• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Overview
 Preamble
 Personnel
 Administration
 Training
 Team leader, Sebele
 Research extension linkage,...
 Mahalapye farming systems team
 Francistown farming systems...
 Meetings, visitors and papers






Group Title: Annual report number 2
Title: Annual report
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053938/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: ATIP annual report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (Botswana)
Botswana -- Dept. of Agricultural Research
Midamerica International Agricultural Consortium
Publisher: ATIP
Place of Publication: Gaborone Botswana
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Botswana   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Technology transfer -- Botswana   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Botswana   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP)
General Note: Description based on: No. 3 (1985)
General Note: "A GOB/MIAC/USAID Project"
General Note: Issued by: Dept. of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Botswana, and Mid-America International Agricultural Consortium.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053938
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001881601
oclc - 30952470
notis - AJV6698

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        S 1
    Table of Contents
        S 2
        S 3
        S 4
        S 5
        S 6
    List of Tables
        S 7
        S 8
    List of Figures
        S 9
        S 10
    Overview
        A 1
    Preamble
        A 1
        A 2
        Personnel
            A 3
        Administration
            A 3
        Training
            A 3
        Professional work
            A 4
            Research activities
                A 4
                A 5
                A 6
                A 7
            Other professional activities
                A 8
                A 9
                A 10
        Work plan proposed
            A 8
        Papers
            A 8
    Personnel
        B 1
        Professional staff
            B 1
            B 2
        Support staff
            B 3
        Consultancies
            B 4
    Administration
        C 1
        Team leader
            C 1
            C 2
        Deputy team leader
            C 3
        Other administrative tasks
            C 4
        The mid-term evaluation team
            C 4
            Methodological issues
                C 4
            Implementation issues
                C 5
            ATIP productivity and communication issues
                C 5
            Institutionalisation issues
                C 6
            Personal development issues
                C 6
                C 7
    Training
        D 1
        Formal training
            D 1
            Long term training
                D 1
                D 2
            Short term training
                D 3
        On-the-job training
            D 4
    Team leader, Sebele
        E 1
        Professional work accomplished October 1983 - September 1984
            E 1
            Research activities
                E 1
                E 2
            Other professional activities
                E 3
        Work planned, Oct 84' - Sept 85'
            E 3
    Research extension linkage, Gaborone
        F 1
        Professional work accomplished October 1983 - September 1984
            F 1
            Research activities
                F 1
            Other professional activities
                F 1
                Survey and promotion of research extension communications
                    F 1
                    F 2
                In country training
                    F 3
                    F 4
                FSR activity coordination
                    F 5
                Other committee activity
                    F 5
            Problems and possible solutions
                F 6
                Communication between extension and research
                    F 6
                Visits
                    F 6
                Deficiency of technical and methodological knowledge
                    F 7
                Low extension worker morale
                    F 7
        Work planned, Oct 84' - Sept 85'
            F 8
    Mahalapye farming systems team
        G 1
        Report of activities October 1983 to September 1984
            G 1
            Description and diagnostic stage
                G 1
                Whole farm studies
                    G 1
                    Multiple visit resource use survey
                        G 2
                        G 3
                        G 4
                        G 5
                        G 6
                    Technical monitoring
                        G 7
                        G 8
                    Inventory surveys
                        G 9
                        G 10
                        G 11
                        G 12
                        G 13
                "New village" description and diagnosis
                    G 14
                    G 15
                    G 16
                Cowpea baseline study
                    G 17
                    G 18
                    G 19
                    G 20
                Regional perspective study
                    G 21
                Descriptive/diagnostic work not mentioned in the 1983-84 work plan
                    G 22
                Descriptive/diagnostic work not mentioned in the 1983-84 work plan
                    G 22
                    Cropping plans survey
                        G 22
                    Institutions, services and infrastructure survey
                        G 22
                    Weed growth survey
                        G 23
                        G 24
                    Soil/root profile survey
                        G 25
            Design stage
                G 25
                Local sorghum germplasm evaluation
                    G 25
                Post-emergence harrowing
                    G 26
                Ridge ploughing
                    G 26
                Effects of early tillage on traditional broadcast/floughing
                    G 26
                Design work not mentioned in the 1983-84 work plan
                    G 27
                    G 28
                    Dual purpose (grain/hay) evaluations in Tswana cowpea
                        G 27
                    Bird scaring scheme
                        G 29
                    On-farm experiementation methodologies study
                        G 30
            Testing stage
                G 30
                Effectivesness of sole ploughing
                    G 30
                Draught team management design scheme
                    G 31
                Evaluation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) benefits
                    G 32
                Cowpea and mixed cropping comparisons
                    G 33
                Evaluation of weed control methods and benefits
                    G 34
                Lands area vegetable plot
                    G 35
                Further investigation of the modified efsaip single ploughing/planting operation
                    G 35
                Seed treatment
                    G 35
            Data analysis and report preparation
                G 36
            Farmer workshop
                G 36
        Work planned, Oct 84' -Sept 85'
            G 37
            Descriptive and diagnostic stage
                G 38
                Whole farm studies
                    G 38
                    Multiple visit resource use survey
                        G 38
                    Economic analysis of MVRU data
                        G 39
                    Economic analysis of MVRU data
                        G 40
                    Inventory survey
                        G 41
                    Whole field monitoring
                        G 42
                    Livestock practices survey
                        G 43
                Crop growth response studies
                    G 43
                    Plot monitoring
                        G 43
                    Weed control investigations
                        G 44
                Regional perspective study
                    G 45
                    Regional exploratory survey
                        G 45
                    Quarterly price survey
                        G 46
    Francistown farming systems team
        H 1
        Report of activities October 1983 to September 1984
            H 1
            Descriptive and diagnostic stage
                H 2
                H 3
                H 4
            Decision stage
                G 48
                Sample frame survey
                    H 5
                    H 6
                Commercial steps in technology trial
                    G 49
                    G 50
                Agronomy
                    H 7
                    H 8
                    H 9
                    H 10
                    H 11
                    H 12
                Ridge ploughing trial
                    G 51
                Non-leverage interventions trials
                    G 51
                Economics
                    H 13
                    Multiple visit resource use survey
                        H 13
                        H 14
                        H 15
                    Village infrastructure survey
                        H 16
                    Cowpea survey
                        H 16
                        H 17
                    Undersowing trial
                        G 54
                Animal husbandry
                    H 18
                    Livestock practices survey
                        H 18
                        H 19
            Testing stage
                G 55
            Design stage
                H 20
                Improved tillage/planting systems investigations
                    H 20
                    H 21
                    H 22
                Indigenous practices investigations
                    G 56
                    Replant strategy
                        G 56
                    Steps in technology experiments
                        H 23
                        H 24
                Farmer decision analysis studies
                    G 47
                    Decision unit/mangement information (DUMI) study
                        G 47
                Steps in weed control
                    G 58
                Crop seeding comparisons under broadcast/ploughing
                    G 58
                    G 59
                    Intensive production plots
                        G 52
                        G 53
            Dissemination stage
                G 60
                Modified tillage/planting scheme demontration
                    G 60
                Farmer workshops
                    G 60
                    Cowpea leaf harvesting strategy
                        G 57
            Linkages with Sebele researchers
                G 61
                Stand establishment
                    H 25
                Depth of ploughing
                    H 26
            Testing stage
                H 26
                Agronomy
                    H 26
                Animal husbandry
                    H 27
                    H 28
            Dissemination stage
                H 29
                H 30
                H 31
            Methodology development experments
                H 29
                Harvest data collection
                    H 29
        Work planned, Oct '84 -Sept '85
            H 32
            Descriptive and diagnostic stage
                H 32
                Arable activities
                    H 32
                    Economic and technical monitoring
                        H 32
                        H 33
                    Maximum production plots
                        H 34
                        H 35
                    Agronomic baseline survey
                        H 36
                    Economic and technical monitoring
                        H 32
                Livestock activities
                    H 37
                    Economic and technical monitoring
                        H 37
                Non agricultural activities
                    H 38
                Agriculture markets and infrastructure
                    H 38
                Institutional arrangements
                    H 39
            Design stage
                H 39
                Planting strategy
                    H 39
                    Planting strategy
                        H 39
                    Draught management for early ploughing
                        H 40
                Animal husbandry
                    H 41
                    Improved harnesses and yokes for draught animals
                        H 41
                    Adequate drinking water for working animals
                        H 42
                    Crop residue and forage preservation
                        H 42
                Economics
                    H 43
            Testing stage
                H 43
                Agronomy
                    H 43
                Animal husbandry
                    H 44
                    Supplemental mineral-like for farm animals
                        H 44
                Economics
                    H 45
            Dissemination stage
                H 45
            Other professional activities
                H 46
                Methodology trials
                    H 46
                Linkages with Atip Mahalapye
                    H 47
                Linkages with on-station research at SEEELE
                    H 47
                Linkages with extension
                    H 48
                Linkages with ALDEP
                    H 48
    Meetings, visitors and papers
        I 1
        Meetings and trips
            I 1
        Visitors
            I 2
        Policy on papers written by Atip staff
            I 2
            Externally published papers
                I 2
            Research reports
                I 2
            Working papers
                I 2
            Miscellaneous papers
                I 2
            Progress reports
                I 3
            Documents require by USAID
                I 3
        Papers
            I 3
            Externally published papers
                I 3
            Working papers
                I 3
            Miscellaneous papers
                I 3
            Progress reports
                I 4
                Gaborone
                    I 4
            Reporting documents
                I 5
            Reporting documents
                I 5
Full Text


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AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT


(ATIP)


*
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ANNUAL REPORT NUMBER 2

(PERIOD: AUGUST 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984)


DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC. RESEARCH
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
BOTSWANA


MID-AMERICA INTERNATIONAL
AGRICULTURAL CONSORTIUM
(MIAC)


OCTOBER 1984

PRINTED: 17110/1984


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AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

(ATIP)


ANNUAL REPORT NUMBER 2

(PERIOD: AUGUST 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984)


* DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC. RESEARCH MID-AMERICA INTERNATIONAL
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSORTIUM
* BOTSWANA (MIAC)






* OCTOBER 1984

* PRINTED: 17/10/1984


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FORWARD


According to the contract drawn up between the Mid-America International
Agricultural Consortium (MIAC) and AID dated 28th June, 1982, ATI? is
expected to provide the following (Appendix A, page 3):

(a). Annual Work Plan to be forwarded in September each year.

(b). Annual Progress Report to be produced in September each year.

As outlined elsewhere (ATIP Administrative Note Number 6 dated March 24th,
1983) ATIP have proposed the following:

(a). Because of the nature of the project, the format of which is less
predictable than, for example, an instructional project, it would
be desirable to produce a report at six monthly intervals. Thus it
is suggested one is produced in March of each year which can be
incorporated into the obligatory one required in September.

(b). In order to increase the returns from the time invested in
producing the reports it would be desirable that they be produced
in such a way that they can. be distributed to visitors and other
interested individuals outside USAID and GOB. The reports that are
available for general visitors however will not include all the
material in the Annual Report.

This reporting year no six month report was produced in March. This was
due to too many other commitments and preoccupation with field work. It
remains to be seen whether in fact the March report will be very practical.
It is likely that such reports would not be produced before June. However
in June a preliminary draft report was produced especially for use by the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team. As such it contained little in the way of
empirical results because analysis on current work was still being
undertaken. The only difference between that and the current report is
that the updated version contains more in the way of empirical results and
a more refined work plan for the coming year.


File:. AAWS48/Intro


- S.1 -


Date: 17/10/84

















L 16T OGF CONTENTS,

i, OVERVIEW ......................... ..,, ..................... .. (10 pages)...1.l
1.1 PREAMBLE ......... .. ... ... ............................ ,,,,,.,.,,,,, 1-1
1.2 PERSONNEL...'. .... .. ... .. ... ... ... ..................,, ,. ,, ,, -, 1.3
1.,3 ADM~INISTRATION .............................. ..................~ 1.3
..1 TRAINING_ _,_ I...~ ............'................................. 1.3
1.5 PROFESSIONAL WORK ........ ............... I., ................. 1.
1.5.1 RES'EARCH ACTIVITIES.. ...,.... ....................... 1,
2~~ OT HER PROFESSIONAL. ACTIV.TI'ES ......................... 1.8
1.4 WOR~K PLAN:.PROPO-SED .....;...~..'....... I................... ....,,,
1.7 PAPERS .... ..... .. .................... .. ... ..... 1.8.,,,, ,

2.PERSGONNEL .....;.... .......'........ ...................... .,(4 pages) ..a. 2.
2.1 PROFESSIONAL STAFF..,...... I ....;.................... ............. 2.
2.2 SUPPORT STAFF ......... ..,..,.,,..,,.,,, ..... 2.3 .
2.3. CONSULTANCIES .......... ................. : ,.,..,,,,.. 2.4

3.ADM INISTRATION.. '.......... .... ...... ... ... .. (7 pages) ... 3.1
3.1. TEAM LEADER .........,,..... ..~ .....,.................... 3.1
33.2' DEPUTY TEAM leaderER. .......:.... ........................... 3.3
3 OTHER. ADMINISTRLA TIVE TA KSjjK .. .......... .... ................ 3.
3!.4 THE MID-TERM EVALtUATION TEM ......................,.,....... 3.4,,,3,
3.4.1 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES ................... ................ 3.
3.4'.'2 iMPLEMENTrAT.Idk:PdUES.'* .............................. 3.
3.4.3 AT!? PRODUCTIVITY AND COMMUNICATION ISSUES ............ 3.3
3A .A4 INSTI;UT'ION kt-.I'SArIOf 4 ISS6UES ............... .......... 3.
3 4''.5 PERSONAL' iEVELOPMENT I 5110V E S ..... ........................ 3.

41. TR.A IN I NO ... ... ... .. .. 4 pa e ). .
AA' F O :' '::hA. ''''i '' :iRAINING. '''' 4 ags....4.1
a.'` FRIIALii~A~.IM ,................ ............,.........41
4.1.1 LONG t9RMTTRAJNING ........ ,`z ....... I............ .......... 4.1
4.1.,2. SHORT-TERM TRAINING ...........,.,,,........................ 4.
ON- ,qbB,'TR);bB.r lAIN~lNO,,:.' ...,.....~..... .... I.,.......... ......... 4.

5.TEAM LEADER,. SEBELE.. ..................,~;.......,, (3 pages) ...5.1
5.1 PROPESSIO-NAL'WORK 'CCCOMPL*IRED,' OCT. ,83 SEPT.184 ........ 5.15,
5.1A. RESEARCH .ACTIVITIES .................................. 5.1,
5.1 2 a'OTHER PROFE SSIONAL A STIVITIES ................... ..... 5.3
5.2 WORK:,,PLANNED, OCT _~'84.- S'EPT.,*85 ............. ................ .. 5 .3

6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, GABORiS.t.;)ME..,.-:...."'. pages) ... 6a
6.1 PROFESSIONAL' WORK ACCOMPLISHED, O'CT.' 83~':_-SEPT.'64 .......... ,6. 1
6.t.1 RESEARCH ACt.IV.ITIES. .....'....... I.. ................... 6-1
6..1.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL :AETIVITIrES ................... ,...... 6.
6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROMOTION Or RESEARCH EXTENSION
COMMUNICATIONS ......... ....... ............6.1
6.1.2.2 IN COUNTRY'TRAINING ......................... .
6.1-2.3 FSR ACTIVITY COORDINATION ........ ....., ... 6.
6.1.2.4 OTHER COMMI4TTEE ACr~Y i:...6.5
6.1.2.5 VISITS. .........................,..............6.


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'6.1.3 PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS ..................... .6.6
6.1.3.1 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCH.6.6
6.1.3.2 DEFICIENCY OF TECHNICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE..................................... 6.7
6.1.3.3 LOW EXTENSION WORKER MORALE..................6.7
6.2 WORK PLANNED, OCT.'84 SEPT.'85............................. 6.8

7. MAHALAPYE FARMING SYSTEMS TEA ..........................(61 pages)...7.1
7.1 REPORT OF ACTIVITIES, OCT.'83 SEPT.'84..................... 7.1
7.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE....... ................7.1
7.1.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES ............................7.1
(1) Multiple visit resource use survey..........7.2
(2) Technical monitoring...... .................. 7.7
(3) Inventory surveys...... ..................... 7.9
7.1.1.2 "NEW VILLAGE" DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSIS......7.14
7.1.1.3 COWPEA BASELINE STUDY........................7.17
7.1.1.4 REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE STUDY....................7.21
7.1.1.5 DESCRIPTIVE/DIAGNOSTIC WORK NOT MENTIONED IN
THE 1983-84 WORK PLAN.:... ................... 7.22
(1) Cropping plans survey....................... 7.22
(2) Institutions, services and infrastructure...7.22
(3) Weed growth :survey... ..... ................. 7.23
(4) Soillroot profile survey.. ..................7.25
7.1.2 DESIGN STAGE. .... .......... .. .................... 7.25
7.1.2.1 LOCAL SORGHUM GERMPLASM EVALUATION...........7.25
7.1.2.2 POST-EMERGENCE HARROWING... ........ ........7.26
7.1.2.3 RIDGE PLOUGHING.:. .... ........... ............ 7.26
7.1.2.4 EFFECTS OF EARLY TILLAGE ON TRADITIONAL
BROADCAST/PLOUGHING...... .... ........ .... 7.26
7.1.2.5 DESIGN WORK NOT MENTIONED IN THE 1983-84 WORK
PLAN ............. .............................. 7.27
(1) Dual purpose (grain/hay) evaluations in
Tswana cowpeas ...........................7.27
(2) Bird Scaring scheme ......................... 7.2
(3) On-farm experimentation methodologies study.7.30
7.1.3 TESTING STAGE ................................ ........ 7.30
7.1.3.1 EFFECTIVENESS OF SOLE PLOUGHING..............7.30
7.1.3.2 DRAUGHT TEAM.NMANAGEMENT DESIGN SCHEME........7.31
7.1.3.3 EVALUATION OF NITROGEN (N) AND PHOSPHOROUS
(P) BENEFITS ....................................7.32
7.1.3.4 COWPEA AND MIXED CROPPING COMPARISONS ........ 7.33
7.1.3.5 EVALUATION OF WEED CONTROL METHODS AND
BENEFITS. ............. ............. ........7.34
7.1.3.6 LANDS AREA VEGETABLE PLOT.... ... ........... 7.35
7.1.3.7 FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF THE MODIFIED EFSAIP
SINGLE PLOUGHINGIPLANTING OPERATION............7.35
7.1.3.8 SEED TREATMENT...... ............ ...... ...... 7.35
7.1.4 DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT PREPARATION..................7.36
7.1.5 FARMER WORKSHOP .... .............. ....... ... ...........7.36
7.2 WORK PLANNED, OCT:;'84 SEPT.'85.......... ........ ....... 7.37
7.2.1 DESCRIPTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE.....................7.38
7.2.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES ....... ......... .......... 7.38
(1) Multiple visit resource use survey..........7.38
(2) Economic analysis of MVRU data ..............7.40
(3) Activity survey........... ................. 7.40


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(4) Inventory surveys .. .. ..... 7.41
(5) Whole field monitoring ...................... 7.42
(6) Livestock practices survey .................. 7.43
7.2.1.2 CROP GROWTH RESPONSE STUDIES ............... 7.43
(1) Plot monitoring ............................ 7.43
(2) Weed control investigations................. 7.44
7.2.1.2 REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE STUDY....................7.45
(1) Regional exploratory survey.................7.45
(2) Quarterly price survey...................... 7.46
(3) ALDEP participant survey ...... ....... ....7.47
7.2.1;3 FARMER DECISION ANALYSIS STUDIES............. 7.47
(1) Decision unit/management information (DUMI)
study ... .. .. ......... .................. 7.47
(2) Farmer terminology study.....................7.47
7.2.2 DESIGN STAGE............................................7.48
7.2:2.1 COMMERCIAL STEPS IN TECHNOLOGY TRIAL.........7.49
7.2.2.2 RIDGE PLOUGHING TRIAL ........................ 7.51
7.2.2.3 NON-LEVERAGE INTERVENTIONS TRIALS............ 7.51
(1) Draught management .......................... 7.51
(2) Intensive production plots.................. 7.52
(3) Undersowing trial .............. ; ............7.54
7.2.3 TESTING STAGE...:. ... ................................ 7.55
7.2.3.1 IMPROVED TILLAGE/PLANTING SYSTEMS INVESTI-
GATIONS.... ... ................................ 7.55
(1) Tillagelplanting scheme trial ...............7.55
(2) Alternative planting methods trial.......... 7.55
7.2.3.2 INDIGENOUS PRACTICES INVESTIGATIONS ..........7.56
(1) Replant strategy.. .......................... 7.56
(2) Cowpea leaf harvesting strategy............. 7.57
7.2.3.3 STEPS IN WEED CONTROL ........................ 7.58
S7.2.3.4 CROPPING SEED COMPARISONS UNDER BROADCAST/
PLOUGHING. ......... ..........................7.58
7.2.4 DISSEMINATION STAGE ... ;, :-;. .' ......... ....... 7.60
7.2.4, 1:MODIFIEDTILLAGE/PLANTING SCHEME
DEMONSTRATION..... ........... .............7.60
7.2.4.2 FARMER VORKSHOPS. .............................7.60
-7.2.5 LINKAGES WITH9-SEBELE RESEARCHERS .....................7.61

8. FRANCISTOWN FARMING SYSTEMS TEAM.... ................... (48.pages). .8.1
8.1 REPORT OF ACTIVITIES, QCT,'83 SEPT.'84.. .:. 7.:. ............8.1
: 88.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE;. ..... ................8.2
(1 ) Exploratory survey: ..;:.; :..... ................ 8.2
(2) Sample frame survey ......................... 8.5
8.1.1.1 .AGRONOMY................... . .. .: ...,...... 8.7
8.1.1.2 ECONOMICS.............................. .... ... 8.13
(1) Multiple visit resource use..................8.13
(2) Village infrastructure survey............... 8.16
(3) Cowpea survey........ .... ................8.16
8.1 .1.3 ANIMAL HUSEANDRY.................... .........8.18
(1) Livestock practices survey...................8.18
(2) Plough condition survey .....................8.20
8.1.2 DESIGN STAGE.... ..................................... 8.20
8.1.2.1 MAXIMUM PRODUCTION TRIALS ....... ............ 8.20
8.1 2 2 STEPS IN TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENTS..............8.23
8.1.2.3 STAND ESTABLISHMENT..........................8.25


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8.1.2.4 DEPTH,OF PLOUGHING ...........................8.26
8.1.2.5 OTHER DESIGN WORK NOT IN THE 1983-84 WORK
PLAN............................ ............8.26
(1) Late planted crops for forage............... 8.26
8.1.3 TESTING STAGE..........................................8.26
8.1.3.1 AGRONOMY........................ ............. 8.26
8.1.3.2 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY...............................8.27
(1) Supplementary mineral-mis for farm animals..8.27
8.1.4 DISSEMINATION STAGE ...................................8.29
8.1.5 METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS....................8.29
8.1.5.1 HARVEST DATA COLLECTION ...................... 8.29
8.2 WORK PLANNED, OCT.'84 SEPT.'85..............................8.32
8.2.1 DESCRIPTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE.......................8.32
8.2.1.1 ARABLE ACTIVITIES.............................8.32
(1) Economic and technical monitoring...........8.32
(2) Maximum production plots.................... 8.34
(3) Agronomic baseline survey................. ..8.36
8.2.1.2 LIVESTOCK ACTIVITIES ........................ 8.37
(1) Economic and technical monitoring...........8.37
8.2.1.3 Non agricultural activities...................8.38
8.2.1.4 Agricultural markets and infrastructure......8.38
8.2.1.5 Institutional arrangements ................... 8.39
8.2.2 DESIGN STAGE..........................................8 .39
8.2.2.1 PLANTING STRATEGY .............. .............8.39
(1) Planting strategy........................... 8.39
(2) Draught management for early ploughing......8.40
8.2.2.2 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY............................. 8.41
(1) Improved harnesses and yokes for draught
an im a ls ..................................... 8 .41
(2) Adequate drinking water for working animals.8.42
(3) Crop residue and forage preservation........8.42
8.2.2.3 ECONOMICS.................................... 8.43
8.2.2 TESTING STAGE .... ................ ................. ... 8.43
8.2.2.1 AGRONOMY ....................................... 8.43
(1) Steps in technology.........................8.43
(2) Testing of cowpea varieties..................8.43
(4) Testing of EFSAIP planting equipment........8.43
8.2.3.2 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY.............................. 8.44
(1) Supplementary mineral-mix for farm animals..8.44
8.2.3.3 ECONOMICS ................... ............... 8.45
8.2.4 DISSEMINATION STAGE......... ... ..................... 8.45
.,8.2.4.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY...... ......... ...........8.45
(1) Prepacked mineral-mi ................ ...... 8.45
(2).Dissemination of DAFS and veterinary
S progtmme information........................8.46
S8.2.5 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES ..................... ... 8.46
8.2.5.1 METHODOLOGY TRIALS ...........................8.46
8.2.5.2 LINKAGES WITH ATIP MAHALAPYE .................8.47
8.2.5.3 LINKAGES WITH ON-STATION RESEARCH AT SEBELE..8.47
S8.2.5.4 LINKAGES WITH EXTENSION.......................8.48
8.2.5.5 LINKAGES WITH ALDEP.......................... 8.48

9. MEETINGS, VISITORS AND PAPER......... ........ ........... (5 pages)..9.1
9.1 MEETINGS AND TRIPS ,. .: .. ...... ............................ 9.1
9.2 VISITORS ..... ... .. .... ..................... ....... 9 1

FiIe:.AAWS481Intro '--: .5 -. Date: 17/10/84



.*: .'* *'' s '










9.3 POLICY
9.3.1
9.3.2


ON PAPERS WRITTEN BY ATI
EXTERNALLY PUBLISHED PAP
RESEARCH REPORTS........


D CT r "


ERS.

..,. .


9.3.3 WORKING REPORTS.........


9.4 P


9.3.4 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.......
9.3.5 PROGRESS REPORTS..............
9.3.6 DOCUMENTS REQUIRED BY SAID.
APERS ............................
9.4.1 EXTERNALLY PUBLISHED PAPERS.
9.4.2 WORKING PAPERS...............
9.4.3 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.........
9.4.4 PROGRESS REPORTS.............
9.4.4.1 GABORONE.............
9.4.4.2 MAHALAPYE...........
9.4.4.3 FRANCISTOWN ........
9.3.4 REPORTING DOCUMENTS ...........


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nE


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...9.2
S. .9.2
...9.2
...9.2
...9.2
...9.2
...9.3
...9.3
...9.3




...9.4
...9.5
...9.5
...9.5












LIST OF TABLES

1.1 MONTHLY RAINFALL (MMS) AT MAHALAPYE AND FRANCISTOWN, 1982-84..1.4
1.2 STATUS OF SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP MAHALAPYE, 1983 84
SEASON. .... ..... ........ .......................... 6
1.3 STATUS OF SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP FRANCISTOWN, 1983 84
SEASON .................. ....................................... 1.7
1.4 SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP MAHALAPYE, OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER
1985......................... ........ ............... .. ......1.9
1.5 SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP FRANCISTOWN, OCTOBER 1984 -
SEPTEMBER 1985................................................1.10
2.1 PERSONNEL ON THE ATIP PROJECT..................................2.2
4.1 PARTICIPANT TRAINING...........................................4.1
5.1 THE ATIP MICROCOMPUTERS AND RELATED EQUIPMENT.................5.2
7.1 DAYS OF PLOUGHING, AREA PLOUGHED, SORGHUM HARVESTED, ATIP
MAHALAPYE, 1983 84..........................................7.4
7.2 AVERAGE MONTHLY CASHFLOWS, MAHALAPYE AREA: NOVEMBER 1983 -
JUNE 1984 .....................................................7 .5
7.3 TOTAL AREA CULTIVATED, TOTAL DAYS OF CULTIVATION, PERCENT OF
AREA AND PERCENT OF DAYS IN FOUR PLANTING SOIL MOISTURE
CATEGORIES BY TRACTION CATEGORY, MAKWATE AND SHOSHONG,
1983 84........................................ .............. 7.9
7.4 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND PARTICIPATION IN ARABLE ACTIVITY,
MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983 84 .............. ...... ................ 7.10
7.5 FIELDS AND PLOUGHS, MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983 84................. 7.12
7.6 LIVESTOCK INVENTORIES AND CHANGE RATES, MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983
-84..................... ................... ....................7.13
7.7 VALUE OF LIVESTOCK INVENTORIES AND FARM FIXED CAPITAL (PULA),
MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983 84......................................7.15
7.8 COWPEA PRODUCTION IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE......................7.18
7.9 COWPEA HUSBANDRY PROBLEMS IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE............. 7.19
7.10 COWPEA UTILISATION IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE.................. ..7.20
7.11 WEED CONTROL PROBLEMS IN TRADITIONAL FIELDS AT MID AND LATE
SEASON, MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983 84...... ....................... 7.23
7.12 PERCENTAGE COVERAGE FOR MAJOR WEED SPECIES FOUND ON
TRADITIONAL FIELDS IN ATIP MAHALAPYE RESEARCH AREA............. 7.24
7.13 EFFECT OF RESEARCH TILLAGEIPLANTING SYSTEMS ON WEED LEVELS IN
MAKWATE VILLAGE, 1983 84.................................... 7.25
7.14 GRAIN YIELD, POST HARVEST HAY YIELD AND PLANT COUNTS FOR 32
TSWANA COWPEA LINES SELECTED FOR DUAL PURPOSE POTENTIAL,
MAHALAPYE 1983 84........................................ .... 7.28
7.15 1983 84 COMPARISON OF GRAIN YIELD AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT
FOR FOUR PLANTING METHODS ON "EARLY PLOUGHED" PLOTS AND
TRADITIONAL CHECKS, MAKWATE 1983 84......................... 7.31
7.16 EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER ON SORGHUM GRAIN YIELD IN
SINGLE BEST YIELDING REPLICATE OF ROW PLANTING AND DOUBLE
PLOUGHING COMPARISON, MAKWATE, 1983 84...................... 7.33
7.17 COMPARISON OF GRAIN AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT FOR THREE SMU
COWPEA VARIETIES GROWN UNDER TRADITIONAL BROADCASTIPLOUGHING
SYSTEM, MAKWATE, 1983 84.................................... 7.34
8.1 SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF COOPERATING HOUSEHOLDS, FRANCISTOWN
AREA, 1983 84........................ .......................8.6


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8.2 SEED SIZE AND PERCENT GERMINATION LEVELS OF LOCALLY COLLECTED
SEED SAMPLES, FRANCISTOWN AREA, 1983. ........ ................8.9
8.3 EARLY CEREAL STAND DENSITIES, FRANCISTOWN AREA, 1983 84.....8.10
8.4 UTILISATION OF COVPEA GRAIN AND LEAVES, TUTUME DISTRICT....... 8.17
8.5 LIVESTOCK PRACTICES FOLLOWED BY ATIP FARMERS, FRANCISTOWN
AREA, 1983 84............... ......... .... :. ..... ...,.8.19
8.6 PLANTING DETAILS FOR SEGAOLANE SORGHUM "MAXIMUM PRODUCTION.
TRIALS", MATHANGWANE AND MARAPONG, 1983 84...... ......:... .8.22
8.7 PLOT YIELDS (KGIHA) FROM THE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION TRIAL,:
MATHANGWANE, 1983 84. .. .. ................... .. :.. .... .,8 .23
8.8 MEAN YIELDS FROM TWO "STEPS IN TECHNOLOGY" EXPERIMENTS'
TUTUME DISTRICT, 1983 84.... ... ,... .... ... ...-.. ... .8.24












: ! :- :


:.-:. -, ~ ~: i.! .' .


File:.AAWS481Intro


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- S.8 -














LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 THE FARMING SYSTEMS APPROACH ............... ...... ........ .. 1.2


File:.AAVS48/Intro


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Date: 17/10184














1. OVERVIEW


Many of the points mentioned in the overview are discussed in the more
detailed chapters that follow.

1 .: PREAMBLE

The major purpose of the ATIP project is to improve the capacity of the
Ministry of Agriculture's (MOA) research and extension programmes to
develop and effectively extend farming system recommendations relevant to
the needs of the small (limited resource) farmer. In the project design it
was envisaged that ATIP would contribute to this purpose in three ways:

(a). Help strengthen the experiment station based research of the
Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) and strengthen the links
between such research and farmers by implementing a Farming Systems
Approach to Research (FSAR), with teams based at Mahalapye and
Francistown.

(b). Help strengthen the linkage between research workers in DAR and
extension personnel in the Department of Agricultural Field
Services (DAFS) through the appointment of a Research Extension
Liaison Officer (RELO).

(c). Help set up a commercial seed production system to ensure that
adequate supplies of needed seed are available for distribution to
Batswana farmers.

In terms of the above, this report only includes consideration of (a) and
(b) above. Implementation of (c) has been postponed as a result of
discussions between USAID/Botswana (USAID/E) and the Government of Botswana
(GOB).

A number of attributes of FSAR helped focus the direction of ATIF's work.
Since there is a great deal of confusion as to what is called Farming
Systems Research (FSR), a conceptual outline of the ATIP approach is given
in Figure 1.i. ATIP researchers prefer to call it a Farming Systems
Approach to Research (FSAR) rather than the more popular term FSR. ATIP's
FSAR program is aimed at improving the welfare of farming families through
increasing their productivity. Two complementary approaches can be
followed:

(a). Farming Systems Research (FSR) -- involving the development of
relevant improved technologies and their dissemination via the
extension service.

(b). Farming Systems Perspective (FSP) -- involving influencing the
development of relevant policies and support systems.

Initially ATIP's emphasis has been mainly on FSR although hopefully later
in the project increasing emphasis will be placed on FSP. ATIP researchers


File:. AAWS48/Over


- 1.1 -


Date: 17/10184














1. OVERVIEW


Many of the points mentioned in the overview are discussed in the more
detailed chapters that follow.

1 .: PREAMBLE

The major purpose of the ATIP project is to improve the capacity of the
Ministry of Agriculture's (MOA) research and extension programmes to
develop and effectively extend farming system recommendations relevant to
the needs of the small (limited resource) farmer. In the project design it
was envisaged that ATIP would contribute to this purpose in three ways:

(a). Help strengthen the experiment station based research of the
Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) and strengthen the links
between such research and farmers by implementing a Farming Systems
Approach to Research (FSAR), with teams based at Mahalapye and
Francistown.

(b). Help strengthen the linkage between research workers in DAR and
extension personnel in the Department of Agricultural Field
Services (DAFS) through the appointment of a Research Extension
Liaison Officer (RELO).

(c). Help set up a commercial seed production system to ensure that
adequate supplies of needed seed are available for distribution to
Batswana farmers.

In terms of the above, this report only includes consideration of (a) and
(b) above. Implementation of (c) has been postponed as a result of
discussions between USAID/Botswana (USAID/E) and the Government of Botswana
(GOB).

A number of attributes of FSAR helped focus the direction of ATIF's work.
Since there is a great deal of confusion as to what is called Farming
Systems Research (FSR), a conceptual outline of the ATIP approach is given
in Figure 1.i. ATIP researchers prefer to call it a Farming Systems
Approach to Research (FSAR) rather than the more popular term FSR. ATIP's
FSAR program is aimed at improving the welfare of farming families through
increasing their productivity. Two complementary approaches can be
followed:

(a). Farming Systems Research (FSR) -- involving the development of
relevant improved technologies and their dissemination via the
extension service.

(b). Farming Systems Perspective (FSP) -- involving influencing the
development of relevant policies and support systems.

Initially ATIP's emphasis has been mainly on FSR although hopefully later
in the project increasing emphasis will be placed on FSP. ATIP researchers


File:. AAWS48/Over


- 1.1 -


Date: 17/10184



















FIGURE 1.1: THE FARMING SYSTEMS APPROACH


STAGES
1. Descrintive I Diapnostic


Curt


2. Design


Kev: R = Researcher
F = Farmer
S= Mnaced
I = Imolemented


ent farming system
thesis fgmatlation)


Use
kno







:: Rn
: i



A'-*' ;...B


3. Testino












A DissemilatialI


odi ie
* -. : ,5


Support systems
And policy
AL


Farmer
i informi tiaon
- '

body of -"Esperiment
wi1edaa e s tiat "
*I O -. . .- -

.' ,R I





1c, .m. ... .



----------------------------- ,


.. .. .. .: :; ,; .


S.;.: >.
d fainig-------------------- -----------
team

-----.. ---- -- '.,- ---- -- ---^ ----- --- --


F itg: .AAWS4EIIG vei X-Cta lI


:


- 1.2 -


Data. 15110/84









believe a successful FSR programme must include involving the farmer (the
consumer of the improved technologies); tapping the pool of knowledge of
farmers; recognizing the heterogeneous nature of the farming community;
using an interdisciplinary approach, exploiting complementary and
supplementary relationships in the farming system, and having a dynamic and
iterative research approach which is complementary with experiment station
based research.

1.2: PERSONNEL

Apart from a lack of a counterpart for Norman there was a full complement
of ATIP senior level staff through most of the reporting period. Although
there was no anthropology/sociological input by GOB during the reporting
period, an agreement has been reached for a person to be seconded to the
Project full time for a period of one year starting in July or August. In
the. March/April period the INTSORMIL CRSP agronomists (Carter and
Youngquist) arrived and are starting to interact with ATIP personnel.

By the end of the reporting period most of the problems with respect to
support staff had been resolved. Enumerator positions have been
established by GOB for ATIP, while clerical staff have been posted to
Francistown and Mahalapye. The major.remaining problem is with respect to
the T4 positions. Two more have been appointed, leaving two still to be
recruited. With reference to the eight approved GA5/6 positions, six more
persons are -supposed'o~- be provided and hopefully will be appointed in the
next couple of weeks.

Three consultancies were implemented during the year in areas as diverse as
the biological fixation of nitrogen, in-service training programmes for
S..- -extension staff, and instructin~g ATIP staff arid counterparts on the use of
the three Apple microcomputers that have now been purchased with project
funds.

1.3: ADMINISTRATION ..1.0. "

Administrative matters continue to take a great deal of time on the part of
the Team and Deputy Team Leaders. However many of the problems unresolved
at the beginning of the reporting period have been, or are in the process
of being, resolved. Ways are being sought to streamline some of these
day-to-day routine administrative tasks, particularly those of a reporting
nature, through setting up files on microcomputer disks. It is hoped that
over time these can increasingly be maintained by clerical .staff in ATIP.

In July a Mid-Term Evaluation Team of five individuals spent a couple of
weeks looking at the project. A report has been produced which has been
submitted to the GOB.

1.4 : TRAINING

.The six individuals sent on long-term training -- two MS and four BS
degrees -- during the last reporting period .were still away at the end of
the current reporting period. No more have been sent during the current
reporting period since 16 of the 22 person years initially to be funded
under the project have already been committed. ATIP personnel, as
indicated in the 1983-84 Annual Report, are very concerned about the


File:. AAWS4810~ver


- 1.3 -


Date: 17/10/84









believe a successful FSR programme must include involving the farmer (the
consumer of the improved technologies); tapping the pool of knowledge of
farmers; recognizing the heterogeneous nature of the farming community;
using an interdisciplinary approach, exploiting complementary and
supplementary relationships in the farming system, and having a dynamic and
iterative research approach which is complementary with experiment station
based research.

1.2: PERSONNEL

Apart from a lack of a counterpart for Norman there was a full complement
of ATIP senior level staff through most of the reporting period. Although
there was no anthropology/sociological input by GOB during the reporting
period, an agreement has been reached for a person to be seconded to the
Project full time for a period of one year starting in July or August. In
the. March/April period the INTSORMIL CRSP agronomists (Carter and
Youngquist) arrived and are starting to interact with ATIP personnel.

By the end of the reporting period most of the problems with respect to
support staff had been resolved. Enumerator positions have been
established by GOB for ATIP, while clerical staff have been posted to
Francistown and Mahalapye. The major.remaining problem is with respect to
the T4 positions. Two more have been appointed, leaving two still to be
recruited. With reference to the eight approved GA5/6 positions, six more
persons are -supposed'o~- be provided and hopefully will be appointed in the
next couple of weeks.

Three consultancies were implemented during the year in areas as diverse as
the biological fixation of nitrogen, in-service training programmes for
S..- -extension staff, and instructin~g ATIP staff arid counterparts on the use of
the three Apple microcomputers that have now been purchased with project
funds.

1.3: ADMINISTRATION ..1.0. "

Administrative matters continue to take a great deal of time on the part of
the Team and Deputy Team Leaders. However many of the problems unresolved
at the beginning of the reporting period have been, or are in the process
of being, resolved. Ways are being sought to streamline some of these
day-to-day routine administrative tasks, particularly those of a reporting
nature, through setting up files on microcomputer disks. It is hoped that
over time these can increasingly be maintained by clerical .staff in ATIP.

In July a Mid-Term Evaluation Team of five individuals spent a couple of
weeks looking at the project. A report has been produced which has been
submitted to the GOB.

1.4 : TRAINING

.The six individuals sent on long-term training -- two MS and four BS
degrees -- during the last reporting period .were still away at the end of
the current reporting period. No more have been sent during the current
reporting period since 16 of the 22 person years initially to be funded
under the project have already been committed. ATIP personnel, as
indicated in the 1983-84 Annual Report, are very concerned about the


File:. AAWS4810~ver


- 1.3 -


Date: 17/10/84









believe a successful FSR programme must include involving the farmer (the
consumer of the improved technologies); tapping the pool of knowledge of
farmers; recognizing the heterogeneous nature of the farming community;
using an interdisciplinary approach, exploiting complementary and
supplementary relationships in the farming system, and having a dynamic and
iterative research approach which is complementary with experiment station
based research.

1.2: PERSONNEL

Apart from a lack of a counterpart for Norman there was a full complement
of ATIP senior level staff through most of the reporting period. Although
there was no anthropology/sociological input by GOB during the reporting
period, an agreement has been reached for a person to be seconded to the
Project full time for a period of one year starting in July or August. In
the. March/April period the INTSORMIL CRSP agronomists (Carter and
Youngquist) arrived and are starting to interact with ATIP personnel.

By the end of the reporting period most of the problems with respect to
support staff had been resolved. Enumerator positions have been
established by GOB for ATIP, while clerical staff have been posted to
Francistown and Mahalapye. The major.remaining problem is with respect to
the T4 positions. Two more have been appointed, leaving two still to be
recruited. With reference to the eight approved GA5/6 positions, six more
persons are -supposed'o~- be provided and hopefully will be appointed in the
next couple of weeks.

Three consultancies were implemented during the year in areas as diverse as
the biological fixation of nitrogen, in-service training programmes for
S..- -extension staff, and instructin~g ATIP staff arid counterparts on the use of
the three Apple microcomputers that have now been purchased with project
funds.

1.3: ADMINISTRATION ..1.0. "

Administrative matters continue to take a great deal of time on the part of
the Team and Deputy Team Leaders. However many of the problems unresolved
at the beginning of the reporting period have been, or are in the process
of being, resolved. Ways are being sought to streamline some of these
day-to-day routine administrative tasks, particularly those of a reporting
nature, through setting up files on microcomputer disks. It is hoped that
over time these can increasingly be maintained by clerical .staff in ATIP.

In July a Mid-Term Evaluation Team of five individuals spent a couple of
weeks looking at the project. A report has been produced which has been
submitted to the GOB.

1.4 : TRAINING

.The six individuals sent on long-term training -- two MS and four BS
degrees -- during the last reporting period .were still away at the end of
the current reporting period. No more have been sent during the current
reporting period since 16 of the 22 person years initially to be funded
under the project have already been committed. ATIP personnel, as
indicated in the 1983-84 Annual Report, are very concerned about the


File:. AAWS4810~ver


- 1.3 -


Date: 17/10/84









current shortage of funds for long-term training. However, the USAID
Director agreed that the issue of training could be brought to the
attention of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team. It is understood they
recommended further funding of long-term training.' Therefore it is hoprd
that this recommendation will be implemented.

With reference to short-term training four individuals were sent on courses
out of the country while 11 were instructed on the use of the Apple
microcomputers that have been purchased by ATIP.

1.5: PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

1.5.1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Rainfall figures in Table 1.1 indicate that the two years of ATIP existence
have coincided with two bad years in terms of rainfall for arable
agriculture. Thus ATIP has been faced with another difficult year as far
as work of a technical nature is concerned. The figures do show the
inadvisability of looking at total annual figures only. There was, for
example, during this current reporting period, considerable rainfall late
in the season.- However these obviously were too late to be of much use,
although they did result in a prolong gatio of the poor harvest season by
encouraging some of the tillers on cereal crops to head rand; produce grain.


TABLE I' 1. MONTHLY RA:IFAtiL'(M i''At MAHALAPYE AND FRANCI~TOWN,
1982-84

MAHALAPYE FRANCISTOWN
.- MONTH.- "--------------: -- ------ -----.- "--"-"---------
30 YEAR 1982-83 1~3-84 30 YEAR 1982-83.-1 41983-84
AVERAGE AVERAGE

July 2.1 0.0 1.4 0.5 0.0 0.0
August 0.6 0.0 2.1 0.8 4.1 12.0
September 9.7 ? 2.4 "0.2 7.9 0.0 0.0
October 30.7 96.0 17.4 24.3 62.7 .... 89.0
SNovember-: : 67.2 48.9 81.8 61.7 24.4 122.5
. :December :' 93 9 85.9 58.5: 1 01.6 .38.7 84.2
January 85.4 26.0 1.0 98. A 60.. 4.8
February : 91 7 15.4 Z4.2 8s3.5. 41.7 20.4
March 48.4 13.1 2'57.2' 46. 1 42.4 145.5
April 31.2 14:.9 14 2 .9 108.3 17.2
May .12.3 i.9 .0 10.? 6.1 0.0
June 4.3 3.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0
------ --------------------------------------------------- ---
TOTAL : 477.5 307.5 515.2 464.1 3: 388 9. 495.6



The two seasons have brought home to ATIP personnel three .observations:

(:a).. That because:' f the harsh climatic environment there is little
flexibility in the timing of farm operations. Thus interventions
:..i have to address the issue of breaking bottleneclcs rather than

: :. e::.AAWS48/Ovet:: 1.4 Date: 17/10/84









current shortage of funds for long-term training. However, the USAID
Director agreed that the issue of training could be brought to the
attention of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team. It is understood they
recommended further funding of long-term training.' Therefore it is hoprd
that this recommendation will be implemented.

With reference to short-term training four individuals were sent on courses
out of the country while 11 were instructed on the use of the Apple
microcomputers that have been purchased by ATIP.

1.5: PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

1.5.1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Rainfall figures in Table 1.1 indicate that the two years of ATIP existence
have coincided with two bad years in terms of rainfall for arable
agriculture. Thus ATIP has been faced with another difficult year as far
as work of a technical nature is concerned. The figures do show the
inadvisability of looking at total annual figures only. There was, for
example, during this current reporting period, considerable rainfall late
in the season.- However these obviously were too late to be of much use,
although they did result in a prolong gatio of the poor harvest season by
encouraging some of the tillers on cereal crops to head rand; produce grain.


TABLE I' 1. MONTHLY RA:IFAtiL'(M i''At MAHALAPYE AND FRANCI~TOWN,
1982-84

MAHALAPYE FRANCISTOWN
.- MONTH.- "--------------: -- ------ -----.- "--"-"---------
30 YEAR 1982-83 1~3-84 30 YEAR 1982-83.-1 41983-84
AVERAGE AVERAGE

July 2.1 0.0 1.4 0.5 0.0 0.0
August 0.6 0.0 2.1 0.8 4.1 12.0
September 9.7 ? 2.4 "0.2 7.9 0.0 0.0
October 30.7 96.0 17.4 24.3 62.7 .... 89.0
SNovember-: : 67.2 48.9 81.8 61.7 24.4 122.5
. :December :' 93 9 85.9 58.5: 1 01.6 .38.7 84.2
January 85.4 26.0 1.0 98. A 60.. 4.8
February : 91 7 15.4 Z4.2 8s3.5. 41.7 20.4
March 48.4 13.1 2'57.2' 46. 1 42.4 145.5
April 31.2 14:.9 14 2 .9 108.3 17.2
May .12.3 i.9 .0 10.? 6.1 0.0
June 4.3 3.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0
------ --------------------------------------------------- ---
TOTAL : 477.5 307.5 515.2 464.1 3: 388 9. 495.6



The two seasons have brought home to ATIP personnel three .observations:

(:a).. That because:' f the harsh climatic environment there is little
flexibility in the timing of farm operations. Thus interventions
:..i have to address the issue of breaking bottleneclcs rather than

: :. e::.AAWS48/Ovet:: 1.4 Date: 17/10/84









exploiting flexibility in the farming system.


(b). That farmers, because of great variability in the inter-and
intra-annual distribution of rains, are faced with a "decision
tree" type, of approach to farming. In other words decisions on
farming matters vary according to how the cropping season develops.


(c). That there is not a great deal in the way of technologies on the
shelf that will give reliable results in every year. Basically
this is because of the tremendous variability in the cropping years
referred to above.

Consequently, unlike farming systems projects in many countries, ATIP is
having to put a great deal more emphasis on descriptiveldiagnostic work in
order to properly understand, not only the human but also the technical
environment, in order to introduce strategies that have a reasonable chance
of adoption, andalso in order to be able to feed back priorities to
scientists on the experiment station. In a more equable climatic
environment such emphasis on describing and diagnosing the technical
environment would not need to receive so much concentration.

ATIP is also starting to deviate significantly from farming systems
projects in other countries in another respect. This is the relative
degree of emphasis that ATIP staff are beginning to place on researcher
managed and implemented (RM,RI) type of work. Once again.this arises from
the harsh nature of the climatic environment. Working at a level involving
more management or implementation by the farmer involves more cooperation
on his/her part. This is particularly difficult to achieve during drought
years and tends to give highly discounted results, even if in fact they
produce anything at all. ATIP has placed a great deal of emphasis on
farmers' cooperation for the last two years and therefore have had very few
technical results that look promising. Also, because of this, a dialogue
with farmers with respect to results has been very limited. By increasing
the relative degree of researcher managed and researcher implemented type
work, it will be possible to test the feasibility of certain strategies,
while. at the same time it will open up the. possibility of dialogue with the
farmer, who can see results with his/her own eyes on his/her own field.
Once again in a more equable climate where timing is not so critically
important, it would not be necessary nor even desirable to place much
emphasis on research managed and implemented (RM,RI) type work.

The research activities of the ATIP teams located in Mahalapye and
Francistown are summarised in Tables 1.2 and 1.3. ,The results are
discussed in much more detail in Chapters 7 and 8. However it is
interesting to note that, although there is a certain parallelism in the
work of the two teams, they do have their own distinct research identities.
This brings up an issue with respect to ATIP work. Because of the very
uncertain nature of the environment and the difficulty of designing
strategies it does appear justified that the research agendas in the two
places, should be able tip differ according to the needs expressed by the
farmers, and according to the perceptions of the individual researchers.
Obviously promising results in one area could be tested in another area at
a later date. However at times it may appear that there is little
coordination between th. work of the two teams. Efforts are being made to


File: AAWS48 /Over


- 1.5 -


Date: 17/10/84











TABLE 1.2: STATUS OF SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP HAHALAPYE, 1983-84 SEASON


SURVEY OR TRIAL SECTION IN REPORT DATE STATUS


TWnltS-tAOUID:
Whole Farm Studies:
HVRU
Technical monitoring
Whole Field Honitoring
Special Plot Monitoring
New Village Work.


Cowpea Baseline Study
Regional Perspective Study
SURVEYS-UNPLANNED:
Cropping Plans
Institutions, Services, and
Infrastructure
Inventory Surveys
Veed Growth
SoillRoot Profiles


7.1.1.1(1)
7.1.1.1(2)
7.1.1.1(2)
7.1.1.1(2)
7.1.1.2


Oct 83-Sip 84
Oct 83-Jul 84


Nay 84-Jul 84


7.1.1.3 May 84-Sep 84
7.1.1.4 Jul 84-Sep 84


Implemented as planned; 27 farmers
Completed on 47 farmer's fields
Replaced by plot monitoring
Replaced by plot monitoring
Exploratory mostly complete;
Sample Frame Census dropped
Survey completed; 51 farmers
Not started


7.1.1.5(1) Oct 83-Nov 84 Completed; 45 farmers


7.1.1.5(2)
7.1.1.1(3)
7.1.1.5(3)
7.1.1.5(4)


Jan 83-Har 84
Feb 84-Mar 84
Feb 84-May 84
Apr 84-Jun 84


Completed; villages
Completed; at least 25 farmers
Completed; 59 plot situations
Completed; 15 fields


-.........------------------------- ------------- ------------------------ --------------------
DESIGN TRIALS-PLANNED:
-'RM.RI : -1
*Local Sorghum Geraplasm 7.1.2.1 Dec 83-Jul 84 Completed as planned
Post-Emergence Harrowing 7.1.2.2 ; Dec 83 A. arranged, not implemented
Ridge Ploughing 7.1.2.3 -.--------- Not arranged; equipment arrived late
Effects of Early Tillage 7.1.2.4 Nov 83-Jun 84 Completed; 2'farmrs
TRIALS-UNPLANNED:

Bird Scaring 7.1.2.5(2) -zFeb 84-Nay 84 Completed 4 sites
On-Fara .Experiaental
.,MN: ethodolgy Study .. .;:7.1.5(3). Jan 84 Completed 5 plots
:,; Oual Purpose Cowpeas 71.:25(1) 'Dec 83-Jun 84 Completed
--------------------- -- --------------------- ------- ------------
TESTING TRIALS-PLANNED: -:.:-....
RMRI ::
N and F Benefits .. 7.1.3.3 .:.. N.io 3-Jen 84 F: 8 replication implemented
N: Not implemented due to drought


Effectiveness of Sole Ploughingl.1.3.1
Draught Team Management 7.1.3:2
Cowpea Cropping Comparisons 7.1.3:4
Evaluation of Weed. Control 7.1.3.5
Lands Area Vegetable Plot 7.1.3.6
FHFI : .
EFSAIP PloughlPlanter. 7.1.3.7
SSeed Treatment -. 7.1.3.8


-Nov 83-Jon 84
Oct 83-Apr: 84
Dec 83-Jan 84
------------
Nov 83-Dec 83

SNov 83-Dec 83
Dec 83-Jun 84


Arranged 14 farmers; I implemented
Completed; S farmers
Arranged 30 farmers; 16 implemented
Replaced with monitoring
Arranged 1 farmer; not implemented

Arranged 3 farmers; implemented 1 farmer
Arranged 15 fatiaes; 12 implemented
To few results "1ib'nalyse


File: :.AWS.8I.ve. IA Date:,1...018
!. ; .- ::.. ; C


"MIgucumv
DIAGNOSTIC


--- -;


Fit e :~. UYSIB.IQPet


- 1.4 -


Date: 18110184













TABLE 1.3: STATUS OF SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP FRANCISTOVN, 1983-84 SEASON


SURVEY OR TRIAL SECTION IN REPORT DATE STATUS


SURVEYS-PLANNED:
Exploratory
Sample Frame
Multiple Visit Resource Use


SURVEYS-UNPLAINED:
Village Infrastructure
Cowpea Baseline
Plough Condition
Livestock Practices


8.1.1(1)
8.1.1(2)
8.1.1.2(1)


8.1.1.2(2)
8.1,1.2(3)
8.1.1.3(2)
8:1.1.3(1)


Sep
Oct
Oct


Feb
Feb
Feb
Apr


83-Oct 83
83-Nov 83
83-Sep 84


84
84-Apt 84
84-Apr 84
84-May 84


Completed as planned
Completed as planned; 1367 farmers
Initiated with 31 farmers;
Complete data for 26 households

Completed in project villages
Completed with 275 farmers
Completed with 30 farmers
Completed with 42 farmers


----------------------------.. ---------------------- ------- -- ---------- -------- -----....................-
DESIGN TRIALS:
RI :
Maximum Production 8.1.2.1 Nov 83-Jun 84 Planted with 3 farmers


RM.pi
Steps in Technology

Stand Establishment


2 trials killed by drought


8.1.2.2. No 83-Jan 84

8.1.2.3 Nov 83-Jun 84


Planted with 3 ftarers
2 trials killed by drought


Depth of Ploughing 8.1.2 4 Nov 83-Jan:84 Planted with 3 farmers,
All killed by drought
Late Planted Crops for Forage 8.1.2.5(1) Apr 84-Jun 84 3 plots each of do[peis and millet;
2 plots of teff
Yield Estimation Methodology 8.1.5.1 Mar 84-Jul 84 Completed on 7 plots
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
TESTING TRIALS:

Planting Equipment 8.1.3.1 Nov 83-Jan 84 Completed with one firmer
Cowpea Variety 8.1.3.1 Dec 83-Jan 84 Arranged with 20 farmers; planted by 1
Feeding of mineral-Hix to
Animals 8.1.3.2(1) Nov 83-Sept 84 Continuing with 13 cattle herds;


29 goat herds; and 12 donkey herds


File: .AAVS4810ver


DESCRIPTIVE
DIAGNOSTIC


Date: 18110184


- 1.7 -









ensure frequent contact between the two teams. For example, it is now
planned to implement quarterly meetings of all ATIP personnel plus some
personnel from outside the project itself (eg, Cowpea CRSP, INTSORMIL,
EFSAIP personnel, etc.).

With the recent acquisition of two Apple lie microcomputers it is
anticipated that the,data processing/writing up link will be made
considerably shorter consequently helping to improve the productivity of
ATIP personnel. It is anticipated that data entry onto data bases will
continue to be the major responsibility of personnel at Sebele while data
analysis will be emphasised at Mahalapye and Francistown. Word processing
work obviously will be done at all three locations.

1.5.2 OTHER 'PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

The RELO and his counterpart have continued their visits to regions and
districts and have attended many of the monthly meetings. .They have also
emphasized increased contact with the Crop Production Officers in the
regions. In order to obtain a better feel for the problems and perceptions
of extension and research personnel a survey was devised and administered
to personnel fii DAFS and.the.Arable Research Division of DAR. The surveys
have been~ completed and returned and soon will be. analysed on the
microcomputer at Sebele.;

Other major thrusts during the reporting period were to organism a review
of the: current Agrifacts :to determine the accuracy of their ciitent and
their readability. Also an effort has been made to organise six monthly
meetings of the regional.Crop Production Officers at which contact with DAR
personnel will be emphasised. This lack of contact between research and
extension has been perceived as a major problem. It is hoped that this
problem will be ameliorated during such meetings. Also the RELO and his-
counterpart have been involved with a number of committees.pius playing a
role in "oordinating FSR activity among the variousprojects ih Botswana.

1.6: WORK PLAN PROPOSED ", -

dmhinistrative--issues are likely to continue to occupy a substantial amount
of time especially on the part of the Team .and Deputy Team Leaders, but it
is hoped that now ATIP has been firmly established, relatively- greater ....
emphasis can be devoted to professional tasks.

The major research activities will continue to revolve around the teams at
Mahalapye and Francistown. Summaries of their proposed research programmes
are shown in Tables 1.4 and 1.5 but detailed descriptions of their plans
are presented in Chapters 7 and 8.

1.7: PAPERS

A complete list of papers produced by ATIP since its inception is given in
Chapter 9.


File:. AAWS48/Over


- 1.8 -


Date: 17110/84













TABLE 1.4: SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP MAHALAPYE, OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER 1985


SURVEY, TRIAL OR DEMONSTRATION SAMPLE STAGE
:DESCRIPTIONI l DESIGN ; TESTING ODISSEMHIATION !
DIAGNOSIS


SURVEYS:
Whole Farm Studies:
(a) MVRU Survey
(b) Activity Survey
(c) Inventory Surveys
(d) Whole Field Honitoring
(e) Livestock Practices Survey
(f) Cattle Post Visits
Crop Growth Response Studies:
(a) Plot Monitoring
(b) Veed Control investigations
Regional Perspective Study:
(a) Exploratory Survey

(b) Quarterly Price Survey
(c) ALDEP Participant Survey
Farmer Decision Studies:
(a) Decision Unit/Management
Information Study
(b) Farmer Terminology


12 Households JOct'84-Sep'85
40 Households IOet'84-Jun'85:
52 Households iKov'84-Jan'S5:
40 Farms :0ct'84-Jun'851
50 Households :Apr'85-Hay'853
5 Posts HNov'84-Jul'85


12 Farms
50 Plots

OAFS Officers
10 Villages
7 Villages
50 Farmers


0ct'84-Jun'85!
IDec'84-Jun'85l


Oct'84-Feb'85!
Nov'84-Sep'85{
!May'8S-Aug'851


50 Households :Nov'84-Jan'85:
20 Sources ;Nor'84-Sep'851


TRIALS:
RH.RI : ,, :
Commercial Steps in Technology 3 Fields :0ct'84-Jon'83:
Ridge Ploughing Trial : 2 Fields :Oe 4-Jun'851
Steps in Veed Control 2 Fields : tOct'84-Jan'85i

Replanting 30 Replications ..:i'84-Jan 85i$
Draught Management 2 Teams O. ct'84-Jun'85:'
Intensive Production Level 1 6 Farms ., tOct'84-Jan'8:
Intensive Production Level 2 3 Farms :Oct'84-Jun'851
Undersowing- : i Replications Oct'84-Jan'85
Tillage Planting Scheme 10 Farms t- Oct'-Jun'851
Crbp Seeding Comparisons ? :Oct'84-Jun'85

Cowpea Harvesting 20 Replications .N ov '8-Jan'B85
Alternative Planting Methods 10 Farmers .- Nov'84-Jan'85!
-------------------------------------------------------------------
DEHOHSTRATION: -----
TillagelPlanting.Scheme 6 Locations :Oct'84-Jun'85:


Date: 18i0184


File:.AAVS480/Over


- 1.. -













TABLE 1.5: SURVEYS AND TRIALS, ATIP FRANCISTOWN, OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER 1985

SURVEY, TRIAL OR DEMONSTRATION SAMPLE STAGE
DESCRIPTIONI DESIGN TESTING DISSEMINATIO ;
: DIAGNOSIS :

SURVEYS:
Monitoring Arable Activities by Plot 9 Farmers 0ect'84-Sep'85!
Monitoring Household Activities 30 Farersa :Oct'84-Jun'85:
Monitoring Environmental Variables Variable :Oet'84-Jun'85:
Stand Establishment by Plot 6 Farmers :------------. ct'84-Jun'85--------------
Baseline Survey (Tatume District) 275 Households:Nov'84-Dec'84i
(a) Agronomic Fractices
(b) Animal Husbandry Practices
(c) Resource Endowments
(d) Agricultural Markets
(e) Income Sources
Institutional Studies (Case Studies) Variable :Feb'85-May'85:
(a) Access to Resources
(b) Access to Markets
(c) Transfer Payments
(d) Market Structure for Grain and
Smallstock
----------------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------------
TRIALS:

Maxinnm Production Trials 3 Farmers ;Oct'84-Jan'851
Yield Estimation Hethodology 6 Plots :0ct'84-Jun'851
Livestock Blood Phosphorus Levels 11 Farners ;Oct'84-Sep'85:
RM-FI
Planting Strategy 2 Farmers :Oct'84-Jon'85:
Draught Management 6 Farmers :Oet'84-Jun'85!
Steps in Technology 3 Farmers : -------Oct'84-Jun'85------
Harnesses and Yokes 8 Farmers :-------Oct'84-Jan'85-------
Drinking Water for Draught Animals 3 Farmers -----Oct'84-Jan'85------

Feeding Mineral Supplement to Animals 61 Herds O-ct'84-Jun'SS
Planting Equipment Tests 3 Earners Oct'84-Jan'85:
Cowpea Variety Trials 3S Farmers ;Oet'84-Jun'85

The sample of 30 farmers includes the nine farmers where the agronomic activities are monitored by plot.
For these nine farmers no additional information on arable activities will be obtained.


File: .AAWS4BIOver-1.0-at:8114


- 1.10 -


Date: 18110184









ensure frequent contact between the two teams. For example, it is now
planned to implement quarterly meetings of all ATIP personnel plus some
personnel from outside the project itself (eg, Cowpea CRSP, INTSORMIL,
EFSAIP personnel, etc.).

With the recent acquisition of two Apple lie microcomputers it is
anticipated that the,data processing/writing up link will be made
considerably shorter consequently helping to improve the productivity of
ATIP personnel. It is anticipated that data entry onto data bases will
continue to be the major responsibility of personnel at Sebele while data
analysis will be emphasised at Mahalapye and Francistown. Word processing
work obviously will be done at all three locations.

1.5.2 OTHER 'PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

The RELO and his counterpart have continued their visits to regions and
districts and have attended many of the monthly meetings. .They have also
emphasized increased contact with the Crop Production Officers in the
regions. In order to obtain a better feel for the problems and perceptions
of extension and research personnel a survey was devised and administered
to personnel fii DAFS and.the.Arable Research Division of DAR. The surveys
have been~ completed and returned and soon will be. analysed on the
microcomputer at Sebele.;

Other major thrusts during the reporting period were to organism a review
of the: current Agrifacts :to determine the accuracy of their ciitent and
their readability. Also an effort has been made to organise six monthly
meetings of the regional.Crop Production Officers at which contact with DAR
personnel will be emphasised. This lack of contact between research and
extension has been perceived as a major problem. It is hoped that this
problem will be ameliorated during such meetings. Also the RELO and his-
counterpart have been involved with a number of committees.pius playing a
role in "oordinating FSR activity among the variousprojects ih Botswana.

1.6: WORK PLAN PROPOSED ", -

dmhinistrative--issues are likely to continue to occupy a substantial amount
of time especially on the part of the Team .and Deputy Team Leaders, but it
is hoped that now ATIP has been firmly established, relatively- greater ....
emphasis can be devoted to professional tasks.

The major research activities will continue to revolve around the teams at
Mahalapye and Francistown. Summaries of their proposed research programmes
are shown in Tables 1.4 and 1.5 but detailed descriptions of their plans
are presented in Chapters 7 and 8.

1.7: PAPERS

A complete list of papers produced by ATIP since its inception is given in
Chapter 9.


File:. AAWS48/Over


- 1.8 -


Date: 17110/84









ensure frequent contact between the two teams. For example, it is now
planned to implement quarterly meetings of all ATIP personnel plus some
personnel from outside the project itself (eg, Cowpea CRSP, INTSORMIL,
EFSAIP personnel, etc.).

With the recent acquisition of two Apple lie microcomputers it is
anticipated that the,data processing/writing up link will be made
considerably shorter consequently helping to improve the productivity of
ATIP personnel. It is anticipated that data entry onto data bases will
continue to be the major responsibility of personnel at Sebele while data
analysis will be emphasised at Mahalapye and Francistown. Word processing
work obviously will be done at all three locations.

1.5.2 OTHER 'PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

The RELO and his counterpart have continued their visits to regions and
districts and have attended many of the monthly meetings. .They have also
emphasized increased contact with the Crop Production Officers in the
regions. In order to obtain a better feel for the problems and perceptions
of extension and research personnel a survey was devised and administered
to personnel fii DAFS and.the.Arable Research Division of DAR. The surveys
have been~ completed and returned and soon will be. analysed on the
microcomputer at Sebele.;

Other major thrusts during the reporting period were to organism a review
of the: current Agrifacts :to determine the accuracy of their ciitent and
their readability. Also an effort has been made to organise six monthly
meetings of the regional.Crop Production Officers at which contact with DAR
personnel will be emphasised. This lack of contact between research and
extension has been perceived as a major problem. It is hoped that this
problem will be ameliorated during such meetings. Also the RELO and his-
counterpart have been involved with a number of committees.pius playing a
role in "oordinating FSR activity among the variousprojects ih Botswana.

1.6: WORK PLAN PROPOSED ", -

dmhinistrative--issues are likely to continue to occupy a substantial amount
of time especially on the part of the Team .and Deputy Team Leaders, but it
is hoped that now ATIP has been firmly established, relatively- greater ....
emphasis can be devoted to professional tasks.

The major research activities will continue to revolve around the teams at
Mahalapye and Francistown. Summaries of their proposed research programmes
are shown in Tables 1.4 and 1.5 but detailed descriptions of their plans
are presented in Chapters 7 and 8.

1.7: PAPERS

A complete list of papers produced by ATIP since its inception is given in
Chapter 9.


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2. PERSONNEL

2.1: PROFESSIONAL STAFF

The long-term expatriate staff financed under the MIAC/USAIDIGOB agreement
were all present throughout the reporting period. There were no major
problems that interfered with their work. Certainly a great asset has been
that all the ATIP long-term expatriates have had .previous overseas
experience enabling them to quickly adjust to working in Botswana. The
housing situation seems to have stablised although the Francistown
technicians are still living in private housing. .However since the private
housing is very satisfactory there have been no ..issues arising from; thi
decision by the GOB to rent them for a further year.

Towards the end of the reporting period the personnel recruited under the
INTSORMIL CRSP (Carter and Youngquist) arrived. Limited support to them is
given through the ATIP project. Their remaining support costs derive from
GOB and the INTSORMIL CRSP. However it is anticipated that close :
collaboration will be developed between the work of these technicians and
ATIP personnel.

It is encouraging to note that all four of the technicians whose two year
tours of duty finish later this year have expressed a desire t6 extend.
Hobbs will be returning for one further year and Siebert, Baker and-Norman
are returning for further two year tours. Continuity of FSAR"work is
extremely important especially in a harsh climatic environment such as
Botswana.

All counterparts sent away on training during the last reporting period in
fact are still away. The first one to return will be Monyatsi with an MS
degree in Agricultural Economics in January 1985. By the end of the
current reporting period most .f t.he USAID technicians- were working with
replacement counterparts. Siebert had to wait until January 1984 for
Luzani who was completing a diploma in BAC, while..Matlho joined Koch in
February after an orientation period with APRU at .Sebele. Norman had no
counterpart for the whole of the reporting period:. In the case of Siebert
the late arrival of Luzani did interfere with work at the beginning of the
cropping year since he was until.that time the lone.: agronomist in
Mahalapye. In the case of Koch it was. difficult to initiate-:Work with ATIP
Mahalapye until after the arrival, of Matlho.

Unfortunately during the whole of the current reporting period no
sociologylanthropological input was available to the project. According to
the terms of the agreement between USAID and GOB such services were to be
provided by GOB. However just before the end of the reporting period an
agreement was reached with GOB for John LesetIho who is employed in the
Rural Sociology Unit of DPS'to join the project in September on a full time
basis for one year. In essence this will help rectify the lack of an input
over the first two years when anthropological/sociological services were to
be provided on a half-time basis. At the end of one year's full time work
with the project Lesetlho and other members of the Rural Sociology Unit


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- 2.1 -














2. PERSONNEL

2.1: PROFESSIONAL STAFF

The long-term expatriate staff financed under the MIAC/USAIDIGOB agreement
were all present throughout the reporting period. There were no major
problems that interfered with their work. Certainly a great asset has been
that all the ATIP long-term expatriates have had .previous overseas
experience enabling them to quickly adjust to working in Botswana. The
housing situation seems to have stablised although the Francistown
technicians are still living in private housing. .However since the private
housing is very satisfactory there have been no ..issues arising from; thi
decision by the GOB to rent them for a further year.

Towards the end of the reporting period the personnel recruited under the
INTSORMIL CRSP (Carter and Youngquist) arrived. Limited support to them is
given through the ATIP project. Their remaining support costs derive from
GOB and the INTSORMIL CRSP. However it is anticipated that close :
collaboration will be developed between the work of these technicians and
ATIP personnel.

It is encouraging to note that all four of the technicians whose two year
tours of duty finish later this year have expressed a desire t6 extend.
Hobbs will be returning for one further year and Siebert, Baker and-Norman
are returning for further two year tours. Continuity of FSAR"work is
extremely important especially in a harsh climatic environment such as
Botswana.

All counterparts sent away on training during the last reporting period in
fact are still away. The first one to return will be Monyatsi with an MS
degree in Agricultural Economics in January 1985. By the end of the
current reporting period most .f t.he USAID technicians- were working with
replacement counterparts. Siebert had to wait until January 1984 for
Luzani who was completing a diploma in BAC, while..Matlho joined Koch in
February after an orientation period with APRU at .Sebele. Norman had no
counterpart for the whole of the reporting period:. In the case of Siebert
the late arrival of Luzani did interfere with work at the beginning of the
cropping year since he was until.that time the lone.: agronomist in
Mahalapye. In the case of Koch it was. difficult to initiate-:Work with ATIP
Mahalapye until after the arrival, of Matlho.

Unfortunately during the whole of the current reporting period no
sociologylanthropological input was available to the project. According to
the terms of the agreement between USAID and GOB such services were to be
provided by GOB. However just before the end of the reporting period an
agreement was reached with GOB for John LesetIho who is employed in the
Rural Sociology Unit of DPS'to join the project in September on a full time
basis for one year. In essence this will help rectify the lack of an input
over the first two years when anthropological/sociological services were to
be provided on a half-time basis. At the end of one year's full time work
with the project Lesetlho and other members of the Rural Sociology Unit


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- 2.1 -











TABLE 2.1 PERSONNEL ON THE ATIP PROJECT


NAME DISCIPLINE HIGHEST RANK STATION DATES OF ASSOCIATION
IPOSITION ACADEMIC ----------------------------
QUALIFI- START DEPARTURE END
CATIOH FOR
TRAINING

SAID TECHNICIANS:


Hobbs, A.
Norman, D.V.
Siebert, J.C.
Baker, D.C
Heinrich, C.
Koch, B.
Miller, V.

COUNTERPARTS:
Hodiatgotla, E.
Nonyatsi, T.
Tjirongo, N.
Horemedi, G.
Masikara, S.
Natlho, V. (Hiss)
Razolemane, C.
Seleka, T.
Tibone, C. (Miss):


Agronomist
Ag. Econ.
Agronomist
Ag. Econ.
Agronomist
Animal Sc.
Ag. Econ.


Agronomist
Ag. Econ.
Ag. Econ.
Agronomist
Agronomist
Animal Sc.
Agronomist
Ag. Econ.
Ag. Eton.


Ph.D
Ph.D
Ph.D
MS
Ph.D
Ph.D
Ph.D


BS
B :.'
DA
DA
CA
B.Sc
E. S
DA
DA


ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT:
Hophutingn,: (Niss)
Seretse, L. (Mrs)


Gaborone Aug. 1982
Sebele Aug. 1782
Hahalapye Sept.1983
Hahalapye 0 ct. 198
Francistown Aug. 1983
Francistown Aug. 1983
Fraicistown Aug. 1983


ahalapye Aug. 1982
- Mahalapye Aug. 1982
ahalapye Sept.1982
SCGaborone Dec. 1982
Francistown Sept.1983
Francistown Sept.1983
- Gaborone Sept.1983
- rancistown Sept.1983
- Mahalapye Sept.1983


Sibele Sept.1982
: Sebele' Mar. 1983


Aug.1983
Jan.1983
Aug.1983
Aug.1983


- Jan.1983


OTHERS:
Mahelo, C.
Hotlhokodise, B'
Okaile, .
Dira, D;
Keipeile, V
:Kopi,?
Hogotsi, C.
buonyane, P. (miss)
Hoayadswe, NH.
Sibanda, B. (Hiss)
Clifford;, J. (Mrs)
Seleke, K. (Hiss)
Sibanda, ?.


Enumerator 'Trainee
Enuearator "'TrVinee
Enumerator Trainee
Extension 4
EDrtensrn '
Driver
'Oriver ? '
'Computing Trainee
En.uerator CA :
Enumerator GA6
Typist S3
Typist S4
Extension T4..


Shoshong, Sept .1982
Shoshoihg''' Sep .1982
Hadwate ''Sept.1982
Hatwate Oc't 1982
Shoshong Oct. 1982
Frantcistown Sept.1982
Mahalipye. Oct. 1982
Sebele Feb. 1983
Mathangwane Oct. 1983
Marapong Oct. 1983
Francistown Sept.1983
Hahalapye Dec. 1983
Matabo June 1984


File: .AAVS481Pers


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-. + :
-+


Notes: The table does not include those that were employed as casual labour. Also it'
does not include the BAC students who work with the project for short period.:


i
i _


- 2.2 -


Date,: '15110184









will be available to carry out additional studies if and when they are
required. It would be anticipated in such a case that transport and per
diem costs would be met out of ATIP project funds.

A continuing concern is the apparent lack of incentives for Batswana staff
on the project. Some of the counterparts work long hours in the field,
which is to be expected.of professionals doing FSAR type work. However
there seems to be little in the way of a reward system for such work and
for sometimes living under somewhat difficult conditions. It is difficult
to see what can be done about resolving the incentive issue but it is a
problem that will need to be addressed if the FSAR is going to be
successfully institutionalized in Botswana and if Batswana are going to be
willing to devote their careers to this type of work.

2.2: SUPPORT STAFF

The clerical situation has improved greatly during the last year. Clerical
staff or typists have now-been- posted to both Mahalapye and Francistown.
Hopefully the productivity of these individuals will be improved with the
training they have recently. received on the Apple lie microcomputers (see
Section 4.1(b)) and new typewriters that have been provided. There have
been no problems over the last year with reference to the drivers posted to
Mahalapye and Francistown. A second driver is in the process of being
recruited for Francistown:-to help the animal scientists who work in both
:Mahalapye and Francistown.

Also another issue that has been resolved satisfactorily during the last
year has been that with reference to the "trainees". Two -of the three
,. trainees initially employed in the Mahalapya area are still with the
.:project. Recently they successfully passed examinations for appointment to
T5 posts.

Another issue that has been satisfactorily resolved this year has been
approval of eight GA5/6 enumerator posts for ATIP in the new financial year
starting in April 1984.. Until now most of the interviewing work has been
done by temporary employees. The approval of permanent -posts. will enable
the project to build up a permanent cadre of well trained enumerators. In
the. Francistown area two of the individuals currently employed on a '
temporary basis have been offered permanent GA6 positions.. The Directorate
of Personnel is currently filling the other vacancies will be held vacant.

The major continuing problem that the project has had during the last year
is with respect to the lack of T4s that were supposed to be seconded to the
project from DAFS. The project still only have three T4s with another one
due to start work with the project shortly. It is planned that two each
will be stationed in Mahalapye and Francistown. This means that there is
still a need for two further individuals to enable one person to be posted
to each of the six ATIP villages. DAFS have repeatedly indicated that they
are willing to let us have the T4s but as yet they still have not
materialised It is to be hoped that they will be posted to the project
very shortly. Their participation in the project should greatly facilitate
improved productivity of project personnel in the field.




File: .AAWS48/Pers 2.3 Date: 17/10/84










2.3 CONSULTANCIES

It was very encouraging for the project that the Dean of Agriculture Kansas
State University Dr.J. Dunbar made an Executive Visit to the project in
March. He did a substantial amount of travelling within the country and
visited all the villages that are currently involved in ATIP work. There
was opportunity for project members to interact with him and raise various
concerns.

In addition there were four short-term consultancies. They were as
follows:

(a). Dr. George Ham, Head of the Agronomy Department visited the project
at the same time as the Dean of Agriculture from Kansas State
University. In addition to working out details about the proposed
posting of INTSORMIL personnel which is being coordinated through
his department, he consulted with ATIF agronomists on grain
legumes. He also had discussions with the Cowpea CRSP Team. He
also gave a seminar on "biological nitrogen fixation by legumes" to
a large group of research and extension staff. (27th March 12th
April).

(b). Dr. Robert Johnson who is with the Extension Service at Kansas
State University visited and gave advice on how in-service training
within DAFS could be improved (see Section 6.1 2.'2(c)). He also
gave a seminar on his findings. (6th June 3rd July).

(c). Mrs. Sandra Miller wife of one of the USAID technicians gave two
two-week courses on the use of microcomputers for ATIP personnel
(see Section 4.1.2). (1st May 15th. June).

(d). Dr. David Roes and Mr,. John .Sinclair, who recently finished
assignments with the.Dry Land.Farming Research Scheme (DLFRS) at
: Sebele, provided the project with unpaid consultancy work in the
area of soils in Botswana. (Selected days in June and July).

Drs, Dunbar, Ham and Johnsoni 'have provided reports which are available.
The Siriclair/Rees,: report is being compiled with the help of ATIP: personnel
while the consultancy report of 'Miller consists of the teaching materials
used in the courses.


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3. ADMINISTRATION

The amount of time spent in administrative tasks of all team members was
still considerable during the current reporting period although the
greatest burdens continued to be borne by the Team and Deputy Team Leader.
The administrative tasks continued to be complicated by having team members
located in four different places (Francistown, Mahalapye, Sebeie and-
Gaborone), by ATIP. having to develop close working relationships with three
S different agencies in the Government of Botswana (Department of Agriculture
Research) (DAR) and Agriculture Field Services.,(DAFS,) and the Division of
Planning and Statistics (DPS)) and having to:relate to the requirements of
the GOB, USAIDIB, the contracting agency MIAC, and with the lead
institution Kansas State University (KSU)..

However in spite of the above complications things have improved during the
reporting period and many of the problems that were apparent at the
beginning have now been resolved. Particularly important has been the
improved communications between the three locations with a telephone ?being
installed in the ATIP Office in Francistown. Also of great help has been
the purchase of another project vehicle (Peugeot station wagon) for
commuting; between Gaborone and Francistown. Also related to communication
Shas been the fact that:.all the USAID technicians except the Team Leader
have had the opportunity to take a short course in::Sitswana or Kalanga
Although no one as yet has become fluent in either'?of them. Another major
improvement has been the purchase of two more Apple microcomputers (Apple
lie's). They have been located at Mahalapye and Francistown. Since their
purchase in May the process of analysing data has been greatly speeded up.
Looking back it is a pity that perhaps these purchases were not made much
earlier since it would have facilitated more timely analysis of surveys and
*. trials.

3.1: TEAM LEADER

Administrative tasks' still continued to:occupy a great deal of Norman's
time during the second year of the project. It is difficult now to see
what further can: be done to :cut:down the proportion :of time spent on
administrative matters, As Indicated above the complications arising from
the project being scattered overr;different locations arid dealing with a
number of agencies makes administrative work inevitably burdensome.
However a good ideal of information has been gleaned during the reporting
period on operational procedures n different agencies. The problem still
arises that. personal intervention by Norman seems to be necessary in
resolving many of the problems that arise. This means inevitably a
commitment of time -- a scarce resource!

It is pertinent to raise the issue that was also discussed ininthe 1982-83
Annual Report about- the' problem -of: the general administrative burden' placed
on the leaders of most .Titlee.XII projects, including ATIP. Most countries
in approving project:.leaders -use as the major evaluative criteria, the'
professional expertise of the;'potential 'project leader. Thus they expect


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3. ADMINISTRATION

The amount of time spent in administrative tasks of all team members was
still considerable during the current reporting period although the
greatest burdens continued to be borne by the Team and Deputy Team Leader.
The administrative tasks continued to be complicated by having team members
located in four different places (Francistown, Mahalapye, Sebeie and-
Gaborone), by ATIP. having to develop close working relationships with three
S different agencies in the Government of Botswana (Department of Agriculture
Research) (DAR) and Agriculture Field Services.,(DAFS,) and the Division of
Planning and Statistics (DPS)) and having to:relate to the requirements of
the GOB, USAIDIB, the contracting agency MIAC, and with the lead
institution Kansas State University (KSU)..

However in spite of the above complications things have improved during the
reporting period and many of the problems that were apparent at the
beginning have now been resolved. Particularly important has been the
improved communications between the three locations with a telephone ?being
installed in the ATIP Office in Francistown. Also of great help has been
the purchase of another project vehicle (Peugeot station wagon) for
commuting; between Gaborone and Francistown. Also related to communication
Shas been the fact that:.all the USAID technicians except the Team Leader
have had the opportunity to take a short course in::Sitswana or Kalanga
Although no one as yet has become fluent in either'?of them. Another major
improvement has been the purchase of two more Apple microcomputers (Apple
lie's). They have been located at Mahalapye and Francistown. Since their
purchase in May the process of analysing data has been greatly speeded up.
Looking back it is a pity that perhaps these purchases were not made much
earlier since it would have facilitated more timely analysis of surveys and
*. trials.

3.1: TEAM LEADER

Administrative tasks' still continued to:occupy a great deal of Norman's
time during the second year of the project. It is difficult now to see
what further can: be done to :cut:down the proportion :of time spent on
administrative matters, As Indicated above the complications arising from
the project being scattered overr;different locations arid dealing with a
number of agencies makes administrative work inevitably burdensome.
However a good ideal of information has been gleaned during the reporting
period on operational procedures n different agencies. The problem still
arises that. personal intervention by Norman seems to be necessary in
resolving many of the problems that arise. This means inevitably a
commitment of time -- a scarce resource!

It is pertinent to raise the issue that was also discussed ininthe 1982-83
Annual Report about- the' problem -of: the general administrative burden' placed
on the leaders of most .Titlee.XII projects, including ATIP. Most countries
in approving project:.leaders -use as the major evaluative criteria, the'
professional expertise of the;'potential 'project leader. Thus they expect


File:. AAWS48/Admin


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; 3.1 -








such individuals to play a leading professional role in the implementation
of such projects, something in practice it is very difficult to do.
Concern about this problem was expressed by Collinson, a consultant early
in the implementation of ATIP. The problem of differing perceptions of the
various parties associated with projects like ATTP with respect to the
administrative/professional roles of this leadership needs consideration
and resolution. One idea that was mentioned in last year's Annual Report
that might help such leaders to play more of a professional role would be
for AID missions to have some centralised administrative expertise
available for the various projects that could, when necessary, play a short
term facilitating role in helping to produce documents, accounts, etc., as
required by AID. One of the continuing time consuming and frustrating
activities of the current leadership of ATIP is understanding AID
procedures, implementing such procedures and producing records and accounts
documents that satisfy the requirements of AID. Unfortunately, to the
outsider at least, it appears difficult to get detailed documentation of
such procedures while, perhaps incorrectly, to the uninitiated, they are
perceived to change frequently. A facilitator in the AID missions could
greatly help in overcoming this problem.

An example of the above. iswith reference to obtaining GOB reimbursement
for expenditures of funds.that. AID has agreed to provide through the
Research and Operations Support .Vote: In order for GOB to get this
reimbursement the Team Leader had to spend-a great deal of time putting
together the, necessary documentation required for this transaction to take
place. It would have been a lot easier if someone from USAID could have
helped to produce the required documentation. Unfortunately the capacity
within GOB to do this in a timely manner did not appear to materialise and
therefore considerable pressure was placed on the Team Leader to provide
this function. Until reimbursement was requested it was not possible to
get new funds allocated to the Research and Operations Support Vote by
USAID.. A facilitator. from USAID could have helped: supervise and check the
information that was being put together by the Administrative Assistant and
people within the GOB. This would have helped reduce the time spent by the
Team Leader, undertaking this function which was allocated at the expense of
time devoted to professional activities. .;

As a result .of the earlier. problems with reference to ATIP purchasing
equipment with USAID funds, a-line item was: placed in the MIAC/USAID
contract agreement enabling equipment to be purchased through Kansas State
University. This appeared to be a major step forward but recently there do
seem to have been some problems with reference to implementing equipment
purchases in an efficient manner. This is largely because of the stringent
accounting and purchasing procedures that the State of Kansas currently
have and which have to be followed by Kansas State University. This
continues to be a problem but it is hoped that .with goodwill on both sides
it will be possible to implement purchases through Kansas State University.


An effort is being made to use the Apple III microcomputer for some of the
routine administrative requirements. For example, leave entitlements,
votes, and ATIP library lists are already kept on disks for quick updating.
It is also anticipated that inventories will also be placed on disks in the
near future. Such streamlining of administrative work where possible can
potentially be of great help in relieving administrative burdens,


File:. AAWS48/Admin


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especially if clerical staff can be taught to work with them.


3.2: DEPUTY TEAM LEADER

Major assigned administrative duties for the Deputy Team Leader remained as
in the last report -- overseeing participant training activities and
managing the KSU Revolving Account.

No additional long-term trainees were sent abroad during the report period
but the six already on BS and MS courses in the United States continue to
make satisfactory progress.. Arrangements were made M. Modise, CPO (Post
Harvest) to attend KSU's Grain Storage ana Marketing short course June
11th-July 27th at project expense.

The Revolving Account continues to serve the project and personnel well.
Again it provided advances against expenses for old and new staff. It
provided funds for the initial payment for the Apple lie microcomputers
that were purchased for use by the Francistown and Mahalapye based teams.
Money to reimburse the account for expenditure during the second year
(August 1983 to June 1984) was received from KSU. An additional refund was
provided by a short term trainee whose overseas expenses. were paid
ultimately by USAID. Some clarification has been obtained with reference
to the use of the fund.- For example, it cannot be used,for purchasing
major items of equipment, since cheques necessary for paying suppliers have
to be issued directly by the State of Kansas. Also it has been agreed that
at the beginning of. each financial year, that is July 1st, the account will
be replenished to an equivalent of S15,000, thereby correcting any
discrepancies arising.from fluctuations in exchange rates.

Hobbs spent considerable time arranging for the Ham and Johnson
consultancies. In the case of the In-Service Training consultancy, Hobbs
spent a week in the field with Johnson interviewing DAFS field personnel.
Time was also spent with editing of the consultants report.

Additional time was also spent arranging for the Grain Storage Short Course
laid on for DAFS Regional CPOs and some BAMS staff.

Other administrative duties included procuring 1:50000 scale maps and
aerial photographs for the selected village areas in Tutume District:.

Arrangements for construction of the Francfstown office building continued
intermittently. Permission to construct this five-roomed office block'.and
separate toilet facility was granted by the Land Board and the Francii',own
Town Council. Currently the project is held up because the estimated cost
of construction far exceeds the money allocated on the basis of estimiaes
given in 1983 by the Gaborone firms. Increased costs resulted from:
,.unexpected needs in the building -- additional toilet facilities, a ne
electric. power source (line) for air .conditioning, and establishment of:
,access roads and parking areas. There is also the question as to whether
construction should go ahead because of uncertainty where the RAO's office
compound might be located in the future:.

Assistance was given in arranging for a motor cycle loan and for a
reasonable transportation allowance for the Shoshong T4 (W.,; KeipeileY.T


File:. AAWS48/Admin


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Assistance was also provided in early March to the Francistown team to
measure and redraft the rough site plans for the T4 building sites in
Mathangwane, Matobo, and Maropong villages. The hebd for these plans
became critical because the end of the GOB fiscal year was approaching and
funds allocated for building the tondavels could not be ,used until site
plans were approved and permission to build granted.

Hobbs made arrangements to purchase four ridger ploughs and to construct
two flat-bed.trailers- for -implement transport fo'r the Francistown and
Mahalapye agronomists.

3.3. OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE DULIES I

Inevitably the ATIP teams at Mahalapye and Francistown do have
administrative duties to perform. Hopefully over time these will become
less burdensome. Ways are being sought to reduce the time spent on such
duties. Hopefully the clerical staff at both places can assume some of the
responsibility.

Obviously Francistown during the first operational year in 1983-84, have
S:had a heavy administrative burden in setting up procedures in. the
Francistown area. Also time has been required to set up the necessary
infrastructure, For example considerable time was spent-in the purchasing
and delivery of building materials for the construction of seven dwelling
units in Tutume district. Three units were built in Matobo, the village
furthest from Francistown and two in each of the other villages. A
two-room unit was constructed in each village for T4. staff that are
expected to be assigned to the project. Single-room units were .built to
house enumerators. The third unit in Matobo (single-room) was;.built either
to house a second enumerator or to serve as, a store room for project
equipment. This activity required a considerable.time commitment from
project staff.

3.4: THE MID-TERM EVALUATION TEAM

The Mid-Term Evaluation Team spent two weeks in July looking at the
project. T:he five perisdon team consisted of C. Francis (Nebraska/Rodale
Press), N'. Flora (Kansas State University), D. Galt (FSSP/Elorida), H.
Sigwele (GOE) and B. Whittle (Washington).

There were a number of issues that ATIP brought .to the attention of the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team so that they could be specifically addressed in
their report -- if they felt such consideration was justified. It should
be noted-that there was in general no official approval obligating the team
to address these issues but reactions to them were considered to be of
potential value to ATIP members themselves. A list of the.isues.presented
can be summarised as follows. .... ....- :

3.4.1 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES .

SBecause :of: ..

(a). The harsh climatic environment giving rise to little: flexibility
S in'the farming system, and

S File AAVS48/Admin 3.4 ate: 17/10184









Assistance was also provided in early March to the Francistown team to
measure and redraft the rough site plans for the T4 building sites in
Mathangwane, Matobo, and Maropong villages. The hebd for these plans
became critical because the end of the GOB fiscal year was approaching and
funds allocated for building the tondavels could not be ,used until site
plans were approved and permission to build granted.

Hobbs made arrangements to purchase four ridger ploughs and to construct
two flat-bed.trailers- for -implement transport fo'r the Francistown and
Mahalapye agronomists.

3.3. OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE DULIES I

Inevitably the ATIP teams at Mahalapye and Francistown do have
administrative duties to perform. Hopefully over time these will become
less burdensome. Ways are being sought to reduce the time spent on such
duties. Hopefully the clerical staff at both places can assume some of the
responsibility.

Obviously Francistown during the first operational year in 1983-84, have
S:had a heavy administrative burden in setting up procedures in. the
Francistown area. Also time has been required to set up the necessary
infrastructure, For example considerable time was spent-in the purchasing
and delivery of building materials for the construction of seven dwelling
units in Tutume district. Three units were built in Matobo, the village
furthest from Francistown and two in each of the other villages. A
two-room unit was constructed in each village for T4. staff that are
expected to be assigned to the project. Single-room units were .built to
house enumerators. The third unit in Matobo (single-room) was;.built either
to house a second enumerator or to serve as, a store room for project
equipment. This activity required a considerable.time commitment from
project staff.

3.4: THE MID-TERM EVALUATION TEAM

The Mid-Term Evaluation Team spent two weeks in July looking at the
project. T:he five perisdon team consisted of C. Francis (Nebraska/Rodale
Press), N'. Flora (Kansas State University), D. Galt (FSSP/Elorida), H.
Sigwele (GOE) and B. Whittle (Washington).

There were a number of issues that ATIP brought .to the attention of the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team so that they could be specifically addressed in
their report -- if they felt such consideration was justified. It should
be noted-that there was in general no official approval obligating the team
to address these issues but reactions to them were considered to be of
potential value to ATIP members themselves. A list of the.isues.presented
can be summarised as follows. .... ....- :

3.4.1 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES .

SBecause :of: ..

(a). The harsh climatic environment giving rise to little: flexibility
S in'the farming system, and

S File AAVS48/Admin 3.4 ate: 17/10184









Assistance was also provided in early March to the Francistown team to
measure and redraft the rough site plans for the T4 building sites in
Mathangwane, Matobo, and Maropong villages. The hebd for these plans
became critical because the end of the GOB fiscal year was approaching and
funds allocated for building the tondavels could not be ,used until site
plans were approved and permission to build granted.

Hobbs made arrangements to purchase four ridger ploughs and to construct
two flat-bed.trailers- for -implement transport fo'r the Francistown and
Mahalapye agronomists.

3.3. OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE DULIES I

Inevitably the ATIP teams at Mahalapye and Francistown do have
administrative duties to perform. Hopefully over time these will become
less burdensome. Ways are being sought to reduce the time spent on such
duties. Hopefully the clerical staff at both places can assume some of the
responsibility.

Obviously Francistown during the first operational year in 1983-84, have
S:had a heavy administrative burden in setting up procedures in. the
Francistown area. Also time has been required to set up the necessary
infrastructure, For example considerable time was spent-in the purchasing
and delivery of building materials for the construction of seven dwelling
units in Tutume district. Three units were built in Matobo, the village
furthest from Francistown and two in each of the other villages. A
two-room unit was constructed in each village for T4. staff that are
expected to be assigned to the project. Single-room units were .built to
house enumerators. The third unit in Matobo (single-room) was;.built either
to house a second enumerator or to serve as, a store room for project
equipment. This activity required a considerable.time commitment from
project staff.

3.4: THE MID-TERM EVALUATION TEAM

The Mid-Term Evaluation Team spent two weeks in July looking at the
project. T:he five perisdon team consisted of C. Francis (Nebraska/Rodale
Press), N'. Flora (Kansas State University), D. Galt (FSSP/Elorida), H.
Sigwele (GOE) and B. Whittle (Washington).

There were a number of issues that ATIP brought .to the attention of the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team so that they could be specifically addressed in
their report -- if they felt such consideration was justified. It should
be noted-that there was in general no official approval obligating the team
to address these issues but reactions to them were considered to be of
potential value to ATIP members themselves. A list of the.isues.presented
can be summarised as follows. .... ....- :

3.4.1 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES .

SBecause :of: ..

(a). The harsh climatic environment giving rise to little: flexibility
S in'the farming system, and

S File AAVS48/Admin 3.4 ate: 17/10184









(b). Little technology on the shelf that will work every year -- once
again largely a function of the harsh climatic environment and high
variability in the inter and intra annual rainfall
distribution,

a relatively high degree of emphasis is being placed on:

(a). Descriptive/diagnostic and design stages work -- in order to
understand when, and in what form, available technologies will
work, and :

(b). Increasingly, research managed and implemented (RM,RI) type work --
to provide results in drought years, expand the "knowledge horizon"
of farmers and provide tangible results that improve dialogue
possibilities with farmers.

Is this approach justified?

3.4:2 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

Three currently of particular importance are:

(a). Should ATIP's mandate for farming systems research (FSR) be
.expanded to include policy/developmental issues., (ATIP call this the
farming systems. perspective ,(FSP). -- see Section :'. I ATIP believe
it is necessary. If so hhow: can it be' done?

(b). To date the sociclogicalf/anthropologicAlT input has been lacking.
GOB has now,committed itself to providing someone full time for a
period of one year sLtrting August 1984. What topics urgently need
consideration bearing in: mind that:

(f) '.."this input has been largely lacking. during the first two
years of the project, and .. :"
(ii). The FSR. mandate of ATIP" '

33..3 ATIP PRODUCTIVITY AND COMMUNICATION ISSUES.

ATIP team members are stationed at four locations Mahalapye,
Francistow, Sebele .and Gaborone -- therefore: '

-: (a). iComplicating and increasing administrative burdens which are
further exacerbated by having to deal with GOB, USAIDIS, KSU and
MIAC administrations. Administrative burdens are heavy for all
Title XII projects. Are the e any ideas.how this burden can be
eased to permit Team and Deputy Team Leaders -- usually selected on
the basis of professional competence-- playing a more productive
professional role.

(b). 'Complicating the problem of communication and cooperation. Three
monthly meetings of all team members are planned, while currently
each team draws up its own research agenda which is discussed at a
'whole team" meeting. Suggestions on how to improve communication
and cooperation would be welcome. Also is it justifiable that the


File:. AAWS48/Admin


- 3.5.-


Date: 17/10/84









(b). Little technology on the shelf that will work every year -- once
again largely a function of the harsh climatic environment and high
variability in the inter and intra annual rainfall
distribution,

a relatively high degree of emphasis is being placed on:

(a). Descriptive/diagnostic and design stages work -- in order to
understand when, and in what form, available technologies will
work, and :

(b). Increasingly, research managed and implemented (RM,RI) type work --
to provide results in drought years, expand the "knowledge horizon"
of farmers and provide tangible results that improve dialogue
possibilities with farmers.

Is this approach justified?

3.4:2 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

Three currently of particular importance are:

(a). Should ATIP's mandate for farming systems research (FSR) be
.expanded to include policy/developmental issues., (ATIP call this the
farming systems. perspective ,(FSP). -- see Section :'. I ATIP believe
it is necessary. If so hhow: can it be' done?

(b). To date the sociclogicalf/anthropologicAlT input has been lacking.
GOB has now,committed itself to providing someone full time for a
period of one year sLtrting August 1984. What topics urgently need
consideration bearing in: mind that:

(f) '.."this input has been largely lacking. during the first two
years of the project, and .. :"
(ii). The FSR. mandate of ATIP" '

33..3 ATIP PRODUCTIVITY AND COMMUNICATION ISSUES.

ATIP team members are stationed at four locations Mahalapye,
Francistow, Sebele .and Gaborone -- therefore: '

-: (a). iComplicating and increasing administrative burdens which are
further exacerbated by having to deal with GOB, USAIDIS, KSU and
MIAC administrations. Administrative burdens are heavy for all
Title XII projects. Are the e any ideas.how this burden can be
eased to permit Team and Deputy Team Leaders -- usually selected on
the basis of professional competence-- playing a more productive
professional role.

(b). 'Complicating the problem of communication and cooperation. Three
monthly meetings of all team members are planned, while currently
each team draws up its own research agenda which is discussed at a
'whole team" meeting. Suggestions on how to improve communication
and cooperation would be welcome. Also is it justifiable that the


File:. AAWS48/Admin


- 3.5.-


Date: 17/10/84








Mahalapye and Francistown teams have their own research agendas?
For a number of reasons -- different farming clientele, high
Professional competency on each team, and lack of definitive
solutions to problems in this harsh climatic environment -- ATIP
think "individuality" of the two teams is justified but what was
the opinion of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team?

3.4.4 INSTITUTIONALISATION ISSUES

One of the aims of ATIP is of course to help -- along with similar projects
-- to institutionalise the farming systems approach to research (FSAR) --
or rather, currently FSR -- in Botswana. Three issues pertinent to
ensuring this are:

(a). Training of Batswana. ATIP are concerned about the lack of person
years currently budgeted for long term training -- see letters
between the Team Leader and the USAID Mission Director. The
response from the Mission Director specifically authorised the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team to look at this issue and make
recommendations. Currently this is the most significant issue as
far as ATIP is concerned.

(b). Resources for FSR. How much emphasis should be placed on FSR in a
country like Botswana with a small GNF -- largely because of its
low population -- and therefore limited resources for research and
extension? What strategies should be considered in order to
maximise the return from these limited resources? ATIP believes
that for this and other reasons it is important to link FSR work
with extension as well as research personnel. How can this be done
in a pragmatic manner? Ideas would be appreciated.

(c). The project is currently designed for five years. ATIP believes
this gestation period to be too short given the difficulty of
the climate, relatively little technology on the shelf and the lack
of trained manpower -- to institutionalise this approach. The
opinions and recommendations of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team were
sought following discussions with GQB and USAID personnel. It is
considered important, for planning purposes, to know very soon'w hat
the length. of the project is likely to be.

3.4.5 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES

Three issues that are relevant here are:

(a). Consider a provision that would allow USAID technicians to attend
professional meetings -- it appears possible for Batswana to use
ATIP short term training funds for such purposes -- to develop
their competence and to provide the potential for meaningful
professional interaction. There are no funds available for this at
the moment.

(b). Suggestions. would be welcome of career paths for the USAID.
technicians so that the USA builds up a large pool of developmental
expertise,. Only three of the seven ATIP personnel are currently in
tenure track positions and two of those will be retiring at the end


File:. AAWS48/Admin


Date: 17/10/84








Mahalapye and Francistown teams have their own research agendas?
For a number of reasons -- different farming clientele, high
Professional competency on each team, and lack of definitive
solutions to problems in this harsh climatic environment -- ATIP
think "individuality" of the two teams is justified but what was
the opinion of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team?

3.4.4 INSTITUTIONALISATION ISSUES

One of the aims of ATIP is of course to help -- along with similar projects
-- to institutionalise the farming systems approach to research (FSAR) --
or rather, currently FSR -- in Botswana. Three issues pertinent to
ensuring this are:

(a). Training of Batswana. ATIP are concerned about the lack of person
years currently budgeted for long term training -- see letters
between the Team Leader and the USAID Mission Director. The
response from the Mission Director specifically authorised the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team to look at this issue and make
recommendations. Currently this is the most significant issue as
far as ATIP is concerned.

(b). Resources for FSR. How much emphasis should be placed on FSR in a
country like Botswana with a small GNF -- largely because of its
low population -- and therefore limited resources for research and
extension? What strategies should be considered in order to
maximise the return from these limited resources? ATIP believes
that for this and other reasons it is important to link FSR work
with extension as well as research personnel. How can this be done
in a pragmatic manner? Ideas would be appreciated.

(c). The project is currently designed for five years. ATIP believes
this gestation period to be too short given the difficulty of
the climate, relatively little technology on the shelf and the lack
of trained manpower -- to institutionalise this approach. The
opinions and recommendations of the Mid-Term Evaluation Team were
sought following discussions with GQB and USAID personnel. It is
considered important, for planning purposes, to know very soon'w hat
the length. of the project is likely to be.

3.4.5 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES

Three issues that are relevant here are:

(a). Consider a provision that would allow USAID technicians to attend
professional meetings -- it appears possible for Batswana to use
ATIP short term training funds for such purposes -- to develop
their competence and to provide the potential for meaningful
professional interaction. There are no funds available for this at
the moment.

(b). Suggestions. would be welcome of career paths for the USAID.
technicians so that the USA builds up a large pool of developmental
expertise,. Only three of the seven ATIP personnel are currently in
tenure track positions and two of those will be retiring at the end


File:. AAWS48/Admin


Date: 17/10/84









of their current assignments. This is a very major issue.


(c). In terms of continuity and to prevent eKpensive "relearning cycles"
it would be desirable to have an overlap between the incoming and
outgoing technicians on the ATIP project. This does not appear to
be possible under the current contract terms. Can some provision
be made for this?

It is understood by ATIP that most of these issues were considered by the
Mid-Term Evaluation Team in their report. However ATIP still have not
obtained access to the final report since it still has to be approved by
the GOB.


File:. AAWS48/Admin


- 3.7 -


Date: 17/10/84
















S4.: T GAINING :

Three types of training are associated with the project: long and short
term formal training and on-the-job training.

4.1: 'FORMAL TRAINING

Formal training sponsored with ATIP funds is shown in Table 4.1.



TABLE 4..1:. PARTICIPANT TRAINING ,: .

PARTICIPANT LOCAL AFFILIATION GUALIFICATIOKS TRAINING PLANS

TRAINING INSTITUTION DEPARTURE

LONG TERN TRAINING:
Gaosegelwe, P. NADF, DAR' DA (Swaziland) 1979 ES (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Mchive, F. DAO, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1979 BS (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Monyatsi, T. ATIP, DPS ESc (Swaziland) 191 MS (Ag., Econ.) KSU Jan. 1983
Modiakgotla, E. ATIP, DAR BS (V. Illinois) 1981 HS (Agronomy) KSU Aug. 1983
Horemedi, G. ATIP, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1980 ES (Agronomy) tHSU Aug. 1983
Tjirongo, H. ATIPi DPS DA (Swaziland) 1982 BS (Ag.:Econ.) ISU Aug. 1983

SHORT TERM TRAiNRG' .. :
Sigwele,.' '-N1P,1 U "' PS 'i ': S (SU) F SAkR Workshop U~ ZiSb. Nar. 1983
Tjirongo, 'ATIIP DPS' DA (Swaziland) 1982 :- FSAR Vorkshop-:- Vo.Z 1b. 'ar. 1983
TIale, B. Director OAFS BSc Visit US Institutions'i Jul.-Aag.'83
Hasikara, S. ATIP, DAR CA (Botswana) CINNYT Vorkshop Malawi ay 1984
Honyamane, P.K. Hort.,DAR Vegetable Course USDA Jan.-Feb.'84
Hodise, H. DAFS Grain Storage KSU June-July'84

IN BOTSVANA:
4 Clerical Staff ATIP,'DAR Vord Processing F'town May 1984
5 Counterparts ATIP Daisy Statistics F'town May 1984
2 Staff OAR Daisy Statistics F'town Kay 1984
18 Staff DAFS, BANB, WFP Grain Storage Sebele Sep 1984




4.1.1: LONG TERM TRAINING

The six participants sent overseas for long term training last year were
still away during the current reporting period. Details concerning these
individuals are in last year's Annual Report. In summary, two each were
sent from DAR, DPS, and DAFS. Four are studying in Agronomy and two in
Agricultural Economics, two of the participants are studying for MS degrees
and four are reading for BS degrees.

These six participants are making satisfactory progress toward their
degrees. There was concern that one participant would drop out and return

File: .AAWS48/Train ., :, 4.1 i 6, ..Date 16/10/84





.. '-. .1t.


I ,

~...
;
r. .:.
; ;

i ;


: : ':~
















S4.: T GAINING :

Three types of training are associated with the project: long and short
term formal training and on-the-job training.

4.1: 'FORMAL TRAINING

Formal training sponsored with ATIP funds is shown in Table 4.1.



TABLE 4..1:. PARTICIPANT TRAINING ,: .

PARTICIPANT LOCAL AFFILIATION GUALIFICATIOKS TRAINING PLANS

TRAINING INSTITUTION DEPARTURE

LONG TERN TRAINING:
Gaosegelwe, P. NADF, DAR' DA (Swaziland) 1979 ES (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Mchive, F. DAO, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1979 BS (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Monyatsi, T. ATIP, DPS ESc (Swaziland) 191 MS (Ag., Econ.) KSU Jan. 1983
Modiakgotla, E. ATIP, DAR BS (V. Illinois) 1981 HS (Agronomy) KSU Aug. 1983
Horemedi, G. ATIP, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1980 ES (Agronomy) tHSU Aug. 1983
Tjirongo, H. ATIPi DPS DA (Swaziland) 1982 BS (Ag.:Econ.) ISU Aug. 1983

SHORT TERM TRAiNRG' .. :
Sigwele,.' '-N1P,1 U "' PS 'i ': S (SU) F SAkR Workshop U~ ZiSb. Nar. 1983
Tjirongo, 'ATIIP DPS' DA (Swaziland) 1982 :- FSAR Vorkshop-:- Vo.Z 1b. 'ar. 1983
TIale, B. Director OAFS BSc Visit US Institutions'i Jul.-Aag.'83
Hasikara, S. ATIP, DAR CA (Botswana) CINNYT Vorkshop Malawi ay 1984
Honyamane, P.K. Hort.,DAR Vegetable Course USDA Jan.-Feb.'84
Hodise, H. DAFS Grain Storage KSU June-July'84

IN BOTSVANA:
4 Clerical Staff ATIP,'DAR Vord Processing F'town May 1984
5 Counterparts ATIP Daisy Statistics F'town May 1984
2 Staff OAR Daisy Statistics F'town Kay 1984
18 Staff DAFS, BANB, WFP Grain Storage Sebele Sep 1984




4.1.1: LONG TERM TRAINING

The six participants sent overseas for long term training last year were
still away during the current reporting period. Details concerning these
individuals are in last year's Annual Report. In summary, two each were
sent from DAR, DPS, and DAFS. Four are studying in Agronomy and two in
Agricultural Economics, two of the participants are studying for MS degrees
and four are reading for BS degrees.

These six participants are making satisfactory progress toward their
degrees. There was concern that one participant would drop out and return

File: .AAWS48/Train ., :, 4.1 i 6, ..Date 16/10/84





.. '-. .1t.


I ,

~...
;
r. .:.
; ;

i ;


: : ':~
















S4.: T GAINING :

Three types of training are associated with the project: long and short
term formal training and on-the-job training.

4.1: 'FORMAL TRAINING

Formal training sponsored with ATIP funds is shown in Table 4.1.



TABLE 4..1:. PARTICIPANT TRAINING ,: .

PARTICIPANT LOCAL AFFILIATION GUALIFICATIOKS TRAINING PLANS

TRAINING INSTITUTION DEPARTURE

LONG TERN TRAINING:
Gaosegelwe, P. NADF, DAR' DA (Swaziland) 1979 ES (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Mchive, F. DAO, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1979 BS (Agronomy) KSU Jan. 1983
Monyatsi, T. ATIP, DPS ESc (Swaziland) 191 MS (Ag., Econ.) KSU Jan. 1983
Modiakgotla, E. ATIP, DAR BS (V. Illinois) 1981 HS (Agronomy) KSU Aug. 1983
Horemedi, G. ATIP, DAFS DA (Swaziland) 1980 ES (Agronomy) tHSU Aug. 1983
Tjirongo, H. ATIPi DPS DA (Swaziland) 1982 BS (Ag.:Econ.) ISU Aug. 1983

SHORT TERM TRAiNRG' .. :
Sigwele,.' '-N1P,1 U "' PS 'i ': S (SU) F SAkR Workshop U~ ZiSb. Nar. 1983
Tjirongo, 'ATIIP DPS' DA (Swaziland) 1982 :- FSAR Vorkshop-:- Vo.Z 1b. 'ar. 1983
TIale, B. Director OAFS BSc Visit US Institutions'i Jul.-Aag.'83
Hasikara, S. ATIP, DAR CA (Botswana) CINNYT Vorkshop Malawi ay 1984
Honyamane, P.K. Hort.,DAR Vegetable Course USDA Jan.-Feb.'84
Hodise, H. DAFS Grain Storage KSU June-July'84

IN BOTSVANA:
4 Clerical Staff ATIP,'DAR Vord Processing F'town May 1984
5 Counterparts ATIP Daisy Statistics F'town May 1984
2 Staff OAR Daisy Statistics F'town Kay 1984
18 Staff DAFS, BANB, WFP Grain Storage Sebele Sep 1984




4.1.1: LONG TERM TRAINING

The six participants sent overseas for long term training last year were
still away during the current reporting period. Details concerning these
individuals are in last year's Annual Report. In summary, two each were
sent from DAR, DPS, and DAFS. Four are studying in Agronomy and two in
Agricultural Economics, two of the participants are studying for MS degrees
and four are reading for BS degrees.

These six participants are making satisfactory progress toward their
degrees. There was concern that one participant would drop out and return

File: .AAWS48/Train ., :, 4.1 i 6, ..Date 16/10/84





.. '-. .1t.


I ,

~...
;
r. .:.
; ;

i ;


: : ':~








to Botswana. However, he arranged for his wife and one child to travel to
the USA and -remain there until he completes his studies. He now appears to
have settled into his studies with a better heart. Funds for the family
travel and subsistence are provided by the participant, not by GOB or the
project.

Another participant got off to a poor start but he has improved his
academic performance greatly. Things look much brighter for him now. A
third one, Tjirongo, has been admitted to the Honours programme at Iowa
State University, as a result of his excellent grades.

No additional formal long-term training was initiated during the reporting
period. The project is already two man-years ahead of the planned training
objective while USAID funds for training are much more restricted than was
believed when the project paper was prepared and when the project team
members first arrived in Botswana. Also there is a critical shortage of
Botswana funds due to the general recession and to the drought. In
addition all but two of the current counterparts who are qualified for
degree training are very recent diplomats. GOB policy is to keep new
staff in post for at least two years before considering them for further .
academic training. ;

In last year's Annual Report concern was expressed that the level of
funding for long term formal training of Batswana budgeted in the project
appeared to be too low. The reasons for. these were discussed in last
year's Annual Report.

The project design team originally anticipated that two Batswaria would be
trained for each expatriate staff member assigned to the project. This .
appeared to be necessary due to the shortage of trained manpower. Thus 16 '
participant trainees were anticipated and catered for. Ten of these were
to be funded by USAID, through the project, and six by GOB. It is
anticipated that the six trainees already in the USA will need 16 man-years*i
of training (two MS candidates will need four years and four BS candidates '::
will require 12 yearsiT, This leaves only 6 man-years of budgeted training,
or enough for two more participants if they are trained to the BS degree
level. If the seed component of the project is activated and two seed
specialists are sent for their allotted training (one-half year each) there
will not be enough training time left for even two more BS degree
candidates, GOB funds for training are very scarce and are not being.
released in sufficient volume to permit additional degree training at this !
time. So unless additional non GOB government funds are found the proposed
project training programme will have to be delayed or reduced. This is
very serious because trained manpower is in such short supply in Botswana
and training is one of the most effective aids that donor agencies can
provide.

However discussions with the USAID Mission Director resulted in an
agreement to bring the issue of long term training to the attention of the "
Mid-Term Evaluation Team. Apparently they:agreed that more funds should be
allocated for long-term training. It is therefore anticipated that an
approach will be made to GOB suggesting a modification in terms of USAID:
resourrces being allocated for long term training.



File: .AAWS48/Train 4.2 Date: 16/10/84









4.1.2: .SHORT TERM TRAINING


During the last year a total of 31 people have received short term training
with funds provided under the ATIP project. FP K. Monyamane from D-AR, went
on a six week USDA course. in the United States involving Vegetable
Production and Marketing. M. Modise from DAFS, the newly appointed Post
Harvest Crop Production Officer went to the Grain Storage course at Kansas
State University.

Masikara who is an agronomist in the ATIP project went to Malawi with
Siebert to attend the CIMMYT workshop on Issues on. Farm Experimentation.
The arrangements with reference to -sikara are of particular interest and
perhaps form a model for the future. As USAID technicians receive
invitations to attend professional meetings, it would seem on occasion,
appropriate that counterparts could also benefit from attending such.
meetings. It was thought that since Masikara could both benefit from, and
contribute to, the deliberations of the meeting, that this would be a good
use of short-term training funds. It is planned that such arrangements ..
will be continued in the future. ..

Ten individuals received training on Apple ile microcomputers. Two courses
each of two week duration were held by a short-term. consultant, Mrs., Sandra
Miller, in Francistown for ATIP personnel. Two Appla lie computers were-.-.
borrowed from the Apal Agency in Gaborone permitting:MMrs. Miller to. .
instruct a number of people at the same time. The first course involved
instruction in the operation of the microcomputers plus the use of the word
processing package utilised by ATIF personnel. This is Applewriter. The
typists in Francistown and Mahalapye plus the administrative assistant and
trainee at Sebele attended this course. The second two week course
involved once again the use of the Apple lie microcomputers plus
instructions on operating a statistical package called Daisy Professional.
All the counterparts, with the exception of Masikara, who was in Malawi,
plus the trainee in Sebele, another person attached to the Cereal Breeder
at Sebele, and one of the USAID technicians, were involved in this course.
There is no question that these courses have been extremely valuable in
helping staff to overcome fears concerning using microcomputers and
unquestionably will result in increasing the productivity of the
microcomputers. Mrs. Sandra Miller prepared extensive teaching materials
which are available for future ATIP personnel to use.

Another in-service training course was held in cooperation with the Food
and Feed Grain Institute at Kansas State University, which was attended by
18 individuals from DAFS, BAMB and the World Food Programme Considerable
amounts of grain are known to be lost during on-farm storage in Botswana.
These losses become increasingly serious as demands for food increase and
as the production of grain lags behind needs. Accordingly there was a
request for an extension programme on improved grain storage techniques.
This led to the development of a plan for an in-service-training course in
on-farm grain storage (see Section 6.2.2 (d)).

Assistance was also provided by Hobbs and Ramolemana in some of the
in-service training courses planned by the Regional ALDEP Managers and
CPO's at the Regional Rural Training Centres. This assistance will
continue on into the next reporting period.


File: AAWS48/Train


- 4.3 -


Date: 16/10184 .-'









4.2 ON THE JOB TRAINING


This is an area of great importance since FSAR training is not an
established part of the degree programs. In the project design stage it
was agreed that when counterparts proceeded overseas on long-term formal
training programs replacement counterparts would be provided so that
on-the-job training could continue, while at the same time the productivity
of USAID technicians could be maintained. In general t-h-e,:'ddernment of
Botswana has been very good about providing counterparts. In addition
during the January/February break a total of four diploma level BAC
students were assigned to. the. project.

In general the approach to..on-the-job training is to assign tasks that
provide professional experience including conducting structured and
unstructured interviews, survey supervision, direct field measurements,
collection of technical data at the field level, and data analysis. In
addition on occasion on-the-job training has been supplemented by
discussions involving the concept methodology of FSAR and the assignment of
reading materials in specific disciplinary areas and FSAR.

In addition to counterpart on-the-job training provided by the expatriate
project staff, plans by Hobbs and Ramolerena are progressing to assist the
Department of Agricultural Field Services with some of its
in-service-training needs.


- 4 4
.'2'.'"


I,j


:
::
~
i!


File: .AASI$8/`rtain


Da.te. 16/10/84














5. TEAM LEADER, SEBELE


Ag. Economist: D. W. Norman

5.1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984


Most of Norman's time spent on professional work has been devoted to
supporting other team members.

5.1.1: RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

The research activities have been somewhat limited in scale and have simply
involved helping professional activities of other project members. Little
field work has been done by Norman this year. Some help has been given to
designing survey forms. During the cropping season an effort was made to
travel both to Francistown and Mahaiapye at least once every two weeks.
These trips served to help provide a professional input while at the same
time dealing with administrative matters. An effort was made to continue
these visits at two week intervals during the dry season when data
analysis receives priority.

The major research activity continued to involve working with the Apple III
microcomputer. As reported last year a number of software packages were
purchased that are compatible with each other and allow interfacing across
the SOS operating system on the Apple III to the DOS system on the Apple
lie's and the Apple III, when operating in emulation mode. The equipment
and the software packages that have been purchased for the new Apple lies
and Apple III are shown in Table 5.1, All the packages interface via the
DIF system. ATIP still does not have a good statistical package for the
Apple III. However this is no longer an important issue since it is
anticipated that most of the data analysis will now be done on the Apple
lie's in Mahalapye and Francistown. With this in mind two statistical
packages have recently been purchased. ..These are Daisy Professional which
is an update of the earlier Statistics with Daisy package and Statpro.
There are still a few bugs to work out with reference to the Daisy
Professional package.but it is already proving to be of considerable value.
The Statpro package also looks to be promising although as yet it has not
been possible to find a way for it to read a DIF file This is contrary
to the information that was obtained concerning its capabilities before
purchasing the package.- It is anticipated that this issue will be resolved
in the near future, possibly with the help of a consultant writing an
interface programme.

In summary Norman's work with the microcomputer has involved the following.

(a). Continuing to learn mhow to operate the. software packages purchased
for the Apple machines.


File: .AAWS48/Seb


-5.1 -


Date: 17110/1984














5. TEAM LEADER, SEBELE


Ag. Economist: D. W. Norman

5.1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984


Most of Norman's time spent on professional work has been devoted to
supporting other team members.

5.1.1: RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

The research activities have been somewhat limited in scale and have simply
involved helping professional activities of other project members. Little
field work has been done by Norman this year. Some help has been given to
designing survey forms. During the cropping season an effort was made to
travel both to Francistown and Mahaiapye at least once every two weeks.
These trips served to help provide a professional input while at the same
time dealing with administrative matters. An effort was made to continue
these visits at two week intervals during the dry season when data
analysis receives priority.

The major research activity continued to involve working with the Apple III
microcomputer. As reported last year a number of software packages were
purchased that are compatible with each other and allow interfacing across
the SOS operating system on the Apple III to the DOS system on the Apple
lie's and the Apple III, when operating in emulation mode. The equipment
and the software packages that have been purchased for the new Apple lies
and Apple III are shown in Table 5.1, All the packages interface via the
DIF system. ATIP still does not have a good statistical package for the
Apple III. However this is no longer an important issue since it is
anticipated that most of the data analysis will now be done on the Apple
lie's in Mahalapye and Francistown. With this in mind two statistical
packages have recently been purchased. ..These are Daisy Professional which
is an update of the earlier Statistics with Daisy package and Statpro.
There are still a few bugs to work out with reference to the Daisy
Professional package.but it is already proving to be of considerable value.
The Statpro package also looks to be promising although as yet it has not
been possible to find a way for it to read a DIF file This is contrary
to the information that was obtained concerning its capabilities before
purchasing the package.- It is anticipated that this issue will be resolved
in the near future, possibly with the help of a consultant writing an
interface programme.

In summary Norman's work with the microcomputer has involved the following.

(a). Continuing to learn mhow to operate the. software packages purchased
for the Apple machines.


File: .AAWS48/Seb


-5.1 -


Date: 17110/1984














5. TEAM LEADER, SEBELE


Ag. Economist: D. W. Norman

5.1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984


Most of Norman's time spent on professional work has been devoted to
supporting other team members.

5.1.1: RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

The research activities have been somewhat limited in scale and have simply
involved helping professional activities of other project members. Little
field work has been done by Norman this year. Some help has been given to
designing survey forms. During the cropping season an effort was made to
travel both to Francistown and Mahaiapye at least once every two weeks.
These trips served to help provide a professional input while at the same
time dealing with administrative matters. An effort was made to continue
these visits at two week intervals during the dry season when data
analysis receives priority.

The major research activity continued to involve working with the Apple III
microcomputer. As reported last year a number of software packages were
purchased that are compatible with each other and allow interfacing across
the SOS operating system on the Apple III to the DOS system on the Apple
lie's and the Apple III, when operating in emulation mode. The equipment
and the software packages that have been purchased for the new Apple lies
and Apple III are shown in Table 5.1, All the packages interface via the
DIF system. ATIP still does not have a good statistical package for the
Apple III. However this is no longer an important issue since it is
anticipated that most of the data analysis will now be done on the Apple
lie's in Mahalapye and Francistown. With this in mind two statistical
packages have recently been purchased. ..These are Daisy Professional which
is an update of the earlier Statistics with Daisy package and Statpro.
There are still a few bugs to work out with reference to the Daisy
Professional package.but it is already proving to be of considerable value.
The Statpro package also looks to be promising although as yet it has not
been possible to find a way for it to read a DIF file This is contrary
to the information that was obtained concerning its capabilities before
purchasing the package.- It is anticipated that this issue will be resolved
in the near future, possibly with the help of a consultant writing an
interface programme.

In summary Norman's work with the microcomputer has involved the following.

(a). Continuing to learn mhow to operate the. software packages purchased
for the Apple machines.


File: .AAWS48/Seb


-5.1 -


Date: 17110/1984








(b). Continuing responsibility for supervising entry of the data from
surveys and trials on the Apple III machine at Sebele after which
it is downloaded into files suitable for analysis on the Apple
lie's machines at Mahalapye and Francistown.

(c). Continuing to provide training to the microcomputer operators at
Sebele.


TABLE 5.1: THE ATIP MICROCOMPUTERS AND RELATED EQUIPMENT

(a). HARDWARE EQUIPMENT


COMPONENT APPLE lie's APPLE III

Size 128K 128K
Monitor 12" Screen Kaga Denshi 12"
Drives 2 Drives 1 Built-In Drive
1 External Disc Drive
Hard Disc I1 Profile (5 Megabyte)
Printer 132 Column NCE Printer 132 Column Prism Printer
Constant Power Supply Voltage Regulator Omnipower. 1152


(b). SOFTWARE PACKAGES

NAME OF PACKAGE
TYPE OF PACKAGE --------- ---------------- -----------
APPLE II APPLE III

*Data Base Management System Visifile Omnis
Calculation (Spread Sheet) Visicalc Advanced Visicalc
Graphics Visiplot./ Visitrend Business 'Graphics
Statistics '. SPS '
SDaisy ,Professional
-. ELF .
.. Sta t pr:o
Word Processing .. Applewriter 111

Note: The list only includes packages used for handling data. Supportive
packages such as Catalyst, Backup III, ZoomGraphics, etc; are not
included in the list. All the packages can interface with each other
via the DIF system and it is possible to cross operating systems --
from SOS on Apple III to DOS on Apple II and vica versa.

(d). When possible helping other staff members of DAR who required data
entry and analysis. This work has involved three staff members:

(i). Entering data from fertilizer trials carried out by the
Soil Scientist DAR (Stewart Jones).

(ii). Entering results of a vegetable consumer demand survey
undertaken by the Horticultural Economist at DAR
(Ellerman).


File: .AAWS48/Seb -5.2 -


'Date: 17110/1984











(iii). Enteiing data on surghum varietal testing that has been
collected over the years at Sebele and is been analysed by
the I'TSORMIL agronomists (Carter and YoungquLst).

In general the microcmruters arE now working satisfactorily although, as
indicated, there are a few probaiems with some of the software packages and
also continuing problems with the printers at Mahalapye and Francistown.

There does seem to be a case fEr having a consultant to work out some of
these minor problems. Negotiations have been going on with Kansas State
University for several months to try and usL Earn'.by once more as a
short-term consultant. Originally it was intended that he would do this
work while at Kansas State University, but there appear to have been some
hitches with reference to making this arrangement. Therefore consideration
may have to be made to get him to visit Botswana Again in ucder to sort out
remaining relatively minor problems.

5.1.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

In addition to a number of meetings in Botswa.na, th.rman also made two trips
overseas during the reporting period. In December he participated in an
in-house workshop on the futtiar direction of On-Farm Research in the CIAT
Bean Programme at CIAT in Cali, Colombia, and also attended as member a
meeting of the Comite Sciuntifique et Technique, Institut Senegalais de
Recherche Agricoles, in Dakar, Senegal. In May he attended an Agriculture
Development Council sponsored meeting at Eellagio in Italy on
Intra-Househo:d Processes and Farming Systems Analysis. At this conference
a paper written in conjunction with Baker was given. Also in May he spent
a short period in Tunisia at the request of the MIAC project that is
currently underway there helping them on plans for a farming systems
project. While there a seminar was also given.

5.2. WORK PLANNED :
OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER 1985

The proposed work plan uf the Team Leader is as follows:

(a). To continue majct responsibility for the administration of ATIP.

(b). To continue working with the Apple III microcomputer in order to
establish efficient operating procedures and to facilitate
timeliness with reference to the data collection processing -
analysis link.

(c). To play a greater role in aiding the professional work of the
multidiscpilinary Mahaiapye and Francistown groups and help meld
them into truly inte-disuiplinaiy farming system teams.

(d). To continue encouraging increased cooperation between the different
farming systems ptrje.Cis, and between experiment static based
scientists -- including the INTSORMIL and Bean/Cowpea CRSP
scientists -.- and farming system project scientists: and to seek
ways to improve linkages with policy/development agencies in order
that the fearing system perspective -- that is, policy issues -
can be incorporated into the work. of the farming systems teams.


File AAWS48/SuL~B


Date: 17!10/1984











(iii). Enteiing data on surghum varietal testing that has been
collected over the years at Sebele and is been analysed by
the I'TSORMIL agronomists (Carter and YoungquLst).

In general the microcmruters arE now working satisfactorily although, as
indicated, there are a few probaiems with some of the software packages and
also continuing problems with the printers at Mahalapye and Francistown.

There does seem to be a case fEr having a consultant to work out some of
these minor problems. Negotiations have been going on with Kansas State
University for several months to try and usL Earn'.by once more as a
short-term consultant. Originally it was intended that he would do this
work while at Kansas State University, but there appear to have been some
hitches with reference to making this arrangement. Therefore consideration
may have to be made to get him to visit Botswana Again in ucder to sort out
remaining relatively minor problems.

5.1.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

In addition to a number of meetings in Botswa.na, th.rman also made two trips
overseas during the reporting period. In December he participated in an
in-house workshop on the futtiar direction of On-Farm Research in the CIAT
Bean Programme at CIAT in Cali, Colombia, and also attended as member a
meeting of the Comite Sciuntifique et Technique, Institut Senegalais de
Recherche Agricoles, in Dakar, Senegal. In May he attended an Agriculture
Development Council sponsored meeting at Eellagio in Italy on
Intra-Househo:d Processes and Farming Systems Analysis. At this conference
a paper written in conjunction with Baker was given. Also in May he spent
a short period in Tunisia at the request of the MIAC project that is
currently underway there helping them on plans for a farming systems
project. While there a seminar was also given.

5.2. WORK PLANNED :
OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER 1985

The proposed work plan uf the Team Leader is as follows:

(a). To continue majct responsibility for the administration of ATIP.

(b). To continue working with the Apple III microcomputer in order to
establish efficient operating procedures and to facilitate
timeliness with reference to the data collection processing -
analysis link.

(c). To play a greater role in aiding the professional work of the
multidiscpilinary Mahaiapye and Francistown groups and help meld
them into truly inte-disuiplinaiy farming system teams.

(d). To continue encouraging increased cooperation between the different
farming systems ptrje.Cis, and between experiment static based
scientists -- including the INTSORMIL and Bean/Cowpea CRSP
scientists -.- and farming system project scientists: and to seek
ways to improve linkages with policy/development agencies in order
that the fearing system perspective -- that is, policy issues -
can be incorporated into the work. of the farming systems teams.


File AAWS48/SuL~B


Date: 17!10/1984














6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, 'GABORONE


: USAID: J. A Hobbs (Agronomist)
SG OB: G. Ramolemana (DAFS, September 1983 Current)

::- 6.1: PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984

The duties of the RELO/Agronomist remain essentially extension oriented but
some assistance was given in setting up research activities in the
Francistown and Central Regions..

.a .1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Hobbs and Ramolemana assisted the new Francistown team members as they
selected villages for field activities. Later- they accompanied the
agronomists on a field inspection trip with the FAO Soil Scientist to learn
the variety of soils that will.confront them in. Tutume District. Later
Hobbs demonstrated the use of the soil. penetrometer at both Francistown and
SMahalapye and'discussed with the Francistown staff how to select sampling
sites in experimental plots and how to assess, crop performance in plot
quadrati.

6.11.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Th4 decision to expand liaison activities beyond the Farming Systems
project areas has proved not. only to be wise but is also extremely
.challenging. The continuing drought has reduced development of FSR
research results that can be extended to DAFS staff associated with the
.. projects and clearly much needsto be done to improve codticinications
.-'between extension and research, over the whole of Botswana?'

.6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROtlOTION OF,RESEARCH EXTENSION COMMUNICATIONS

(,:a),.' The results of the survey made by visiting Regiona'l and District
Agricultural officers .about problems facing extension personnel and
farmers in their efforts to improve crop production were developed
into a questionnaire which was distributed widely in the
Departments of Agricultural Field Services and Agriculttural
Research (Arable Research Division) and to some nho-ministry
people. Return of questionnaires was slow, but data from them was
..: put intd the microcomputer in August and. is currently being
Sanalysed. It is expected that such an analysis will indicate what
'1are considered the most serious problems and those needing most
--immediate attention..

(b). Visits to District Monthly Management. MeoFnys were continued. At
each visit an attempt was made to point out facets of liaison
: :activity being used or to talk about information coming from
research that may have application on the farms of the district.
File:~ ~ ~ ~ AAS8Rl -61 Date. i7IiOi98


File; AAWS48/Rela


Eata. 17/1011984


-6.1-














6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, 'GABORONE


: USAID: J. A Hobbs (Agronomist)
SG OB: G. Ramolemana (DAFS, September 1983 Current)

::- 6.1: PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984

The duties of the RELO/Agronomist remain essentially extension oriented but
some assistance was given in setting up research activities in the
Francistown and Central Regions..

.a .1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Hobbs and Ramolemana assisted the new Francistown team members as they
selected villages for field activities. Later- they accompanied the
agronomists on a field inspection trip with the FAO Soil Scientist to learn
the variety of soils that will.confront them in. Tutume District. Later
Hobbs demonstrated the use of the soil. penetrometer at both Francistown and
SMahalapye and'discussed with the Francistown staff how to select sampling
sites in experimental plots and how to assess, crop performance in plot
quadrati.

6.11.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Th4 decision to expand liaison activities beyond the Farming Systems
project areas has proved not. only to be wise but is also extremely
.challenging. The continuing drought has reduced development of FSR
research results that can be extended to DAFS staff associated with the
.. projects and clearly much needsto be done to improve codticinications
.-'between extension and research, over the whole of Botswana?'

.6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROtlOTION OF,RESEARCH EXTENSION COMMUNICATIONS

(,:a),.' The results of the survey made by visiting Regiona'l and District
Agricultural officers .about problems facing extension personnel and
farmers in their efforts to improve crop production were developed
into a questionnaire which was distributed widely in the
Departments of Agricultural Field Services and Agriculttural
Research (Arable Research Division) and to some nho-ministry
people. Return of questionnaires was slow, but data from them was
..: put intd the microcomputer in August and. is currently being
Sanalysed. It is expected that such an analysis will indicate what
'1are considered the most serious problems and those needing most
--immediate attention..

(b). Visits to District Monthly Management. MeoFnys were continued. At
each visit an attempt was made to point out facets of liaison
: :activity being used or to talk about information coming from
research that may have application on the farms of the district.
File:~ ~ ~ ~ AAS8Rl -61 Date. i7IiOi98


File; AAWS48/Rela


Eata. 17/1011984


-6.1-














6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, 'GABORONE


: USAID: J. A Hobbs (Agronomist)
SG OB: G. Ramolemana (DAFS, September 1983 Current)

::- 6.1: PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984

The duties of the RELO/Agronomist remain essentially extension oriented but
some assistance was given in setting up research activities in the
Francistown and Central Regions..

.a .1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Hobbs and Ramolemana assisted the new Francistown team members as they
selected villages for field activities. Later- they accompanied the
agronomists on a field inspection trip with the FAO Soil Scientist to learn
the variety of soils that will.confront them in. Tutume District. Later
Hobbs demonstrated the use of the soil. penetrometer at both Francistown and
SMahalapye and'discussed with the Francistown staff how to select sampling
sites in experimental plots and how to assess, crop performance in plot
quadrati.

6.11.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Th4 decision to expand liaison activities beyond the Farming Systems
project areas has proved not. only to be wise but is also extremely
.challenging. The continuing drought has reduced development of FSR
research results that can be extended to DAFS staff associated with the
.. projects and clearly much needsto be done to improve codticinications
.-'between extension and research, over the whole of Botswana?'

.6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROtlOTION OF,RESEARCH EXTENSION COMMUNICATIONS

(,:a),.' The results of the survey made by visiting Regiona'l and District
Agricultural officers .about problems facing extension personnel and
farmers in their efforts to improve crop production were developed
into a questionnaire which was distributed widely in the
Departments of Agricultural Field Services and Agriculttural
Research (Arable Research Division) and to some nho-ministry
people. Return of questionnaires was slow, but data from them was
..: put intd the microcomputer in August and. is currently being
Sanalysed. It is expected that such an analysis will indicate what
'1are considered the most serious problems and those needing most
--immediate attention..

(b). Visits to District Monthly Management. MeoFnys were continued. At
each visit an attempt was made to point out facets of liaison
: :activity being used or to talk about information coming from
research that may have application on the farms of the district.
File:~ ~ ~ ~ AAS8Rl -61 Date. i7IiOi98


File; AAWS48/Rela


Eata. 17/1011984


-6.1-














6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, 'GABORONE


: USAID: J. A Hobbs (Agronomist)
SG OB: G. Ramolemana (DAFS, September 1983 Current)

::- 6.1: PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984

The duties of the RELO/Agronomist remain essentially extension oriented but
some assistance was given in setting up research activities in the
Francistown and Central Regions..

.a .1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Hobbs and Ramolemana assisted the new Francistown team members as they
selected villages for field activities. Later- they accompanied the
agronomists on a field inspection trip with the FAO Soil Scientist to learn
the variety of soils that will.confront them in. Tutume District. Later
Hobbs demonstrated the use of the soil. penetrometer at both Francistown and
SMahalapye and'discussed with the Francistown staff how to select sampling
sites in experimental plots and how to assess, crop performance in plot
quadrati.

6.11.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Th4 decision to expand liaison activities beyond the Farming Systems
project areas has proved not. only to be wise but is also extremely
.challenging. The continuing drought has reduced development of FSR
research results that can be extended to DAFS staff associated with the
.. projects and clearly much needsto be done to improve codticinications
.-'between extension and research, over the whole of Botswana?'

.6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROtlOTION OF,RESEARCH EXTENSION COMMUNICATIONS

(,:a),.' The results of the survey made by visiting Regiona'l and District
Agricultural officers .about problems facing extension personnel and
farmers in their efforts to improve crop production were developed
into a questionnaire which was distributed widely in the
Departments of Agricultural Field Services and Agriculttural
Research (Arable Research Division) and to some nho-ministry
people. Return of questionnaires was slow, but data from them was
..: put intd the microcomputer in August and. is currently being
Sanalysed. It is expected that such an analysis will indicate what
'1are considered the most serious problems and those needing most
--immediate attention..

(b). Visits to District Monthly Management. MeoFnys were continued. At
each visit an attempt was made to point out facets of liaison
: :activity being used or to talk about information coming from
research that may have application on the farms of the district.
File:~ ~ ~ ~ AAS8Rl -61 Date. i7IiOi98


File; AAWS48/Rela


Eata. 17/1011984


-6.1-














6. RESEARCH EXTENSION LINKAGE, 'GABORONE


: USAID: J. A Hobbs (Agronomist)
SG OB: G. Ramolemana (DAFS, September 1983 Current)

::- 6.1: PROFESSIONAL WORK ACCOMPLISHED :
OCTOBER 1983 SEPTEMBER 1984

The duties of the RELO/Agronomist remain essentially extension oriented but
some assistance was given in setting up research activities in the
Francistown and Central Regions..

.a .1 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Hobbs and Ramolemana assisted the new Francistown team members as they
selected villages for field activities. Later- they accompanied the
agronomists on a field inspection trip with the FAO Soil Scientist to learn
the variety of soils that will.confront them in. Tutume District. Later
Hobbs demonstrated the use of the soil. penetrometer at both Francistown and
SMahalapye and'discussed with the Francistown staff how to select sampling
sites in experimental plots and how to assess, crop performance in plot
quadrati.

6.11.2 OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Th4 decision to expand liaison activities beyond the Farming Systems
project areas has proved not. only to be wise but is also extremely
.challenging. The continuing drought has reduced development of FSR
research results that can be extended to DAFS staff associated with the
.. projects and clearly much needsto be done to improve codticinications
.-'between extension and research, over the whole of Botswana?'

.6.1.2.1 SURVEY AND PROtlOTION OF,RESEARCH EXTENSION COMMUNICATIONS

(,:a),.' The results of the survey made by visiting Regiona'l and District
Agricultural officers .about problems facing extension personnel and
farmers in their efforts to improve crop production were developed
into a questionnaire which was distributed widely in the
Departments of Agricultural Field Services and Agriculttural
Research (Arable Research Division) and to some nho-ministry
people. Return of questionnaires was slow, but data from them was
..: put intd the microcomputer in August and. is currently being
Sanalysed. It is expected that such an analysis will indicate what
'1are considered the most serious problems and those needing most
--immediate attention..

(b). Visits to District Monthly Management. MeoFnys were continued. At
each visit an attempt was made to point out facets of liaison
: :activity being used or to talk about information coming from
research that may have application on the farms of the district.
File:~ ~ ~ ~ AAS8Rl -61 Date. i7IiOi98


File; AAWS48/Rela


Eata. 17/1011984


-6.1-








SAt'each meeting an offer was made to go to individual extension
areas on invitation, but few ADs have so far asked us to visit
them.

(c). Meetings with the Regional Crop Production Officers at their
headquarters were started. The first meeting was with the Gaborone
CPO and Regional ALDEP Manager. During this discussion these
officers indicated that research officers sometimes have different
ideas and philosophy about certain agricultural practices from
those being promoted by the extension people. This caused them
concern. They asked if it would be possible to meet with research
officers in crop production areas to get squared away so that both
groups are telling the same story. A meeting was arranged at which
the Chief Arable Research Officer and representative crops research
officers met with the Chief Crop Production Officer, two crops
extension officers, some other agricultural extension officers, an
AD from Gaborone Region and representatives from the Agricultural
Information Section.

As a result of the dialogue several questions were raised.

(i). Are Agrifacts and other forms of printed extension
information considered valuable and are they read and used?

(ii). Do the current Agrifacts need updating and correction?

(iii). Are there areas for which new Agrifacts should be prepared?

A decision was:made to have the CCPO ask all Regiorii CPOs -- and
all ALDEP Regional Managers -- to review current Agrifacts for
content, accuracy, and readibility and to have. each,-officer solicit
opinions from a few ADs.in..his/her, Regnion tiis matter. CPOs
were asked to send their critiques to the CCPO by the end of March.
These would then be forwarded to the :Chief Arable Research Officer
(CARO) for attention-of research staff authorr of most of,the,,.
Agrifacts. A later meeting of CPFs, CROs, and Information Officers
was suggested for the end of. June to review comments and ,responses
by research and to plan necessary corrections, improvements, and
updating. of current Agrifacts and to plan new ones. This was an
agenda item on the programme of the RCPOs conference (see Section
6,1.2.1(e) below).

In addition a survey was undertaken to determine how many ADs and
other extension officers did not have access to a set of Agrifacts
(Extension Handbook): Whereas everyone in extension administration
assumed that each AD had the Handbook, in actual fact only a very
small proportion had it, and many did not have a single Agrifact
that they could lay hands on. This needs to be remedied and steps
are being taken to do so.

(d). Visits to research projects and stations continued during the
report period. Ramolemana visited IFPF and attended the MDP and
NADP FSR Workshop at Maun/Gumare 6th to 11th February. Hobbs and
Ramolemana visited Motopi and Mahalapye research fields and the
Dryland and EFSAIP activities at Sebele.


Date: 17/1011984


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.2 -









(e). From contacts made. so fat and from discussion with many extension
officers it appears that officers in DAFS get little counsel and
guidance in the organisation and performance of their duties.
Several have indicated that essentially they have been given a copy
of their job description and told to get on with the work. This
has been as true of more senior officers who come to the Ministry
with no extension experience as with junior men who come with the
Agricultural Certificate and a little experience they picked up
when assigned to an AD in the field during their certificate
training.. As a result most officers flounder around before they
get their feet firmly on the ground; some take much too long to
Become really effective, and a few never really make it. This is
unfortunate for two major reasons. First the presentation of the
%extension message, which is so desperately needed by the farm
families of Botswana, is drastically delayed. Second the lack of
knowledge and effectiveness inevitably affects the morale of the
officers so that they become disinterested in, or even prejudiced
against, learning their duties. Some potentially useful officers
may become permanently disallusioned and disgruntled and may fail
to become useful workers. For example. the crops officers in the
regions and .headquarters are assigned the major responsibility
for extension-research liaison in the present dep.irtmental setup,
but with insufficient .knowledge of their duties and of research
officers activities and the technology .that develops from them they
are not able to effect communication between these groups.

In order to develop a better understanding of the activities of a
crops officer and to engender a higher esprit de corps in the
staff a plan was developed to have semi-annual conferences and
workshops for the regional .CPOs and HOs and for those in the Crop
Production Division headquarters staff. At: these meetings '
discussions on responsibilities, useful activities, .extension
methodology, and technical information .will be organized, at times
led by personnel from the field or from headquarters, .sometimes.
using resource people from administration, research, or other
organizations or agencies, :.The first of these conferences was held
in Gaborone. 25th-26th June with 26 crop officers and 17. visitors
present. Hobbs acted as secretary and has prepared a summary of
the conference..' ."

6.1.2.2 IN COUNTRY TRAINING

(a). The report on the Farming Systems Workshop, held in 1983 was
completed during the reporting period. It has been printed and
distributed.. ,

(b). In-service-training courses originally given by ALDEP personnel to
familiarise ADs .with the ALDEP packages and with cultivation
equipment assembly and .maintenance were expanded during 1983 with
the appointment of the" In-Service-Training Coordinating .Committee,
of which Hobbs .is a member. The ALDEP Regional Managers were on
post for the first time in late 1983. Responsibility for these
broadened courses and workshops was assigned to them and their
counterparts, the Regional CPOs. Under the initial guidance of the


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.3 -


Date: 17/10/1984








Coordinating Committee and with input from both ALDEP Managers and
CPOs a- broader base of instruction has been developed. Project
officers including the RELOs have been asked to assist with these
courses. During this reporting period, however, only a few courses
were attended because of short notice and absence during course
dates. Hobbs met with a group of Central Region ADs at MRTC in
September when he discussed fertilizer recommendations.

Observation of the courses set up for the Gaborone, Southern, and
Francistown Regions in 1984 shows that nearly all of the
instruction, apart from that relating to ALDEP programmes and
packages, is provided by non-extension staff. Senior extension
officers are not taking a hand in instruction at these courses,
they only assist by organising and administrating them. Much of
the instruction has been assigned to research officers from Sebele.
This did not pose too serious a problem in the Gaborone Region, but
an officer in a popular research area like entomology or soil
fertility will find it difficult to take time off from his research
activities to give a discussion of his subject matter area in all
regions or even for single courses held in Maun or Francistown
where. long distance travel and considerable travel time are
involved.

It seems obvious that the time the crops research officers have
available for "training" should not be spent teaching the ADs
directly, but rather should be spent teaching Crop Production
Officers, who will then be in a position to transmit this
information to the ADs at formal or informal training sessions.
This emphasises an obvious fact that all levels of extension
workers need additional training if they are to do their job well
and if the extension activity is to be truly effective and
efficient.

(c). The need for in-service training in Agricultural Field Services is
supported by nearly every staff member in the department, but the
present training effort is limited in scope and is very sporadic.
Consequently a suggestion that ATIP should sponsor an in-service
training consultant was well received. Arrangements were made for
Dr. Robert L. Johnson, Assistant Director .(Personnel), Cooperative
Extension Service at Kansas State University to spend four weeks in
Botswana 6th June to 3rd July. He.spent about two weeks visiting
.all levels of extension workers at headquarters, .in every Region
and:in:many Districts of the country'. The remainder of his time
was spent developing a suggested programme of in-service training
for the department.. His report was submitted and has been printed.
Copies have been sent to Divisions, .,nd Regional and District
',,:;,offices in DAFS,.' ::- .

(d). The need to control losses of grain while in storage on farms has
S :..been emphasised by the, distressingly :reduced yields of grains being
produced anrd harvested in the current drought:.years and by the
constant and rapid increase in demand for food resulting from
..increases in population. The recognition of this need resulted in
the appointment of a Crop Production Officer (Post Harvest) at
Headquarters in 1984 and in the development of a plan to provide


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.4 -


Date: 17/10/1984








ADs with the best knowledge available about on-farm grain storage.
A project, proposed and strongly supported by ATIP, was developed
to provide special training for the Post Harvest Officer and later.
to offer in-service-training on On-Farm Grain Storage for Regional
Crop Production Officers. The Post Harvest Officer's training was
accomplished by his attendance at Kansas State University/USAID's
Food and Feed Grain institute's short course on Grain. Storage and
Marketing, 11th June to 27th July, with course expenses paid from
ATIP short term training funds. The course for regional CPOs was
held at BAC 3rd to 14th September. Instructors for this course
were two specialists from the Food and Feed Grain Institute -- Ms.
R. Burroughs and Dr. V. Wright -- and the Post Harvest Officer.
Financial support for the outside specialists was. provided by the
Food and Feed Grain Institute funds (USAID).- Eight warehouse men
from BAMB also attended this course, together with some individuals
from the World Food Programme.

6.1.2.3 FSR ACTIVITY COORDINATION

Two types of Farming System (FS) Project meetings were organised or
attended during the report period.

(a). The second semi-annual FS project coordination meeting was
cancelled, as such: because of the special week-long workshop
organised by the Molapo Development Project (MDP), the Ngamiland
Agricultural Development Project (NADP) and the First Community
Development: Project at. Maun and Gumare 6th to lith February. This
workshop:was well attended by staff from: the more southern
projects:. ATIP was represented by fivestaff members from
Sebele/Gaborone, 'Mahalapye, and Francistown. Ramolemana attended
and represented the Research Extension Coordinating Unit (RECU).
All staff. gained useful insight into the research and extension
activities generated by the two northern FS Projects and by the
First Community Development Project., .'

S. The second Botswana FS Project coordination meeting was held in
connection with the Arable Crop Research Review Conference iith to
1i3th september. This. meeting was held 14th September, immediately
following, the Review Conference. The major issue discussed was the
institutionalisation of farming systems work in Botswana.. :.It was'
decided that the Directors and Permanent .Secretary in the Ministry
of Agriculture would be approached with a proposal that a
definitive paper on the instiutionalisation issue should be
produced. ,,

(b). Hobbs represented ATIP at two coordinating meetings of the British: '
sponsored FS Projects and the Dryland Farming Research .Scheme
(DLFRS) held 21st October, led by DLFRS, and 17th.February, led by ,
EFSAIP. These two'meetings were to be the, last to be led by. these
two projects as they are winding down and will terminate shortly'
after field work.ceases this season. Actual termination date is iii
1985. These two meetings were forums for discussing plans .or."'.
project completion writeups and staff dispositions.

6.1.2.4 OTHER COMMITTEE ACTIVITY


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.5 -


Date: 17/10/1984








ADs with the best knowledge available about on-farm grain storage.
A project, proposed and strongly supported by ATIP, was developed
to provide special training for the Post Harvest Officer and later.
to offer in-service-training on On-Farm Grain Storage for Regional
Crop Production Officers. The Post Harvest Officer's training was
accomplished by his attendance at Kansas State University/USAID's
Food and Feed Grain institute's short course on Grain. Storage and
Marketing, 11th June to 27th July, with course expenses paid from
ATIP short term training funds. The course for regional CPOs was
held at BAC 3rd to 14th September. Instructors for this course
were two specialists from the Food and Feed Grain Institute -- Ms.
R. Burroughs and Dr. V. Wright -- and the Post Harvest Officer.
Financial support for the outside specialists was. provided by the
Food and Feed Grain Institute funds (USAID).- Eight warehouse men
from BAMB also attended this course, together with some individuals
from the World Food Programme.

6.1.2.3 FSR ACTIVITY COORDINATION

Two types of Farming System (FS) Project meetings were organised or
attended during the report period.

(a). The second semi-annual FS project coordination meeting was
cancelled, as such: because of the special week-long workshop
organised by the Molapo Development Project (MDP), the Ngamiland
Agricultural Development Project (NADP) and the First Community
Development: Project at. Maun and Gumare 6th to lith February. This
workshop:was well attended by staff from: the more southern
projects:. ATIP was represented by fivestaff members from
Sebele/Gaborone, 'Mahalapye, and Francistown. Ramolemana attended
and represented the Research Extension Coordinating Unit (RECU).
All staff. gained useful insight into the research and extension
activities generated by the two northern FS Projects and by the
First Community Development Project., .'

S. The second Botswana FS Project coordination meeting was held in
connection with the Arable Crop Research Review Conference iith to
1i3th september. This. meeting was held 14th September, immediately
following, the Review Conference. The major issue discussed was the
institutionalisation of farming systems work in Botswana.. :.It was'
decided that the Directors and Permanent .Secretary in the Ministry
of Agriculture would be approached with a proposal that a
definitive paper on the instiutionalisation issue should be
produced. ,,

(b). Hobbs represented ATIP at two coordinating meetings of the British: '
sponsored FS Projects and the Dryland Farming Research .Scheme
(DLFRS) held 21st October, led by DLFRS, and 17th.February, led by ,
EFSAIP. These two'meetings were to be the, last to be led by. these
two projects as they are winding down and will terminate shortly'
after field work.ceases this season. Actual termination date is iii
1985. These two meetings were forums for discussing plans .or."'.
project completion writeups and staff dispositions.

6.1.2.4 OTHER COMMITTEE ACTIVITY


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.5 -


Date: 17/10/1984










Hobbs did not attend the meeting of the Arable Research Priorities
Committee that was held 15th August or that of the Arable Agriculture
Development Committee held 16th August. These meetings were called without
much notice and he was on leave at the time.

The In-Service-Training Coordinating Committee has not met since October,
1983.

6.1.2.5 VISITS

Hobbs visited the Pennsylvania State University/USAID Farming Systems
Project in Swaziland in December and the Washington State University/USAID
Farming Systems Research Project in Lesotho in April.

6.1.3 PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

The major problems interfering with the development of. a more effective
and efficient extension effort in Botswana .are still low .level of
communication between extension and research workers; lack of technical and
extension methodological information on the part, of:the extension workers
at all levels, and low morale of the extension staff.

6.1.3.1 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCH

In the present administrative setup in the Department of Agricultural Field
Services the major instrument to establish and improve comitimunications
between extension and research in cropproduction is supposed to be the
specialist crops officer (CPO, HO, TO (Hort), etc).in headquarters and at
the regional level. Either these officers have not been- alerted
sufficiently to this facet of their responsibilities, they feel inadequate
or unwillingto -undertake the tasks, or they believe research does not have
information that can be useful to them and is not capable of tackling their
problems. Whatever the cause, the Chief Arable Research Officer, DAR,
states that he receives at most two or three requests per year for answers
to farmer problems and/or suggestions of problems needing solution from
crops officers or other extension personnel. It is true that ADs seldom
ask for answers to their problems and they do not often pose questions
needing solutions to CPOs. But it is likely that this situation can be
remedied if the CPOs begin actively to interact with ADs and even farmers
in these matters.

It seems obvious that inserting another layer of administration (in the
form of a RECU) by itself is not likely to improve this communication
greatly or rapidly. Rather the requirement that the specialist crops
officer serves as a link between research officers on the one hand and
village level extension workers and farmers on the other needs to be
highlighted and emphasised. One way to do this is to organise meetings and
seminars for crops officers at which this aspect of their work is dealt
with as well as discussing and developing techniques and ways that liaison
may be improved. A first step toward this type of activity was taken in
June when the first extension crops' officers seminar/workshop was held.
It is hoped that these get-togethers will be fruitful and that semi-annual
conferences, seminars, or workshops will become a regular feature of the
annual extension programme. Te second seminar is planned for 3rd 4th


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.6 -


Date: 317/10/1984










Hobbs did not attend the meeting of the Arable Research Priorities
Committee that was held 15th August or that of the Arable Agriculture
Development Committee held 16th August. These meetings were called without
much notice and he was on leave at the time.

The In-Service-Training Coordinating Committee has not met since October,
1983.

6.1.2.5 VISITS

Hobbs visited the Pennsylvania State University/USAID Farming Systems
Project in Swaziland in December and the Washington State University/USAID
Farming Systems Research Project in Lesotho in April.

6.1.3 PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

The major problems interfering with the development of. a more effective
and efficient extension effort in Botswana .are still low .level of
communication between extension and research workers; lack of technical and
extension methodological information on the part, of:the extension workers
at all levels, and low morale of the extension staff.

6.1.3.1 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCH

In the present administrative setup in the Department of Agricultural Field
Services the major instrument to establish and improve comitimunications
between extension and research in cropproduction is supposed to be the
specialist crops officer (CPO, HO, TO (Hort), etc).in headquarters and at
the regional level. Either these officers have not been- alerted
sufficiently to this facet of their responsibilities, they feel inadequate
or unwillingto -undertake the tasks, or they believe research does not have
information that can be useful to them and is not capable of tackling their
problems. Whatever the cause, the Chief Arable Research Officer, DAR,
states that he receives at most two or three requests per year for answers
to farmer problems and/or suggestions of problems needing solution from
crops officers or other extension personnel. It is true that ADs seldom
ask for answers to their problems and they do not often pose questions
needing solutions to CPOs. But it is likely that this situation can be
remedied if the CPOs begin actively to interact with ADs and even farmers
in these matters.

It seems obvious that inserting another layer of administration (in the
form of a RECU) by itself is not likely to improve this communication
greatly or rapidly. Rather the requirement that the specialist crops
officer serves as a link between research officers on the one hand and
village level extension workers and farmers on the other needs to be
highlighted and emphasised. One way to do this is to organise meetings and
seminars for crops officers at which this aspect of their work is dealt
with as well as discussing and developing techniques and ways that liaison
may be improved. A first step toward this type of activity was taken in
June when the first extension crops' officers seminar/workshop was held.
It is hoped that these get-togethers will be fruitful and that semi-annual
conferences, seminars, or workshops will become a regular feature of the
annual extension programme. Te second seminar is planned for 3rd 4th


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.6 -


Date: 317/10/1984










Hobbs did not attend the meeting of the Arable Research Priorities
Committee that was held 15th August or that of the Arable Agriculture
Development Committee held 16th August. These meetings were called without
much notice and he was on leave at the time.

The In-Service-Training Coordinating Committee has not met since October,
1983.

6.1.2.5 VISITS

Hobbs visited the Pennsylvania State University/USAID Farming Systems
Project in Swaziland in December and the Washington State University/USAID
Farming Systems Research Project in Lesotho in April.

6.1.3 PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

The major problems interfering with the development of. a more effective
and efficient extension effort in Botswana .are still low .level of
communication between extension and research workers; lack of technical and
extension methodological information on the part, of:the extension workers
at all levels, and low morale of the extension staff.

6.1.3.1 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCH

In the present administrative setup in the Department of Agricultural Field
Services the major instrument to establish and improve comitimunications
between extension and research in cropproduction is supposed to be the
specialist crops officer (CPO, HO, TO (Hort), etc).in headquarters and at
the regional level. Either these officers have not been- alerted
sufficiently to this facet of their responsibilities, they feel inadequate
or unwillingto -undertake the tasks, or they believe research does not have
information that can be useful to them and is not capable of tackling their
problems. Whatever the cause, the Chief Arable Research Officer, DAR,
states that he receives at most two or three requests per year for answers
to farmer problems and/or suggestions of problems needing solution from
crops officers or other extension personnel. It is true that ADs seldom
ask for answers to their problems and they do not often pose questions
needing solutions to CPOs. But it is likely that this situation can be
remedied if the CPOs begin actively to interact with ADs and even farmers
in these matters.

It seems obvious that inserting another layer of administration (in the
form of a RECU) by itself is not likely to improve this communication
greatly or rapidly. Rather the requirement that the specialist crops
officer serves as a link between research officers on the one hand and
village level extension workers and farmers on the other needs to be
highlighted and emphasised. One way to do this is to organise meetings and
seminars for crops officers at which this aspect of their work is dealt
with as well as discussing and developing techniques and ways that liaison
may be improved. A first step toward this type of activity was taken in
June when the first extension crops' officers seminar/workshop was held.
It is hoped that these get-togethers will be fruitful and that semi-annual
conferences, seminars, or workshops will become a regular feature of the
annual extension programme. Te second seminar is planned for 3rd 4th


File:. AAWS48/Relo


- 6.6 -


Date: 317/10/1984









December 1984.


6.1.3.2 DEFICIENCY OF TECHNICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

In the first annual report of the project mention was made of the need for
improving and upgrading the fund of knowledge of all extension workers. It
has become increasingly obvious that workers need extension methods
instruction as well as information on technical matters.

There is great need for more academic preparation for all levels of
workers. Funds for long term training within ATIP are severely limited,
but attempts are being made to locate additional training funds. Even if
additional funds for this training can be found there will still be need
for regular update and renewal instruction, and in the absence of long term
training funds this in-service-training activity becomes just that much
more important. This is necessary so that each worker can develop his
expertise and his confidence in order to do his job better.

This is the background which prompted the appointment of a consultant on
in-service-training for the Department of Agricultural Field Services in
June. Project personnel hope that this exercise provided an effective
impetus to the training programme being developed by the recently appointed
Training Coordinator in the. Department of Agricultural Field Services.

6.1.3.3 LOW EXTENSION WORKER MORALE

Many, if not most, extension workers in Botswana feel they are ill equipped
academically and by orientation and experience for their posts. As a
result of this, and because they often feel isolated from their supervisors
and administrators, they have a low opinion of their ability to develop
meaningful projects and programmes for their areas, districts and regions.
The fact that government housing, for ADs particularly, is poor or even not
available and that equipment, transport, and financial support is minimal
adds to their insecurity and causes real problems.

Even after a good in-service-training programme is started, and an expanded
scheme of long-term. training is organised, low morale.may still be a
serious problem among extension workers unless the individual worker is
made to feel that his/her work- is considered to be. really important by his
superiors and by government in general. Real enthusiasm for the work and
effective activity can only deviop when the workers are confident of their
prowess and when they are sure they are doing an important task
Improvement in crop production will be minimal as long as extension workers
are unsure of themselves and feel they are unsupported in their work.
Remedies for this situation must come from DAFS administrators.
Administrators and supervisors also must explain clearly and carefully to
every new staff member what his/her new responsibilities.are. They must
provide proper orientation for the post, and give assistance and counsel
regularly during the first few months on the job. This is:seriously
lacking now. Also the administrators must evaluate fairly and equitably
the work of each staff member, reprimanding when necessary, praising where
possible, and rewarding each as this is possible in line with the quality
of his/her performance;. Supervisors and administrators must also make a
concerted and consistent effort-to visit staff in the field to show their
interest and support. Administrative and technical problems raised


File:. AAWS48/ReIo


- 6.7 -


Date: i7/10/1984









December 1984.


6.1.3.2 DEFICIENCY OF TECHNICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

In the first annual report of the project mention was made of the need for
improving and upgrading the fund of knowledge of all extension workers. It
has become increasingly obvious that workers need extension methods
instruction as well as information on technical matters.

There is great need for more academic preparation for all levels of
workers. Funds for long term training within ATIP are severely limited,
but attempts are being made to locate additional training funds. Even if
additional funds for this training can be found there will still be need
for regular update and renewal instruction, and in the absence of long term
training funds this in-service-training activity becomes just that much
more important. This is necessary so that each worker can develop his
expertise and his confidence in order to do his job better.

This is the background which prompted the appointment of a consultant on
in-service-training for the Department of Agricultural Field Services in
June. Project personnel hope that this exercise provided an effective
impetus to the training programme being developed by the recently appointed
Training Coordinator in the. Department of Agricultural Field Services.

6.1.3.3 LOW EXTENSION WORKER MORALE

Many, if not most, extension workers in Botswana feel they are ill equipped
academically and by orientation and experience for their posts. As a
result of this, and because they often feel isolated from their supervisors
and administrators, they have a low opinion of their ability to develop
meaningful projects and programmes for their areas, districts and regions.
The fact that government housing, for ADs particularly, is poor or even not
available and that equipment, transport, and financial support is minimal
adds to their insecurity and causes real problems.

Even after a good in-service-training programme is started, and an expanded
scheme of long-term. training is organised, low morale.may still be a
serious problem among extension workers unless the individual worker is
made to feel that his/her work- is considered to be. really important by his
superiors and by government in general. Real enthusiasm for the work and
effective activity can only deviop when the workers are confident of their
prowess and when they are sure they are doing an important task
Improvement in crop production will be minimal as long as extension workers
are unsure of themselves and feel they are unsupported in their work.
Remedies for this situation must come from DAFS administrators.
Administrators and supervisors also must explain clearly and carefully to
every new staff member what his/her new responsibilities.are. They must
provide proper orientation for the post, and give assistance and counsel
regularly during the first few months on the job. This is:seriously
lacking now. Also the administrators must evaluate fairly and equitably
the work of each staff member, reprimanding when necessary, praising where
possible, and rewarding each as this is possible in line with the quality
of his/her performance;. Supervisors and administrators must also make a
concerted and consistent effort-to visit staff in the field to show their
interest and support. Administrative and technical problems raised


File:. AAWS48/ReIo


- 6.7 -


Date: i7/10/1984








regularly by field men need to be discussed and plans formulated to tackle
those that can be solved.

6.2: WORK PLANNED :
OCTOBER 1984 SEPTEMBER 198S

The proposed work plan of the RELO/Deputy Team Leader and his counterpart
is as follows:

(a). Participate in administrating ATIP: including overseeing the
project's Revolving Account, supervising the participant training
programme, and consulting regularly with the project's agronomists
concerning their field activities and assisting them in .adapting
their research results into useful and acceptable farm practices.

(b). Visit District Monthly Management Meetings regularly to keep in
touch with farmer/AD crop production problems and needs and to
inform ADs of new developments in crops research and in extension
recommendations.

(c). Continue monthly visits with regional crops officer teams (CPO, TO
(Hort), ALDEP Managers) in order to help them obtain required
research information and develop improved crop production practices
for their regions. At times this will involve joint visits to
research stations or fields, and/or visits to FSR field locations.


(d). Continue'to develop liaison between crops research and extension
officers and agricultural information specialists in order to
S improve current extension publications and to develop needed new
ones. In this regard an Extension Publication Requirements
S' Committee should be organized. Responsibilities of this committee
:- would be to ascertain new publication needs .and .to supervise
development of these.

(e). Continue to spearhead liaison between the: country's farming systems
projects in order to coordinate activities. and ensure that all
: research results are readily available to .all projects and that
:: -information about acceptable new practices are.circulated to all.

(-!: (f). Participate in the deliberations and activities of the Arable
Agricultural Development Committee and the Arable .Research
"- Priorities Committee.

(g). Work actively with DAFS's In-Service-Treinzng Coordinating
Committee and with its Training:.Coordinator in order to help
:: -: -; develop appropriate in-service and other training programmes for
Small Departmental .ersonnel..;


Fiie: AAWS48/Relo


- 6.8 -


Date: 17/10/1984













7. MAHALAPYE FARMING SYSTEMS TEAM


USAID: D. Baker (Agricultural Economist)
J. Siebert (Agronomist)
GOB: C. Tibone (Miss) (DPS, September 1983 Current)
J. Luzani (DAR, January 1984 Current)
J. Lesothlo (DPS, August 1984 Current) CWorks also in Francistown3


7.1: REPORT OF ACTIVITIES
OCTOBER 1983 TO SEPTEMEER 1984

The primary research activities planned for the 1983-84 season by FSAR
Stage were:

(a). Description and Diagngstic Stage:
Whole farm :studies
"New village" description-diagnosis
Cowpea baseline study
Regional perspective study

(b). Design Stage (RM,RI) five trials

(c). Testing Stage (RM,FI and FM,FI): six on-farm trials

In addition, it was anticipated that some time would be allocated to
preparing reports based on the first year's research.

Progress made by activity is described briefly below. Several unplanned
research activities were carried out in response to emergence of new issues
and unforseen circumstances (particularly a second year of drought during
the planting season). These activities are also described below.


7.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE'

7.1.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES

Four distinct, but inter-related components to whole farm studies were
planned:

(a). A multiple visit .resource use survey
(b). Technical plot monitoring for whole fields.
(c). Whole field level monitoring. .
(d). Special plot technical monitoring.

The first two components were carried out together on 27 farms. In light
of drought conditions which prevailed during the critical planting period
-- November through January -- 12 of the 27 farming households
participating in components one and two of the whole farm studies either
did not plant or abandoned the few plots planted ir advance of weeding. It

File: .AAWS49/Mah.1 7.1 Date: 1510/84


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7. MAHALAPYE FARMING SYSTEMS TEAM


USAID: D. Baker (Agricultural Economist)
J. Siebert (Agronomist)
GOB: C. Tibone (Miss) (DPS, September 1983 Current)
J. Luzani (DAR, January 1984 Current)
J. Lesothlo (DPS, August 1984 Current) CWorks also in Francistown3


7.1: REPORT OF ACTIVITIES
OCTOBER 1983 TO SEPTEMEER 1984

The primary research activities planned for the 1983-84 season by FSAR
Stage were:

(a). Description and Diagngstic Stage:
Whole farm :studies
"New village" description-diagnosis
Cowpea baseline study
Regional perspective study

(b). Design Stage (RM,RI) five trials

(c). Testing Stage (RM,FI and FM,FI): six on-farm trials

In addition, it was anticipated that some time would be allocated to
preparing reports based on the first year's research.

Progress made by activity is described briefly below. Several unplanned
research activities were carried out in response to emergence of new issues
and unforseen circumstances (particularly a second year of drought during
the planting season). These activities are also described below.


7.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE'

7.1.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES

Four distinct, but inter-related components to whole farm studies were
planned:

(a). A multiple visit .resource use survey
(b). Technical plot monitoring for whole fields.
(c). Whole field level monitoring. .
(d). Special plot technical monitoring.

The first two components were carried out together on 27 farms. In light
of drought conditions which prevailed during the critical planting period
-- November through January -- 12 of the 27 farming households
participating in components one and two of the whole farm studies either
did not plant or abandoned the few plots planted ir advance of weeding. It

File: .AAWS49/Mah.1 7.1 Date: 1510/84


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7. MAHALAPYE FARMING SYSTEMS TEAM


USAID: D. Baker (Agricultural Economist)
J. Siebert (Agronomist)
GOB: C. Tibone (Miss) (DPS, September 1983 Current)
J. Luzani (DAR, January 1984 Current)
J. Lesothlo (DPS, August 1984 Current) CWorks also in Francistown3


7.1: REPORT OF ACTIVITIES
OCTOBER 1983 TO SEPTEMEER 1984

The primary research activities planned for the 1983-84 season by FSAR
Stage were:

(a). Description and Diagngstic Stage:
Whole farm :studies
"New village" description-diagnosis
Cowpea baseline study
Regional perspective study

(b). Design Stage (RM,RI) five trials

(c). Testing Stage (RM,FI and FM,FI): six on-farm trials

In addition, it was anticipated that some time would be allocated to
preparing reports based on the first year's research.

Progress made by activity is described briefly below. Several unplanned
research activities were carried out in response to emergence of new issues
and unforseen circumstances (particularly a second year of drought during
the planting season). These activities are also described below.


7.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE'

7.1.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES

Four distinct, but inter-related components to whole farm studies were
planned:

(a). A multiple visit .resource use survey
(b). Technical plot monitoring for whole fields.
(c). Whole field level monitoring. .
(d). Special plot technical monitoring.

The first two components were carried out together on 27 farms. In light
of drought conditions which prevailed during the critical planting period
-- November through January -- 12 of the 27 farming households
participating in components one and two of the whole farm studies either
did not plant or abandoned the few plots planted ir advance of weeding. It

File: .AAWS49/Mah.1 7.1 Date: 1510/84


1 -! at : 5I.0 8
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7. MAHALAPYE FARMING SYSTEMS TEAM


USAID: D. Baker (Agricultural Economist)
J. Siebert (Agronomist)
GOB: C. Tibone (Miss) (DPS, September 1983 Current)
J. Luzani (DAR, January 1984 Current)
J. Lesothlo (DPS, August 1984 Current) CWorks also in Francistown3


7.1: REPORT OF ACTIVITIES
OCTOBER 1983 TO SEPTEMEER 1984

The primary research activities planned for the 1983-84 season by FSAR
Stage were:

(a). Description and Diagngstic Stage:
Whole farm :studies
"New village" description-diagnosis
Cowpea baseline study
Regional perspective study

(b). Design Stage (RM,RI) five trials

(c). Testing Stage (RM,FI and FM,FI): six on-farm trials

In addition, it was anticipated that some time would be allocated to
preparing reports based on the first year's research.

Progress made by activity is described briefly below. Several unplanned
research activities were carried out in response to emergence of new issues
and unforseen circumstances (particularly a second year of drought during
the planting season). These activities are also described below.


7.1.1 DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC STAGE'

7.1.1.1 WHOLE FARM STUDIES

Four distinct, but inter-related components to whole farm studies were
planned:

(a). A multiple visit .resource use survey
(b). Technical plot monitoring for whole fields.
(c). Whole field level monitoring. .
(d). Special plot technical monitoring.

The first two components were carried out together on 27 farms. In light
of drought conditions which prevailed during the critical planting period
-- November through January -- 12 of the 27 farming households
participating in components one and two of the whole farm studies either
did not plant or abandoned the few plots planted ir advance of weeding. It

File: .AAWS49/Mah.1 7.1 Date: 1510/84


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was decided, therefore, to continue technical plot monitoring, rather than
shift to whole field level monitoring, on those "trials" farmers from year
one who planted in year two. Because the extra time spent on technical
plot monitoring and, more importantly, a substantial increase in the number
of plot observations, it was thought necessary to carry out special plot
monitoring on fields of farmers who had not yet cooperated with ATIP. The
advantages of special plot monitoring, as outlined in the annual work plan,
would in any case have been limited due to the abnormal pattern of
rainfall.

In addition to planned Whole Farm Study activities, three inventory
questionnaires were administered to farmers participating in the MVRU
survey.

(1). Multiple Visit Resource Use Survey

The Multiple Visit Resource Use Survey (MVRU) was administered to 17
farmers in Shoshong East and 10 farmers in Makwate. During the first two
months of the reporting period, a structured, close-ended, pre-coded survey
instrument was developed. To facilitate use of the survey instrument, a
detailed instruction booklet was written. During October and early
November, the three ATIP Mahalapye field enumerators received training in
use of the survey instrument.

Several minor problems were encountered in the survey instrument during the
first few months of the season. In conjunction with ATTP Francistown, the
survey instrument was modified during November and December in order to
reduce the time required for an interview and to eliminate coding
distinctions which were difficult. for farmers ::and enumerators to
understand.

The survey instrument in use since December is ,comprised of a. master
questionnaire and 14 follow-up sheets. Each follow-up she.etis used to
record required .flow data .corresponding to an affirmative response tb an
activity question on; the master questionnaire. For exaiaple,"'if a person
said "yes" they brewed beer -- affirmative response to question seven on
the master questionnaire --- then the enumerators ask the follow-up
questions on Sheet 7. Each f.;:i:'[-up calls. for.ii ve to ten data entries.
The follow-up sheets are as follows:

(a). Fieldwork by Household Members
(b). Fieldwork by Non-Household. Members -
(c). Draught Power Used
(d). Non-Labour Inputs on Household Fields
(e). Field Off-Take and Threshing :
(f). Fieldwork on Non-Household Fields
(g). Non-Cropping Activities .
(h). Use of Household Animals
(i). Sales
(j). Purchases
(k). Miscellaneous Revenues
(1). Miscellaneous Expenditures
(m). Livestock Inventory Changes
(n). Household Maintenance Activities


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The average length of an interview is 15-20 minutes, not including a field
visit if required to collect technic.il plot monitoring data. Each
enumerator interviews eight to ten farmers twice weekly.

Copies of the master questionnaire and follow-up sheets are collected and
replaced each month. In addition, each enumerator fills-in a "problems and
notes" sheet for each farmer, indicating any situations or.codes that arise
which do not easily fit into the survey format. Finally, field maps and
household census listings-are kept by each enumera.tor to enable
verification of labour use by household members versus non-members and
allocation of crop production inputs to proper plots (where feasible).

Despite some supervisory and personnel problems, an acceptably complete and
accurate data set has been obtained from most of the farmers participating
in the survey. The data set should enable proposed cash flow, income, and
resource use analyses to be carried out. It is questionable whether
sufficient detail has been collected to allow plot by plot analysis, but
plot specific data were collected on complementary survey forms as part of
the technical plot -monitor-ing component .of the whole farm studies.

Data from the 1983-84 season are now being entered on the Sebele computer.
In advance of analysis of the comr.p'te data set, some data have been
entered and analysed at ATIP Mahalapye,. F.reliminary analysis has been
carried out to accomplish two objectives:

(a). To develop a preliminary profile of farmer activity and cropping
outcomes for -the MVRU farmers, to ptrsent at the Sebele Arable
Research Meetings (held in September, 194);.

(b). To evaluate cashflow: and -labour use patterns in order to better
judge the need for continued semi-weekfIy resource use monitoring.

Preliminary results on days of ploughing, area ploughed, and sorghum
harvested in the 1983-84 season for the 27 MVRU farmers are presented in
Table 7.1. Comparative results are inc:udedfor Shoshong versus Makwate,
male versus female heo-ded households, holdseholds wi-th more than 35 cattle
versus those with fewer or no cattle, and for households controlling
draught resources (own or borrow) versus those which were dependent on
other households (hire or obtain through cooperative arrangements).

The table confirms several general impressions gain through informal
interactions with farmers. Mlakwate farmers, maje headed households and
"draught "owners" ploughed many more days on ,average than did Shoshong
.households, female households and draught dependent households,
respectively. Sex; of head and draught access:were strongly, but not
completely related, and both factors seemed to influencee days of ploughing.
Many female households lacked the labour to plough frequently even when
they had draught power. Cattle assets did not lead to more days of
ploughing, largely because several richer households in Shoshong have
turned to tractor hire as a preferred form of draught access.

Even though Makwate households ploughed many more days, they ploughed only
a hectare more per farm. Donkey-farmers, dominant in Makwate, ploughed
less area per day than did the cattle and tractor .farmers in Shoshong.
Male headed households, asset rich households, and draught "owners" all


File: .AAWS4l/ah 1


- 7.3 -


Date: 1S/10/84









ploughed more areas than their comparison groups: in total, per person
ploughing, and per consumer equivalent. The sole exception was in terms of
area per day. Draught dependent households p:oughed a larger area per day
than did owners, reflecting large areas per day ploughed by tractor hirers
in Shoshong.

Most households in both villages ploughed at some point but'only half
harvested any sorghum. Again, male headed households, rich households, and
draught owners did much better than their counterparts, in terms of the
proportion of households harvesting, total amount harvested, amount
harvested per hectare, per consumer equivalent, and per worker equivalent.
The difference was particularly dramatic depending on draug-t access. For
all households combined,.apprcximately 336 kgs of sorghum were produced in
total. This was more on..average than the 1982-83 season but yields per
planted hectare of 74 kgs reflected the drought conditions which prevailed
during much of the season.


TABLE 7.1; DAYS OF FLOUGHING, AREA FLOUGHED, SORGKHU HARVESTED, ATIF HARALAPYE, 1983-84

,. "" 'VILLAGE SEXOF HEAD CATTLE ASSETS DRAUGHT ACCESS
VARIABLE ------------.- -- ----------- -.------- ----------
SHOSHONG YAVATE MALE FEMALE )35 0-35 ':'14' EFENDEH. ALL


S FARMS WHICH PLOUGHED 82 O10 94 80 100 81 100 73 78

DAYS OF PLOUGHING 4.1 10.8 8.2 3.7 7.1 6.2 9.8 1.9 6.6

AREA FLOUGHED.
Total 3.4 4.'3 4.5 2.5 5.7 2.4 5.2 1.7 3.8
Per Person Ploughing 1.4 1.1 1.5 0.9 1.8 0.9 1.5 0.6 1.3
Per Consumer Equiv. 0.6 0.6. 0.7 6.4 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.2 5.6
Per Day. 1.2 0.4 0. 0.8 1.3 0.5 08 1.0 0.9

PERCENT OF FARMS
HARVESTING Ah SORGHUM 53 40 53 40 73 31 63 27 48

KGS; SORGHlM HARVESTEDa
Total 287 420 454 131 48 232' 532 51 336
Per Hectare 64 87 89 42 72 75 98 25 74
Per Consumer Equiv. 44 S8 62 26 74 4- 74 5 4?
Per Worker Equiv. 117 14? 161 44 157 18 173 17 130


SKgs.: sdrghua based on a standard candrrsi^n of 70 kgs. per bag' o threshed grain.
Cdhsuier anits weights: age -4 =0.20 age 5-9 = 0.Sa age 10-15 = 0.75; adult women = 0.90i
adult men = 1.00 These weights are based on FAO estimated caloric requirements.
Vorker equivalents derived as follows: each person aeti e in plough'planting 113; sach
active in weeding = 113; each active in harvesting = 113.


Table 7.2 presents an overview of average monthly cash inflows .irid outflows
f6r the: 27 MVRU farmers during the period Novembet, :1983: to June, 1984 --
the croppin' season. The only major cashflow not included is traction hire


File:' AAWS49/Mah. ,D


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TABLE 7.2: AVERAGE KONTHLY CASiHLOWS. KAhALAF7E AREA: NOVEMeiER, 1983 JUKE, 1984i

VILLAGE SEX rG HEAD CATTLE ASSETS
VARIABLE ------------------ ---------- --------------
SHOSHONH YAKVATE E K FEMALE -35 0-35 ALL

INFLOWS:
SALES
Crops 1.42 0.07 0.46 1.14 0.21 0.70 0.70
Livestock 53.29 13.88 57.15 8.09 8111 10.10 3?.46
Beer 27.48 .50 9.44 34.54 2U.33 12.94 18.49
Other 2.06 0.29 1.78 0.83 2 8? 0.42 1.44
SUB-TOTAL 84.07 15.74 68.83 44.0 111.0? 24.14 I60.0

MISCELLANEOUS
Gifts and Loans 19.56 27.37 20.98 24.7? 13.7? 28.39 22.36
Vages 21.02 9.52 25.41 2.04 23.92 12.10 16.98
Other 5.48 0.41 4.83 1.6? 6.49 1.73 3.70

TOTAL INFLOWS 130.22 53.04 120.05 73.12 155.29 66.8 103.13
-------------------. --- -- -- --- -- -- ---- . . .- -------------------------------------------
OUTFLOWS:
PURCHASES
Inputs 6.14 1.37 2.16 8.56 .3.94 4.84 4.47
Grain and Neal 14.17 6.23 10.46 13.01 13.1?3 10.11 11.38
Other Food 18.37 6.46 14.9i 12.92 18.34 11.27 14.19
Livestock 3.18 0.00 3.23 .00 4.73 0.18 2.06
Household Goods 21 .2 5.87 19.73 9.64 23 .,4 11.06 16.09
Other 1.49 0.8? 1.53 0.83. 1.16 1.36 1.28
SUB-TOTAL 64.97 20.82 52.02 44,76 .44.60 38.82 49.47

MISCELLANEOUS
Gifts and Loans 0.92 0.46 0.95 0.42 0.93 0.63 0.76
Vages 3.14 0.683 1.0 2,34 3.27 1.21 2.06
Transport 4.74 1.42 4.04 2.74 6.07. 1.81 3.57
Other 25.4 16.08 23.26 20.22 20.90 23.05 22.16

TOTAL OUTFLOWS 99.22 39.46 82.17 70.68 95.77 65.52 78.02

NET CASHFLOV : 31.00 13.58 37.88 2.44 59.52 0.86 25.11


SAverage for 27 households participating in the M/R'U.
Fees paid for hiring traction are not included. If these were added in, it wuid'
substantially alter the net cashflow position of hire-in households.


File: .AAVS4?IHah.T


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Date. 13l!0184









fees. For this reason, only comparisons between villages, sex of head and
cattle asset categories are presented. Again, formal cashflow analysis
tends to confirm informal observations. Livestocck sales was the single
largest source of cash income, but was obtained irregularly -- in large
amounts -- at one or two occasions per. household, during the year. (The
irregularity was confirmed via analysis of cashflow patterns by month.)
Shostonrig, mnale,.I:akd rich households all ce.:-i-e.-l much more cash from
livestock sales than their comparison groups. Crop sales provided very
little cash income, as would beaexpected in a drought year. Beer sales
provided a substantial and regular source of cash income for several
households, particularly female households in Shoshong. Somewhat
surprisingly, rich households had higher beer sales cash income than did
poorer households.

Gifts and loans revenues, primarily remittances from non-resident household
members, were an expectedly large source of cash for all categories of
households. Village wage cash incomes were important, particularly in
Shoshong, for male households and for richer households. Overall,
approximately P60.00 was received each month via sales and a total. of just
over P100.00 was received from all sources. One clear implication.of these
findings is confirmation of the need to evaluate cropping enterprises in a
whole. farm context.

Turning to cash outflows, purchases of grain. and meal, other food, and .
household goods were regular and substantial for all types of households.
The amounts spent on inputs and livestock were relatively little. Input
expenditures were higher for female households, reflecting purchases of
grain for making beer. Essentially all MIVRU households lost little cash to
gifts, loans or wages, relative to what they received Miscellaneous
expenditures, primarily for various services, accounted -for about F20.00
per month.

The net cashflow per month was positive for all households, but this will
likely change when traction hire fees are added in. Male and rich
households have more cash transactions and higher positive net cashflows
than do their comparision households. Shoshong is a more monetised. village
than is Makwate.

Much progress has been made this year with the MIVRU. The formal survey
format. is beginning to. pay dividends in terms of fewer data gaps and ease
of data checking. Some outstanding concerns, however, have to be dealt
with before the survey: is continued next season. Three issues of
particular concern to ATIP Mahalapye are currently being discussed.

(a). There has been little success in recording plot specific data,
particularly for activities such as bird scaring and weeding. It
may be useful to concentrate on whole farm resource .use through the
MVRU and to collect necessary observations on a plot. by plot basis:
on specific plots selected for technical plot monitoring.

(b). Many findings regarding whole farm resource allocation patterns
confirm informal impressions. Also, general cashflow and labour
patterns are similar across households, even if levels of revenues
and expenditures differ. Third, it is known that any substantial
increase in labour or cash inputs to arable activities will have


File: .AAWS49/Mah. 7


Date: 15/10184


- 7.6 -









particular opportunity cost activities which can and should be
taken into account. Although it can be expected, patterns may
shift if rains are good in 1984-85, it is unlikely they will shift
so substantially as to alter the overall assessment of the
implications of a whole farm perspective for arable technology
development.

(c). Substantial resources during the first two seasons were allocated
to farmers who were unable to plant. This was desirable during the
initial descriptive/diagnostic stages of ATIP since it is necessary
to obtain an understanding of circumstances and resource flows of
poorer farmers. It remains to be seen, however, whether this
investment of resources should be continued next year. By then
enough data should have been gathered to address the question of
how farmers who do not plant survive. On the other hand, there is
still lack of understanding concerning what trade-offs are faced by
farmers which have both viable cropping enterprises and other
"opportunity cost" activities. It may be desirable to concentrate
on farmers who plant next season and maintain contact with
non-planting farmers through a separate survey instrument.

In summary, a much smaller sample, focused on households likely to achieve
competitive returns in arable production would appear to be a more
appropriate format for the MVRU, now that initial objectives have been
accomplished (or will be as soon as the complete data set for the first two
seasons have been analysed).

(2). Technical Monitoring

This activity was based on field direct measurements of production inputs
and crop responses and provided one descriptive and two diagnostic
analyses. These were:

(a). A second season's description of technical inputs.into arable
production. .. .

(b). An assessment --a at the plot level -- of cr :p responses to the
range of current farmer practices and clsmatic' variables.

(c) An assessment of field Jlevel activities as a function of farmer
resource and environmental parameters.

Nineteen farms in Makwate and 28 farms in Shoshong were monitored at the
plot level. On many of these farms, tiliage/pianting activities were
delayed until the very late planting season due to dru;gh: t and poor draught
animal condition Overall, production hectarage in 1983-84 was much less
than desired by the farmers. Plot level monitoring was conducted on 23
1982-83 "Trials" farms in addition to those ft.r-t.s participating in the
Multiple Visit Resource Use Survey. The 1983-84 Annual Work Plan proposed
only whole field activity monitoring for the first group of farms. This
was expanded however, to include plot values because of the need for
Sadditionia plots for monitoring of less frequently grown crops (mines) and
because cf the limited' ritmber of plots per farm due to the drought.

A series of summary forms for technical field data:was developed to .aid the


File: .AAWS49/Mah. I


Date: 15/10t84









ATIP village staff in data collection. This series included the following:

(a). Primary summary sheet. This sheet covers 58 plot designation
items, input items and crop establishment parameters characteristic
of all plots.

(b). Schedule 1: Multiple traction sheet for plots in which more than a
single draught unit was used.

(c). Schedule 2: Farmer secondary tillage input sheet for plots in
which secondary tillage was used.

(d). Schedule 3: Farmer seeding operation sheet for plots with planting
operations other than the traditional broadcast system.

(e). Schedule 4: Seed sample sheet for the analysis of all seed samples
collected.

(f). Schedule 5: Fertiliser input sheet for plots in which fertilizers
were applied.

(g). Schedule 6: Post-emergence farmer input sheet including
information on all weeding and thinning operations.

(h). Schedule 7: Stand count sheet for recording quadrat sample data by
plot on crop emergence.

(i). Schedule 8: Harvest data: sheet for recording quadra t sample data
by plot oh harvest stands and fruit/head counts.

(j):. Scheduled:: Grain yield component and pest damage data sheet for
fruit/head samples collected by plot'.

These forms were supplemented with field diagrams showing plot boundaries.
Rainfall data were collected at 33 sites in the research area with data
.assigned to nearby plots. Air temperatures were recorded in each village
by. the :village-based extension individual (T4). Project enumerators
recorded plot input data on farms included in the MVRU survey. The T:s
collected this information on the remaining farms.

Information is not complete for all plots. Weeding and other labourr/time.
data are often missing. Air temperatures were not accurately recorded .at
various times in the season. In most cases, labour/time data is not.
critical to plot level diagnostic analyses. Whenr needed, typical values
from the MVRU survey can be substituted for missing values. When missing,
temperature data can be approximated by Mahala'ye data. It is encouraging
that the village staff have recognized the need to collect temperature data
:correctly.

Table 7.3 gives a summary of 1983-84 whole farm cultivation activities by
estimated soil moisture status for 38 ATIP farmers grouped by
recommendation domain categories.

It is important to note the considerable area that is plough-planted by all
traction categories when soil moisture is considered less than ideal (soil


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moisture levels 3 and 4). Soil moisture level 4 is recognized as being
insufficient for planting purposes. Yet the plough-planting that does
continue under this poor soil moisture demonstrates the potential that
exists for tillage operations, if not planting, on a considerable number of
days. This observation is the basis for proposing the sole ploughing plus
planting methods trial (Section 7.2.3.1). Figures blocked in Table 7.3
represent percentages of operations that were done on less than ideal soil
moisture by farmers who have control of their own draught situation.
Alternative tillage-planting strategies will likely be proposed for these
farmers and those conditions.


-TABLE 7.3: TOTAL AREA CULTIVATED, TOTAL DAYS OF CULTIVATION, PERCENT OF AREA AND PERCENT OF DAYS iN
FOUR PLANTING SOIL MOISTURE CATEGORIESa EB TRACTION CATEGORY, 4AKVATE AND SHOSHfIOG,
1983-84

CATEGORY NUMBER AVERAGE PERCENT AREA BY SOIL PERCENT DAYS BY SOIL
AND OF ----------- MOISTURE CATEGORY MOISTURE CATEGORY
VILLAGE FARMERS TOTAL TOTAL --------------------- ----------------------
AREA DAYS 1 2 S 4 1 1 3 4


Tractor Own (S) 3 21.4 5.0 0.0 77.1 :16.8 6.2 0.0 81.0 14.3 4.7;
O en Own (S,M) 7 5.0 9.1 0.8. .59.7 139.2 4.91 2.4 54.4 :40.8 2.4;
Donkes Own (H) .7 5.2 12.7 0.0 44.5 54.9 0.8! 0. 50.0 :49.1 1.1.
SUB-TOTAL 17 0.2. 3.8 ;32.8 4.4: 1.0 57.3 139.5 2.31

Animal plus Tractor 5 5.0 4.4 25.9 56.9 15.7 1.7 34.2 33.3 30.0 2.5
Tractor Hire 6 6.3 5.2 0.0 41.8 53.3 5.0.. 0.0 44.4 38.9 16.7

Animal Hire (M) 5 ..0 .4.0 0.0' 44.1 56.0 0.0 0.0 54.0 46.0 0.0
Coop (S,H1 5 2.6 7.2 0.0 76.2 17.6 6.3 0.0 59.0 21.0 20.0

OVERALL 38 5.1 .51. 37.3 6.5 4.9 51.8 36.6 6.6


aPlanting soil moisture evaluated by farmeriresearcher: I = exessive for operating, 2 = good
to excellent, 3 = sufficient but drying, 4 = not sufficient.


(3). Inventory Surveys

It has increasingly appeared that farmer assets human, livestock, and
fixed capital -- are a dominant,' if riot the dominant, element influencing
husbandry practices and .management strategies. This is particularly
important in the Central Region where the .technical element and exogenous
human element .(institutions, support services, etc.) are similar for most
farmers. Therefore, three special surveys were designed and administered
to farmers participating in the MVRU to give a.more detailed picture of
their assets than had been possible until that time. The three surveys
were:

(a). Household Census (an update and expansion upon an earlier census).

(b). Household Livestock Inventory'-- which detailed herd composition for


File: .AAWS49/Mah.1


- 7.9 -


Drate: 15/110/84









cattle and goats and included a retrospective on inventory changes.

(c). Farm Fixed Capital Inventory.

Databases have been created:for each survey and available data have. been
analysed. Partial findings were presented at the Sebele Arable Research
Review Meeting.

Summaries of information gained via these three :urveys are presented in
Tables 7.4 through 7.7.

Table 7.4 summaries data on.household compositions and participation in
arable activity. Results are presented for the same household groupings
used in Table 7.1: village, sex of head, cattle assets, and draught access.
A key overall: finding is that household demographics and participation in
arable activities differs little across these groupings. This can be
distinguished from the'consistent differences found in areas ploughed,
sorghum harvested, and somn types of cashflows.


TABLE 7.4: HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND PARTICIPATION IN ARABLE. ACTIVITY, NAHALAPYE AREA, 1983-84


VILLAGE SEX OF HEAD CATTLE ASSETS DRAUGHT ACCESS ALL
VARIABLE----- ------------- -------------
SHOSHONG HAKVATE HALE FEMALE )35 0-35 OWN DEPENDENT


HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION;
Local Residents

Percent. f Members Who Are
Hen "...- -... ;
Vinen :.
Boys
Girls

Consumer Unitsa
Consumer Units/Resident


9.4 10.9 9.5 10.7 8.8


22
"20

26


6.6 -8.2 7.3
0.72 0.82 0.80


11 25
13 21
tr-- --31.
35 23

6.9 -.7.
0.67 0.7


10.6 9.9 9.9 09


.. 21 24 21 23
17 23 21 ..
23 29 20 26 .
'35- 27 36 31

7.2 7i5 .5 7.2
S 0.87 0.80 .0..47 0;76


PARTICIPATION IN ARABLE PRODUCTION:
% Whose Main Actiiity
Is faring 27 2 27 23 28 24 26 24 25


No. Active in Ploughing.
% Residents Who Plough
i Residents Vho Weed

Worker Equivalents


3.7
27.
21


4.3 3. 9 4.0
33 32 27
23 24 19


3.1. 4.2 3.2. 3.3


3.9 .. 4.0
34 27
25 20


.4.1
33
24


3.5 4.0
23 30
17 U*22.


. '.4 3.4 3.0


Definitions for these terms are given in Table 7.1.


Households average around 10 resident members. .Approximately 45 percent of


File: AAVS49/Kah. .


3.3


r


Date: 15/11/84


- 7.10 -









resident members are adults. Girls (under 16) are particularly prevalent
in poor, female headed households. A larger proportion of residents are
boys in Makwate than Shoshong, probably reflecting the fact that fewer
Makwate households have distant cattle posts. Consumer units were derived
using adult caloric requirements to weight individuals of different ages.
Overall, households have to feed just over seven adult consumer units.

Approximately 25 percent of resident members consider crop farming to be
their main activity. This is interesting when compared to the proportion
of cash income received from crop sales. Three explanations are partially
responsible for this:

(a). Most crop production is consumed, not sold.

(b). Perceptions of crop farming are based on long run outcomes, not
.. just results in recent years.

(c). Crop farming is a way of life, as well as an income activity. Many
individuals have no alternatives even if returns to cropping
activities are extremely low.

Approximately four people are Invirvedairi nploughing including seeding
and preparing food. Thirty percent of residents participate in
plough/planting and a smaller proportion, 22 percent are active in weeding.
Since not all active members are active in each major activity, a concept
of worker equivalents is presented, indicating the number of people who are
active in cropping during plough/planting, weeding and harvesting (1/3 unit
given for each person active in each of theses three periods). Worker
equivalents are not weighted by age. On average, and.for each group of
households, just over three people per household .work full time as crop
farmers.

Table 7.5 presents information on fields and ploughs of. the MVRU farmers,
distinguishing only between Shoshong and lakwate households. All
households have access to at least one field; 22 percent have access to a
second field. The fields have been cultivated for decades. On average,
the current heads of households obtained their fields twenty years ago.
More than half the fields were obtained via inheritance. Twelve percent of
fields were borrowed or were obtained as gifts. Receiving. the'right to use
land as a gift is particularly important in Makwate, accounting for nearly
20 percent of fields -- most of those used by poor, female households.
Forty-five percent of fields in Shoshong and 36 percent overall were
initially opened (destumped and/or fenced) by the current household head.
A majority of fields are completely or partially wire fenced. The
proportion of fields with some wire fencing has increased dramatically among
Shoshong households since those households first began cooperating with
ATIP. Forty percent of Shoshong MVRU fields, however, remain without any
fencing ..

Most households have one single-furrow mouldboard plough. Nineteen percent
of households have no plough and 22 percent have two or more ploughs. Over
60 percent of ploughs owned were purchased more than 20 years ago and only
half the ploughs were purchased new.. Any depreciation value for ploughs
would be extremely small for most households. Most farmers feel the
shears) on their ploughs are in good condition.


File: .AAWS49/lMah. I


- 7.11 -


Date: I9i50/84










An overview of the livestock inventories of MVRU households is presented in
Table 7.6. Cattle inventories declined slightly during the year, while
goat herds increased slightly.


TABLE 7.5: FIELDS AND PLOUGHS, MAHALAPYE AREA, 1983-84


VARIABLE SHOSHONG MAKWATE ALL

FIELDS:
% Households With One 71 90 78
% Households With Two or More 29 10 22
Years Since Head Obtained 21 18 20

How Fields Were Obtained t% of Fields)
Heritance 45 64 52
Borrowed .5 0 3
Gift 18 9
Head Opened New Land .. 45 18 36

Destumping (% of Fields .:.
Completely Destumped :,29 20 26
Few Stumps 29 50 .37
Part Destumped, Part Not 35 20 ... 30
Not Destumped 6 10 8

Fencing (% of Fields) a:
Wire .24. 30 26
Part Wire, Part Bush 18 40 26'"
Bush 18 30 22
None 40 0 26

PLOUGHS:.
% Households Without Plough 18 20 19
% Households With One Plough,. 59 60 .59
% Households With > I Plough 24. 20 22
% Ploughs Purchased More Than
Twenty Years Ago 61 60 61
% Ploughs Purchased New 61 30 50
% Ploughs With Good Shear 78 90 82


aMain field only.



Death rates were quite high for cattle, around 30 percent, but this was
offset -- in numbers, not value -- by births. Cattle herds comprised
mainly of cows and their calves. The percent of bulls was small, but was
inflated for Makwate since a couple of farmers with very small herds had
bulls. Shoshong farmers lost a substantial number of cattle. Few cattle
were slaughtered, none in Makwate. The overall offtake rate for cattle
was a respectable 16 percent. Factors contributing to the relatively high
offtake rate were the continuing drought which required cattle to be sold


File: .AAWS49/Iah.


- 7.12 -


Date: 15/10184










TABLE 7.6: LIVESTOCK INVENTORIES AND CHANGE RATES, MAHALAPYE
AREA,'" 983 -84


LIVESTOCK SHOSHONG HAKVATE ALL

CATTLE:
Number of Households Owning 17 5 22


Beginning Inventory
Ending Inventory
Average Inventory


Percent
.Percent
Percent
Percent


Calves
Cows
OKen
Bulls


42.4
35.2
38.8


* 24.
..52.9
20.0
2. 0


17 6
21:.-4.
19.5


36.8
32. 1
34.4

25.4
52.2
17.7
3.0


30.1
48.4
4.6
17,.0


Birthrate 31 30 31
Deathr ate 30 '!' 31 30
Percent Lost 10 0 9
Percent Slaughtered 0
Percent Purchased This Year 2 2
Percent Sold This Year 9 23 11
Offtake Rate 15 23 16

GOATS:
Number of Households Owning 17 9 26


Beginning inventory
Ending Inventory
Average Inventory


Percent Kids
Percent Female Adults
Percent Male Adults,


SBirthr ate 57. 9'
Deathrate : : 9 .
Percent Los't: .....:. 6.0
Percent SIaugh.t~d 12.6
Percent Purchased This Year 1.6
Percent Sold This Year 8.0
Of f take rate .. '20.6
.. .. .. .. .. ..~,-- ---- ' -------..... ..------ .-- -,..
NUMBER OF CHICKEN 0.7
NUMBER OF DONKEYS- 1.5
., ..NUMBER OF SHEEP 4.1
NUMBER'OF HORSES, PIS 0


.28.3 48.0
S7.1 15 .4
S 11.9 7.9
: .14.1 13.1
3.6 2.3
2.9 6.3
17.0 19 .4

10. 10.5
42. 2.3
2.0 3.4
; 0. 0


File: .AAWS49/Mah.T


26.0
60.6
13.4


16.4
25 4
20.9

41.4
45 1
13.4


13.7
19.3
16.5

36.3
50.2
13 4


bzte: Isiaia4


- 7 .1 3'-' ; .. .









to avoid stock starvation and to raise cash for family needs, and the fact
that five farmers sold substantial numbers of cattle to invest in housing
and fencing The high offtake rate was achieved in spite of the fact that
the price farmers received per head during the period April/May 1983 to
April/May 1984 was P180 compared with P250 in more normal periods

Goat herds comprised mostly adult females and their kids. Goat birthrates
were higher than for cattle, and deathrates were much lower. Over 13
percent of the average inventory of goats were slaughtered during the year,
indicating the greater importance of goat meat relative to beef. The
overall offtake rate for goats was nearly 20 percent, despite a small
proportion of goats being sold.

Most households also had chickens. Only a few had sheep and none had
either horses or pigs. One had a mule, but it died. Donkeys were, of
course, more prevalent in Makwate.

Values of livestock inventories and farm fixed capital are presented in
Table 7.7. Results are again presented for the four key groupings:
village, sex of head, cattle assets, and draught access. The value of
livestock inventories is distinctly greater for Shoshong households, male
headed households, and draught .controlling households, not to mention the
obviously larger value for cattle rich households. The values of goat and
chicken inventories tend to be higher for households with higher valued
cattle inventories.

Accumulated livestock assets were not turned into agricultural capital, as
is suggested by the fact that households with lower livestock assets did
not have less agricultural capital assets. (Other equipment can only
partially be treated as agricultural capital since it included carts and,
for a few households, vehicles which had non-agricultural uses.) Hand
tools and receptacles represented a higher proportion of agricultural
capital than might ordinarily be expected.

A substantial proportion of assets were tied up in buildings, particularly
village buildings. This is particularly true in Shoshong. Households with
more cattle have buildings which are worth more than double those of
households with fewer cattle assets. Neither female households nor draught
dependent households have fewer building assets. Female. households have as
much housing assets as male households despite lower incomes, mostly due to
inheritance, family help and remittances.

Overall, households have around Fl0,000 in assets. Shoshong, male, cattle
rich and draught controllers all have greater assets, largely due to
livestock assets. it should be noted, these same households achieve better
arable results, but do not have more agricultural capital -- except for
ploughs. Livestock account for just over 60 percent of assets overall and
buildings for another 32 percent. Agricultural capital, particularly if
one were to eliminate vehicles and carts, represents an insignificant
proportion of household assets.

7.1.1.2 "NEW VILLAGE" DESCRIPTION AND DIAGNOSIS

ATIP Mahalapye had hoped to begin research in a third village, Makoro in
the Palapye District, during the 1983-84 season. it was not possible to


File: AAWS49/Mah.1


- 7.14 -


Date. 15/10/84













TABLE 7.7: VALUE OF LIVESTOCK INVENTORIES AND FAR:N FIXED
1983-84a


VILLAGE SEX OF HEAD CATTLE ASSETS .DRAUGHT ACCESS
---------------- ----------- ----------- 7- :---------------
SHOSHONG HAKWATE MALE FEMALE )35 0-35 OVN DEPENDENT ALL

LIVESTOCK:
Cattle 4225 3449 7101 2324 10080 1732 :.85? 3089 5264
Goats 488 154 398 332 516 267 384 356 373
Poultry 59 51 64 50 71 41 5? 45 57
Donkeys 96 260 207 65 124 173 243 29 153
Other 172 6S 96 0 81 43 79 5 59

TOTAL 7041 3980 78i6 2771 .:10872 2256 7 644- 352 5906

AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL:
Ploughs 68 140 131 33 144 60 135 35 94
Other Equiplent 353 284 204 536 155 446 3 464 328
Hand Tools 53 50 61 4 715 41 55. 56 55
Receptacles 122 96- 115 tO1 131 99 123 97 112
TOTAL 4601 57. 511 723 505 644 546 652 589

BUILDINGS:
Lands Area 506 163 484 202 .. 647 195 484 226 379
Village 3594 1020 2329 3170 4000. t1706 2538 2791 2640

TOTAL ASSETS 11742 5733 11187 864 14.24 4303 11212. 7193 9514

ASSET STRUCTURE J% OF ASSETS):
Livestock9 7 29 67 47 .. 70 2 68 4? 62
Buildings 34 21 .25 60 29 39 .2. 42 32
Agricultural Capital 5 10 5 11 14 5 9 6


Valuation of ploughs, other equipment, and buildings based on farmer's' ssessments of
current cost to obtain a repiaceemnt in the same condition. Livestock valued as follows.
bull = P320, cow = P200, olen = P220, cald = P40, adult goat = P2, lids = Ftq, seep = F2,
chickens = P5, donkeys = P65, and nomes = P170. These are conservative estimates and
.represent the minimum value of livestock inventories. Hand tools were valued as follows: hoe
= P4; axe, pick, spade, rake = P10, wheelbarrow = ?25, auger = F8. Receptacles were Valued as
follows: small basket = F2.50, large basket =.P6.00, small bucket = F5.00, large bucket =
P9.00; drua = P16.00; plastic container = P15.00, sack = P1.75, large bowl = P3.SQ, snall bow!
= P2.00.


File: .AAVS491Hah.T


CAPITAL pulaA), MAHALAFPE AREA,


Date: S110t84









initiate field trials due to lack of staff from DAR and DAFS. In
anticipation of beginning trials research next season, an exploratory
survey was designed and carried out in May and June. Additional
exploratory visits to Makoro likely will continue.

The exploratory survey format used in Makoro differed from that used
earlier.in Shoshong East and Makwate, reflecting greater knowledge of
farming practices in the survey area:. The survey design required field
teams to fill-in a "Single-Visit Farm Characteristics and Cropping
Outcomes" form. On this single sheet, objective information on household
composition, agricultural resource position, livestock management, and
cultivation activities during the 1983-84 season were recorded. Following
recording of information on a farmer's circumstances, a series of
subjective questions were asked. During the first two days of interviews,
subjective questions fell into the following four categories:

(a). Farmer priorities.
(b). farmer assessment of arable production conditions.
(c). Knowledge of and interest in DAFS recommendations.
(d). Responses to multiple tillage.

Information in the first two categories was difficult to pursue, in part
because it was the end of the cropping season and questions seemed too
abstract to farmers. Questions about the last two categories met with
rapidly diminishing returns since essentially none of the farmers were
familiar with DAFS recommendations nor had observed multiple tillage.

In a debriefing session held after the second exploratory visit, the team
decided to shift the focus of informal questioning to the following issues:
problems and priorities of permanent lands dwellers versus seasonal
migrants; settlement patterns as related to nearby villages and definitions
of lands areas, and draught arrangements.

A distinguishing feature of Makoro is that it is not a village,- at least in
the normal settlement pattern. Households in Makoro might have village
residences in Serowe, Palapye or Radiseie. Miany have no -village residences
and are permanent lands, dwellers. Permanent lands residence is possible
due to three water pans which generally do not dry during winter, even
though there is only one borehole serving the whole area. .Makoro also is
of interest because there in only one small trading store in t-e area even
though it is adjacent to the Gaborone to Francistown road. Tractor hire is
the main source of draught, closely followed by oxen.

In summary, the settlement pattern of Makoro has presented ATIP Mahalapye
with a distinctly different research environment from that found in Makwate
-and Shoshong East, even.though cultivation practices are quite similar --
particularly in relation to Shoshong East. Further exploratory visits (to
Makoro and regionally) will allow evaluation of the significance of the
"Makoro pattern" in other parts of the region.

The planned sample frame census for Makoro will not be administered, This
decision is based on the following.

(a). Farmer selection for either trial research or the MVRU survey will
be according to recommendation domains. It is clear on the.basis


File: .AAWS49/Mah.1


D_(e: 15/10/84


- 7.16 -








of the exploratory survey that the dominant RD in M1.akoro is tractor
hire, followed by use of owned cattle. We feel information from
the exploratory survey can be used to select ATIF farmers in
Makoro.

(b). The absence of a village center in Makoro means that a proportion
of farming families are actually residents of other villages.
Also, within any given household, some members may be resident and
others seasonally migrate to villages. Third, the Makoro lands
area merges indistinguishingly with other lands areas. Taking
these factors into account, it is not clear there is a distinct
"Makoro population" and therefore reason for a sample frame of that
"population".

(c). The extent to which ATIP Mahalapye will be active in Miakoro still
is under discussion. Given planned RM,RI and RM,FI research in
the Mahalapye lands areas and cooperative demonstrations with AD's
representing several extension areas (see Section 7.2.4.1), Makoro
may serve only as a FM,FI testing village rather than a primary
research extension area (as Shoshong East and Makwate). Also, ATIP
Mahalapye has not yet been assigned a third T4.

7.1.1.3 COWPEA BASELINE STUDY

Prior to the 1983-84 season, DeMooy, the Cowpea CRSP Agronomist located at
Sebele, asked ATIP to design and administer a study on the role of cowpeas
in Batswana farming systems and cowpea husbandry practices. In February,-a
cowpeas baseline survey was cooperatively designed by Miller, Baker and :
Norman. The survey intialy was pre-tested and administered to ATI? farmers
in the Francistown area. Additional pre-testing and modification was
carried-out in Mahalapye. The survey was administered to 49 ATIP farmers.
in Shoshong East and Makwate during June. The survey was administered by
the three field enumerators, the two T4s, Tibone and Luzani : -.

Data from the survey has entered on the Sebele computer. Data analysis has
been completed. Summary results have been compiled and are available for
distribution in ATIP Progress Report M84-5. Some of the key. findings from
the survey are presented in Tables 7.8, 7.9 and 7.10.

Table 7.7 presents an overview of cowpea production and production
practices in Shoshong and Makwate. Nearly 70 percent of households have
grown cowpeas in each of the past 5 years; a smaller proportion in Makwate
due to drought and subsequent lack of seed. Only eight percent of
households have grown cowpeas less than three yeazs in the past five. The
primary reason for not growing cowpeas was a lack of seed. Twenty-four
percent households did not plant cowpeas' or anything else during the past
two seasons due to drought.

Draught used for cowpeas was the same as for other crops: primarily cattle
and tractors in Shoshong and donkeys in Makwate. Nearly all households
broadcast seed. Floughing was the only soil tillage, except for some :
households harrowing in Shoshong. Eighty-eight percent of households grow
cowpeas in mixtures but 41 percent planted at least some cowpeas in sole
plots. Cowpea mixtures nearly always included sorghum and melons. Cowpeas
were mixed with maize by 31 percent of households and were mixed with other


File: .AAWS49/Mah. I


Date. 15/10/84


- 7.17 -










TABLE 7.8: COWPEA PRODUCTION IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE


PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS
VARIABLE ------------.----------------------------
SHOSHONG MAKWATE ALL


YEARS IN PAST FIVE COWPEAS VERE GROWN:
All 5 years 77
3 or 5 years 13
2 or less years 10
REASONS COVPEAS NOT GROWN 1982-1984 :
Lacked Seed 50
Lacked Labour 20
Did No Planting 30
DRAUGHT USED FOR COWPEAS:
Donkeys 3
Cattle 37
Tractors 50
Tractors and Animals 10-
NO TILLAGE EXCEPT PLOUGHING ?7 .7
ALL COWPEA SEED IS BROADCASTED 97
SEED MIXTURES GROWN:
Cowpeas Sole
Sole and Mixed 23
Mixed Only .) 73
Mixed with Sorghum 6
Mixed with Maise 37
Mixed with Melons 97
Mixed with Other Beans.. 27
VARIETIES-PLANTED:
Blackeye 47
Tswana 87
AMOUNT OF SEED PLANTED:
Blackeye
( 5 Kgs. .57
5-10 Kgs. 43
Tswana
( 5.Kgs. 53
5-10 Kgs. 48
WEEDING:
Did Not Weed 3
Weeded Once 97
Weeded. Once 0
LABOUR ALWAYS AVAILABLE
.WHEN .NEEDED). 70
LEAF GATHERING STRATEGIES:
Picked All Leaves 17
Picked Trailing Vines 17
Picked Some .Leaves 63
No Strategy 3


53
42


86
0
14

79
21
0
0
84
79
" .'-:;. y6 "

37
37
53
21
74
21

79
89


79
21

100
0

11
79
10

8 4

3 2
0
58
10


67
25
8

64
12
24

33
30
31
6
72
90

12
29
59
57
31
88
25

S,.. 59
; "88 "



68
32

70
30


90 ....
4

71

: 22
10. .
61 -
6. :


a Of households which did nt
Of households which did not grow.


File: .AAWS49/Mah.T


Date: 15/10184


- 7.18 -










TABLE 7.9: COWPEA HUSBANDRY PROBLEMS IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE

PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS
VARIABLE -----------------------------------
SHOSHONG MAKWATE ALL

STAND ESTABLISHMENT:
Had Difficulty Getting
Good Stand Establishment 77 74 76

Problems with Stand
Too Few Plants 30 1i 25
Stand Uneven 33 32 33
Stand Too Dense 10 21 14

OBSERVED SERIOUS FLOWER DROP 83 79 82

INSECT PESTS:
Observed Serious Feeding 97 90 94

What Damage Observed
Leaf and Stem Feeding 60 6 63.
Flower Feeding 50 58 53
Pod Feeding 57 79 65

What Did If Insect Problem
Generally Nothing 97 84 92
Ever Spray for Insects 0 0 0

SPECIAL WEED PROBLEMS OBSERVED 60 84 69

OTHER PESTS:
Bird Damage 30 32 31
Other Wildlife Damage 90 90 90

DISEASE PROBLEMS:
Serious Disease Damage 60 90 71

Which Type Observed
On Pods 17 68 37
On Leaves and/or Stems 47 74 57

What Did If Disease Problem
Generally Nothing 63 37 53
Took Seed Only from
Healthy Plants 3 53 21


File: .AAWS491Mah.T


Date 15i/10/84


- 7.19 -











TABLE 7.10: COWPEA UTIL-ISATiON IN SHOSHONG AND MAKWATE

PERCENT OF ALL HOUSEHOLDS
VARIABLE --------------------------------------
SHOSHONG MAKWATE .ALL


UTILISATION OF COWPEAS GRAIN
Eaton By Household
Eaten and Save for Seed
Eaten, Saved, Sold
UTILISATION OF COWPEA LEAVES
Eaten by Household
Eaten and Sold
SALES:


HARVESTED:
20
53
27
HARVESTED:
70
30


Ever Sell Cowpea Grain
To Whom Sell
Another Farmer
Local Trader
BAMBICoop
Ever Sell Leaves
GRAIN CONSUMPTION PATTERNS:
How Often Post-Harvest
< Once a Week
Once a Week
: Once a Week
How Often Winter
< Once a Week
Once a Week
> Once a Week
How Often Summer
( Once a Week
Once a Week
) Once a Week
SOURCE OF GRAIN CONSUMED.
Household Production
Other Farmers
Local Trader
Household and Traders
Household, Othler.F.armers
and Traders
HOW OFTEN EAT LEAVES POST-HARVEST
( Once a Week
> Once a Week
SOURCE OF LEAVES:
Household Lands
Other Households
Lands and Other Households


File: .AAWS49/Nah.T


17
. .. 50


78
22

61


32
10
31


43

14
21


,4 .
20


.: : I.,.; ... i -7
18
25

31
12

20

Sl


16

31


- 7.20 -


Date: 15110/84









beans by only 25 percent of households


Blackeye and Tswana were essentially the only cowpea varieties grown.
Blackeye was grown by S? percent of households and Tswana beans by 88
percent of households. The amount of seed planted was very small, under
five kgs. for 68 percent of households. No households planted more than 10
kgs. of either variety.

Most cowpea plots were weeded once. Nearly 80 percent of households did
not believe labour was lacking to grow cowpeas. Several different leaf
gathering strategies were used.

Farmers believed they faced severe husbandry problems in growing cowpeas,
as is shown in Table 7.9. Three-quarters said they had difficulty in
establishing good stands, 82 percent had observed serious flower drop, 94
percent had observed serious insect feeding, 69 percent believed there were
special weed problems, 90 percent felt wildlife damage was a problem, and
71 percent thought diseases were a problem. Despite farmers' concerns,
farmers generally did nothing with regard to eiher pests or diseases.

Table 7.10 summarises information on cowpea utilisation. Most cowpea grain
harvested is eaten or saved for seed. Twenty-two percent of households
sold some grain the last yeac they harvested grain. Sixty-one percent of
households reported having sold grain at some time in the past. Most grain
was sold to other farmers, followed by sales to local traders. Thirty-one
percent say they have sold cowpea leaves.

The frequency with which cowpeas were consumed varied with the season.
Immediately after harvest, 35 percent consumed grain less than once a week
but this increased to 57 percent during summer, proceeding harvest. Cowpea
grain consumption was less frequent in Makwate than in Shoshong..
Households obtained cowpeas from a variety of sources, including household
production, other farmers, .'aid local traders. Seventy-eight percent of
households ate cowpea leaves more than once a week during the post-harvest
period. Cowpeas leaves were obtained from household lands or from other
farmers.

7.1.1.4 REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE STUDY

The regional perspective study has been delayed until the 1984-85 season.
The objectives, justification and approach to regional perspective studies
will be different in the coming season than had been planned for this
season' (see Section 7.2.1.3) The regional perspective study initially had
several descriptive and diagnostics objectives, some to be accomplished
through a regional exploratory and some via a regional farm management
survey.

Most of the objectives envisioned for formal survey, those relating to a
description of. farming practices throughout -the Central Region, were
accomplished through analysis of the 1983 Agricultural Demonstrator survey.
In fact, results of the AD survey suggested a multi-stage sampling
procedure, logistically necessary, could .lead to unrepresentative results.
This is because practices tend to be:reiEted to whether a village is a
donkey, cattle. or tractor traction dominated village. A stratified
multi-stage sampling approach could be used, but then ATIP Mahalapye


File: AAWS49/Mah. 1


- 7.21 -


Date: 1511S084









already have descriptive information relative to a representative donkey
and a representative cattle-tractor village (Makwate and Shoshong). The
representativenss of the ATIP research villages was confirmed in the AD
survey, eliminating another purpose of the formal regional survey.

The planned regional exploratory survey will be conducted in the coming
season. As is explained in Section 7.2.1.3, the objective has shifted from
system description to a focus on why certain patterns of draught power and
progressive practices are observed in particular areas. In general, ATIP
Mahalapye feel emphasis should shift from, description to monitoring
patterns of technical change.


7.1.1.5 DESCRIPTIVE/DIAGNOSTIC WORK NOT MENTIONED IN THE
1983-84 WORK PLAN

(1). Cropping Plans Survey

This survey was designed to provide three categories of information:

(a) Planned traction use, crops to be grown and seed availability as
needed to decide which farmers might participate in the cowpeas
seed comparison and seed treatment trials.

(b). Expected use of household and non-household resources to help check
for gaps in technical and resource-use monitoring data.

(c). Farmers' early season plans to compare with actual activities as
the season unfolded.

The survey was administered during 11th-17th November to 45, of the 52,
ATIP farming households in Shoshong East and Makwate. The data were
immediately entered in the Sebele computer and analysed. Results were
used, as planned, in selecting .cooperators for the above trials. A brief
report on survey results was prepared and circulated in December. The
report, ATIP Progress Report M83-2, is available through ATIP Mahalapye.

A major finding of the survey was that ATIP farmers started the 1983-84
season in a difficult position: most were short of seed and had animals
unfit for traction. The government seed distribution programme provided a
large proportion of the sorghum seed farmers had on hand (78% of households
received seed). The programme also led to more farmers planning to plant
more maize than normally is the case.. Maize is not a successful crop in
the Mahalapye area. In general, donkey farmers were able to start earlier,
despite worse grazing in Makwate. Many farmers in Shoshong planned to
shift to tractor hire since their cattle were not fit, an option that is
not available in Makwate. The shift to tractor hire partially appears to
reflect a long run trend toward a multiple traction -- tractor and cattle
-- system.

(2). Institutions, Services and Infrastructure Survey

This survey was designed to better describe the exogenous human element
influencing farming practices. The questionnaire for the survey was open
ended. It was administered in Shoshong Last and Makwate. Questions on


File: .AAWS49/Mah.2


Date: 1.711011984


- 7.22 -









already have descriptive information relative to a representative donkey
and a representative cattle-tractor village (Makwate and Shoshong). The
representativenss of the ATIP research villages was confirmed in the AD
survey, eliminating another purpose of the formal regional survey.

The planned regional exploratory survey will be conducted in the coming
season. As is explained in Section 7.2.1.3, the objective has shifted from
system description to a focus on why certain patterns of draught power and
progressive practices are observed in particular areas. In general, ATIP
Mahalapye feel emphasis should shift from, description to monitoring
patterns of technical change.


7.1.1.5 DESCRIPTIVE/DIAGNOSTIC WORK NOT MENTIONED IN THE
1983-84 WORK PLAN

(1). Cropping Plans Survey

This survey was designed to provide three categories of information:

(a) Planned traction use, crops to be grown and seed availability as
needed to decide which farmers might participate in the cowpeas
seed comparison and seed treatment trials.

(b). Expected use of household and non-household resources to help check
for gaps in technical and resource-use monitoring data.

(c). Farmers' early season plans to compare with actual activities as
the season unfolded.

The survey was administered during 11th-17th November to 45, of the 52,
ATIP farming households in Shoshong East and Makwate. The data were
immediately entered in the Sebele computer and analysed. Results were
used, as planned, in selecting .cooperators for the above trials. A brief
report on survey results was prepared and circulated in December. The
report, ATIP Progress Report M83-2, is available through ATIP Mahalapye.

A major finding of the survey was that ATIP farmers started the 1983-84
season in a difficult position: most were short of seed and had animals
unfit for traction. The government seed distribution programme provided a
large proportion of the sorghum seed farmers had on hand (78% of households
received seed). The programme also led to more farmers planning to plant
more maize than normally is the case.. Maize is not a successful crop in
the Mahalapye area. In general, donkey farmers were able to start earlier,
despite worse grazing in Makwate. Many farmers in Shoshong planned to
shift to tractor hire since their cattle were not fit, an option that is
not available in Makwate. The shift to tractor hire partially appears to
reflect a long run trend toward a multiple traction -- tractor and cattle
-- system.

(2). Institutions, Services and Infrastructure Survey

This survey was designed to better describe the exogenous human element
influencing farming practices. The questionnaire for the survey was open
ended. It was administered in Shoshong Last and Makwate. Questions on


File: .AAWS49/Mah.2


Date: 1.711011984


- 7.22 -









already have descriptive information relative to a representative donkey
and a representative cattle-tractor village (Makwate and Shoshong). The
representativenss of the ATIP research villages was confirmed in the AD
survey, eliminating another purpose of the formal regional survey.

The planned regional exploratory survey will be conducted in the coming
season. As is explained in Section 7.2.1.3, the objective has shifted from
system description to a focus on why certain patterns of draught power and
progressive practices are observed in particular areas. In general, ATIP
Mahalapye feel emphasis should shift from, description to monitoring
patterns of technical change.


7.1.1.5 DESCRIPTIVE/DIAGNOSTIC WORK NOT MENTIONED IN THE
1983-84 WORK PLAN

(1). Cropping Plans Survey

This survey was designed to provide three categories of information:

(a) Planned traction use, crops to be grown and seed availability as
needed to decide which farmers might participate in the cowpeas
seed comparison and seed treatment trials.

(b). Expected use of household and non-household resources to help check
for gaps in technical and resource-use monitoring data.

(c). Farmers' early season plans to compare with actual activities as
the season unfolded.

The survey was administered during 11th-17th November to 45, of the 52,
ATIP farming households in Shoshong East and Makwate. The data were
immediately entered in the Sebele computer and analysed. Results were
used, as planned, in selecting .cooperators for the above trials. A brief
report on survey results was prepared and circulated in December. The
report, ATIP Progress Report M83-2, is available through ATIP Mahalapye.

A major finding of the survey was that ATIP farmers started the 1983-84
season in a difficult position: most were short of seed and had animals
unfit for traction. The government seed distribution programme provided a
large proportion of the sorghum seed farmers had on hand (78% of households
received seed). The programme also led to more farmers planning to plant
more maize than normally is the case.. Maize is not a successful crop in
the Mahalapye area. In general, donkey farmers were able to start earlier,
despite worse grazing in Makwate. Many farmers in Shoshong planned to
shift to tractor hire since their cattle were not fit, an option that is
not available in Makwate. The shift to tractor hire partially appears to
reflect a long run trend toward a multiple traction -- tractor and cattle
-- system.

(2). Institutions, Services and Infrastructure Survey

This survey was designed to better describe the exogenous human element
influencing farming practices. The questionnaire for the survey was open
ended. It was administered in Shoshong Last and Makwate. Questions on


File: .AAWS49/Mah.2


Date: 1.711011984


- 7.22 -




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