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 Materials and methods
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Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Creation Date: 1994
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Bedding plants -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Bedding plants -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1994-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Winter 1997-1998.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62677465
lccn - 2005229094
System ID: UF00054205:00002

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Summary
        Page 9
    Acknowledgement
        Page 9
    Literature cited
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Tables
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The gulf coast research and education center
        Page 19
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








- UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-15 (May 1995)


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS
FALL 1994


T. K. HOWE AND W. E. WATERS


Marston Science
Library
l-4UN 211995









GCREC Research Report BRA1995-15


May 1995


SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS FALL 1994

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters1
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203
The performance of flowering bedding plant cultivars in demonstration plots has
been evaluated two to three times a year at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center in Bradenton, FL for the past eleven years. In the fall (September 1994-
January 1995) season, 256 entries from 29 genera, supplied by 11 companies, were
examined in unreplicated nine plant plots. This trial allowed the variety trials
coordinator, along with interested growers, seed companies, landscapers,
breeders, and extension master gardeners to view new releases from commercial
breeders and to make preliminary assessments of cultivar suitability for use in
central Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seeds were sown in a peat:vermiculite medium (see below) and germinated under
environmental conditions as required for each species. Seedlings were
transplanted to Todd(R) planter flats (1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch cells, model 128)
filled with peat:vermiculite medium (l:l,v:v) amended with dolomite, super-
phosphate, and hydrated lime at 11.3, 5.6, and 2.8 lb per cu yd, respectively.
Plants were fertilized with soluble 20-20-20 (rates and times varied with the
species) after the appearance of the first true leaf. Plants were not given
plant growth regulators.

Beds of EauGallie fine sand were raised, broadcast with Osmocote(R) 18-6-12 slow
release fertilizer which was incorporated three to four inched across the width
of the bed at a rate of 35.6 lb/1000 sq ft, fumigated (methyl bromide:
chloropicrin, 66:33) and covered with white on black polyethylene. Finished beds
were 2.7 ft wide and 8 inches high on 5 ft centers. Irrigation water was
supplied by subsurface seepage from lateral ditches spaced every 42 ft.

Transplants were taken to the field when roots were well developed and filled the
containerized cells of the planter flats. Transplants were placed in beds on 12
inch centers in three rows across each bed with 9 plants per plot (staggered
layout). Plants were grown in full sun. Dates for sowing and field planting are
included in the trial summary table.
Pesticides were used preventively or on demand for lepidopterous larvae,
silverleaf whiteflies, aphids and fungal pathogens. This flower trial
emphasized the performance of cultivars in ground beds. No manipulation of the
plants such as the application of growth retardants, pinching of the apical buds,
or detaching the old flowers occurred.


'Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.











RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Temperature and rainfall conditions for the fall of 1994 appear in Table 1.
Minimum daily temperatures (overnight lows) were three to five degrees higher
than normal during October, November and December (Stanley, 1994). Maximum daily
temperatures were within three degrees of normal throughout the season. Only
November and December were above normal for both minimum and maximum daily
temperatures. Rainfall was below average during September and November, but
above normal in October, December and January.
A complete listing of contributing companies and the designation of each company
as referred to in the summary table are found in Table 2.

The following discussion highlights and augments the information found in Table
3. Focal points of the discussion include those entries with superior
performance or those that were new introductions.

Aqeratum houstonianum. (Floss flower). 'Blue Blanket' had erratic, sparse
flowering and uneven plant size. Lodging became a problem in late November.
Antirrhinum maius. (Snapdragon). 'Bells Mixture, 'Chimes Mixture', 'Tahiti
Mix', and 'Royal Carpet' are dwarf snapdragon series. Mature plant height
averaged 7 inches for 'Bells Mixture' and 'Chimes Mixture', 9 inches for 'Tahiti
Mix', and 11 inches for 'Royal Carpet Mix', with all of the series slightly
taller this season than in the fall of 1993 or the spring of 1994 (Howe & Waters,
1994b, 1994c). Overall performance was best for 'Bells Mixture' and 'Tahiti
Mix'. .'Bells Mixture' has the novelty value of being the first dwarf snapdragon
having a butterfly-type flower.

Canna x generalis. 'Tropical Rose', an All America Selection winner in 1992, is
a canna easily grown from seed. The dark pink flowers are showy from a distance.
Mature plants were 27 inches tall with 7.2 inch flower spikes. Flowering was a
bit erratic, taking a little more than three weeks from the time the first plant
flowered until the last plant flowered in the plot. Performance ratings were
superior to excellent (9 to 10).

Catharanthus roseus. (Vinca, periwinkle). Three new flower colors are available
in the 'Cooler' series. 'Icy Pink Cooler' has pastel pink flowers with a white
and yellow eye (similar in coloring to 'Pretty in Pink'); 'Pink Cooler' has dark
pink flowers, and 'Rose Cooler' has dark purplish-rose flowers. Theses new
'Coolers' performed very well. The plants were well proportioned, compact and
well branched. 'Icy Pink Cooler' had some plant losses which lowered the overall
appearance rating, otherwise its attributes were excellent. The new flower color
additions give the popular 'Cooler' series a total of seven colors.
Celosia plumosa. (Plumed celosia). All three of the plumed celosia received
superior to excellent seasonal ratings (9 to 10) in all categories. 'Red Glow'
was the most dwarf of the three and was in flower at field transplanting; however
the plants were also the first to die. Most were dead by mid-November. 'New
Look' was vigorous, produced very full and bushy plants with the best longevity,
and lasted until early December with good landscape quality. 'Castle Mix'
produced vibrant, large plumes on small plants. General chlorosis and faded
plumes in 'Castle Mix' caused them to be removed from the trial by early
December.











Dahlia x hybrida. 'Calico Mixture', although performing well, went to seed by
Thanksgiving. It was a short-lived, but free flowering and vibrantly colored
entry.

Dianthus carophyllus. (Carnation). 'Monarch' is a series of miniature
carnations. Many of the individual 'Monarch' cultivars had plants that did not
flower. Of those plants that did flower, flowering was not abundant. Plant
uniformity was also not good in most cases. Warm temperatures early this fall
were not ideal for the establishment and growth of a cool season species like
dianthus, and may explain the poor performance. Vigor was much improved by early
February, with the advent of cooler day and night temperatures, and more plants
flowered, but not all.

Dianthus chinensis. Chinensis dianthus is known to flower sporadically in
extreme heat. The three chinensis entries were true to this expectation. The
'Parfait' entries flowered in mid-October, while 'Carpet Mixture' did not flower
until mid-November and none flowered profusely.
Dianthus hvbrida. (D. chinensis x D. barbatus). Most of the entries in this
species had good to excellent ratings (8 to 10) in early November for all
categories except overall appearance. Flowering was generally early and
prolific, but a few entries were later as evidenced by initial flowering times
and slightly lower ratings for flowering. Overall ratings were decreased by
considering the plant mortality. Warm weather probably played a role in lower
plant vigor, since surviving plants were revitalized during cooler months.
Particularly strong performance came from 'Floral Lace Picotee', 'Floral Lace
Rose Bicolor', 'Floral Lace Violet Picotee' and 'Telstar Mix'. 'Telstar' is a
heat tolerant standard and 'Floral Lace', a newcomer, also seems to be heat
tolerant.

Gaillardia splendens. (Blanketflower). 'Goblin' was a bit disappointing due to
erratic flowering. It was expected that gaillardia would take longer to flower,
but even as late as February, the overall plant appearance suffered when some
plants flowered and others did not.
Gazania splendens. 'Daybreak Mix' provided superior vigor and display. The
ratings were taken a little early for peak flowering performance and does not
reflect how well they flowered later in the season. Outstanding performance
persisted into early February.

Gomphrena globosa. 'Bicolor Rose' gomphrena was one of only fifteen items in
the entire trial area that was given perfect ratings (10) in all categories. It
was extremely uniform, free flowering, vigorous and had good longevity in the
landscape. These ratings were only exceeded by the novelty value of the flower
color of this cultivar. The pink and white, globe-shaped flowers were very
attractive.

Helianthus annuus. (Sunflower). Dwarf 'Big Smile' plants were fairly uniform
and only 10 inches tall. Although floriferous, the plants were not ideal
landscape plants in this situation, because they succumbed to foliar disease and
became unsightly soon after flowering. It has been noted in a previous trial
that this particular dwarf sunflower plant do not last long in the landscape
(Howe & Waters, 1993a, 1994a). Flower size ranged 4.0 to 4.5 inches, averaging
4.3 inches.











Impatiens wallerana. Sixty-three impatiens cultivars were evaluated in this
trial. Although slow to establish, with some plants displaying growth
abnormalities of undetermined origin early in the season, plants matured to a
spectacular floral show. The vast majority had overall ratings from good (8) to
excellent (10). Cultivars with lower overall ratings reflect one of two
possibilities, plant mortality or plant lodging, Generally speaking it was
difficult to distinguish cultivars based on performance parameters. Often
cultivar selection can be based on floral color preference alone. However, a few
received excellent overall performance ratings (10): 'Accent Coral', 'Deco
Rose', 'Deco Violet', 'Impulse Pink Blush', 'Impulse Red', 'Impulse Rose',
'Impulse Scarlet', 'Impulse White', 'Super Elfin Lipstick', 'Super Elfin Salmon
Blush' and 'Tempo Rose'. Interesting new colors were found in 'Coral Swirl' and
'Peach Swirl', whose flowers were a peach-pink with a rose rim. Unfortunately
these two cultivars were indistinguishable in base flower color in full sun. New
introductions, improvements and floral colors were also evaluated: 'Accent
Burgundy Star', 'Accent Violet', an experimental 'Showstopper Soft Blue',
'Impulse Carmine', 'Impulse Salmon', 'Super Elfin Lipstick'(improved), 'Super
Elfin Bright Orange' (improved color), 'Super Elfin Red' (improved vigor), 'Swirl
Pink' (renamed, formerly 'Super Elfin Pink Swirl'),
Divergence of flowering and the average first flower dates were greatly
influenced by the early season growth distortions which interrupted flowering in
the impatiens plots. Large values for divergence of flowering serves to
indicate the severity of growth distortions in particular cultivars.
Lathvrus odoratus. (Sweet Pea). With the exception of 'Winter Elegance Scarlet',
the performance of the 'Winter Elegance' series of sweet pea was very impressive.
This species is a cool-season ornamental that established slowly, but became
vigorous as the season progressed. Plants of this species were trellised because
of the vining growth habit. Accurate plant heights were difficult to obtain on
the trellis, but staking kept the plants at about four feet tall. All cultivars
except one flowered in mid-November. 'Winter Elegance Scarlet' plants remained
blind until the first plant flowered in January and a second in February.
Limonium sinuatum. (Statice, Sea Lavender). Out of eight plants in the plot,
two flowered in mid-December, two in mid-January, one in February, while the rest
remained vegetative. One plant also had atypically-shaped, white flowers which
did not bear any resemblance to statice flowers. Erratic flowering and flowers
which were not true to type were major factors in a low overall performance
rating.
Lobelia erinus. 'Blue Moon' lobelia is a very compact, dwarf, upright, globe-
shaped plant. The flowers are a deep electric blue. In full sun the bright
green foliage becomes deeply shaded in purple. One plant in the plot never
bloomed and plants were not particularly uniform. It would be an attractive
border plant if more uniform in appearance, as those plants which did flower were
very prolific.
Melampodium paludosum. 'Medaillon' produced an abundance of golden yellow,
daisy-like flowers just over an inch in diameter. The vigorous plants grew
together and formed a very effective hedge standing 21 inches tall. All ratings
were superior to excellent (9 to 10).









5
Nieremberqia caerulea. 'Mont Blanc' is a good warm season alternative to
alyssum. However, it is not a short day plant. This species grew well and
provided a thick mat of vegetation, but essentially never flowered. A couple of
plants did produce single isolated flowers, but months apart. This species
should not be grown in the fall or winter.

Pelargonium x hortorum. (Geranium). Forty-eight cultivars of seed geranium were
examined including both standard and multiflora types. The key to success among
the various cultivars was how vigorously they responded to transplanting and
field establishment. Several items had excellent overall ratings. They were:
'Dynamo Rose', 'Dynamo Salmon', 'Salmon Elite', 'Glamour Rose Pink', 'Glamour
Scarlet', 'Pinto Bicolor', 'Pinto Deep Rose', 'Pinto Rose', 'Pinto Quicksilver'
and 'Ringo 2000 White'. New introductions never examined at this location were
the cultivars of the 'Glamour' series. Three of the colors made a very strong
showing. However, 'Glamour White' was less uniform, flowered less abundantly,
and had one severely stunted plant in the plot. Other notable entries
included:'Dynamo Deep Scarlet' which had compact plants and flower heads on very
long stems well above the foliage; 'Salmon Elite' which had white foliage due to
hot weather in mid-October, but which had normally colored foliage later in the
season as average daily temperatures fell; 'Glamour Light Salmon' and 'Glamour
white' which produced large, stocky plants and flower heads held well above the
foliage; 'Rose Orbit' and 'White Orbit' which produced large, bushy plants;
'Pinto Bicolor' which had the largest most vigorous plants and exceptional floral
display; 'Pinto Quicksilver' which was vigorous early and continuously throughout
the season.

Pentas lanceolata. (Star-cluster). 'New Look' is the first pentas cultivar
available from seed. This attractive, dwarf variety with rosy pink flowers and
dark green foliage stayed under a foot tall. The only problem with it was that
plants were not large enough to successfully establish in the field at the time
they were transplanted. This was not felt to be the fault of the cultivar,
rather it was taken to the field too soon. This plant matures more slowly than
a typical landscape annual such as a marigold or petunia.

Petunia x hybrida. Sixty-six petunia cultivars were examined in this trial and
were one of the most interesting species because of the many new releases.
Petunias performed extremely well as a group and peaked in appearance and
flowering in mid-November. All petunia plots were rated after peak appearance
in early December. This was the time when plants were lodging and overall
ratings were most influenced by the effect of lodging on appearance.

Seven new colors have been added to the 'Carpet' series (five of which were
evaluated in the spring) (Howe & Waters, 1994c) and were all very interesting
additions. 'Blue Carpet', was a rich dark purple; 'Buttercream Carpet' was a
creamy yellow with a darker yellow center; 'Lilac Carpet' was a pinkish lilac
with a cream throat; 'Rose Carpet' was a hot pink with a white throat; 'Sky Blue
Carpet' was a mid purplish blue with a cream throat; 'True Blue Carpet' was a
dark purplish blue with a white throat; and 'Velvet Carpet' was a dark garnet
red. The range of blue/purple colors in the series should allow some dynamic
custom color mixing in the future, but the addition of the yellow was the key to
making this series stand out as having a versatile group of colors. 'Buttercream
Carpet' had excellent flower coverage and flowered in the same time frame as the
other 'Carpet' cultivars, unlike the slightly slower flowering observed in the
spring (Howe & Waters, 1994c). The flowers were slightly smaller than most of











the other colors, except 'Rose Carpet', but this was not an obvious difference.
The colors of the 'Carpet' series should compliment each other very well and
provide greater design versatility.
The 'Celebrity' series has several custom mixes available and has introduced
another, 'Celebrity Morn Mix', which is a blend of 'Celebrity' tricolor petunias.
'Red Morn', 'Pink Morn' and the 1995 All America Selections awarding winning
'Chiffon Morn' were included in the blend. All have the definitive yellow
throat surrounded by a creamy ring in the center of the flower. The 'Celebrity'
series now has 7 custom color blends. These color blends provide landscapers
with a useful tool to furnish customized appearance to bedded areas without the
tedium of selecting and mixing colors for a bed at transplanting.
'Red Dreams' did not resemble other colors in the 'Dreams' series in plant or
flower size, being smaller and more compact in stature. This was similar to a
response seen in the spring (Howe & Waters, 1994c), but this is not atypical of
red-flowered petunias. It also had a greater divergence of flowering than the
other colors. However, again as in the spring, 'Red Dreams' did not lodge in the
rain as did the others.
'Double Madness Red & White', 'Double Madness Rose' and 'Double Madness Salmon',
while initially flowering with other petunia cultivars in the trial area, were
very slow to attain fullness of flower. Once the plants flowered abundantly,
they were very attractive. 'Double Madness Red & White' had a lower overall
rating than the other two colors due to more sever lodging and the fact that the
flowers were almost a solid coral red with very little white marking.
Thirteen 'Flash' entries were evaluated in the fall. All but four had at least
good to superior overall ratings (8 to 9). Those four had: plant loses in the
plots ('Blue Flash'), color pattern inconsistencies ('Rose/White Flash' and
'Blue/White Flash') and disease ('White Flash') which lowered overall ratings.
'Salmon Flash' had smaller flowers than other colors in the series.
'Horizon Flame' was a new color introduction with flowers which were red with a
yellow throat. All three of the 'Horizon' cultivars were identical in plant
height, flower size and ratings.
Even though the 'Primetime' series has introduced special blends as the
'Celebrity' series has, they were unavailable for this fall trial. Instead,
several new color additions, 'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime Pink Morn',
'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime Scarlet', 'Primetime Pink', 'Primetime Mid-Blue'
and 'Primetime Carmine', were evaluated. All 17 of the 'Primetime' cultivars
except 'Primetime Red' and 'Primetime Rose Star' had superior to excellent plant
uniformity and flowering, although they all lodged. 'Primetime Rose' which
received lowest ratings among the 'Primetime' colors in the spring, scored a
perfect "10", one of only two petunias to do so. Floral color of the new
additions were: 'Primetime Salmon Morn' had a coral pink rim (not a true salmon)
with a cream halo around a yellow center and had a distinct tricolor pattern;
'Primetime Pink Morn' had a mid-pink rim with a white halo surrounding a yellow
throat, however the white and yellow portions of the flower color, covered
substantially less petal area than the 'Primetime Salmon Morn'; 'Primetime
Lavender' was a dark lilac-rose with a white throat and was definitely not
lavender; 'Primetime Mid-Blue' was aptly named as a mid-blue sporting a
contrasting white throat; 'Primetime Pink' was a hot pink with a contrasting











white throat; 'Primetime Scarlet' was a red with a conspicuous white and gold
throat; and 'Primetime Carmine' was a dark cherry rose. All of these color
additions bring the 'Primetime' series to 24 individual colors and color
patterns. The availability of special color blends makes the 'Primetime' an
impressive series.

'Supercascade Burgundy', a new addition to the 'Supercascade' series, produced
a very dark purplish rose flower. It flowered less enthusiastically throughout
the season than in the spring (Howe and Waters, 1994c).

New additions to the 'Ultra' series included: 'Ultra Light Pink Vein', 'Ultra
Blue Vein', 'Ultra Sky Blue' and 'Ultra Scarlet' bringing the series up to 17
separate colors. All of the new colors seemed to be well matched to the
performance of the other 'Ultra' colors in the trial area. The exception was
'Ultra Scarlet', which was a little less free flowering than the rest of the
series.

One of the most exciting newcomers to the trials was the spreading petunia,
'Purple Wave'. While it was the last petunia to flower, the profusion of dark
orchid-plum colored flowers were well worth the wait. As further endorsement,
this cultivar was awarded an All America Selections award for 1995. Although
jokingly described as a "kudzu with flowers", this petunia spreads very
aggressively and is a heavy feeder. This ground cover petunia had good vigor,
flowering and appeal to trial visitors. Notably, the plants were not as vigorous
as in the spring, they did not climb over plants of adjoining plots and obtained
a height of only six inches in the fall, while they were 9 inches tall in the
spring. The flowering also declined as the season progressed but still provided
a fairly showy presentation. 'Purple Wave' is a long day plant, but evidently
did not stop flowering because the plants were mature enough at the critical day
length for flower initiation. Unlike other creeping types, the 'Supertunia' and
the 'Cascadia', 'Purple Wave' is seed propagated.

Phlox drummondii. 'Palona Mix' provided outstanding plant uniformity and
flowering in a creeping phlox. Low overall ratings reflect the lack of plant
longevity. More than half the plants died by Christmas.
Portulaca grandiflora. (Moss rose). 'Sundial Mix' was unusually poor in
performance. In past seasons, 'Sundial' cultivars have done well (Howe and
Waters, 1994a, 1994c). The plants in this trial flowered erratically (initial
flowering covered over three weeks), died out very quickly and showed a distinct
lack of vigor.


Rudbeckia hirta. (Black-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy).
'Becky Mix' provided a superior plant uniformity
however, 'Becky Mix' never flowered. This long day
fall trial. Flowering appeared to have initiated
trial. It could be planted in the fall for earlier


As in last spring's trial,
(Howe and Waters, 1994c);
species was misplaced in a
at the termination of the
spring flowering.


Salvia splendens. (Scarlet sage). 'Vista Red' was rated excellent. It provided
a profusion of attractive spikes on vigorous, dark green bushy plants. .Spikes
were just over 6 inches long, a slight bit lowered into the foliage, and failed
to shatter excessively. This very attractive cultivar was rated a perfect "10"
in all categories.











Tagetes erecta. (African or American marigold). The 'Antigua' series is a day
length neutral series. These plants produced large three-inch, fully double
flowers on dwarf, 12-inch tall plants. Plants were similar to 'Voyager Yellow'
in stature and flower size. Ratings were very similar for the both series.
'Excel', also a day length neutral series, has been on the market for couple of
years and produces larger plants than the previously discussed series. The
'Excel' series as a whole had more of a problem with lodging than the other
cultivars of this species. Flowers were over three and a quarter inches wide.

'Inca' cultivars produced the largest flowers of the American type marigolds, all
between 3.5 and 4.0 inches in diameter. Plants were, on average, slightly taller
than the 'Excel' series, but did not experience the same trouble lodging in rainy
and windy weather.
'Perfection Mixture' had superior to excellent ratings (9 to 10), but had
slightly smaller flowers than the other series in its height range.
Taqetes hybrida. (Triploid or Mule marigold). The 'Zenith' series had problems
with lack of vigor, off-type plants (inconsistent habit), lodging, irregular
plant uniformity, color purity and brittleness, where plants snapped off at the
soil line after twisting in the wind. 'Zenith Red & Gold' was the sturdiest
cultivar of the series, but it had problems maintaining a bicolor color pattern
which often reverted to a solid red.
Taqetes spatula. (French marigold). The colors red and orange have been added to
the 'Aurora' series. 'Aurora Orange' was one of two marigolds to receive ratings
of "10" in all categories. Both new colors were well suited to the series in
terms of plant dimensions and earliness to flower. One surprising event was that
'Aurora Yellow Fire' was as early as the other cultivars. This cultivar has
been among the latest to flower every time it has been trialed at this location
since 1988 (Howe and Waters, 1988, 1989, 1991a, 1991b, 1992a, 1992b, 1993b,
1994c).
'Bonanza Flame' and 'Bonanza Orange' have been reintroduced as having larger
flower size. In this trial, both cultivars had flowers 2.3 inches in diameter
on average, which was an improvement for 'Bonanza Orange', but an indefinite
improvement for 'Bonanza Flame' which, when listed as 'Bonanza Flame Improved'
had 2.4 inch flowers (Howe and Waters, 1990). Nonetheless, each got superior to
excellent ratings in all categories and had early flowering.

'Janie Bright Yellow' was a perfect "10" and produced very tight, compact plants.
'Janie Spry' is a new addition to the series and did exceptionally well.
'Little Hero Mix' was the poorest of the French marigolds. Plants were of
irregular size and shape and plant habit and flower size varied depending on the
color. Flower display above the foliage was also different for the different
colors. The overall rating was a reflection of the disparity among the colors
within the mix.
'Safari Mix' had the largest flowers of the French type marigolds at 2.6 inches.
All ratings were superior to excellent (9 to 10).











Torenia fournieri. (Wishbone flower). Two new colors have been added to the
'Clown' series. 'Clown Blush' was a very attractive white with a bright pink rim
and 'Clown Plum' was a rich lilac with a dark orchid rim. Although ratings were
not outstanding, the unusual flower color made these two cultivars a novelty.

Verbena hybrida and Verbena speciosa. 'Romance Mix' was a color blend of the
'Romance' series, a standard in creeping verbena. This mix did very well in
trial, but initial flowering for the plants within the plot took over two weeks.
'Imagination' verbena is an interspecific hybrid perennial. It had a creeping
habit, a very delicate foliage very much like moss verbena, and dark violet blue
flowers. This cultivar performed very well, receiving excellent ratings in all
categories.

Zinnia elegans. 'Short Stuff' has been reintroduced to the market after its
initial debut in 1982 (Howe and Waters, 1983), and is available in six separate
colors and a custom mix. These very dwarf (5 to 7 inch tall) plants produced
vividly colored flowers averaging about three inches in diameter. An obvious
misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. Also purity was
not fixed in 'Short Stuff Deep Red' which had one plant with orange red flowers.
'Short Stuff Mix' plants were uneven in size and shape. Flowering was very
concentrated in this series. 'Dreamland Mix' produced larger plants and much
larger flowers than cultivars from the 'Short Stuff' series, while divergence of
flowering was greater. Ratings were superior to excellent. All zinnias provided
a good show until Christmas.
SUMMARY
Excellent performance based on ratings of perfect "10"s in all categories during
the fall of 1994 came from: Vinca 'Pink Cooler' and 'Rose Cooler'; gomphrena
'Bicolor Rose'; impatiens 'Accent Coral' and 'Super Elfin Lipstick'; alyssum
'Golf Pastel Mixture'; geranium 'Dynamo Rose', 'Glamour Rose Pink', 'Glamour
Scarlet', 'Pinto Deep Rose', 'Pinto Rose', and 'Pinto Quicksilver'; petunia
'Primetime Rose', and 'Purple Wave'; salvia 'Vista Red'; marigold 'Aurora
Orange', 'Bonanza Orange', 'Janie Bright Yellow';and verbena 'Imagination'. Many
of these cultivars are newly released to the bedding plant industry.

NOTE: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade
names are used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Goldsmith Seeds, Pan American Seed, Royal Sluis Ornamentals, Sakata
America, and S & G Seeds for their financial support during 1994.
LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
spring and fall 1988. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-8.











Torenia fournieri. (Wishbone flower). Two new colors have been added to the
'Clown' series. 'Clown Blush' was a very attractive white with a bright pink rim
and 'Clown Plum' was a rich lilac with a dark orchid rim. Although ratings were
not outstanding, the unusual flower color made these two cultivars a novelty.

Verbena hybrida and Verbena speciosa. 'Romance Mix' was a color blend of the
'Romance' series, a standard in creeping verbena. This mix did very well in
trial, but initial flowering for the plants within the plot took over two weeks.
'Imagination' verbena is an interspecific hybrid perennial. It had a creeping
habit, a very delicate foliage very much like moss verbena, and dark violet blue
flowers. This cultivar performed very well, receiving excellent ratings in all
categories.

Zinnia elegans. 'Short Stuff' has been reintroduced to the market after its
initial debut in 1982 (Howe and Waters, 1983), and is available in six separate
colors and a custom mix. These very dwarf (5 to 7 inch tall) plants produced
vividly colored flowers averaging about three inches in diameter. An obvious
misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. Also purity was
not fixed in 'Short Stuff Deep Red' which had one plant with orange red flowers.
'Short Stuff Mix' plants were uneven in size and shape. Flowering was very
concentrated in this series. 'Dreamland Mix' produced larger plants and much
larger flowers than cultivars from the 'Short Stuff' series, while divergence of
flowering was greater. Ratings were superior to excellent. All zinnias provided
a good show until Christmas.
SUMMARY
Excellent performance based on ratings of perfect "10"s in all categories during
the fall of 1994 came from: Vinca 'Pink Cooler' and 'Rose Cooler'; gomphrena
'Bicolor Rose'; impatiens 'Accent Coral' and 'Super Elfin Lipstick'; alyssum
'Golf Pastel Mixture'; geranium 'Dynamo Rose', 'Glamour Rose Pink', 'Glamour
Scarlet', 'Pinto Deep Rose', 'Pinto Rose', and 'Pinto Quicksilver'; petunia
'Primetime Rose', and 'Purple Wave'; salvia 'Vista Red'; marigold 'Aurora
Orange', 'Bonanza Orange', 'Janie Bright Yellow';and verbena 'Imagination'. Many
of these cultivars are newly released to the bedding plant industry.

NOTE: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade
names are used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Goldsmith Seeds, Pan American Seed, Royal Sluis Ornamentals, Sakata
America, and S & G Seeds for their financial support during 1994.
LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
spring and fall 1988. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-8.











Torenia fournieri. (Wishbone flower). Two new colors have been added to the
'Clown' series. 'Clown Blush' was a very attractive white with a bright pink rim
and 'Clown Plum' was a rich lilac with a dark orchid rim. Although ratings were
not outstanding, the unusual flower color made these two cultivars a novelty.

Verbena hybrida and Verbena speciosa. 'Romance Mix' was a color blend of the
'Romance' series, a standard in creeping verbena. This mix did very well in
trial, but initial flowering for the plants within the plot took over two weeks.
'Imagination' verbena is an interspecific hybrid perennial. It had a creeping
habit, a very delicate foliage very much like moss verbena, and dark violet blue
flowers. This cultivar performed very well, receiving excellent ratings in all
categories.

Zinnia elegans. 'Short Stuff' has been reintroduced to the market after its
initial debut in 1982 (Howe and Waters, 1983), and is available in six separate
colors and a custom mix. These very dwarf (5 to 7 inch tall) plants produced
vividly colored flowers averaging about three inches in diameter. An obvious
misnomer was 'Short Stuff Coral' which had light pink flowers. Also purity was
not fixed in 'Short Stuff Deep Red' which had one plant with orange red flowers.
'Short Stuff Mix' plants were uneven in size and shape. Flowering was very
concentrated in this series. 'Dreamland Mix' produced larger plants and much
larger flowers than cultivars from the 'Short Stuff' series, while divergence of
flowering was greater. Ratings were superior to excellent. All zinnias provided
a good show until Christmas.
SUMMARY
Excellent performance based on ratings of perfect "10"s in all categories during
the fall of 1994 came from: Vinca 'Pink Cooler' and 'Rose Cooler'; gomphrena
'Bicolor Rose'; impatiens 'Accent Coral' and 'Super Elfin Lipstick'; alyssum
'Golf Pastel Mixture'; geranium 'Dynamo Rose', 'Glamour Rose Pink', 'Glamour
Scarlet', 'Pinto Deep Rose', 'Pinto Rose', and 'Pinto Quicksilver'; petunia
'Primetime Rose', and 'Purple Wave'; salvia 'Vista Red'; marigold 'Aurora
Orange', 'Bonanza Orange', 'Janie Bright Yellow';and verbena 'Imagination'. Many
of these cultivars are newly released to the bedding plant industry.

NOTE: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade
names are used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors thank 0. M. Scott for the contribution of Osmocote(R) fertilizer used
in this study, and American Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd.,
Daehnfeldt, Goldsmith Seeds, Pan American Seed, Royal Sluis Ornamentals, Sakata
America, and S & G Seeds for their financial support during 1994.
LITERATURE CITED

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals during fall
1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla, State Hort. Soc. 96:131-135.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
spring and fall 1988. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-8.









10

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Evaluation of marigold cultivars as bedding
plants, spring and fall 1989. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 103:332-337.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1991a. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
fall/winter 1990-1991. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1991-12.
Howe. T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1991b. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
spring 1991. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1991-19.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1992a. Observations of flowering bedding plants,
fall/winter 1991. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-10.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1992b. Observations of flowering being plants,
spring 1992. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-15.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1993a. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
fall/winter 1992. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1993-13.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1993b. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
spring 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1993-26
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994a. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
summer 1993. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-10.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994b. Evaluations of flowering bedding plants,
fall-winter 1993-1994. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-11.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994c. Summary of flowering bedding plant trials,
spring 1994. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-17.
Stanley, C. D. 1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1994-08.



Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the fall season of 1994
and the 40-year averages (Stanley, 1994).

Average Daily Temperature (OF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1994-95' 40-yr ava 1994-95Z 40-yr avq 1994-95 40-yr av

September 89 90 72 71 7.24 8.17
October 87 85 67 64 3.53 2.91
November 82 79 63 58 1.65 1.98
December 75 74 56 52 3.39 2.30
January 71 72 49 50 3.09 2.77

zFirst transplanting September 20, 1994. Trial terminated February 2, 1995.









11
Table 2. Seed suppliers with designations referred to in Table 3.

Company/Supplier Designation
American Takii TAK
301 Natividad Rd., Salinas, CA 93906
Ball Seed BLL
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185-2698
E. Benary Seed of America, Inc. BEN
1444 Larson Street, Sycamore, IL 60178
Bodger Seeds, Ltd. BOD
P.O. Box 5090, El Monte, CA 91734-1090
Floranova (formerly Clause Flower Seeds) CLS
100 Breen Road, San Juan Bautista, CA 95045
Goldsmith Seeds GLD
P. 0. Box 1349, 2280 Hecker Pass Hwy., Gilroy, CA 95020
G. S. Grimes Seeds GRM
11335 Concord-Hambden Road, Concord, OH 44077
Pan American Seed Co. PAA
P.O. Box 438, W. Chicago, IL 60185
Sahin (K. Sahin, Zaden B. V.) SAH
Postbus 227 2400 AE Alphen aan den Rijn Holland
S & G Seeds, Inc. S&G
3010 Woodcreek Dr., Suite B, Downers Grove, IL 60515
Vaughan's Seed Company VHN
5300 Katrine Avenue, Downers Grove, IL 60515-4095






Table 3. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, fall 1994.


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant'
Cultivar Source' Flower Color" Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowerin"t Lodging' Overall


Ageratun houstonianum (Floss Flower)
Blue Blanket S&G
Antirrhinum maius (Snapdragon)
Bells Mixture GLD
Chimes Mixture GLD
Liberty Mixture GLD
Royal Carpet Mix TAK
Tahiti Mix S&G
Canna x generatis
Tropical Rose TAK
Catharanthus roseus (Vinca, Periwinkle)
Icy Pink Cooler PAA paste
Pink Cooler PAA dk
Rose Cooler PAA
Celosia p umosa (Plumed Celosia)
Castle Mix TAK
New Look VHN
Red Glow PAA
Dahlia x hybrid
Calico Mixture CLS
Dianthus carophytlus (Carnation)
Monarch Light Salmon GLD
Monarch Orange GLD
Monarch Pink GLD
Monarch Purple GLD
Monarch Scarlet GLD
Monarch White GLD
Monarch Yellow GLD
Dianthus chinensis
Carpet Mixture TAK
Raspberry Parfait GLD pur
Strawberry Parfait GLD rec
Dianthus hybrida (D. chinensis x D. barbatus)
Experimental Cherry Picotee BLL
First Love TAK wt
Floral Lace Picotee BLL
Floral Lace Purple BLL
Floral Lace Rose BLL
Dianthus hybrida (D. chinensis x D. barbatus)
Floral Lace Rose Bicolor BLL
Floral Lace Violet BLL
Floral Lace Violet Picotee BLL
Princess Crimson GLD
Princess Crimson Eye GLD b
Princess Pink GLD
Princess Purple GLD
Princess Salmon GLD
Princess Scarlet GLD
Princess White GLD
Rainbow Loveliness SAH
Telstar Mix TAK


purple-blue


8-22 9-26 11-19


10-14
10-15
10-31
10-17
10-15


dk pink

tl pk w/wh & yet eye
pk w/wh & yet eye
dk pur-rose

mix
rich org red
pur-red

mix

It peach
peach-salmon
dk pink
dk purple
red
white
pale-yellow

mix
r-red w/dk pk rim
d-org w/coral rim

pur w/wh rim
white to pk to rose
ruby w/wh rim
dk red-pur
ruby w/pk rim

ruby & white
red-pur
red-pur & white
ruby
urg ctr w/dk pk rim
dk pink
v dk purple
dk salmon
scarlet
white
Lilac
mix


8-22 9-26 11-18

8-8 9-20 10-1
8-8 9-20 10-12
8-8 9-20 10-13

8-22 9-26 10-4
8-22 9-26 9-29
8-22 9-26 9-26

8-8 9-20 10-17


9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26


DNF
11-20
DNF
DNF
SP
DNF
11-27


8-8 9-26 DNF
8-8 9-26 10-21
8-8 9-26 10-17


9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26

9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26


10-7
10-14
10-8
10-12
10-11

10-9
10-12
10-12
10-31
10-9
10-16
10-13
10-27
10-30
10-14
DNF
10-21


7 7


23 0.6 14 17 6

22 1.3/2.1 7 10 10
13 1.1/1.7 7 9 7
22 0.8/6.4 17 12 8
8 1.1/3.6 11 11 9
15 1.1/2.0 9 9 9

22 3.3/7.2 27 23 10


13 3.0

DNF 1.3
21 1.7
DNF 2.0
DNF 1.7
SP NM
DNF 1.6
33 1.8

DNF 1.6
22 1.5
14 1.6

7 1.4
11 1.3
10 1.5
14 1.4
16 1.5

24 1.3
18 1.5
5 1.3
19 1.1
7 1.2
17 1.2
9 1.2
33 1.1
14 1.1
19 1.1
DNF 1.5
21 1.3


13 14


10 8

10 3
10 7 M
10 3
10 2
10 1
10 2
10 4

10 3
10 6
10 4

10 8
10 8
10 10
10 8
10 9

10 10
10 8
10 9
10 2
9 4
10 5
10 7
10 7
10 4
10 4
10 4
10 9








Field
Genus species (Common name) Seed Trans- Date' Diver-' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus, species (Conon name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant'
Cultivar Source* FLower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"t Lodging' Overall'


Gaillardia grandiflora (Blanket Flower)
Goblin VHN
Gazania splendens
Daybreak Mix VHN
Gomphrena alobosa
Bicolor Rose TAK
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)
Big Smile TAK
Impatiens ptatypetala (New Guinea Impatiens)
Tango PAA
Imoatiens wallerana
Accent Apricot GLD
Accent Bright Eye GLD
Accent Burgundy Star GLD
Accent Carmine GLD
Accent Coral GLD pk
Accent Deep Pink GLD
Accent Lavender GLD
Accent Lilac GLD
Accent Mixture GLD
Accent Orange GLD
Accent Orange Star GLD
Accent Pastel Mixture GLD
Accent Pink GLD
Accent Red GLD
Accent Red Star GLD
Accent Rose GLD
Accent Rose Star GLD
Accent Salmon GLD
Accent Scarlet GLD
Accent Star Mixture GLD
Accent Violet GLD
Accent White GLD
Blitz 2000 Mix S&G
Blitz 2000 Pink S&G
Blitz 2000 Salmon S&G
Dazzler Bright Eye BLL v
Deco Burgundy PAA
Deco Orange PAA
Deco Pink PAA
Deco Red PAA
Deco Rose PAA
Deco Violet PAA
Experimental Showstopper
Soft Blue BLL (a
Impulse Appleblossom S&G It F
Impulse Bright Eye S&G It F
Impulse Carmine S&G
Impulse Formula Mix S&G
Impulse Lilac S&G dk
Impulse Lilac Blue S&G lav
Impulse Orange S&G


red & gold


8-22 10-4 DNF


DNF 3.3 10 18


8-8 9-26 10-18 23 2.0 9 12


pink & white

gold

orange

dk org salmon
It pk w/rose eye
burg & white
pur-rose carmine
org w/lg dk org eye
pur-pk w/rose eye
Lay w/rose eye
rosy purple
mix
v dk org
dk org & white star
mix
pk w/rose eye
dk true red
red & white star
dk pink-rose
rose & white star
org salmon
scarlet
star mix
dk violet
white
mix
dk pk w/rose eye
dk org salmon
pale pk w/rose eye
dk burg
dk org
pk w/rose eye
scarlet
v dk rose
dk violet

iv-blue w/rose eye
>k w/dk pk rim & eye
>k w/lg rose blotch
cherry
mix
orchid w/rose eye
'-pk w/lg rose eye
v dk orange


8-22 9-26 10-10

9-8 9-26 10-24


5 0.8

6 4.2


8-22 10-4 10-26 30 2.1


8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22

8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22


10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4

10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4


10-19
10-17
11-29
10-18
10-24
10-19
10-19
10-16
10-25
10-23
10-20
10-18
10-22
10-18
11-12
10-22
10-27
10-18
10-18
11-17
10-23
11-1
11-1
10-25
10-17
10-17
10-19
10-17
11-7
10-18
10-21
10-19

10-24
10-20
10-23
10-20
10-21
10-17
10-20
10-19


19 16 10

10 12 8


17

15
17
17
20
20
17
16
18
19
16
15
17
19
14
15
15
16
19
15
16
18
18
22
21
21
15
17
14
20
20
20
20

16
19
23
20
21
18
19
20


10 6

10 9

10 10

10 8

9 7


7
9
9
9
10
7
9
9
9
4
9
6
8
10
10
7
10
7
10
10
10
8
9
9
9
7
7
-.6
9
8
10
10

4
6
6
8
9
9
8
8


9
9
8
9
10
8
9
8
9
5
6 -
7
7
9
8
9
8
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
7
9
9
10
10

6
7
8
9
9
9
9
9





Table 3 (continued 3).


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Comimon name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cuttivar Source' Flower Color" Date Date Flower Ftowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowerina't Lodgings Overall'


Impulse Orange Bicolour S&G v dk org & white
Impulse Pink S&G pk w/rose eye
Impulse Pink BLush S&G It pk w/lg rose blotch
Impulse Red S&G red
Impulse Rose S&G carmine
Impulse Salmon S&G org-salmon
Impulse Salmon Orange S&G dk rosy org
Impulse Salmon Rose S&G pk salmon to pk
Impulse Scarlet S&G scarlet
Impulse White S&G white
Impulse Violet S&G dk violet
Mega Orange Star GLD org & white star
Super Elfin Bright Orange PAA v dk orange
Super ELfin Lipstick PAA dk cherry rose
Super ELfin Orange PAA dk orange
Super Elfin Red PAA red
Super Elfin Salmon Blush PAA pk sat w/lg org blotch
Coral Swirl PAA (peach-pk w/rose rim)
Peach Swirl PAA (peach-pk w/rose rim)
Pink Swirl PAA pink w/rose rim
Tempo Rose BOO carmine rose
Tiara Rose Picotee CLS pk w/rose rim
Lathvrus odoratus (Sweet Pea)
Winter Elegance Deep Rose BOO rosy pk
Winter Elegance Lavender BOO lavender
Winter Elegance Pink Diana BOD pink
Winter Elegance Rose BOO rosy pink
Winter Elegance Salmon Cream
Pink BOD salmon & cream bicolor
Winter Elegance Scarlet BOO scarlet
Winter Elegance White BOD white
Limonium sinuatum (Statice, Sea Lavender)
Friendly Yellow TAK yellow
Lobelia erinus
Blue Moon S&G electric blue
Lobularia maritima (Alyssum)
Golf Pastel Mixture CLS mix
Melampodium paludosum
Medaillon S&G golden yellow
Nierembergia caerulea
Mont Blanc TAK white w/yel ctr
Pelargonium x hortorum (Geranium)
Avanti Cherry CLS cherry red
Avanti Lilac Rose CLS dk pink
Dynamo Deeprose S&G dk rosy pk
Dynamo Deep Scarlet S&G scarlet
Dynamo Rose S&G dk pink
Dynamo Salmon S&G dk salmon
Dynamo White S&G white
Cherry Elite GLD cherry
Salmon Elite GLD dk salmon


8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22

9-8
9-8
9-8
9-8

9-8
9-8
9-8


10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4

9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26


10-31
10-23
10-18
10-23
10-21
10-20
10-21
10-22
10-22
10-15
10-13
11-6
10-25
10-15
10-20
10-24
10-15
10-21
10-23
10-18
10-16
10-24

11-12
11-17
11-16
11-15


9-26 11-15
9-26 DNF
9-26 11-15


2.0
1.6
2.1
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.2
1.8
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.9
2.0

1.6
1.4
1.4
1.5

1.5
NM
1.5


19
20
22
23
22
22
21
19
19
21
27
21
17
15
22
20
18
18
16
18
18
19


8-8 9-26 DNF DNF 2.4 21 16 8.5


8-8 10-4 10-23

8-22 10-4 BT

8-22 9-20 10-7

8-8 10-4 DNF


9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26


11-6
10-30
11-15
11-2
11-18
11-19
11-7
11-21
11-15


33 0.5


6 7 7


0 NM 5


3 1.1 21 20 9

)NF NM 6 9


2.5 10 6

8 10 7

10 10 10

10 10 9

0 10 4


1.7/4.5
1.7/4.7
1.6/4.2
1.9/3.8
1.5/3.9
1.4/3.9
1.5/4.1
1.6/4.7
1.8/4.4








Field
Trans- Date' Diver-' Flower' Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
CuLtivar Sourcez Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) tin.) Uniformity Foerng Lodging' Overall


Scarlet Elite GLD
White Elite GLD
Glamour Light Salmon BLL
Glamour Rose Pink BLL
Glamour Scarlet BLL
Glamour White BLL
Multibloom Lavender GLD
Multibloom Pink GLD
Multibloom Red GLD
Multibloom Salmon GLD
Cardinal Orbit GLD
Deep Salmon Orbit GLD
Hot Pink Orbit GLD
Light Salmon Orbit GLD
Red Orbit GLD
Rose Orbit GLD
Salmon Orbit GLD
Scarlet Orbit GLD
Violet Orbit GLD
White Orbit GLD
Pinto Bicolor S&G
Pinto Blush S&G
Pinto Deep Rose S&G
Pinto Red S&G
Pinto Rose S&G
Pinto Quicksilver S&G
Pinto Salmon S&G
Pinto Salmon Orange S&G
Pinto Scarlet S&G
Pinto Violet S&G
Pinto White S&G
Ringo 2000 Deep Rose S&G
Ringo 2000 Deep Scarlet S&G
Ringo 2000 Light Salmon S&G
Ringo 2000 Rose S&G
Ringo 2000 Salmon S&G
Ringo 2000 Violet S&G
Ringo 2000 White S&G
Signal Bicolor Red CLS
Pentas Lanceolata (Star-cluster)
New Look BEN
Petunia x hvbrida
Aladdin Red (grandiflora) BOO
Blue Carpet multifloraa) PAA
Buttercream Carpet PAA
Lilac Carpet PAA
Rose Carpet PAA
Sky Blue Carpet PAA
True Blue Carpet PAA
Velvet Carpet PAA
Celebrity Morn Mix
(floribunda) BOO


scarlet
white
mid pk-salmon
hot rose
scarlet
white
It pink
dk pink
scarlet
v dk org salmon
red
dk salmon
dk pk rose
It salmon
scarlet
dk pink
salmon
scarlet
cherry
white
red & white
pale pink
dk rose w/eye
scarlet-red
dk pink w/eye
It lay pink
It salmon
dk coral
scarlet
cherry
white
brt rose w/eye
scarlet
It pk salmon
dk pk w/eye
med salmon
cherry
white
scarlet & white

rosy pink

red
dk purple
pale yellow
pk tav w/cream thrt
hot pk w/white thrt
med pur w/wh thrt
dk pur w/wh thrt
dk ruby-garnet


9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26
9-26


11-9
11-16
11-10
11-11
11-11
11-12
10-28
11-2
11-6
10-26
11-13
11-10
11-11
11-13
11-18
11-11
11-9
11-13
11-14
11-12
11-6
11-20
11-7
11-9
11-7
11-8
11-12
11-9
11-8
11-10
11-14
11-19
11-10
11-9
11-11
11-4
11-15
11-7
11-9


8-8 10-4 11-25


9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20


1.8/4.2
1.7/4.3
1.5/4.4
1.5/4.3
1.6/4.4
1.3/3.4
1.6/4.0
1.5/3.5
1.3/3.5
1.5/3.3
1.7/4.2
1.4/3.6
1.6/4.6
1.5/4.0
1.6/4.2
1.6/4.6
1.6/3.8
1.9/4.4
1.5/4.1
1.6/3.9
1.7/4.4
1.5/4.1
1.6/4.0
1.5/4.1
1.6/4.3
1.6/3.9
1.5/3.9
1.7/4.1
1.5/3.8
1.7/4.4
1.5/4.0
1.6/4.5
1.4/3.7
1.6/4.6
1.5/4.5
1.5/3.9
1.7/4.3
1.6/4.0
1.5/4.1


10 0.3/2.0 .11.2 9.5 9


9-28
9-22
9-22
9-19
9-18
9-26
9-25
9-13


mix 8-8 9-20 9-22 9 2.3 11


9 9 7 9






Table 3 (continued 5).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowerin"'t Lodging' Overallt


Midnight Dreams (grandiflora)
Pink Dreams
Red Dreams
Salmon Dreams
White Dreams
Double Madness Red & White
multifloraa)
Double Madness Rose
Double Madness Salmon
Blue Flash (grandiflora)
Blue/White Flash
Coral Flash
Flash Formula Mix
Pink Flash
Pink Centre Flash
Purple White Flash
Red Flash
Rose Flash
Rose/White Flash
Salmon Flash
Velvet Flash
White Flash
Horizon Flame multifloraa)
Horizon Mixture
Horizon Light Salmon
Landscaper Rose multifloraa)
Madness Rose (floribunda)
Polo Formula Mix multifloraa)
Primetime Blue multifloraa)
Primetime Burgundy
Primetime Carmine
Primetime Lavender
Primetime Light Blue
Primetime Mid Blue
Primetime Pink
Primetime Pink Morn
Primetime Pink Veined
Primetime Plum
Primetime Red
Primetime Red Vein
Primetime Rose
Primetime Rose Star
Primetime Salmon Morn

Primetime Scarlet
Primetime White
Prism Mixture
Prism Rose Halo

Purple Wave (specialty)
Supercascade Burgundy
(grandiflora)


dk purple
hot pk w/white thrt
red
dk salmon w/wh thrt
white

dk coral red w/v st wh
pur-rose
v dk salmon
v dk purple
v dk purple/wh star
v dk red coral
mix
hot pk w/wh thrt
hot pk w/wh thrt & ctr
red-pur & wh star
red
dk hot pk w/wh thrt
ruby & white
dk salmon w/wh thrt
ruby-purple
white
red w/yellow thrt
mix
med pk salmon
dk rose w/wh thrt
dk hot pink
mix
v dk purple
ruby w/purple veins
dk pur-rose w/wh thrt
(dk pk lav w/wh thrt)
med blue-purple
dk blue-pur w/wh thrt
dk hot pk w/wh thrt
mid pk w/crm halo & yet c
mid pk w/rose veins
orch w/red-pur veins
red
sal-pk w/red veins
dk rose
rose & white
(coral pk rim & cream halo
yet ctr)
red w/wh thrt
white
mix
dk rose pk & cream halo &
yet thrt
pur- rose
dk red-pur


8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8

8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
tr 8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8


9-20 10-4
9-20 9-28
9-20 10-2
9-20 9-23
9-20 9-27

9-20 10-2
9-20 9-26
9-20 9-26
9-20 9-29
9-20 10-4
9-20 9-30
9-20 9-30
9-20 9-27
9-20 10-3
9-20 10-3
9-20 9-28
9-20 9-29
9-20 10-3
9-20 9-23
9-20 9-25
9-20 9-30
9-20 9-21
9-20 9-23
9-20 9-20
9-20 9-25
9-20 9-23
9-20 9-26
9-20 9-29
9-20 10-2
9-20 9-26
9-20 9-24
9-20 9-20
9-20 9-25
9-20 9-14
9-20 9-25
9-20 9-20
9-20 9-19
9-20 9-24
9-20 9-25
9-20 9-23
9-20 9-26
9-20 10-3

9-20 10-6
9-20 9-20
9-20 9-26
9-20 9-30


8-8 9-20 10-19
8-8 9-20 9-26


2.9
2.9
2.7
2.9
3.2

2.8
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.8
2.8
3.0
3.0
2.7
2.9
3.0
2.7
3.2
2.4
2.9
3.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1

1.9
2.1
3.0
2.9

2.1
2.9


10 10
8 8









Genus species (Common name)
Cultivar


Seed
Source'


Flower Color"


Field
Trans-
Sowing plant
Date Date


Date"
First
Flnuar


Diver-'
gence of
Flnuwrina


Flower"
Size
tin \


Plant'
Height
*i


Plant'
Width
(r '


Ratings


Plant"


- & n, __11L jwrm R T n a


,. r..I


Ultra Blue (grandiflora) GLD v dl
Ultra Blue Vein GLD mid pur t
Ultra Pink GLD hot pi
Ultra Light Pink Vein GLD It pk
Ultra Red GLD
Ultra Salmon GLD dk sal
Ultra Scarlet GLD
Ultra Sky Blue GLD mid blue-
Ultra White GLD
Phtox drummondii
Palona Formula Mix S&G
Portulaca grandiflore (Moss Ross)
Sundial Mix VHN
Rudbeckia hirta (Gloriosa Daisy, Black-eyed Susan)
Becky Mix TAK
Salvia splendens
Vista Red PAA
Tagetes erecta (American or African Marigold)
Antigua Gold GLD
Antigua Mix GLD
Antigua Orange GLD
Antigua Yellow GLD
Excel Gold GLD
Excel Mixture GLD
Excel Orange GLD
Excel Primrose GLD pr
Excel Yellow GLD
Inca Gold GLD
Inca Orange GLD c
Inca Yellow GLD )
Perfection Mixture GLD
Voyager Yellow GLD
Tagetes hvbrida (Triploid Marigold)
Zenith Golden Yellow CLS gol
Zenith Lemon Yellow CLS
Zenith Orange CLS
Zenith Orange and Red CLS bi-colc
Zenith Red and Gold CLS gold
Zenith Yellow CLS
Tagetes patula (French Marigold)
Aurora Light Yellow GLD
Aurora Orange GLD C
Aurora Red GLD red
Aurora Yellow Fire GLD yellow
Bonanza Flame PAA org s
Bonanza Orange PAA M
Janie Bright Yellow GLD )
Janie Deep Orange GLD d
Janie Primrose GLD )
Janie Spry GLD mah
Little Hero Mix BOO
Safari Mixture BOD n


Purple
a/dk pur veins
Sw/wh thrt
a/rose veins
red
t w/wh thrt
red
pur w/wh thrt
white

mix

mix

mix

red

gold
mix
orange
el low
gold
mix
range
rimrose
fellow
gold
range
ell ow
mix
ettow

,d yellow
fellow
,range
or gold & mah
w/mah ctr
yettow

fellow
1k org
a/org edges
Sw/mah ctr
a/mah ctr
,range
fetlow
1k org
fellow
w/yet ctr
nix
nix


8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8

8-22


9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20


9-29
9-26
9-26
9-26
10-5
9-25
10-1
9-28
9-27


10-4 10-15


8-8 9-20 9-21


14 1.0/2.6 8

23 NM NM


8-22 10-4 DNF DNF 5.4 NM


8-22 10-4 11-5


8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22

8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22

8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22
8-22


9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20

9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20

9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20
9-20


31 1.6/6.4 16 16 10


10-19
10-16
10-19
10-17
10-18
10-17
10-17
10-15
10-18
10-21
10-23
10-18
10-23
10-17

10-3
10-4
10-12
10-1
10-7
10-9

10-13
10-17
10-18
10-18
10-3
10-13
10-6
10-14
10-7
10-3
10-4
10-13


10 6

NR 0

10 9

10 10

9 8
9 9
9 9
10 9
7 8 "
5 6
7 8
5 6
6 6
9 9
8 9
7 8
9 9
8 8

8 6
7 7
8 3
8 1
8 8
8 6

10 9
10 10
10 9
10 9
9 9
10 10
10 10
10 8
10 10
9 9
8 7
9 9


ri .A-- --umt --i -.-t






Table 3 (continued 7).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"' Lodging' Overall'

Torenia fournieri (Wishbone flower)
Clown Blush PAA pink & white 8-8 9-20 10-10 3 0.9 12 14 9 9 10 8
Clown Plum PAA Lilac & pur-rose 8-8 9-20 10-15 14 0.8 12 13 9 8 10 8
Verbena hvbrida
Romance Formula Mix S&G mix 8-22 10-4 10-19 16 0.7/2.0 8 22 9 10 10 9
Verbena speciosa
Imagination VHN blue violet 8-22 10-4 10-27 12 0.5/1.3 14 10 10 10 10
Zinnia elegans
Dreamland Mix TAK mix 9-8 10-4 10-21 12 3.4 9 9 9 10 9 9
Short Stuff Coral GLD (frosty pk) 9-8 10-4 10-23 3 2.5 6 8 8 10 9 9
Short Stuff Deep Red GLD red 9-8 10-4 10-23 7 3.0 7 8 10 9 10 9
Short Stuff Gold GLD yellow 9-8 10-4 10-21 5 2.9 6 7 9 10 10 10
Short Stuff Mixture GLD mix 9-8 10-4 10-20 3 2.7 5 7 8 9 9 7
Short Stuff Orange GLD red-org 9-8 10-4 10-23 7 3.1 6 7 8 10 8 8
Short Stuff Scarlet GLD org-red 9-8 10-4 10-22 5 2.7 6 7 10 10 10 9
Short Stuff White GLD white 9-8 10-4 10-22 5 2.8 7 8 7 9 10 8

'Source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for source designations.
"Abbreviations: brt = bright; burg = burgundy; crm = cream; ctr = center; dk = dark; hvy = heavy; lav = avender; Ig = large; It = light; mah = mahogany; med = medium; orch =
orchid; org = orange; pk = pink; pur = purple; sat = salmon; st = slight; thrt = throat; v = very; vio = violet; wh = white; w/ = with; yet = yellow; ( ) = see text for explanation
of color aberration.
"Abbreviations: BT = flowered before transplanting to the field; DNF = did not flower. Divergence of flowering was the number of days between when the first plant in the plot
flowered until the last.
"Antirrhinum, Canna and Salvia = spike length; Pelargonium, Pentas and Verbena = flower diameter/head diameter; NM = not measured.
'NM = not measured; T = trellised.
"Rating: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. NR = not rated. '-
tDensity and distribution rating. 00
'Rating: 10 = no Lodging, 1 = plants flattened to ground. NR = not rated; T = trellised.
'Inclusive rating for appearance and vigor: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 all dead. NR = not rated.









The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
Q The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
Q Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
0 An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.


I