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Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of flowering bedding plant trials
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Bradenton Florida
Creation Date: 1994
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Bedding plants -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Bedding plants -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1994-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Winter 1997-1998.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62677465
lccn - 2005229094
System ID: UF00054205:00001

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Note
        Page 6
    Acknowledgement
        Page 7
    Literature cited
        Page 7
    Tables
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Gulf research and education center
        Page 13
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
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(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




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Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center
afrston Science

us rr ne \rit of Florid1


5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, Florida 34203-9324









UNIVERSITY OF Gulf Coast Research and
FLCORIDP A Education Center
FLO RIDA Eu nrn5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Bradenton, FL 34203


GCREC Research Report BRA1994-17 (August)

SUMMARY OF FLOWERING BEDDING PLANT TRIALS SPRING 1994

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters'

The performance of flowering bedding plant cultivars in demonstration plots has
been evaluated two to three times a year at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center in Bradenton, FL for the past ten years. In the spring (March June) of
1994, 128 entries from 15 genera, supplied by 6 companies, were examined in
unreplicated nine plant plots. This trial allowed the variety trials
coordinator, along with interested growers, seed companies, landscapers,
breeders, and extension master gardeners to view new releases from commercial
breeders and to make preliminary assessments of cultivar suitability for use in
central Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seeds were sown in a peat:vermiculite medium (see below) and germinated under
environmental conditions as required for each species. Seedlings were
transplanted to Todd(R) planter flats (1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch cells, model 150)
filled with peat:vermiculite medium (1:1,v:v) amended with dolomite, super-
phosphate, and hydrated lime at 11.3, 5.6, and 2.8 lb per cu yd, respectively.
Plants were fertilized with soluble 20-20-20 (rates and times varied with the
species) after the appearance of the first true leaf. Plants were not given
plant growth regulators.

Beds of EauGallie fine sand were raised, broadcast with Osmocote(R) 18-6-12 slow
release fertilizer which was incorporated three to four inched across the width
of the bed at a rate of 35.6 lb/1000 sq ft, fumigated (methyl bromide:
chloropicrin, 66:33) and covered with black polyethylene. Finished beds were 2.7
ft wide and 8 inches high on 5 ft centers. Irrigation water was supplied by
subsurface seepage from lateral ditches spaced every 42 ft.

Transplants were taken to the field when roots were well developed and filled the
containerized cells of the planter flats. Transplants were placed in beds on 12
inch centers in three rows across each bed with 9 plants per plot (staggered
layout). Plants were grown in full sun. Dates for sowing and field planting are
included in the trial summary table.

Pesticides were used preventively or on demand for lepidopterous larvae, thrips,
aphids and fungal pathogens. This flower trial emphasized the performance of

'Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.










cultivars in ground beds. No manipulation of the plants such as the application
of growth retardants, pinching of the apical buds, or detaching the old flowers
occurred.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Temperature and rainfall conditions for the spring of 1994 appear in Table 1.
Minimum and maximum daily temperatures were three to four degrees higher than
normal throughout most of the season (7) (Table 1). Rainfall was below average
during March and May, but above normal in April and June.

A complete listing of contributing companies and the designation of each company
as referred to in the summary table are found in Table 2.

The following discussion highlights and augments the information found in Table
3. Focal points of the discussion will include those entries with superior
performance or those that were new introductions.
Antirrhinum maius. (Snapdragon). 'Liberty' snapdragon is an intermediate-sized
series. However, mature plants averaged about 16 inches tall in early May, as
compared to an average of about two feet in the spring of 1993 (5). 'Bells
Mixture, 'Chimes Mixture' and 'Royal Carpet' are dwarf snapdragon series. Mature
plant height averaged around 9 inches for 'Royal Carpet' and 6 inches for 'Bells
Mixture' and 'Chimes Mixture'. Overall performance was better for the taller
more vigorously growing cultivars.

Catharanthus roseus. 'Pink Cooler', a dark pink, and 'Rose Cooler', a dark
purplish-rose, performed very well. The plants were well proportioned, compact
and well branched. These color additions give the popular 'Cooler' series a
total of seven colors.

Celosia globosa. 'Sparkler Mixed' provided an unusual appearance. This heavily
branched cultivar had a wispy, open appearance with numerous small plumes. It
provided a delicate and colorful show.

Cosmos sulphureus. (Yellow Cosmos). 'Ladybird Mixed' is a dwarf cosmos released
several years ago. It is unique in providing a very dwarf stature, usually about
12 inches tall, and early flowering. This cultivar readily reseeds itself and
bears bright orange, scarlet and bright yellow flowers.

Gazania splendens. The two 'Talent' cultivars provided excellent vigor and
display. The ratings were taken a little early for peak flowering performance
and does not reflect how well they flowered later in the season. Leaves varied
in the amount of pubescence, with the more hairy-leaved plants were reminiscent
of dusty miller.

Helianthus annuus. (Sunflower). 'Sonja' plants were fairly uniform in size and
were very bushy. Flower size ranged from just under 2.0 inches to 3.25 inches,
averaging 2.4 inches. Plants dimensions afforded a slightly columnar growth
habit about 27 inches tall. Although at the beginning of April the plants were
clean and disease-free, by the third week of May the leaves were dying back and
all flowers were spent.










'Sunbeam' plants were much shorter than those of 'Sonja', averaging about 17
inches tall. At the beginning of April leaved were obviously bronzing and
showing foliar edge necrosis. All flowers died before dimensions could be
quantified. One plant of the nine was a conspicuous off-type. It was 62 inches
tall with very large leaves and 8 to 9 inch flowers. It was a vigorous plant
which outlived and was of better quality than the other plants in the plot but
was definitely not a companion to the other plants in the test plot. Therefore,
the purity of 'Sunbeam' was in question.

Hibiscus moscheutos. (Moscheutos, Marsh Mallow). A pleasant newcomer to the
trials last fall (6), 'Disco Belle Pink' was joined by 'Disco Belle Rosy Pink'
and 'Disco Belle White' this spring. 'Disco Belle Pink' produced large 8.0-inch
flowers which were cream with a pink edge and a large raspberry-colored eye,
'Disco Rosy Pink' produced 8.8-inch flowers which were a dark ruby red, and
'Disco White' produced 8.6-inch flowers which were white with a rose eye. The
thirty-inch tall plants produced new flowers daily. May 25 ratings taken at the
beginning of peak flowering, were excellent. Ratings assigned June 15 after
seasonal, heavy rainfalls became regular occurrences, were much lower due to the
advent of diseased foliage, lower flower numbers and heavy sweetpotato whitefly
populations which covered leaves with sooty mold. No other entries in the trial
had the allure of these three 'Disco Belle' cultivars. Trial visitors were very
excited about these exotic plants and asked many questions concerning culture,
growth characteristics and seed availability.

Petunia x hvbrida. Fifty-nine petunia cultivars were examined in this trial and
were easily the most interesting group to examine this spring because of the many
new releases. Petunias performed extremely well as a group. The salt levels
which were a problem in other parts of the field were not in evidence in the
petunia area. Petunia as a group peaked in appearance and flowering the third
week of April and lasted in good condition for another five weeks. All petunia
plots were rated at the beginning of peak flower on April 29, also this was the
time when plants were beginning to lodge. Therefore, overall ratings were
influenced by the effect of lodging on overall appearance. Later in the season,
the earlier lodging did not have the visual impact that it did initially, so the
overall condition of the plots improved.

'Aladdin' is a new grandiflora series from Bodger Seeds Ltd. The blue, salmon
and pink colors were dark and rich, with the white providing a nice contrast.
One incongruity was apparent among the colors in the series. 'Aladdin Salmon'
had an entirely different growth habit than the other colors early in the season.
Its plants were more diminutive, round and non-spreading as compared to the other
colors.

Five new colors have been added to the 'Carpet' series and they were all had a
very interesting additions. 'Blue Carpet', was a rich dark purple; 'Buttercream
Carpet' was a creamy yellow with a darker yellow center; 'Lilac Carpet' was a
pinkish lilac with a cream throat; 'Sky Blue Carpet' was a mid purplish blue with
a cream throat; and 'True Blue Carpet' was a dark purplish blue with a white
throat. The range of blue/purple colors in the series should allow some dynamic
custom color mixing in the future, but the addition of the yellow was the key to
making this series stand out as having a versatile group of colors. 'Buttercream
Carpet' had excellent plant vigor and flower coverage. It was only about 3 to
4 days slower to flower than the other colors in the series, and slower to come
into the fullness of flower. (This explains the lower rating for flowering).










The flowers were also slightly smaller than most of the other colors, as this was
not an obvious difference. Once in full flower the 'Carpet' entries complimented
each other very well.
The 'Celebrity' series has several new custom mixes available as well as some new
color additions to the series. In the specialty custom blends 'Celebrity Desert
Sky Mix' provided a blend of sunset colors, such as salmon, summertime, and dark
blue; 'Celebrity Niagara Mix', provided a cool color blend of lavender, white,
light and dark blue; 'Celebrity Pastel Mix' was unusual in a blend of rose, mid
blue, dark salmon, white and lilac, which was not a pastel selection; 'Celebrity
Ice Mix' was a blend of veined cultivars; and 'Celebrity Just Pink Mix' was a
combination of bright rose, white, and pink veined colors. These color blends
provide landscapers with a useful tool to furnish customized appearance to bedded
areas without the tedium of selecting and mixing colors for a bed at
transplanting.

New 'Celebrity' colors examined this season were 'Celebrity Peach Ice', Celebrity
Rose Star' and 'Celebrity Chiffon Morn'. The most dazzling of this set of
newcomers were 'Celebrity Chiffon Morn', the All America Selections award winner,
and 'Celebrity Peach Ice'. 'Celebrity Chiffon Morn' provided flowers that were
a delicate shell pink with a creamy white and yellow throat and plants that were
smaller and less uniform than other cultivars in the series. The divergence of
flowering for 'Celebrity Chiffon Morn' was greater than other 'Celebrity' colors
at 24 days. 'Celebrity Peach Ice' was a striking light pink-salmon with distinct
red venation. 'Celebrity Rose Star' was a disappointment because it was not a
rose, more of a rose-burgundy, nor was it a star in some cases.

'Red Dreams' did not resemble other colors in the 'Dreams' series in plant size
or flowering ability. Others were taller and flowered better especially early
in the season. However, 'Red Dreams' did not lodge in the rain as did the
others.

Even though the 'Primetime' series has introduced special blends as the
'Celebrity' series has, they were unavailable for this spring trial. Instead
'Primetime Salmon Morn', 'Primetime Pink Morn', 'Primetime Lavender', 'Primetime
Scarlet', 'Primetime Pink', 'Primetime Mid-Blue' and 'Primetime Carmine' were new
color additions available for trial by the first of the year. All but 'Primetime
Rose' and had superior to excellent plant uniformity and flowering, although they
lodged moderately. Floral color of the new additions follows: 'Primetime Salmon
Morn' had a pink rim (not salmon) with a cream halo around a yellow center and
had a distinct tricolor pattern; 'Primetime Pink Morn' had a dark pink rim with
a white halo surrounding a yellow throat, however the white and yellow portions
of the flower color covered substantially less petal area than the 'Primetime
Salmon Morn' and did not have a typical "morn" or tricolor appearance; 'Primetime
Lavender' was a dark lilac-rose with a white throat and was definitely not
lavender; 'Primetime Mid-Blue' was aptly named as a mid-blue sporting a
contrasting white throat; 'Primetime Pink' was a hot pink with a contrasting
white and yellow throat; 'Primetime Scarlet' was a red with a contrasting white
throat; and 'Primetime Carmine' was a dark cherry rose with an inconspicuous
white and yellow throat. All of these color additions bring the 'Primetime'
series to 24 individual colors and color patterns. The advent of publicized
special color blends (1), makes the 'Primetime' an impressive series.









5
'Supercascade Burgundy', a new addition to the 'Supercascade' series, produced
a flower which was a very dark reddish plum. It flowered less enthusiastically
throughout the season and plants were shorter than many other entries in the
petunia area.

New additions to the 'Ultra' series included: 'Ultra Light Pink Vein', 'Ultra
Blue Vein', 'Ultra Sky Blue' and 'Ultra Scarlet' bringing the series up to 17
separate colors. All of the new colors seemed to be well matched to the
performance of the other 'Ultra' colors in the trial area. The exception was
that 'Ultra Scarlet', like 'Ultra Red', was not as floriferous as the rest of the
series.

One of the most exciting newcomers to the trials was the spreading petunia,
'Purple Wave'. This ground cover petunia was superb in vigor, flowering and
appeal to trial visitors. While it was the last petunia to flower, the profusion
of dark orchid-plum colored flowers were well worth the wait. As further
endorsement, this cultivar was awarded an All America Selections award for 1995.
Although jokingly described as a "kudzu with flowers", this petunia does spread
very aggressively and is a heavy feeder. These plants crept over the tops of a
adjoining plots of marigold and petunia, but never exceeded 9 inches in plant
height. Unlike other creeping types, 'Supertunia' and 'Cascadia', 'Purple Wave'
is seed propagated. This cultivar is also well adapted to hanging basket
production.

Portulaca grandiflora. (Moss rose). 'Sundial Peppermint' is a exquisite addition
to the 'Sundial' series. Its unique flower color, pink with fuchsia streaks and
blotches, drew a lot of favorable comments from visitors. The plants were
extremely vigorous and spread out in a thick carpet across the bed. Flowers had
exceptional longevity, remaining open until 5:00 pm.

Rudbeckia hirta. (Black-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy). Of the two gloriosa daisies
in trial, 'Becky Mix' was superior to 'Toto'. 'Becky Mix' had better plant
uniformity and flowering than 'Toto'. Also at the rating in early June, plant
losses were greater for 'Toto' than for 'Becky Mix'.

Salvia splendens. (Scarlet sage). 'Vista Red' was the best scarlet sage in the
trial. While all three salvia flowered at about the same time, 'Vista Red' had
a profusion of attractive spikes on vigorous, dark green bushy plants. These
attributes were lacking in 'Little Tango' and 'Cover Girl'. Later in the season
the number of spikes among the cultivars was more similar, but 'Vista Red' still
had better overall plant qualities.

Taqetes erecta. (African or American marigold). The familiar 'Discovery' series
has been improved for better long and short day earliness and re-named 'All
Season Discovery'. The orange and yellow cultivars were 7 to 8 inches tall and
10 to 11 inches in diameter with 2.4 inch fully double flowers. Ratings were
very good to excellent the third week of April at peak flowering. 'All Seasons
Discovery Orange' was rated lower overall due to obvious deadheading of the
earliest flowers.

The 'Antigua' series was day length neutral series introduced by Goldsmith Seeds.
These plants produced large 2.5-2.7 inch fully double flowers on dwarf 7 to 9
inch tall plants. Plants were slightly larger in diameter than those of 'All
Season Discovery', reaching 11 to 14 inches in diameter. Ratings were very











similar for the two series, however the slightly bigger flowers and slightly
larger plants made 'Antigua' the preferred series of the two.

'Excel', also a day length neutral series, has been on the market for couple of
years and produces larger plants than the previously discussed series. 'Excel
Mix' was rated low for plant uniformity, but averaged nearly 12 inches high and
16.5 inches in diameter. Flowers were almost 3 inches wide and all plants
flowered for the first time within three days of each other.

Tagetes patula. (French marigold). The colors red and orange have been added to
the 'Aurora' series. They flower as early as 'Aurora Light Yellow', and were
more suited to the series than the late flowering 'Aurora Yellow Fire', which has
been documented as very late French cultivar (3).
'Bonanza Flame Improved' and 'Bonanza Orange Improved' have been reintroduced as
having larger flower size. In this trial the flame was 2.2 inches in diameter
on average, which was an improvement from one previous evaluation but not another
(3,4). The orange was the same size as documented in two previous trials (3,4).
Nonetheless, each got superior to excellent ratings in all categories and had
early, concentrated flowering.

'Janie Spry' was a perfect 10 and a perfect addition to the 'Janie' series. The
'Janie' series continues to improve with time and now has separate eight colors.

Torenia fournieri. (Wishbone flower). Two new colors have been added to the
'Clown' series. 'Clown Blush' was a very attractive white with a bright pink rim
and 'Clown Plum' was a rich lilac with a dark orchid rim. Although ratings were
not outstanding, particularly for 'Clown Blush', other plots were observed at
another trial location and these cultivars provided an impressive show. 'Clown
Blush' had such a inconspicuous flower color, that it is best viewed close-up,
while 'Clown Plum' had a floral color that was bold enough for more distant
inspection and appreciation of the bedded area.

Verbena speciosa. 'Imagination' verbena is an interspecific hybrid perennial.
It had a creeping habit, a very delicate foliage very much like moss verbena, and
dark violet blue flowers. This cultivar performed very well, receiving excellent
ratings in all categories, except the overall category. However, two of nine
plants died, which resulted in an overall rating of 8.

Zinnia eleqans. 'Short Stuff' has been reintroduced to the market after its
initial debut in 1982 (2), and is available in six separate colors and a custom
mix. These very dwarf, 6 to 7 inch tall, plants produced flowers averaging 3.1
inches in diameter provided vivid colors. An obvious misnomer was 'Short Stuff
Coral' which had light pink flowers. Also purity was not fixed in 'Short Stuff
Orange' which had one plant with burgundy wine colored flowers. 'Short Stuff
Mix' plants were uneven in size and shape. Flowering was very concentrated in
this series.

NOTE

The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
does not provide recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.










ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott (formerly Grace-Sierra Horticultural Products) for
the contribution of Osmocote R) fertilizer used in this study, and American
Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd., Clause Flower Seeds,
Daehnfeldt, Florida Nurserymen & Growers Assoc., Goldsmith Seeds, G. S. Grimes
Seeds, Pan American Seed, Royal Sluis Ornamentals, Sakata America, S & G Seeds
(formerly Sluis & Groot America), Waller Flowerseed and Vaughan's for their
financial support during 1993 and 1994.

The authors also express their great appreciation to Marguerite Armstrong who
contributed tirelessly of her time as a research program volunteer.

LITERATURE CITED
1. Grower Talks. 1994. 1994 pack trials coverage. Grower Talks
58(3):62-100.
2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals
during fall 1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
96:131-135.

3. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Evaluation of marigold cultivars as
bedding plants, spring and fall 1989. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
103:332-337.

4. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1992. Observations of flowering bedding
plants, fall/winter 1991. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-10.

5. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1993. Evaluations of flowering bedding
plants, spring 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1993-26.

6. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994. Evaluations of flowering bedding
plants, fall-winter 1993-1994. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-11.

7. Stanley, C.D. 1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1994-08.

Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the spring of 1994 and
the 40-year averages (7).


Average Daily Temperature (OF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1994z 40-yr avg 1994' 40-yr avg 1994z 40-yr avg

March 80 77 58 55 2.80 3.35
April 86 82 64 60 2.57 1.72
May 90 87 65 64 0.18 3.20
June 89 89 72 70 10.80 7.48


zFirst transplanting March 15, 1994. Trial terminated June 7, 1994.










ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors thank 0. M. Scott (formerly Grace-Sierra Horticultural Products) for
the contribution of Osmocote R) fertilizer used in this study, and American
Takii, Ball Seed, E. Benary Seed, Bodger Seeds Ltd., Clause Flower Seeds,
Daehnfeldt, Florida Nurserymen & Growers Assoc., Goldsmith Seeds, G. S. Grimes
Seeds, Pan American Seed, Royal Sluis Ornamentals, Sakata America, S & G Seeds
(formerly Sluis & Groot America), Waller Flowerseed and Vaughan's for their
financial support during 1993 and 1994.

The authors also express their great appreciation to Marguerite Armstrong who
contributed tirelessly of her time as a research program volunteer.

LITERATURE CITED
1. Grower Talks. 1994. 1994 pack trials coverage. Grower Talks
58(3):62-100.
2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1983. Evaluation of flowering annuals
during fall 1982: Marigold and zinnia. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
96:131-135.

3. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Evaluation of marigold cultivars as
bedding plants, spring and fall 1989. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
103:332-337.

4. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1992. Observations of flowering bedding
plants, fall/winter 1991. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-10.

5. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1993. Evaluations of flowering bedding
plants, spring 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1993-26.

6. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1994. Evaluations of flowering bedding
plants, fall-winter 1993-1994. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1994-11.

7. Stanley, C.D. 1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1994-08.

Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the spring of 1994 and
the 40-year averages (7).


Average Daily Temperature (OF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1994z 40-yr avg 1994' 40-yr avg 1994z 40-yr avg

March 80 77 58 55 2.80 3.35
April 86 82 64 60 2.57 1.72
May 90 87 65 64 0.18 3.20
June 89 89 72 70 10.80 7.48


zFirst transplanting March 15, 1994. Trial terminated June 7, 1994.









8
Table 2. Seed suppliers with designations referred to in Table 3.


Company/Supplier Designation

American Takii TAK
301 Natividad Rd., Salinas, CA 93906
E. Benary Seed of America, Inc. BEN
1444 Larson St., Sycamore, IL 60178
Bodger Seeds, Ltd. BOD
P.O. Box 5090, El Monte, CA 91734-1090
Goldsmith Seeds GLD
P. 0. Box 1349, 2280 Hecker Pass Hwy., Gilroy, CA 95020
Pan American Seed Co. PAA
P.O. Box 438, W. Chicago, IL 60185
Sakata Seed America, Inc. SAK
P.O. Box 877, 18095 Serene Dr., Morgan Hill, CA 95037
S & G Seeds, Inc. S&G
3010 Woodcreek Dr., Suite B, Downers Grove, IL 60515







Table 3. Observations of assorted flowering bedding plants, spring 1994.


Field
Trans- Date' Diver-' Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering""' Lodging' Overall'


Antirrhinum majus (Snapdragon)
Bells Mixture GLD
Chimes Mixture GLD
Liberty Mixture GLD
Royal Carpet Mix TAK
Catharanthus roseus (Vinca, Periwinkle)
Cooler Series
Cooler Pink PAA
Cooler Rose PAA
Celosia globosa
Sparkler Mixed SAK
Cosmos sulphureus (Yellow Cosmos)
Ladybird Mixed SAK
Gazania splendens
Talent Series
Talent Mix BEN
Talent Yellow BEN
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)
Sonja BEN
Sunbeam SAK
Hibiscus moscheutos
Disco Belle Series
Disco Belle Pink SAK
Disco Belle Rosy Pink SAK
Disco Belle White SAK
Petunia x hybrida
Aladdin Series (grandiflora)
Aladdin Blue BOO
Aladdin Pink BOO
Aladdin Salmon BOD
Aladdin White BOD
Carpet Series multifloraa)
Carpet Blue PAA
Carpet Buttercream PAA
Carpet Lilac PAA
Carpet Rose Improved PAA
Carpet Sky Blue PAA
Carpet True Blue PAA
Carpet Velvet Improved PAA
Celebrity Series multifloraa)
Celebrity Blue BOD
Celebrity Blue Ice BOO
Celebrity Chiffon Morn BOO
Celebrity Desert Sky Mix BOO
Celebrity Ice Mix BOO
Celebrity Just Pink Mix BOO
Celebrity Mix BOD
Celebrity Niagara Mix BOD
Celebrity Pastel Mix BOO
Celebrity Peach Ice BOO
Celebrity Red BOO
Celebrity Rose Star BOO


mix
mix
mix
mix


dk pink
dk pur-rose

mix

mix


mix
golden yellow

gold
gold


:rm-wh w/pk edge & rose eye
ruby
white w/rose eye


dk purple
dk rose w/wh thrt
dk sal w/wh thrt
white

dk purple
v It crm yet w/yel ctr
pk-litac w/crm thrt
dk cherry rose w/wh thrt
med blue w/crm thrt
dk blue-purple
ruby-cherry

v dk purple
It pur w/dk pur vein
shell pk w/wh & yet thrt
custom mix
veined mix
custom mix
mix
custom mix
custom mix
It pk-sal w/red veins
scarlet
rose-burgundy star


2-10 3-22
2-10 3-22
2-10 3-22
2-10 3-22


1-25 3-22 4-18
1-25 3-22 4-19


7 1.5 11 15 9.5
2 1.7 13 17 9.5


2-4 3-22 BT NA 3.5


2-10 3-15 3-29


1-25 3-15 4-22
1-25 3-15 4-19

2-10 3-15 4-14
2-10 3-15 4-4


1-25 3-15 5-15
1-25 3-15 5-13
1-25 3-15 5-12


1-25 3-15 3-28
1-25 3-15 3-24
1-25 3-15 3-22
1-25 3-15 3-28


3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


3-20
3-24
3-21
3-22
3-20
3-23
3-20

3-24
3-27
3-26
3-26
3-27
3-21
3-25
3-22
3-26
3-27
3-18
3-21


10 10 8.5


5 1.8 13 19 7.5


17 1.6 8 14 7.5
12 1.6 8 16 9


4 2.4
4 NM


27 20 7.5
17 11 9


10/10
10/10
10/10


10
9.5
9
9

9.5
8.5
9
9.5
9
10
9

9.5
8.5
7.5
9
8
8
8
9
9
9.5
10
9


7.5 10 10
7 10 9

9.5 9 8

9.5 10 7


7.5 10 7
8.5 10 9


9
6


10/4.5
10/4
10/6


9.5
9
9.5
8.5

10
7.5
10
10
10
10
9

10
9
7.5
8.5
8
8
9
9
9
9
7.5
9


10 8
10 4


10/10
10/10
10/10


7
6
10
8

6
6
5
8
6
8
5

6
8
10
5
7
6
6
6
5
7
10
6


10/5
10/6
10/6 '


7
6
9
6

7
6
6
9
6
9
5

6
8
5
6
7
6
6
7
5
7
7
6







Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower' Plant' Plant" Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering,'t Lodging' Overall'


Celebrity Strawberry Ice
Celebrity Summer Ice
Celebrity White
Dreams Series (grandiflora)
Midnight Dreams
Pink Dreams
Red Dreams
Salmon Dreams
White Dreams Improved
Primetime Series multifloraa)
Primetime Blue
Primetime Burgundy
Primetime Carmine
Primetime Lavender
Primetime Light Blue
Primetime Mid BLue
Primetime Pink
Primetime Pink Morn
Primetime Pink Veined
Primetime Plum
Primetime Red
Primetime Red Vein
Primetime Rose
Primetime Rose Star
Primetime Salmon Morn
Primetime Scarlet
Primetime White


pk w/rose veins
rose w/red veins
white


PAA
PAA
PAA
PAA
PAA

GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD
GLD


Supercascade Burgundy grandd) PAA
Ultra Series (grandiflora)
Ultra Blue GLD
Ultra Blue Vein GLD
Ultra Light Pink Vein GLD
Ultra Pink GLD
Ultra Red GLD
Ultra Salmon GLD
Ultra Scarlet GLD
Ultra Sky Blue GLD
Ultra White GLD
Purple Wave (spreading) PAA
Portutaca grandiflora (Moss Rose)
Sundial Peppermint BOD
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)
Becky Mix TAK
Toto BEN
Salvia splendens
Cover Girl BEN
Little Tango SAK
Vista Red PAA


Tagetes erecta (African or American Marigold)
ALL Season Discovery Series
All Season Discovery Orange BOD
All Season Discovery Yellow BOD


dk purple
dk pink w/wh thrt
red
sat w/wh thrt (fades)
white

dk purple
dk plum w/vein
dk cherry rose
dk lilac-rose w/wh thrt
It-med pur w/crm thrt
med pur w/wh thrt
hot pk w/wh thrt
dk pk w/wh ring/yet thrt
pk w/hvy rose veins
orch-plum w/dk plum veins
red
dk sal-pk w/red veins
rose
burg-cherry star
pk w/wh ring/yet thrt
red w/wh thrt
white
v dk red-plum

dk purple
pur-blue w/vein
pk w/rose vein
dk rose w/crm thrt
red
dk pk-salmon
scarlet w/yet thrt
med purple w/wh thrt
white
dk orchid-plum

pk w/fuchsia strks

gold & bicolor
gold


1-25 3-15 3-21
1-25 3-15 3-26
1-25 3-15 3-22


1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25

1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25

1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25


3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


3-22
3-27
3-25
3-24
3-26

3-24
4-5
3-28
3-25
3-24
3-29
3-18
3-26
3-21
3-22
3-24
3-25
3-24
3-26
3-23
3-25
3-23
3-26

3-25
3-27
3-30
3-24
4-3
3-26
3-23
3-25
3-28
4-13


1-25 3-22 4-1

2-4 3-22 5-19
2-4 3-22 5-13


20 2.0 4 13 10

5 3.6 14 19 7
16 2.3 9 10 6.5


3-22 4-12
3-22 4-16
3-15 4-12


orange
yellow


2-4 3-15 3-31
2-4 3-15 4-3


7 2.4 7 10 9
5 2.4 8 11 9.5


7.5
7.5
9

9.5
8
7
8.5
8

10
8.5
9.5
9.5
9
10
10
9.5
9
9.5
7
7.5
9.5
9
8.5
9
8.5
7

8.5
8.5
8.5
7.5
7
8.5
7
9
8
10

10

9
7

9
7.5
10


10
10


10 10


10 8
10 10






Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Datex Diver-x Flower" Plant' Plant" Ratings
Genus species (Comnon name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color" Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"t Lodging' Overall


Antigua Series
Antigua Gold GLD
Antigua Mix GLD
Antigua Orange GLD
Antigua Yellow GLD
Excel Mix GLD
Inca Series
Inca Gold GLD
Inca Orange GLD
Inca Yellow GLD
Perfection Mixture GLD
Voyager Orange GLD
Tagetes patula (French Marigold)
Aurora Series
Aurora Light Yellow GLD
Aurora Orange GLD
Aurora Red GLD
Aurora Yellow Fire GLD
Bonanza Series
Bonanza Flame Improved PAA
Bonanza Orange Improved PAA
Janie Series
Janie Bright Yellow GLD
Janie Deep Orange GLD
Janie Primrose GLD
Janie Spry GLD
Little Hero Series
Little Hero Flame BOD
Little Hero Gold BOD
Little Hero Harmony BOD
Little Hero Orange BOO
Little Hero Spry BOD
Little Hero Yellow BOD
Safari Series
Safari Bolero BOD
Safari Gold BOO
Safari Orange BOD
Safari Primrose BOD
Safari Queen BOD
Safari Scarlet BOO
Safari Tangerine BOD
Safari Yellow BOD
Torenia fournieri (Wishbone Flower)
Clown Series
Clown Blush PAA
Clown Plum PAA
Panda Series
Blue Panda SAK
Pink Panda SAK
Verbena speciosa
Imagination BEN


gold
mix
orange
yellow
mix

orange-gold
orange
yellow
mix
orange


primrose yellow
orange
mah w/org edge
yellow w/mah base

org w/mah tones
orange

dk yellow
dk orange
primrose yellow
mah w/gold crest

orange w/mah overlay
gold
mah w/org crest
orange
mah w/gold crest
yellow

org w/mah spits
golden yellow
orange
primrose
org w/mah overlay
mah w/org edge
tangerine
yellow


wh w/brt pk rim
Lilac w/dk orch rim

It blue-pur w/vio rim
wh w/rose rim


dk pur-blue


4-3
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-2

4-4
4-2
4-5
4-3
3-30


2-4 3-15 3-25
2-4 3-15 3-25
2-4 3-15 3-26
2-4 3-15 4-3

2-4 3-15 3-16
2-4 3-15 3-16

2-4 3-15 3-18
2-4 3-15 3-21
2-4 3-15 3-21
2-4 3-15 3-20


3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15

3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15


3 2.2
2 2.0


10 14 9
12 17 10


3-16
3-16
3-19
3-20
3-18
3-18

3-19
3-23
3-20
3-25
3-26
3-25
3-21
3-24


1-25 3-15 4-2
1-25 3-15 4-10


9 1.2 9 14 6
7 0.9 8 10 9


1-25 3-15 4-5 2 1.0 8 12 6.5
1-25 3-15 4-9 14 0.9 8 12 6.5

2-4 3-22 4-10 7 0.5/1.3 12 NM 10


7.5 10 7
8 10 8

7.5 10 7
9 10 7

10 10 8







Table 3 (continued).


Field
Trans- Date" Diver-" Flower" Plant' Plant' Ratings
Genus species (Common name) Seed Sowing plant First gence of Size Height Width Plant"
Cultivar Source' Flower Color' Date Date Flower Flowering (in.) (in.) (in.) Uniformity Flowering"'t Lodging' Overall

Zinnia elegans
Short Stuff Series
Short Stuff Coral GLD (It pink) 2-10 3-15 3-28 2 2.8 7 11 9.5 10 10 10
Short Stuff Deep Rose GLD red 2-10 3-15 3-30 4 3.1 6 10 8.5 10 10 9
Short Stuff Gold GLD golden yellow 2-10 3-15 3-27 3 2.9 6 8 8.5 10 10 9
Short Stuff Mix GLD mix 2-10 3-15 3-28 3 3.3 7 10 8 10 10 8
Short Stuff Orange GLD dk orange 2-10 3-15 3-28 3 3.2 7 8 9.5 10 10 9
Short Stuff Scarlet GLD scarlet 2-10 3-15 3-30 8 3.1 6 9 8.5 10 10 9
Short Stuff White GLD white 2-10 3-15 3-27 3 3.1 6 10 9 10 10 9.5


'Source is not necessarily the developer. Refer to Table 2 for source.designations.
'Abbreviations: brt = bright; burg = burgundy; crm = cream; ctr = center; dk = dark; hvy = heavy; It = Light; mah = mahogany; med = medium; orch = orchid; pk = pink; pur =
purple; sal = salmon; spits = splotches; strks = streaks; thrt = throat; v = very; vio = violet; wh = white; w/ = with; yet = yellow; ( ) = see text for explanation of color
aberration.
"Abbreviations: BT = flowered before transplanting to the field; NF = never flowered. Divergence of flowering was the number of days between when the first plant in the plot
flowered until the last.
"Antirrhinum and Salvia = spike length; Celosia = plume length.
"NM = not measured.
"Rating: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. Multiple ratings are in chronological order, text specifies times.
'Density and distribution rating.
"Rating: 10 = no lodging, 1 = plants flattened to ground. Multiple ratings are in chronological order, text specifies times.
"Inclusive rating for appearance and vigor: 10 = excellent, 9 = superior, 8 = very good, 7 = good, 6 = fair, 1 = very poor, 0 = all dead. Multiple ratings
are in chronological order, text specifies times.








The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
" The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
O Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
o A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
U An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.