Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Map of Australia
 Australasia; or, Southern Asia
 Map of North America
 Back Cover

Group Title: Far off. : with anecdotes and two hundred illustrations
Title: Far off
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053960/00001
 Material Information
Title: Far off with anecdotes and two hundred illustrations
Physical Description: xxiv, 709, 2 p., 24 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), fold. maps (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mortimer, Favell Lee, 1802-1878
Jobbins, John Richard, d. 1866 ( Engraver )
Hatchards (Firm) ( Publisher )
Strangeways & Sons ( Printer )
J. & C. Walker (Firm) ( Engraver )
Edward Stanford Ltd ( Engraver )
Publisher: Hatchards
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Strangeways & Sons
Publication Date: 1885
Edition: 2nd and corrected issue of new ed., with new map pf North America at the end of the book.
Subject: Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Oceania   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1885   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1885
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of 'The peep of day', etc. etc.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
General Note: Some maps: Australia by J. Jobbins, World by J. & C. Walker, and North America by Stanford's Geog. Estab.
General Note: "Thirty-ninth thousand."
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053960
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234590
notis - ALH5022
oclc - 54145215

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    List of Illustrations
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Map of Australia
    Australasia; or, Southern Asia
        Page 1
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            The colonists, or settlers
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
            Page 12
            The gold-diggers
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
            Page 13
            The late return
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
            Page 14
            The desolate child
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
            Page 15
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
            Page 16
            New South Wales
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
            Page 17
                Page 70
                Page 71
            Page 18
            South Australia
                Page 72
                Page 73
            Page 19
            Western Australia
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
            Page 20
            The young savages
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
                Page 82
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
                Page 89
            Page 21
            Little Mickey
                Page 90
                Page 91
                Page 92
                Page 93
                Page 94
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
        New Zealand
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            The middle island
                Page 117
                Page 118
                Page 119
            The northern island
                Page 120
                Page 121
                Page 122
                Page 123
                Page 124
                Page 125
                Page 126
                Page 127
                Page 128
            The history of Tamehana
                Page 129
                Page 130
                Page 131
                Page 132
                Page 133
                Page 134
                Page 135
                Page 136
                Page 137
                Page 138
                Page 139
                Page 140
                Page 141
                Page 142
                Page 143
                Page 144
                Page 145
                Page 146
        Papua, or New Guinea
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
        The great Pacific Ocean
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Dutch East Indies
                Page 190
                Page 191
                Page 192
                Page 193
                Page 194
                Page 195
                Page 196
            The Moluccas
                Page 197
                Page 197
                Page 198
                Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            The Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands
                Page 204
                Page 205
                Page 206
                Page 207
                Page 208
                Page 209
                Page 210
                Page 211
                Page 212
                Page 212
                Page 213
            The Friendly Islands
                Page 214
            The Samoan Islands
                Page 215
                Page 216
                Page 217
            Cook's Islands
                Page 218
                Page 219
            The Fiji Islands
                Page 220
                Page 221
                Page 222
                Page 223
            Pitcairn's Island
                Page 224
                Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
            The Khedive and his army
                Page 234
                Page 235
                Page 236
                Page 237
                Page 238
            The rich Egyptians
                Page 239
                Page 240
                Page 241
                Page 242
                Page 243
                Page 244
                Page 245
                Page 246
                Page 247
            The charachter of the Egyptians
                Page 248
            The Copts
                Page 249
            The wonders of Egypt
                Page 250
                Page 251
                Page 252
                Page 253
                Page 254
                Page 255
                Page 256
                Page 257
                Page 258
                Page 259
                Page 260
                Page 261
                Page 262
                Page 263
                Page 264
                Page 265
                Page 266
            The dying boys
                Page 267
                Page 268
                Page 269
                Page 270
                Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
                Page 275
                Page 276
            The people of Abyssinia
                Page 277
                Page 278
                Page 279
                Page 280
                Page 281
            The habitations of the people
                Page 282
            An account of a king or shoa
                Page 282
                Page 283
                Page 284
                Page 285
                Page 286
                Page 287
                Page 288
                Page 289
                Page 290
                Page 291
                Page 292
                Page 293
                Page 294
                Page 295
                Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
                Page 301
                Page 302
                Page 303
                Page 304
                Page 305
                Page 306
                Page 307
                Page 307
                Page 307
        South Africa
            The cape colony
                Page 308
                Page 309
                Page 310
            The history of little Jejana
                Page 311
                Page 312
                Page 313
                Page 314
                Page 315
                Page 316
                Page 317
                Page 318
                Page 319
                Page 320
                Page 321
                Page 322
                Page 323
            The orange free state
                Page 324
                Page 325
                Page 326
                Page 327
                Page 328
            Gnadenthal or Gracevale
                Page 329
            Cape Town
                Page 330
                Page 331
                Page 332
            Graham's Town
                Page 333
            The diamond fields
                Page 333
            The Kafirs
                Page 334
                Page 335
                Page 336
                Page 337
                Page 338
                Page 339
                Page 340
                Page 341
                Page 342
                Page 343
            The Zulus
                Page 344
                Page 345
                Page 346
                Page 347
                Page 348
                Page 349
                Page 350
                Page 351
                Page 352
                Page 353
                Page 354
            The history of Sitwana
                Page 355
                Page 356
                Page 357
                Page 358
                Page 359
        Transvaal and Zululand
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            The Bechuanas
                Page 368
                Page 369
                Page 370
                Page 371
                Page 372
            The missionaries
                Page 373
            The rain-maker
                Page 374
                Page 375
                Page 376
                Page 377
                Page 378
                Page 379
        Western Africa
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Upper Guinea
                Page 382
                Page 383
                Page 384
                Page 385
                Page 386
                Page 387
            Anecdotes of Negro kings
                Page 388
                Page 389
                Page 390
                Page 391
                Page 392
                Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            The slave trade
                Page 405
                Page 406
        Sierra Leone
            Page 407
            Page 408
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
        Bourbon and Mauritius
            Page 412
            Page 413
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
            Page 417
            Page 418
            Page 419
            Page 420
            Page 421
            Page 422
            Page 423
            Page 424
            The people
                Page 425
                Page 426
                Page 427
                Page 428
                Page 429
                Page 430
                Page 431
            How a Malagasy family spend the day
                Page 432
            King Radama
                Page 433
                Page 434
                Page 435
                Page 436
                Page 437
                Page 438
                Page 439
                Page 440
                Page 441
                Page 442
                Page 443
                Page 444
                Page 445
                Page 446
                Page 447
                Page 448
                Page 449
                Page 450
                Page 451
            Queen Ranavalona II & III
                Page 452
                Page 453
                Page 454
                Page 455
                Page 456
                Page 457
                Page 458
                Page 459
        The United States
            Page 460
            Page 461
            Page 462
            Page 463
                Page 464
            New York
                Page 465
                Page 466
                Page 467
                Page 468
                Page 469
                Page 470
                Page 471
                Page 472
                Page 473
                Page 474
                Page 475
                Page 476
                Page 477
                Page 478
                Page 479
            New Orleans
                Page 480
                Page 481
                Page 482
                Page 483
                The gold-seekers
                    Page 484
                    Page 485
                    Page 486
                San Francisco
                    Page 487
                    Page 488
                    Page 489
                    Page 490
                    Page 491
                    Page 492
                    Page 493
                    Page 494
            The Falls of Niagara
                Page 495
                Page 496
                Page 497
                Page 498
                Page 499
                Page 500
                Page 501
            The history of Zamba
                Page 502
                Page 503
                Page 504
                Page 505
                Page 506
                Page 507
                Page 508
                Page 509
                Page 510
                Page 511
                Page 512
                Page 513
                Page 514
                Page 515
                Page 516
                Page 517
        British America
            Page 518
            Page 519
            The River St. Lawrence
                Page 520
            Page 521
            Page 522
            Page 523
            Page 524
            Page 525
            Page 526
            Page 527
            Dominion of Canada
                Page 528
        The North American Indians
            Page 529
            Page 530
            Page 531
            Page 532
            Page 533
            Page 534
            Page 535
            Page 536
            Page 537
            Page 538
            Page 539
                Page 540
            The story of the blood-stained spear
                Page 541
                Page 542
                Page 543
                Page 544
            Animals of North America
                Page 545
                Page 546
                Page 547
                Page 548
                Page 549
                Page 550
                Page 551
                Page 552
                Page 553
                Page 554
                Page 555
                Page 556
                Page 557
                Page 558
                Page 559
                Page 560
                Page 561
                Page 562
                Page 563
                Page 564
                Page 565
                Page 566
                Page 567
                Page 568
                Page 569
                Page 570
                Page 571
                Page 572
                Page 573
                Page 574
        Manitoba, or the speaking god
            Page 575
            Page 576
            Page 577
        British Columbia
            Page 578
            Page 579
            Page 580
            Page 581
            Page 582
            Page 583
            Page 584
            Page 585
            Page 586
            Page 587
            Page 588
            Page 589
            Page 590
            Page 591
            Page 592
            Page 593
            Page 594
            Page 595
            Page 596
            Page 597
            Page 598
            Page 599
            Page 600
            Page 601
            Page 602
            Page 603
            Page 604
            Page 605
            Page 606
            Page 607
            Page 608
            Page 609
            Page 610
            Page 611
            Page 612
            Page 613
            Page 614
            Page 615
            Page 616
            Page 617
            Page 618
            Page 619
            Page 620
            Page 621
            Page 622
            Page 623
            Page 624
            Page 625
            Page 626
            Page 627
            Page 628
            Page 629
            Page 630
        The West Indies
            Page 631
            Page 632
            Page 633
                Page 634
                Page 635
                Page 636
                Page 637
                Page 638
                Page 639
                Page 640
                Page 641
                Page 642
                Page 643
                Page 644
                Page 645
            Leeward and Windward Islands
                Page 646
                Page 646
                Page 647
                Page 648
        Central America
                Page 649
            San Salvador
                Page 650
                Page 650
                Page 651
            Costa Rica
                Page 651
            Belize or British Honduras
                Page 652
        The Isthmus of Panama
            Page 652
            Page 653
        South America I.
            Page 654
            Page 655
                Rio Janeiro
                    Page 656
                    Page 657
                    Page 658
                The gold district
                    Page 659
                The city of diamonds
                    Page 659
                The river amazons
                    Page 659
                    Page 660
                    Page 661
                    Page 662
                    Page 663
                    Page 664
                    Page 665
                    Page 666
                    Page 667
                    Page 668
                    Page 669
                    Page 670
                    Page 671
                    Page 672
                    Page 673
                    Page 674
                    Page 675
        South America II.
                Page 676
                Page 677
                Page 678
                Page 679
                Page 680
                Page 681
        South America III.
                Page 682
                Page 683
                Page 684
                Page 685
                Page 685
                Page 685
                Page 686
                Page 687
                Page 688
                Page 689
                Page 690
                Page 691
                Page 692
                Page 693
                Page 694
            La Plata, or the Argentine Confederation
                Page 695
                Buenos Ayres
                    Page 696
            Paraguay and Uruguay
                Page 697
            Chili, or Chile
                    Page 698
                    Page 699
                    Page 700
            Tierra del fuego, or the land of fire
                Page 701
                Page 702
                Page 703
                Page 704
                Page 705
                Page 706
                Page 707
                Page 708
                Page 709
    Map of North America
        Page 710
        Page 711
        Page 712
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text



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1 885.

Tower Street, Upper St. Martin's Lane.


THE second issue of FAR OFF, Part II., has
been still further revised. A great Maori
scholar has corrected New Zealand and sup-
plied the portrait of the Christian Chief
Matene from a very rare photograph.
British America has been corrected by C. E.
Fryer, Esq., an authority on the subject, by
Dr. Horden, Bishop of Moosonee, and by Miss
Sinclair of Winnipeg, and South America has
been kindly improved by Mr. Stewart Clough.
A new map of North America has been
added by Mr. Stanford. Various other changes
have been noted.
Many of the countries described in this
volume are of special interest at the present


time. Every newspaper contains tidings-
too often sorrowful tidings-from Madagascar,
Egypt and Africa.
Do not think you have no concern with
the great changes which are taking place in
the world, for you can pray about them.
You can ask God to deliver His people
wherever they are, from all danger, and you
can pray God that every thing which happens
may only prepare the way for the kingdom
of His dear Son.
You may like to hear what once happened
to a dear child much younger than- you
are. Her name was Edith and she lived in
One night she heard her mother say sorrow-
fully that all her father's sheep would die for
want of rain.
'But have you prayed about this, mother?'
she asked, and then added,' I shall pray to-
night for rain.' So she did, and so confident
was she her prayer was heard that she went to


bed quite happy. The heavens seemed like
brass, but she said she knew God would send
rain because she had asked Him. And so
He did. To the surprise of all, before Edith
had been asleep many hours, such torrents
descended that she had to be lifted out of
bed in the middle of the night and carried
into another room, as her own was deluged
with water.
Let me tell you too what a heathen youth
was led to do from reading your old friend
the Pep oqf Day. He was a Chinese and he
lived at Singapore. He went to the gold
diggings at Melbourne, and there he heard
there was a night school. He resolved to
go to it at once for he said to himself, The
English are a -great nation because so many
of them can read; I will g o to school and
learn to read myself.' e went accordingly.
His teacher was a ladlv andi his lesson-book
was Pep) o/'f Do//. W-henl he could read the
Peep he longed so much to know more that


ne bean to study the Bible diligently. Very
soon he determined to spend his life in
teaching" others to know the Saviour. He
next returned to Singapore and there married
a very good young woman, who had been one
of Miss Cooke's scholars. He went back to
Melbourne with her, and there they both set
to work to do all the good they could and to
teach hundreds of Chinese to love the Saviour.
I hope when you have read about Africa
and America you will wish to know more
about them. If you take in the Clurch
Missionary Gleaner, which costs one penny a
month, you will see many pictures and find
many accounts of the work of the Church
Missionary Society, which has laboured so
many years in those countries, and is still
labouring there harder than ever. The more
you read the more anxious you will be to
help yourself and to get others to help to
tell the goodness of God's love all over the


Would that she, who wrote the first edition
of FAR OFF, could behold this last!
But though she herself is departed hence,
and is no more seen among us, yet the
echoes of her beloved voice ring on to the
ends of the earth, and her words are not
only treasured in the store-house of grateful
memories, but still live in the mouths of dear
children of many lands and many tongues.
And they will continue so to live, for they
testify of Him, Who says,--

'I am He that liveth and was dead.
and behold, I am alive for evermore.
Amen.' (Rev i. 18.)

i. C. MEYER.

Feb. 1, 1885.


The Colonists, or Settlers 41
The Gold-Diggers 45
The Late Return 54
The Desolate Child. 57
Queensland. 64
New South Wales 67
Victoria 70
South Australia 72
Western Australia. 74
The Young Savages 77
Little Mickey 90
The Middle Island 117
The Northern Island 120
The History of Tamehana 1. 12

Dutch East Indies 190
Java 191
Sumatra 194
The Moluccas 197
Celebes 197
The Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands 204
Micronesia 212
Tahiti 212
The Friendly Islands 214
The Samoan Islands 215
Cook's Islands 218
The Fiji Islands 220
Pitcairn's Island 224
The Khidive and his Army 234
The Rich Egyptians 239
Slaves 242
The Character of the Egyptians 248
The Copts. 249
The Wonders of Egypt 250
Cairo .25
Alexandria 264
Thebes 265
The Dying Boys 267
Animals 275


The People of Abyssinia 277
The Habitations of the People 282
An Account of a King or Shoa 282

Morocco .301
Algeria .302
Tunis 306
Fezzan 307
Tripoli 07
Barea 307

The Cape Colony 08
The History of Little Jejana 311
Bushmen 317
The Orange Free State 324
Gnadenthal or Gracevale 329
Cape Town 330
Graham's Town 333
The Diamond Fields 333
The Kafirs 334
The Zulus. 344
Natal 33
The Iistory of Sitwana 355

The Bechuanas 368
The Missionaries 373
The Rain-Maker 374


Upper Guinea 82
Anecdotes of Negro Kings 88
The Slave Trade 405
The People 425
How a Malagasy Family spend the Day 432
King Radama 433
Queens Ranavalona II. & III. 452

Washington 464
New York 465
Boston 478
Philadelphia 479
New Orleans 480
Chicago 481
California 483
The Gold-Seekers 484
San Francisco 487
The Falls of Niagara 495
Religion 497
The History of Zamba 502


The River St. Lawrence 520

Dominion of Canada 528

Four-Bears 540
The Story of the Blood-stained Spear 541
Animals of North America 545

XICO 602

Jamaica 634
Trinidad 45
Leeward and Windward Islands 646
Barbados 646

Guatemala .. 649
San Salvador 650
Honduras. .. 650
Nicaragua .. 651
Costa ica 651
Belize or British Honduras 652



BRAZIL & 656
Rio Janeiro 6. .
The Gold District 659
The City of Diamonds 659
The River Amazons 659
I. Venezuela 682
II. Colombia 685
III. Ecuador 685
IV. Peru 685
Lima 688
The Andes. 693
V. Bolivia. 694
VI. La Plata, or the Argentine Confederation 695
Buenos Ayres 696
VII. & VIII. Paraguay and Uruguay 697
IX. Chili, or Chile 698
Santiao 698
Tierra del Fuego, or the Land of Fire 701


Sick Child Frntispiece.
Map of Australia T face page 1
Mount Mitchell 5
Lake George 7
Kangaroo 10
Opossum 11
Koala 1. .. 12
Wombat and Sugar Suirrel 13
Bandicoot 14
Tapoa Tafa 15
Platypus 17
Burrow of Platypus and Hedgehog 18
Bower Bird .
Lyre Bird 24
Corroboree 9
Ebenezer Station 40
Travelling in Australia To face page 44
Gold Diggers 48
Brisbane 65
Metrsideros 68

Sydney Harbour 6
Melbourne To face page 70
Melbourne Government House 71
Swan River 76
Wylie 89
Rocks near Storm Bay 97
Hobart Town 99
Tasmanian Wolf 101
Tasmanian Devil 102
Forest Chapel 104
Flinders Island 105
Grass-trees 107
Apteryx 114
Tui 116
Dunedin 119
Water Rainbow Fall .. 7 face pe 14
Pa 125
New Zealanders as they were 127
Te Whiwhi or Matene 139
Tamehana's House 142
Bishop Hadfield 7T face page 144
Map of Oceania To face page 146
Village in Humboldt Bay 148
Iron-wood Tree 150
Fruit 151
Drum and Shield 152
Murray Islands 156
Port Moresby 158
Tattooed Heads 160
Youth 161

Cradle and Woman 162
Trading Canoe 163
House 164
Watch House 165
Village in Wild Island .166
Natives of New Caledonia 168
flut of New Caledonia 169
Kagu 172
Aneiteum. 173
Canoe, Solomon Islands 175
Whitsuntide Island 17
Chief of Bellona 181
Nukapu To face page 182
People and Trees .To face page 186
Mindanao. 18S
Manilla 189
Rafflesia 192
Upas-tree. 193
Macassar 199
Coral Atoll 204
Map of Pacific Ocean To face page 204
Monument to Captain Cook 206
Mauna Loa 208
Kilauea 209
Hawaiians 211
Bay and Village of Apia. 215
Bay of Leone 216
Mission House, Apia 217
Missionary's House, Apia 218
Natives of Savage Island 210

Land Crab 221
John Adams' Church-houe 225
Slhve Dealin 227
Slave Gang 228
Zanzibar. 29
Egyptian Handcuffs .
Egyptian Women 2,8
Nile To face page 251
Nile Boat To face pae 252
Pyramids .
Sphinx .
Egyptian Girl. Culoured To face page 259
Nubian Girl 274
Abyssinian Village 281
King of Shoa 2
Map of the World 1Toface page 307
Hottentot 310
Bushman 310
Missionary's Wagon .27
Travellino- in Wagon 3
Mission Station 31
Table Mountain. To face page 332
Gaika Chief and Woman 36
Lanabalele 340
Witch Doctor and Letter-carrier .. 342
Zulu 46
Dinaan 348
Dancer 51
Cetewayo's Brother To face page 361
Bechuana Warrior 371

Bechuana Foundling 372
Mangrove-tree 81
Date Palm 384
African Digging 385
Boa Constrictor 387
Fetish worship 391
Spear and Footstool 404
Station on Gaboon River 406
Antananarivo 416
Travellers' Tree 422
Natives of Madagascar 426
Native House 428
Christians thrown from Rock To face page 446
Palace Court 449
Prince and Princess 451
Malagasy Preacher 4454
Bible House, New York 465
Central Park 466
Fifth Avenue Hotl 467
Hendrich Spring 46
Elephant Island 469
Sabatis 470
Opalescent River 471
Sky-Piercer. 472
Jesup's Great Falls 473
Glen's Falls 473
Colonel Schuvler's ouse 474
Governor's House 475
Dudley Observator 475
Loon or Diver 476

Locust Grove 477
Washington Irving's Study 478
Californian 483
Opossum 493
Prairie Dogs 495
Falls of Niagara To face page 496
Shooting Rapids .. 521
Montreal 524
Indians 534
Encampment 535
Women and Babes 538
Wild Horses being caught 45
Wild Horse just caught 546
Bison 547
Mystery Man .
Blackrock's Daughter 555
Going to Church 558
Abraham finding Indian Family 55
Archdeacon Kirkby 63
Arrival of Mail 564
Travelling with Snow Shoes 566
Fort Simpson 568
Little Pine 571
Annosothkah .. 573
Metlakatlah 579
Seals 589
Man in Kayak 590
Setting Fox-traps 591
Greenland House 592
Greenland Man 59

Woman and Babe 594
Polar Sea. 601
View in Mexico 602
Popocatepl 604
Water-carrier 605
Mexican Mill 606
Indian gathering Vanilla 609
Pulque Plantation 611
Arriero 614
Plantation, Cordova, Mexio 615
Cathedral at Puebla 619
President Diaz 624
View near Maltrata To face page 630
Negro at Work 632
Mission Station, Jamaica To face page 632
Negresses at Work 633
Sugar Mill 635
Negro cutting Cane 636
Negresses going to Market 637
Negroes Singing 638
Negresses 639
A Negress 640
Negroes To face pae 640
Mission Station, Jamaica. 643
Negress and Boy 644
Scene in Barbados To face 1agre 644
People Talking 645
Hurricane 647
Schoolchildren .. 648
Street in Barbados T face page 648

Palm Avenue 57
Negro collecting Flowers. 658
Making India-rubber Shoes 66
Mangrove Forest 677
South-American Indians. 678
Llama .. 687
Beggar 697
Stirling House 705
Medal given by King of Italy 708
New Map of North America At end of book

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10 115- 12 .125 IMUgttude EaL 130 of Greenwich 3 140 145 150 155
Published gy HatcharAs, 187. Piccadilly. NOTE:ANDHURSr ISED TO BE CALLED BENDI) Jobbs




THE First Part of Far Off' begins with Asia.
The Second Part of 'Far Off' begins with
Austral Asia, or Southern Asia.
Austral or Southern Asia has this name
because it is in the southern) half of the world,
just as Asia is in the nortlCer) half.
Asia is one oreat continent. Australasia is a
number of islands, of different sizes.
One of these islands is so large that it is
often called a Continent. Its name is very
like Austral-Asia-AUSTRALIA.

Australia is the largest island in the world,
if you call it an island. Australia is the
smallest continent in the world, if you call it
a continent.
Australia is about three quarters of the size
of Europe.t Australia and Europe are very
Its length from east to west is a little over 2000 miles;
its breadth from north to south is a little over 1900 miles.
t Europe has 3,621,000 square miles;
Australia has 2,983,386 square miles.




THE First Part of Far Off' begins with Asia.
The Second Part of 'Far Off' begins with
Austral Asia, or Southern Asia.
Austral or Southern Asia has this name
because it is in the southern) half of the world,
just as Asia is in the nortlCer) half.
Asia is one oreat continent. Australasia is a
number of islands, of different sizes.
One of these islands is so large that it is
often called a Continent. Its name is very
like Austral-Asia-AUSTRALIA.

Australia is the largest island in the world,
if you call it an island. Australia is the
smallest continent in the world, if you call it
a continent.
Australia is about three quarters of the size
of Europe.t Australia and Europe are very
Its length from east to west is a little over 2000 miles;
its breadth from north to south is a little over 1900 miles.
t Europe has 3,621,000 square miles;
Australia has 2,983,386 square miles.

different. Look at them on the map. How
many peninsulas Europe has, whilst Australia
has hardly any Europe is divided into a
number of old nations and kingdoms, which
have lasted hundreds of years. Australia is
divided into five new colonies or settlements,
which have been planted during the last
hundred years. The people of Europe speak
many languages, and have many rulers. The
colonists of Australia speak the same language,
and have the same beloved Queen, for almost
all of them are English, Scotch, and Irish.
Each of the five colonies has its own laws, its
own Parliament, and its own Governor, who is
chosen by Queen Victoria.
A hundred years ago there was not one of
these colonies. The greater part of Australia
was desert or forest, with no other inhabitants
than a few half-naked savages. Then there
was not a single town in Australia; now there
are a great many near the sea-coast.
Though the colonies of Australia are larger
than most of the countries of Europe, they are
not so full of people. The largest of the colonies
is Western Australia. It is nearly half the size
of Russia, yet at present it has not more people
than the town of Cambridge. Altogether
there are now in Australia, about two millions
and a half white people. No doubt there will
soon be many more.
A line drawn all round the coasts of Aus-
tralia, would be eight thousand miles long.
West. Australia, 975,821 sq. miles; Pop. 30,000.
Russia, 2,014,081 ,, Camb., pop. 30,078.
See Black's Atlas.

Australia is a very fine country, yet it has
one great want -the want of water. Australia
is something like a plate placed upside down.
The middle of the plate is flatter and higher
than the rest. The rim of the plate slopes
down all round. Just so the middle of Aus-
tralia is flat and high, and the border slopes
down to the sea.
Round the coasts of Australia, on the east
and west, there are mountain chains, with
rivers running down their sides into the sea,
and making the land fruitful around. These
rivers are not long, because most of them run
down the mountains on the side nearest to the
sea. But the Darling, the Lachlan, and the
Murrumbidgee, flow down from the mountains
on the side furthest from the sea. They all
join the river Murray, which is the finest river
in Australia, and which winds along fifteen
hundred miles, till it falls into the sea through
a lake. Like the Nile, it makes the land
fruitful by overflowing its banks.
One thing in Australia would surprise you.
It is that the same place often looks quite
different. You may find a desert where once
you found nothing but water. Many Aus-
tralian rivers dry up in the summer, and look
like water-holes, but a few days' rain will
change them into rushing water-courses. Very
small rivers are often called creeks. Instead of
getting bigger, as they flow, they often grow
smaller, till they cannot force their way on,
through the dry flat country. Sometimes they
end in a huge morass, where black swans, wild
ducks, and geese live.

Why is there so little water in Australia?
Because there is so little rain. Sometimes, for
two years together, there are no heavy showers,
and the grass withers, and the air is filled with
dust. I believe the reason of this is the want of
many high mountains, for high mountains draw
the clouds together. There are no mountains so
high as the Swiss Alps: the Australian Alps
are only half as high.
The belt of mountains round Australia may
be divided into three. The granite mountains
of the west; the mountains of the south, which
are full of copper; and the mountains of the
east, which are rich in coal and gold. The
last are much the finest. The highest of them
are called the Australian Alps. They look
like a magnificent wall. Some of them are
capped with eternal snow, and are seven
thousand feet high. The most famous of them
is called Kosciusko. The snow from these
mountains, feeds the great river Murray.
Higher up on the east coast are the Blue
Mountains. They have this pretty name be-
cause they appear such a beautiful blue at a
distance. They might be called the Golden
Mountains as well as the Blue Mountains,
because so much gold is found in them.
Australia has few lakes; most of them are
salt. A traveller visited one, which looked like
a salt sheet of mud. Hie forced his way through
the mud for six miles, but he found only mire,
into which his horses sunk up to their bodies.
Australia has beautiful harbours, gulfs, and
bays, large enough to receive nearly all the
ships in the world.

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Along the north-east coast, there is a coral
reef, called the Great Barrier Reef. It is
full of danger to ships. It is at some distance
from the shore, and it stretches out along the
coast for more than a thousand miles. Above
the coral reef are Torres Straits. They are
named after a Spaniard, who first discovered
If you look down into the sea, in these straits,
in calm weather, you see numbers of bright
shell-fish in the clear water, some coloured and
some quite transparent, hungry sharks, rolling
turtles, fish of all shapes, sizes, and colours,
and great glowing sea-snakes, gliding about at
the bottom of the sea.
Though the Barrier Reef is so dangerous to
great ships, many little boats come to it. They
are full of men, whose business it is to fish for
trepang. This is the name of a very ugly sea-
slug. It is about half a yard long, and it looks
very like a German-sausage or a cucumber.
Sometimes the fishers spend three years at a
time, on the reef, catching trepang. They first
find some small island, where they can sow
seed enough to supply them with vegetables,
for if they lived on nothing but fish, they
might have a disease called scurvy. When
the days are calm, they go and look for
trepang. Whenever they see little feathery
arms or horns waving about in the water, they
know the bodies of the sluos are buried in
the coral sand. If the water is shallow, they
hook them up with a kind of spear, but if
the water is deep, then the men dive for them.
Sometimes a fisher brings up a dozen at a time.

.. .. --- --- _- -

....:-=-- -- - ----: --- .. ---:-- --- : : -=--= = Ti --- -=:--=-_ _---- Z--' =': --~-:

-- -------- _____-~-~ =__ _ ---

S --- ...-
------ .--- -;------ ---- :ER-- -- --- -

_-- --~~ _~_ _I_= _- .....;-- =- - -

Lak~e George, in New South ~a les.

It is very easy to find them on bright moon-
light nights, for then they may be seen
feeding and crawling about the coral, like giant
When the men have taken slugs enough,
they split them open, boil them, press them
out flat, dry them in the sun, and afterwards
smoke them over a wood fire. The Chinese
buy trepang as a great delicacy.
ANIMALs.-A hundred years ago there were
no horses, cattle, sheep, or rabbits in Australia;
but all these have been brought there by the
colonists, and there are now forty millions of
There are no beasts of prey in Australia;'
but there are wild dogs, called dingoes. They
are odious animals, the terror of the shepherd
and the farmer. Their colour varies from
cream to dark brown; it is often reddish
yellow. Dingoes are hunted with dogs, like
foxes. They are very like small wolves, only
not so courageous. They attack sheep, and
worry them without mercy. The poor sheep
are so terrified by them that they always
die when a dingo wounds them. The shep-
herds set traps for these mischievous creatures,
and also poison them. But the dingoes are
so cunning that they will not eat a dead
sheep, which has been poisoned, unless it has
been roasted a little first and then buried.
Dingoes never attack men. They never bark,
but they howl dreadfully. They will kill two
or three hundred sheep in one night, if they
Fifth Continent, p. 76.

They seldom kill their victim at once, but
begin to eat it alive. Sometimes three or four
dingoes will attack one calf, and gnaw it all
together, without caring for its cries.
Except the dingoes, almost all the animals,
that properly belong to Australia have a pouch
or bag, in which they carry their little ones.
Such animals are called MAR-SU-PIALS, from a
Latin word which means a purse. There are
some of them in the Zoological Gardens in
London. Perhaps you have seen a KANGAROO
There are eighty different kinds of kangaroo
in Australia. The smallest is no bigger than a
rabbit. It is called a 'paddy melon.' The
largest is called a 'boomer,' or 'an old man.' It
measures eight feet from the point of its nose
to the tip of its tail. It weighs as much as a
man. It can leap for eighteen miles without
stopping. The reason it can leap so well, is
because it has such very strong hind-legs. Its
fore-legs are very short. If it is taken young,
it can be easily tamed. A pet kangaroo may
be seen hopping or springing about a settler's
garden, cropping the grass upon the lawn. It
is easy to get a young kangaroo and tame it,
but it is not at all easy to catch a full-grown
kangaroo. With its strong hind-legs, it makes
immense springs in the air, far higher than a
horse could leap. A kangaroo has been known
to jump nearly ten yards !
Kangaroos have many enemies. The natives
hunt and kill them with spears. White men
hunt them with powerful dogs. When a
kangaroo finds it cannot escape, it gets into

the water, if it can, and, turning round and
standing still, it dips the dogs one by one into
the water till it drowns them, or else it tears
them with its hind feet, for its middle claw has
a long talon.
The hind-legs and tail of
the kangaroo are very good
to eat; the legs are made into
hams and the tail into soup.
Kangaroo tails are sometimes
sent to England in tins. In
rocky districts, a little
kangaroo is found, called
a 'wallaby.'
There is a
pretty little ani-
inal, very like a
large cat. It is ,
called an opos- [ I 'I
sum. It is some- o
times brown and
sometimes silver -
grey. Instead -
of cropping the -
grass, like the
kangaroo, the .L Kangaroo.
opossum eats the
leaves of trees. It has a gentle face like
a deer, and a long tail like a monkey. It
hides itself, like the squirrel, in hollow trees.
Like the owl, it is never seen in the day,
but at night it comes out to feed. The
blacks are very cunning in finding out the
holes where the opossums are hidden, and
they know how to drag them out by their

long tails, without getting bitten by their
sharp teeth. The natives make cloaks of
opossum skins sewn together.

iq uite hr e an l og
tail I ii i

__ '-- - ..|-

Opossum (Vulpine phalanger).
Then there is a curious creature, like a
sloth. It is often called a native bear but it
is called bythe natives, 'koala,' or biter.' It
is quite harmless and lives on vegetables. It
is as large as a spaniel. It is grey with a white
throat. It has a round face, square ears, and no
tail. It lives in such high trees that it is not
easily shot and it has a very thick skin, which
makes very strong leather. As soon as the little
cubs are old enough to leave their mother's
warm pouch, they get on her back and cling on
to her with their little paws wherever she
goes. The blacks often bring these koalas into

inspected, how many of the black children
passed, do you think? Ninety-three in a
hundred !
There are about a thousand aborigines in
Victoria. They are naturally obedient and
they are now under the care of wise good men,
who will teach them to grow vegetables, hops,
and arrowroot for their support, and do them
all the good they can. May God bless both
them and their teachers!


Once there were only black people in Austra-
lia, and no white; now there are many white and
few black, and it is probable that soon there will
be NO black people, but only white. Ever since
the white people began to settle there, the black
people have been dying away very fast: for the
white people have taken away the lands where
the blacks used to hunt, and have filled them
with their sheep and cattle.
The poor black people have learned also from
the white people to love rum and beer and
tobacco. Nothing does them more harm than
strong drink.
It is a common sight when travelling in
Australia to meet a dray drawn by bullocks,
laden with furniture and white people. It is
Taken from Periodical Accounts of United Brethren,
vol. xxx.

a family going to their new farm. In the dray,
there are fowls, shut up in a basket; and besides,
there are plants and tools. When the family
arrive at the place where they mean to settle
they find no house, no garden, nor fields, only
a wild forest. Immediately, they pitch a tent
for the mother and her daughters to sleep in,
while the father, his sons, and his labourers,
sleep by the fire in the open air. The next
morning, the men begin to fell trees to make a
hut, and they finish it in a week ;-not a very
grand dwelling, it is true, but good enough for
the fine weather: the floor is made of the hard
clay from the enormous ant-hills, or it is puddled,
as it is called; the walls are made of great slabs
of wood ; the roof is made of wooden tiles, called
shingles, and the windows are made of calico.
When the hut is finished, a hen-house and a
pigsty are built, and a dairy also, underground.
A garden is soon planted, and there, the vines
and the peach-trees bear beautiful fruit. The
daughters attend to the rearing of the fowls and
the milking of the cows, and soon have a plenti-
ful supply of eggs and. butter. The men clear
the ground of trees, in order to sow wheat and
maize, potatoes, and other things. Thus the
family soon have all their wants supplied; and
they sometimes build a stone house, with eight
large rooms; and when it is completed, they
give up their wooden hut to one of the
labourers. This is the way of life in the
'Bush;' for such is the name given to the
wild parts of Australia.
Some settlers keep large flocks of sheep, and
gain money by selling the wool and the fat, to

make cloth and tallow. A shepherd in Australia
leads a very lonely life among the hills, and he
is obliged to keep ever upon the watch against
the wild dogs, or dingoes. These voracious
animals prowl about in troops, and cruelly bite
numbers of the sheep, many more than they
can eat. In many parts, these dogs are now
all destroyed. Happily there are no large wild
beasts, such as wolves and bears, lions and tigers;
for these would devour the shepherd as well as
the sheep.
In some places, now and then, men come
called 'Bushrangers,' as fierce as wild beasts.
The natives are not nearly so dangerous as
these wicked white men; indeed the natives are
generally very harmless, unless provoked by ill-
treatment. Occasionally, they are willing to
make themselves useful, by reaping corn and
washing sheep; and a little reward satisfies
them, such as a blanket, or an old coat. When
some of the flock have strayed, the blacks will
take great pains to look for them, and seem
much pleased when they have found them.
They are very clever in following a track. They
are often very useful to the police, when they are
trying to catch any one. The black women can
help in the wash-house, and in the farm-yard;
but they are too much besmeared with grease
to be fit for the kitchen. It is wise never to
give a good dinner to a black till his work is
done, because he always eats so much that he
can work no more that day.
Some of these poor blacks are very faithful
and affectionate. There was one, who lived near
a settler's hut, and he used to come there every

morning before the master was up; he would
enter very gently for fear of waking him,-light
the fire by rubbing two pieces of wood together,
and set the kettle on to boil; then he would
approach the bed, and putting his hand affec-
tionately on the hand of the sleeper, would
whisper in his ear, till he saw him open his eyes,
when he would greet him him with a kind and
smiling look. These attentions were the marks
of his attachment to the white man.
This black was as faithful as he was affec-
tionate. Once he was sent by a farmer on a
message. It was this: 'Take this letter to my
brother, and he will give you sixpence, and then
spend the sixpence in pipes fo- me.' The black
man took the letter, and went towards the place
where the brother lived. He met him on horse-
back. The brother, after reading the letter, rode
away without giving the sixpence to the bearer.
What was the poor black man to do ? Shall
I go back,' thought he, 'without the pipes?
1No. I will try to get some money.' He went
to a house that he knew of, and offered to chop
some wood for sixpence, and with that sixpence
he bought the pipes. Was not this being a:ood
servant ? This was not eye-service, it wastehe
service of the heart. But there are not many
natives like this man. They are generally soon
tired of working.

/ +

Trvelln in Autralia. P.44
rrvli~ i7 Autala P

Brisbane and sell them for pets. Very droll
they look with their grave faces, as they
stare sleepily about them. But they soon die
in captivity.

po r hiorma ha ok his on --o o

looking animal. It lives on herbs and roots.

It feeds at night. In the day-time, it hides
itself in deep burrows in the earth. Maniy a
poor horseman hands broken his bones over one
of these burrows.
There is the sugar-squirrel, not much longer
than a man's hand, and able to make wonderful

A wonderful change took place in Australia
when gold was found: it happened in the
summer of 1851.
When the settlers in Australia heard of gold
being found among the hills, they set out from
all parts of the island, with their spades and their
The farmers left their farms; the shepherds
left their folds; the blacksmiths left their
forges; the carpenters left their benches;
the sellers left their stores; and the servants
left their masters, and set out for the
The first gold-field was at Bathurst, on the
banks of a stream that flowed from the moun-
tains. Two months afterwards another gold-
field was discovered; it was Ballarat. Then
the diggers at Bathurst rushed to Ballarat,
though it was several hundred miles distant.
A man was driving his waggon one day, the
wheel turned up something bright and shining.
He stopped his team and stooped to examine it.
He found it was a gold nugget, worth 10001.
After working several weeks and finding
nothing, a gentleman left his digging in dis-
gust; another man took it, the first stroke of
his pick he found gold, and he soon had 50001.
of his own.
As two labourers were at work together,
digging round the roots of a tree, one felt his
pick strike something hard. It was a nugget,
worth nearly 10,0001.

A Scotchman had employed a number of men
to work for him. They worked on but found
no gold. At last his money was gone. He
told his men, he could not employ them any
more, but the men agreed to work for him for
love. In about a fortnight, they found some
gold. Soon he had as much as 40,0001. Then
he called his men once more, and told them he
would take no more, all the rest they found
should be their own.
Two men sat down to rest under an old gum-
tree, for it was very hot. One of them kicked
the ground with the heel of his boot. He saw
something yellow. It was a cake of gold.
Their fortune was made, and they went home
at once.
The news reached England that gold had
been found in Australia. Thousands and
thousands of people went from this island to
More and more gold-fields were discovered;
-more and more gold-diggers went over, not
only from England, but from Germany, Italy,
and even from China.
These diggers had great hardships to en-
When first they landed, they could scarcely
find a room to sleep in. Some hired carts,
drawn by horses, and set out with their spades,
shovels, and pick-axes, their kettles, their rugs,
and their tents. The women and children rode
in the cart, but the men walked beside it,
carrying guns, and accompanied by huge, fierce
dogs. These were to guard them from robbers
that infested the way.

Many of the diggers were robbers and mur-
derers; some were honest, poor men; and a
few were gentlemen, who had lost their money.
A great many diggers had no carts, but
carried all their things upon their backs in a
bundle called a swag.
A digger dressed in a kind of shirt made of
bright blue or scarlet cloth. He wore no coat,
he had strong fustian trousers, and a broad-
brimmed straw hat, called a cabbage-tree hat.
His appearance was rough, and so were his
manners; he spoke to the strangers that he
met without showing them any respect.
On the way to the diggings, those who had
no cart-slept wrapped in their blanket, on a
heap of branches. Those who had a cart, carried
a canvas tent, which they put up for the night,
spreading a tarpaulin on the ground to keep
them from the damp; and slept on rugs instead
of beds. They made a fire outside the tent,
and cooked their mutton-chops, and boiled their
kettles, and baked their dampers. On mutton,
tea, and damper, the diggers lived.
What is a damper ? It is a large round cake,
about two inches thick, made of flour and water
and baked in the ashes.
The digger always boiled his tea in his
kettle, and did not use a tea-pot. Little tins,
called panikins, served for tea-cups. The digger
found that butter, milk, and vegetables, were
too expensive for him to buy, until he had
dug up a great deal of gold; till then, he
had meat without vegetables, tea without milk,
bread without butter,-and no other food except

It would have been well if all diggers had
been contented to drink tea, but most would
drink spirits. The water was bad, and the
weather was hot, and so too many spent all
their money in the fiery, fatal draught, and
numbers died from drinking.

The Gold Diggers.
And what sort of a place was a digging? It
was a place once green,-but then-covered with
mounds of dug-up earth. It was a place once
shady, but then-covered with fallen trees. It
was a place once silent and lonely, but then-
covered with tents, and resounding with the
noise of the pick-axe, the barking of dogs, and
the murmur of men's voices. At night, far
worse sounds were heard; guns were fired con-

tinually to terrify robbers, and drunken men
filled the air with their wild shouts.
Robberies and murders were committed every
night. Each man, sleeping in his tent, looked
to his dog to give the alarm, and kept his pistols
loaded close to his pillow.
Each digger had his own hole. But before
he began to the dig, he went to some officers ap-
pointed by Government and bought a license.
This cost thirty shillings. The license al-
lowed him to dig where he liked, till the end of
that month, and then another license must be
bought. Many diggers did not like this plan,
and dug without a license; but the policemen
walked about and asked every one to show his
license, and if he did not show it immediately
he was made to pay five pounds.
When the digger had got his license he
marked out his claim. A claim is a piece of
land about as big as a small parlour. It was
marked out by the trunks of trees lying on the
ground. Then the digger began his work,
hoping to find gold lying at the top of his hole;
but he seldom found it there. Some dug ten
feet, others twenty feet, others a hundred, be-
fore they found gold. But some would not dig
deep; if they did not find gold soon they gave
up their holes, and went to another place to
dig. It was curious to see the diggers' heads
popping up out of their holes, like rabbits out
of their burrows.
No one might dig beyond his claim, but any
one might make passages under-ground as far
as he could go in his claim.
There were wet holes and there were dry

holes. The most gold was found in the wet
holes; but then it was very unpleasant to be
standing in water all day. While one man
dug, the other baled out the water; yet some-
times it was found impossible to bale it out
fast enough.
A dry hole was harder to dig up than a wet
hole, and it was hotter. It was suffocating
to dig all day at the bottom of a hole forty feet
deep, with the sun beating on your head. The
diggings were as full of holes as a honeycomb.
It was dangerous to go out in the dark, for you
could not go from one tent to another without
passing by a hole.
One night a cry was heard: 'A child in a
hole !' People rushed to the spot with lanterns.
It was a little girl of eleven years old, who was
at the bottom of a hole half full of mud and
water, and ten feet deep. Happily, she had
not gone down with her head foremost, or she
would have been choked on the spot. But she
had been able to call out for help. While one
man ran for a rope, another put down a pole.
'Take hold of it !' said he. And so she did.
Two other men held out their hands and dragged
her up.
She said, it was in putting the goat into its
shed that she fell in. Did she thank God for
her wonderful deliverance ?
And what did a digger get to reward him
for all his toils and dangers ? Now and then
he found a nugget-that is, a lump of gold. A
lump as big as a gooseberry is very valuable.
There have been lumps found as big as a man's
head! One such lump is a fortune.

An image of gold the size of a man would be
as heavy as twenty men, and would be worth
one hunndred ad fifty thousand pounds.
Gold is worth four pounds an ounce; an
ounce of gold is a very small nugget.
But gold is not often found in NUGGETS; it
is generally mixed up with earth, and can
scarcely be seen. Then it is called GOLD-DUST.
It is hard work to get the gold out of the
earth. One way is by washing the earth in
a tub. Now this is much harder work than
washing clothes. It is called puddling. The
digger fills a wheelbarrow with the earth out
of his hole; he wheels it to the side of the
stream, and puts it into a large tub; then he
ladles water into the tub, and stirs it about
with his spade to break all the clods. Now
and then he lets a little of the muddy water
run off, and ladles in more. A digger is some-
times seen to take off his boots and jump in
his tub, as if he were crushing grapes to make
When his black mess is ready, he must put
it in a cradle and rock it just as if it were a
baby. A cradle is a kind of large sieve, though
like a cradle in shape; but there are holes at
the bottom through which the earth passes,
leaving the gold-dust resting on a little shelf
underneath. How anxiously did the washers
look to see how much gold was there! With
what joy did they scrape it into their bags and
take it to the exchangers to turn it into money !
But many were disappointed, and found hardly
any gold week after week. There they were
-digging, puddling, and rocking,-and week

after week finding nothing This was the case
with many. Some DIED of disappointment.
Puddling is hard work. There are puddling-
machines worked by horses. There are also
stamping-machines. They are used when the
gold is mixed with quartz-stone. These ma-
chines batter and break the quartz into dust.
The dust is made to float over troughs filled
with quicksilver, which draws all the gold to
itself. Such machines are very expensive. The
finest of them is at Ballarat, and cost a great
deal of money.
Gold reefs, or veins of quartz, are found all
over the country. They generally belong to a
company of men, who join together to pay
labourers two or three pounds a-week to work
for gold.
A poor man once worked at a quartz reef till
all his money was gone. He had no machine,
but he used gunpowder to break the rock. He
had nothing left but one charge of gunpowder.
He put it in, fired it, and then turned away
with a heavy heart. Next morning he went to
fetch his tools. Lo! the ground sparkled with
gold. The last gunpowder had reached the
treasure, and he gained fifteen hundred pounds.
If all the gold had been equally divided every
week among the diggers, there would have
been half an ounce a-piece, or two sovereigns.
But that was not enough to reward a digger for
his pains; for food was so dear that two sove-
reigns were soon gone. In some places, a loaf
cost five shillings, and an egg or a pint of milk
a shilling. How soon two sovereigns would
be gone!

Carpenters and gardeners earned three or
four times as much as gold-diggers.
Then why did people dig for gold ?
Because there was the CHANCE Of getting
suddenly very RICH. Every one thought--
'Perhaps I may find a nugget as big as a
melon, and be a rich man all at once.' Thus
men made haste to be rich, and thought no
trouble too great when gold was to be got.
How different are their feelings about the true
riches and the heavenly gold!
And what GOOD did gold do to those who
found it ? Generally it RUINED them.
It was easy to see how the gold had been spent.
Under every tree where diggers had stopped
to rest returning from the diggings, there were
heaps of BROKEN BOTTLES! !-Broken bottles
were scattered over the whole country that had
been trodden by the foot of man.
But all the money could not be spent in
drinking. Some did not know what to do with
their money. Men have been seen throwing
sovereigns about as if they were pebbles, and
burning soiled bank-notes as if they were leaves
of an old copy-book. Some spent their gold on
horses, on which they galloped madly up and
down the streets, and ended by breaking their
One rough digger went into a shop to buy
a magnificent gown for his wife. He was a
kind-hearted man, and he wished to please
her. The shopkeeper showed him many hand-
some silks, but none took his fancy.
'I want some shiny stuff,' he said; 'much
handsomer than those.'


- ----- -
X S-

Wombat (Phascoloruys)e

V / .

/ 7

At last the shopkeeper showed him a shining
satin of a bright orange colour. That was
what the man wanted.
'3My wife,' said he, 'was married in a cotton
gown, but now she shall have a real gold one.'
This satin was three pounds a-yard, and
satin enough for a gown cost SIXTY pounds: but
the man liked to have something that cost
much; so, throwing down the money, he took
up the satin just as it was, and walked off very
proud of his purchase. His wife had looked
much better in her humble cotton gown than
she ever could look when dressed up like a
But there are many in Australia too poor to
buy even a cotton gown.
It is generally idleness or drinking, which
makes them poor now.
Are there now gold-diggers in Australia?
Yes, there are some, but not so many as there
were at first. There are now gold-mines, where
regular miners are employ ed, and receive wages.
This plan is much better than people digging in
their own little holes.

A young lady was once walking near Mel-
bourne (the chief city of Victoria), when she
saw a little girl, with a large pitcher in her
arms, stooping down beside a running stream.
The child's dress was neat and clean, though
much patched; her face was pale and wan, and

it had a sorrowful look. The young lady kindly
helped the child to fill the pitcher. But when
it was full the child had not strength to carry
it far; so the lady helped her to carry it. As
they walked along the lady said,-
'Do you. live among those tents yonder?'
'Yes,' replied the child.
So the lady and the child together walked
towards Canvas Town (which was a place close
to Melbourne, covered by canvas tents, and in-
habited by those who could not afford to lodge
in houses).
'And do you like this new country?' inquired
the lady.
'No,' replied the child; 'we are starving
here. We had food enough when we were in
England. Papa was a clerk, and we had a neat
house and two maids; but he thought to get
rich by coming out here. But when he came
he could not get anything to do, for there were
no clerks wanted, and papa cannot be a car-
penter nor a blacksmith; he could have got
work if he could. So at last he thought he
would go to the diggings, and he has been gone
a long while, and we have not had a letter from
him, and all our money is gone: so mamma
has been obliged to leave our lodgings and to
come and live in a tent-and mamma is very
ill indeed; and little baby is dead; and we can't
pay for a doctor to make mamma well.'
The lady listened with compassion to the
child's sad tale! Soon she reached the tent
where the wretched family lived. The child
asked the lady to walk in. The lady just looked
in, and had a glimpse of the sick mother, wrapped

in a blanket, lying on the damp ground in a
corner of the tent, with a little child sitting
beside her. Full of pity at the sight, she
slipped a few shillings into the girl's hand,
and hastily departed, intending to return next
Early in the morning she was at the tent-
door, accompanied by a friend and laden with
a present of a bottle of wine, tea, sugar, and
arrowroot-flour. But, on looking towards the
corner where the mother was lying, what did
she behold ?-A PALE CORPSE! Close beside
the corpse sat a sorrowful man! At his feet
some golden nuggets were scattered, and on
them his eyes were fixed with a look of des-
pair! He seemed to say by his look, 'What
good will gold do me now ?-I have lost my
love-my wife-dearer to me than my life !'
Alas, he, had returned TOO LATE! For a
whole week he had been wandering about
Melbourne with his nuggets, seeking his be-
loved; but she had left her lodgings, and no
one knew where she was gone!
It was happy for his little ones that he had
returned at all, for some diggers are never
heard of more.
It would have been sad, indeed, if these poor
little ones had been left alone with their dead
mother. Yet, even THEN, God would not have
forsaken them, for He hears the fatherless when
they cry! I cannot tell you what became of
this motherless family.


There is a little creature, which lives in
hollow logs, and is called a bandicoot.

- y ^ \--- tjj

Long-nosed Bancdicoot (Perameles nasutus).
There is a native cat," dark grey with white
spots. A gentleman one day found half the
crockery broken in his storeroom. Who had
done this mischief? His eye soon fell on a
native cat, lying fast asleep and coiled up in
a tin half filled with brown sugar. le popped
on the cover and carried off the culprit be-
fore it awoke. I am afraid he killed it.
These cats bite very severely: you would not
be able to tame them.
Dasyurus viverrinus.

Another day, this same young lady was
walking with her friends in one of the gold-
fields, far up in the country. She observed a
very little tent, standing all by itself, in a
quiet little nook.
It could scarcely be called a tent. A rope
was tied between two trees, and a blanket was
hung over it, and the ends were fastened by
pegs to the ground. Such was the tent.
A little girl of ten years old sat on a piece
of rock, close by, working so attentively that
she did not observe the passers-by. She was
making a veil of green gauze, such as the
diggers wear to guard them from the flies.
By her side, lay a heap of coarse green gauze.
When, at last, she looked up from her work,
she seemed pleased to behold strangers. She
started up, and said to one of the gentlemen,-
'Shall you be wanting a veil, sir ? I've plenty
of nice ones. I have not sold one this week!'
she added, with an imploring look.
'I'll have one, little girl,' replied the gentle-
man. 'What price is it to be ? '
'Eighteen pence, sir, if you please to be so
The gentleman gave the money, but returned
the veil, for he did not want one. The child
seemed hardly to like this, and she said,-
SPerhaps you'd like some candles better ? I
make them, too.'
'You make candles!' said the gentleman.
' Your mother makes the candles!'

'I have no mother !' said the child, with a
look of real sorrow. 'I make the candles and
the veils, and the diggers buy them of me; for
grandfather is ill, and has got nobody to work
for him now.'
'Where do you and grandfather live ? In
there ?' inquired the stranger.
'Yes,' said the child, nodding her head.
'He's asleep now. He sleeps more than he did.
He has killed himself digging for gold, and he
never got any; and he says he'll dig till he
The child was asked how she made the
candles, and she described how she bought the
sheep's fat, and boiled it, and then poured it
into a tin-mould the size of a candle, having
first put a wick in it; and how she waited till
it grew cold, and then took it out. She told
also her own sad history-how she had come
with her father and mother and grandfather
to the diggings a few months before, and how
her father had met with an accident and died,
and how her mother had died soon afterwards,
and how she had been left alone with her
While she was talking, she heard a slight
sound in the tent.
'He's awake,' she said: 'I must go to him.'
And then she added, almost in a whisper, He
does not like to see strangers !'
Hearing this, the kind strangers went on their
way towards their own tent.
Next morning one of them came early to
see little Jessie (for that was the little girl's

When he reached the tent he saw no one,
only he heard a low moaning. He peeped
under the blanket-tent, and saw Jessie lying
upon an old mattress. She was moaning pite-
ously. Near her was a dark, sunburnt figure;
it was an old man-he stirred not-he breathed
not-he was DEAD The kind gentleman went
to another tent belonging to a butcher, whom
he requested to get the old man buried, pro-
mising himself to pay for the burial. Having
done this, he returned to the orphan's tent.
The child had ceased to mourn. Nothing
but a gentle breathing showed that she was
alive; for her eyes were shut and her senses
were gone!
The compassionate stranger took her up in
his arms and carried her to his own tent. He
laid her upon the ground in the midst of his
friends. All gazed earnestly upon the poor
child. Presently Jessie opened her eyes, for
the fresh air had revived her. She sat up, and
rested her head upon her hands, while she fixed
her eyes on the ground.
'Tell us how it happened,' whispered one of
the party.
But Jessie answered not.
At last she was induced to talk, and tell how
it happened.
When I waked in the morning, I thought
he was asleep. I made my fire-I crept softly
about to make his gruel for breakfast, and I took
it to him-and found him dead-dead !'
Then she burst into tears.
Every one tried to comfort the child.
The little party were preparing to set out

for some other diggings, but first they took
a light dinner, and they induced Jessie to
eat a little with them. The travellers went
on foot.
At the end of eight miles they agreed to
rest, and they seated themselves beneath the
shade of a tall and stately gum-tree. Jessie
helped the travellers in getting ready their
supper. She gathered sticks for the fire and
fetched water from the stream, and she grew
more cheerful while she was doing these little
The travellers had no cart, but they carried
their things in bundles. With some blankets
they made a little tent for the lady and Jessie
to sleep in, while the gentlemen slept, wrapped
in their blankets, in the open air.
Thus they travelled for some days. Their
food was the usual food of diggers-mutton
and damper.
The travellers were delighted to meet with
a friend on the way. This man had a dray,
drawn by horses. He used it for carrying up
goods from the town, to sell at the diggings.
He had just emptied his dray, and was going
to return to the town-when he met these
travellers. He offered to help them on their
journey, and let the lady and Jessie sit in
his dray.
On their way they came to the Black Forest.
They stopped at the edge of this dark and
gloomy forest to take their meal at noon.
'Shall we go on ?' said they. 'If we do, we
must pass the night in the forest.'
'Will it not be dangerous ?' said one.

'Are there not bush-rangers in that forest ?'
asked another.
'Never mind,' said a third ; 'I am not afraid.'
So the party decided to continue their way,
and to camp in the forest that night.
Black, indeed, the forest was: the trunks of
the trees were as black as the ground. Only
a few rays of sunshine ever pierced through
those thick shades.
After walking six miles, the party stopped
in a place where the trees did not stand very
close together. To these trees they tethered
the horses with ropes; then turned up the
dray, and hung a blanket from the shafts to
make a little tent for the night. While some
were making these arrangements, others were
lighting the fire, and boiling the kettle with
the tea in it, and toasting mutton-chops at the
end of sticks, to eat with some home-made bread
they had brought with them. The supper was
spread upon the ground, not far from the fire.
The lady and Jessie slept in the tent that
night, while the rest kept watch by turns
round the fire, fearing lest the bush-rangers
might be near.
But the night passed away in peace.
In the morning, they were sitting round the
fire at breakfast, when they heard the sound
of 'Coo-ey, Coo-ey!' The sound grew louder
and louder. The travellers supposed it to be
the call of some one in distress, and seizing
their pistols, they hastened to the spot whence
the sound seemed to come. The lady and
Jessie, though they took no pistols, followed at
a little distance.

As they came nearer to the place, instead of
loud calls, low groans were heard; and at last,
in a dark spot, they beheld two men bound
with ropes between two trees.
'Doubtless,' said the travellers, 'bush-rangers
have robbed these men and bound them hand
and foot, in that cruel manner.'
With their knives and tomahawks, the tra-
vellers hastened to release the poor prisoners,
though they found it difficult to cut through
the knotted ropes.
The first man set at liberty seemed so faint
that he was nearly falling to the ground, but he
was held up by two of the travellers.
When the second was set at liberty, he as-
tonished those who had delivered him by calling
out with a loud, shrill voice, 'Coo-ey!' and
the next moment, five men, well armed with
swords and guns, rushed from behind the trees,
and seized hold of the travellers! At the same
time, the man who had seemed so faint, and
who had been lying in the arms of his- deliverer,
started up, and knocked him down by a sudden
And how did Jessie and the lady feel at this
terrible sight ?
Jessie shrieked, and the lady almost fainted
away: but Jessie encouraged her by whisper-
ing, 'Let us go up that little hill yonder, and
look out for help.'
They went, and as they stood there they
heard the brutal bush-rangers dragging along
their prisoners, and swearing in the most dread-
ful manner.
Jessie called out, Coo-ey!'

It is a cry, which on a clear day, can be
heard three miles off.
The lady called 'Coo-ey!' but Jessie knew
better how to call; and louder and louder did
she cry 'Coo-ey, Coo-ey !'
'Help is coming,' whispered Jessie.
Footsteps were heard, and several strong men
'Are you in danger ?' shouted one.
'Follow me,' cried Jessie, as she led the away.
The men followed to the place where the
travellers had slept. To that place the bush-
rangers had dragged the travellers. There they
were threatening to kill them if they did not
give up their gold. But it had been changed
into notes, and was in the lady's keeping,
cunningly hidden in her dress. The robbers
had heard Jessie's loud calls, and had been
enraged at the sound, saying, 'We'll wring
her neck off when we have secured the
But that they never did; for in the midst of
their oaths and curses, the strong men arrived,
rushed upon them, and forced them to flee.
What thanks the terrified travellers offered
to their deliverers But the answer of these
brave men was-' You would have done the
same for us.'
What thanks were due to God for such a
wonderful deliverance !
Who would have thought that the little
friendless orphan would save the whole party ?
Yes, it was her childish voice that saved them
all from the bush-rangers' violence. Did not
God thus reward them for their kindness to tb e


There is a beautiful little creature like a cat,
but no bigger than a rat. It has a gentle look
and a long feathery tail. If you saw it, you
would cry out, 'What a charming little creature
for a pet!' But this tapoa tafa* is very fierce.
It lives in trees and skips about among the
branches. It can glide through the smallest
crevices; and though it eats vegetables, yet it
is never so happy as when it can steal into a hen-
house and kill the. poor fowls in their sleep.

have pouches for their young. Whether they


Tcaioa T'afa.
All these creatures are marsupial. They all
have pouches for their young. Whether they
burrow like the wombat, climb like the opossum,
jump like the kangaroo, trot like the bandicoot,
or fly like the sugar-squirrel, they all carry
their little ones with them wherever they go.
Phascogale penicillata.

orphan ? He is the Father of the fatherless,
and He marks those, who treat His children
with kindness.
A few days after this great deliverance, the
travellers arrived at Melbourne.
As the lady thought of soon returning to
England, she looked out for some person with
whom to leave Jessie, and she soon found a
kind woman, who was glad to have her in the
nursery, to attend to her young children. Such
an affectionate and industrious little girl would
be a treasure anywhere, but most of all in

AUSTRALIA is divided into FIVE
THIS part of Australia was discovered by Cap-
tain Cook, a hundred years ago, but it has been
called Queensland only twenty years.
The most northern point of all Australia,
Cape York, is in Queensland. On one side of
Queensland, is the great Gulf of Carpentaria,
and on the other, is the great coral reef, or
barrier, where men fish for trepang.
Queensland is twenty times as large as Ire-
land, but there are not as many people in it as
there are in Dublin.* The capital is Brisbane,
on the river Brisbane, near the beautiful bay,
called Moreton Bay.
Population of Queensland, 200,000;
population of Dublin, 245,352.-See Black's Atlas.

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The Lier Brsbane

Queensland has mountains and rivers. The
rivers in the north, have lovely banks, bordered
with beautiful gum and fig-trees, festooned
with flowering vines. Queensland is just the
place for fruits. Wheat will not grow there,
but maize and potatoes, sugar and cotton, will.
There are wild nutmeg-trees, banians, and
Though Queensland is near the equator,
which is the hottest part of the world, yet
it has always a refreshing sea-breeze; and it
has no hot winds, like the other colonies of
Australia. It is very healthy. Queensland is
the home of the Cassowary. Gold, copper, coal,
and tin are found there.
More of the native blacks are left in Queens-
land than in the other colonies. A shipwrecked
sailor spent seventeen years with them. His
name was James Morrill. They were very
kind to him. They told him they believed
that once there had been a flood, and nearly all
men had been drowned except a few, who went
up on a very high mountain. They told him
also, with tears in their eyes, their last wish
was that he would ask the white men to leave
them some of their owna ground to live on.
They said they were quite willing to give up a
great deal, if only they might have a little; at
all events, the low swampy ground near the sea-
coast, which would be of no use to any one else.
This sailor was not like the butler, who
forgot Joseph and his kindness. He remem-
bered the poor blacks and their kindness, and
he did them all the good he could, as long as he

They always have a soft warm pocket, or per-
ambulator, for their babies. Why is this ? In
other countries, animals can leave their young
at home in the nest whilst they go to seek for
food. But in Australia, where it is often very
difficult to get food, the poor little things might
be starved to death before the parents could
return. Therefore God has given them the
power of carrying the little ones about with
them wherever they go.
I must now tell you about one more animal
-the most curious and wonderful of all
Australian animals. It is called the 'Platy-
pus,' or the 'Broad-footed,' for its feet are
webbed like those of a duck. It has also a beak
like a bird, but it is a soft beak, pinkish, and
rounded at the end. You see that in some
things, the platypus is like a bird. Yet it is
also like a quadruped. It has four feet and a
tail, and it is covered with thick fur. It uses
its bill and its feet to dig in the earth. It has
eyes as small as a mole. Instead of teeth, it has
two little lumps of bone at the root of its tongue.
It makes its nest of sea-weed, which it heaps
together in a little room underground, with a
long tunnel to the entrance. A gentleman, who
kept several of these curious creatures in his
house, says that they used to climb up his book-
case. They put their feet on the shelves, and
pushed their backs against the wall, in the same
way as a sweep pushes himself up a chimney.
There are many snakes, and they are generally
venomous. One snake is as long as three tall
men. It is called the carpet-snake.
The porcupine ant-eater, or echidna, is a very


THIS is the oldest of the five colonies. It is
as large as France, Great Britain, and Ireland
all together. About .a hundred years ago
(April 1770) the famous Captain Cook entered
a harbour, which he called Botany Bay. He
gave it this name because of the beautiful
flowers, which were found on its shores. The
coast in that part of the country has reddish
cliffs, which reminded him of the south of
Wales, and so he gave the country the name
of New South Wales.
A few years afterwards, the English thought
it would be a good plan to send some of their
prisoners to this new country.* They landed in
Port Jackson, the finest harbour in the world.
There they settled near a cove called Sydney
Cove. There was a great forest there, at that
time.f Now there is a very handsome city
there, the capital of New South Wales.
Beautiful orange-groves grow near Sydney.
One tree has been known to bear twelve thou-
sand oranges. The town is built chiefly of
stone, and has very fine buildings. In the
splendid harbour of Port Jackson, the largest
ships may ride in safety. There is room for all
the ships in the world, if they could come.
This plan has long ago been given up. English pri-
soners are shut up at home, and made to work. They are
carefully watched, and if they behave well, they are rewarded.
Sometimes they earn a little freedom, which is called a
ticket of leave. There are many prisoners now working in
the stone quarries of the island of Portland.
+ There are some beautiful trees in Australia, called
Metrosiduros, or heart of iron.

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7;Patyus or 0i ,'nithorhy nchus.

On sloping land above the harbour, the town
of Sydney is built. There is a fine sea-breeze,
though the air is very hot.
The people of Sydney have adorned their
town with a beautiful statue of Captain Cook.
He is seen holding up his right hand with
delight at having first caught sight of their
beautiful land.
There are a great many good schools in New
South Wales.

Is the smallest of the five colonies; yet it is the
richest, and it contains the most people. It was
part of New South Wales till July 1, 1851, when
it was made into a separate colony, and called
Victoria. The anniversary of the happy day is
always kept as a holiday at Melbourne, the
splendid capital of Victoria. Melbourne is con-
sidered the richest jewel in Australia's crown.
It is built on the slopes of two hills, connected
by a bridge over the Yarra Yarra river. This
river flows into the magnificent bay of Port
Phillip, which is capable of holding all the
navies of the world. The scenery around is
very beautiful. Beautiful houses, gardens, and
vineyards adorn the banks of the river Yarra.
The climate is delicious, and very healthy
There are refreshing breezes, whilst the sun
is bright and the sky is cloudless. The summer
nights are so light that you can distinguish
colours by night as well as by day. More rail-
ways have been made in Victoria than in the
other Australian colonies.

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curious creature. Its long snout is shaped like
a stick, and is covered with a skin; at the end
of this skin, there is a little hole for the long
tongue to dart out. The nostrils are at the
end of this snout.

t- -j- -

Burrow of Platypus, or Ornithorhy nchus.

E ci / A a H-o

-Ec-idna, or Aus --dge hog..
E Ichidn, or AitstralHan Hedgehog.


Is the name given to the middle of Australia.
Though it is called South Australia, yet it
reaches from the south to the north. At first,
this colony was called South Australia, because
it was on the southern part of Australia. A
large tract has been added to it since-on the
north of the island. Yet the colony is still
called South Australia. It is very proud of
one thing, that no prisoners have ever been
sent there.
In South Australia there are lofty mountains,
wide plains, sandy deserts, and inland seas.
It has chains of salt lakes, marshes, and swamps.
It has rocks and waterfalls, mountains, which
were once volcanoes, and wonderful caves.
Some of these caves are in a sandy country.
The traveller sees nothing at first but a round
hole on the top of a hill. Presently he notices
a little path, which leads him into a large, light
room, filled with curiously-shaped stones. The
place looks like a cathedral, and the stones look
like silent worshippers. All around, the walls
are adorned with pillars covered with garl and
of stone flowers. At the further end of the
room, is a beautiful column, which serves to
support the roof. It is of all colours, azure,
green, pink, snowy white, and golden yellow.
Beyond this beautiful column is another cavern,
smaller, but quite as wonderful as the first.
At one end of it is a small opening.
Many years ago, the natives destroyed three
hundred sheep by throwing them down from this

hole on to the hard rock beneath. About the
same time a poor black, finding himself mortally
wounded by a rifle ball, crept through these two
chambers into one beyond, and lay down there
by the wall, his head resting on his hand. When
his body was found, it was dried and shrivelled,
and half encased with stone, which had dropped
on it from the cavern wall, for the water in
these caves is full of stone. Another cave is
like a palace of ice, with frozen cascades and
fountains all around. There are some pillars
in it, covered with trellis-work, and others
which look like great carved hour-glasses.
Above and below the roof glistens, and the
ground crackles with frostings, that sparkle
like precious stones in the torchlight.
South Australia is one of the most fruitful
parts of the globe. The finest wheat in the
world has been grown there. Fruits of all
sorts abound. Dozens of peaches and apricots
and pounds of grapes are found on almost every
table. In the market, twelve pounds of grapes
cost sixpence, and twelve peaches cost three-
pence or fourpence. The air is cool and
bracing in winter, though very hot in summer.
The climate is particularly good for people who
have delicate chests.
In South Australia there are numbers of
farmers called squatters. They have this name
because they live in a little wooden hut on a
piece of land, which Government lends them for
a time, but does not give them. They often grow
rich if they are industrious and persevering; but
they have to work very hard. The squatters have
large herds of cattle and large flocks of sheep.

AUIJTRALIAN BIRDS.-They are quite as won-
derful as the Australian animals. A gentleman,
who visited the northern coast of Australia,
saw there a number of large mounds of earth.
Every one supposed them to be burying-places,
except the natives, who declared that they
were made by great birds, in order to hatch
their eggs. This seemed such a strange story
to the gentleman that he took a native with
him, and went to a place where he was told he
might see the birds. He landed near a thicket
and soon came to a mound. It was as high as
a woman, and covered with large yellow flowers.
He scrambled up the side, and there he found a
young bird, lying on some withered leaves in a
hole in the top. He afterwards succeeded in
getting several eggs. This was not easy, for
the eggs are always buried very deep. He
persuaded a native to dig for some eggs in a
huge mound three times as big as the first he
found. The native tried six times, but in vain.
He felt so much exhausted that he gave up in
despair. But he was persuaded to try once
more. The seventh time, to his great joy,
he found first one egg, and then a second.
Is not this an example of perseverance for us ?
This bird is called the Australian jungle-fowl.~
The Australian pheasant f also makes mounds
for its eggs, and so does the Australian turkey. +
A gentleman describes some of these great
heaps, which he saw. They were like hot-beds
made of several cartloads of decaying vege-
tables. They were shaped like pyramids and
were used one year after another. It takes a
Megapodius Tumulus. t Leipoa. + Talegalla.

There are also farmers, who grow corn. Some
men earn money by working in the mines. South
Australia has wonderful copper mines.
The capital of South Australia is Adelaide,
on the river Torrens. Its houses are adorned
with pretty gardens. It is built at the head of
the harbour. There are telegraph wires all
across the country, from one end of South
Australia to the other.
South Australia is now divided into three:
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, with its capital, Adelaide;
CENTRAL AUSTRALIA, of which very little is
yet known; and the NORTHERN TERRITORY, or
A great traveller, named Stuart, has foretold
that this northern part of Australia will some
day be as prosperous as the others.
The chief town is Palmerston, on Port DIar-
win. It is a very healthy place, with a bank,
a hospital, a telegraph, and a newspaper of its
Hitherto there are but few settlers in North
Australia, while the south is filled with farmers
and shepherds.

THERE is much sand by the sea coast. Much of
the country inland is one vast forest. Some of
the trees are splendid. There is the sandal-
wood tree, and the jarrah-something like ma-
hogany. Its wood seems to last for ever and
is never touched by white ants. There is the
lofty gum-tree, which sometimes has not a

single branch nearer the ground than the top
of a church spire (one hundred and fifty feet).
It often grows to twice that height (three hun-
dred feet). There is abundance of grass for
sheep and cattle.
The climate is one of the healthiest in the
world. Vines, olive-trees, and mulberry-trees,
and wheat, all flourish.
On the coast, there are valuable fisheries of
pearls and pearl shells.
The inhabitants collect gum, and tortoiseshell
from the turtle, and prepare kangaroo leather.
Perth, the capital, is on the Swan River, so
called from the black swans which frequent it.
It is a small place, yet very pretty from its
fruitful gardens, abounding in peaches, apples,
bananas, and figs.
In the middle of the island there are beau-
tiful grass lands, where innumerable sheep are
feeding. In the valley coarse grass is found,
and there herds of cattle feed. There are many
horses among the hills. On one side of the
hills vines grow, and their grapes make excel-
lent wine.
There are orange groves where bees make
fragrant honey. Everything that man can
want is found in Australia, and the inhabitants
soon get rich if they work hard, and keep from
drinking too much.
There are now numerous churches and
chapels in the great towns, Sunday-schools for
the children, and colleges for the young men.
Among the farms in the country, good men
sometimes gather together their labourers on
Sunday, and read the Bible to them.




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great ~many birds to make a mound. They'never
use their bills in building but always throw up
the earth with one foot, whilst they stand on
the other. They always bury their eggs up-
Thenbury their eggsp-
right and never lay them flat as birds do, which
turn their oegs from one side to another. These
'scrub turkeys' have curious wattles on their
heads instead of feathers."
There are some of these birds ini the Zoological
Gardens, and people have seen them making
their mounds there and have discovered that the
father turkey is always very careful to prevent
the eoggs from getting too hot. lie uncovers
them several times a-day. A young bird never
leaves the mound till the second day it is
hatched, then it comes out for a few hours; but
it soon goes back and is carefully covered up
again for the night by its attentive father.
The bower bird is the size of a pigeon. In-
stead of making a mound for a nursery, it
makes a o1)(oi(r for a play-roown. The bower
is generally under a tree. It is made of sticks
and twigs, which meet at the top and which
are so placed that the birds can go in and out
The bower is never empty, for the birds are
never tired of play. They ornament their
bower with all the bright colours they can;
they stick the blue tail-feathers of lparrols
amon gst the twigs, and they strew snail-shells
and white bones near the entrance.
Among the birds, the Eml u is remarkUale.
The Emen is nearly s tall as an ostrich,
The flesh of these turkeys is brown on the breast and
i'hite on the legs.

There is great joy in the stations when a
bishop or any minister comes to preach.
Those who cannot get their living in Eng-
land would do well to go to the land of health,
and freedom, and plenty, called Australia.
Those, who go should take Bibles with them,
and good books to lend to their neighbours in
the wilderness.

PERTH is the capital of Western Australia.
ADELAIDE is the capital of South Australia.
MELBOURNE is the capital of Victoria.
SYDNEY is the capital of New South Wales.
BRISBANE is the capital of Queensland.
ROCKHAMPTON is another town in Queensland.
There are five hundred miles between each of
these places, except Perth, which is far from
them all.

Long before gold-diggers came, there were
travellers wandering about Australia. They
wanted to see the middle part of the island.
But they could not get so far. After going a
little way they were obliged to return. And
why ? Because they could find no water.
I will give you an account of the journey of
AMr. Eyre. This traveller, wished to go into the
midst of the land, but finding he could not, he
travelled along the coast, at that part called the
Great Bight (or the Great Bay).
He set out from Adelaide with a large party,
but various accidents occurred by the way, and
at last he found himself with only one English-

man and three native boys. The eldest of these
boys was almost a man. His name was Wylie,
and he was a good-tempered, lively youth. The
second was named Neramberein. I shall have
nothing good to relate of him, but a great deal
of evil: for he was indeed a very wicked boy.
The youngest was called Cootachah,--a boy
who was easily induced to follow bad examples.
There were five persons in all, two men and
three boys. Mr. Eyre was the chief person in
the party, and his English companion was Mr.
Baxter. Ten horses carried the packages, and
six sheep were made to follow, that they might
be killed one by one for food.
All these poor animals suffered terribly from
want of water. Sometimes they went a hun-
dred miles without a refreshing draught. The
horses became so weak that the travellers were
unwilling to mount their backs; and as for the
sheep, they could scarcely crawl along.
Many ways of getting water were tried. One
way was digging up the roots of trees. A little
-a very little-water may often be squeezed
out of the end of a root; because the root is
the mouth of the tree, and sucks up water from
the ground. Another way of getting water was
by gathering up the dew in a sponge. Enough
dew to make a cup of tea might sometimes be
obtained; but not enough for the poor beasts
to have any. When the travellers, by digging,
could make a well, then they were glad indeed;
for then the beasts could be refreshed as well as
The whole party were become so weak from
fatigue and thirst, that they could not get on

fast, and they found it necessary to save their
food as much as possible, that it might last to
the end of the long journey. They took a little
flour every day out of their bag, and made it
into a paste. Sometimes they caught a fish, or
shot a bird or beast, and then they had a hearty
meal. When they killed one of their sheep,
then they had plenty of mutton.
At last, all the sheep were killed but one.
It happened at this time, that one of the
horses was so sick that he could not move. It
was plain he would soon die.; therefore the
travellers determined to kill him, and eat his
flesh. Mr. Eyre was grieved at the thought of
killing his horse, neither could he bear the idea
of eating horse-flesh; but then he feared, that if
the horses were not killed the whole party would
be starved.
The native boys were delighted when they
knew the horse was to be eaten: for they had
long been fretting for more food. They would
like to have devoured it ALL on the spot; but
they were not allowed to do so; the greater
part of the flesh was cut off in thin slices, dipped
in salt water, and then hung up in the sun to
dry, to serve as provision for many days to
come. The boys were permitted to devour the
rest of the carcase.
With what haste they prepared the feast!
They made a fire close to the carcase, and then
cut off lumps of flesh, which they roasted
quickly and then ate. They spent the whole
afternoon in this manner, looking more like
ravenous wolves than human creatures. When
night came they were not willing to leave

their meat, but took as much as ever they could
carry into their beds, that they might eat when-
ever they awoke. Next day they returned to
the roasting and eating, and the next night
again they took meat with them to bed.
Mr. Eyre wondered at their gluttony, and he
thought it necessary to give them an allowance
of food, instead of letting them eat as much as
they liked. He gave five pounds of meat to
each boy every day. Five pounds is as much
as a shoulder of mutton when roasted; and TEN
English boys would think it quite enough for
dinner ; but the THREE Australian boys were
not sattisfied.
Mr. Eyre began to suspect that in the night
they stole some of the meat hanging up to dry
on the trees. Therefore one night he weighed
the meat, and in the morning weighed it again.
He found that four pounds were gone. He
thought it was very ungrateful of boys, to whom
he gave so much, to steal from his small stock.
As a punishment, he gave them less meat next
day than usual.
He entreated the boys to tell him who was
the thief. The eldest and the youngest de-
clared that they had not stolen any meat; but
Neramberein would not answer at all, and
looked sulky and angry, and muttered some-
thing about going away, and taking Wylie with
him. Mr. Eyre replied that he might go if he
pleased, while at the same time he warned him
of the dangers of the way.
The next morning, as soon as breakfast was
over, the three boys all rose up and WALKED
AWAY. Mr. Eyre called back the youngest, as

he felt he was misled by his elders; but he said
nothing to the others. They had stayed with
him till the horse was all eaten up, except the
dried pieces-but now they hoped to get more
food when travelling alone than they got with
Mr. Eyre. How mean was this behaviour !
As soon as the boys were gone, Mr. Eyre
determined to stop some time longer where he
was, that he might not overtake them. There
was one sheep still remaining, and the poor
creature seemed very restless all by itself. This
sheep was killed for food. In that place there
was plenty of water, so that the three travellers
fared well that day and the next; especially as
Mr. Baxter had the good fortune to kill an
eagle, which made an excellent stew.
Just as the travellers had finished their
evening meal, they were astonished to see
the two runaway boys approaching.
Wylie came running up, declaring that both
he and his companion were sorry for their bad
behaviour, and were anxious to be received again,
not being able to get enough to eat.
But though Wylie acted in this frank
manner, his companion was very sulky. He
said nothing, but seated himself by the fire,
pouting and frowning, and evidently much
vexed at being obliged to come back. Mr. Eyre
thought it well to give the boys a lecture on
their bad conduct, especially upon their thefts;
for they now owned that they had stolen meat
from the trees, though they had both denied it.
But though Mr. Eyre reproved the boys, he
treated them very kindly, for he gave them
some tea, and bread and meat for supper.

The next day the whole party continued their
journey. They were obliged to be very sparing
of their food, lest when it was gone they should
get no more. But their greatest trial was the
want of water.
After travelling during four days, they
stopped one evening in a rocky place at the
top of high cliffs, hoping that if any rain
should fall, some might be caught in the
hollow places among the rocks.. That evening
they ate no supper; for having had dinner,
they thought they might do without supper.
Before they lay down to sleep, they made
themselves places to sleep in, by setting up
boughs as shelters from the wind. They also
piled up their goods in a great heap, and
covered it with oil-skin to keep out the
damp. Mr. Eyre did not sleep when the
rest did, for he undertook to watch the horses
till eleven at night, and then he agreed to
change places with Mr. Baxter.
The hour was almost come, and Mr. Eyre
was beginning to lead the horses towards the
sleeping-place, when he was startled by hearing
a gun go off. He called out, but receiving no
answer, he grew alarmed, and leaving the
horses, ran towards the spot from which the
noise had come.
Presently he met Wylie, running very fast,
and crying out, '0 Massa! 0 Massa! come here.'
'What is the matter ?' inquired Mr. Eyre.
Wylie made no answer.
With hurried steps Mr. Eyre accompanied
him towards the camp. What a sight struck
his eyes! His friend Baxter laying on the

ground, weltering in his blood, and in the
agonies of death!!
The two younger boys were not there, and
the goods, which had been covered by the oil-
skin, lay scattered in confusion on the ground.
It was too clear that one of the boys had KILLED
poor Baxter. No doubt it was Neramberein, who
had done it!!
It seems that the boys had attempted to steal
some of the goods, and that while they were
gathering them together, Baxter had awaked,
and had come forth from his sleeping-place,
and that then one of the boys had shot him.
Mr. Eyre raised the dying man from the
ground where he was lying prostrate. He
found that a ball had entered his left breast,
and that his life was fast departing. In a few
minutes he expired!!
What were the feelings of the lonely tra-
veller ? Here he was in the midst of a desert,
with no companion but one young savage, and
that young savage was not one whom he could
trust; for he knew not what part Wylie had
taken in the deeds of the night. He suspected
that he had intended to go away with the other
boys, but that when Baxter was murdered he
had grown alarmed. Wylie, indeed, denied
that he had known anything of the robbery,
but then he was not a boy, whose word could
be believed.
The remainder of that dreadful night was
passed by Mr. Eyre in watching the horses.
Anxiously he waited for the first streak of day-
light. He then drove the horses to the camp,
and once more beheld the body of his fellow-

traveller. How suddenly had his soul been
hurried into eternity, and into the presence
of his God !
It was Wylie's business to light the fire, and
prepare the breakfast. Meanwhile Mr. Eyre
examined the baggage to see how much had
been stolen.
These were the chief articles he missed.
All the bread, consisting of five loaves, some
mutton, tea and sugar, tobacco and pipes, a
small keg of water, and two guns.
And what was left for the traveller? A
large quantity of flour, a large keg of water,
some tea and sugar, a gun, and pistols. But
would anything have been left, had the un-
grateful boys been strong enough to carry
ALL away?
Mr. Eyre desired, before leaving the fatal
spot, to bury the body of his friend; but the
rocks around were so hard, that it was im-
possible to dig a grave. All he was able to
do, was to wrap the corpse in a blanket before
he abandoned it for ever.
Slowly and silently he left the sorrowful
spot, leading one horse, while Wylie drove the
others after it.
During the heat of the day they stopped
to rest.
It was four in the afternoon, and they were
soon going to set out again, when they per-
ceived at a distance-TWO WHITE FIGURES!
They soon knew them to be the two guilty
boys, wrapped in their blankets.
Mr. Eyre had some fear lest the young
murderer should shoot him also; yet he

thought it wise to advance boldly towards
him, with his gun in his hand. He per-
ceived that each of the wicked youths held
a gun, and seemed ready to shoot. But as
he approached they drew back. He wished
to speak to them, in order to persuade them
not to follow him on his journey, but to go
another way; however, he could not get near
them, but he heard them cry out, 0 Massa,
we don't want you; we want Wylie.' The
boys repeated the name of Wylie over and
over again: yet Wylie answered not, but re-
mained quietly with the horses. At length
Mr. Eyre turned away, and continued his
journey. The boys followed at some distance,
calling out for Wylie till the darkness came on.
Mr. Eyre was so anxious to get beyond the
reach of these wicked youths, that he walked
eighteen miles that evening.
And he NEVER saw them again! I do not
know whether he had ever told them of the
true God, of that EYE, which never SLEEPS,
of that EYE, which beholds ROBBERS and
MURDERERS in the night: but whether he
had told them or not of this great God, they
must have KNOWN that they were acting
wickedly when they robbed their benefactor,
and murdered his friend; and they must
have felt very MISERABLE after they had
done those deeds.
Alone with Wylie, Mr. Eyre pursued his
journey along the high cliffs of the Great
Bight, or Bay.
For five days, they were without water for
the horses; at last they dug some wells in the

sand. But by this time one of the horses was
grown so weak, that he could scarcely crawl
along. This horse MIr. Eyre determined to
kill for food. Wylie, delighted with the idea,
exclaimed, Massa, I shall sit up and eat the
whole night.' And he kept his word. While
his master was skinning the poor beast, he
made a fire close by, and soon began tearing
off bits of flesh, roasting and eating them as
fast as he could. Mr. Eyre, after cutting off
the best parts of the flesh to dry, allowed Wylie
to eat the rest.
See the young glutton, with the head, the
feet, and the inside, given up to him for a
feast. He hastened to make an oven, in which
to bake about TWENTY pounds to feast upon
during the night! It is not wonderful, if
during that night he was heard to make a
dismal groaning, and to complain that he was
very ill. lie said, indeed, that it was wor1'ki
too hard had made him ill; but his master
thought it was eating too much, for whenever
he woke, he found the boy gnawing a bone.
Next day, Wylie was not able to spend his
holee time over the carcase, for he had to go
and look for a lost foal: but the day after, it
was hard to get him away from the bones.
For some time the travellers lived upon the
dried horse-flesh, with a kangaroo, or a fish,
as a little change. Wyrlie continued to eat
immoderately, though often rolling upon the
ground, and crying out, 'Mlendyat,' or ill.
One night he appeared to be in a very ill
humnour, and Mr. Eyre tried to find out the
reason. At last Wylie said in an angry tone,

'The dogs have eaten the skin.' It seems he
had hung the skin of a kangaroo upon a bush,
intending to eat it by-and-by, and the wild
dogs had stolen this dainty morsel. Wylie was
restored to his usual good humour, by the sight
of some fine fishes his master had caught. Next
time the boy shot a kangaroo, he took good care
of the skin, folding it up, and hiding it.
One day he was so happy as to catch two
opossums in a tree. His master was deter-
mined to see how Wylie would behave, if left
entirely to himself. He sat silently by the
fire, while Wylie was cooking one opossum.
The boy, having got it ready for his supper,
took the other to his sleeping-place. His master
inquired what he intended to do with it. Wylie
replied, 'I shall be hungry in the morning, and
I am keeping it for my breakfast!' Then
Mr. Eyre perceived that the greedy boy in-
tended to offer him neither supper nor break-
fast. Accordingly he took out his bag of flour,
and said to Wylie, 'Very well, we will each
eat our own food; you eat the opossums you
shot, and I eat the flour I have; and I will
give you no more.' In this manner, Mr. Eyre
tried to show the boy the folly of his selfishness.
The plan succeeded. Wylie was frightened at
the idea of getting no more flour, and he offered
the smaller opossum to his master, and pro-
mised to cook it for him. We see in all Wylie's
conduct a proof that he had a wicked heart-
full of covetousness and selfishness. But we
also have wicked hearts, only we have been
taught what was right. This is a prayer which
would suit well every child, and every man in

88 AtuSTRtALtA.
the world: Create in me a clean heart, 0 God,
and renew a right spirit within me.'
Mr. Eyre continued to be kind to Wylie,
though he saw too plainly the boy did not really
love him.
SBut the troubles of the journey were nearly
at an end. At last the travellers saw a ship a
few miles from the shore. Oh! how anxious
they were that the sailors should see them!
What could they do ? They kindled a fire on
a rock, and they made a great deal of smoke
come out of the fire. Soon a boat was seen
approaching the shore! How great was the
joy of the weary travellers! The sailors in the
boat were Frenchmen, but they were not the
less kind on that account. They invited Mr.
Eyre and Wylie to accompany them to their
When the young savage found himself on
board he was almost mad with delight, for he
had now as much to eat as he could desire, and
he began eating biscuits so fast, that the sailors
began to be afraid lest he should eat them all;
and they were glad to give him fishes instead,
as they could catch plenty of them.
For twelve days Wylie and his master lived
in the ship, and then left it, laden with provi-
sions, and dressed in warm clothes.
They had still many miles to go along the
shore, but they suffered no more from want of
food and water.
Great was their rapture when they first
caught sight of the hills of St. George's Sound;
for then they knew their journey would soon
end. But they had rivers to cross on the way,

and in trying to get the horses over, they
nearly lost the poor beasts, and their own lives
too. For three days, their clothes were dripping
with wet, and the last night was one of the
worst; but then they knew it was the LAST,
and that thought enabled them to bear all. So
does the Christian feel when near the end of his
journey. He is in the midst of storms, and
wading through deep waters, even the deep
waters of DEATH; but he knows that he is near
It was in the
midst of a furi-
ous storm that
these travellers
arrived at their
journey's end.
Though they
were now close
to the town of
Albany, neither
man nor beast :(
was to be seen;
for neither would
venture out. At -\
last a native ap-
peared, and he
knewWylie, and ir
greeted him j oy-
fully,telling him Wylie.
at the same time
that his friends had given him up for dead
a long while ago. This native, by a loud,
shrill cry, let his countrymen know that Wylie
was found; and presently a multitude of men,

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