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 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Summary
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 Literature cited
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Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Creation Date: 1995
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Bedding plants -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Bedding plants -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1994-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Winter 1997-1998.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62677465
lccn - 2005229094
System ID: UF00054205:00003

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Summary
        Page 8
    Note
        Page 8
    Acknowledgement
        Page 8
    Literature cited
        Page 8
    Tables
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The gulf coast research and education center
        Page 17
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







UNIVERSITY OF
1|FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-29 (September)


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS
SPRING 1995 arsto Science
tarston Science
Library
JAN 14 9 19t
T. K. HOWE AND W. E. WAH^ of Florida









GCREC Research Report BRA1995-29


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS SPRING 1995

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203

The performance of flowering bedding plant cultivars in demonstration plots has
been evaluated two to three times a year at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center in Bradenton, FL for the past 12 years. In the spring (March June)
season of 1995, 185 entries from 22 genera, supplied by 9 companies, the USDA and
the University of Florida, were examined in unreplicated nine plant plots. This
trial allowed the variety trials coordinator, along with interested growers, seed
companies, landscapers, breeders, and extension master gardeners to view new
releases from commercial breeders and to make preliminary assessments of cultivar
suitability for use in central Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seeds were sown in a peat:vermiculite medium (see below) and germinated under
environmental conditions as required for each species. Seedlings were
transplanted to Todd planter flats (1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch cells, model 128)
filled with peat:vermiculite medium (1:1,v:v) amended with dolomite, super-
phosphate, and hydrated lime at 11.3, 5.6, and 2.8 lb per cu yd, respectively.
Plants were fertilized with soluble 20-20-20 (rates and times varied with the
species) after the appearance of the first true leaf. Plants were not given
plant growth regulators.

Beds of EauGallie fine sand were raised, broadcast with Osmocote(R) 18-6-12 slow
release fertilizer which was incorporated three to four inches across the width
of the bed at a rate of 35.6 lb/1000 sq ft, fumigated (methyl bromide:
chloropicrin, 66:33) and covered with black polyethylene. Finished beds were 2.7
ft wide and 8 inches high on 5 ft centers. Irrigation water was supplied by
subsurface seepage from lateral ditches spaced every 42 ft.

Transplants were taken to the field when roots were well developed and filled the
containerized cells of the planter flats. Transplants were placed in beds on 12
inch centers in three rows across each bed with 9 plants per plot (staggered
layout), or on 9 inch centers in three rows across the bed with nine plants per
plot. Plants were grown in full sun. Dates for sowing and field planting are
included in the trial summary table.

Pesticides were used preventively or on demand for lepidopterous larvae,
silverleaf whiteflies, and bacterial and fungal pathogens. This flower trial
emphasized the performance of cultivars in ground beds. No manipulation of the
plants such as the application of growth retardants, pinching of the apical buds,
or detaching the old flowers occurred.

IResearch Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.


September









RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Temperature and rainfall conditions for the spring of 1995 appear in Table 1.
Maximum and minimum daily temperatures were one to four degrees higher than the
41-year average during all months. Rainfall was below average during March and
May, but above normal in April.

A complete listing of contributing companies and the designation of each company
as referenced in the summary table are found in Table 2.

The following discussion highlights and augments the information found in Table
3. Focal points of the discussion will include those entries with superior
performance or those that were new introductions.

Aqeratum houstonianum. (Floss flower). 'Neptune Blue' and 'Neptune White' had
erratic, sparse flowering and uneven plant size. 'Neptune White' lacked vigor
and all plants were dead by mid-May.

Ammobium alatum. 'Bikini' was awarded the Flueroselect Gold Medal for 1996. It
had unique clusters of white, paper-textured, 3/4-inch flowers with gold centers
on long stems. The plant was reminiscent of statice in growth habit and
flowering. The flowers can be used fresh-cut or dried. Plants reached a height
of 15 inches and were 12 inches wide. Flowering was a bit erratic and plants
experienced mid-day wilting. The overall rating was influenced by the tendency
for plant lodging and mortalities.

Antirrhinum ma.ius. (Snapdragon). 'Bells Mixture, 'Chimes Mixture', 'Tahiti
Mix', and 'Royal Carpet' are dwarf snapdragon series. Mature plant height
averaged 4 to 5 inches for 'Bells Mixture' and 'Chimes Mixture', and 6 inches for
'Tahiti Mix', and 9 inches for 'Royal Carpet Mix'. All plants of these series
were slightly shorter this season than in the fall of 1994, but similar to the
fall of 1993 and the spring of 1994 (Howe & Waters, 1994b, 1994c, 1995). Overall
performance was best for the 'Chimes' and 'Tahiti' series. 'Bells Mixture' has
the novelty value of being the first dwarf snapdragon to have a butterfly-type
flower. The 'Liberty' series is an intermediate snapdragon, which reached a
height of 14 to 20 inches and flowered later than the dwarf snapdragons. Lodging
was not a serious concern with 'Liberty'; rather it tended to lean, so it could
be used unstaked in the landscape.

Celosia plumosa. (Wheat celosia). 'Pink Candle' produced bushy 3-ft tall plants
with an abundance of light pink, wheat-like plumes. This particular item drew
a lot of notice from trial visitors because of its interesting appearance. All
plants in the plot flowered within two days and ratings were excellent early in
the season, only declining slightly in the late part of the season due to slight
lodging. It had a textural quality and soft floral color which would lend to its
use in Victorian gardening schemes.

Chrysanthemum superbum. (Shasta daisy). 'Snow Bouquet' produced very vigorous
and healthy plants. However, flowering was very erratic. Those plants which
flowered did so within a 27 day period; but two of the nine plants in the plot
never flowered.

Coreopsis tinctoria. (Tickseed). 'Premium Yellow' coreopsis generally flowered
prolifically as small, bushy plants. However, one plant of nine never flowered.









The plants seemed suitable for border use due to their small, compact stature.
Overall rating was low due to nearly 50% plant mortality by early May and the
absence of flowers on one plant.

Delphinium SD. (Larkspur). Only 30% of 'Banner Mix' lived past early May.
Additionally, plants lacked vigor, were only fairly uniform in size and shape,
and had only fair flower coverage.

Dianthus hybrida. (D. chinensis x D. barbatus). Most of the entries in this
species had overall ratings of good to excellent (7 to 10) when evaluated in late
April. As a series, 'Floral Lace' was earlier than the other dianthus in trial
and the individual cultivars of 'Floral Lace' all flowered within five days of
one another. Flowering could have been better for 'Floral Lace Violet', 'Floral
Lace Picotee' and 'Floral Lace Purple'. 'Magic Charms' and the two 'Parfait'
cultivars were the latest to flower, but had the largest flowers.

'Princess Scarlet' had the greatest divergence of flowering of 21 days. It was
also the latest cultivar of the 'Princess' series. 'Princess Purple' exhibited
some foliar variegation which lowered the overall rating for this cultivar.
'Princess White' received perfect (10) ratings for uniformity, flowering, lodging
and overall appearance.

Dimorphotheca sinuata. (African Daisy). Although seemingly very vigorous early
in the season, these plants quickly died as soon as they flowered. Plant losses
occurred so quickly that no measurements were possible.

Eustoma graniflorum. (Lisianthus). Several commercially available lisianthus
cultivars were compared to heat-tolerant hybrids developed at the Gulf Coast
Research & Education Center Bradenton by Brent Harbaugh and Jay Scott. Some
lisianthus seedlings were heat stressed by exposure to 88 degrees Fahrenheit for
a period of 5 weeks. Transplants were then moved to a greenhouse until planting
the field plots. 'Tiara Purple' and 'Tiara Pink' subsequently remained rosetted
until late May when about 50% of the plants flowered. Flowering was extremely
prolific and very uniform for the heat tolerant hybrids with the exception of 94-
249. Flowering was also very good for 'Blue Lisa', 'Little Belle Blue' and
'Mermaid Blue' which were not heat stressed. Two of the heat tolerant hybrids
had recently been named and have been released by the University of Florida. The
new cultivars are 'Maurine Blue', a heat tolerant cutting/bedding type, and
'Florida Blue', a semi-dwarf. Both cultivars produced very bushy, full plants
which had extremely heavy flower coverage.

Lisianthus were assigned seasonal ratings on May 22 and measured June 1. For
most entries, plant stand was not 100% due to Fusarium wilt which manifested
itself at the time of heaviest flowering. Low overall ratings reflect the plant
losses prior to May 22. Regardless, a good impression of the potential of each
entry was obvious for the species.

Gaillardia splendens. (Blanketflower). 'Z-Scape', as was expected, flowered
later than other species in trial. This particular gaillardia produced light
red flowers 2.3 inches in diameter. The plants were very vigorous, full and
bushy and reached 33 inches in height. This is taller than other gaillardia
cultivars evaluated in the past (Howe & Waters, 1993, 1994a, 1995). Field notes
indicated that it appeared hedge-like in the plot. Severe lodging occurred
(after the ratings were given) late in the season when the typical rainy season
commenced.









Gomphrena globosa. All cultivars of this species gave among the very best
performance in the spring. 'Bicolor Rose' gomphrena was one of a few items in
the entire trial area that was given perfect ratings (10) in all categories.
This repeats its outstanding performance in the fall of 1994 (Howe & Waters,
1995). It was extremely uniform, free flowering, vigorous and had good longevity
in the landscape. These ratings were only exceeded by the novelty value of the
light rose and cream globe-shaped flowers color of this cultivar. This cultivar
should be very attractive in Victorian gardens. Also striking was the fact that
every plant of 'Bicolor Rose' flowered on the same day. The 30-inch tall plants
formed a neat hedge and did not fall over later in the season when the seasonal
rains started. Simply put, this cultivar was superb.

The dwarf 'Gnome' series also provided exceptional garden performance. The
globe-shaped plants of 'Gnome Pink', 'Gnome Purple' (formerly 'Buddy') and 'Gnome
White' were very compact and neat. Flowering was slightly less prolific for the
pink and 'Gnome Purple' was shorter than the other two colors. Overall the
series was well balanced and had good visual impact. This trio would be ideally
suited in border plantings.

Gvpsophilia muralis. (Baby's Breath). 'Garden Bride Soft Pink' was one of the
most unique items in the spring trial. It had great novelty value and was very
attractive to trial visitors, who felt compelled to touch this plant. It grew
into small, compact, rounded plants (8 x 10 inches) which were covered with tiny
pink flowers. The fine foliage and profusion of very small flowers made this
cultivar delicate in appearance. It had good garden performance; however this
cultivar did not do well at the end of the season when temperatures rose and
summer rains began. It should be handled as a cool season plant and not pushed
into the summer months.

Limonium sinuatum. (Statice, Sea Lavender). 'Friendly Yellow', when it produced
flowers, was extremely attractive. Eight of the nine plants had a flowering
divergence of 37 days, with the ninth plant never flowering. Two-thirds of the
plants were still in the rosette form on May 8. This lack of consistent
flowering was a significant problem for the cultivar. If plant flowering was
more consistent, this statice has great potential due to the impressive floral
display and the appeal of the lemon yellow flowers.

Melampodium paludosum. 'Derby' produced an abundance of golden yellow, daisy-
like flowers just over an inch in diameter. The dwarf plants grew into a roughly
spherical shape which were 12 x 13 inches in size. All ratings were very good
to excellent in all categories except the "overall" rating, which, reflected the
loss of plants to an undetermined wilt.
Nicotiana alata. (Flowering tobacco). Five colors of the 'Havana' series were
examined and found to be very uniform in flower size, which were 1.2 inches in
diameter without exception, and in the average date of first flower, which were
all within six days of each other. Ratings were excellent for flowering and
lodging; however, plant uniformity was not good among the cultivars. High
mortality in some plots lowered "overall' ratings.
Nierembergia caerulea. 'Mont Blanc', a ground cover annual, is a good warm
season alternative to alyssum. As temperatures increased through the spring,
this cultivar did well. However, it is not a short day plant. In the fall of
1994, this species grew well and provided a thick mat of vegetation, but
essentially never flowered (Howe & Waters, 1995). This species should not be
grown in the fall or winter.







5

Pentas lanceolata. (Star-cluster). 'New Look' is the first pentas cultivar
available from seed. Plants were not large enough to successfully establish in
the field, and this was also a problem in the fall of 1994 (Howe and Waters,
1995). In both instances, it was felt not to be the fault of the cultivar,
rather the fact that it was taken to the field as too small of a plant to cope
with transplant shock. Perhaps a 4-inch potted plant would be better suited to
landscape installation.

Petunia x hybrida. Sixty-eight petunia cultivars were examined in this trial and
were one of the most interesting species to examine this spring because of
certain new releases. Petunias performed extremely well as a group and peaked
in appearance and flowering the third week of April. All petunia plots were
rated at peak appearance and again 17 days later when plants were lodging. Later
overall ratings were most influenced by the effect of lodging on appearance.

The most interesting addition to commercial petunia offerings was the
introduction of the 'Fantasy' series as a new class of petunia called milliflora.
The uniqueness of the milliflora class was the focus of many discussions in the
trial area. The 'Fantasy' cultivars were very dwarf, reaching a height of only
6 inches with a hemispherical-shaped canopy which spread to 13 or 14 inches by
April 19. The 'Fantasy' series was at least a week earlier than any other
petunia series in the trial. The flowers were between 1.6 and 1.7 inches wide,
making them a miniature petunia flower. This series was introduced with six
colors, and 'Fantasy Pink Morn' received the All America Selections award for
1996. The millifloras are ideally suited as border plants and could be used much
like alyssum. The most outstanding feature was the longevity of the millifloras,
which matched their grandiflora and multiflora counterparts in the garden. Thus
diminutive petunia should make a big impact.
Of the multiflora type, 'Heavenly Lavender' is a new introduction which also won
an All America Selections award for 1996. This petunia produced fully double
flowers that were a rich pink-lilac. The plant became very large before
flowering in this test and was the latest petunia to flower. However, the double
flower is a feature that lends itself to later flowering. 'Heavenly Lavender'
did not peak in flowering until early May. The plants were very tall and began
lodging at the time of the first rating without the influence of rainfall. For
this reason, overall ratings were not good.

Six 'Flash' (grandiflora) entries were evaluated and all were given good to
superior overall ratings at peak flowering. Later in the season, ratings fell
due to lodging for 'Velvet Flash' and 'White Flash', and were affected by plant
mortality in 'Red Flash'. Divergence of flowering was poor for 'Red Flash' and
'Rose/White Flash'. 'Red Flash' was much shorter than other colors in the
series.

The 'Ultra' grandiflora series did better than the 'Flash' series. Of 12 'Ultra'
entries only two ('Ultra Crimson Star' and 'Ultra Red') had divergence of
flowering at 10 days or greater. The cultivars all flowered within six days of
one another. All ratings at peak flowering were generally superior to excellent
with a few exceptions. Later ratings fell only slightly for most cultivars.
Only 'Ultra Scarlet' produced flowers less than 3.0 inches in diameter, and
'Ultra Crimson Star' produced the largest at 3.9 inches.

A spectacular newcomer to grandiflora petunias is 'Lavender Storm'. The plants
of this cultivar were very quick to fill out, produced large full flowers in
abundance and reached peak flowering ahead of everything else in trial except the









millifloras. Ratings were very high'on both rating dates and lodging was
minimal. Plants were extremely uniform with an impressive floral display. The
flower color was an unusual pink-lilac. This cultivar was outstanding.
The 'Hulahoop' series, a grandiflora picotee flower series, was a little later
than other series in the trial. Two colors, 'Hulahoop Red' and 'Hulahoop Velvet'
had good divergence of flowering when compared to the rest of the series colors.
All colors had superior to excellent ratings at peak flowering, which did not
decline much at the later rating date. 'Hulahoop Burgundy' had individual plants
which produced flowers with nearly solid colored flowers (no white rim),
'Hulahoop Red' had a variable rim size, and 'Hulahoop Rose' had a scant amount
of rim.

'Cherry Frost', another grandiflora picotee type, flowered later and had a two
week divergence of flowering, but had superior ratings at peak flowering. Later
ratings were influenced by lodging of plants. This item was not different in
performance than the 'Hulahoop' series.

Generally 'Madness' floribunda (effectively multiflora) cultivars were rated
superior to excellent at the first rating date. All colors in the series
flowered within one day of each other, but two colors had divergence of flowering
at 13 to 14 days. Plant sizes were very uniform and flowering was prolific.
Late season ratings reflect the tendency to lodge. Overall the series was among
the best petunias in trial.
The 'Merlin' multiflora series was outstanding with the exception of two or three
colors of the 13 examined. Performance in the landscape was as good as any series
in trial. The entire series, with the exception of 'Merlin Blue', was 9 inches
tall or less when measured at peak flowering. This was the most dwarf series
among the multiflora/grandiflora type petunias. Divergence of flowering was
under 10 days for all but three colors in the line. Less than superior
performance on both rating dates was noted for only 'Merlin Blue', 'Merlin Blue
Picotee', 'Merlin Burgundy Picotee', 'Merlin Red Picotee' and 'Merlin Rose
Picotee'. However, even these were not detrimental to the series integrity.
They were just not the very best items the series has to offer.

The 'Primetime' multiflora series has introduced special color blends that were
available for the first time this spring. These color blends included:
'Primetime Blues', 'Primetime Crystals', Primetime Fiesta', and 'Primetime
Twilight' mixtures. All are custom color blends to achieve landscaping ambience
such as "coolness", "hot, vibrant", "soft, pastel" and "calming, dusk".
Additionally, several recent single color introductions 'Primetime Salmon Morn',
'Primetime Pink Morn', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Scarlet', 'Primetime Mid
Blue' and 'Primetime Carmine', were evaluated for a second time (Howe and Waters,
1995). Most ratings for flowering and plant uniformity were at 8.5 or above at
both rating dates, but lodging was a problem even early in the season for some
cultivars. As a series, plants were well matched for plant size and habit,
flowering ability, flower size and time to flower. Five colors had divergence
of flowering which exceeded 10 days, and two colors were a bit later to flower
than the majority. Overall, the series was a strong. With the availability of
special color blends and new single colors, the 'Primetime' series has become
very impressive.

One of the most exciting and interesting releases recently has been the spreading
petunia, 'Purple Wave'. While it was the last petunia to flower, as seen
previously, the profusion of dark orchid-plum colored flowers was well worth the









wait (Howe and Waters, 1994c, 1995). As further endorsement, this cultivar was
awarded an All America Selections award for 1995. Although jokingly described
as a "kudzu with flowers", this petunia spreads very aggressively and is a heavy
feeder. This ground cover petunia had good vigor, flowering and appeal to trial
visitors. 'Purple Wave' is a long day plant, and flowers much better in the
spring than in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Unlike other creeping types,
the 'Supertunia' and the 'Cascadia', 'Purple Wave' is seed propagated. This
cultivar is also well adapted to hanging basket production.

Tagetes erecta. (African or American marigold). Plants of the 'Antigua' series
are day neutral. They produced 2.5-2.8 inch, fully double flowers on dwarf, 12-
.13 inch tall plants. The flower size was slightly smaller than the 3 inch
diameter attained in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Plant uniformity was good
to superior and was the attribute rated the lowest for the series. 'Antigua
Yellow' flowered a few days later than the other colors in the series. Plants
reached a height of 7 to 8 inches by the end of April.

Plants of the 'Excel' series are also day neutral. They have been on the market
for a couple of years and produced larger plants than the previously discussed
series. Flowers were also smaller than observed in the fall and ranged from 2.7
inches for 'Excel Gold' to 3.2 inches for 'Excel Orange' (Howe and Waters, 1995).
Mature plants were about a foot tall. As with the 'Antigua' series, plant
uniformity received the lowest ratings. 'Excel Gold' was noted to have a single
plant which had white foliage in the plant apex.

'Inca' cultivars again produced the largest flowers of the American type
marigolds. They were about 3.5 inches in diameter, again smaller than in the
fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Ratings were excellent for flowering and lodging
in late April. Plant uniformity was less than superior for only 'Inca Gold'.

The 'Marvel' series secured the best ratings in all categories this season.
Uniformity among plants in the plot was better and this was the deciding factor.
Plant dimensions and flowering times made the 'Marvel' series similar to the
'Inca' series.

'Perfection Mixture' had superior to excellent ratings with flowers 3.2 to 3.3
inches in diameter. The 'Perfection' cultivars were the tallest marigolds in
trial at 16-18 inches in height. Flowering times were similar to the 'Inca' and
'Marvel' series.

Tagetes patula. (French marigold). Each cultivar in the 'Bonanza' series got
excellent ratings in all categories and had early flowering. Mature plants were
12 to 14 inches tall.

Verbena hvbrida. The 'Romance' series is a standard in creeping verbena. These
two entries did very well in flowering, but plant uniformity could have been
better. 'Romance Scarlet' was perhaps mislabelled, because the plot flowered as
mixed colors. It was obviously not the upright 'Novalis Mix', also in trial, and
contained colors other than 'Romance Scarlet' or 'Romance White' that were the
only 'Romance' colors grown. 'Novalis Mix' performed similarly to the 'Romance'
cultivars.

Zinnia elegans. 'Short Stuff' has been reintroduced to the market after its
initial debut in 1982 (Howe and Waters, 1983), and is available in six separate
colors and a custom mix. These very dwarf, 6 to 7 inch tall, plants produced
flowers averaging 2.6 to 3.1 inches in diameter with vivid colors. An obvious









misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. This was also
noted in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Ratings were superior to excellent
in all categories except for 'Short Stuff Gold' and 'Short Stuff Scarlet' which
did not produce particularly uniform plants. 'Short Stuff Gold' also had a large
divergence of flowering compared to the other colors in the line.

'Peter Pan Mixture' produced slightly taller plants with much larger flowers than
the 'Short Stuff' cultivars. Other ratings and flowering attributes were
similar.

'Pinwheel Red' is a new color in the mildew resistant 'Pinwheel' series. The
orange-red single flowers were 2.3 inches in diameter, and all plants flowered
for the first time within four days. Mature plants reached a height of 13 inches
and spread to 16 inches which provided a hedge-like appearance to the plot.
Plant uniformity could have been better, but overall this item did very well.
SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on the highest overall ratings during the spring
of 1995 came from: snapdragon 'Yellow Chimes', 'Tahiti Lilac', 'Tahiti Orange',
'Tahiti Rose' and 'Tahiti Yellow' ; wheat celosia 'Pink Candle': dianthus
'Floral Lace Crimson' and 'Princess White'; gomphrena 'Bicolor Rose' and 'Gnome
White'; gypsophilia 'Garden Bride Soft Pink'; petunia 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy
Pink', 'Fantasy Red', 'Blue Flash', 'Flash Orchid Vein', 'Rose/White Flash',
'Lavender Storm', 'Plum Crazy Madness', 'Rose Madness', 'Total Madness', 'White
Madness', 'Merlin Cherry Rose', 'Merlin Pink', 'Merlin Red', 'Merlin Rose',
'Merlin Salmon', 'Merlin White', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Mid Blue',
'Primetime Red Frost', 'Primetime Salmon', 'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime
Scarlet', 'Ultra Pink' 'Ultra Rose', 'Ultra Salmon', 'Ultra Sky Blue', and
'Purple Wave'; marigold 'Antigua Orange', 'Excel Orange', 'Excel Primrose', the
entire 'Marvel', 'Bonanza' and 'Perfection' series; zinnia 'Short Stuff Coral',
'Short Stuff Deep Red', 'Short Stuff Orange', and 'Short Stuff White'. Many of
these cultivars are recently released to the bedding plant industry.
The author's favorites were: 'Fantasy' milliflora petunia series and 'Bicolor
Rose' gomphrena.

NOTE
The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Floranova (formerly Clause), G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee,
Pan American Seed, Sakata Seed America, S & G Seeds and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1995.

LITERATURE CITED
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.









misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. This was also
noted in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Ratings were superior to excellent
in all categories except for 'Short Stuff Gold' and 'Short Stuff Scarlet' which
did not produce particularly uniform plants. 'Short Stuff Gold' also had a large
divergence of flowering compared to the other colors in the line.

'Peter Pan Mixture' produced slightly taller plants with much larger flowers than
the 'Short Stuff' cultivars. Other ratings and flowering attributes were
similar.

'Pinwheel Red' is a new color in the mildew resistant 'Pinwheel' series. The
orange-red single flowers were 2.3 inches in diameter, and all plants flowered
for the first time within four days. Mature plants reached a height of 13 inches
and spread to 16 inches which provided a hedge-like appearance to the plot.
Plant uniformity could have been better, but overall this item did very well.
SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on the highest overall ratings during the spring
of 1995 came from: snapdragon 'Yellow Chimes', 'Tahiti Lilac', 'Tahiti Orange',
'Tahiti Rose' and 'Tahiti Yellow' ; wheat celosia 'Pink Candle': dianthus
'Floral Lace Crimson' and 'Princess White'; gomphrena 'Bicolor Rose' and 'Gnome
White'; gypsophilia 'Garden Bride Soft Pink'; petunia 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy
Pink', 'Fantasy Red', 'Blue Flash', 'Flash Orchid Vein', 'Rose/White Flash',
'Lavender Storm', 'Plum Crazy Madness', 'Rose Madness', 'Total Madness', 'White
Madness', 'Merlin Cherry Rose', 'Merlin Pink', 'Merlin Red', 'Merlin Rose',
'Merlin Salmon', 'Merlin White', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Mid Blue',
'Primetime Red Frost', 'Primetime Salmon', 'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime
Scarlet', 'Ultra Pink' 'Ultra Rose', 'Ultra Salmon', 'Ultra Sky Blue', and
'Purple Wave'; marigold 'Antigua Orange', 'Excel Orange', 'Excel Primrose', the
entire 'Marvel', 'Bonanza' and 'Perfection' series; zinnia 'Short Stuff Coral',
'Short Stuff Deep Red', 'Short Stuff Orange', and 'Short Stuff White'. Many of
these cultivars are recently released to the bedding plant industry.
The author's favorites were: 'Fantasy' milliflora petunia series and 'Bicolor
Rose' gomphrena.

NOTE
The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Floranova (formerly Clause), G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee,
Pan American Seed, Sakata Seed America, S & G Seeds and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1995.

LITERATURE CITED
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.









misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. This was also
noted in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Ratings were superior to excellent
in all categories except for 'Short Stuff Gold' and 'Short Stuff Scarlet' which
did not produce particularly uniform plants. 'Short Stuff Gold' also had a large
divergence of flowering compared to the other colors in the line.

'Peter Pan Mixture' produced slightly taller plants with much larger flowers than
the 'Short Stuff' cultivars. Other ratings and flowering attributes were
similar.

'Pinwheel Red' is a new color in the mildew resistant 'Pinwheel' series. The
orange-red single flowers were 2.3 inches in diameter, and all plants flowered
for the first time within four days. Mature plants reached a height of 13 inches
and spread to 16 inches which provided a hedge-like appearance to the plot.
Plant uniformity could have been better, but overall this item did very well.
SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on the highest overall ratings during the spring
of 1995 came from: snapdragon 'Yellow Chimes', 'Tahiti Lilac', 'Tahiti Orange',
'Tahiti Rose' and 'Tahiti Yellow' ; wheat celosia 'Pink Candle': dianthus
'Floral Lace Crimson' and 'Princess White'; gomphrena 'Bicolor Rose' and 'Gnome
White'; gypsophilia 'Garden Bride Soft Pink'; petunia 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy
Pink', 'Fantasy Red', 'Blue Flash', 'Flash Orchid Vein', 'Rose/White Flash',
'Lavender Storm', 'Plum Crazy Madness', 'Rose Madness', 'Total Madness', 'White
Madness', 'Merlin Cherry Rose', 'Merlin Pink', 'Merlin Red', 'Merlin Rose',
'Merlin Salmon', 'Merlin White', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Mid Blue',
'Primetime Red Frost', 'Primetime Salmon', 'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime
Scarlet', 'Ultra Pink' 'Ultra Rose', 'Ultra Salmon', 'Ultra Sky Blue', and
'Purple Wave'; marigold 'Antigua Orange', 'Excel Orange', 'Excel Primrose', the
entire 'Marvel', 'Bonanza' and 'Perfection' series; zinnia 'Short Stuff Coral',
'Short Stuff Deep Red', 'Short Stuff Orange', and 'Short Stuff White'. Many of
these cultivars are recently released to the bedding plant industry.
The author's favorites were: 'Fantasy' milliflora petunia series and 'Bicolor
Rose' gomphrena.

NOTE
The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Floranova (formerly Clause), G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee,
Pan American Seed, Sakata Seed America, S & G Seeds and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1995.

LITERATURE CITED
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.









misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. This was also
noted in the fall (Howe and Waters, 1995). Ratings were superior to excellent
in all categories except for 'Short Stuff Gold' and 'Short Stuff Scarlet' which
did not produce particularly uniform plants. 'Short Stuff Gold' also had a large
divergence of flowering compared to the other colors in the line.

'Peter Pan Mixture' produced slightly taller plants with much larger flowers than
the 'Short Stuff' cultivars. Other ratings and flowering attributes were
similar.

'Pinwheel Red' is a new color in the mildew resistant 'Pinwheel' series. The
orange-red single flowers were 2.3 inches in diameter, and all plants flowered
for the first time within four days. Mature plants reached a height of 13 inches
and spread to 16 inches which provided a hedge-like appearance to the plot.
Plant uniformity could have been better, but overall this item did very well.
SUMMARY

Outstanding performance based on the highest overall ratings during the spring
of 1995 came from: snapdragon 'Yellow Chimes', 'Tahiti Lilac', 'Tahiti Orange',
'Tahiti Rose' and 'Tahiti Yellow' ; wheat celosia 'Pink Candle': dianthus
'Floral Lace Crimson' and 'Princess White'; gomphrena 'Bicolor Rose' and 'Gnome
White'; gypsophilia 'Garden Bride Soft Pink'; petunia 'Fantasy Blue', 'Fantasy
Pink', 'Fantasy Red', 'Blue Flash', 'Flash Orchid Vein', 'Rose/White Flash',
'Lavender Storm', 'Plum Crazy Madness', 'Rose Madness', 'Total Madness', 'White
Madness', 'Merlin Cherry Rose', 'Merlin Pink', 'Merlin Red', 'Merlin Rose',
'Merlin Salmon', 'Merlin White', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Mid Blue',
'Primetime Red Frost', 'Primetime Salmon', 'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime
Scarlet', 'Ultra Pink' 'Ultra Rose', 'Ultra Salmon', 'Ultra Sky Blue', and
'Purple Wave'; marigold 'Antigua Orange', 'Excel Orange', 'Excel Primrose', the
entire 'Marvel', 'Bonanza' and 'Perfection' series; zinnia 'Short Stuff Coral',
'Short Stuff Deep Red', 'Short Stuff Orange', and 'Short Stuff White'. Many of
these cultivars are recently released to the bedding plant industry.
The author's favorites were: 'Fantasy' milliflora petunia series and 'Bicolor
Rose' gomphrena.

NOTE
The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Floranova (formerly Clause), G. S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Oglevee,
Pan American Seed, Sakata Seed America, S & G Seeds and Waller Flowerseed for
their financial support during 1995.

LITERATURE CITED
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.







9

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1993. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
spring 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1993-26
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994a. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
summer 1993. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-10.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994b. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
fall-winter 1993-1994. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-11.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994c. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials,
spring 1994. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-17.
Howe, T. K. And W. E. Waters. 1995. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
fall 1994. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-15.

Stanley, C. D. 1995. Weather report for 1994 Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton, Florida. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-22.





Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the spring of 1995 and
the 41-year averages (Stanley, 1995).

Average Daily Temperature (oF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1995z 41-yr avq 1995' 41-yr avq 1995z 41-yr avq

March 80 77 59 55 2.57 3.34
April 83 82 63 60 3.41 1.74
May 91 87 70 64 1.48 3.12

ZFirst transplanting March 9, 1995. Trial terminated May 30, 1995.







10

Table 2. Seed suppliers with designations referred to in Table 3.

Company/Supplier Designation

American Takii TAK
301 Natividad Rd., Salinas, CA 93906
Ball Seed BLL
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
E. Benary Seed of America, Inc. BEN
1444 Larson Street, Sycamore, IL 60178
Daenfeldt DFT
P.O. Box 947, Albany, Oregon, 97321
Goldsmith Seeds GLD
P. 0. Box 1349, 2280 Hecker Pass Hwy., Gilroy, CA 95020
G. S. Grimes Seeds GRM
11335 Concord-Hambden Road, Concord, OH 44077
Pan American Seed Co. PAA
P.O. Box 438, W. Chicago, IL 60185
S & G Seeds, Inc. S&G
3010 Woodcreek Dr., Suite B, Downers Grove, IL 60515
Sakata Seed Corporation SAK
18095 Serene Drive, Morgan Hill, CA 95037
University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center UF
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Vaughan's Seed Company VHN
5300 Katrine Avenue, Downers Grove, IL 60515-4095









Table 3. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, spring 1995.


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant" Ratings"
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant'
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering'"' Lodging' Overall


Ageratum houstonianum (Floss Flower)
Neptune Series
Neptune Blue GLD
Neptune White GLD
Ammobium alatum
Bikini BEN

Antirrhinum majus (Snapdragon)
Bell Series
Pink Bells GLD
Purple Bells GLD
Purple and White Bells GLD
Red Bells GLD
Rose Bells GLD
White Bells GLD
Chimes Series
Bronze Chimes GLD
Cherry Chimes GLD
Pink Chimes GLD
Rose and White Chimes GLD
White Chimes GLD
Yellow chimes GLD
Liberty Series
Liberty Bronze GLD
Liberty Cherry GLD
Liberty Crimson GLD
Liberty Lavender GLD
Liberty Light Pink GLD
Liberty Scarlet GLD
Liberty White GLD
Liberty Yellow GLD
Royal Carpet Mix TAK
Tahiti Series
Tahiti Appleblossom S&G
Tahiti Bronze S&G
Tahiti Lilac S&G
Tahiti Mauve S&G
Tahiti Orange S&G
Tahiti Rose S&G
Tahiti Rose Bicolor S&G
Tahiti Scarlet S&G
Tahiti White S&G
Tahiti Yellow S&G
Celosia plumosa (Wheat Celosia)
Pink Candle TAK
Chrysanthemum superbum (Shasta Daisy)
Snow Bouquet TAK


lav blue
white

white w/yellow
disc


rose
v dk pur-red
dk pur-red & wh bi
garnet
dk pink-red
white

dk org
It red
pink
tt coral red & wh bi
white
lemon

org/bronze shades
cherry
dk garnet
dk pur-red liLac
pk
dk org-red
white
It lemon
mix

soft rose & crm bi
dk org
dk pur-red
rose & wh bi
org & yet bi
dk rose
rose & wh bi
scarlet
white
lemon

tav-pk


2-8 3-15 4-20
2-8 3-15 4-18


2-8 3-15 4-25


3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


21 0.6 7 13 7
12 NM NM NM 6.5


15 0.8 15 12 7.5


4-10
4-6
4-9
4-9
4-8
4-9

4-5
4-3
4-1
4-5
4-6
4-8

4-25
4-24
4-22
4-17
4-20
4-19
4-19
4-18
4-12

4-6
4-7
4-5
4-8
4-10
4-9
4-9
4-13
4-8
4-10


1.5
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.0
1.2

1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1

1.0/4.3
1.0/4.7
1.2/4.5
1.1/5.4
1.0/6.5
1.0/5.3
0.9/8.0
0.9/7.0
1.1/4.0

1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.6
1.2
1.1


2-8 3-15 4-7 2 5.6 35 14 10/10


7.5 10
7.5 10


8.5


7.5
9
9
9
9
10

9
9
10
9
9
9.5

9
7.5
9
9
10
9
9
9
9.5

9
10
10
9.5
10
10
9
7.5
9.5
10

10/10


7 6


10 5
10 7
10 3
10 6
10 6
10 8

10 8
10 6
10 8
10 8
10 5
10 9.5

9 8
8 2
8 6
8 8.5
8 9
8 8.5
9 8
9 7.5
10 7

10 9
10 8.5
10 10
10 9
10 10
10 9.5
10 7
10 6
10 9
10 10

10/8 10/9


white w/yel disc 1-24 3-9 5-7 (27) 2.0 26 16 9


6 10 8








Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant'. Ratings'
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant ... d .al
Cultivar Source Flower Color" Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"t Lodging Overallq


Coreopsis tinctoria (Tickseed)
Premium Yellow GRM
Delphinium spp. (Larkspur)
Banner Mix GRM
Dianthus hybrid (D. chinensis x D. barbatus)
Floral Lace Series
Floral Lace Crimson BLL
*Floral Lace Picotee BLL
Floral Lace Purple BLL
Floral Lace Rose BLL
Floral Lace Violet BLL
Floral Lace Violet Picotee BLL
Magic Charms GLD
Parfait Series
Raspberry Parfait GLD
Strawberry Parfait GLD
Princess Series
Princess Crimson Eye GLD
Princess Pink GLD
Princess Purple GLD
Princess Scarlet GLD
Princess White GLD
Telstar Mix TAK
Dimorpotheca sinuata (African Daisy)
Z-scape African Daisy GRM
Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus)
Blue Lisa PAA
Little Belle Blue UF
Mermaid Blue SAK
Tiara Series
Tiara Pink TAK
Tiara Purple TAK
University of Florida Experimental
94-42
Florida Blue (94-48) UF
94-49 UF
94-50 UF
94-66 UF
94-70 UF
Maurine Blue (94-121) UF
94-124 UF
94-219 UF
94-249 UF
94-299 UF
Gaillardia grandiflora (Blanket Flower)
Z-scape Gaillardia GRM
Gomphrena globosa
Bicolor Rose TAK


gold

elec blue shades
(Pinks)

brt garnet
cherry w/wh rim
pur rose
cherry speckled w/wh
dk red-pur
pur-cherry w/wh rim
mix


garnet w/pk rim 1-24
org-red w/v It pk rim 1-24


pur-red
dk sal pk
dk red pur
scarlet
white
mix

bright white w/disc

purple
purple
purple

It pink
purple

purple
purple
purple
purple
purple
purple
dk purple
purple
purple
pink
mid-purple

It red


1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24

2-8

12-20
12-20
12-20

1-5
1-5

12-20
12-20
12-20
12-20
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5


2-8 3-15 5-8 (16)

1-24 3-15 5-3 4


1.1 5 8 8

1.0/4.1 10 7 7.5


3-27
3-29
3-31
4-1
4-1
3-31
4-14


3-9 4-14
3-9 4-15


9 1.7 5 7 8
14 1.5 6 7 7


4-1
4-11
4-2
4-15
4-6
4-10


3-15 4-20


2 NM NM NM 7.5


3-9 4-29 15 2.4 15 lu
3-9 5-7 3 2.2 9 9
3-9 5-8 7 2.0 11 12

3-15 (5-23) (5) (2.5) (13) (11)
3-15 5-31 12 2.4 (11) 10


3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


5-8
5-8
5-7
5-8
5-11
5-12
5-6
5-12
5-9
5-17
5-13


1-24 3-9 4-29


11 2.3 33 19 10


7.5 10 1


10
8
8
9.5
7.5
10
7.5

7.5
5.5

8
8
9
6.5
10
9

7

10
10
10

(4)
0

10
10
10
10
9.5
9.5
10
9.5
9.5
3.5
9.5

10


10 1


red-pur w/wh ctr 2-8 3-15 3-31 0 0.9 30 28 10/10


8.5/10 10/10 8/10








Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plantt
Cultivar Source Flower Color" Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"' Lodging' Overall'


Gnome Series
Gnome Pink SAK
Gnome Purple (Buddy) SAK
Gnome White SAK
Gypsophila muralis (Baby's Breath)
Garden Bride Soft Pink DFT
Limonium spp. (Statice, Sea Lavender)
Friendly Yellow TAK
Melampodium patudosum
Derby Yellow BEN
Nicotiana alata (Flowering Tobacco)
Havana Series
Havana Applebtossom DFT
Havana Carmine Rose DFT
Havana Lilac Rose DFT
Havana Lime DFT
Havana White DFT
Nierembergia caerulea
Mont Blanc TAK
Pentas x Lanceolata (Star-Cluster)
New Look BEN
Petunia x hybrida
Cherry Frost (grandiflora) GLD
Fantasy Series (milliflora)
Fantasy Blue GLD
Fantasy Crystal Red GLD
Fantasy Pink GLD
Fantasy Pink Morn GLD

Fantasy Red GLD
Fantasy Salmon GLD
Flash Series
Blue Flash S&G
Flash Orchid Vein S&G
Red Flash S&G
Rose/White Flash S&G
Velvet Flash S&G
White Flash S&G
Heavenly Lavender multifloraa) GLD
Hulahoop Series (grandiflora)
Hulahoop Blue SAK
Hulahoop Burgundy SAK
Hulahoop Red SAK
Hulahoop Rose SAK
Hulahoop Velvet SAK
Lavender Storm (grandiflora) GLD
Madness Series (floribunda)
Lilac Madness BLL
Plum Crazy Madness BLL


red-pur w/wh ctr
dk red-pur
white

shades of It pink

lemon

gold


crm w/pk under
dk red-pur
dk pur-rose
It green
cream

wh w/yel ctr

dk pk

cherry w/wh rim

dk purple
dk pk w/wh veins
hot pk w/wh thrt
It pink rim, crm
halo, yet thrt
red w/wh thrt
dk pk salmon

v dk purple
pk-pur w/plum veins
red
cherry & wh star
dk plum (red-pur)
crm white
pk-lilac double

dk pur w/wh rim
dk plum w/wh rim
red w/wh rim
cherry pk w/wh rim
orch plum w/wh rim
pk Lilac

pk lilac
pale lav-lilac w/plum
veins


2-8 3-15 4-6 7
2-8 3-15 4-3 0
2-8 3-15 4-1 3

1-24 3-15 3-28 10

1-24 3-9 (4-11) (37)

2-8 3-22 4-11 6


0.2 8 14 9/9


1.8 (22) (13)


1.0 12 13 9.5/8.5


3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


1-24 3-15 4-10


13 1.0 5 13 9.5/9.5


1-24 3-22 5-1 10 0.3/2.3 9 7.2 NR


1-24 3-9 3-30

1-24 3-9 3-21
1-24 3-9 3-22
1-24 3-9 3-19

1-24 3-9 3-19
1-24 3-9 3-21
1-24 3-9 3-20


1-24 3-9 3-28


14 3.0 12 17 9/9

7 1.6 6 13 9.5/9
3 1.6 7 11 9/9
3 1.7 6 14 10/10

5 1.6 5 13 8.5/8.5
7 1.6 6 13 9.5/9.5
5 1.7 6 14 8.5/8

4 3.1 14 20 9.5/9.5
3 3.5 12 19 9.5/9
19 3.1 7 16 10/9
10 3.3 10 19 10/10
5 3.4 10 20 9/9
7 3.9 14 19 8.5/9
11 2.5 16 20 9.5/9.5

11 2.5 10 16 9/9
10 3.2 10 16 9.5/9.5
5 2.9 12 17 9/9
11 3.0 9 16 8.5/9
6 2.6 11 16 9/10
5 3.0 13 19 9/9

14 2.3 10 16 9.5/9.5


1-24 3-9 3-27 7 2.4 11 17 10/9.5


8
8.5
9

10/10

7.5

9/10


10
10
10
10
10

10/10

NR

9/8.5

10/10
9.5/8.5
10/9

10/7.5
10/9
10/9

9.5/9
10/8.5
9.5/7.5
9/8.5
9.5/7.5
9/8.5
6/9

9.5/8
9.5/8.5
9/8
9/8.5
9/8.5
10/9


10/10 9.7

10 7

10/10 8/5


8/10 9/8

NNR NR

9/7 9/7


10/10
10/10
10/10

10/10
10/10
10/10

9/8
10/9
10/10
10/10
10/7
8/5
7/5

9/8
10/7
9/7
10/8
9/8
9/8


10/9.5
9/9
10/9

9/8
9.5/9
7.5/7

9.5/8
10/9
7.5/6.5
9.5/8
8.5/7
8.5/5
5/5

9/7.5
8.5/7.5
8.5/7
8/8
9/8
9.5/9


9/9.5 10/7 8.5/7.5

10/9 10/7 10/8









Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plantt
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Floweringq't Lodging Overall


Rose Madness
Total Madness
White Madness
Merlin Series multifloraa)
Merlin Blue
Merlin Blue Picotee
Merlin Burgundy Picotee
Merlin Cherry Rose
Merlin Pink
Merlin Pink Morn

Merlin Red
Merlin Red Picotee
Merlin Rose
Merlin Rose Morn

Merlin Rose Picotee
Merlin Salmon

Merlin White
Primetime Series multifloraa)
Primetime Blue
Primetime Blues Mixture
Primetime Carmine
Primetime Crystals Mixture
Primetime Fiesta Mixture
Primetime Lavender
Primetime Light Blue
Primetime Mid Blue
Primetime Pink Morn

Primetime Red Frost
Primetime Red Veined

Primetime Rose Frost
Primetime Salmon

Primetime Salmon Morn

Primetime Scarlet
Primetime Twilight Mixture
Primetime White
Purple Wave (creeping)
Ultra Series (grandiflora)
Ultra Blue
Ultra Burgundy
Ultra Crimson Star
Ultra Pink
Ultra Light Pink Veined


hot pk
mix
white

v dk pur
dk pur w/wh rim
plum w/wh rim
dk cherry rose
hot pk
mid pk rim, crm halo,
yet thrt
red
pale red w/wh rim
dk cherry rose
dk pk rim, crm halo,
yet thrt
rose w/wh rim
dk pk coral w/pale
wh thrt
white

dk purple
blue shades & wh
dk cherry rose
veined pk & plum mix
solid colors mix
dk pk-tav
pale pur-blue
mid pur-blue
dk pk rim, sm crm
halo, yet thrt
red w/wh rim
v dk red-pk w/red
veins
cherry w/wh rim
dk pk salmon w/crm
thrt
dk pk w/lg crm ctr,
pale gold thrt
red w/wh thrt
sunset mix
white
magenta

v dk purple
v dk plum w/vein
burg & wh star
hot pk w/wh thrt
It pk w/dk pk veins,
wh thrt


1-24 3-9 3-28
1-24 3-9 3-28
1-24 3-9 3-27


1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24

1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24

1-24
1-24


2.3 10
2.4 12
2.5 12


3-24
4-9
3-29
3-27
3-26


3-9 3-27
3-9 3-27
3-9 3-28
3-9 3-27

3-9 3-28
3-9 3-29


1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-29

1-24 3-9 3-26
1-24 3-9 3-24
1-24 3-9 3-28
1-24 3-9 3-25
1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-29

1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-30

1-24 3-9 3-28
1-24 3-9 3-27

1-24 3-9 3-29


1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24
1-24


4-2
4-3
3-30
3-27
4-12


1-24 3-9 3-31
1-24 3-9 3-30
1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-26

1-24 3-9 3-29


10/10
10/8
9.5/9.5

8.5/8.5
7/9
7.5/7.5
9.5/9.5
9.5/10

9.5/10
9.5/9.5
9/9.5
10/10


9 18 9.5/9
9 15 8.5/8.5

8 17 9/9 9
7 18 9/9.5 9


8/8.5
8/8.5
8.5/9
9.5/9.5
8/9
9/9
9.5/10
9.5/9.5


10/9
10/9
10/9

10/9
8/8
9/8.5
9/8
10/8.5

8.5/9
10/9
9/9
10/9


10/8 10/9
10/6 10/7
9/8 9.5/8.5


9/7
10/9
10/10
10/10
10/10

10/10
10/10
9/10
10/9


9/8.5
7.5/8
8/5
9.5/9
10/9

9/9
10/9
8/8
10/9.5


9/9 9/8 9/9
9/7.5 10/8 9/7.5

.5/9 10/8 9.5/9
.5/9 10/9 9.5/9


9/9
9/9
9/9
9.5/9
9.5/9
9.5/10
9.5/9
9.5/10


13 18 9.5/10 10/9.5
12 19 10/9.5 9.5/8.5


9/5 8/6
9/5 8/6
10/8 9/9
8/7 8.5/8
10/8 9/8.5
9/5 9.5/6
6/8 7/8
10/5 9.5/7

7/7 8.5/8
10/8 10/8


12 2.2 10 18 9.5/10 9/9 8/8 8.5/8.5
7 2.4 8 17 8.5/9 8.5/7.5 10/9 7.5/7

15 2.2 8 16 9.5/9.5 9.5/9 10/10 9.5/9.5


11 2.3 13 21 9/9
14 2.2 10 18 10/10
9 2.3 11 20 9/10
2 2.5 11 19 8.5/9
2 2.3 6 27 8/9.5

5 3.2 12 19 9/9
8 3.5 11 21 8/8.5
10 3.9 9 20 9/8
5 3.2 9 18 10/9

4 3.3 11 18 8.5/9


9.5/9
10/9.5
9/9.5
10/10
7.5/9.5

10/9
9/8.5
8/8
10/9

10/9


10/8
10/10
9/9
10/10
10/10

10/7
9/8
10/9
10/8


9.5/8.5
10/9.5
9/9
9/9
8/9.5

9.5/8
9/8
7.5/6.5
10/9


10/8 9/8








Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-' FLower" Plant' Plant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plantt
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering't Lodging' Overall'


Ultra Plum GLD
Ultra Red GLD
Ultra Rose GLD
ULtra Salmon GLD

Ultra Scarlet GLD
Ultra Sky Blue GLD

Ultra White GLD
Tagetes erecta (American or African Marigold)
Antigua Series
Antigua Gold GLD
Antigua Orange GLD
Antigua Primrose GLD
Antigua Yellow GLD
Excel Series
Excel Gold GLD
Excel Orange GLD
Excel Primrose GLD
Excel Yellow GLD
Inca Series
Inca Gold GLD
Inca Orange GLD
Inca Yellow GLD
Marvel Series
Marvel Gold PAA
Marvel Orange PAA
Marvel Yellow PAA
Marvel Yellow Chiffon PAA
Perfection Series
Perfection Gold GLD
Perfection Orange GLD
Perfection Yellow GLD
Tagetes patula (French Marigold)
Bonanza Series
Bonanza Flame PAA
Bonanza Gold PAA
Bonanza Orange PAA
Verbena hybrida
Novalis Mix BEN
Romance Series
Romance Scarlet S&G
Romance White S&G
Zinnia elegans
Peter Pan Mixture GLD
Pinwheel Red PAA
Short Stuff Series
Short Stuff Coral GLD
Short Stuff Deep Red GLD
Short Stuff Gold GLD
Short Stuff Orange GLD


plum w/pur veins
red
dk cherry-rose
dk pink salmon w/wh
thrt
red w/gold thrt
mid blue w/brt wh
thrt
white


gold
orange
primrose
yellow


gold
orange
primrose
yellow


gold
orange
yellow


gold
orange
yellow
gr-yellow


gold
orange
yellow


mah-org bi
gold
orange


(red)


(mix)
white


mix
org-red

mid pk
v dk org scarlet
dk yellow
It org-tangerine


1-24 3-9 3-29
1-24 3-9 3-28
1-24 3-9 3-25

1-24 3-9 3-26
1-24 3-9 3-28

1-24 3-9 3-27
1-24 3-9 3-28


2-8 3-9 4-7
2-8 3-9 4-7
2-8 3-9 4-6
2-8 3-9 4-10

2-8 3-9 4-6
2-8 3-9 4-7
2-8 3-9 4-5
2-8 3-9 4-7

2-8 3-9 4-10
2-8 3-9 4-8
2-8 3-9 4-10

2-8 3-9 4-9
2-8 3-9 4-8
2-8 3-9 4-11
2-8 3-9 4-9

2-8 3-9 4-9
2-8 3-9 4-8
2-8 3-9 4-11


2-8 3-9 3-23
2-8 3-9 3-26
2-8 3-9 3-23

2-8 3-15 4-11

2-8 3-15 4-13
2-8 3-15 4-11

2-8 3-9 3-29
2-8 3-9 3-29

2-8 3-9 3-29
2-8 3-9 3-29
2-8 3-9 3-29
2-8 3-9 3-29


9.5/9
8.5/9
9/8.5


9/8.5
9/8.5
9/8.5


9/8
10/10
10/8


9/8
9/9
9.5/8.5


3 3.4 8 18 10/9 10/8.5 10/9 10/9
5 2.9 8 17 8/9 9/8 10/9 8/7

3 3.2 13 19 9/8.5 9.5/9 10/7.5 9.5/7.5
7 3.7 11 19 9/9 9/8 9/6 9/6


7 .5/2.1 8 18 8

4 .5/1.8 8 12 7
5 .5/1.5 6 14 8.5

4 3.8 8 11 8
4 2.3 13 16 8.5/9


10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10
10

10
10
10


10
10
10

9

10
10

9.5
10/10

10
10
10
10


10 8

10 7
10 8

10 8.5
10/10 9/9








Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower" PLant' PLant' Ratings"
Genus species (Common name) Seed' Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plantt
Cultivar Source Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowerings Lodging' Overall

Short Stuff Scarlet GLD dk orange 2-8 3-9 3-30 3 2.8 6 9 7 10 10 8
Short Stuff White GLD cream 2-8 3-9 3-30 7 2.9 6 9 9 10 10 9.5


'Seed source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for the source designations.
'Abbreviations: bi = bicolor; brt = bright; burg = burgundy; crm = cream; ctr = center; dk = dark; elec = electric; hvy = heavy; Lay = lavender; Ig = large; Lt = light; mah=
mahogany; med = medium; orch = orchid; org = orange; pk = pink; pur = purple; rasp = raspberry; sal = salmon; st = slight; thrt = throat; v = very; vio = violet; wh = white;
w/ = with; yel = yellow; ( ) = see text for explanation of color aberration.
'Divergence of flowering was the number of days between when the first plant in the plot flowered until the last. ( ) = flowering date or divergence among those plants which did
flower.
"Antirrhinum, Delphinimum = flower size/spike length; Pentas, Verbena = flower size/flower head size; NM = not measured.
"NM = not measured.
"Multiple ratings are in chronological order, text specifies times.
tRating: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead, NR = not rated.
'Density and distribution rating.
'Rating: 10 = no Lodging, 1 = plants flattened to ground. NR = not rated.
"Inclusive rating for appearance and vigor: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. NR = not rated.








The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
Q The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
" Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
O A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
O An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.