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150 J 4I
MAP TO~~ ACOP
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Fis o.Engr's7Y 120 110 Longitude '+ from
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POUNDING THE POLE.
Adventures of Two Youths in the Open Polar Sea
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN"
THE NORTH POLE AND BEYOND
BY THOMAS W. KNOX
-"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS ETC.
II A PE R B R OTEII 1S, F ANKL I N S QUA RE
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, bv
IIAR PER k B OTHERS,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
All rights reserved.
FOR nearly four centuries the arctic regions have been an interesting
field for explorers, and public attention has been frequently drawn to
the voyages and travels that have been made in the zones of ice and snow.
Tle fresh interest given to polar study by the story of the Jeannette and
the work of Lieutenant Greely, on Lady Franklin Bay, has led to the
preparation of the present volume. It is especially intended for youthful
readers, but the author indulges the hope that those of mature years may
find instruction and amusement in its pages. Hle has pursued the plan
wlhiclh met with favor in his previous works, and endeavored to present an
array of facts upon a groundwork of fiction, in the same manner as in
' The Bov Travellers in the Far East." lie trusts that the youths who fol-
lowed the fortunes of Frank and Fred in their many wanderings will give
a kindiv welcome to The Vovage of the 1ivian and its voung heroes.
The ship and its crew are fictitious, but the scenes of the voyage, and
the incidents and adventures hlerein described, are intended to be realities.
They have been mainly derived from the experiences of explorers, from
the time of Martin Frobisher down to the present (late. It was the author's
design to introduce all tle important incidents of arctic voyages, together
with tle most recent scientific discoveries, into a single narrative. The
portion of the voyage from Iherald Island to the North-pole, and thence to
Grant Land, is wholly imaginary. (The writer believes that the sea around
thle 1ple is open in summer, and will yet be reached by a ship fortunate
((enoughI to find an opening through the icy barrier which surrounds it.)
Thus believing, lie has permitted thee 'ician :and (Gam1eCtt to pierce the
barrier, and exp lore tle islands and waters which are as yet concealed
from mortal vision. 1e asks the literal reader to remember that from
(Chlapters XII. to XVI ., inclusive, tle geographical positions of the ex-
plorers are (not to b)e regarded as actualities.
Manv works of arctic navig\ators and travellers have been consulted in
the preparation of the book. The history of polar exploration has been
carefully studied, from the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot, in 1497,
down to the most recent publications in England and America. Many of
the authorities are giveii in the text of the book. The author acknowledges
his personal obligatimos to Professor J. F No- urse, author of "American
Explorations in tle Ice,-zoles," and other work s; to Lieutenant Lucien
Young, of the United States N'av-; and to Deputy Inspector-general Robert
M'Cormick, of the Royal Navy of England. He is also indebted to the
courtesy of his publishers for their kind permission to make use of illustra-
tions that have appeared in their previous publications relative to the arctic
regions and the adventures of polar explorers.
With this brief explanation of his motives, and plan of work, the
author submits The Voyage of thle Viviani for the inspection of press
T. W. K.
NE:w YORK, IJ ,'i( 188.4.
P.S.-The pages of this book had been printed and made ready for
binding when, on the 17th of July, the country was electrified witl the
news of the rescue of Lieutenant Greely, at Cape Sabine, on tlhe e2d of
the previous month. Sorrow was mingled with joy when it was learned
that out of the twenty-three companions of the heroic explorer only five
survived; eighteen had perished of cold and starvation, and if the relief
expedition had been forty-eight hours later in arriving at Cape Sabine
not one would have been found alive!
Lieutenant Greely's expedition has added materially to tle work of
previous explorers. The country to tlhe east and west of Lady Franklin
Bay has been examined, and a large extent of coast-line carefully sur-
veyed ; valuable meteorological observations have been recorded; impor-
tant additions are made to the map of Northern Greenland and thie Polar
IBasin; and the believers in an open sea around the iPole have received
fresh support to their theories. Tlie flag of tle United States has floated
nearer to the Pole than that of any other nation. In May, 1SS3, it was
unfurled by Lieutenant Lockwood in latitude S3" _2' 30" N., longitude
400 45' W. In the friendly contest in polar explorations the honors
have been transferred from England to America, but the whole world
will share in the additions which have been made to our knowledge of
the far Northl.
T. W. K.
NF:w YORK, AI uu.st 1 1. UI
CHAPTER I. PAGE
THE DEPARTURE.-BOUND FOR THE NORTH.-)-ESCRIPTION OF THE PARTY ................... 1
AT SEA.--STORIES FROM THE ARCTIC REGIONS .......... ................................. 25
PROVISIONS FOR AN ARCTIC VOYAGE.-WIHALES AND WHALERS ............ .......... ... 40
MEETING A STRANGER.-SOMETIIING ABOUT KAMCHATKA ..... ............................. 54
A V ISIT TO K AMCIHATKA ............................. ..... ......................... 67
BEARING'S ISLAND AND BEARING'S VOYAGES.--AMONG THE CHUCKCIIEES..... .............. 81
CIILCKCHIEES AND KORAKS.-INTERNATIONAL FESTIVITIES ..... ........... ................. 98
FROM SIBERIA TO WRANGELL ISLAND.-ICEBERGS AND A BEAR-HUNT .......................... 11
A VISIT TO WRANGELL ISLAND.--HUNTING SEALS, W\ALRUSES, AND POLAR BEARS............ 127
ITERALD ISLAND.--CAU(GT IN TIE ICE.--A NARROw ESCAPE ............................. 140
FAST IN THE ICE.- GOING INTO \ INTER-QUARTEUS .... .... ....... ...... ............. 154
CIAPITER XII. PAGE
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE SUN.-INCIDENTS OF 1Ii1ERINATION.-THIE AURORA BOREALIS .......... 9
CHRISTMAS AND NEW-YEAR FESTIVITIES.-ENTERTAINMENTS.-THE GAMBETTA" ON FIRE ..... 183
ARCTIC NEWSPAPERS AND COMEDIES.-DRIFTING WITH THE ICE.-DISCOVERING LAND....... 2(10
THE LAND VISITED AND EXPLORED.-PERILOUS JOURNEY.-THE SHIPS IN DANGER .......... 213
ESCAPE FROM THE ICE.-IN THE OPEN POLAR SEA.-STEAMING AND SAILING TO THE NORTH.. 228
ICEBERGS AND GLACIERS.--"LA TERRE LAFAYETTE."--THE "VIVIAN" AT TIE POLE ........ .242
DISCOVERIES AT THE POLE.-LEAVING THE POLAR SEA.-ESCAPE THROUGH THE ICE-BARRIER.. 257
THE SIGNAL SERVICE STATION.-FROM LITTLETON ISLAND TO UPERNAVIK .................. 273
SIGHTS IN GREENLAND.-NEWS FROM IIOME.-END OF THE VOYAGE ....................... 288
ILLU STATION S.
Rounding the Pole ......................................................... Frontispiece
Map to Accompany the Voyage of the Vivian .................................Front Cover
IM i of the Polar Regions ............................ ....................... Rear over
PAGE j PAGE
Outward Bound ....................... 13 Dogs Catching Fish ................... 73
Among the Icebergs .............. .. .. 14 Getting Ready for the Road ............. 75
Arctic Discovery Ships ................. 16 Boat Towed by Dogs ................ ... 76
The Old Stone Mill at Newport ........ 19 Monument to Belring, Petropavlovsk ..... 78
Scene in Southern Greenland ... ......... 20 The Three Brothers" .. .... ...... 80
Norse Ruins in Greenland................ 21 The Ermine ........................... 81
Frobisher Relics ...................... 22 A Siberian Fox-trap .................... 82
Sir John Ross ................... ... 3 Sitka, or New Archangel ................ 85
Relics of Sir John Franklin's Expedition 27 A Chuckchee Boat ................... 85
Captain Hall Among the Eskimos ......... 28 Walrus Hunting among the Chuckehees ... 89
Discovery of a Boat of tlhe Franklin Expe- Scenery near East Cape ................ 91
edition .................... ............ 29 Erecting a Chuckchee Summer-house . 93
Travelling by Sledge .................... 31 A Group of Reindeer ................... 95
Ice-drift of the Tyson Party .............. 32 A Reindeer Sled ................... 97
The Cabin of the Resolute ... .......... 33 Baron Von Wrangell ................... 99
An Iceberg from Greenland ............ 35 Locked in the Ice ..... ......... ...... 101
The Barrier of Ice .... .... .. .... 36 A Summer Village in the Arctic Regions 104
Arctic Birds ........................... 37 A Portrait ............................ 105
Over the Ice ........................... 42 A Korak Beau ......................... 106
Native and European Dress Contrasted .... .43 A Korak Belle ................... .... 107
An Incident of the Whale-fishery ....... .. 46 A Ball on Shipboard ................... 108
Lookout on an Iceberg .............. 47 "All Hands Round" ............... 108
Captain Scores y .... .................. 50 Balance" ........................... 109
A Nimrod of the Sea ............... ...... 51 Flower-girl ........... ...... ... ...... 109
A Carcass Adrift 5............. ... 3. Fish-woman. ......... ........ ...... 109
Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka ............. 57 The Cook ...................... ....... 110
Volcanoes of Koriatski, Avatcha, and Koseld- A Gothic Iceberg .............. ....... 111
skai ............................... 59 View of Icelergs ...................... 114
Fort St. 3ichael's, or Michaelovski. ......... 61 On an Ice-pack ................... .... 115
Kamchatka Sables ............ ...... 2 Where an Iceberg is Formed ............ 117
Mounted (ossacks ............. ......... ;4 Vertical Section of a (lacier............. 118
A Village on thle Amoor Riv(r ........... 65 In Front of a Greenland Glacier. ......... 119
Russian (Carpenters ............. ... ... 6 Tli'e lBea at Bay............ ........ 121
Avatchla Mountain .................... .. 8 Scene in F'ront of thie Island ............... 125
('lChurch at Petropa)vlovsk. ............... 7 Winer-qmuarters of Iarentz Tihree lHundred
Do-sledgn 1min Kamchatka . ............ Yea ............. .........12
12 ILLUSTI NATIONS.
Female Bear and Cubs .. .. .. . 129 Crossing a Crevasse on a Bridge of Ice 217
The A uk at lHom e ..................... 1:2 A M usk-ox ........................... 219
A Fight with tile Seals ................. 113 Iucks on Plresident Land ............... 220
Hunting the Walrus .. .. . . 15 Te Devil's T b," near Melville Bay.. 221
oisting the lag.......... .. .... 17 An Empty Sled e ................ ... ..222
The Siberian Manmmoth ...... .. ....... 1:8 Coast Scene ill the Arctic Circle.......... 224
The Mammoth Restored ........ .. .... 139 A Shelter from the Ice .................. 226
Exploring the Coast .................... 140 Effect of an Arctic Gale ................ 227
On Shore in tle Far North .............. 141 Near thie Ice ......... ............... 229
Under the Midnighi t Sun .................. 143 Te North Foreland.................... 2231
Near the Ice-pack. ................... 144 Climbing an Ice-collar ................... 232
Cabin Scene in an Arctic Winter ......... 145 The Lummn of the North ............... .,233
Edge of the Ice-pack .................. .. 146 View from Tonner's Island ............ .. 235
Ice in Motion ......................... 147 French Head ......................... 237
In an Arctic Gale ....... ............... 149 Exploring the Channel .................. 239
Iunmmocks Afloat .................... 152 Curious Appearance of the Sun ......... 241
How a Hummock is Formed ............ 53 The Belted Iceberg. .................... 243
Moored to an Ice-floe ......... .......... 155 A Snow-squall among the Icebergs ... .. 245
Chasing a Bear on the Ice...... ......... 159 Shooting Lumme ...... .............. 247
A Village of Snow-huts ................. 161 View in Lafayette Land ................. 249
Eskimo Stone Lamp and Fire ............ 163 An Arctic Volcano ....... ............. 251
A Hut Submerged ................... .. 164 A View through the Clouds ............. 253
W alruses on the Ice.................... 167 "Ne Plus Ultra" ...................... 256
Arctic W olves ......................... 168 An Unwelcome Visitor ................. 258
In W inter-quarters. ........... .......... 170 Marking a Carrier-pigeon ............... 259
Perils of the Polar Sea ................. 171 A Volcanic Eruption ................... 261
Greenland Native Watching for a Seal .... 173 A Whale-ship in Winter-quarters......... 264
Sunset Scene in the Arctic Circle......... 175 Grave of Captain Hall .................. 265
Captain C. F. Hall, with Two Eskimo Con- Tlhe Burial of Captain Hall. ............. 267
panions ............................ 177 Map of Smith Sound, &c. .. ............ 269
An Arctic Aurora ..................... 180 Dr. I. I. Hayes .................... ... 270
Geographical Distribution of Auroras ... 182 Polaris Camp .......... .. .... ...... 272
Fred's Electric Nursery ................. 183 Eskimo in Winter Dress ................. 276
Arches of Auroral Light ........... ..... 184 Separation of the Polaris and the Floe Party 277
A Polar Bear failing to See the Point..... 186 An Eskimo Afloat ..................... 279
Tlie Old Way of Melting Snow. .. .... ... 187 Somersault in a Kvack. ................... 279
The Captain's Souvenir of Christmas....... 189 The most Northern House on the Globe ... 281
"The little Captain . stirred the posset A Greenland Governor ................. 282
with his sword" ................... ... 191 The Governor's Residence ............... 283
Performance on the Vivian ............ .193 A Greenland Parliament in Session ....... 284
George's Punch and Judy "............. ..194 Julianshaab, Capital of Greenland ....... 285
A Fire on Shipboard ................... 197 Ships loading with Kryolite at Iviktut, Green-
Frozen In .... ...... ................ 199 land ............................... 286
Captain Parry ................... ...... 203 Entering a Harbor in Greenland .. ..... 287
Carolus Slyfoxsky.. ................... 204 An Oomiak ...........................289
A Character .......................... 204 Tlhe Oomiak and its Crew ...............290
A Character in the French Play.......... 205 Upernavik ............................. 291
On the Level Ice. ...................... 211 The Inspector and his Familyv. .. ..... 292
Ice-log, Line, and Reel ................. 212 TThe New Arrival ...................... 294
In Camp ............................ 215 Reykjavik, Icelald................... ..296
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
THE DEPARTURE.-BOUND FOR THE NORTH.-DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTY.
" LL ready there ?"
.I_ Ay, ay, sir," was the reply.
Up with the anchor !"
The capstan went slowly round, propelled by the arms of twenty
men; the anchor left its bed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay, and
as the cable shortened till it hung straight down from the bows of the
vessel, the order Go ahead slow !" was shouted to the engineer, who stood
at his post below. The machinery responded to his touch, and the whirl-
ing screw churned a great breadth of discolored foam around the stern
of the Vivian. Soon she was ploughing her way through the water, turn-
ing now to port and now to starboard to avoid collisions with anchored
or moving craft in the harbor
of the great city by the west-
eorl sea bo. which ME I
The ships at the docks or
in the bay dipped their flags;
the steamers, great and small, -
sounded their whistles pitched
to all the notes of the chromat-
ic scale; cannon boomed from
their embrasures on Alcatraz ___
Island and the other defences OUTWARD BOUND.
of the city; and a military band
on a steamboat which followed closely in the wake of the Vivian filled
the air with its music. The decks of the steamboat were black with people
who kept up a perpetual waving of handkerchiefs and, in the pauses of
the band, replaced the music with shouts and cheers of farewell.
14 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
Without a pause the departing vessel held her way to the Golden
Gate; then she stopped her engines to permit the departure of the pilot,
together with several gentlemen who had accompanied her commander
from the anchorage in the harbor. The crowd on the steamboat cheered
more loudly than ever; the band played again, its notes growing less
-- 1 --- --=--- : -
AMONG THE ICEBERGS.
distinct at every pulsation of the engine, as the Vivian headed away
into the open ocean and left the shores of California fading in the dis-
tance. And to many on the deck of the steamboat, as she returned to
San Francisco, the query arose, Shall we ever see her again ?"
The Vivian was bound on a voyage to the arctic seas; she added
a unit to the number of those that have sailed in quest of the North-pole.
It was not her first visit to the regions of ice, although she had never
before gone in the character of an explorer. Originally she was built
for a whaler: as the whale has been driven from the open ocean, it has
been necessary for those who desire his oil to follow him to his retreat
in the region of perpetual ice. In the early part of this century, and
down to thirty years ago, the huntsmen of the sea found their prey in the
broad expanse of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. But in these latter
days the whale is not to be found in his former haunts, and even in the
.... -- _ - --- S--- ---
-- -_ __- -- ---- = l 2 -=
-- E- ---- ----
'7--~~- ... ___
--- --~- ----- -------- _-7. -
The=---=---_--=--= Via was; bon on a oygetotle rcicses;sh ad
a==,~~--~_~= uni to the----- nubro hs ta aesied us ftl ot-oe
It asno ]erfistviittoth rginsofic, ltouh heha nve
befori3-z gone -------- in---~- the character- of a- exloer Oriinll shewa bi
for~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~-- a hlr stewaehsbeldrvnfo h pnoeli a
been~~~~~~~~ neesr fo hs hodsr isolt olo int ]i era
in tlm-= regio of---J perpetual ie. In te erlypar of hiscenury an
down~ ~~- to--- thirty year ago,---- the; hutmno lesafon hi ryi h
broad ~ ~ -- exas of-- the----- Pacifi nd-- Atani oeas Bt nthseltle
TIE DEPARTURE. 15
far North lie is by no means abundant. The successful hunters must
pursue him where ice abounds through the entire year, and only during
a few months in summer is it sufficiently open for ships to find a way
through it. Frequently the whale-ships are nipped in the ice, and a craft
of ordinary construction would be speedily crushed and destroyed.
"She was just as strong as wood and iron could make her," said the
former owner of the Vivian. That is, I mean she was one of the
strongest whalers ever launched, and that is saying a good deal.
She is a bark of 490 tons, old measurement; her ribs and all her
timbers were the best we could find; her sides were twenty inches thick,
and we covered her with extra planking till she looked as though she had
put on an ulster overcoat for a sleigh-ride. For ten feet back from her
stem the bow was solid oak, and then she was braced all through with
timbers, so that no ordinary pressure could break her in.
We christened her the Etnny. She has made five voyages to the
Arctic Ocean, and come home every time full of oil, and not a man in-
jured. But she had some narrow chances in the ice, and two or three
times it looked as though her crew never would see land again."
We shall hear more of the adventures of this tough little craft, as her
former captain is now her sailing-master. When she left San Francisco,
as described in our opening lines, she was owned by some wealthy gentle-
men of that city, who had subscribed a sufficient amount to purchase
and fit her out for a voyage of exploration.
What shall we call her ?" was a question in dispute for several days,
as each of her joint owners had a pet name which he wished to have
Masculine names were voted out of order on account of tlie feminine
character of a ship. The dictionary was consulted, and also the long list
of ships that have been in the arctic regions; finally, it was agreed
to call her the Vivian.
"Couldn't be better," said Captain Jones, who formerly commanded
her, when the result of the deliberation was reported to him. "No ship
of that name ever passed the Arctic Circle; besides, you say that Vivian
means 'lively,' and when she's in a rough sea I don't know of a livelier
craft than tile old j anny."
In spite of her excellent qualifications for an arctic voyage, it was
determined to improve upon them to a considerable extent. The solid
bows were extended about five feet farther aft than they were originally;
additional braces were placed throughout the hull; the bow was plated
with steel half an inch thick to within a foot of the rail, and the rest of
16 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
the hull received a steel plating three-eighths of an inch thick from the
water-line downward. Thus prepared, it was thought she could resist a
pressure sufficient to lift her bodily from the water without straining her
enough to open her seams and start a leak.
New sails were bent to her yards, and an extra new set was stowed
below; in addition to these, she had her old sails, which were laid away
in the hold. Thus she was provided with three sets of canvas to guard
against accidents; and, even if they were not needed for their legitimate
purposes, the sails would come handy to cut up into tents for camping on
the ice or on land.
_-;-------I- _-e I __-- ~---Z
ARCTIC DISCOVERY SHIPS.
Her engines were not intended for steady use at sea; she was to rely
on her sails under ordinary circumstances, and only make use of steam
when emergencies required. Four hours after she had dropped the pilot
at the Golden Gate the engines were stopped, the fires were extinguished,
and all canvas was spread to bear the Vivian northward to her destina-
tion.. The wind was blowing down the coast, and almost directly in the
track the bark was to follow; consequently, she was obliged to stretch
away to the westward and make a long leg" by which to beat up towards
Three persons on the deck of the Vivian watched intently the reced-
THE COMMANDER AND HIS SUBORDINATES. 17
ing shore as the bark held her course. Others would have watched with
them had they not been occupied with the work of clearing the decks,
and arranging sundry packages which were lying inconveniently about.
Probably no ship ever sailed from port for a long voyage without having
much to put in order as soon as slie got away from land.
Tlhe trio in which we are specially interested were the commander
of the expedition and two young men whom he had selected to accom-
pany him. And, while we are on the subject, we may as well give a brief
description of the principal characters in the story we are about to
First and foremost was the gentleman to whose energy the organiza-
tion of the expedition was due, Commander Bronson, formerly an officer
in the United States Navy. He had already made two voyages to the
Arctic Ocean in an effort to reach the pole, and add to the discoveries
of other explorers. lie was a cousin of Dr. Bronson, with whom some of
the readers of this volume may be familiar, and possessed all the good
qualities of that indefatigable traveller.*
Second in command was Major Clapp, who had been granted a leave
of absence from his regiment, with which he had been fighting Indians
on our northern frontier. His army rank was that of first lieutenant,
but for the purposes of this expedition he received the commission of
a Major of Volunteers from the Governor of California.
Third and fourth were Alfred Chapman and George Bridgman, two
young men who had just graduated from college, where they were equally
renowned for standing high in their classes and distinguishing themselves
in all the athletic sports that were encouraged by the professors. Alfred,
or Fred as he was better known, had rowed stroke in the last boat-race
(wherein the rival college was badly beaten), and George was without
a superior in running, leaping, and in the national game of base-ball.
They had never visited the far North, but had spent a good deal of time.
out-of-doors in winter and thereby accustomed themselves to the cold.
As we have before said, the sailing-master was the former captain:
of thle Vcian when she rejoiced inl the name of the Fanny. Hle was
allowed to retain his title, and therefore we sliall know him as Captain,
Dr. Tonner was the surgeon and historian of the expedition, and, as
lie had a fondness for matters of science, lie was intrusted with the col-
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East:" Adventures of Two Youths in Japan, China, Siam,
Java, the Philippine Islands, Burmah, Ceylon, India, Egypt, the Holy Land, and Central Africa.
Five volume-:, published by Harper & Brothers, New York.
1S THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
election of minerals, plants, and such natural history specimens as might
be worth preserving. lie was especially cautioned not to waste his time
in skinning and stuffing polar bears, arctic foxes, seals, and other well-
known products of the far North. You may bring back the ears of the
bears and foxes as trophies," said the commander, but, as to loading tihe
ship with specimens that abound in all the museums, we won't think of it."
The crew of twenty men had been carefully selected from a great
number of applicants. All were comparatively young, and at least twelve
of them had been to the North on whaling voyages, and knew something
of the dangers and hardships of the journey before them. We shall be-
come better acquainted with the entire party as time goes on.
Major Clapp was occupied with the stowing of the cargo, so that Com-
mander Bronson was left with Fred and George to watch the land and
talk of the subject that was uppermost in their minds. Dr. Tonner was
busy with the journal of the expedition, and determined to record the
incidents of their departure before lie had time to forget anything. We
are indebted to his notes for much that we slall present in this volume.
"I have not had time to explain fully the plans of the expedition,"
said the commander, and we may as well devote our leisure to them
now. Dr. Tonner has the wlole story in his journal, and as soon as he
comes on deck we will have him read it over to us."
Fred and George nodded assent, as they could hardly do otherwise,
and the conversation turned to other than arctic topics till the doctor
appeared. When the desire of Commander Bronson was made known
to him, Dr. Tonner went for his journal and proceeded to read its open-
ing pages. They contained a brief history of arctic and antarctic explo-
ration, and included many names that have become famous in history.
Before beginning to read from his journal, the doctor requested his
listeners not to be reluctant about asking questions, as he wished to make
every point perfectly clear to all of them. They agreed to the suggestion,
and, as it was fully carried out, the perusal of the journal took the form
of a dialogue, and resulted in the young men learning a great deal that
they did not know before.
"A good many people believe," began tihe Doctor, tlat the discovery
of America by Europeans was made from the arctic regions, and not by
Columbus in his celebrated voyage from Spain,."
"I have read something about it," said Fred, but had forgotten the
fact till this moment."
"Nearly five hundred years before the ti! e of Columbus," continued
the Doctor, "a Norwegian voyager came from Iceland to the coast of
7 ~ c 0 c _
THE NORTHMEN. 19
__ I'--,-=---S i---~
THE "OLD STONE MILL" AT NEWPORT.
North America, which he descended as far south as Massachusetts and
Rhode Island-at least such is the account. He named the country Vin-
land, owing to the large number of vines that he found growing wild, and
he is credited with the construction of the Old Stone Mill at Newport.
There has been a great deal of discussion about the antiquity of the old
mill, and its origin is not yet fully settled; but the claim for its construc-
tion by the Northmen has a large number of supporters. Whether they
built the mill or not, it is pretty certain that they visited the coast of
North America, and on their return told what they had seen. About
that time the Northmen explored Baffin's Bay, where they built monu-
ments which were discovered in the early part of the present century.
They established colonies on the coast of Greenland which existed for
20 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
several hundred years, and can still be traced in the ruins of buildings
where the villages stood.
"They also made settlements on the shores of Spitzbergen, and their
expeditions were pushed far to the north in pursuit of whales, seals, and
other products of the sea. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries these
colonies flourished, and we may credit the Northmen with being the first
explorers beyond the Arctic Circle."
One of the youths asked if the Northmen left any history of their
"They did not," was the reply, except a few fragmentary records
in some of the old chronicles of Iceland and Norway which tell the
adventures of Eric the Red and his sons. Eric planted the colonies in
Greenland, and his son Leif made the first voyage to Newfoundland and
the coast of New England. The Icelandic chronicles mention other voy-
ages to the same region, and their
Stories are confirmed by Adam of
Bremen and by Nicolo Zeno, a Ve-
netian, who went to Greenland near
Se the end of the fourteenth century,
and heard while there about a great
country to the west and south. Ac-
cording to one account he visited the
te aci country he described; and, if the
story is true,the Venetian Zeno stood
on the soil of America a century in
advance of the Genoese Columbus."
"What a perfect cyclopedia of
SCENE IN SOUTHERN GREENLAND. knowledge the Doctor is," said Fred,
in a whisper to George.
"Yes," replied the latter, "and I shouldn't wonder if his cabin is
stuffed full of cyclopnedias and all the latest works on arctic exploration.
I hope so, at any rate, as we can best accomplish the objects of our voyage
by knowing what others have done before us."
"The Cabots, John and Sebastian, in 1497, were the next explorers of
the arctic seas, as they projected a voyage to the North-pole, and hoped
to go around America to the Pacific Ocean. They went beyond the sixty-
seventh degree of latitude, having previously visited Labrador, but were
turned back by the ice in Davis's Strait. They may be said to have been
the first seekers for the north-west passage, and have had many imitators
no more successful than themselves."
Q~~ __ _
NORSE RUINS IN GREENLAND.
22 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
"I have a long list here," continued Dr. Tonner, "of the early advent-
urers in the arctic regions, and what they endeavored to accomplish.
Unhappily, the story is in many cases a story of disaster, and it is a credit
to the courage and persistence of mankind that where many have failed
others are always ready to come for-
ward to fill their places. The battle
Sfor the pole will never cease till
some one has stood on the point
where latitude and longitude cease
to exist, and has spread his country's
flag to the icy breeze.
"About A.D. 1500-02," the Doc-
tor read from his notes, "the Broth-
Serls Cortereal made three voyages to
t nthe North, but without important
results; fifty years later Sir Hugh
-- = Willoughby and his crew perished
FROBISHER RELICS. in the effort to find the north-west
passage; and in 1576-78 Martin
Frobisher made three voyages among the fields of ice, and discovered
the strait which bears his name. Relics of Frobisher were found in 1861
by Captain Hall, who. sent them to the British 'Museum. Ten years
later came Davis, whose name is preserved in the strait he discovered
and explored; and after him were a host of explorers from most of the
nations of Europe, all in search of a new road to the Indies by way of
the northern sea. English, French, Dutch, and Da Oes struggled for the
prize, but all in vain. Henry Hudson was sent to find a passage around
North America to India; and to his failure in this attempt we may
attribute his southerly voyage, which resulted in the discovery of the Bay
of New York and the river which flows into it from the north, and keeps
the name of Hudson fresh in our memory.
"While these and later expeditions were in progress on the east, the
Russians were busy on the other side of the Arctic Ocean. The most
noted enterprise of the Russians in the last century was commanded by
Vitus Behring, who sailed in 1741 from Petropavlovsk, in Kamchatka; the
Russian histories say that the sails of his ships were of deer-skins, and the
cordage was of thongs of the same material. Nothing important came of
his voyage, nor of the expeditions of Shalaroff, Andreyeff, and Captain
Billings; the latter an Englishman in the Russian service,who attempted
to reach the pole from the mouth of the Kolyma River, in Siberia. The
ROSS AND PARRY. 23
most famous of the Russian expeditions is that of Von Wrangell and
Anjou, in 1820-23, which was made over the ice, but got no farther north
than latitude 70 51', where progress was stopped by open water.
Coming down to the present century," said the Doctor, partly reading
and partly in a conversational tone, we have the expedition of Ross and
Parry in 1818, and that of Captain Buchan and Lieutenant (afterwards
Sir John) Franklin in the same year. Ross and Parry went in search of
the north-west passage, while Buchan and Franklin were ordered to go to
the North-pole if possible. It is needless to say that both expeditions were
unsuccessful; the one did not find the desired road to India, and the other
failed to reach the pole.
- --. -
SIR JOHN ROSS.
"Captain Ross, who afterwards became Sir John Ross, made three
voyages to the arctic regions, the last being in 1850 in search of Sir John
Franklin. He must not be confounded with his nephew, Sir James Ross,
who sailed with him on his first voyage, and afterwards was an officer
under Captain Parry in his four voyages, between 1819 and 1827. In
1839 he went on a voyage of antarctic discovery, and was absent four
years in the southern hemisphere."
24 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
Was lie the discoverer of the antarctic continent ?" one of the youths
"I e was, and he was not," replied the Doctor. When he reached the
antarctic continent, and hoisted the English flag upon it, lie supposed he
was the first to see that hitherto unknown land. But it happened that a
few months earlier Commander Wilkes of the United States Navy had
discovered the antarctic continent at a different point, and traced its
coast for several hundred miles. The discovery of Captain Ross was
entirely independent of that of Commander Wilkes, and neither knew
what the other had done until a long time after."
"Is it fully determined," asked Fred, "that the South-pole is sur-
rounded by land ?"
"Exploration in that direction has been so limited that it would be
rash to assert that there is an antarctic continent of any great extent.
Commander Wilkes saw the land at only a few points, as lie was separated
from it by an immense field of ice; and it is quite possible that what lie
regarded as the coast-line was nothing more than a series of islands. At
the point reached by Captain Ross there were mountains ten or twelve
thousand feet high; one of them was an active volcano, which he named
Mount Erebus in honor of the ship he commanded.
There has been," added the Doctor, very little exploration of the
antarctic regions compared with the attempts to reach the North-pole;
but it is the general belief of geographers that the South-pole is sur-
rounded by land, and the quantity of ice there is much greater than at the
north. Thus far nothing resembling an open sea has been discovered
there, and every explorer has been stopped by immense fields of ice. On
the other hand, open water las been found as far north as most of the
explorers have ever been, and many geographers believe that the pole is
surrounded by an iceless sea, easy to navigate if we could only get to it."
"And what is really the case ?"
"That is what we want to find out," replied the Doctor with a smile, as
lie closed his journal and promised to give them another talk on the sub-
ject of arctic discovery at a later date. "Is it polynia or paleocrystic ?"
"Polynia means an iceless sea around the pole," continued Dr. Tonner,
" and the name was given by the Russians. Paleocrystic means a sea of
ancient ice, and is the term used by those who believe that the pole is
surrounded by an area of ice that never melts, but is piled up in enor-
mous masses quite impassable by man. The advocates of each theory
are able to give sound reasons for their belief; let us hope that we may
prove which is the correct one."
THE FIRST NIGHT AT SEA. 25
AT SEA.-STORIES FROM THE ARCTIC REGIONS.
A LL who were not required for duty on board the Vivian retired early
on the first night at sea. There had been little sleep on shore the
night before, as the officers were entertained at a dinner given in their
honor at the Palace Hotel by the gentlemen who had contributed to the
enterprise, and the dinner had lasted until long after midnight. Fred and
George consoled themselves for their late hours with the reflection that it
would be a long while before they could sit down to a similar feast, and it
was well to make the most of it.
In accordance with the nautical custom, Captain Jones had divided the
crew into watches; at eight o'clock the starboard watch was set, and the
men off duty went below. The night was clear, and the Vivian sped
along under full sail, heading into the wind as much as possible in the
effort to beat to the north. As tle sun went down the land was visible
on the eastern horizon, but by morning all trace of it had disappeared, and
the bark was in the open ocean, with nothing but sea and sky within the
line of vision.
Fred and George were on deck soon after six o'clock, and the freshness
of their faces showed that they had made up for previous loss of sleep.
Neither had been disturbed in the least by the motion of the vessel, and
as it was their first sea-voyage, each congratulated the other on the pros-
pect of their becoming good sailors.
"I suppose, though," said George, "that we have not been tried yet, as
we have had very little rolling and pitching since we left port. Every
day of this sort of weather increases the chance that we will not be sea-
sick at all, and if it keeps up a week or so without change, we shall then
be ready for a blow."
Don't feel too confident," said Captain Jones, who joined them from
below. "I've known men who were not disturbed in their digestion for
nearly a month, but became the most sea-sick of mortals when they caught
a strong gale from the north. This part of the Pacific is well enough, but
2G THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
when you get above the fiftieth parallel you'll often find it as bad as the
Then the captain amused them with stories of his experiences as a
whaler among tlhe icebergs until seven o'clock, when breakfast was an-
nounced. Descending to the cabin they met the commander and Major
Clapp, and soon after they were seated at table the Doctor made his ap-
pearance. He was not habitually an early riser, and often came late to
breakfast, always making the excuse that his appetite was light in the
morning, and a very little food would be sufficient for his purpose.
After the usual greetings had been made, the conversation naturally
turned upon the object of their voyage, and their hopes and fears for its
George asked how many arctic expeditions had been sent out.
"Nearly three hundred in all," replied the Doctor, if we include those
which have gone by land in America and Russia, instead of proceeding by
"And how many of these expeditions have been lost altogether?" Fred
"Less than you would suppose," the Doctor replied. "Only two expe-
ditions have been completely lost, and their destruction was due to igno-
rance of facts which have since been demonstrated. More than three
hundred years ago Sir Hugh Willoughby and all his companions died of
starvation on the coast of Lapland, within a short distance of a native set-
tlement where there were plenty of reindeer. The expedition was poorly
provided, and totally unfitted for the severity of an arctic winter. It was
fitted out by an association of merchants, who hoped to reach India by the
north-west passage; and out of the entire company of one hundred and
thirty-six there were eighteen merchants engaged in the venture.
"The other expedition, which has been entirely lost, was, as you are
well aware, that of Sir John Franklin, consisting of the ships Erebus and
Terror, the latter commanded by Captain Crozier. The expedition sailed
from England in May, 1845, and was last seen by a whaler in Baffin's
Bay, on the 26th of July of the same year. The ships were then moored
to an iceberg, waiting for an opportunity to enter Lancaster Sound. For
a long time the fate of the ships and their crews was a mystery, but it is
now clearly known.
"The disappearance of the Erebus and Terror, gave an impetus to
arctic exploration, as it led to more than twenty search expeditions, some
on Government account, and others by private subscriptions. In a single
year (1850) no less than twelve vessels went to the polar regions in search
M'CLINTOCK'S EXPEDITION. 27
of Sir John Franklin, in addition to several sledging parties and land ex-
peditions. No traces of the missing ships and their crews were found, but
the search was continued at various intervals until quite recently.
the crews hliad been forced to abandon the ships, which were crushed by
the ice. The natives reported that the party went southward over the ice,
with their boats mounted on sledges, and that many of the men fell and
died on the way."
One of the youths asked if the records found by Captain M-Clintock
RELICS OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN'S EXPEDITION.
"The mya history was tolhed by 'lintock's expedition ships were aban-ich
Thdiscoverey did records showing the reply. The recorded June 11, 187, and thatslip of
the crews had been forced to abandon the ships, which were crushed by
the ice. The natives reported that the party went southward over the ice,
papewith their enclosed in a ti on case. There were that many emoranda, one dated
May died 1847 on board the sy.ips, and te other April 2 1848 on the
One of the youths asked if the records found by Captain n'Clintock
gave a history of the expedition down to the time the ships were alban-
Tley did not," was the reply. "The records consisted of a slip of
paper enclosed in a tin case. There were two memoranda, one dated
May 28, 1847, on board the ships, and tle other April 25, 1848, on the
28 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
same slip of paper as the other, but in a different handwriting. The
latter said the ships were abandoned April 22, 1848, having been beset
in the ice since September 12, 1846. It mentioned the date of Sir John
Franklin's death, and said that, down to the writing of the record, out of
a total of one hundred and twenty-nine persons, twenty-four had died.
"A few days before the records were found, Captain M'Clintock dis-
covered a boat fitted to a sledge and containing two skeletons, some guns
and ammunition, Sir John Franklin's silver tea-set, some tea, chocolate,
tobacco, and other things. Many other relics of the expedition were found
in the neighborhood or bought from the natives, and from the accounts
given by the latter it was evident that the entire party had perished.
"Captain Hall, an American explorer, who made three voyages to the
Arctic Ocean and died in Greenland in 1871, discovered additional traces
and relics of Sir John Franklin's expedition, but made no material addi-
tion to its history. He was an enthusiast on the subject, and entertained
the belief that some of the Franklin party remained alive for ten or
twelve years after the loss of the ships. His first voyage covered a period
of two years, and on his second
visit he remained five years
.. among the Eskimos, learning
their language and becoming
familiar with their ways. He
adopted their dress and mode of
life, and at length became so ac-
customed to the food of the na-
tives that he preferred it to the
dishes of civilization.
"lie had a relish for raw seal-
CAPTAIN HALL AMONG THE ESKIMOS.e hd reh a al
meat, which he pronounced supe-
rior to the finest beefsteak ever cooked, and he was perfectly happy when
sitting down to dinner in an Eskimo hut -a performance that would
not result agreeably to the stomach of an ordinary man. In the account
of his travels lie describes one of these parties, where a whole family, in-
cluding half a dozen dogs, entertained him with a feast which began with
raw seal and frozen fish, and terminated with stewed seal, cooked in a pot
that had no other cleaning than what it received from the tongues of the
dogs. Probably his appetite was sharpened by hunger, which in all ages
has been pronounced the best sauce.
"But we are wandering from the searches for Sir John Franklin,
which we may as well finish before we go on to other topics.
-'-- ---------,,- -
DISCOVERY OF A BOAT OF THE FRANKLIN EXPEDITION.
___ __ __ __ ___ __ __ __ ___ 111 i..-- -- -- --- -.=-- - -
(~~_=--_______~__ ~; ______________________~Z*Z
DISCOYFRY OF A OAT OF THE FRANLIN EXPEDITION
30 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
"After it was definitely ascertained that all the members of the Frank-
lin expedition had perished, there was a great desire to find its records.
Information came from time to time concerning books which the retreat-
ing explorers carried with them after leaving the ships, and some of the
natives said these books Ihad been buried in a cairn of stones which the
white men erected. The most definite statement came in 1876. A party
of Eskimos were visiting the bark A. Ioumghton, which was wintering
near Marble Island ; one of the natives was looking at the captain's log-
book, and said that the great white man who visited them years before had
kept a similar book. Having said this he produced a spoon on which the
word 'Franklin' was engraved, and thus made it evident that the book
he had seen was that of the missing explorer.
These bits of information attracted the attention of Lieutenant
Schwatka of the United States Army, and led him to organize an expedi-
tion for the purpose of finding the missing records. He sailed from New
York in the summer of 1878. The history of his journey has been pub-
lished under the title of Schwatka's Search," and was written by Mr.
W. H. Gilder, who went with him as second in command.
SQuite likely we shall have occasion to speak again of Lieutenant
Schwatka and his expedition. To put it briefly, the lieutenant and Mr.
Gilder made the most remarkable sledge journey on record, having been
absent from their base of supplies an entire year, lacking only a few days.
In this time they travelled a distance of 3251 statute miles, or 2819
geographical miles, nearly all of it over an unexplored region, and in one
of the coldest seasons known in the arctic regions for many years. Once
the thermometer showed the temperature to be 710 below zero, Fahrenheit;
there were sixteen days averaging 1000 below the freezing point, and
twenty-seven days when it was more than 900 below it. During all this
time the expedition was travelling, and its historian says it never stopped
at all on account of the cold."
"Bu3t you haven't told us what Schwatka learned about the records
of the Franklin expedition," said the commander with a smile.
"I was just getting to that," answered the Doctor. "Hle found that
the books had been destroyed by the natives; not maliciously, but because
they were quite ignorant of the value of the property. They gave some
of the volumes to their children for playthings, and no doubt the
Eskimo urchins had a great deal of fun with them. The rest of the
books were left on the rocks until they were destroyed by the wind and
storms: they had originally been deposited in a tin case, which the natives
broke open in the expectation of finding something valuable. Of course
SCHWATKA'S SEARCH. 31
the books were of no use to them, and it seems a great pity that the offi-
cers had not informed them that the records would bring a great price
if carried to where white men could see them.
Schwa'tka brought back quite a collection of relics of the Franklin
expedition, and buried the bones of many of the men, which had been
lying exposed for years. The grave of one officer, Lieutenant Irving, was
found, and his remains were removed and sent to England. All the other
graves of officers had been opened by the natives and the contents scat-
tered about: that of Lieutenant Irving was opened like the rest, and a
portion of the bones had disappeared; those that remained were gathered
as carefully as possible, and were identified by a silver medal awarded to
John Irving at the Royal Naval College, England, in 1830. The. medal
was lying on a stone near by, where it was probably placed by the natives
when they robbed the grave, and was forgotten by accident."
__ __ _- ----- L- -- --
TRAVELLING BY SLEDGE.
The conversation which we have recorded was frequently interrupted
by the movements of the steward, who was busy with the work of serving
breakfast, and as the cabin was narrow he was obliged to display a good
deal of skill to avoid accidents. Once he upset the coffee-pot at the edge
of the table, but managed to catch it before the entire contents were
spilt. A few minutes later lie allowed a fried egg to slip inside the col-
lar of George's coat, just as that young gentleman was leaning forward
to help himself to a sea-biscuit; consequently, George left the table for
a short period, and missed a part of the Doctor's lecture. He consoled
himself with the double reflection that the Doctor's fund of informa-
32 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
^T'i;~"/ -_ 1
ICE-DRIFT OF THE TYSON PARTY.
tion was by no means exhausted, but the store of fresh eggs would soon
.After breakfast there was an inspection of the list of provisions that
had been brought along for the use of the party in the North. Previous
to the inspection the commander explained to the youths the plan of the
voyage, and his reasons for preferring San Francisco to New York as a
point of departure.
To make it clear to you," said he, "I must first tell about the polar
"Most of the navigators who have entered the Arctic Ocean by way of
Davis's Strait and Baffin's Bay have found themselves opposed by the
currents flowing down to the south. Frequently, when their ships are
enclosed in the ice, they have been carried slowly but steadily along over
enclosed in the ice, they have been carried slowly but steadily along over~
RECOVERY OF THE "RESOLUTE." 33
the very track by which they ascended to the North, and without any
power to resist the movement.
"There are many instances of this on record. Captain Tyson, on his
escape from the Polaris in October, 1872, drifted south nearly two thou-
sand miles on a large floe of ice, from which he was rescued by the
steamer Tigress. In 1827 Captain Parry made a sledge journey over
the ice, but found that he drifted to the south nearly as fast as his sledges
carried hiin northward. Captain M'Clintock, in the steam-yacht Fox, had
a similar experience: the Fox was locked in the ice in Baffin's Bay,
August 17, 1857, and was carried back on her course until April 25th
of the following year; when released she had drifted one thousand three
hundred and ninety-five miles southward.
THE CABIN OF THE 'RESOLUTE."
In 1854 Sir Edward Belcher, with a fleet of five ships, was caught in
the ice near Beecly Island; the ships were abandoned, and given up as
totally lost. Sixteen months later one of the officers of the whaling ship
George Henry saw a vessel in the ice near the west shore of Baffin's Bay,
in latitude 67g. Making his way to her with some difficulty, he found she
was the Resolute, one of Sir Edward Belcher's abandoned ships, perfectly
34 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
sound and sea-wortlh, thotug'lh locked fast in tlhe ice. The cabin was
mnouldy and musty in appearance, but everything was in order, showing
that she lhad not been visited by thie natives. Soie decanters of wine
were on the table, and the discoverers helped themselves to the beverage
which they had fairly earned by their long tramp over tile ice.
TThle prize was a valuable one, and the captain of the George Henry
decided to go home with her as soon as lie could get her free from the
ice. lie divided his crew between the two vessels, going on board the
Resolute in person and leaving the George IHenry in charge of his first
mnate. It was rather a curious circumstance that in a day or two after
lie ,had done so the Resolute was free and the George iHenry frozen in.
She got free, however, shortly after, and the two vessels made the best
of their way to New London. Tle Resolute was bought by the United
States Government, and, after being thoroughly refitted, was sent to Eng-
land as a present to the Queen. Tlie British Government accepted the
gift, but immediately dismantled the ship, and laid her up in tlhe Wool-
"From the time shee was abandoned until picked up by the George
IHenry, the Resolute had drifted a thousand miles, entirely by tile force of
the current. Other instances of the steady drift of the currents could be
given, but those I have cited are sufficient."
One of the boys asked how the currents were made, and whether they
were the same throughout the whole year.
"The currents are generally stronger in winter than in tlhe warm
months, but such is not always the case. They are formed by the Gulf
Stream, in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Kauro SiwaZ, or Japan current, in
the Pacific. The Gulf Stream, as you know, flows from the Gulf of Mex-
ico northward and eastward till it reaches the coast of Northern Europe,
passes the North Cape, and strikes tile western shore of Nova Zembla.
Portions of it flow northward towards tile pole, and naturally create a
counter current which sweeps down the coast of Greenland to the south.
It is this current which brings the icebergs that are one of the dangers
of navigation in the North Atlantic."
SI know them very well," said George. "When I came home from
Europe in tlhe steamer Arizona last year, we passed ten or twelve ice-
bergs in a single day. Captain Brooks, who coImmanded tle Arizona,
said they had come from Greenland, and were brought down by the cur-
rent; and he said they sometimes went as low as forty degrees north lati-
tude before they were melted by the warmth of the atmosphere."
"Tlhe other stream," continued Comnmander BIronson, is thle iT ro
THE GATEWAY TO THE POLE. 35
Siwa, and flows from the coast of Japan northward through 3Behring
Strait. It greatly resembles the Gulf Stream, only it is much smaller,
the narrowness of the strait preventing the passage of a great body of
water; still it is sufficiently extensive to sweep away the ice from that
part of the Arctic Ocean in ordinary summers, and give an entrance for
whalers and other ships. Many scientists have thought that this current
would furnish the best mode of reaching the pole, and some of them
believe that it flows directly over it. While many explorers have sought
to reach the pole by the Greenland route, and been carried back by the
currents, others have argued that the true way to get there is to take
advantage of the current through Behring Strait. Nine-tenths of the
sailing or steaming expeditions to the arctic regions have been by the
Greenland or the Spitzbergen route;
only a few have tried the other ap-
proach, and consequently its capa- ---
bilities have not been tested.
"It is my opinion that the gate- -
way to the pole is through Behring RN- '-_____-
Straait; for that reason I wished to GREELA.D.
sail from Sa Francisco rather than
from New York. Perhaps we may
be caught in, the ice and drifted
across the pole by the Japan cul-
rent; then e may bIe brought down
with the ice along the coast of Green-
land or by Spitzbergen, and so make -_ _
our way to New Yorak by the Atla n-
tic route. Who can say that we
slhall ot ?
Only a few years ago a whale-
ship that had entered the Arctic
Ocean through Beliring Strait "_
found open water farther than it
had ever been seen before. She AN ICEBERG FROM GREENLAND.
sailed more than a hundred miles
along this water in pursuit of whales, but found none. As she was not
on a scientific voyage, she turned to the south and lost a valuable oppor-
tunity. It is not impossible that there was an open way to the pole,
caused by a combination of the winds and currents; and if to the pole,
whyl mnuay it not have continued southward on the other side ? Of course
36 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
THE BARRIER OF ICE.
it is all conjecture, but where everything is guesswork, the guess of one
is as good as that of another."
Do you think there is water at the pole," said one of the youths, or
perhaps solid land ?"
That is one of the vexed questions," replied the commander, with a
smile, and it cannot be answered until somebody has actually been to
the pole and seen for himself. I have already told you of the discussions
relative to the sea at the pole (supposing there is a sea there), whether it
is polynia or paleocrystic, open or eternally closed. All that the expe-
ditions have accomplished towards reaching the pole is to get within about
five hundred miles of it; ten hours of an express train on a railway might
finish the journey, but, unhappily, the railway has not been extended to it,
and Pullman cars are unavailable. Certainly the pole is surrounded by
an icy barrier, which does not remain the same at all times. One expe-
dition finds open water where another, a few years earlier or later, discov-
ers only solid ice; and this experience has been repeated again and again.
The barrier of ice has been indented in a few places, but, practically, there
is an area of two and a half million square miles around the pole where
the foot of man has never trod."
"It seems to me," said one of the youths, "that the cold must increase
as we go towards the pole, and where there is so much ice at every point
four or five hundred miles from it, there must be a great deal more ice at
the pole itself."
"Evidently you adhere to the paleocrystic theory," was the reply, but
IS THERE AN ARCTIC CONTINENT? 37
on one question you are wrong. The point of greatest cold is not at the
pole itself, but away to the south; observation shows that there are two
points of greatest cold, one in Northern Siberia and the other on Parry
Island, on the American side of the globe. North of these points the tem-
perature decreases as we approach the pole, but our progress is impeded
by the ice barrier already mentioned, and which has been such a hin-
derance to every explorer in that direction.
The North-pole is not the magnetic pole any more than it is the pole
of greatest cold. Sir James Ross, in 1832, fixed the magnetic pole in
latitude 70 5' 17" N., longitude 96 46' 45" W. It is there the needle
of the mariner's compass points, and not to the spot over which the North-
star is supposed to hang perpetually."
"What are the arguments in favor of an arctic continent was the
"Here is the opinion of Lieutenant Lucien Young," was the reply;
and so saying, Commander Bronson drew from his pocket a slip cut from
a newspaper. He has given much time to the study of arctic explora-
tion, and his theory is the result of careful deliberation.
--* ,'- -----------
"' The wild-fowl of the higher arctic regions,' says Lieutenant Young,
'when winter comes on, do not go south, but north. There, somewhere
in the unknown, mysterious regions, they build their nests and hatch their
vyo un, returninig south inl the spriii.i. These birds do not build their
nests oni ice and snow, anm are fo)ld of vegetable substances. Again, the
Gulf Stream, as is well know, after leaving tlhe coast of America, divides
into three currents. (One of them breaks on the British Isles, and gives
them the temperature of New York; another goes along thie northern
coast of Europe and Siberia; and a third sweeps northward along the east-
ern coast of Greeniland until it meets a cold current of greater specific
gravity comingr from the iiorth, when it sinks and becomes an undercur-
rent, still running northward. Now it is only when the waters of tlee Gilf
Stream meet with a resistance that they give out their latent heat. For
instance, they pass by tile Grand Blank of Newfouanland, and do not Ima-
terially raise tlie temperature there, but when tile resistance of the British
Isles is encountered, the heat is given off.'
"'Now,' continues Lieutenant Young, may not the portion of the
Gulf Stream running north meet with the obstl'lction of land around the
pole, and, coming to the surface and giving off its heat, raise the tempera-
ture of the region very materially ? In support of this theory we find
Gulf Stream water in Smith's Strait running south. 1 believe there is
land at the pole, and immoortality for tlie man wlho shall place his foot
upon it.' "
Comnmander Bronson folded tlhe paper and carefully replaced it in his
I can understand the benefits of the currents flowing from the pole,"
said one of the youths. They bring away the ice and thus prevent a vast
accumulation. If it were not for the currents there would be a great
increase every year."
Quite true," replied tlie commander, but, in spite of the currents,
it is generally believed that the quantity of ice at tile pole is increasing
every year. Here comes the Doctor; let us ask him to explain his theory
of the graud cataclysm."
The query was made, and the Doctor readily assented to the proposal.
"My theoryv" said he, "is not by any means my own; it was pro-
pounded years ago by AI. Adhiemar, a celebrated French mnimahematician,
and is supported partly or altogether by Lyell, Darwin, Iebert, Ilon, and
"Briefly stated, it is that the centre of gravity of the earth is changed
at certain epochs by thle accumulation of ice at one of the poles, until its
balalCe is lost. Whe+n this happens, the earth turns over: that is, it clhang'es
its position in the heavens, so that what is now thle North-star hangs over
the present South-pole. There is a grand cataclysm, or rush of waters,
THE GRAND CATACLYSM. 39
making the inundations of which we see the traces all over tile globe,
and forming the deposits tlat compose the different strata of tile earth's
How often do these upsets occur ?" Fred inquired.
About once in every twenty-one thousand years," replied the Doctor.
The last is supposed to have been the Deluge, which is described in the
Geniesis of the Bible. You iieediit be alarmed for our present safety, lie
added, "as the iiext cataclysm is not expected for at least tenl thousand
'"But I don't understand how it all comes about," said George.
" What is it sets the cataclysm going ?
"According to thle geologists," the Doctor explained, there is a differ-
ence in the amount of heat and cold inl the two hemispheres. In the first
part of one of tlese great cycles of twenty-one thousand years there will
be more heat in one hemisphere than in the other, while at the last half
of the cycle the conditions are reversed. Humboldt estimated that at
tile present time there are eight days .more of winter in the South-pole
than at tlhe Northm, and consequently eight days less of summer. It fol-
lows, therefore, that there is an accumulation of ice and snow at the
South-pole which increases slightly, but surely, every year. Thousands
of years hence the weight of ice, s0now, and water there will le so, great
tlhat the centre of gravity will be changed, and then will come one of
tlose terrible inundations already mentioned. According to this theory
we are now a little past the middle of the cycle. Ten thousand years
ago the Nortlh-pole was a warmn region, and the nmanmmoth and kindred
animals roamed through its forests. Since that time the temperature has
fallen in the Southern Iiemisphere; all the explorers in tile direction of
the South-pole say there is a greater quantity of ice there than in the
North, and tlhe hinderances to travel are every-where insurmountable."
"Then, if we wait a few thousand years," said one of the youths," we
can have a better chance than now of getting to the North-pole, since
thle cataclysm will sweep everytlingi away, and there will be no ice to
"'Quite likely," responded the Doctor; but we won't make this a
reasoml for giving' up our present expedition."
40 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
PROVISIONS FOR AN ARCTIC VOYAGE.-WHALES AND WHALERS.
WV TE have observed that the inspection of the list of provisions was
interrupted by the talk concerning the exploration of the arctic
regions and the searches for Sir John Franklin; then came the disserta-
tion of the Doctor on the grand cataclysm which should change the rela-
tion of the poles and derange things generally, coupled with the re-assuring
assertion that it was not likely to come off immediately. Quiet having
been restored, as the reporters say, the list of provisions was produced.
"We are provisioned for two years," said the commander, and of
course we have the usual stores of a ship for a long voyage. They in-
clude salted meats, both dry and wet-the former carefully wrapped in
canvas, and the latter in strong casks. Then we have a liberal stock of
flour, meal, dried fruit, preserved vegetables of different kinds, canned
meats and fruits, and tea, coffee, and chocolate. Iard bread or sea-biscuit
has not been forgotten, as it is generally the first item in a ship's list of
The Doctor remarked that the hardships of long sea-voyages had been
diminished by the abundance of canned goods, which were almost un-
known in the time of Sir John Franklin, and even at a much later date.
"As to that," said Commander Bronson, we are less fortunate than
you might suppose, as there are many qualities of canned provisions which
will not bear transportation to the arctic regions. All articles that con-
tain water are undesirable, as they are injured by freezing, and, besides, it
is not well to carry water where every ounce of weight is of serious con-
sequence. Our canned provisions have been specially prepared for us,
and contain the least possible amount of moisture.
We have horseradish and lime-juice, in large quantities, to prevent
the disease called scurvy; it has frequently impaired the efficiency of
arctic expeditions, and ini some instances has been the direct cause of
failure. I have had our lime-juice prepared in a new form, partly to
facilitate transportation, and partly to make it easier of distribution when
PROVISIONS FOR ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS. 41
wanted. Instead of being in liquid shape it is in the form of lozenges,
and in sticks like candy. When we are on the march over the ice we can
more easily distribute it than if it were frozen solid in bottles.
Our pemmnican was made by a man who thoroughly understands its
preparation, and we have a liberal supply of it."
One of the youths asked what peimmican was, and the commander
proceeded to enlighten him.
Pemmican," said lie, "is an important article of supply at the posts
of the hIndson's Bay Company and all through the northern regions.
There are two forms, raw and cooked; for the former, lean meat is cut
into thin strips and dried, and for the latter the meat is boiled before
cutting and drying. In either case the meat is reduced to powder, and
this is mixed witl melted fat. A little seasoning is added, and in some
parts of the North the powder of certain leaves is introduced. When
thoroughly mixed, the substance is poured into a bag of green hide, the
end of the bag tightly sewed, and as tile hide shrinks in drying it com-
presses the contents into a mass nearly as hard as a brick. The pemmican
is preserved from injury by its hide envelope, and is so solid that it must
be cut out with a hatchet or a stout knife.
As an article of food it is admirably adapted to expeditions over the
ice, or in regions of intense cold; the great quantity of fat contained in it
supplies the carbon required by the system for resisting the effects of a
low temperature, and it is so well protected by its covering that it may lie
for hours in the rain, or be immersed in salt-water, without injury.
I have tried an experiment," tl e commander continued, "or, rather,
I have repeated an experiment that was made by a recent English expe-
dition, and found to work successfully."
What is that ?"
I have mixed lime-juice with the pemmican in such a proportion
that it will not be necessary to keep the anti-scorbutic medicine always at
hand. At least, I think the result will be that our men will keep in good
health without the necessity of frequent rations of lime-juice.
So much for the food provisions," lie added, and with care they will
be all we need, in addition, of course, to tle game we hope to kill from
time to time.
"For killing oiur game we are well provided with arms and ammu-
nition. We have several rifles of the latest pattern, and we have revolvers
sufficient to set up a small s10op, in case we want to make a trading vent-
ure. We have a few rifles that can be loaded with loose powder and
ball, but thle most of our weaolns use fixed amllunmlition; tlhe sliells can be
42 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
\ \ '< ~\''K
OVER THE ICE.
reloaded if we happen to run short, or are in danger of doing so, and there
is an abundance of material for reloading.
"There are only two sizes of fixed ammunition-one for the rifles and
one for the revolvers. Perhaps I might express it better by saying that
our weapons have only two calibres-the rifles one and the revolvers an-
"We have an abundance of warm clothing, both for under and outer
wear; it will serve us in ordinary times very satisfactorily, but on long
journeys over the ice, or in the dead of winter, we sliall adopt the native
dress, of which we will learn more by-and-by. You remember the old
adage,' when with the Romans, do as the Romans do;' apply it to our case,
and when with the Hyperboreans, dress as the Hyperboreans dress. They
wear thick furs and skins, and so must we if we would escape freezing in
the arctic winter.
For fuel we have coal-as much as we can stow away in the ship's
bunkers; and we may be able to replenish our stock at one of the inter-
national depots recently established in the arctic regions."
I had not heard of them," said the Doctor; "when were they estab-
INTERNATIONAL SUPPLY-STATIONS. 43
I made a suggestion three or four years ago," was the reply. "It was
favorably received by our government, and the Secretary of the Navy
proceeded to act upon it. My suggestion was that every whaler, or other
ship, proceeding to the Arctic Ocean under sail alone, and having spare
room in her hold, should carry a quantity of coal, to be left at certain des-
ignated points, for the use of any explorer who might need it. An ex-
ploring ship of any nation might use this coal under certain restrictions,
reporting through her own admiralty the number of tons taken, so tlat
compensation could be made to the government that sent it out. It is
NATIVE AND EUROPEAN DRESS CONTRASTED.
not necessary to trouble yon with all the details of my scheme; it was
accepted, and communicated to the governments of England, France, Ger-
many, Denmark, Sweden, and other nations interested in polar explora-
tions, and there ought to be by this time several coal depots in the Arctic
Ocean, where an explorer should be reasonably sure of finding enough to
supply his wants."
44 THE VOYAGE OF TIE "VIVIAN."
"But won't the natives steal the coal, as they do everything else ?" one
of the youths inquired.
Undoubtedly, if it could be of any use to them," was the reply, but
thus far they have not found out how to utilize it. They look with won-
der on the white man's ability to burn black stones,' but have not learned
how to perform the feat themselves. As long as they have no stoves, and
are not taught how to create a draft through the coal, they will respect the
heaps which we shall make on tlhe barren rocks at East Cape, Littleton
Island, Point Barrow, and the other places selected for our depots. Then,
too, these depots will be convenient post-offices for the interchange of news
and information. I suggested that at each depot a mark should be made
on some prominent rock, indicating the spot where letters were concealed
a short distance away. The distances should be in yards, and the direction
magnetic by compass; or it might be shown by an arrow, cut or painted on
the rock. Thus N.E. 22 would mean that a box had been buried twen-
ty-two yards away, in a north-easterly direction; -- 27" would show
that the direction of the arrow must be followed twenty-seven yards to
find the place of concealment. The position of the deposits would be ac-
cording to the character of the ground, the drift of the snows, and the
liability to discovery by the natives.
"It is of very little use," he continued, "to deposit papers under cairns
of stones, as the natives invariably dig into the cairns and break open
the cases containing the papers. This was the fate of the records of the
Franklin expedition, as we have already seen. Now, if the records had
been buried in a dry spot, and all trace of the digging of the ground ob-
literated, future explorers might have been directed to the place by marks
on the rocks some distance away."
"But some of the natives-two or three that have been to the United
States and England-have learned to read," said Fred," and one of these
natives could discover the place of deposit."
"Quite likely," said the Doctor, but he would be intelligent enough
to know that the records would bring a handsome reward to whoever
found them, and there could be no danger from such a cause. Suppose
there had been a native of King William Land able to read when the
Franklin records were lying about in the hands of the children, or ex-
posed to the winds on the rocks. Every scrap of paper would have been
carefully collected and carried to one of the stations on IHudson's Bay;
instead of waiting more than ten years for definite information, we should
have known the fate of the expedition in a couple of years at farthest, and
the history of its work would have been preserved."
COAL AND WHALES. 45
"But to return to the subject of coal," said the Doctor; "there is
plenty of coal in the far North, I believe, but it has never been utilized,
partly owing to the difficulties of mining it, and partly because it is of
very poor quality."
Unless I am misinformed," responded Commander B3ronson," tlhe
most of the coal found in the islands and along the coast of the far North
-with the exception of a large seam of anthracite at Lady Franklin 3Bay
--contains so much sulphur that it is dangerous to burn it in the furnaces
of steamships, on account of its eating away the iron of the flues."
"Yes," answered the Doctor; one summer when I was in Alaska we
made a trip to the Aleutian Islands. On one of the islands there is a file
bed of coal, so close to the water that it is an easy matter to get it out.
We stopped there a couple of days, and filled our bunkers, and then
steamed off in high spirits. But we soon found that the sulphur in the
coal was destroying our flues, and the uniconsumed stuff was pitched over-
board. We made the discovery just in time: our engineer said that if
we had gone on with it another day there would have been danger of
setting fire to the ship. When we returned to Sitka it was necessary to
replace nearly all the files with new ones, but we were consoled by learn-
ilg that others had made the same mistake."
"There she blows!" said Captain Jones, pointing rather excitedly at
the spout of a whale a few hundred yards to windward.
The conversation relative to the Arctic Ocean came to a sudden stop,
and tlhe entire party rushed to the rail to see the monster of the deep."
"Eighty barrels of oil in him," said the captain. Wouldn't he give
us a fine stock for winter evenings at the North-pole ?"
Then we wouldn't have so much occasion for tle coal depots we
have just heard about," exclaimed George.
"Let's capture him," said Fred, and cut up his blubber for tile en-
gine-room. Wouldn't the propeller send us along, with such stuff as that
Evidently the whale was not at all frighltened, and perhaps hle mistook
thle ship for one of his own family. lie slowly came up, until he was not
fifty yards away, and then made a complete circuit of the Vivian. Fred
wanted to shoot at him, "just for fun," and started below for a rifle; Cap-
tain Jones called hiii back, and said tlie shiootiiin could not be allowed,
and with that the vouth resumed his place at thie rail.
It would have done no good to shoot at himi," said the captain, and
might have done harm. Perhaps he would have dived after getting your
shot, and come up a long distance away, aid perhaps hle might have come
46 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIV1AN."
up directly beneath the ship, and given ns a shock that would have
strained us severely, or possibly sent us to tle bottom. SuchI things have
happened, and there are several instances of whales having attacked ships,
breaking in their sides and converting them into helpless wrecks. The
whale-ship Essex was destroyed by a whale in this way, and so was the
Union; other ships have been attacked, and there is no good in taking
a shot 'just for fun,' as you say."
.. ,ij- I
AN INCIDENT OF THE WHALE-FISHERY.
Fred assented readily to the captain's suggestion, and concluded that
a shot at anything for mere sport, whether on land or sea, was not to be
recommended. He inwardly resolved that the lesson should not be lost
on him, and to strengthen his resolution he imparted it to George, who
promptly agreed with him.
Soon another whale, and in a little while another, were reported in
sight, somewhat to the discomfort of Captain Jones, whlo regretted passing
such magnificent game without trying to capture it.
"Why didn't we rig the ship for a whaling cruise as well as for an
arctic exploration ?" said one of the youths; "then we could have had
the sport of killing whales, and made a nice profit from the oil."
Very good in theory," remarked the Doctor, but the practice would
not have been so good. Whaling would delay our explorations, and per-
WHALE-FISHING IN THE ICE. 47
haps ruin them altogether; you can't put science and commerce quite so
close together without making one or both of them suffer. A better way
would be to make one cruise entirely as a whaler, and another in the
interests of science; then you wouldn't run the risk of getting things
"A voyage after whales would be an excellent preparation for a
scientific one," remarked the captain, as lie overheard the conversation
between the Doctor and the youths. You make an intimate acquaint-
ance with the ice-fields, bergs, floes, and packs, and what a man doesn't
know about ice after a few whaling voyages is hardly worth finding out.
The best whale-fishing is now close in upon the ice, and very often
you go for your game where the bergs and packs are thick. The first
whale I ever struck in the Arctic Ocean was along-side of a great berg,
like a mountain, and when we hit him he tried to get under the ice to
"We sighted him from the berg, where some of the sailors lad been
sent to try to find fresh water, the ship meantime standing on and off
under full sail. Of course when they saw the whale they dropped all
idea of water and went for the prize; he cost us more than three hours
hard fighting, and at one time it looked as though he would get off in
spite of us. He doubled around the
point of tle berg witl the harpoon
in him, and if lie llad cut the line __ __
against the ice we should have lost _- --
him. In one way the ice helped us, _-- -- "_
as he finally went into a little nook l '
or (cove), in the bero, where lie got -
bewildered, and gave us a chance _
to finish him up. ,
"I once saw a whale caught in '
an iceberg," the captain continued; "- '
" or, rather, he was pretty well up
towards the top of it." i
How did that happen ?" said LOOKOT ON N ICEE
one of the listeners.
I'll tell you," responded the mariner. "I was in tlhe Robert Gibb,,
of New Bedford, off the southern end of Greenland, and we hadn't seen a
whale for several days. But we kept a sharp lookout all the time, partly
for whales and partly to steer clear of the ice. One day we were sailing
along within a mile or so of a big berg that was drifting south with the
4S THE VOYAGE OF THE VVIVIAN."
current, and seemed to have everything its own way. I was up in the
crow's-nest, and had niv eves on the berg, when suddenly about a third of it
broke off from one side with a report like thunder, and went crashing and
splashing into the water.
The part that broke off changed the balance of the rest, so that the
berg turned about half-way over. One side went under water, while the
other came out, and the side that came out brought a whale along with it,
and lifted him nearly a hundred feet into the air. le was in a hollow in
the berg, not large enough for him to swim in, but high enough in the
sides to keep him from getting over.
He splashed about and made things lively, and the more he thrashed
the less water there was for him to live in. 1 shouted, 'there she blows!'
and pointed to the iceberg, and away went a boat to capture him.
"Tlhe boat made fast to the berg, and tlhe boat-steerer went on the ice
with a lance, though he lad a hard time getting up the slippery side. But
lie got to the whale after a while and finished him with the lance, and
then we wondered what to do with him.
"It wasn't exactly safe to go to chopping the ice enough to make a
channel for the whale to slip through to the water, as our blows would be
likely to split the berg again, and let us into the ocean anmono the falling
ice. Then it would be a long job to cut off the blubber where he was,
and carry it away in the boats, after sliding tile pieces into the water, and
nobody could tell what minute the berg might turn over again.
It wasn't a large whlale-about fifty barrels or so-but it was too good
to be lost. The captain looked the business all over, and then hit on a
plan which we at once carried out.
We rove ropes around a dozen empty casks, and fastened the ends of
'em together, so that the lot looked like a bunch of toy balloons which the
peddlers sell on Broadway. Then we towed the casks along-side the berg,
close to where the whale was, and carried up the rope that held the bunch.
"We made it fast to his flukes to prevent its working loose, and then
we went back to the ship.
The boats were all hauled in, and then we made sail and brought the
ship within about five hundred yards of tile perpendicular side of the
berg. We fired several times at tile berg with a small cannon, in tile hope
that the concussion might shatter it and make it turn over again; but
though we brought off some large pieces it didn't turn as we wanted.
Then we went back with one of the boats, taking along some powder
in a tin canister, a long piece of safety-fuse, and the tools we needed for
making a deep hole in the ice. We drilled a big hole just back of the
SCORESBY'S VOYAGES. 49
whale; then we put down the canister of powder, with the fuse attached,
and filled the hole up with the fine ice we had chiselled out of it. When
all was ready, everybody but one man went back to the boat, and then he
lit the fuse and followed too. You can be sure he made the best of time
down tle slope, and the boat's crew never did better pulling than when
they were getting away from that berg.
"We got to the ship's side before the powder blew up. It split off a
great piece of the berg and let the whale down into the water, where he
was kept from sinkilng by the casks tied to his tail. When tle commotion
was over we went and picked him up, and in a little while had his carcass
along-side, and were cutting lhim in. I reckon that was about the only
whale ever killed on the top of an iceberg.
';Talking about mixing up the whaling business with arctic explora-
tion," continued Captain Jones, you'll find we are indebted to the whalers
for a great deal that has been learned about the polar regions. For in-
stance, there was Captain Scoresby, who flourished in the early part of this
century; he combined the capture of whales with the pursuit of science,
and when he was not busy with the chase of a whale, he was making ob-
servations on the ice-packs and currents.
"Scoresby made more than thirty voyages to the arctic regions; lie
believed in the open polar sea, and in 1806, when whales were scarce, lie
endeavored to prove the correctness of his theory. IIe sailed into the ice-
barrier, and reached latitude 81 30' N. before he was compelled to return.
IIendrik Hudson had previously reached the same latitude inl the Spitz-
bergen seas, but the record of Scoresbv was the best made by a whaler
down to that time. Altogether he was full of adventure, as lie passed the
80th parallel in fifteen of his voyages, surpassing everybody else before or
since his time.
SIIe was full of courage in his fights with the whales, and had manv
narrow escapes. Once his ship was in a bay that had been freshly frozen
over; the ice was so thin that it would not bear the weight of a man, and
too thick to be broken by rowing a boat through it. Whales were in the
bay, and there were holes where they came up to breathe, and Scoresby
wanted to get at them.
Ile went to work and made what he called ice-shoes;' they were of
thin plank, six feet long by a foot wide, and in the centre of each plank
he made a place where his foot could be held by straps. With these shoes
lie slid along the ice to the holes where the whales came up to breathe.
and there lie harpooned them at his convenience.
But after lie Iiad struck the harpoon into a whale the rough part of
50 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
the business came. The creature dived, and by-and-by came up to breathe,
and when he rose lie wasn't particular whether he came to a hole or made
a new one with his back. Scoresby followed on his ice-shoes to where lie
thought the whale would come up, and if he made a good guess, he gen-
erally succeeded in finishing him off.
"Once he calculated a little too closely, for the whale came up right
under where he stood, and sent the old captain into the air, ice-shoes and
all. But there happened to be some strong ice close by, so he skipped out
of his ice-shoes and made for the solid ice, where he could stand in safety."
There were two Scoresbys," said the Doctor, and I presume it is of
the elder you are speaking."
Yes," answered Captain Jones; I forgot to say there were two of
\ ~ ~ -- ---/ \ :i'-"- --
"Once he calculated a little too closely, for the whale came up righllt
tinder where he stood, and sent the old captain into the air, ice-shoes and
all. Biut there happened to be some strong ice close by, so lie skipped out
of his ice-shoes and made for the solid ice, where he could stand in safety."
"There were two Seoresbys," said the Doctor, and I presume it is of
the elder you. are speaking."
"Yes," answered Captain Jones; "I forgot to say there were two of
ORIGIN OF BRITISH EXPEDITIONS. 51
them, father and son. Both were named William: the father did not be-
gin his seafaring life till 1790, when he was thirty years old, and he died
in 1829. The son ran away to sea in one of the father's ships when he
was only ten years old, and six years later lie had risen to the rank of first
mate. The elder Scoresby made many improvements in whaling, and it
was he that invented and used the ice-shoes I told about. He commanded
the ship Resolution, when she made the northward voyage in 1806 to lat-
itude 81 30', and at that time his son was second officer under him. The
son was the first to make scientific observations on the electricity of the
polar regions, and he made so many contributions to the geography of the
far North that his work has been long regarded as a high authority."
"He had a good deal of correspondence with Sir Joseph Banks," the
Doctor remarked, "and it was this correspondence, and the various reports
of Captain Scoresby, that led to the equipment of several important expe-
ditions by the British Government."
We doff our caps to the Scoresbys," said Commander Bronson, "and
they are worthy of all tie honor their successors can give them."
The attention of the party was called to an object on the water almost
ahead of the ship, and, as they neared it, the eyes of the youths were
strained to their utmost to make out
the strange sight. Flocks of birds
were circling about, or settling on the
waves, and there was a commotion
in the water that resembled a small
"There she doesn't blow !" said
the captain, as soon as he turned his
gaze in that direction.
Then he explained that what they /
saw was nothing but the stripped car- ":
cass of a whale. Some whaler has ':
had hold of him," said the captain,
"and his blubber is now being con- .-':' '
verted into oil, somewhere beyond
the horizon. A NIMROD OF THE SEA.
"The birds are having a rare feast
on what the huntsmen of the sea have left, and tlat is why you see so
many of them. The sharks are in for their share as well, and they are
kicking up a lively commotion in tlhe water. They are dangerous cus-
tomers for the birds; anything is game for them that they can get hold
52 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
of, and if you were near enough yon would see a bird go under every
few minutes, and become food for a shark.
"CThe sharks make it risky sometimes for the men who are cutting in
a whale. A man has to go down on the whale's back to start the strip
of blubber, and if he misses his footing while there, and slips ilto the
water, he runs a great chance of being swallowed by a shark. The back
of a whale isn't the best footing in the world; you must have spikes in
your boots, or woollen stockings over them, and even then, when a ship
is rolling and the whale is bobbing about, there is great danger of slipping.
After the strip is started the man climbs into 'the chains,' where lie has
a better footing, and can chop away with the spade as fast as the blubber
As the Vivian passed the drifting carcass some of the birds flew away,
but their places were promptly filled by others, and there was no decrease
in the number. The captain said that sometimes the carcass of a whale
floated after being stripped and cast adrift, while at others it sank instant-
ly. Why it should float at one time and sink at another was a mystery
nobody had been able to explain. And lie further said that, sometimes
when a whale is on the surface of the water, le will sink as rapidly as a
stone, without any apparent motion of fins or tail.
The conversation continued for some time, and touched a variety of
topics, until dinner was announced. The next day and the next there
were more stories about the whale-fishery, and for a week or more Captain
Jones contributed freely to the amusement of the youths.
One day lie was describing an adventure with a sperm-whale in the
South Pacific; just as he was in the middle of his story, it was suddenly
interrupted by the announcement of a sail ahead, which threw everybody
into a state of excitement.
A CARCASS ADRIFT.
54 THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
MEETING A STRANGER.-SOMETHING ABOUT KAMCIATKA.
G EORGE and Fred looked for the sail that had been sighted, but it
was some time before they could make it out. Even when they did
see it there was little more than a speck on the horizon, but it was clearly
distinguishable to the experienced eyes of the commander and the cap-
tain. The latter declared it was a bark, even before lie brought his glass
to bear upon it; after a long look at the stranger, he said it was probably
the Behring, on her way from Petropavlovsk to San Francisco. The
youths had a suspicion that the latter announcement was entirely guess-
work, and based upon the captain's knowledge that the Bearing was on
her way southward, and was due about that time. Whether they were
right or wrong in their supposition, they had no way, for the present at
least, of finding out.
On the course they were sailing they were not likely to come very
near the stranger, as she was a long distance to leeward. Captain Jones
ordered the Vivian to change her bearing, and thus the two vessels grad-
ually approached each other. An hour or so before sunset they were
within signalling distance, and the guess of Captain Jones turned out to
be correct. For the last two hours pens had been busy on' board the
Vivian, and letters were ready for despatch to San Francisco. George
and Fred wrote brief accounts of their voyage, for the benefit of friends
at home, and Commander Bronson embraced the opportunity to say what
he thought best to the owners of the Vivian. The most that any of the
party could say was that everybody was well, the voyage had been delight-
ful thus far, the ship was all that could be desired, and the stores, so far
as they had been examined, were in excellent condition.
The signal, "we desire to communicatee" was hoisted by the Vivian,
and the JBeJiing responded by announcing that she would heave to.
Then the Vivian signalled, we will send a boat." As soon as the two
vessels were hove to away went the boat from the Vivian's side, in charge
of the second officer. The captain suggested that one of the youths
A VISIT ON THE OCEAN. 55
might go in the boat: there was a passage of politeness between Fred and
George, each urging that the other should have the honor and novelty of
the expedition, and as they could not decide upon it, the question was sub-
mitted to the commander. The latter promptly declared that the elder
of the twain should go, and without another word Fred descended the
rope-ladder and took his seat in the boat.
She danced rapidly over the waves, and in a quarter of an hour Fred
was on the deck of the Bekring, exchanging salutations with her captain.
IIe was nearly knocked over by a large dog, that showed a desire to be
familiar without the formality of an introduction, and the brute continued
his attentions until dragged away by one of the sailors. The captain ex-
plained that the dog was from Kamchatka, and had never been used to
polite society; he was on his way to San Francisco, where it was hoped his
manners would be improved. Fred observed that the animal was identical
with what he had seen in the pictures of the Esquimaux dog, and the
captain confirmed his opinion by declaring that the Esquimaux and
Kamchatka dogs are precisely the same.
Fred delivered the package of letters for San Francisco, and gave the
captain several newspapers of recent date. Then the second officer handed
over a small parcel addressed to the bark BeKring ;" it contained
letters that had been sent from San Francisco, on the chance that the
Vivian might meet her, or be able to leave the missives where they could
be delivered. On the way back to the Vivian the officer explained to
Fred that it is the custom to send letters in this way by every ship leav-
ing port for a direction in which another is supposed to be.
"My father," said lie, was the captain of a whaler in the old times,
when they sailed from New Bedford and came home again, three or four
years later, with the ship filled with oil and bone. My mother used to
write by every ship that sailed for the Pacific Ocean; not more than one
letter in twenty ever reached my father, but of course that one was wel-
come enough to be a consolation for the loss of the rest."
The Bekring had sailed from Petropavlovsk, in Kamchatka, and was
on her way to San Francisco, and her captain had nothing of consequence
to report. lHe invited our friends below, and of course they accepted the
invitation, but did not stay long, as it was getting late and there was no
occasion for further delay. Just as they were leaving the cabin he re-
marked that the officials at Petropavlovsk were preparing to receive a
French ship, which was shortly expected' on its way to the Arctic Ocean.
Letters had been received from the French G(overnment for the officers
of the ship, and with it came a message tlat the Gallic explorers had been
""" ""L~~'~"" ""'"'" """" ""~n
563 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
instructed to stop at Petropavlovsk for their final instructions. lie could
not give the name of the ship, nor tell anything further than that such a
craft was expected.
The Behriing filled away on her course for San Francisco, and Iher
crew joined in a farewell cheer to the Vivian, as the boat of the latter
started on its return. Just as the sun went below the horizon the boat
was hoisted in, and the Vivian turned her sails to the breeze that bore her
to the northward. Fred was overjoyed at his part in the incident of visit-
ing a ship at sea, and George was not far behind in excitement. Only
those who have made long sea voyages can appreciate the feelings of the
youths. A meeting at sea is a great relief to the monotony of sailing
over the wide expanse of waters, and every incident, however trivial, be-
comes an event of the greatest importance.
When Fred made his report to Commander Bronson, he caused some
perplexity to tlat gentleman. The story was a confirmation of what
lie had heard while the Vivian's preparations were going on--that a
French expedition was on its way to the Arctic Ocean by way of Behring
Strait. He desired to co-operate in a friendly way with any expedition to
the polar seas, without regard to its nationality, and when the report
reached him lie wrote at once to the American minister in Paris for any
information he could obtain concerning it. The latter could learn nothing
definite on the subject, as the French are very reluctant to let their neigh-
bors know what they are doing in tle line of explorations, and so the colm-
mander had pretty nearly dismissed it from his thoughts.
The information derived from the captain of the Be/ring had thrown
new light upon the subject, and lie at once thought it would be of advan-
tage to meet the French ship at Petropavlovsk, with a view to co-operation.
How much would it take us out of the direct course to Behring
Strait," lie inquired of Captain Jones, "if we should touch at Petro-
About a thousand miles," was the reply. I can tell you almost to a
mile by measuring on our charts."
"Never mind for the present," responded the commander; "'perhaps
I will ask you more on the subject to-morrow."
"As we are now steering," the captain explained, we shall go through
the Oonimak Passage of the Aleutian Islands, and enter Behring Sea.
If we steer for Petropavlovsk, we shall leave the whole Aleutian chain
to the northward, and go several degrees farther west than we expect to
Commander Bronson made no reply; the captain discreetly ventured
5S THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
a remark about the weather, and walked to the binnacle to see how the
ship was headed.
The commander went to his cabin, but the youths remained on deck and
began to discuss the probabilities of their visiting Petropavlovsk. George
remarked that Petropavlovsk was the principal settlement of the penin-
sula of Kamchatka, and he was sure it would be a very interesting place.
Dr. Tonner joined them, and to the question as to whether he had ever
been in Kamchatka, he gave, to their delight, an affirmative answer.
I was there several years ago," said he, and probably the country
has not changed in any appreciable degree since my visit. There is noth-
ing to change, or but very little, as the population is small, and does not
devote itself to building railways or otherwise making improvements."
"Please tell us something about Kamchatka, and what you saw there,"
said George. If we go there the information will be useful, and if we
do not visit Petropavlovsk, or any other port, we shall have learned some-
thing at any rate."
"Well," replied the Doctor, settling himself into a deck-chair, and
evidently making preparations for a long dissertation, Kamchatka is at
the north-western extremity of Asia, as you can see by a glance at the map.
"It is not by any means as cold as you might suppose, from its position
so far to the north. In fact, it is too warm to allow the inhabitants to
The youths looked at each other with surprise, but were too well-bred
to indicate a disbelief in the Doctor's assertion.
That statement requires explanation," continued Dr. Tonner, and it
is simple enough when you understand it. Kamnchatka is a country of
volcanoes and earthquakes; three volcanoes, two of them extinct, and the
third only acting sluggishly, are in sight from Petropavlovsk, and there
are others in more distant parts of the peninsula. Tihe underground fires
make the earth warmer than it should be for agricultural purposes, and
when I landed in Kamchatka, and asked why they did not make their
own flour, they told me the summers were too short for the cultivation of
spring wheat; and as for winter wheat it was invariably killed, because the
warmth of the earth caused it to sprout before the snow melted.
"They have had no severe earthquakes for a long time, but there are
several mild shocks every year. When I was there I was invited to dine
with the governor; we were about half through with our dinner when
there came a shock of an earthquake that threw down the chimney of the
house, and shook the building so violently that it nearly overturned the
table where we sat. I don't like dining under such circumstances, and we
- ----- --. ----__ :- '-- ,,-. -- [ _
'. -., :[_
VOLCANOES OF KO)IIIATSKI, AVATCHA, AND KOSELDSKAI.
60 THE VOYAGE OF TIE VIVIAN."
didn't finish the meal. Tlie governor apologized, and I tried to laugh
over the occurrence, but the fact is, I was too scared to do so. The cap-
tain of our ship was of the party, and as he lived in San Francisco when
not at sea he was able to take things coolly, and declared that he always
had an earthquake for the third or fourth course at dinner.
"Petropavlovsk is one of the prettiest places, so far as the situation is
concerned, that you ever saw. It is on a great bay, nearly circular and
twenty miles across, with an entrance two miles wide from the ocean.
The bay is surrounded by mountains, and as you enter it the most majestic
of them all is directly in front. The mountain gives its name to the bay, or
the bay to the mountain, I don't know which. At all events, the expanse
of water is called Avatcha Bay, and the mountain is Avatcha Mountain.
It is a magnificent landmark, and can be seen through a clear atmosphere
nearly a hundred miles at sea.
"I shall never forget the scene as we entered tlhe bay on a bright morn-
ing in July. The tops of the mountains were white with snow; half-way
down their sides the color changed to a barren brown, while tle base of
every hill was covered with a thick growth of forest which half suggested
the tropics. The dark green of the forest was in several places relieved by
a strip of white beach, which separated it from the waters of the bay, so
that altogether the picture had a great deal of variety. Around the bay
there are some little harbors-eight in all-completely landlocked, and
furnishing admirable shelter to ships tliat seek them. On one of these
harbors Petropavlovsk is situated ; the anchorage is enclosed like a pond,
and the only winds that a ship has any occasion to fear are the sharp blasts
that come down from the mountains.
We sailed into the great bay with the breeze tlat was blowing in
from the ocean, but as we approached the little harbor it was necessary to
niove with caution. Our sails were furled one by one, and for the last
mile or more we sent a line on shore and were warped to our anchorage.
All the population came out to meet us, and our line was grasped by dozens
of willing hands. Ordinarily, not more than half a dozen ships enter Pc-
tropavlovsk in a year, so that an arrival is an event of importance.
"From the time of Captain Cook and his fellow-explorers Petropavlovsk
has been famous for its hospitality, and all travellers who have been there
are warm in its praise. Our party was kept in constant activity during our
stay, and the number of dinners and parties that were made in our honor
is frightful to contemplate. It was in thle middle of summer, with tile
thermometer generally above 70, and by tlhe end of the first week I was
pretty well used ulp."
A TOWN TENANTED BY DOGS. 61
Fred asked if Petropavlovsk was a large town, and what it lived upon.
It is not a large town, from our point of view," responded Dr. Tonner,
"but it is the largest in Kamchatka, and is the capital of the peninsula.
Before the Crimean War it had nearly two thousand inhabitants, the most
of them being laborers and sailors connected with the government service.
It was attacked twice by the combined English and French fleets; in the
first attack the fleet was repulsed, but in the following year seventeen ships
were too much for it and the town was abandoned, and thereby hangs an
"The Russian authorities knew of the immense preparations for the
second assault, and sent orders for the inhabitants to retire when the fleet
arrived, and allow it to land without opposition. The fleet came into
Avatcha Bay, and the town was deserted; but the people left behind them
their dogs, which they use in winter for dragging their sledges. There
was one man, an American, in the town, and more than five hundred dogs.
---2---: ... ....- :- = -
FORT ST. MICHAEL'S, OR MICHAELOVSKI.
The brutes kept up a perpetual howling, and the commanders of the fleet
concluded that there must be a very large garrison in Petropavlovsk to
keep so many watch-dogs; and so the seventeen English and French ships
waited a whole day before venturing to send a boat on shore to a deserted
town When they did so, tley had the consciousness of being beautifully
"Tlhe principal business of Kamchatka, in fact the only business
62 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
amounting to anything, is the fur trade, and the chief contributor of
furs is the sable. The animal is caught in a variety of ways, and the
annual catch is about six thousand. The yessak, or poll-tax, of the natives
is payable in sable-skins-one skin to every four persons-and once a year
the governor makes the tour of the
country and collects the tax. The
tr ade is on the barter principle, as
there is very little money in the coun-
e try; the people bring their furs to
the stores of the merchants and ex-
Sa change them for whatever commodi-
ties they want."
George asked if they did not get
a good many bear-skins, and the skins
of foxes and others, in addition to the
Yes," replied the Doctor, "the
KAMCHATKA SABLES. do, but the sable is the animal of
greatest consequence. They get about
a thousand common fox-skins, and a few silver foxes and sea-otters, and
once in a while they get a curiosity in the shape of a black fox.
"The government claims every black fox as the property of the em-
peror, and when the governor learns that one has been taken lie requires it
to be surrendered, as a present to his imperial master."
"And does the emperor get it ?" one of the youths inquired.
"He is more fortunate than I think he is if he does," said the Doctor,
in answer to the question. "Siberian governors are human, and it is not
impossible that the skin which should be sent to the emperor is privately
sold to an American, or other foreign merchant, and sent out of the coun-
try. The emperor is not likely to hear anything about it-and even if he
does, the governor can declare that it is a long time since a real black fox
The silver fox and the black fox are both liable to be demanded for
the emperor," he continued, and the result is that the governor doesn't
usually hear about them. When a native catches a silver fox, or by great
good-luck a black one, he conceals the fact, and also the skin. Then he
goes to one of the foreign merchants, and pledges him to secrecy before
admitting what he has to sell.
"As the merchant has a chance to buy the skin for about half its
value, he is easily induced to be silent, especially as he might be compelled
HOW A COW CAUGHT A BEAR. 63
to give up the prize if the story should reach the ears of the governor.
Thus it happens that the silver and gray foxes do not adorn the neck of
the emperor as often as they might, if the subjects of the Imperial Gov-
ernment were better treated. They would be willing to sell it to the gov-
ernment at a fair price, but to give it up for little or nothing is not in
accordance with the feelings of human nature."
But about the bears ?" queried'George again.
"They have great numbers of bears in Kamchatka," replied the
Doctor, but their skins are not used for exportation. The beasts grow
very large, and they are not agreeable companions when one meets them
in the woods. The bears are brown or black; I have seen their skins
more than six feet long, and been assured that the animals they originally
belonged to were not considered at all extraordinary. Bear-hunting is
one of the amusements of the country, but there is a good deal of danger
to it. I went out on a bear-hunt one day with some friends, a few miles
from Petropavlovsk, and was not at all sorry that we returned without
seeing any game. I remembered the story of the California hunter who
followed the track of a grizzly bear for nearly two days, and then gave it
up because it was getting a little too fresh. As long as the bear is far off
I enjoy a hunt, wlich I can't say always when he is close at hand.
"They told me a story of a cow coming home, a year or two before
my visit, with a bear on her back. She had made his acquaintance a
short distance back of the town, and probably concluded that, as a dutiful
cow, she should take him to her master. She was not much hurt by the
performance, but it was observed afterwards that she preferred to do her
grazing in the vicinity of her own stable. Formerly she had been ad-
dicted to wandering in the woods, but her habits were completely changed
by her adventure."
The Doctor rambled on with his experiences of Kamchatka till it
was time to go to bed. The youths had a good many questions to ask,
and were by no means slow to ask them, and before the party broke up
they had accumulated knowledge enough for the production of a news-
paper article on this odd corner of the world. They learned that the
country had an aboriginal population of about six thousand, and less than
a thousand Russian inhabitants-the latter being pretty evenly divided
between Cossacks and the descendants of exiles. The Doctor explained
that there were no exiles in the country, as none had been sent there since
1830, and all these had been pardoned long ago. Hardly any of the
original exiles are living at present, but their children are often men-
tioned as exiles, to distilguishl then from the Cossack or native population.
64 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
"What is a Cossack ?" Fred inquired, "and in what does he differ from
the soldier and the peasant ?"
"I will try to explain," the Doctor answered," and perhaps the best way
for beginning is to compare the Cossack to a militiaman in the United
States. He is sort of half soldier, half peasant; he lives with his family,
and is engaged in agricultural or other occupations, but is required to give
a certain number of days every year to the service of the government.
In some parts of Russia the Cossack is required to serve on horseback,
providing his own horse and equipment, but this is not the case in
Kamchatka. In war lie becomes a soldier, and does excellent service in
annoying the enemy; in ordinary times he does any kind of work the
government may require. He may be called on to row a boat, drive a
team, build roads, cut forests, tend the governor's garden, or possibly take
his children out to walk.
"To show the authority of the government over the Cossacks I will
give you an illustration: In 1856 it was determined to colonize the valley
of the Amoor River in Siberia. There was a Cossack population in
Eastern Siberia, and the governor-general gave orders that a hundred
villages should be transferred to the Amoor.
RUSSIAN COSSACKS. 65
"Tlhe order was carried out without delay. In each case the old vil-
lage was abandoned for the new one, a thousand miles away; the people,
with their household goods, cattle, and other portable possessions, were
floated on rafts down the Amoor to the points that had been selected for
their homes. In the new village each family found itself with the same
neighbors as of old, and everything went on as before. The government
supplied them with food, and paid a part of the expense of building new
houses, but of course, the move was a severe loss to the people, as they
abandoned the fields they had cultivated, and were forced to make new ones
in the country to which they were carried. The ordinary peasant popula-
tion of Russia cannot be moved about in this way, but the government can
do pretty much as it pleases with the Cossacks."
-:- : -- \--^-
' ,_- --=--
A VILLAGE ON THE AMOOR RIVER.
"Haven't I read somewhere," said one of the youths, "that a Cossack
is a robber ?"
SQuite likely you have," was the reply," and in many cases you are
not so far out of the way. In some parts of Russia the Cossacks indulge
in robbery to an extent greater than accords with our notions of honesty,
and this is particularly the case along the frontier of Central Asia. The
66 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
word 'kazak' in Turkish means robber, but its Tartar interpretation is
the equivalent of soldier. Most of the inhabitants of Eastern Siberia
are Cossacks; the whole country was originally explored and settled by
Cossacks escaping from punishment which had been decreed for some
improper conduct on the banks of the river Don. Their leader, Yermak,
received an imperial pardon for himself and his men, in consideration of
the addition they had made to the empire, and for this reason the Cos-
sacks of Siberia are naturally proud of their ancestry.
"The Cossack, in many parts of Russia though not in all, has a dress
peculiar to himself. He wears a tall hat of sheepskin with the wool out-
side; sometimes its color is jet black, but more frequently it is of a dingy
white, caused by the contact of the wool with a good deal of dirt. He has
wide trousers and a flowing coat; he carries his cartridges in a row across
his breast, and his arms consist of a lance, a carbine, and, generally, a pair
of huge pistols stuck in his waist; if he is a mounted soldier, he has a
small but very tough horse. When an army is on the retreat, in Russia,
the Cossacks are a terror, as they pick off all the stragglers and make sud-
den attacks in unexpected places. If you have read the story of Napo-
leon's retreat from Moscow, you will remember what devastation was
caused by the Cossacks during the march."
With this desultory lecture on Kamchatka and its people the evening
came to an end.
A CHANGE OF PLAN. 67
A VISIT TO KAMCHATKA.
T IERE was a long conference the next morning between Commander
Bronson and Captain Jones relative to the movements of the Vivian.
It was held in the cabin immediately after breakfast, and required fre-
quent consultation of the chart of the North Pacific Ocean. The chart was
spread on the table, and several real or imaginary courses of the ship were
pencilled upon it.
"We shall have more sailing to do," said the captain, "if we go to
Kamchatka instead of steering directly for Behring Strait; but if the
wind continues to blow from the north, we shall make better headway by
going farther to the west than if we keep directly towards the strait. At
present it is almost a head-wind, and by steering more westerly we shall
have it on the beam.
"We shall be pretty certain to lose time at the Aleutian Islands on ac-
count of the fogs. I have been a week getting through the Oonimak Pas-
sage; the fog was so thick I could not get an observation, and it is dan-
gerous to beat around in that region without knowing exactly where you
are. I have known ships to be kept there a fortnight, waiting for a good
chance to pass the Aleutian Islands. Once, when I was second mate of
the Rover, we sailed through the passage and were shut in by the fog im-
mediately after. The foo lasted three days, without any wind, and when
it lifted we found we had been carried back by the current, and had to
make the passage over again."
The captain paused while Commander Bronson made a calculation on
a slip of paper. As soon as it was concluded, he went on with the pros
and cons of the direct and indirect voyages to Behring Strait.
Tile result of thie calculation was, that there would be a loss of about
ten days altogether in case the Vivian went to Petropavlovsk instead of
proceeding directly to the strait. Even with this loss there would be
ample time to get into the Arctic Ocean in season to take advantage of
the summer; consequently, Conunander Bronson decided in favor of the
68 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
The course of the ship was immediately changed, and it was announced
to all on board that Petropavlovsk would be their first port.
There were light winds and fogs, fogs and light winds, with now and
then a corner of a gale, for the rest of the way across the Pacific. Not a
sail was seen, and there was little to break the monotony; occasionally
the Vivian passed through schools of whales; there was hardly a day
when she was not surrounded by sea-birds; and several times the youths
found their attention drawn to seals swimming close to the track of the
ship. The captain said it was not unusual to find these amphibious creat-
ures three or four hundred miles from land. They appear every summer
on the Fur Seal Islands, in or near the Aleutian chain, and after raising
ARRIVAL AT PETROPAVLOVSK. 69
their families close to the habitations of mien they go away, nobody knows
One day the captain made his observation at noon, and after figuring
out his position, announced that they ought to see Avatcha Mountain
about four in the afternoon. At that hour everybody was on the lookout;
and not five minutes after eight bells had been struck, the captain pointed
out something on the horizon closely resembling a cloud.
"That is Avatcha Mountain," said he," and it is about eighty miles
It was two or three minutes before George and Fred could determine
thle position of the mountain, which lay almost dead ahead on their course.
Even when they made it out, they were not altogether certain till they
compared it with the picture on the chart, and satisfied themselves it was
not a conical cloud.
The ship sailed slowly along during the night, and by morning was
within twenty miles of the coast. At nine o'clock fires were kindled un-
der the boilers, and by noon they were steaming inside the entrance to the
bay, and heading for the anchorage in front of the little town. Captain
Jones said that the sailing directions for reaching the harbor were practi-
cally the same as made by the officers of Captain Cook's famous expe-
dition more than a century ago. Avatcha Bay and the harbor of Petro-
pavlovsk were surveyed by Lieutenant Bligh, who accompanied Captain
Cook, and afterwards became known to the world for his connection with
the romantic story of the mutiny of the Bounty. From all accounts,"
said the captain, Bligh was an admirable navigator and a detestable
brute. IIe has left a record of splendid seamanship and the most heart-
less tyranny. The mutiny of the Boutnty was the natural result of his
brutal treatment of her officers and crew, and his escape from the perils of
a voyage of four thousand miles in an open boat illustrates his skill as a
The red roof of the little church at Petropavlovsk was a prominent
object in the picture before our friends as the Vivian steamed to her an-
chorage. George brought his glass to bear on the church, and discovered
that the building, though crowned with a dome, had no belfry; by looking
closely he made out that the bells were hung under a little roof at one end
of the church, and quite apart from it. Commander Bronson explained
that it was not at all uncommon in Russia for the churches to have their
bell-towers entirely apart from the structure. Fred asked the reason for
it, but the conundrumm was not answered.
The Russian flao' floated from the staff in front of the governor's house,
70 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
CHURCH AT PETROPAVLOVSK.
and a cannon at the little wharf near by boomed out its welcome. Several
boats put off from shore, the first bringing the Captain of the Port, an
official without whose authority it was impossible to go on shore or do any-
thing else. He was a portly individual, wearing the uniform of his rank,
and decorated along his breast with a row of stars and crosses. Captain
Jones whispered to the youths that there is no country in the world where
the officers have so many decorations as in Russia, and they need not be
surprised to meet a young lieutenant, hardly out of his majority, wearing
at least half a dozen decorations which had been given for services in time
of peace. What a war might give him, provided he lived through it, was
hardly to be computed.
As soon as the Captain of the Port had completed his inspection and
retired there was liberty for others to come on board, or for the officers of
the Vivian to go on shore. Two or three resident merchants, and the
captain of an American ship lying at anchor in the harbor, were soon on
her deck to make the acquaintance of the strangers, and invite them to the
hospitalities of the place; last came an officer from a French bark which
lay just beyond the sand-spit marking the entrance of the harbor, and
which Commander Bronson had rightly conjectured to be the craft which
ON SHORE IN KAMCHATKA. 71
he wished to see. Excusing himself from the others, he turned his atten-
tion to the latest visitor, and learned that the Gallic explorer was the bark
Garbetta, and had arrived only three days before. It was her comman-
der's intention to remain two or three days longer: he had been informed
of the voyage of the Vivian, and hoped she would visit Petropavlovsk be-
fore his departure.
Captain Jones and Major Clapp, with the assistance of the Doctor
and our young friends, did the honors to the other visitors, and in a little
while the commander went on shore to pay his respects to the governor;
he was accompanied by the major and the Doctor. Fred and George em-
braced the opportunity to have a stroll around the town, and on the hills
near the harbor, and we can be sure it was a great pleasure for them to set
foot on solid earth after nearly a month on board ship. George declared
that his steps were unsteady for the first half mile or so, and Fred could
not resist an inclination to adjust himself to meet an expected rolling or
pitching every time he raised a foot.
DOG-SLEDGING IN KAMCHATKA.
But they soon forgot all about their month at sea with the novelty
of the sights around them. They realized what they had been told of the
dogs of the place, as they encountered some of those animals at every turn,
and were rarely out of sound of their howls. They did not have a high
opinion of the courage of the dogs, as the most of them ran away as soon
72 THE VOYAGE OF TIE V VIVIAN."
as they caught sight of the strangers; occasionally one would stop a mo-
nient to gaze, but he generally concluded to put a good distance between
himself and possible harm. Near the edge of the town a dozen or more
dogs were tied to a long pole supported on posts. Fred said the place was
either a stable or a dog boarding-house, and he was inclined to the latter
opinion from tnhe smell of fish that rose from it.
One of the resident merchants who had visited them at the ship joined
them in their promenade, and explained some of the things they could not
understand. Fred asked about the dogs, and the gentleman said his theory
was correct. The dogs," said he, are generally tied up in summer, or
kept in pens; if allowed to run at large they get lost or injured, as they
are fond of fighting and cani get into a quarrel without half trying. We
tie them up as you saw them, and each dog gets one fish daily as his ration.
In New York it would be extravagant to feed dogs on salmon, but here it
is the cheapest article of food. The only cost of salmon is the trouble of
catching it. When we buy these fish we pay two or three cents apiece,
and if I agreed to take all that would be caught, and pay one cent each,
I should have half the population at work for me. Ordinarily, in winter,
there are about two thousand dogs in and around Petropavlovsk, as every-
body has his dog-team, and many of us keep several teams for carrying
freight. In summer most of the dogs are sent to the country, so that there
are only four or five hundred of them around here at present.
"Tllis place is just like New York," he continued. Tle fashionable
part of the population passes the summer in the country or by the sea-side.
Board is cheaper there than here, as the streams in the interior abound in
samnon; sometimes they are so thick that they fill up the stream altogether
and drive out the water, and a friend of mine says he has walked on them
as on a pile of shingles or a heap of potatoes!
Perhaps you may think that statement is too strong, and I won't dis-
pute you; but they really are so abundant that the bears and dogs catch
their own fish out of the brooks, and the bears soon get so dainty that they
will only eat the backs of those they catch. The fish keep on going up the
stream till their tails are worn off against the rocks, and I have repeatedly
seen them taken from the water with nothing but the bone protruding
where the tail ought to be!
"And perhaps you may be sceptical about the dogs catching their own
fish ? Look there!"
As he spoke he pointed to where a couple of dogs were standing in the
water at tile edge of the bay, and evidently waiting for something to turn
up. They were so far out that little more than their backs were visible,
THE USES OF SALMON. 73
and they held their noses just on a level with the surface of the water.
They were standing perfectly motionless, like sporting-dogs on a "point,"
and the gentleman said they were foraging for their breakfast and waiting
Suddenly one of the dogs darted his head under water with the
rapidity of a flash, and there was a lively commotion for a minute or
more. It ended in favor of the dog, who came up triumphant with a
salmon of his own catching in his jaws, and brought him safely to shore.
DOGS CATCHING FISH.
"Even the cows and horses eat salmon," said their guide, "but they
never imitate the example of the dogs, and catch their own food. It is
proper to explain that they prefer grass, and generally stick to it when
it can be obtained. We give them dried salmon in winter, and if we
run short of hay they soon get accustomed to this odd food. There is one
cow here that will leave grass in summer and make a meal off fresh sal-
mon; but she is an exception, and not a rule.
"We feed the dogs on fish the whole year round; they eat it in every
shape--fresh, dry, putrid, boiled, smoked, or any other form you can
imagine. One fish a day is a dog's ration; when he is travelling he only
gets half that amount, and the day before he starts on a journey he gets
nothing at all."
"It seems cruel to treat them so," one of the youths remarked, "but of
course you know from experience what is best for them."
74: THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
Yes," was the reply. When I first came here I thought it was very
hard on the dogs to be only half fed while at work, and determined to
treat mine differently; but I soon found I did not get so much out of
them. They did not travel as fast and far as teams that were kept in the
old way, were sooner broken down, and were in worse condition when the
summer came around again, so I concluded to do for the future as the
"Perhaps you've heard enough about dogs ?" he continued, "and if so,
we'll talk about something else."
George assured him that they had not begun to get enough of the sub-
ject, as they were likely to make an intimate acquaintance with dogs in
their arctic expedition, and the sooner they knew about them the better.
"Well, then," said their informant, let me give you a piece of advice
at the outset. When you get among tlhe dogs, and are going to use them
for travel, the first thing to do is to make their intimate acquaintance.
You must feed them yourself, and give them all the care they require:
have them understand that you are their master in every sense of the word.
When they do wrong, don't fail to punish them at once; and when they do
well, you must be just as prompt to reward them. You won't be able to
get up much affection for them, and they will obey you more from fear
than from love. They have treacherous dispositions, and are not usually
capable of warm attachments. You know what a reputation the spitz dog
bears in New York and elsewhere; well, the spitz is first cousin to the
Kamchadale dog, and his name comes from Spitzbergen, whence his an-
cestors were imported. He has improved by domestication, but is yet the
most undesirable of family dogs.
"You must drive your own dogs as well as feed them, and when you
begin to practice dog-driving you will find it is no sport. The dogs will
take the first and every opportunity to run away. We harness them with
thongs of deer-skin, and they go in pairs with a leader, so that a team
always consists of an odd number. A great deal depends on the leader;
he is selected for his intelligence and docility, and a good leader is worth
four or five times as much as an ordinary team-dog. He turns to the right
or left at the order of his driver, and frequently when the team is tired
out, and drags slowly along, the leader will rouse them by barking, and
pretending that he is on the track of a wild animal. This will stir them
up, and the brutes forget their weariness in the excitement of the chase.
"There are two kinds of sledges that we use, one for travel and the
other for freight. The travelling sledge weighs about twenty-five pounds,
and is just large enough to carry one person with a little baggage. The
TRAVELLING WITH DOG-SLEDGES. 75
driver sits with his feet hanging over the side, and clings to a bow that
rises in front. In one hand he holds an iron-pointed staff called an ostoll,
which he uses as a brake to retard the sledge while descending hills, or to
bring it to a halt. If you drop the ostoll the dogs know it as quickly as
you do, and take the opportunity to run away or upset the sledge, and
even the leader is apt to join in the sport.
"The freight sledge is much heavier than the other, and sometimes
as many as twenty-one dogs are harnessed to it. The team for a freight
sledge is not trained to high speed like the travelling team, and it is never
well to allow your travelling dogs to be used for freighting purposes, as it
is very hard to get them to run rapidly when they have once practised a
slower gait. An ordinary team for travelling is five dogs-two pairs and
a leader-but very often we use only three dogs in a team."
GETTING READY FOR THE ROAD.
Fred asked how fast the dogs could travel, and what distances they
usually made in a day.
"That depends on the length of the journey and the condition of the
snow," was the reply. For a week or ten days we are satisfied with
forty or fifty miles a day, if the snow is good, and for two or three days'
travel under the same conditions we make fifty or sixty miles daily. I
have gone a hundred miles in little more than a day with a single team,
and once a team travelled from Bolcheretsk to Petropavlovsk-a hundred
and twenty-five miles-in twenty-three hours. It made three or four halts
of not more than fifteen minutes each time. The snow was excellent, and
the dogs were in the very best condition, while the driver was a small man
76 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
and had no baggage of any kind. lie was a messenger bringing news of
the declaration of the Crimean War.
"We don't use the dogs for sledging in summer, as I told you before,
but occasionally some of the natives harness them up for towing boats
along the shore of the bay just to keep them in practice."
BOAT TOWED BY DOGS.
He pointed, as he spoke, to a boat which was coming along the shore,
and the youths saw that it was propelled in the manner described. Four
persons were in the boat, one of whom steered it, while another attended
to the tow-line; two others were seated nearly amidships, and evidently
had nothing to do with the management of the craft. The team was walk-
ing along the bank, under the guidance of a man armed with a stick, and
whenever they showed a disposition to lag he impelled them forward with
his voice and occasional blows.
George said it was certainly a novel mode of travelling, and a re-
minder of the old days of going west by canal.
In North-eastern Siberia," said their guide, they use dogs for ascend-
ing the rivers in summer in the way you see. From Ghijiga light-house
to the village of that name they follow the river a part of the way, and
DOGS AND REINDEER. 77
the journey is not at all disagreeable. Occasionally the path shifts from
one bank of the stream to the other, and then the dogs and driver are
taken in the boat to be ferried over. At such times the dogs amuse them-
selves by shaking the mud and water from their shaggy coats, and it is
well for a passenger to wear his worst clothes on such journeys.
The best dogs in Siberia are in the neighborhood of Ghijiga and
around Penjinsk Gulf, which is an arm of the Okhotsk Sea. Most of the
Russians buy their dogs from the natives, and there are several villages
where the raising of these animals is the main business. Like everything
else of value that we use, the price is regulated by the laws of supply and
demand ; sometimes dogs are very cheap, and at others very dear."
Fred asked if the dogs of Kamchatka were subject to the same diseases
as the canines of civilized life.
SQuite as much," said their informant; and perhaps we may say that
they are more so. They suffer greatly from hydrophobia, and every few
years thousands of them are carried off by epidemics. The cause of these
epidemics is unknown, and it has happened that all the dogs in a village
will die off in the course of a fortnight without any apparent reason. Some
of the native tribes make sacrifices to their deities, and invariably take their
best dogs for the purpose. We have tried to convince them that the old
and useless, or even the dead dogs, would do just as well, but they refuse
to believe us. They show their faith in the power of the evil spirits by
offering up the best of their possessions."
George asked if there were any reindeer around Petropavlovsk, and
said if there were he would like to see them.
"We don't have reindeer in these parts," was the reply. "You will
see plenty of tfhemn on the shores of the Arctic Ocean when you have
passed Behring Strait. They are the principal possession of the Chuck-
chees, the tribe that occupies that part of the country; and when you ask
how much a mani is worth, they state the amount in reindeer, just as you
state it in dollars in New York."
Then the conversation shifted to a variety of topics. The youths
learned that the place was named Petropavlovsk in honor of saints Peter
and Paul, but they could not ascertain how it happened to have two names
when one would have been quite enough. As before stated, it had nearly
two thousand inhabitants previous to the Crimean War, but since that time
the government has transferred its arsenal and naval depot to Nicolayeff
and Vladivostok, farther to the south, and the port of St. Peter and St.
Paul is shorn of its importance. It now has about three hundred inhabi-
tants, including a garrison of fiftv soldiers and half a dozen officials.
78 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
In the grounds of the residence of the Captain of the Port there is a
monument in honor of Vitus Behring, whose name is preserved in the
strait between America and Asia. On a tongue of land is another monu-
ment, but without an inscrip-
tion; it is known as the monu'-
Sment to La Perouse, and the
....... ... -story goes that a French sllip-
of-war was once at Petropavl-
sovsk, and her captain was in-
vited to dine with the governor.
During dinner the Frenchman
A said he supposed there was a
fa o monument there to La Perouse,
Sas that navigator visited the
Space on the voyage which re-
Ssnlted in the destruction of his
nit ships and their entire company.
e T a" Certainly there is," an-
e s a o swered the Russian, "and I will
MONUMENT TO BEARING, PETROPAVLOVSK. show it to you to-morrow."
lie had the monument made
and set up during the night. The next morning he invited the French
captain to go with him to see it. Of course the latter was delighted, and
it is to be hoped he did not observe the newness of the construction. The
memorial to Behring was paid for by the officers of a Russian ship, and
was made in St. Petersburg; the other is of sheet-iron, nailed over a
frame of wood, and was evidently constructed in a few hours. Fred re-
marked that it was riddled with bullet-holes, and learned that it was
a favorite target for the practice of anybody who chose to take a shot
For the next two or three days the strangers had an excellent oppor-
tunity to learn the extent of Russian hospitality, which has been already
mentioned. There was an endless succession of breakfasts, dinners, lunch-
eons, and suppers; and on the latter occasions it was not unusual for the
party to sit down at the table considerably past midnight. Not only did
they have all the meals above enumerated, but whenever they entered
a Russian house, no matter how humble, and remained more than five
minutes, they were greeted with a steaming tea-urn and cups or glasses
of tea. Here is the diary made by George of the repasts of a single
A POLYGLOT PICNIC. 79
Breakfast on board ship.
Two cups of tea with Mr. Pfluger.
One cup of tea with Mr. Pierce.
Do. do. with Captain Hunter.
Do. do. at a Russian house (owner's name unpronounceable.)
Do. do. do. do. do. do. do.
Luncheon with the Captain of the Port.
Cup of tea at each of three houses where we called.
Dinner at the governor's house.
Tea at intervals of fifteen minutes during the evening.
Supper of broiled partridges at 11.30.
P. S.-Headache next morning."
One day there was a picnic arranged by the ladies and gentlemen of
Petropavlovsk for the entertainment of the visitors. The latter included,
in addition to our friends, the officers of the Gambetta and the officers of
an American merchant-ship then in port. The entertainment was held in
a little grove about a mile from town---a short distance from the spot
where the Russians repulsed the mnen that landed from the allied fleet
during the Crimean War. The picnickers sat on the grass under the trees,
after the custoin of picnics all over the world, and our'friends voted that
they had a jolly time.
George said it might be called a polyglot picnic, on account of the
nationalities represented. The entertainers were Russians and Americans,
while the guests were Americans and French, with the addition of an
Italian, a Swede, and a Dane. Conversation was somewhat restricted, as
none of the American or French visitors were fluent in Russian, and sev-
eral of the entertainers could speak nothing else. But what they lacked
in lingual facility was made up in good-will, and there was many a hearty
laugh over the difficulties of being understood. George and Fred made a
mental note of tle strange dishes at the feast, though they had already
seen most of them at the dinner-tables of their hosts. There were sev-
eral piirogs, or pies, quite unknown to the American table, and some of
them were voted excellent. One was made of salmon and eggs, with a
crust above and below; another was composed of thie marrow of the back-
bone of the sturgeon ; while a third was filled with partridges, cut in
halves and alternated with slices of bacon. Of course they liad tea in
abundance, and it was accompanied by numerous odds and ends of cakes
and patties, so that there was no danger of any one going away hungry.
In fact, when they returned to thee ship for dinner all our friends confessed
their inability to do justice to the repast wliichl their cook had prepared.
A return entertainment was given on board the Viviajn, and another
80 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
on the Gambetta, the latter vessel sailing a few hours after the last of her
guests had left. The next day the Vivian followed her example, and
continued her voyage to the northward. They passed the rocks known
as The Three Brothers," in front of the light-house at the entrance of
Avatcha Bay, and were once more on the broad waters of the Pacific.
The fires were extinguished, and as the ship spread her sails to the favor-
ing wind Fred made a hasty sketch of the rocks, as a souvenir of his visit
to a remote but exceedingly friendly port.
-THE THREE BROTHERS.
TH T-RE ROHES.
'' THE THREE BROTHERS."
BEHRING'S VOYAGES. 81
BEHRING'S ISLAND AND BEARING'S VOYAGES.-AMONG THE CHUCKCHEES.
SAILING north from Avatcha Bay the Vivian passed Behring's Island,
in the Sea of Kamchatka. The name of the island naturally caused
the youths to ask several questions concerning it, and they were promptly
answered by Dr. Tonner.
In that island," said the Doctor, as he pointed to one of its rocky
headlands, "the brave old navigator after whom it was named died and
was buried, but the location of his grave is unknown. He deserves much
renown for his arctic explorations, and is worthy of additional fame, as
he is one of the discoverers of America."
Fred and George were not a little surprised at this announcement, as
they had never heard the name of Behring associated with that of Colum-
bus or Americus Vespucius. The Doctor went on with his story, which
was about as follows:
"Peter the Great formed a project ,/
for making discoveries in the ocean be-
yond Kamchatka, and several explorers
were sent to the eastern part of Asia .
with that object in view. Very little .
was accomplished in the lifetime of ,...,.7.;.4_3.
that monarch, but his plans were car- THE ERMINE.
tried out by his successors.
Behring sailed from A.vatcha Bay in June, 1741, and steered to the
eastward. 'On the 16th of July,' says Steller, the historian and naturalist
who accompanied Behring,' we saw a mountain whose height was so great
that it was visible at the distance of sixteen Dutch miles. The coast of
the continent was much broken, and indented with bays and harbors.'
This discovery was made on the day of St. Elias, and accordingly the
mountain was named in honor of that saint. If you wish to become famil-
iar with its location you can look for Mount St. Elias on the map of North
82 THE VOYAGE OF THE 4VVIVIAN."
Behring sailed a short distance along the coast, and visited several
islands. Then he steered for Kamchatka; but it was his destiny never to
get there. In the latter part of the voyage he was confined to his cabin
by illness, and the crew suffered severely from scurvy. Steller says that
at one time only ten persons were fit for duty, and they were so weak that
------------ --=-- -
A SIBERIAN FOX-TRAP.
they could not furl the sails. The ship was thus left almost at the mercy
of the winds, and in this condition it was drifted on a rocky island-the
one now before us. It was dashed to pieces on the rocks, but not until all
the crew had reached the land in safety.
"There were no human inhabitants on the island, but there were a
great many foxes, and they seemed to have no fear of the shipwrecked
mariners. Steller says, We killed many of them with our hatchets and
knives. They annoyed us greatly, and we were unable to keep them from
entering our shelters and stealing our clothing and food.'
"Many of the crew died soon after they got on shore, but on the whole
the life on land seems to have diminished the ravages of scurvy among
those who were not already far gone with the disease. Behring died on
the 8th of December, and was buried in the trench where he lay. The
survivors of the party built a small vessel from the pieces of the wreck,
and managed to reach Avatcha Bay with it. On their arrival they learned
that they had been given up for dead, and the property they had left in
Kamchatka had been appropriated by strangers.
"The report of the large number of fur-bearing animals on Behring's
ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN FUR COMPANY. 83
Island and elsewhere stimulated several adventurers to fit out expeditious
in the hope of making a handsome profit. The ships were built in Kam-
chatka, or in the ports of the Okhotsk Sea; they were of the rudest con-
struction, the timbers being fastened with wooden pins, owing to the scarc-
ity or entire absence of metal nails, and in some cases they were tied to-
gether with leather thongs. The crevices were calked with moss, the
sails were of reindeer skins, and the rigging was made of thongs of the
same material. A good many of tlese slips were wrecked, but others
made the voyage safely and brought back loads of furs.
"Out of tlese expeditions grew the Russian-American Company, which
received the administration and control of North-western America, and had
tle exclusive right to the commerce of a vast territory. The company
occupied Russian America and the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, and
pushed its traffic into the Arctic Ocean. It had a monopoly of trade, law,
and everything else; it reduced the inhabitants to a condition little better
than slavery, by compelling them to labor for the company at any time
they were wanted, and at whatever prices the company chose to pay, and
it managed to control them by keeping them always in debt.
The company's centre of operations was at Sitka, but it was not es-
tablished without considerable opposition by the natives. At one time the
natives were victorious; the Russians were driven from Sitka, and the fort
they had erected was destroyed. But the invaders came back and estab-
lished themselves firmly; complaints of their tyranny and abuses reached
St. Petersburg, and a commission was sent to investigate them. After that
time affairs went along more smoothly, the profits from the trade in furs
were large, and the company made fine dividends. But the fur-bearing an-
imals, principally the fur seal, were killed off too rapidly, the profits dimin-
ished, the company's affairs ran down, and finally its title was extinguished,
and the country was sold by, Russia to thee United States.
There, you have a whole page of history," said the Doctor, and it all
grew out of our interest in the island we are passing. Perhaps you knew
it before, but a repetition will do no great harm. Sitka is now an Amer-
ican town, and the flag of the United States floats over the former resi-
dence of the Russian governor, on a high rock at the foot of Mount Edge-
conmbe. The fur trade is in the hands of an American company, which is
said to make much larger dividends to its stockholders than the old Rus-
sian coinpany was ever able to give."
"But what is Alaska good for, now that we have it ?" was the very
natural and practical query of one of the youths.
That question was very freely discussed at tlhe time we bought the
64 TIE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
country," the Doctor answered. We acquired a good deal of ice, polar
bears, and similar property with onr purchase, and as an investment of
money it is doubtful if the speculation was a profitable one. From a pa-
triotic point of view it was better, as it gave us a large area of territory
and removed the possibility of trouble between ourselves and Russia at
some future time. It is a protection to the fisheries in the North Pacific
Ocean, and since the purchase they have grown to considerable impor-
tance. Gold has been discovered iii several places, but gold mining can
hardly be carried on with profit, on account of the long winters and the
deep snows that lie on the ground for so large a part of the year. It
is possible that some exceptionally rich mines may be found, similar
to those in Siberia, but up to the present time they have not been dis-
"]But the American eagle can scream more loudly than before we
bought Alaska, as there is more for him to scream about; and as the
lungs of that bird require to be well exercised, we are not so badly off as
we might be in the possession of this frigid region."
It was arranged between the commanders of the Vivian and the Gam-
betta that the slips would meet at East Cape, the most north-easterly point
of Asia, and formino- one side of Behrino- Strait. Each was to make a
direct course under sail, and the first at the rendezvous would wait three
days for the other before proceeding. In case of her departure she would
leave a memorandum where it could be found by the other. There was
usually a summer encampment of Chuckchees at that point, but they could
not be relied on to be there; in case there should be such an encampment,
the memorandum would be intrusted to its chief.
There was no incident of consequence during the voyage from Petro-
pavlovsk to East Cape, but there was enough to do in reading up the his-
tory of arctic research, and observing the peculiarities of the high northern
latitude, to prevent time hanging heavy on the hands of our young friends.
Every hour they were coming nearer to the Polar Circle; the days length-
ened, till it seemed as though there would soon be no night, the air was
perceptibly cooler, the sea-birds were more numerous than in the direct
voyage across the Pacific, whales and seals abounded in the waters, and
the shore, whenever they passed near enough to discern its character, was
a scene of desolation. Entering the strait and passing around the cape,
tlie captain said they were within the Arctic Circle, and had reached the
regions of the midnight sun.
The Gambetta was at anchor in a little bay, sheltered from all wind
except from the north and east; on the shore was an encampment of
SITKA, OR NEW ARCHANGEL.
86 TIE VOYAGE OF TIlE 1VIAN."
natives, and in the waters around the Gambetta several of the native boats
As soon as the Vivian had dropped her anchor Commander Bronson
and Major Clapp went on board the Gaimbetta, while Dr. Tonner, with
Fred and George, proceeded to the shore. Tle youths were anxious to
visit the native village, and the good Doctor was by no means loath to
A Chuckehee boat preceded them, and on the way to the shore
George made a sketch of the strange craft. Arrived at the land, the
native boat was drawn up along-side their own, and tle youths examined
Here is the description which George entered in his note-book:
The Chuckchee boat is unlike anything I ever saw in the waters
around New York. Its native name is bydara, and it consists of a frame-
work of wood, over which a covering of deer-skins is stretched. The
skins are sewn together very tightly, and, when properly made and
handled, these boats are said to leak very rarely. In getting into the boat
you must be careful not to step on the bottom, or you might put your foot
through the skins, which are often kept in use until quite tender.
"They have a short mast, carrying a square sail which is also made
from deer-skins, unless the owner is lucky enough to get a piece of old
canvas from a whaling ship. On each side of the bydara they generally
carry a seal-skin blown up like a bladder and securely fastened to the
boat at each end; these seal-skins serve to buoy the craft in case sle heels
over from the effect of the wind or the waves, or is tipped by the clumsy
movement of an occupant.
"They carry heavy burdens in these boats, and venture fearlessly out
into the open sea. Occasionally they cross to the North American con-
tinent for the purpose of trading with the Eskimos, but their favorite
plan is to meet the Eskimos on Diomede Island, about midway between
the continents, so that neither is within the territory of the other."
Living on the bank not far from the boat was an inflated seal-skin, at-
taclied to a line ten or twelve feet long; the other end of the line was
tied to a harpoon, and the youths naturally wondered what was the use
of the apparatus.
"That is what they use for catching walrus and whales," said the
Doctor. The way they do it is this:
"They fill the boat with as many men as it will hold, and in addition
to their paddles they carry long slips of whalebone, whicl are flat at the end
like a piece of board. They paddle to the spot where a walrus has been
seen to dive, and then half the men pound on the water with the whale-
bones in such a way as to make a peculiar cracking sound. This rouses
the curiosity of the walrus, and he copies np to see what it all means.
If they are near enough to throw the harpoon it is darted by the man in
the bow; another in the middle of the boat poises the seal-skin and
throws it simultaneously with the harpoon. If they are lucky enough to
hit the walrus he drags the seal-skin after him as he dives; it pulls steadi-
ly on the harpoon, and after a while brings him to the surface, where he
gets another harpoon, and then another and another.
A CHUCKCHEE BOAT.
"The old adage that 'it is the first step which costs,' is well illus-
trated by the Chuckchee mode of catching the walrus. A great many
efforts are made to get thefirst harpoon into him, and sometimes a whole.
day will be passed in continuous failures. But when a harpoon is prop-
erly fastened into one of these animals he can be easily traced by the
floating seal-skin, and the rest of the job is comparatively easy."
"And did you say they catch whales in the same way'?" one of the
Certainly," was the reply, but they need a great many floats to hold,
him up, so that lie cannot dive. It is only when a whale or a walrus is,
prevented from diving by the number of floats attached to him, that they
can lance and kill him. Half a dozen will suffice for an ordinary walrus,
and a dozen for a large one, but in the case of a whale a great many are
needed. He has to be stuck full of harpoons, and the seal-skins and blad-
ders almost hide his body from sight. The capture of a whale is a matter
SS TIE VOYAGE OF THIE "VIVIAN."
of great importance to this people, as you will realize when you know
something of their habits and mode of life."
While our friends were examining the boat, and talking about it, they
were surrounded by a group of natives, who looked at them with a good
deal of curiosity, but without any rudeness of manner. They wore a dress
of deer-skins from which the hair had been stripped. Dr. Tonner ex-
plained to the youths that this was the summer costume, the clothing for
winter being much heavier and lined with fur. The costume was a sim-
pie one, as it consisted of a tunic, like a shirt, which came nearly to the
knee, while the lower limbs were encased in garments which fitted rather
more closely than the trousers of civilization.
Fred noticed that all the strangers had the crown of the head shaven
smooth, and asked the Doctor if they were members of a priestly order.
Dr. Tonner replied that it is the custom of this people, and also of some
other tribes in Siberia, to shave the head, and they are very careful in its
observance. Why they did so he could not say, except that it was the
fashion. Fashion rules as imperiously among savages all over the world
as in the extreme of civilization, and whatever she conmnands is obeyed.
A Cluckchee would no more think of rebelling against the shaving prac-
tices of his tribe than would a society man of New York venture to disre-
gard the rules of etiquette prevailing in that city.
They have strange customs relative to the disposal of their old and
infirm people," said the Doctor. "According to the statements of several
who have been among them, they have a practice of killing the aged
members of their tribe, and the curious thing about it is, that the victims
are always entirely reconciled to being thus put away, and the sacrifice
is generally at their request. There seems to be no doubt that such is the
case; one gentleman (Mr. Richard J. Bush), who has written a book about
this country, visited a spot where one of these executions was about to
"Did he stay to witness it ?" George inquired.
Not by any means," replied the Doctor -" partly because he was
greatly disinclined to do so, and partly because the natives did not seem
willing to go on with the ceremony in the presence of a stranger. When
you go back to the ship you had better read what Mr. Bush tells on the
George promised to do so, and faithfully kept his promise. Here is
what lie read, on page 439 of Reindeer, Dogs, and Snowshoes :"
"During one of our visits to the lower end of the bay we saw quite a large group of natives
assembled at a spot on the rugged mountain-side, about half a mile back of the village, and being
~-I--- _--=-- -----------__ ------ ___ __----~
-0 _ _
z--- ___ __ _________------= -=~-;~~-__-_--;I_=_~~
i---- -- --- -- ---
WALRUS-HUNTING AMONG THE CHUCKCHEES.
90 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
curious to know what they were about, a boat was lowered and a party of us started for shore.
We had to make an ascent of a few hundred feet over the loose, jagged fragments of rock, and it
was not without some difficulty that we reached the place. On all sides, scattered over the rocks,
were crushed human skulls and other bones, and we at once decided that this was the spot where
they killed the old and disabled of their tribe. Our first impression was that we were to witness
one of these acts of barbarity, and I confess to a feeling of reluctance and sick-heartedness as we
approached the group; but their lively chattering and occasional laughter disarmed our suspicions.
There were about forty persons present, from old men and women down to mere babes, all
of whom appeared to be in the best of spirits. We thought they were about to make an offering
to their gods, and calling aside Naukum, one of the natives who had learned to speak a little
English from intercourse with whalers and traders, we began to question him about it. Pointing
to one in the group, he replied, 'See old man-no got eyes-bimeby kill urn.' Looking where
he pointed, we beheld an old blind man seated upon a rock among the other natives, but his face
wore an expression of such perfect calmness and unconcern that I looked elsewhere to find the
victim, thinking I was mistaken in the person pointed to. No one was showing him any kind of
attention, neither was there anything in his appearance, nor in the actions of his companions, to
lead to the suspicion that he was so soon to be ushered into the next world ...
S'We had some difficulty in making out Naukum's explanation of the matter, but at length
comprehended that it was by the old man's request they were going to kill him. He had plenty
of deer, and was beyond want, but the previous year lie had lost his only son, whom lie loved very
much, since which time life had become a burden to him, and he wanted his tribe to put him out
of existence. The day had been once before fixed, but his little grandson begged so piteously that
the old man consented to live for his grandson's sake. But he had again changed his mind, and
his wishes were now about to be gratified."
The natives were unwilling to proceed with tlie sacrifice until thee white
men had gone; the latter had no desire to remain, and consequently re-
turned to tleir boat. Naukum afterwards said the old man again post-
poned his execution out of deference to the wishes of his grandson, but
Mr. 3Bush thought the tribe wished to defer it till after the ships had left
From where they landed our friends walked back a hundred yards or
so to the crest of a ridge, where the natives had their summer residence.
The group that had surrounded them walked with them and kept up a
continual chattering and laughter, not at all in accordance with the solen-
nity of many savage tribes. Dr. Tonner explained to the youths that the
Chuckchees are generally friendly with the whites, but sometimes they
have trouble with whalers and other traders, growing out of disputes in
commercial transactions. As far as can be ascertained, the fault is quite
as much that of the white men as of the natives, and generally a good deal
The natives have been demoralized by the whalers, who sell them
ardent spirits in exchange for furs, whalebone, walrus-ivory, and other
commodities. The use of fire-water leads to trouble, and it is a great pity
that it cannot be suppressed altogether. Apropos of this subject, a good
A WONDERFUL DRINK. 91
~...-. _-='_ .... -- ~--=--=- _
-_._- -_ __ _-- -
SCENERY NEAR EAST CAPE.
story is told by the officers of the expedition that was in North-eastern
Siberia in 1865-66, endeavoring to build a telegraph line from Europe to
America by way of Asia.
One party was landed near Behring Strait, and another at Ghijiga,
near the head of the bay of that name, and on the northern shore of the
Okhotsk Sea. During the winter the natives brought a report to Ghijiga
that there was a party of white men near Behring Sea who burned black
stones in a box, and had the most wonderful whisked ever known.
The party at Ghijiga joined the other towards the end of winter, and
through all the journey across North-eastern Siberia the principal news
that came to them was the astonishment of the natives at the wonderful
whiskey in the possession of the white men. Nothing of the kind had ever
been seen before; the liquid which the whalers sold was of no consequence
whatever in comparison with the new sort.
The sequel was interesting. It turned out that when the party landed
the natives began at once to beg for whiskey. Their demand was refused,
and they were told the wlite men had not brought any of the vile stuff.
To refute this assertion the natives pointed to several barrels that had been
piled in the camp, and were known to be full of liquid of some kind or
other. To put an end to their demands, some of it was given to them.
92 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
The natives drank and were delighted; they had heard of the white
man's beverage called lire-water, but never before had they found the
genuine article. Certainly this was the fire -water they had heard of;
there could be no doubt of its character, as it burned and blistered their
throats, and a little of it went a great way. This whiskey, that became so
famous through the land, was nothing more than very strong pepper-sauce,
which was intended for the preservation of meat.
Dr. Tonner told the youths there was a curious custom among the
Chuckchees which was not likely to be adopted in America or England-
certainly not in a hurry. He had been told that when a Chuckehee trader,
on a voyage to or from the Diomede Islands, or elsewhere, was caught in a
storm and found it necessary to lighten his boat, he proceeded to throw
overboard the crew instead of the cargo. Goods are valuable, and cannot
be dropped into the sea without loss, but men are abundant, and a fresh
crew can be engaged at any time. The Doctor further stated that his
informant said the men made no objection to this novel process of salvage,
but went over the side of the boat when ordered, under the full conviction
that they were simply discharging their duty to their employer.*
At the edge of the village several men were at work on the erection of
a house, and of course George and Fred stopped to have a look at them.
Though the men were interesting, the house was a great deal more so, as
it was of a material entirely new to the young travellers.
"You remember I told you how valuable the whale is to the Chuck-
chees," said the Doctor. This house illustrates what I was saying."
The frame of the house was made of ribs of the whale and walrus, and
a good deal of ingelnuity was shown in arranging it. Two or three poles
of wood that had been brought from Kamchatka, or some region far to
the south, served to support the ends of the ribs and other bones that
formed the sides, while the covering of the roof was kept in place by long
strips of whalebone. One by one the bones were put in their places, and
then the covering was stretched over it. The latter was like a piece of
patchwork on an American quilt; it was composed principally of deer-
skins, but there were a good many sections of walrus hide among them,
and one or two strips of sail which had been begged or otherwise obtained
from the whalers that frequent this region. This covering serves its pur-
pose admirably, though it is apt to let in water in case of a long rain; it is
fastened carefully, to prevent its disappearing in the poor'yas, or high winds,
that prevail in these northern latitudes.
This story was told in all seriousness to the writer of this volume by Governor Bilzukavitch,
at Ghijiga, in 1866, and was confirmed by another Russian official present at the interview.
VALUE OF THE REINDEER. 93
Dr. Tonner said the Chuckchee house was not a comfortable one for
a European, but it met fully all the desires of the natives. On the score
of ventilation there was much to be desired, as there was no chimney, and
the best exit for the smoke was through a hole in the roof. Sometimes
it is necessary to close even this hole, on account of the weather, and then
the smoke has a hard time in getting out. The natives live, without ap-
parent inconvenience, in an atmosphere that would stifle a civilized being
in half an hour.
ERECTING A CHUCKCHEE SUMMER-HOUSE.
A short distance back of the village a herd of reindeer was grazing,
and after a glance at the house our friends went in their direction. They
were scattered over a considerable area, under the watchful eyes of several
natives who kept them from straying.
Nearly all were standing, and while some continued to pluck the moss
and other vegetation from the ground, others raised their heads and gave
an inquiring look at the strangers. One old deer, with a magnificent pair
of antlers, was lying on the ground in the front of the group, and retained
his position within an air of content and independence.
--- '---- _2=-- _---~--
SThe reindeer is even more important to these people than the whale,"
said the Doctor, at least to the majority of them. The whale can only
be taken in summer, but the reindeer is with them through the whole
_._7- C7T_ ._ 7 ...... ::--
ERECTING n CHUCKCHEE SUMMER-HOUSE.
year; his skin supplies the material for clothing, and for th e coverings
of the tents, his flesh is an important article of food, his bones form the
handles of knives and tlie heads of lances, his sinews are an excellent
94 THE VOYAGE OF TIlE "VIVIAN."
substitute for thread, anid his antlers are used for the runners and frame-
work of the sledges.
"Deer are the circulating medium of the country, and values are
reckoned in them ; a man with a hundred deer is in comfortable circum-
stances, one with five hundred is well to do,' and one with a thousand
looks complacently on the future. When we go beyond a thousand we
are among the nabobs or millionaires, though the latter are not fairly
reached till we pass ten thousand. The wealthiest native of North-west-
ern Siberia is the owner of forty thousand deer; he is regarded as a
Vanderbilt or an Astor by his neighbors, and takes quite as much pleas-
ure in life as do the heads of the families I have just named."
"What an enormous herd of deer !" said one of the youths. "Forty
thousand together I should like to see them."
It is doubtful if you ever have the opportunity," replied Dr. Tonner,
and I hardly believe the owner has ever seen them together. Where
a man has a very great number of deer he divides them into herds of a
thousand or twelve hundred eacl, and then scatters them over a large
area of country. HIe is obliged to do this in order to find pastlrage for
them ; if they were all assembled in a single drove it would be very diffi-
cult to support theml"
George asked wlat was the food of the reindeer. The Doctor replied
that the animal fed in summer on the scanty grass and shrubs that grow
in the valleys of the streams, and in the portions of the tundra s or plains
that are least exposed; in winter he lives altogether on moss, which he
searches for beneath the snow, and displays a wonderful instinct in finding
it. Nature has adapted his nose to turning the snow in search of food,
and when he digs for moss he rarely fails to get it.
George wanted to mount one of the deer and take a ride. The Doc-
tor explained his wishes as well as he could to tile natives in charge of
the herd, and one of them ran off to his tent and brought a saddle, and
also a long staff like a stout broom-handle.
The saddle was placed across the back of one of the animals, just be-
hind his shoulders; it was a pad like an ordinary racing saddle, but very
roughly made and without stirrups. George thought the man had for-
gotten the stirrups, and motioned for him to go back for them, but the
Doctor explained that they were not used in riding the reindeer.
Both the youths shook their heads at the prospect of being mounted
in this fashion. While they hesitated, the native took the staff in one
hand to support himself and then swung into the saddle; the instant he
was seated thie animal started off for a graceful circuit of a hundred yards
---__ _ _ __,__-_ ___ __-_ _
0_ --___---_ -
H~ ____=~---L-- ----~~~-
A GROUP OF REINDEER.
96 THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN."
or so, and then came back to the starting-point. The native dismounted,
and George endeavored to imitate his movements.
Hle supported himself with the staff, as he l ad seen the native do, and
then vaulted into the saddle; the result was that he went over, and fell
on tle other side, more to Fred's amusement than his own. lie repeated
the effort with no better success, and as Fred continued to laugh at his
misfortunes, George resigned in the latter's favor.
Fred did exactly what George had done, and then the laugh was the
other way. Then the native assisted him for a few moments, and as soon
as the youth could find his balance he got along very well. Dr. Tonner
explained that nearly every novice in mounting a deer goes over to the
other side, and for the first day or so he spends most of his time in falling
off. The back of the deer is very weak, and consequently tlhe weight of
rider or other burden must be placed over the shoulders; a weight of
fifty pounds, placed as a horse is loaded, would permanently disable a
The shoulders of the deer slide against each other as the animal walks,
and this makes the pad sway from one side to the other at every step.
As the rider has no stirrups he must keep his balance or run the risk of
falling off, and to prevent this lie uses thie polka or staff. Many persons
on beginning their experience with reindeer use two of these polkas, one
on each side, but even with this protection they get a good many falls.
The polka has a bag or net of deer thongs at the lower end to keep it
from sinking too deep in the snow; the foot of the deer spreads out as he
steps on snow or on marshy soil, and is evidently admirably adapted to
its purpose. A horse would not be able to walk at all where a reindeer
can proceed with ease.
A very little riding of the sort we have described was enough for our
young friends, and the inspection of the herd of deer did not require a
long time. On the way back to the landing-place the Doctor described
the sledges used in winter in North-eastern Siberia. lie said they were
similar to the dog-sledges, there being some for light travel, and others
for transporting freight. The deer were harnessed with straps or belts
around their necks, and to these straps leather thongs were attached that
extended back to the sledge. The animals were generally driven in pairs,
and as each had a separate harness, the one that went slowest was in
danger of having the sledge dragged on his heels.
The reins are fastened to the horns of the beasts, and the whip con-
sists of a long stick or rod witl which the animals can be enlivened when
they grow weary. The sledge is made so that its body is at least a foot
SPEED OF THE REINDEER. 97
above the snow, and the greatest care is taken to have the runners slide
as easily as possible. They are usually made of the antlers of deer, or of
bones of the whale, and polished so that they shine like ivory. Where
strips of ash timber can be obtained they are preferred, on account of
their elasticity which renders them less liable to be broken than bone.
Ordinarily the pace of the reindeer is not rapid, but the animals for
the travelling sledges are trained to move with a speed which justifies the
reputation they have received in story-books. Instances are on record of
reindeer having gone at the rate of nineteen miles an hour for three oir
four hours, and a single pair has been driven one hundred and fifty miles
in twenty hours. On such occasions they take a steady trot at starting,
and if the roads are good they rarely break from it until they have gone
a dozen or twenty miles. In many parts of Siberia they are preferred to
dogs, as they find their own food; but on the other hand the traveller
must follow a route where food is known to exist, or his team will break
down. When reindeer are wearied they stop, and refuse to move until
rested; if urged to go on they lie down, and no whipping in the power of
man to administer can induce them to rise and proceed.
-A- -E-I-D-E-E S-
A REINDEER SLED.
S THE VOYAGE OF THE VIVIAN."
CHUCKCHEES AND KORAKS.-INTERNATIONAL FESTIVITIES.
COMMANDER BRONSON found the captain of the Gambetta ready
Sto receive him, and talk over the plans of their expeditions. Both
had the same purpose-to get as near as possible to the pole.
All the latest maps of the polar regions were spread on the table in the
cabin, and the two explorers sat for some time in consultation over them.
Commander Bronson pointed to the discoveries of Wrangell and Anjon in
the early part of the century, and to those of De Long and others in recent
"Wrangell was stopped at latitude 720 2' north," said he, not by ice,
but by open water. He had travelled to that point on sledges, and had no
boats with which he could proceed. Since his time the land which he
endeavored to reach has been visited, and found to be a large island, to
which his name has been given. Tlie natives of the Siberian coast had
been there before him, but of course their stories concerning it could not
be relied upon."
It was almost directly north of Wrangell Island," said Captain Girard.
of the Gambetta, that De Long was beset in the ice on the 4th of Sep-
tember, 1879. From that point lie drifted, helplessly, till his ship was
crushed and sunk nearly two years later. He went five degrees nearer to
the pole than Wrangell had been able to get, and found solid ice where
the Russian discovered open water."
"The drift of the Jeannette," replied Commlander Bronson, shows
that the current, at that time at least, was setting northward and westward.
Now it is my intention to seek a more easterly direction, by keeping nearer
to the American coast. From this point where we are now anchored I
shall keep as close as I can to the 170th meridian of longitude until I have
crossed the 70th parallel. We may then expect to encounter the ice, but
we sliall hope for the best, and keep a sharp watch for lanes of open water
to carry us towards tle pole."
Captain Girard said the route was so near what lie had planned for hi;
AN EXCHANGE OF POLITENESS. 99
own, that he would be pleased to have the. ships proceed in company.
They could doubtless be of mutual assistance in the ice, and if an accident
occurred to one of them she could be aided by the other, and perhaps her
crew relieved from danger. "Of course," he added, "we understand that
each of us is at liberty to make the best of his way where the condition of
the seas will permit. All new discoveries shall belong to the one who
makes them. If we find an island not laid down on the charts, it shall be
named by the man that first sets foot upon it; and if neither ship is able to
send anybody to it, the discovery shall belong to the first who saw the
land and announced it by signal to the other."
BARON VON WJANGELL.
Commander Bronson agreed to this proposal, and said lie should try to
put the flag of his country in advance of the banner of the French. Cap-
tain Girard smilingly replied that the tri-color would be first at the pole,
and with these good-natured expressions of patriotism the interview came
to an end. Commander Bronson invited Captain Girard to dinner on
board the Vivian; the invitation was promptly accepted, and the com-
mander hastened back to his ship to give the necessary orders, and to re-
call the Doctor and our y oun friends from their trip on shore.
tain Girad smilingy repliedthat the ri-clrwudb irta h oe
and with these good-natured express~iosfpartimheierewce