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 Materials and methods
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Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Creation Date: 1996
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Bedding plants -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Bedding plants -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1994-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Winter 1997-1998.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62677465
lccn - 2005229094
System ID: UF00054205:00005

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Summary
        Page 12
    Note
        Page 12
    Acknowledgement
        Page 12
    Literature cited
        Page 12
    Tables
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The gulf coast research and education center
        Page 26
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








q? -/ \ UNIVERSITY OF
n FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, FL 34203
GCREC-Bradenton Research Report BRA-1997-10


i :rron Science
L i hr -r"' v


JAN 0 7 1998
SUMMARY OF FLOWERING lJG: ,
PLANT TRIALS
Fall and Winter 1996-1997


T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters









GCREC Research Report BRA1997-10


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS
FALL AND WINTER 1996-1997

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203

The performance of flowering bedding plant cultivars in demonstration plots has been evaluated two
to three times per year at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Bradenton, FL since
1982. In the fall and winter (September March) seasons of 1996-1997, 306 entries from 26 genera,
supplied by 14 sources, were examined in unreplicated nine- or twelve plant plots. This trial allowed
the variety trials coordinator, along with interested growers, seed companies, landscapers, breeders,
and extension service master gardeners to view new releases from commercial breeders and to make
preliminary assessments of cultivar suitability for use in central Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seeds were sown in a peat:vermiculite medium (see below) and germinated under environmental
conditions as required for each species. Seedlings were transplanted to ToddR) planter flats (1.5 x
1.5 x 2.5 inch cells, model 128) filled with peat:vermiculite medium (1:1,v:v) amended with dolomite,
super-phosphate, and hydrated lime at 11.3, 5.6, and 2.8 lb/cu yd, respectively. Additionally,
Gliocladium virens GL-21 was blended into the medium at the rate of 1.1 Ib/ 0.9 cu yd to control
damping-off and root rot pathogens. Plants were fertilized with soluble 20-20-20 (rates and times
varied with the species) after the appearance of the first true leaf. Plants were not treated with plant
growth regulators.

Fall trial beds ofEauGallie fine sand were raised and formed, with NutricoteR) 14-14-14 (180 day
release) slow release fertilizer broadcast across the width of the bed at a rate of 84 lb/1000 sq ft
incorporated three to four inches, then fumigated (methyl bromide: chloropicrin, 66:33) and covered
with white on black polyethylene film. Winter trial beds were fertilized with Osmocote R) 18-6-12
slow release fertilizer at a rate of 30 lb/1000 sq ft. In both trials, finished beds were 2.7 ft wide and
8 inches high on 5 ft centers. Irrigation water was supplied by subsurface seepage from lateral ditches
spaced every 42 ft.

Transplants were taken to the field when roots were well developed and filled the containerized cells
of the planter flats. Transplants were placed based on estimated mature dimensions in beds on 12
inch centers in three rows across each bed with nine plants per plot (staggered layout), or on 9 inch
centers in three rows across the bed with nine (twelve for pansy) plants per plot. Plants were grown
in full sun. Dates for sowing and field planting are included in the trial summary tables.


1Research Program Coordinator, Variety Trials and Center Director, respectively.


April











Registered pesticides were used preventively or on demand to manage lepidopterous larvae,
leafininers, silverleaf whiteflies, broad mites, bacterial and fungal pathogens. Chemical treatments
included: two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, abamectin, azadirachtin, iprodione and mancozeb.

This flower trial emphasized the performance of cultivars in ground beds. No manipulation of the
plants such as the application of growth retardants, pinching of the apical buds, or detaching the old
flowers occurred. A complete listing of companies which contributed seed and the designation of
each company as referenced in the summary table are found in Table 2.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Average maximum daily temperatures were normal or slightly above normal compared to the 42-year
averages during September through January. However, maximum daily temperatures during
February and March were six degrees above normal, while minimum daily temperatures were three
to six degrees above normal (Table 1). Rainfall was well below average during September,
November, January and February; slightly below average during December; and much higher than
average during October and March. Rainfall, while not the method of irrigation, did impact disease
severity. Diseases identified throughout the season included Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium on
salvia and begonia, Choanephora in Celosia spicata, and Stemphilium, Alternaria, and Botrytis on
pansy. These diseases were likely infecting other species undiagnosed. Disease symptoms
underwent periods of high incidence followed by abatement depending on environmental conditions.

The following discussion highlights and augments the information found in Tables 3 and 4. Focal
points of the discussion will include those entries of superior performance or those that were newly
introduced.

FALL 1996 (Table 3)

Ageratum houstonianum. (Floss Flower). Only one ageratum cultivar was examined, but 'Fine
Wine' was a good garden performer. While not early to flower and erratic (divergence of flowering
was 17 days), it had good coverage once in flower. Plants were uneven in size and shape, but were
healthy and a rich, dark green color.

Begonia semperflorens. (Fibrous-rooted Begonia). Of the twenty-one fibrous-rooted begonia
cultivars, half of them achieved superior overall performance ratings (rating of 9.0). Rhizoctonia
infection of begonia plots caused some plant losses. The 'Ambassador' series plants were upright and
tightly compact with the exception of'Ambassador Scarlet', which was not as compact as the other
color selections. The 'Inferno' series plants had a slightly open habit and became more prostrate with
time. Plants of the 'Senator' series were the dark-leaved type and the sister series to the
'Ambassador' green-leaved cultivars. The most notable of the measured attributes was the small
divergence of flowering among the 'Inferno' cultivars. 'Chocolates Rose' plants were upright, very
compact and spherical in habit. 'Total White' plants were very large and vigorous, and produced a
thick mat which covered the bed. This green-leaved cultivar had flowers on the ends of long stalks.










Catharanthus roseus. (Vinca, Periwinkle). Outstanding performance, unusual colors and the
introduction of a new series dominated the vinca plots this season. The most unusual new floral
colors came from: 'Caribbean Lavender', a pinkish lavender with a purple eye; 'Raspberry Red
Cooler', a rosy magenta with a large distinct eye; and 'Heatwave Pink', a mid-pink with a dark pink
halo around a yellow eye. These breakthroughs in vinca colors provide a great versatility in vinca
landscape programming. 'Heatwave' was introduced as a new series last year and was impressive
in earliness to flower and compact growth. 'Heatwave White' produced plants which were much
more globe-shaped than the other cultivars in the series. A newcomer to the trial grounds at GCREC
was the 'Bikini' series, which performed well in comparison to the others in trial. Other noteworthy
observations were: 'Pacifica Red' spread more and was less upright than the other 'Pacifica' colors;
'Pacifica Punch' and 'Tropicana White' flowers maintained their size into cooler weather better than
most cultivars; 'Tropicana' cultivars varied in plant habit with some being more upright and some
being low and spreading. Earliness offlowering ranked on the average flowering time for each series
was: 'Heatwave' (earliest), 'Bikini', 'Tropicana', 'Cooler' (latest) and 'Pacifica' (latest).

Celosia plumosa. (Plumed Celosia). 'Castle Orange' celosia plants were variable in habit, vigor and
flower type. One plant had plumes with small cockscombs on top. 'Red Glow' produced full, lush,
uniform plants with long finger-like plumes.

Celosia spicata. (Spray or Wheat Celosia). 'Pink Candle' has been a favorite here in past trials (Howe
and Waters, 1995, 1996a). The tall plants provide a unique wispy appearance due to the many
narrow leaves and small, numerous, pale pink plumes. This season 'Pink Candle' was infected by
Choanephora which devastated the stem tissue in some plants during mid-November. The overall
ratings do not reflect these losses. Lodging plants was also more of a problem this season.

Erysimum suffruticosum. (Cheiranthus, Wallflower). Cheiranthus 'Gold Dust' was one of the most
impressive items in the fall trial. This diminutive plant took a long time to flower, but when it did
it was spectacular. When 'Gold Dust' was exposed to 26 degrees during a freeze in January, it came
through unharmed. The lush green plants were very compact and uniform with clusters of small gold
flowers. Its excellent landscape performance lasted longer than any other species in the fall trial.

Eustoma grandiflorum. (Lisianthus). Of the seven lisianthus entries evaluated, 'Florida Blue'
flowered much earlier than all of the other entries. The very dwarf 'Blue Lisa Improved' was the
next earliest to flower. Only four of the seven cultivars had every plant flower. Rosetting was a
problem with 'Mermaid Blue', 'Mermaid Pink' and 'Tiara Blue'. Parenthetical information in Table
3 indicates that non-flowering plants were not included in the averages for these three cultivars.
Best garden performance based on overall ratings and longevity in the landscape came from 'Florida
Blue' and 'Florida Pink'.

Gazania splendens. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' was the 1990 Fleuroselect Gold Medal winner. It was
not difficult to see why that award was given. The large, bright orange and gold flowers were
appealing and were a complement to the free-flowering, robust plants. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' got
an overall rating of 9.5 for the season and was much earlier than its companions, 'Daybreak Bright
Yellow' and 'Daybreak Bronze', which got overall ratings of 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. All gazania
cultivars were rated excellent after surviving freezing temperatures.











Helianthus annuus. (Sunflower). 'Pacino' is being promoted as "sunshine in a pot" because its
diminutive stature lends itself to production in 4 to 6- inch pots. As a landscape item it was
excellent, but for a very short time. It branched freely and produced many flowers, but reached its
peak appeal the third week of October (field planting Sept 16) and was ready for removal by
November 6. Like fireworks, they were gorgeous while they lasted but were gone too soon.

Impatiens wallerana. Twenty-eight cultivars of impatiens were examined from five companies.
Impatiens plant dimensions were taken in mid-December. In the 'Accent' series the newest color is
'Accent Salmon Picotee' bringing the available colors in the series to twenty-four. No other 'Accent'
cultivars were in trial for comparison, but 'Accent Salmon Picotee' did provide superior garden
performance.

The 'Cajun' series is an entirely new series developed by S&G Seeds as an exclusive for Vaughan's.
Promotional materials state that the seven 'Cajun' cultivars were bred to resist stretching, particularly
in the southern U.S. This study did not examine the claim. However, garden performance was rated
similarly to other series in this trial.

'Carousel Red' is a new double impatiens and was released with the claim that it would produce 40%
fully double flowers. In this trial, doubling was virtually 100% until environmental stress (lower daily
temperatures) reduced fully-double flowers to about 50% with semi-doubles accounting for the
remaining 50%.

The newest colors to the 'Dazzler' series are: 'Dazzler Burgundy', a violet; 'Dazzler Deep Pink',
a dark rosy pink; and 'Dazzler Lilac Splash', a lavender displaying a large rose blotch. The weakest
overall performance came from the two "star" patterned cultivars, whose lower ratings were due to
the inconsistency of the star pattern of the flowers.

'Mosaic Lilac' was a truly distinctive and unusual impatiens. A new cultivar developed by Goldsmith
Seeds, its flower color is a reddish-violet complemented with white streaks that radiate out from the
eye. This cultivar has less uniform plant size and shape than others in trial.

All of the cultivar colors in the 'Super Elfin' series were new or improved. 'Super Elfin Melon'
provided a very nice dark color which was fade resistant until mid-December. 'Super Elfin Pink
Improved' had a more compact habit than the other 'Super Elfin' cultivars.

'Sun & Shade' cultivars have never been examined at this location. The series performed admirably
with the exception of'Sun & Shade Red' which did not have adequate flower number or distribution
on the plants. These cultivars were not well-suited based on the variability of plant size among the
cultivars within the series.

Petunia hbrid. Petunias provided a spectacular show from start to finish this fall. Peak flowering
began around October 31 and flowering remained strong through December. The plant quality
gradually declined due to lodging in heavy rain and chlorosis as nutrients were depleted from the soil,
but the profusion of flowers in the field masked these problems to some extent. In short it was a
perfect season for petunias.










Nine new items were added to the 'Aladdin' series to expand its offerings to fifteen individual colors
or mixes. New single colors include: 'Aladdin Lilac', 'Aladdin Pink Morn' and' Aladdin Sky Blue'.
New custom mixes provided interesting combinations. 'Aladdin Cherry Morn Mix' incorporates the
new 'Aladdin Cherry Morn' with white and burgundy for a cheerful mood, while 'Aladdin Nautical
Mix' highlights calming blues with the new 'Aladdin Blue Ice' plus white, lilac, and solid blue. All
'Aladdin' entries had superior to excellent uniformity and flowering. 'Aladdin' cultivars tended to
lodge readily, but recovered well by producing an attractive blanket of flowers over the bed.

An entirely new series named 'Bravo' was developed by S&G Seeds for Vaughan's. The five colors
include blue, pink, red, salmon and white. Unlike the spring of 1996, the 'Bravo' cultivars were well-
matched for plant size, flowering time and flower coverage (Howe & Waters, 1996b). The
compactness of the plants in this series also was noted this fall but not in the spring. 'Bravo White'
had a lower "overall" rating due to severe Botrytis infection of the flowers and plant mortality.

The 'Candypops' series did not perform well as a group. All three cultivars had Botrytis infected
flowers, which was particularly severe in 'Candypops White'. Lodging and plant mortality also
lowered "overall" ratings of these cultivars.

One of the most spectacular new arrivals this year was the 'Double Cascade' series. Currently with
three floral colors, only two were examined this fall. Whereas in the spring of 1996 (Howe & Waters,
1996b), the first double flowers to open were 5 inches in diameter, these initial flowers had a
diameter of 3.3 to 4.1 inches. Later flower measurements of the plants in full flower showed a half-
inch smaller flower for 'Double Cascade Plum Vein'. The 'Double Cascade Pink' flowered slightly
earlier than 'Double Cascade Plum Vein' as in the spring.

'Dreams Burgundy' is a new color introduction in the 'Dreams' series. Other cultivars of the series
were not available for comparison, but 'Dreams Burgundy' was rated highly in all categories except
"overall", which was lower due to plant mortality.

The 'Fantasy' series, once again, was one of the star performers of the trials (Howe & Waters, 1995,
1996a, 1996b). Their unique miniature plant habit, excellent flowering, superb longevity and earliness
to flower made them especially noteworthy. 'Fantasy Blue' and 'Fantasy Salmon' which both draped
the beds at the end of the season, were the most vigorous of the series colors. All remaining
'Fantasy' cultivars grew in very compact, ball-shaped form. 'Fantasy Pink' seemed misnamed since
the flowers were a hot pink with a cream throat, conversely, the base color of 'Fantasy Pink Morn'
was adequately described as pink. 'Fantasy Crystal Red' was the only color in the series obviously
affected by Botrytis. Its "overall" rating was lower due to this disease and plant mortality. 'Fantasy
Red' had very small leaves, unlike other cultivars in this series.

The 'Freedom' series included three dissimilar cultivars. 'Freedom Raspberry Vein' was slow to
flower and was noted to have poor flowering prior to rating. As shown from the ratings, however,
flowering was not a problem later in the season. 'Freedom Summertime' had severe Botrytis damage
to the flowers while 'Freedom White', which had a spectacular flower show, seemed singularly
resistant compared to other white flowered cultivars in the trial.










'Lavender Storm', which was introduced last year, has been joined by 'Pink Storm' and 'Salmon
Storm' this year. Flowering times, plant size and flower diameter were well-matched for these two
newcomers. Ratings in all categories were among the highest given to any petunia in trial. Flowering
was exceptional with both of these cultivars the earliest to fill out with flowers. Lodging, when it did
occur, was not unattractive since the plants laid down well with good flower coverage and thick foliar
growth.

'Purple Wave', the first creeping petunia from seed, has a companion cultivar with this year's
introduction of 'Pink Wave'. Both vigorously growing cultivars flowered profusely and cascaded
over the sides of the bed, though 'Pink Wave' was less vigorous and more compact than 'Purple
Wave' especially early in the season. Botrytis was evident on the flowers of'Pink Wave', but not
'Purple Wave', and is the reason for the slightly lower "overall" rating given to 'Pink Wave'.

Salvia splendens. (Scarlet Sage). The 'Firecracker' series had one strong performer, 'Firecracker
Lilac', which produced reddish purple rather than lilac flower spikes. 'Firecracker Orange' plants
were small and frail. 'Firecracker Salmon' also lacked vigor, but was slightly more robust than
'Firecracker Orange'. 'Firecracker White' produced greenish-white flower spikes and unlike the
other cultivars, had a plant habit which spread sideways resulting in a broad, open appearance.

The 'Salsa' series drew some attention since the entire series was new. Unfortunately, only three
colors were available for this trial. 'Salsa Burgundy' and 'Salsa White' had sturdy, full plants and
well-displayed long flower spikes. In contrast, 'Salsa White' was not as vigorous as other 'Salsa'
cultivars trialed in the spring of 1996 (Howe & Waters, 1996b). Like 'Firecracker White', 'Salsa
White' displayed greenish-white flower spikes. 'Salsa Salmon' plants lacked vigor and fullness even
though they were uniform and floriferous.

Verbena x hybrida. 'Quartz Scarlet', a mildew resistant verbena, was superb all season, producing
very vigorous, thick, spreading plants covered with vibrantly colored flowers. Even after freezing
temperatures, the display remained excellent.

Zinnia angustifolia. 'Crystal White', an All America Selections winner for 1997, was superb, but only
for a short time. Diminutive plants formed delicate compact spheres covered in tiny, daisy-like
flowers, but half of the plants were dead by mid December.

WINTER 1996-1997 (Table 4)

Antirrhinum majus. (Snapdragon). As a group, the dwarf snapdragons performed fairly well. Only
'Silks Purple' gained superior ratings in all categories as an individual cultivar. Cultivars within the
'Silks' series were poorly matched for plant habit. 'Silks Purple' and 'Silks White' were earlier to
flower and produced much smaller, more compact plants than 'Silks Red & White' or 'Silks Yellow'.
'Silks Red & White' was twice as tall as the other 'Silks' colors by the end of the season. Plant size
differences became more evident as the season progressed. 'Royal Carpet Mix' was comparable to
'Silks Red & White' and 'Silks Yellow' in stature and flowering time.











Bellis perennis. (English Daisy). The 'Galaxy' series was a month earlier to flower, was more dwarf
and earned better ratings than 'Tasso Deep Rose'. 'Galaxy Red' seemed to be misnamed since the
ray flowers were a purple-rose color, not red.

Brassica oleracea. (Flowering Cabbage). As in previous research (Howe and Waters, 1989 & Howe,
Harbaugh and Waters, 1992) foliar coloration was poor for flowering cabbage. Temperatures were
never consistently low enough (at or below 50 degrees) to induce the typical bright foliar hues
expected from flowering cabbage. The plants also exhibited atypical growth. Many plants of 'Osaka
Mixed' assumed a conical form versus the expected low and broadly flattened habit. Furthermore,
several plants of'Tokyo Mixed' produced small, tight cabbage heads. Based on this performance and
previously reported work, flowering cabbage is not recommended for winter production in central
Florida and southward.

Coleus x hybridus. Thirty cultivars of coleus were acquired as single one-gallon plants from Hatchett
Creek Farms in early October. They were planted in the field on October 9, 1996 and examined
periodically thereafter. Qualitative notes were taken on November 1, followed by ratings and plant
measurements on December 16. Since only single plants were utilized, no data is summarized in
Table 4. However, some comments can be made about these coleus. Early flowering was exhibited
by 'Sunlover Rustic Orange' and 'Sunlover Thumbellina'. Necrotic leaf margins and spots were
noted on 'Sunset', 'Sunlover Rustic Orange', 'Yellow', and 'Sunlover Gay Delight'. As expected
since it is not adapted to full sun conditions, severe sunburning scorched the foliage of 'Solar Shade'.
Superior and excellent ratings were assigned to: 'New Orleans', 'Pat Martin', 'Sunlovers
Thumbellina' (crown of flower spikes was quite appealing), 'Ducksfoot Dwarf Trailing', 'Ducksfoot
Dark Red', 'Solar Sunrise', 'Solar Morning Mist', 'Solar Furnace', and 'Ducksfoot Camouflage'.

Dianthus caryophyllus. (Carnation). Unfortunately, the dwarf carnation 'Lillipot Mix' which was
given ratings in mid February along with many other species, was just beginning to come into flower.
This is reflected in the very low score for flowering in Table 4. A month later, most of the plants had
died and ratings could not be done again, nor was there the possibility of acquiring plant and flower
dimensions. This cultivar was short-lived after flowering.

Dianthus hbrida. (D.chinensisxD. barbatus). (Pinks). Although associated by series name, the two
'Award' selections did not resemble each other in plant habit or performance. 'Award Mix' plants
were extremely compact and spherical, while 'Award Rose' plants were much bushier and had an
open habit. Also, plants of'Award Mix' were in excellent condition in the third week of February
(second rating values), while most plants of 'Award Rose' were either dead or dying.

Felicia s. Most 'Spring Merchen' plants were devastated by freezing temperatures in late January
before they came into flower. Two surviving plants did flower, but only one lived until the third week
of February. It is imprudent to make any performance judgements beyond its unsuitability as a frost-
tolerant annual.

Gypsophila muralis. (Baby's Breath). Both dwarf gypsophila cultivars produced low mounding
plants bearing numerous pale pink flowers. 'Gypsy' won an All America Selections award for 1997
and produced fully-double flowers on plants that were much more compact and slightly smaller than











'Garden Bride Soft Pink' which produced single flowers. The delicate, wispy architecture of the
plants coupled with the pale pink flowers would make both cultivars ideal in landscape and container
settings where they could be appreciated at close range.

Linaria sp. (Toadflax). All cultivars of the 'Fantasia' series were floriferous and performed
admirably. 'Fantasia Yellow', however, was six to nine days earlier than any other 'Fantasia' cultivar.
'Fantasia White' was more vigorous and bushy than the other 'Fantasia' colors. All linaria were
ready to be removed from the landscape by mid February. These plants did not provide bulkiness to
the landscape, but were so colorful that they would be good accents to containers or plantings
restricted to smaller spaces.

Lobelia erinus. Waller Flowerseed released two series of lobelia in 1995: the 'Regatta' which has a
creeping or spreading growth habit, and the 'Riviera' which has an upright growth habit. Additional
colors were released in 1996. Three of the earlier cultivar releases captured Fleuroselect Quality
awards, which gives an indication of the uniqueness of this lobelia series. Unusual flower colors
include: 'Riviera Blue Eyes', a dark purple-blue with a white eye; 'Riviera Blue Splash' and 'Regatta
Blue Splash', a white with blue throats; 'Riviera Lilac', a light rosy-purple; and 'Regatta Rose', a
dark plum-rose. A contrasting plant habit was provided by the 'Moon' series, whose plants grew into
very tight hemispheres.

Ratings for lobelia were generally very good. Profuse flowering was the overwhelming appeal of the
cultivars. They performed well through the end of March and had more staying power in the
increasing heat than expected for lobelia.

Of the 'Moon' cultivars 'Blue Moon' and 'Midnight Moon' had plants which were erratic in size and
flowering.

Within the 'Regatta' series, there was variability in vigor among the cultivars. 'Regatta Marine Blue',
'Regatta Midnight Blue' and 'Regatta Sky Blue' produced more massive plants, whereas 'Regatta
Blue Splash', 'Regatta Lilac', and 'Regatta White' were less bulky, and 'Regatta Rose' was
intermediate between the two groupings in vigor and fullness. 'Regatta Lilac' was given a late season
rating unlike the other cultivars in trial. At the later rating date, it had some plants which lacked
flowers, the plant to plant uniformity was very poor, and one plant had lilac and white bicolored
flowers.

Within the 'Riviera' series the plant habit and vigor was comparable among the cultivars. Plant size
and shape among plants of given cultivars was variable. 'Riviera Blue Splash' and 'Riviera Lilac'
had the lowest plant uniformity ratings. One plant of 'Riviera Blue Splash' had a spreading habit,
rather than upright.

Lobularia maritima. (Alyssum). 'Cheers White' was superior for the entire season. Like the lobelia,
it lasted until the end of March.

Pelargonium x hortorum. (Geranium, seed). Geranium performance was very good overall. Lower
"overall" ratings reflect the gradual dying off of plants as temperatures increased with the approach










of spring. The 'Maverick' series seed geranium cultivars are new within the last year. 'Maverick'
cultivars were much more compact and had smaller plants at the end of the season in late March than
the 'Saturn' or 'New Wave' cultivars. 'Maverick White' seemed to be a misfit in the series because
of its very tight, compact plant habit. Impressive performances came from 'Maverick Pink' and
'Saturn Formula Mix' which received superior and excellent ratings in all categories. The heftiest
and most attractive geranium at the end of the trial was 'Saturn Formula Mix'. The 'New Wave'
series was formerly known as the 'Premium' series and has been advertised as a new class of
geranium. In fact it is unique for a seed geranium, with a vigorously semi-spreading, slightly ivy-
geranium look and multiple flower heads appearing over the leaf canopy. 'New Wave' was vigorous
and very attractive.

Schizanthus x wisetonensis. (Poor Man's Orchid). Very little data appears on this species simply
because it was not rated until after it declined. The single plant measured was representative of those
which already had died. Flowering in late December, the plants began showing signs of dying-out
shortly thereafter, and all were removed by the third week of February. These plants withstood the
freeze in fair condition, but were senescing before that weather event.

Viola coruta. (Homed Viola). The 'Jewel' series were exceptionally nice, creating a thick blanket
on the beds by season's end. One cultivar of the series, 'Jewel Maroon & Yellow', did not receive
higher "overall" ratings because the flower color was not fixed (the maroon portions of the petals
were infused with gold), and its plants were the least uniform in size and shape. The 'Jewel' violas
produced the largest plants of all the viola series by the end of the season.

Thick blankets of'Penny' violas covered the beds, but there were some differences in plant shape
among the 'Penny' cultivars. Plants of'Penny Azure Wing' and 'Penny Primrose' were more ball-
shaped and grew into less of a cohesive mat of vegetation then the other 'Penny' cultivars. 'Penny
Azure Wing' flowers were not consistently the same color pattern, some plants produced more
cream-colored flowers. Also, 'Penny Primrose' was composed of plants carrying flowers of varying
shades of primrose. 'Penny' violas were of intermediate size compared to 'Jewel' and 'Sorbet' violas.

The 'Sorbet' cultivars were the most diminutive of all the violas. Although dimensions collected in
mid-February (Table 4) indicate little difference when compared to 'Jewel' or 'Penny' violas,
continued growth through the end of March revealed marked differences in the three series' growth.
At the end of the season, most of the 'Sorbet' violas conserved the appearance of individual, petite,
upright plants. 'Sorbet Blackberry Cream' and 'Sorbet Yellow Frost' plants were more spreading
and coalesced into mats.

'Sorbet Purple Duet' had inconsistent flower color, where some lower petals were white. 'Sorbet'
plants were the first in the field to decline.

Viola x wittrockiana. (Pansy). One hundred and five cultivars of pansies from eighteen series were
included in the winter trial. It was generally a good season for pansies. The following were the
highlights for each series:











As a series, the 'Accord' cultivars had the best overall appearance at the end of the trial on March
27. The best among the 'Accord' cultivars at the end of the season were: 'Accord Clear Primrose',
'Accord Clear Blue', 'Accord Blue Blotch', and 'Accord Yellow Blotch'. Floral color held well and
did not fade in 'Accord Clear Rose'; floral color faded slightly in 'Accord Clear Orange'; and petals
of 'Accord Rose Blotch' had streaks of cream in the rose. Less vigor and vitality was noted for
'Accord Clear Red', 'Accord Red Blotch', 'Accord Violet Blotch', 'Accord Violet with Face', and
'Accord Red Wing'.

'Bedder Light Blue' was spectacular the entire season and was one of the very best pansies in trial.
It was very compact and uniform, flowered well and filled out the bed beautifully.

The 'Baby Bingo', a miniature pansy series, drew a lot of attention as a new arrival. The best
cultivars in the series were: 'Baby Bingo Yellow' and 'Baby Bingo Midnight'. These two were
uniform, floriferous, and vigorous. 'Baby Bingo Beaconsfield' lacked uniformity of plant size and
had highly variable floral color.

Of the eight 'Bingo' cultivars, 'Bingo Red with Blotch' plants were smallest and 'Bingo Light Rose
with Blotch' was variable in plant size and shape, and 'Bingo Red & Yellow' was tallest. Also,
plant habits were somewhat dissimilar among the cultivars with some being more upright and others
being more spreading early in the season, becoming less obvious with time.

'Characters Clear White' was poor in uniformity of plant size and shape.

The 'Clear Sky' series was well-matched for size and overall appearance. 'Clear Sky Rose' had a
little less vigor and the floral color was not as defined compared with the other 'Clear Sky' colors.

'Golden Crown' was rated "very good" overall and looked attractive in the landscape throughout the
season.

The 'Delta' cultivars were well-suited to one another. 'Delta Rose' was slightly less vigorous than
the other colors, and 'Delta Blue with Blotch' was slightly more vigorous and had a more spreading
habit. 'Delta Blue with Blotch' and 'Delta Yellow with Blotch' were the best in overall appearance
at the end of March, while the other colors were very ragged.

Of the 'Fama' cultivars, the most attractive was 'Fama Primrose'. While flowering was weak at
the time of rating in late February in 'Fama Purple', it along with 'Fama Primrose' lasted the longest
in the landscape. 'Fama Lilac Shades' was too variable in color to be "lilac shades" since many
flowers were pink, not lilac, and one plant had dark purple flowers. The series was also not well-
matched in plant habit. 'Fama Blue Angel' and 'Fama Dark-Eyed Lemon' formed tight spheres, while
'Fama Primrose' and 'Fama Purple' grew into spreading mats.

The 'Imperial' series was merely adequate in suitability as a matched set of cultivars, since four were
smaller and tighter in plant habit than the other five. At the end of the season, 'Imperial Purple
Improved' and 'Imperial Purple & Yellow' were the most attractive of the nine 'Imperial' cultivars.










'Imperial Antique Shades' was disappointing since two solid colors, dark rose and cream, were
present and detracted from the color blend.

There was less plant uniformity in plants of'Majestic Giants Blue Shades', 'Majestic Giants Red &
Yellow Bicolor', and 'Majestic Giants Rose Shades' than in the other cultivars of the series.

The 'Maxim' cultivars were a diverse group. 'Maxim Sunset' was the only pansy in trial with
zero divergence of flowering, that is all plants in the research plot flowered the same day. Meanwhile,
'Maxim Marina' had a divergence of flowering of 35 days. 'Maxim Red' was not true-to-type for
floral color, as flowers were two-toned red and gold. At the end of the season, 'Maxim Sunset' and
'Maxim Sherbet' were the most diminutive of the series; best of the series was 'Maxim Blue'.

At the end of the season, the 'Rally' series were among the very best in appearance of the entire trial.
The plants filled the beds with the exception of'Rally Lilac Cup' which was more diminutive than the
other cultivars. The very best 'Rally' cultivars at the end of the season were 'Rally Pure White',
'Rally Yellow' and 'Rally Yellow with Blotch'. 'Rally Orange' had dark, clear orange flowers that
resisted fading, whereas 'Rally Lilac Cup' and 'Rally Light Blue with Blotch' had streaks of gold in
the lower petals. Flowers of 'Rally Lilac Cup' faded. 'Rally Orange' exhibited the most divergence
of flowering for any pansy, 49 days.

Of the 'Skyline' series, the best at the end of the season was 'Skyline Blue' and the poorest was
'Skyline Pink Shades'. It was noted that 'Skyline Yellow with Red Wing' had almost no "wing" and
lost points in the "overall" rating because of the poor color pattern. This particular cultivar was also
less full and vigorous than the others in the series. Overall, the 'Skyline' series provided a thick mat
of plants covering the bed.

'Super Majestic Giants Formula Mix' did not flower as well as others in the trial when rated in mid
February.

'Ultima Lavender Shades' should have been named 'Ultima Purple Shades' as lavender was not a
predominant color in the mix.

The 'Universal' series was one of the best performers throughout the season. Plants gave a thick,
full bed of plants with the exception of'Universal Plus Ivory/Rose Blotch' and 'Universal Plus Red'
which were small and lacked vigor. 'Universal Plus Red' had gold impinging in the red floral color.
'Universal Plus Red Wing' was taller than the others at season's end. 'Universal Plus Orange' was
the best dark, fade-resistant orange in the trial. At the end of the season the best appearance was
maintained by 'Universal Plus Blue Blotch', 'Universal Plus Rose', and 'Universal Plus Violet
Blotch'.

The two 'Wink' miniature pansy cultivars were dissimilar. 'Wink Purple & White' was perhaps the
most vigorous pansy in trial, having extremely thick and abundant plant growth. However, 'Wink
Red & Yellow' was more compact, not particularly uniform and was very inconsistent in the floral
color pattern.











SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on overall ratings during the fall of 1996 and winter 1996-97 came
from about 15% of the 306 cultivars in trial. 'Cooler', 'Heatwave', and 'Tropicana' vinca series each
had several cultivars that received outstanding overall ratings. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' gazania and
'Gold Dust' Eryismum were exceptionally long-lived and frost tolerant. Daehnfeldt's two 'Senator'
begonias scored well as did four of Vaughan's 'Cajun' impatiens. Favored petunias included 'Bravo
Blue', 'Double Cascade Plum Vein', 'Fantasy Ivory', 'Pink Storm' and 'Purple Wave'. Other
cultivars of merit were 'Salsa Salmon' salvia and 'Quartz Scarlet' verbena. The 'Accord', 'Rally' and
'Skyline' pansy series had the best overall appearance at the end of the winter trial, while as an
individual entry, 'Bedder Blue' was one of the very best pansies all season.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank American Takii Inc, Ball FloraPlant, Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds
Ltd., G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed, S&G Seeds, Vaughan's, and
Waller Flowerseed for their financial support during 1996.

LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Evaluation of ornamental cabbage and kale as bedding plants
during two winter seasons. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-10.

Howe, T. K., B. K. Harbaugh and W. E. Waters. 1992. Color development problems of ornamental
cabbage. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-3.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-29.

Howe, T. K. And W. E. Waters. 1996a. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-9.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1996b. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1996.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-16.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, Florida. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-6.











SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on overall ratings during the fall of 1996 and winter 1996-97 came
from about 15% of the 306 cultivars in trial. 'Cooler', 'Heatwave', and 'Tropicana' vinca series each
had several cultivars that received outstanding overall ratings. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' gazania and
'Gold Dust' Eryismum were exceptionally long-lived and frost tolerant. Daehnfeldt's two 'Senator'
begonias scored well as did four of Vaughan's 'Cajun' impatiens. Favored petunias included 'Bravo
Blue', 'Double Cascade Plum Vein', 'Fantasy Ivory', 'Pink Storm' and 'Purple Wave'. Other
cultivars of merit were 'Salsa Salmon' salvia and 'Quartz Scarlet' verbena. The 'Accord', 'Rally' and
'Skyline' pansy series had the best overall appearance at the end of the winter trial, while as an
individual entry, 'Bedder Blue' was one of the very best pansies all season.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank American Takii Inc, Ball FloraPlant, Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds
Ltd., G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed, S&G Seeds, Vaughan's, and
Waller Flowerseed for their financial support during 1996.

LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Evaluation of ornamental cabbage and kale as bedding plants
during two winter seasons. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-10.

Howe, T. K., B. K. Harbaugh and W. E. Waters. 1992. Color development problems of ornamental
cabbage. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-3.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-29.

Howe, T. K. And W. E. Waters. 1996a. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-9.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1996b. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1996.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-16.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, Florida. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-6.











SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on overall ratings during the fall of 1996 and winter 1996-97 came
from about 15% of the 306 cultivars in trial. 'Cooler', 'Heatwave', and 'Tropicana' vinca series each
had several cultivars that received outstanding overall ratings. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' gazania and
'Gold Dust' Eryismum were exceptionally long-lived and frost tolerant. Daehnfeldt's two 'Senator'
begonias scored well as did four of Vaughan's 'Cajun' impatiens. Favored petunias included 'Bravo
Blue', 'Double Cascade Plum Vein', 'Fantasy Ivory', 'Pink Storm' and 'Purple Wave'. Other
cultivars of merit were 'Salsa Salmon' salvia and 'Quartz Scarlet' verbena. The 'Accord', 'Rally' and
'Skyline' pansy series had the best overall appearance at the end of the winter trial, while as an
individual entry, 'Bedder Blue' was one of the very best pansies all season.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank American Takii Inc, Ball FloraPlant, Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds
Ltd., G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed, S&G Seeds, Vaughan's, and
Waller Flowerseed for their financial support during 1996.

LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Evaluation of ornamental cabbage and kale as bedding plants
during two winter seasons. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-10.

Howe, T. K., B. K. Harbaugh and W. E. Waters. 1992. Color development problems of ornamental
cabbage. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-3.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-29.

Howe, T. K. And W. E. Waters. 1996a. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-9.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1996b. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1996.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-16.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, Florida. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-6.











SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on overall ratings during the fall of 1996 and winter 1996-97 came
from about 15% of the 306 cultivars in trial. 'Cooler', 'Heatwave', and 'Tropicana' vinca series each
had several cultivars that received outstanding overall ratings. 'Daybreak Garden Sun' gazania and
'Gold Dust' Eryismum were exceptionally long-lived and frost tolerant. Daehnfeldt's two 'Senator'
begonias scored well as did four of Vaughan's 'Cajun' impatiens. Favored petunias included 'Bravo
Blue', 'Double Cascade Plum Vein', 'Fantasy Ivory', 'Pink Storm' and 'Purple Wave'. Other
cultivars of merit were 'Salsa Salmon' salvia and 'Quartz Scarlet' verbena. The 'Accord', 'Rally' and
'Skyline' pansy series had the best overall appearance at the end of the winter trial, while as an
individual entry, 'Bedder Blue' was one of the very best pansies all season.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and does not provide
recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended
or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank American Takii Inc, Ball FloraPlant, Ball Seed Co., E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds
Ltd., G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee, PanAmerican Seed, S&G Seeds, Vaughan's, and
Waller Flowerseed for their financial support during 1996.

LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Evaluation of ornamental cabbage and kale as bedding plants
during two winter seasons. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-10.

Howe, T. K., B. K. Harbaugh and W. E. Waters. 1992. Color development problems of ornamental
cabbage. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-3.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-29.

Howe, T. K. And W. E. Waters. 1996a. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, fall 1995.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-9.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1996b. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials, spring 1996.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-16.

Stanley, C. D. 1996. Weather report for 1995, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, Florida. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1996-6.











Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during September 1996 through March 1997
and the 42-year averages (Stanley, 1996).


Average Daily Temperature ("F)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month Trialz 42-yr avg Trialz 42-yr avg Trialz 42-yr avg

September 91 90 71 71 3.20 7.76
October 85 85 65 64 4.94 2.93
November 80 79 56 58 0.65 1.94
December 75 74 51 52 1.82 2.22
January 75 72 50 50 1.92 2.79
February 80 74 55 52 1.21 3.01
March 84 78 61 55 4.50 3.45


zFall transplants set in field September 16, 1996. Winter transplants set in field November 26 and
December 2, 1996. Fall trial terminated January 20, 1997. Winter trial terminated March 31, 1997.









Table 2. Seed suppliers with designations referenced in Table 3.


Company/ Supplier

American Takii, Inc.
301 Natividad Road, Salinas, CA 93906
Ball Seed
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
E. Benary Seed of America, Inc.
1444 Larson Street, Sycamore, IL 60178
Bodger Seeds, Ltd.
1800 No. Tyler Ave., So. El Monte, CA 91733-3618
Daehnfeldt
P.O. Box 947, Albany, OR 97321
Goldsmith Seeds
P.O. Box 1349, 2280 Hecker Pass Hwy., Gilroy, CA 95020
G.S. Grimes Seeds
11335 Concord-Hambden Road, Concord, OH 44077
Hatchett Creek Farms
11713 NE SR 26, Gainesville, FL 32641-2733
PanAmerican Seed
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
S&G Seeds, Inc.
5300 Katrine Avenue, Downers Grove, IL 60515
Sakata Seed America, Inc.
18095 Serene Drive, Morgan Hill, CA 95037
University of Florida
GCREC, 5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Vaughan's Seed Company
5300 Katrine Avenue, Downers Grove, IL 60515
Waller Flowerseed Company
P.O. Box 70, Guadalupe, CA 93434


IIIIIII III I


Designation

TAK

BLL

BEN

BOD

DFT

GLD

GRM



PAA

S&G

SAK

UF

VAU

WAL









Table 3. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, Fall, 1996.



Field Date Divergence' Flower* Plant' Plant' Ratines
Genus species (Conmmon Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant'
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'

(days)


AMeratum houstonlanum (Floss Flower)
Fine Wine


GRM pur-blue


8-2 9-16 11-24 17 0.5/1.6 13.4 18.1 8


Begonia semerflorens (Fibrous-rooted Begonia)
Ambassador Series
Ambassador Bicolor DFT
Ambassador Coral DFT
Ambassador Dark Rose DFT
Ambassador Rose DFT
Ambassador Rose Blush DFT
Ambassador Salmon DFT
Ambassador Scarlet DFT
Ambassador Soft Pink DFT
Ambassador White DFT
Chocolates Rose GRM
Inferno Series
Inferno Appleblossom DFT
Inferno Pink DFT
Inferno Red DFT
Inferno Rose DFT
Inferno White DFT
Senator Series
Senator Dark Rose DFT
Senator Pink DFT
Senator Rose DFT
Senator Scarlet DFT
Senator White DFT
Total White GRM


It shell pk w/dk pk edge
dk coral (org-pk)
dkrose
rose
It rose w/dk rose edge
reddish org salmon
red
It shell pink
white
dk pink

It pk w/dk pk edge
Itpk
red
med pk
white w/faint pk edge

dkrose
pink
dk pink
red
white
white w/pk under & edge


Catharanthus roses (Vinca or Periwinkle)
Apricot Delight
Bikini Series
Bikini Deep Pink (
Bikini Light Pink G
Bikini White/Eye (
Caribbean Lavender 1
Cooler Series
Icy Pink Cooler P


Orchid Cooler
Peppermint Cooler
Pink Cooler
Raspberry Red Cooler
Strawberry Cooler
Heat Wave Series
Heat Wave Grape


VAL v It pk fades to crm w/rose eye 7-26


iRM
iRM
;RM
'AK


hot pink w/yellow eye 7-26
med pk w/prom rose ctr 7-26
white w/rose eye 7-26
pale pur pk lay w/dk pur eye 7-26


AA pale pk w/med pk halo around 7-26
yel eye
'AA dk pur-pk w/white eye 7-26
'AA white w/rose eye 7-26
'AA dk pk w/white eye 7-26
'AA dk fucshia w/wh eye 7-26
MAA mid pk w/prom rose ctr 7-26


9-16 9-26

9-16 9-25
9-16 9-30
9-16 9-26
9-16 10-1

9-16 9-25


7 1.8 7.7 12.7 9

10 1.9 12.1 16.0 9
7 1.8 11.4 15.4 8.5
10 2.0 11.2 14.4 9
5 1.8 10.6 15.9 9.5

4 1.9 11.4 16.9 9


8.5 10


17.5 8.5
18.8 10
15.3 10
14.4 9.5
14.9 8.5


7-26 9-16 9-23 2 1.9 10.8 17.1 10


9 10 9.5


10-3
9-30
9-26
10-3
10-11
10-6
10-5
9-20
9-23
10-10

9-16
9-17
9-19
9-16
9-16

10-3
10-5
10-1
10-13
9-20
9-18


8



9
7
9
9.5
9
8.5
7
9
8
7

9
7 _-
8 "
6
8


8.6 8.5
8.2 6.5
9.6 7.5
10.4 9
8.8 8.5
8.7 7.5
7.9 7.0
10.1 8
8.6 7.5
9.9 7.0

11.0 9
10.4 10
9.3 8
8.5 9
9.8 8

9.8 9
8.4 7
10.1 9
10.1 8.5
9.8 9.5
NM 9


BOD dk pk-pur w/rose eye








Table 3 (continued).


Field Date Divergence' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity FloweringL' Lodging' Overalr
(days)


Heat Wave Orchid
Heat Wave Peppermint
Heat Wave Pink
Heat Wave White
Pacifica Series
Pacifica Blush

Pacifica Lilac
Pacifica Polka Dot
Pacifica Punch
Pacifica Red
Pacifica White
Tropicana Series
Tropicana Blush
Tropicana Bright Eye
Tropicana Pink
Tropicana Rose
Tropicana White

Celosia plumosa (Plumed Celosla)
Castle Orange
Red Glow

Celosla spicata (Spray or Wheat Celosla)
Pink Candle


BOD dk pk-pur w/wh eye 7-26
BOD white w/rose eye 7-26
BOD It pk w/dk pk halo & yel eye 7-26
BOD wh w/yel eye & sm pk halo 7-26

WAL vpalepkto ltpkw/prom rose 7-26
ctr
WAL dk rose-pur w/rose eye 7-26
WAL white w/rose eye 7-26
WAL dk red-rose w/lg red ctr 7-26
WAL v dk ruby red 7-26
WAL wh w/yel eye & sm pk halo 7-26

WAL med pk w/prom rose ctr 7-26
WAL It pk w/prom rose ctr 7-26
WAL hot pk w/yel eye 7-26
WAL v dk rose pk w/yel eye 7-26
WAL wh w/yel eye 7-26


TAK dk org
BLL rose-pur (magenta)


TAK pink


Eryslmum sufflntlcosum (Cheiranthus, Wallflower)
Gold Dust BEN gold


9-16 9-23
9-16 9-24
9-16 9-28
9-16 9-24

9-16 10-5

9-16 9-27
9-16 9-25
9-16 10-1
9-16 10-5
9-16 9-30

9-16 9-28
9-16 9-24
9-16 9-23
9-16 10-3
9-16 9-30


8-2 9-16 9-16
8-2 9-16 9-20


8-2 9-16 10-10


7-26 9-16 11-27


10.0 13.8 9.5
10.3 14.2 9.5
11.0 14.8 8.5
11.5 15.1 10


8 1.8 8.9 13.9 8


9.8 12.8 7.5
10.8 14.2 9
11.0 16.9 10
10.9 17.6 8.5
10.9 16.3 9

13.4 17.2 10
10.2 12.7 10
12.8 17.0 9
11.0 15.6 9.5
8.8 16.3 10


0 3.6 6.0 7.8 7.5
7 4.2 7.8 9.2 8


11 5.3 41.3 25.7 9.5


17 0.5/1.4 6.9 12.7 10


10 8.5

10 8
10 9
10 9.5
10 9
10 9

10 9.5
10 9.5
10 9
10 9
10 10
0",


9.5 10


Eustoms grandflorum (Lislanthus)
Blue Lisa Improved
Florida Blue
Florida Pink
Mermaid Blue
Mermaid Pink
Tiara Blue
Tiara Pink

Gazania splendens
Daybreak Series
Daybreak Bright Yellow
Daybreak Bronze
Daybreak Garden Sun

Hellanthus annuus (Sunflower)
Pacino


PAA dk purple
UF dk purple
UF It pink
VAU dk purple
VAU It pink
TAK dk purple
TAK v ltpink



BLL gold w/ or w/o brn ctr
BLL rust bi w/bm ctr
BLL bi org-gold w/bm ctr


BEN brt yellow gold


9-23 10-24
9-23 10-19
9-23 10-29
9-23 (11-5)
9-23 (11-8)
9-23 (11-21)
9-23 11-16



9-16 10-21
9-16 10-13
9-16 10-3


2.5
2.6
2.5
(2.6)
(2.7)
(2.8)
2.5



2.1
2.3
2.8


5.5 7.2 8
9.9 9.8 8
8.6 8.6 8.5
(6.5) (8.6) (6)
(6.2) (8.2) (6)
(7.5) (9.1) (5)
8.3 7.8 8



9.2 14.3 8
9.7 16.2 8
10.0 14.8 9.5


8-19 9-16 10-10 9 4.0 14.8 14.5 9.5


8.5
8.5
9
(6)
(5)
(4.5)
7



8.5
8
9.5


10 10 9








Table 3 (continued).


Field Date Divergences Flower' Plant' Plant' Ratines
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (m.) (in.) (in.) Unifomnity Floweringt^ Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Impatien wallerana
Accent Salmon Picotee
Cajun Series
Cajun Carmine
Cajun Deep Pink
Cajun Lilac
Cajun Orange
Cajun Red
Cajun Violet
Cajun White
Carousel Red (double)
Dazzler Series
Dazzler Burgundy
Dazzler Deep Pink
Dazzler Lilac Splash
Dazzler Coral Star
Dazzler Red Star
Dazzler Violet Star
Mosaic Litac
Sun & Shade Series
Sun & Shade Coral
Sun & Shade Cranberry
Sun & Shade Lavender
Sun & Shade Neon Rose
Sun & Shade Red
Sun & Shade Rose
Sun & Shade Violet
Super Elfin Series
Super Elfin Deep Pink
Super Elfin Melon
Super Elfin Pink Improved
Super Elfin Violet Improved
Super Elfin White Improved
Pehtuna x hybrid
Aladdin Series (grandiflora)
Aladdin Lilac
Aladdin Cherry Mom Mixture
Aladdin Nautical Mixture
Aladdin Pink Mor
Aladdin Sky Blue
Bravo Series (grandiflora)
Bravo Blue
Bravo Pink
Bravo Red
Bravo Salmon
Bravo White


OLD salmon w/dk rim


S&O
S&G
S&G
S&O
S&O
S&G
S&O
BLL

PAA
PAA
PAA
BLL
BLL
BLL
OLD

ORM
GRM
ORM
GRM
ORM
GRM
ORM

PAA
PAA
PAA
PAA
PAA


BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD
BOD

VAU
VAU
VAU
VAU
VAU


7-26 9.16 9-29


brtcheny
dk pk w/rose eye
rose pur lilac w/rose eye
dk org (fades)
rich red
violet
white
red (fades)

dk rose-violet
dk pink
lilac pk w/lg rose blotch
red-org & wh bicolor
red & wh bicolor
violet & wh bicolor
pk-lilac wirad wh streaks

salmon pk w/coral eye
cranbeny
lilac w-roe ete
cherry to brt dk rose (mix)
red
rose
violet

dkpk
vdk coral
pk w/rose eye
violet
white


lav w/wh thrt
cherry white mom mix
dk pur, lav, plum, vein mix
pk w/crm ctr
med to It pur, fades nicely

dk purple
hot pink
red
salmon
white


9.22
10-1
9-19
9-22
10-1
10-12
9.29
10-14

9-24
10-6
9-30
10-3
9-29
10-3
10-3

10-3
9-25
10-4
10-1
10-1
9-28
10-4

10-15
10-3
9-26
9-24
9.25


10-4
9-27
10-2
9-25
10-1

9-22
9.28
9-27
9.23
9-27


9 1.7 13.3 NM 9.5

9 1.9 16.8 NM 10
19 1.8 15.2 NM 8.5
9 1.9 17.8 NM 10
11 1.8 15.7 NM 9.5
25 2.0 17.3 NM 9
35 2.0 18.1 NM 10
28 1.8 16.0 NM 10
22 1.7 14.3 NM 7.5

10 1.9 15.5 NM 9.5
14 1.9 13.1 NM 10
31 1.9 15.4 NM 10
26 1.9 16.3 NM 9.5
17 1.8 16.8 NM 10
19 1.7 13.8 NM 8.5
37 2.0 15.6 NM 8

28 1.8 16.4 NM 9
24 1.9 16.7 NM 9.5
16 1.9 13.7 NM 9
14 1.8 10.9 NM 8.5
28 1.8 13.3 NM 8
24 2.0 17.6 NM 9
35 1.8 12.0 NM 8.5

24 1.6 12.9 NM 8.5
16 1.9 14.6 NM 9
8 1.9 11.1 NM 10
7 1.9 14.4 NM 9
13 1.8 13.6 NM 9


16 3.0 12.2 NM 10
14 3.1 11.1 NM 8.5
9 3.3 12.4 NM 9.5
13 3.0 11.2 NM 9
5 3.0 12.3 NM 9.5

5 3.0 10.2 NM 9
5 3.3 9.4 NM 10
10 3.1 11.0 NM 10
5 3.1 11.1 NM 10
10 3.4 11.7 NM 9


10 9

10 9.5
10 9
10 9.5
10 8.5
10 9
10 9.5
to10 9.5
10 8

10 9
10 9.5
10 9
10 8.5
9 7.5
10 7.5
10 8.5

10 9
10 9.5
10 8
10 8
10 5
10 9
10 8.5

10 9
10 9
10 9.5
10 8
10 9.5


9 9.5
7 7.5
9 9
8 9
8 9

9 9.5
8 8
9 8
7 8
9 5









Table 3 (continued).


Field Date Divergence' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering'' Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Candypops Series (grandiflora)
Candypops Blue
Candypops Pink
Candypops White
Double Cascade Series (double grandiflora)
Double Cascade Pink
Double Cascade Plum Vein
Dreams Burgundy (grandiflora)
Fantasy Series (milliflora)
Fantasy Blue
Fantasy Crystal Red
Fantasy Ivory
Fantasy Pink
Fantasy Pink Mom

Fantasy Red
Fantasy Salmon
Freedom Series multifloraa)
Freedom Raspberry Vein
Freedom Summertime
Freedom White
Storm Series (grandiflora)
Pink Storm
Salmon Storm
Wave Series (spreading)
Pink Wave
Purple Wave

Salvia splendens (Scarlet Sage)
Firecracker Series
Firecracker Lilac
Firecracker Orange
Firecracker Salmon
Firecracker White
Salsa Series
Salsa Burgundy
Salsa Salmon
Salsa White


Verbena x hybrida
Quartz Scarlet

Zinnia angustifolla
Crystal White


GRM dk pur w/prom wh thrt
GRM dk pk w/prom wh thrt
GRM white

PAA hotpk
PAA It plum vein, fades well
BLL v dk cherry-purple


OLD
GLD
OLD
OLD
OLD


dk purple
It sal pk w/hvy red veins
creamy white
hot pk w/wh thrt
pale pk rim w/gold thrt &
& iv halo


GLD red w/gold thrt
OLD dk pk, cherry salmon

GRM pk w/rasp veins
GRM shell pk w/rasp veins
GRM white

GLD dk salmon
GLD hotpkw/whthrt

PAA hot pink
PAA pk plum


GRM
GRM
GRM
GRM


med red-purple
dk red orange
med red orange
green-cream


GLD dk pur-red
GLD med salmon
GLD green-cream


BLL solid red


TAK white w/gold disk


9-16 9-26
9-16 9-22
9-16 10-7

9-16 9-29
9-16 10-5
9-16 9-27

9-16 9-22
9-16 9-19
9-16 9-22
9-16 9-21
9-16 9-23


8-2 9-16 9-24
8-2 9-16 9-22


9-16 9-28
9-16 9-21
9-16 9-27


8-2 9-16 9-25
8-2 9-16 9-24

8-2 9-16 10-6
8-2 9-16 10-10


9-16 10-27
9-16 10-17
9-16 10-18
9-16 10-20

9-16 10-12
9-16 9-28
9-16 10-7


8-2 9-16 10-1


11.6 NM 9
13.1 NM 9
11.1 NM 10


3.3/3.3 10.1 NM 9
4.1/3.6 10.2 NM 9.5
3.2 11.5 NM 9.5


9.9 NM 8
10.0 17.1 9.5
9.2 17.4 9
9.6 17.6 10
8.7 18.6 9.5


9 1.6 8.5 16.9 8.5
7 1.7 8.0 18.3 9.5


10.8 NM 9.5
11.1 NM 9
10.8 NM 9.5


9 2.9 10.3 NM 9.5
7 2.8 9.7 NM 9.5

16 2.5 9.6 NM 9.5
11 2.3 7.4 NM 10


6.5
5
4

6
10
7

8
6
9.5
9
9

9
9

8
5 0
8


10 9 9.5
10 9.5 9.5

9.5 NR 9
9 NR 9.5


1.7/7.8 13.6 12.0 8.5
1.9/5.4 11.5 8.7 8
1.7/6.2 12.6 9.7 8
1.8/6.0 11.5 10.0 7.5

1.7/7.4 13.8 11.0 9.5
1.7/5.3 12.4 10.8 9
1.6/7.1 15.0 10.3 9


14 0.7/2.4 9.4 NM 9


8-19 9-16 10-6 13 1.3 7.6 13.1 9


NR 9.5


10 NR 9








Table 3 (continued).


'Source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for source designations.
'Abbreviations: bi = bicolor, brt = bright; bn = brown; burg = burgundy; crm = cream; ctr = center, dk = dark; hvy = heavy, iv = ivory; lay = lavender; Ig = large; It = light; med = medium; org = orange; pk = pink; prom = prominent;
pur = purple; rad = radial; rasp = raspbery; sal = salmon; sm= small; tht throat; v= very, w= with; w/o = without; w = white; yel yellow.
'Divergence of flowering was the number of days between flowering of first and last plants in the plot.
"Erysimum and Verbena = flower diameter/head diameter, Salvia = flower diameter/spike length. 'Double Cascade' Petunia = early vs. late.
'NM = not measured.
"Rating: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 good, 6 = fair, I = very poor, 0 = all dead.
'Density and distribution rating.
'Rating: 10 = no lodging, 1 = plants flattened to ground. NR = not rated.
Inclusive rating for appearance and vigor. 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead.








Table 4. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, Winter 1996-97.



Field Date Divergence" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity FloweringC' Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Antrrhinum mains (Snapdragon)
Royal Carpet Mix
Silks Series
Silks Purple
Silks Red & White
Silks White
Silks Yellow

Bells erennis (English Daisy)
Galaxy Series
Galaxy Red
Galaxy Rose
Galaxy White
Tasso Deep Rose

Brassica olerace (Flowering Cabbage)
Osaka Mixed
Tokyo Mixed


Dianthus carophllus (Carnation)
Lillipot Mixed SAI

Dianthus hybrid (D. chinensis x D. barbatus)
Award Series
Award Mix GR
Award Rose GR


TAK mix

TAK dk red-pur
TAK red &yelw/wh tube
TAK white
TAK yellow



SAK pur-rose w/gold disc
SAK dk pk w/gold disc
SAK white w/gold disc
BEN rose w/gold disc


SAK mix
SAK mix


K mix


M mix
M dk rose & red bi


Felicia .Me
Spring Merchen TAK dk elec blue


Gypsophla murals
Garden Bride Soft Pink
Gypsy

Linarla sp. (Toadflax)
Fantasia Series
Fantasia Blue
Fantasia Magenta Rose
Fantasia Speckled Pink
Fantasia White
Fantasia Yellow

Lobella erinus
Moon Series
Blue Moon
Midnight Moon
Paper Moon


DFT It pink
DFT It. pink


TAK dk lilac violet
TAK dk pur rose
TAK dk pk & rose ctr
TAK white
TAK yellow



S&G dk elec blue
S&G dk elec blue
S&G white


10-15 11-26 1-6


10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15


11-26 12-26
11-26 1-5
11-26 12-30
11-26 1-16


10-15 11-26 1-8
10-15 11-26 1-1
10-15 11-26 1-4
10-15 11-26 2-2


10-29 11-26 DNF
10-29 11-26 DNF


10-15 11-26 2-22



10-15 11-26 1-16
10-15 11-26 1-1


10-1 11-26 (1-30)


10-1 11-26 12-23
10-1 11-26 12-11


11-26 12-1
11-26 12-2
11-26 12-4
11-26 12-2
11-26 11-26



11-26 1-12
11-26 1-7
11-26 12-26


40 1.0/5.4 10.8 9.6 7.5


1.1/2.7
1.0/6.1
1.4/3.0
1.3/3.2


DNF DNF
DNF DNF


6.3 8.1 9
10.9 11.1 7
6.1 9.5 7.5
8.2 10.2 8



5.7 8.8 9.5
4.6 8.1 8.5
4.7 7.9 8.5
6.4 8.6 7.5


12.3 17.5 8
10.1 17.3 8


28 NM NM NM 8



28 1.1 8.1 8.7 9/9
11 1.3 8.9 11.8 8/9


(12) (1.0)


NR 8


NR NR 5
NR NR 5


(3)



9.5/10
10/9


NR 7



NR 9/10
NR 7/4


(6.0) (8.5) (8)


21 0.2 8.2 14.3 9
18 0.3 4.8 8.9 8.5


0.5/2.6
0.5/2.6
0.5/3.1
0.6/3.2
0.6/4.8



0.5
0.6
0.6


10 NR 9
9.5 NR 8


9.1 12.1 8.5
9.7 10.1 9
8.2 9.5 9
10.2 11.4 8
9.5 11.4 8



6.0 8.5 8
6.6 8.7 8
5.2 7.7 8.5








Table 4 (continued).


Field Date Divergence' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering" Lodging' Overall
(days)


Regatta Series
Regatta Blue Splash
Regatta Lilac
Regatta Marine Blue
Regatta Midnight Blue
Regatta Rose
Regatta Sky Blue
Regatta White
Riviera Series
Riviera Blue Eyes
Riviera Blue Splash
Riviera Lilac
Riviera Marine Blue
Riviera Midnight Blue
Riviera Sky Blue
Riviera White


WAL blue & white bi
WAL lilac
WAL brt elec blue
WAL brt elec blue
WAL lav-rose w/wh eye
WAL brt robins egg blue
WAL white

WAL elec blue
WAL blue & white bi
WAL lilac
WAL elec blue
WAL elec blue
WAL sky blue
WAL white


11-26 12-22
11-26 1-12
11-26 12-29
11-26 12-24
11-26 1-5
11-26 12-18
11-26 1-5

11-26 12-7
11-26 12-22
11-26 1-9
11-26 12-13
11-26 12-21
11-26 12-23
11-26 12-11


6.0 11.8 9
5.7 12.4 7.5/5
6.0 14.1 10
8.1 13.4 8.5
6.0 11.7 8
8.2 14.7 9
5.4 11.2 9

6.7 9.3 9
5.1 7.5 7
6.0 6.8 7
5.7 9.5 8.5
5.6 8.4 7.5
5.7 7.6 7.5
5.7 7.8 8.5


Lobularia maritUma (Alyssum)
Cheers White <

Pelargonlum I hortorum (Geranium, seed)
Maverick Series
Maverick Pink
Maverick Red
Maverick Salmon
Maverick Scarlet
Maverick White
New Wave Series
New Wave Neon Red
New Wave Scarlet
Saturn Formula Mix


IRM white


10-15 11-26 12-1


3LD dk pink
3LD scarlett
3LD salmon
JLD scarlet
3LD white w/pk tones

3RN red
JRM scarlet
3RM mix


Schizanthus I wisetonensis (Poor-Man's Orchid)
Royal Pierrot Purple PAA pur-rose


Viola cornuta (Viola. Horned Violet)
Jewel Series
Jewel Blue
Jewel Blue with Face

Jewel Maroon & Yellow
Jewel Purple with Face
Jewel White
Jewel Yellow
Penny Series
Penny Azure Wing


11-26 2-11
11-26 2-8
11-26 2-12
11-26 2-9
11-26 2-5


9-23 11-26 1-21
9-23 11-26 1-19
9-23 11-26 2-13


10-1 12-2 12-21


TAK It pur-bl w/pur face & Ig halo 10-1
TAK It pur-bl upper dk pur-bl 10-1
lower w/bl face
TAK mah & gold bi 10-1
TAK dk purw/ltblto crmface 10-1
TAK clear white 10-1
TAK clear gold 10-1

GLD It pur-bl upper & wh lower 10-1
w/whsk


12-2 12-17
12-2 12-10

12-2 12-18
12-2 12-17
12-2 12-28
12-2 12-19

12-2 12-24


1 0.3/.8 4.6 13.9 9



39 1.4/4.2 10.7 11.7 9
35 1.5/4.6 13.0 12.5 8.5
23 1.3/4.9 11.8 13.0 7
25 1.4/5.3 12.5 13.5 8
35 1.4/4.8 13.0 12.4 8

67 1.5/4.3 11.9 16.2 8
71 1.7/4.3 10.8 14.5 7.5
18 1.6/4.5 13.3 14.1 9


42 (1.0) (13.0) (16.0) 8



14 1.1 8.3 12.0 10
21 1.1 6.3 11.2 10


NR 9


NR 10
NR 10


7.0 8.4 8.5
6.7 12.3 10
7.3 8.8 9
5.5 7.4 8.5


3 1.1 6.5 8.7 10


NR 9








Table 4 (continued).


Field Date Divergence" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color7 Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall
(days)


Penny Primrose
Penny Violet Beacon

Penny Violet Flare
Sorbet Series
Sorbet Blackberry Cream
Sorbet Blueberry Cram

Sorbet Coconut
Sorbet Lavender Ice

Sorbet Lemon Chiffon

Sorbet Plum Velvet
Sorbet Purple Duet
Sorbet Sunny Royale
Sorbet Yellow Frost

Sorbet Yesterday, Today, & Tomorrow
Sorbet Mixed


GLD yellow shades
OLD It pur-bl upper, dkr lower
w/bl face
OLD dk pur w/bl face

WAL dk pur w/crm or blue face
WAL It pur-bl upper w/crm lower
& whsk
WAL white w/whsk
WAL It pur uppers, mid pur lower
w/crm to bl face
WAL It yel upper dk yel lower
w/whsk
WAL dk pur w/bl faces
WAL dk pur upper mid pur lower
WAL pur upper gold lower w/whsk
WAL It bl-pur upper gold lower
w/whsk
WAL It pur blue to white
WAL mix


10-1 12-2 12-13 19 1.1 6.5 7.4 7
10-1 12-2 12-19 6 1.5 5.6 9.2 9

10-1 12-2 12-16 17 1.5 4.5 8.7 9

10-1 12-2 12-16 21 1.2 6.9 11.4 9
10-1 12-2 12-24 4 1.2 5.5 7.8 9.5

10-1 12-2 12-15 24 1.3 5.4 8.6 9
10-1 12-2 12-13 15 1.3 4.6 7.6 8

10-1 12-2 12-25 7 1.0 5.4 7.7 8.5


10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1

10-1
10-1


12-2 12-21 8
12-2 12-27 7
12-2 12-19 5
12-2 12-23 10


9 NR 7
10 NR 9.5

10 NR 9.5


NR 8
NR 9


10 NR 9.5
9 NR 8

9.5 NR 9


4.7 9.5 10
4.9 7.4 8.5
5.2 10.4 8.5
6.3 10.0 9.5


12-2 12-3 4 1.3 4.6 8.0 7.5
12-2 12-21 8 1.2 6.3 10.6 8.5


NR 7.5
NR 9


Viola x wittroddana (Pansy)
Accord Series
Accord Blue Blotch
Accord Clear Blue
Accord Clear Orange
Accord Clear Primrose
Accord Clear Red
Accord Clear Rose
Accord Clear White
Accord Clear Yellow
Accord Red Blotch
Accord Red Wing
Accord Rose Blotch
Accord Violet Blotch
Accord Violet w/Face

Accord White Blotch
Accord Yellow Blotch
Accord Yellow w/Red Blotch
Bedder Light Blue
Baby Bingo Series
Baby Bingo Beaconsfield
Baby Bingo Denim


Baby Bingo Midnight


dk pur-blue w/face 10-1
clear mid blue w/whsk 10-1
clear It-mid org 10-1
clear It yellow 10-1
clear rust red 10-1
clear rose 10-1
clear white 10-1
golden yellow clear, sl whsk 10-1
rust red w/face gold lower 10-1
mah upper w/face gold lower 10-1
dk pur-rose w/face 10-1
dk pur-bl w/face 10-1
pur upper, wh lower w/dk pur 10-1
face
cream w/face 10-1
gold w/face 10-1
yellow w/red face 10-1
It blue w/mid blue face 10-1

beacon 10-1
dk pur upper mid-bl lower 10-1
dk pur face
dk pur upper blue lower pur 10-1
face or whsk


12-30
12-31
1-4
12-31
12-28
12-29
12-30
1-2
1-2
12-30
1-4
1-6
1-3


12-31 7
12-31 7
12-29 6
12-31 4


6.3 8.7 8.5
6.9 9.2 7.5
4.8 7.4 8.5
5.8 9.4 9
4.9 7.1 7.5
4.9 7.7 8.5
5.8 8.6 8.5
5.3 7.3 7.5
5.4 7.0 9
5.6 6.8 8.5
5.1 6.8 8.5
4.3 6.1 7
4.8 6.8 7.5

6.3 8.8 9
5.3 8.4 10
4.7 5.9 7.5
4.4 7.8 9.5


12-2 12-27 11 1.8 5.6 8.9 7
12-2 12-30 7 1.8 5.6 9.9 8.5

12-2 12-28 7 2.0 5.5 9.2 9


NR 7
NR 8

NR 9








Table 4 (continued).


Field Date Divergence' Flower' Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) SeedM Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant'
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Floweringe Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Baby Bingo Yellow
Bingo Series
Bingo Blue w/Blotch
Bingo Deep Purple
Bingo Light Rose w/Blotch
Bingo Red and Yellow
Bingo Red w/Blotch
Bingo White w/Blotch
Bingo Yellow
Bingo Yellow w/Blotch
Characters Clear White
Clear Sky Series
Clear Sky Primrose
Clear Sky Purple
Clear Sky Rose
Clear Sky White
Golden Crown
Delta Series
Delta.Blue w/Blotch
Delta Light Blue w/Blotch
Delta Primrose w/Blotch
Delta Pure Yellow
Delta Rose w/Blotch
Delta White wBlotch
Delta Yellow w/Blotch
Fama Series
Fama Blue Angel
Fama Dark-Eyed Lemon
Fama Lilac Shades
Fama Primrose
Fama Purple
Imperial Series
Imperial Antique Shades
Imperial Frosty Cherry
Imperial Gold Improved
Imperial Gold Princess

Imperial Pink Shades
Imperial Purple Improved
Imperial Purple & Yellow

Imperial Silver Princess
Imperial Unique Mix
Majestic Giants
Majestic Giants Blue Shades
Majestic Giants Purple


PAA clear gold


10-1 12-2 12-27


PAA dk pur-bl w/face 10-1
PAA dkpurw/face 10-1
PAA It rose w/face 10-1
PAA mah wing and face gold lower 10-1
PAA rust red w/face 10-1
PAA cream w/pur face 10-1
PAA cleargold 10-1
PAA gold w/face 10-1
GRM clear white 10-1


S&G It yellow w/gold face
S&G dk pur w/sm face
S&G rose w/face
S&G clear white
SAK clear golden yellow

S&G mid pur-blue w/face
S&G It pur-blue w/dk face
S&G butter yel w/face
S&G clear gold
S&G rose w/face
S&G white wipur face
S&G golden yellow w/face


BEN It lav blue w/face & crm halo 10-1
BEN dk to It yellow w/face pur face 10-1
BEN violet & pk shades 10-1
BEN butter yellow w/org ctr 10-1
BEN dk pur w/face 10-1

TAK shades pk/org/crm w/yel ctr 10-1
TAK crm w/rust-rose face 10-1
TAK dk gold w/face 10-1
TAK dk gold w/red face 10-1

TAK It rose w/t or dk faces 10-1
TAK dk pur w/face 10-1
TAK dk pur w/gold lowers & dk 10-1
pur face
TAK crm w/rose face 10-1
TAK mix 10-1

SAK dk pur-bl w/face 10-1
SAK dk pur w/face 10-1


12-2 12-31
12-2 1-4
12-2 1-3
12-2 1-2
12-2 1-2
12-2 12-31
12-2 12-31
12-2 1-8
12-2 1-1

12-2 12-30
12-2 12-29
12-2 12-29
12-2 12-30
12-2 1-7

12-2 1-1
12-2 1-3
12-2 12-31
12-2 1-1
12-2 1-3
12-2 1-2
12-2 12-28

12-2 1-3
12-2 1-3
12-2 1-6
12-2 1-3
12-2 12-31

12-2 1-5
12-2 12-27
12-2 12-30
12-2 1-5

12-2 1-4
12-2 1-5
12-2 1-5

12-2 1-7
12-2 1-2


12-2 1-5
12-2 1-8


12 1.7 5.7 8.5 8.5

3 2.2 5.6 9.4 8.5
10 2.4 5.1 8.4 8.5
7 2.3 4.8 7.9 8.5
15 2.3 6.6 7.7 9
7 2.4 4.2 8.1 8.5
10 2.4 5.4 9.3 9
7 2.3 6.3 9.3 9
26 2.6 6.1 8.1 8.5
28 2.1 5.2 7.1 7

7 2.2 6.5 8.9 9.5
7 2.0 6.1 9.1 8.5
19 2.0 6.4 9.1 7.5
11 2.1 5.8 9 8.5
15 2.5 5.4 9.2 8.5

4 2.1 6.9 7.4 8
18 1.8 5.7 8.3 8
10 2.0 5.1 7.6 8
25 2.0 6.1 8.5 9
19 2.0 5.3 6.4 8
18 2.0 5.3 8.0 8.5
5 2.0 6.5 9.2 9.5

3 1.7 7.3 8.3 8
7 1.9 6.0 7.8 9
7 2.0 6.1 7.8 8
9 2.0 7.1 9.8 8.5
10 2.1 6.3 9.5 7.5

14 1.8 5.2 8.1 7.5
4 1.9 6.1 10.4 8.5
11 1.9 5.4 8.2 9
9 2.0 5.8 8.3 8

9 1.9 5.2 7.6 6.5
16 2.4 5.6 8.2 8.5
10 2.0 5.7 8.7 9

3 2.0 4.5 6.3 8
7 1.7 5.9 7.7 8

9 2.0 5.8 7.8 7
15 2.3 5.9 9.7 9


NR 9


9 NR
8.5 NR


8
8.5
8
9
7.5
8.5
8
8.5
7

8.5
8
7.5
9
8

8.5
6 .
8
7.5
8
8.5
9

8
8
7
9
7.5

6
8
9
8

6
8
9

8.5
8


7.5 NR 7
8 NR 8.5








Table 4 (continued).


Field Date Divergence" Flower* Plant" Plant' Ratines
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color Date Date Flower Flowering (in)in .) n.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Majestic Giants Red & Yellow Bicolor SAK


Majestic Giants Rose Shades
Majestic Giants White w/Blotch
Majestic Giants Yellow w/Bloth
Maxim Series
Maxim Blue
Maxim Marina
Maxim Red
Maxim Sherbert
Maxim Sunset
Rally Series
Rally Deep Blue w/Blotch
Rally Light Blue wlBlotch

Rally Lilac Cap

Rally Orange
Rally Orange w/Blotch
Rally Pure White
Rally True Blue
Rally White Blotch Improved
Rally Yellow
Rally Yellow w/Blotch
Skyline Series
Skyline Blue
Skyline Blue w/White Wing
Skyline Pink Shades

Skyline White w/Purple Wing

Skyline Yellow w/Red Wing

Super Majestic Giants Formula Mix
Ultima Lavender Shades
Universal Plus Series
Universal Plus Beaconsfield
Universal Plus Blue Blotch
Universal Plus Ivory/Rose Blotch
Universal Plus Lavender

Universal Plus Light Blue
Universal Plus Orange
Universal Plus Orange Blotch
Universal Plus Red
Universal Plus Red Blotch


SAK
SAK
SAK


dk mah upper & v lgmah face 10-1
w/gold rim
dkrose w/face 10-1
white w/pur face 10-1
dk gold w/face 10-1

pur-blue w/face 10-1
It blue w/pur face &crm halo 10-1
dk rust w/face 10-1
crm w/rose face 10-1
gold w/red face 10-1


PAA pur-blue w/face & brt gold ctr 10-1
PAA It blue upper, mid blue lower 10-1
w/face & gold eye
PAA rose-pur upper, crm lowers 10-1
w/rose-pur face & gld eye
PAA clear orange 10-1
PAA orange w/face 10-1
PAA clear white 10-1
PAA clear mid pur-blue 10-1
PAA white w/pur face 10-1
PAA cleardk gold 10-1
PAA dk gold w/face 10-1

S&G mid pur-blue w/face 10-1
S&O beacon 10-1
S&G It rose shades w/pur to pur- 10-1
rose faces
S&G dk pur upper, white lower w/dk 10-1
pur face
S&G dk mah upper, gold lower 10-1
w/mah face


SAK
SAK

GLD
GLD
GLD
OLD

OLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
OLD


purple shades

beacon
pur blue w/face
crm w/rose face'
It pk-pur w/dkr lowers & gold
eye
It blue rim w/dk blue face
clear dark orange
orange w/face
dkrust
rust w/face


12-2 1-6

12-2 1-9
12-2 1-8
12-2 1-6

12-2 12-29
12-2 1-8
12-2 12-29
12-2 1-1
12-2 12-30

12-2 1-3
12-2 12-27

12-2 12-29

12-2 1-14
12-2 1-15
12-2 1-1
12-2 1-4
12-2 1-5
12-2 12-30
12-2 1.1

12-2 1-3
12-2 1-6
12-2 1-1

12-2 1-4

12-2 1-6


10-1 12-2 1-9
10-1 12-2 12-31

10-1 12-2 12-31
10-1 12-2 1-2
10-1 12-2 1-2
10-1 12-2 12-23

10-1 12-2 12-30
10-1 12-2 1-1
10-1 12-2 12-31
10-1 12-2 1-3
10-1 12-2 12-29


4 2.1 5.7 7.2 7


NR 7


4.9 7.5 7.5
6.1 10.9 9
5.4 9.1 8

6.1 8.9 8
6.5 11.6 8.5
6.4 10.1 8.5
5.6 9.2 9
6.3 8.8 9


7 2.1 6.4 8.3 8.5
14 1.8 6.9 11.0 9.5

12 1.8 6.3 8.2 8


5.6 8.8 8.5
5.5 9.3 9
6.3 9.4 9.5
6.6 9.4 9
7.1 10.3 9
7.7 9.3 8
6.3 10.8 8.5

6.9 9.4 9
7.1 11.9 8.5
6.1 9.6 8.5


18 2.1 7.6 10.4 9

15 2.2 6.1 9.8 8.5

12 2.6 6.7 11.1 8
7 2.1 6.9 10.3 10


8.5 NR 8

8.5 NR 8
8.5 NR 8.5
9 NR 9
9 NR 9
9 NR 9
8.5 NR 8
7.5 NR 8

8.5 NR 8.5
7.5 NR 8
9 NR 8.5


7 NR 8

9 NR 7

7 NR 7
7.5 NR 8


7.4 10.7 8.5
6.6 10.4 9
5.2 9.2 7.5
7.5 8.9 8

6.4 8.8 8
7.0 8.4 8.5
7.3 8.9 9
6.3 8.3 8
7.5 9.3 9








Table 4 (continued).


Field Date Divergence' Flower' Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common Name) Seed' Sowing Transplant First of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source Flower Color Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in) Uniformity Flowering' Lodging' Overall'
(days)


Universal Plus Red Wing GLD dkmah upper, gold lower 10-1 12-2 1-1 7 1.6 9.2 11.7 9 6.5 NR 8
w/mah face
Universal Plus Rose GLD clear dk rose 10-1 12-2 12-31 7 1.9 7.2 13 10 8 NR 9
Universal Plus Rose Blotch GLD dk rose w/face 10-1 12-2 12-30 7 1.7 7.9 13.3 10 7.5 NR 8
Universal Plus True Blue GLD clear mid pur-blue 10-1 12-2 12-28 14 1.8 8.1 11.5 9 8 NR 8.5
Universal Plus Violet Blotch GLD dk pur w/face 10-1 12-2 12-31 3 1.6 7.7 12.1 10 8 NR 9
Universal Plus White GLD clear white 10-1 12-2 12-30 11 1.9 8.3 10.6 9 9 NR 9
Universal Plus White Blotch GLD cream white w/face 10-1 12-2 12-29 14 1.5 6.3 10.9 10 6.5 NR 7
Universal Plus Yellow GLD clear gold 10-1 12-2 12-26 18 1.5 6.8 11.9 9.5 6.5 NR 7
Universal Plus Yellow Blotch GLD gold yel w/face 10-1 12-2 12-27 10 1.5 8.3 9.9 8.5 7.5 NR 7.5
Universal Plus Yellow/Red Blotch GLD gold yel w/red face 10-1 12-2 1-3 12 2 6.8 10.8 9 7.5 NR 7.5
Wink Series
Wink Purple & White TAK dk pur upper, white lower 10-1 12-2 12-26 7 1.7 9.2 11.7 9 7 NR 8
w/whsk
Wink Red & Yellow TAK red upper, gold lower w/whsk 10-1 12-2 12-29 4 1.7 7.5 10.7 9 7 NR 5


'Source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for source designations.
'Abbreviations: beacon = beaconsfield; bi = bicolor, bl = blue; brt = bright; crm = cream; ctr = center, dk(r) = dark(er); elec = electric; lav = lavender Ig = large; It = light; mah = mahogany, org = orange; pk = pink; pur = purple; sm =r\o
small; w/ with; wh = white; whsk = whiskers; yel = yellow. cn
'Abbreviations: DNF = did not flower. Divergence of flowering was the number of days between flowering of the first and last plants in the plot
'Antirrhinum and Linaria = flower diameter/spike length; Lobularia and Pelargonium = flower diameter/head diameter.
'Measured February 12, 17 and 18, 1997. NM = not measured.
"Rating: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 very poor, 0 = all dead. NR = not rated. Multiple ratings in chronological order.
'Density and distribution rating.
'Rating: 10 = no lodging, I = plants flattened to ground. NR = not rated. Multiple ratings in chronological order.
Inclusive rating for appearance and vigor: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. NR = not rated. Multiple ratings in chronological order.









The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
D The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
Q A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
O Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
U An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.