9.0
9.0


7.5/7.0
9.0/9.0
7.5/7.5
7.5/8.0


1.6 3.9 10.1 8.0


2-17 5 2.2 12.9 14.1 7.5
2-10 23 2.1 15.7 16.3 9.0


10.0/8.5 NR
10.0/9.5 NR
10.0/8.0 NR
10.0/8.5 NR
10.0/8.5 NR


10.0/10.0 NR


10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0


6.5/8.5
8.0/9.0
5.5/7.5
5.5/8.0

7.0


9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
9.0


8.0/9.0
8.0/9.0
8.0/9.0
6.0/8.0

NR


9.0/8.5
10.0/9.5
9.0/8.0
10.0/8.5
10.0/8.5


4.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
4.0
5.0

7.0/7.0


10.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
9.0


5.0/7.0
7.0/6.0
4.0/7.0
4.0/8.0

8.0


8.0 NR 7.0
9.0 NR 9.0


K
K
K
K


)D
OD
)D
)D

LL














Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plantv Ratings"
Genus species (Common Name) Seed* Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Floweringt Lodging' Overall'


Havana Lilac Rose DFT 10-14
Havana Lime with Rose Back DFT 10-14
Havana Purple DFT 10-14
Havana Red DFT 10-14
Havana White DFT 10-14
Pelargonium x hortorum (Geranium, Seed)
Avanti Series
Avanti Apricot FLO 9-22
Avanti Cherry FLO 9-22
Avanti Light Pink FLO 9-22
Avanti Orange FLO 9-22
Avanti Red FLO 9-22
Avanti Rose FLO 9-22
Avanti Salmon FLO 9-22
Avanti Scarlet FLO 9-22
Horizon Series


Horizon Deep Rose
Horizon Deep Salmon
Horizon Deep Scarlet
Horizon Frosty Rose
Horizon Light Salmon
Horizon Picotee
Horizon Rosy Glow
Horizon White
Maverick Series
Maverick Coral
Maverick Light Salmon
Maverick Pink
Maverick Red
Maverick Salmon
Maverick Scarlet
Maverick Star
Maverick White
Sensation Mixed
Signal Series
Signal Orange


FLO
FLO
FLO
FLO
FLO
FLO
FLO
FLO

GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
FLO


9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22

9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22
9-22


12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8


12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8


2-5
2-17
2-7
2-17
2-15


2-15
2-20
1-23
2-17
2-14
1-23
2-15
2-11

2-16
2-17
2-11
2-14
2-13
2-20
2-18
2-12

2-14
2-12
2-14
2-17
2-16
2-16
2-13
2-13
2-8


1.8/4.3 10.6
2.0/5.1 11.0
2.6/4.3 10.2
1.8/4.3 9.8
2.0/4.4 11.0
1.8/4.0 10.2
1.8/3.7 10.3
1.8/4.0 10.3

1.7/4.7 11.1
1.7/4.7 11.0
1.7/4.4 10.7
1.9/4.7 12.7
1.7/4.5 12.2
1.8/4.2 10.8
1.9/4.9 12.3
1.6/4.7 12.4

1.7/4.7 11.6
1.6/4.4 14.0
1.7/4.9 12.9
1.9/4.9 12.7
1.7/4.6 12.1
1.8/4.9 11.8
1.8/4.5 13.8
1.6/4.8 12.6
1.9/4.3 13.0


2-22 11 1.9/5.0 10.6 9.4 6.0


16.4
13.9
14.3
13.3
15.2


10.6
12.2
10.0
9.1
11.1
10.8
11.1
11.4

13.0
10.9
12.2
12.6
14.1
13.4
11.9
11.9

12.9
12.2
11.2
9.9
10.4
10.6
12.6
11.5
13.4


9.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.5


9.0
9.0
6.0
7.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
8.0

6.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0

8.0
9.0
8.0
6.0
7.0
8.5
7.5
7.0
9.0 -


FLO 9-22 12-8


7.5 9.0 5.0












Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plantv Ratings"
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'


Signal Red & White FLO 9-22
Venus FLO 9-22
Pelargonium x hortorum (Geranium, Vegetative)
Americana Series
Americana Dark Red GLD NA
Americana Deep Rose GLD NA
Americana Pink GLD NA
Americana Red GLD NA
Americana Rose Splash GLD NA
Americana Salmon GLD NA
Americana White Splash GLD NA


Eclipse Series
Eclipse Light Lavender
Eclipse Light Salmon
Eclipse Red
Eclipse White


GLD NA
GLD NA
GLD NA
GLD NA


Pelargonium pelatum (Ivy Leaved Geranium)
Summertime Lilac FLO 9-22
Trachvmene coerulea (Didiscus, Blue Lace Flower)
Lacy Series
Lacy Blue BOD 9-22
Lacy Pink BOD 9-22
Lacy White BOD 9-22
Viola cornuta (Viola)
Jewel Series
Jewel Blue w/Face TAK 10-1
Jewel Maroon & Yellow TAK 10-1
Jewel Purple w/Face TAK 10-1
Jewel White TAK 10-1
Jewel Yellow TAK 10-1
Penny Series
Penny Azure Wing GLD 10-1
Penny Blue GLD 10-1


Penny Primrose GLD 10-1
Penny Violet Beaconsfield GLD 10-1


12-8
12-8


12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8


12-8
12-8
12-8


12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8


12-29 40
1-8 35
12-28 31
1-5 61
12-19 32
12-13 30
12-16 18

1-3 43
12-30 43
12-22 38
12-26 28

1-9 59


3-1 44
2-15 24
2-19 25


12-23 28
12-25 19
12-21 21
1-4 11
12-23 33

12-26 21
12-22 11
12-26 9
12-26 9


1.8/4.8 12.5 11.5
1.8/4.3 12.7 12.2


2.0/4.3 13.1 13.6
1.9/4.3 11.0 14.4
2.0/4.8 10.7 14.1
1.9/4.6 12.5 15.7
1.9/5.1 10.9 14.0
2.0/4.6 9.4 10.9
2.1/4.2 10.3 12.9

2.0/3.8 10.4 10.5
2.0/4.8 10.6 10.6
2.1/5.2 10.8 11.8
1.8/3.8 8.2 9.4

1.5/3.2 5.1 9.8


0.3/1.9 14.3 14.8
0.3/1.9 14.1 15.6
0.4/1.9 11.8 14.2


5.1 9.8
5.7 9.3
5.2 11.1
5.9 9.1
5.5 8.3

5.2 9.8
5.4 9.7
5.8 9.6
4.8 9.8


9.5
10.0


9.5
10.0
10.0
9.0
9.0
7.5
10.0

8.5
9.0
9.0
9.5

8.5


7.0
8.0
8.5


9.5
9.5
10.0
9.0
8.0

9.0
9.5
10.0
10.0


NR 6.0


10.0 7.0
7.0 3.0
8.0 2.0















Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common Name) Seed, Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'


Penny Violet Flare
Penny Yellow
Princess Series
Princess Blue
Princess Deep Purple
Princess Lavender-Yellow
Princess Purple & Gold
Princess Yellow
Sorbet Series
Sorbet Blackberry Cream
Sorbet Blueberry Cream
Sorbet Blue Heaven
Sorbet Coconut
Sorbet French Vanilla
Sorbet Lavender Ice
Sorbet Lemon Chiffon
Sorbet Plum Velvet
Sorbet Purple Duet
Sorbet Sunny Royale
Sorbet Yellow Frost
Sorbet YTT
Splendid Series
Splendid Blue & Yellow
Splendid White
Splendid Yellow
Viola wittrockiana (Pansy)
Accord Series
Accord Clear Rose
Accord Red Wing
Accord Rose Blotch
Accord Violet w/Face
Accord Yellow Blotch


GLD 10-1
GLD 10-1


PAN
PAN
PAN
PAN
PAN

WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL
WAL

SAK
SAK
SAK


GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD


Accord Yellow/Red Blotch GLD
Accord Daffodil Mix GLD
Accord Passion Mix GLD


12-24 4
12-16 14


4
7
6
9
5
22
8
5
5
16
7
26


12-26
12-29
12-31
12-30
12-28

12-23
12-25
12-26
12-29
12-28
12-22
12-27
12-26
12-26
12-22
12-27
12-20

12-31
1-20
1-4


1-1
1-3
1-6
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-6
1-4


10.0
9.0

7.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0

8.0
9.0
10.0
9.0
9.0
9.6
10.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
6.0
7.0


8.0
9.0
7.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0












Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plant" Ratines"
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'


Atlas Series
Atlas Blue Splash BOD
Atlas Orange BOD
Atlas Primrose BOD
Atlas Purple BOD
Atlas White BOD
Atlas Yellow BOD
Baby Bingo Series
Baby Bingo Beaconsfield PAN
Baby Bingo Denim PAN
Baby Bingo Midnight PAN
Baby Bingo Sky Blue PAN
Baby Bingo Yellow PAN
Baby Bingo Winter Blues Mix PAN
Bedder Light Blue TAK
Bingo Series
Bingo Blue w/Blotch PAN
Bingo Clear Yellow PAN
Bingo Deep Purple PAN
Bingo Light Rose w/Blotch PAN
Bingo Pink Shades PAN
Bingo Red w/Blotch PAN
Bingo Red & Yellow PAN
Bingo White w/Blotch PAN
Bingo Yellow w/Blotch PAN
Clear Sky Formula Mix PAN
Crystal Bowl Formula Mix SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme Series
Crystal Bowl Supreme
Lavender SAK
Crystasl Bowl Supreme
Pink Shades SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme
Pure Yellow SAK


10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-10


10-10 12-8


10-10 12-8

10-10 12-8


1-8
1-13
1-15
1-11
1-12
1-6

12-30
1-3
1-2
1-2
1-8
1-4
1-4

1-4
1-7
.1-6
1-6
1-7
1-5
1-12
1-9
1-6
1-9
1-3


1-5 14

1-6 14


1.9 4.9 8.3 9.5

2.1 4.7 7.7 7.0


NR 8.0

NR 4.0


1-2 13 2.0 5.0 8.7 9.0


8.5 NR 9.0














Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common Name) Seedz Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging! Overall


Crystal Bowl Supreme Rose SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme
Scarlet SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme Sky
Blue SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme
True Blue SAK
Crystal Bowl Supreme
White SAK


Delta Series
Delta Blue w/Blotch
Delta Light Blue w/Blotch
Delta Red w/Blotch
Delta Victorian Shades
Delta White w/Blotch
Delta Yellow w/Blotch
Fama Series
Fama Blue Angel
Fama Primrose
Fama Purple
Glory Series
Glory Beaconsfield
Glory Blue
Glory Blue/Blotch
Glory Red/Blotch
Glory Rose/Blotch
Glory Sherbet
Glory White/Blotch
Glory Yellow/Blotch
Glory Yellow/Red Blotch
Happy Face Series
Happy Face Blue
Happy Face Purple
Happy Face Red
Happy Face Rose


S&G
S&G
S&G
S&G
S&G
S&G

BEN
BEN
BEN

BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD

BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD


10-10 12-8

10-10 12-8

10-10 12-8

10-10 12-8

10-10 12-8


1-5 9

1-7 16

1-9 21

1-4 26

1-5 16


2.3 5.6 8.3 9.0

2.0 4.3 7.5 8.5

2.4 5.0 9.8 9.0

2.2 4.5 9.5 8.5

2.3 4.8 9.9 9.0


10-1 12-8
10-1 12-8
10-1 12-8


9.0

8.0

10.0

8.5

8.0

10.0
8.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
9.0

7.5
8.5
9.0

8.5
9.0
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.5
8.0
7.5
8.5

7.5
8.0
7.0
7.5


NR 9.0

NR 8.0

NR 9.5

NR 8.5

NR 8.0


10.0
7.0
9.0
7.0
9.0
8.0

7.0
9.0
9.0

8.0
9.5
8.0
7.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
9.0

8.0
9.0
7.0
7.0


"""----










Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower" Plant Plant' Ratings'
Genus species (Common Name) Seed" Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'


Happy Face White BOD
Happy Face Yellow BOD
Imperial Series
Imperial Frosty Cherry TAK
Imperial Gold Improved TAK
Imperial Purple Improved TAK
Imperial Rose Improved TAK
Imperial Silver Princess
Improved TAK
Imperial Purple & Yellow TAK
Majestic Giants Series
Majestic Giants Blue Shades SAK
Majestic Giants White Blotch SAK
Majestic Giants Yellow
Blotch SAK
Majestic Giants Mix SAK
Maxim Formula Mixed SAK
Maxim Supreme Series
Maxim Supreme Blue SAK
Maxim Supreme Marina SAK
Maxim Supreme Red SAK
Maxim Supreme Rose SAK
Maxim Supreme Yellow SAK
Purple Rain PAN
Rally Series
Rally Deep Blue w/Blotch PAN
Rally Light Blue w/Blotch PAN
Rally Lilac Cap PAN
Rally Orange w/Blotch PAN
Rally Pure White PAN
Rally True Blue PAN
Rally White/Blotch PAN
Rally Yellow PAN
Rally Yellow w/Blotch PAN
Silhouette Mixed SAK
Skyline Formula Mixed S&G


10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1
10-10

10-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-1

10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1


12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8

12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8
12-8


5.3 7.8 8.0
5.2 9.1 9.0


1-6 11
1-10 14

1-14 24
1-22 19

1-13 17
1-19 19
1-20 50


7.9 9.0
9.3 9.0


1-4
1-9
1-11
1-10
1-8
12-29

1-15
1-2
1-3
1-24
1-11
1-10
1-9
1-8
1-10
1-7
1-10


NR 8.5
NR 9.0

NR 6.0
NR 9.0

NR 7.0
NR 7.0
NR 8.0

NR 9.0
NR 8.0
NR 7.0
NR 7.0
NR 7.0
NR 10.(

NR 7.0
NR 7.0
NR 7.0
NR 8.0
NR 9.0
NR 7.0
NR 9.0
NR 8.0
NR 8.0
NR 8.0
NR 7.0













Table 3 (continued).


Divergence"
Field Date of Flower* Plant Plantv Ratings'
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First Flowering Size Height Width Plant
Cultivar Source Date Date Flower (days) (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'

Super Majestic Giants Series
Super Majestic Giants
Blue Cap SAK 10-1 12-8 1-20 31 2.4 5.1 8.9 8.0 7.0 NR 7.0
Super Majestic Giants Mix SAK 10-1 12-8 1-21 20 2.9 5.8 8.3 5.0 7.0 NR 5.0
Universal Series
Universal Plus Lavender GLD 10-1 12-8 1-4 9 2.1 5.4 8.0 8.0 7.0 NR 7.0
Universal Plus Marina GLD 10-1 12-8 1-9 31 2.3 5.6 9.3 7.5 8.0 NR 8.0
Universal Plus Orange GLD 10-1 12-8 1-9 10 2.3 5.7 8.3 7.5 7.5 NR 7.0
Universal Plus Primrose GLD 10-1 12-8 1-13 21 2.2 5.3 9.0 8.5 8.0 NR 6.0
Universal Plus White GLD 10-1 12-8 1-2 18 2.5 5.3 9.1 9.0 8.5 NR 8.0
Universal Plus Citrus Mixture GLD 10-1 12-8 1-9 17 2.1 5.5 8.1 8.5 8.0 NR 8.0
Universal Plus Mariner
Mixture GLD 10-1 12-8 1-3 14 2.1 5.4 8.0 9.5 8.5 NR 9.0
Universal Plus Rhapsody
Mixture GLD 10-1 12-8 1-8 33 2.3 5.1 7.4 7.0 8.5 NR 7.0
Wink Series
Wink Red & Yellow TAK 10-1 12-8 1-7 21 2.1 4.8 8.3 7.0 7.0 NR 7.0
Wink Purple & White TAK 10-1 12-8 1-3 11 2.0 5.8 9.1 9.5 9.0 NR 9.0
Ultima Series
Ultima Blue Beacon Bicolor SAK 10-1 12-8 12-31 12 2.1 5.3 8.9 10.0 7.0 NR 8.0
Ultima Beacon Bicolor Mix SAK 10-1 12-8 1-4 9 2.2 5.2 8.8 9.5 9.0 NR 9.0
Ultima Yellow Beacon
Bicolor SAK 10-1 12-8 1-5 16 2.1 5.5 9.0 8.5 9.0 NR 9.0


'Source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for source designations.
YNA = Not applicable. Entries delivered as liners or transplants.
xDivergence of flowering was the number of days between flowering of first and last plants in the plot.
"Pelargonium and Trachymene = flower diameter and head diameter.
vNM = not measured.
"Rating: 10 = superior, 9 = excellent, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. Multiple ratings in chronological order. NR = not rated.
tDensity and distribution rating.
'Rating: 10 = no lodging, 1 = plants flattened to ground; NR = no rating.
Inclusive rating for appearance, vigor and mortality.








The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
D The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
O Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
D A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
Q An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.