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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 A message from the University of...
 Letter from Nebraska mission...
 Administration - the University...
 1970 contract signing
 Table of Contents
 Honorary professorships
 Address by Dr. Jorge Mendez...
 Staffing
 Financing
 Distinguished visitors and short...
 The institutional framework
 Major objectives
 Fellowships
 Highlights of 1969
 Project reports
 Short term consultant reports
 A: Table of organization, ICA
 B: Table of organization, technical...
 C: Fiscal report, University of...


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



Annual report
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053936/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: 3 v. ill. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus) -- Mission in Colombia
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario
Mid-America State Universities Association
Publisher: The Mission
Place of Publication: S.l.
Creation Date: 1969
Publication Date: 1968-1970
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- International cooperation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: The University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Jan. 1, 1968-Dec. 31, 1968-1970.
Issuing Body: In cooperation with: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Universidad Nacional de Colombia and The Mid America State Universities Association.
General Note: Contracting agencies: United States Agency for International Development, The Ford Foundation and the Kellogg Foundation.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03592262
System ID: UF00053936:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Semi-annual report
Succeeded by: Final report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    A message from the University of Nebraska
        Page ii
    Letter from Nebraska mission director
        Page iii
    Administration - the University of Nebraska
        Page iv
    1970 contract signing
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Honorary professorships
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Address by Dr. Jorge Mendez Munevar
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Staffing
        Page 7
        Professional staff as of December 31
            Page 7
        Staff departures during 1969
            Page 8
        Program continuity
            Page 9
        1970 staffing plan
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Non-professional staff as of December 31
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
    Financing
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Distinguished visitors and short term consultants
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The institutional framework
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Major objectives
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Fellowships
        Page 27
        Degree fellowships
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Short term fellowships
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    Highlights of 1969
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Project reports
        Page 43
        Agricultural economics
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Agricultural engineering
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Agricultural extension
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Agronomy
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Animal medicine
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Veterinary medicine
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
    Short term consultant reports
        Page 115
        Agricultural economics
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
        Poultry science; Dr. J. H. Quisenberry
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
        Dairy manufacturing; Dr. L. K. Crowe
            Page 125
            Page 126
        Animal science; Dr. Frank H. Baker
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
        Agricultural engineering; Dr. W. E. Splinter
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
        Veterinary medicine; Dr. B. W. Kingery
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Agricultural extension; Dr. John L. Adams
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
        Horticulture; Dr. J. O. Young
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
        Home economics; Drs. Virginia Trotter, Doretta Hoffman and Anita Dickson
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
        Agricultural engineering extension; Mr. R. O. Gilden
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
        Agricultural engineering; Dr. W. E. Splinter
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
        Irrigation; Mr. Paul E. Fischbach
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
        Bean and vegetable crop research; Dr. Dermont Coyne
            Page 181
            Page 182
    A: Table of organization, ICA
        Page 183
        Page 184
    B: Table of organization, technical branch of ICA
        Page 185
        Page 186
    C: Fiscal report, University of Nebraska
        Page 187
Full Text







UNIVERSITIES ASSOCIATION COOPERATING


ANNUAL


REPORT


FOR 1969


SAID
FORD FOUNDATION
KELLOGG FOUNDATION


in cooperation with:
INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO
UNIVERSIDAD NATIONAL DE COLOMBIA


THE MID-AMERICA STATE

















THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
MISSION IN COLOMBIA




The Mid-America State Universities Association Cooperating


ANNUAL


REPORT


For the Period January 1, 1969 to
December 31, 1969








In Cooperation with:

INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO
UNIVERSIDAD NATIONAL DE COLOMBIA






Contracting Agencies:

United States Agency for International Development
The Ford Foundation
The W. K. Kellogg Foundation






THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
LINCOLN, NEBRASKA 68503

OFFICE OF THE DEAN
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS
310 AGRICULTURAL HALL
AREA CODE 402-472-2604

A MESSAGE FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

The first year of operating under "loan financing" has
just been concluded. On the basis of a contract between the
Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska and ICA, and
approved by USAID/Bogota, effective January 1, 1969, the pro-
gram was financed on funds provided through the Agricultural
Sector Loan made to the Government of Colombia by the Govern-
ment of the United States. The one million dollars involved
were used to pay dollar costs of the project. By following
the same AID and University of Nebraska policy guidelines
that prevailed on grant funds of the previous contract between
Nebraska and USAID, there was no significant change in day to
day operations.

Perhaps the most important milestone reached in 1969 was
the return of the first Nebraska Mission degree participants -
12 in total. In addition, 89 graduate students were studying
for advanced degrees at 24 US universities at the close of 1969.
Sponsoring institutions in Colombia were ICA with 53, National
University with 44, and other official entities with 5. Slightly
over half of the participants are enrolled in the MASUA univer-
sities, the remainder being distributed among 18 other institu-
tions. The statistic points up the important role of the MASUA
universities, and again the University of Nebraska joins ICA
and the National University in expressing grateful appreciation
to those campuses for the important contributions they are
making to Colombia.

We are about to witness the completion of the first five
year program projected for 1966-70. Generally, the goals have
been exceeded. In those disciplines where there have been inputs
from the outset, the enlarged Colombian staff is able to assume
greater responsibility with graduate and undergraduate teaching.
This means that Nebraska support can and should be reduced on
the basis of a systematic plan of withdrawal consistent with
Colombian needs and manpower resources. The policy of this
University is to plan with the Colombians, AID, and other cooper-
ators, the matter of withdrawal as deliberately and conscien-
tiously as it did the inauguration of the program in 1965 and
1966. In this way it will be possible constantly to maximize
i H the resources of Colombia as well as those of Nebraska.


W.E. Colwell
Dean


1869-1969






LCC707A 0 E. I C,3LO.l M, i 5. ,`
Tir U I 2SIT O" NS.ASKA T, 11Ab N 1: 4,.
MISSION IN COLOMBIA ; l ,.: : I


^1 .-- **"-L-- ~ '- *- *' *LIYI: r1;-


April 2, 1970


Dr. Jorge Ortfz M6ndez
Gerente General
ICA
BogotA


Dr. Kenneth McDermott
Rural Development Officer
American Embassy
Bogota

Gentlemen:

As is indicated in Dr. Colwell's "Message from the University of
Nebraska", this is the first time that the Nebraska Mission has submitted
an Annual Report to ICA (as our Contracting Officer) as well as to the
Agency for International Development. The "donor-donee" relationship of
previous years is past history, and these entities are now full partners in
an effort to develop Colombian agriculture. Without doubt, ICA and the
National University have a much more direct and vested interest in the
performance of the Nebraska Mission than ever before, and this is as it
should be.

As ICA and the National University grow and expand, the administrative
and professional challenges of this program inevitably become greater.
Nevertheless, we have so much confidence in our staff and in the quality of
Colombian personnel with whom they work that we look forward to these
challenges with anticipation. Our goals as a Mission are identical to those
of our Colombian colleagues, and we expect to carry our share of the loan
in achieving those goals. This we wish to do as rapidly and effectively as
possible.

The accomplishments of 1969 are delineated in the following pages.
We are proud of those accomplishments, but realistic enough to recognize
that we can do even better. To this' will we will dedicate ourselves in 1970.

Finally, may I express my personal appreciation to both of you, and
to the many others in ICA, the National University, and AID, who have
contributed to our success in 1969 by providing a dynamic, progressive
environment in which to work.


Sierel,


Cla ton Yeutt
Director


CY. cre


SAID
FORD FOUNDATION
KELLOCC FOUNDATION


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ADMIN ISTRATION


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
Lincoln, Nebraska 68503







Merk Hobson, Acting Chancellor, University of Nebraska

Joseph Soshnik, President, University of Nebraska at Lincoln





Board of Regents

Richard E. Adkins, Osmond January, 1971

B. N. Greenberg, M.D., York January, 1971

Richard L. Herman, Omaha January, 1973

Edward Schwartzkopf, Lincoln January, 1973

J.G. Elliott, Scottsbluff January, 1975

Robert L. Raun, Minden January, 1975












/1 ML


The signing of the ICA Nebraska contract for 1970. Seated Richard
Adkins, President of the University of Nebraska Board of Regents and Dr.
Jorge Ortiz M6ndez, Director General of ICA; standing Robert Raun,
Vice President of the University of Nebraska Board of Regents, and Dr.
Joseph Soshnik, President of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


MESSAGE FROM NEBRASKA . . . . .

MESSAGE FROM NEBRASKA MISSION DIRECTOR . . .

ADMINISTRATION THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA . . .

1970 CONTRACT SIGNING . . . . .



SECTION

I HONORARY PROFESSORSHIPS . . .

II ADDRESS BY DR. JORGE MENDEZ MUNEVAR. . .

II STAFFING . . . ......

A. Professional Staff as of December 31. .
B. Staff Departures During 1969 .... .
C. Program Continuity . . .
D. 1970 Staffing Plan . ... ..
E. Non-professional Staff as of December 31.

IV FINANCING . . . . .

V DISTINGUISHED VISITORS & SHORT TERM CONSULTANTS.

VI THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ... .

VII MAJOR OBJECTIVES . . . ..

VIII FELLOWSHIPS . . . . .


A. Degree Fellowships... . . .
B. Short Term Fellowships . . .

IX HIGHLIGHTS OF 1969 . . . .

X PROJECT REPORTS. . . . .

Agricultural Economics . . .
Agricultural Engineering . . .


Page

* ii

* iii

Siv

SV


.


* *












SECTION


Page


X PROJECT REPORTS

Agricultural Extension. . . . 67
Agronomy. . . . * 87
Animal Science. . . . . 95
Veterinary Medicine ...... . . 107

XI SHORT TERM CONSULTANT REPORTS. . .... ....... 115


Agricultural Economics
* Drs. Glen.J.' Vollmar &V.. James
Poultry Science
Dr. J. H. Quisenberry ...
Dairy Manufacturing
Dr. L. K. Crowe . ..
Animal Science
Dr. Frank H. Baker . .
Agricultural Engineering
Dr. W. E. Splinter. . .
Veterinary Medicine
Dr. B. W. Kingery . .
Agricultural Extension
Dr. John L. Adams . .
Horticulture
Dr. J. O. Young . ..
Home Economics


Rhodes. .. ... 115

S.. . 121

. ........ 125

. ....... 127

. . .. 133

.. ..... 139


. . 141


. ........ 145


Drs. Virginia Trotter, Doretta Hoffman & Anita
Dickson.. . .. . . ...155
Agricultural Engineering Extension
Mr. R. O. Gilden. ... .. . . 167
Agirucltural Engineering
Dr. W. E. Splinter. .... ............ 173
Irrigation
Mr. Paul E. Fischbach ...... ....... 177
Bean & Vegetable Crop Research
Dr. Dermot Coyne. . .............. 181


APPENDIX A TABLE OF ORGANIZATION, ICA ...... . 183

APPENDIX B TABLE OF ORGANIZATION, TECHNICAL BRANCH OF ICA . 185

APPENDIX C FISCAL REPORT, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. . ... 187


vii


* *












SECTION I


HONORARY PROFESSORSHIPS


The Nebraska Mission was highly honored in 1969 when two of its
members were named Honorary Professors by the National University -
Bogota.


Dr. Frank Davis, center, receives his sheepskin as an Honorary Professor
at the National University. On the left, Dr. Santiago Fonseca, Dean of
Agronomy at the Bogota campus and a member of the Consejo Superior of the
National University, and on the right, Rector Jorge Mendez Munevar.


The first was Dr. Frank Davis who in August completed two years as
a member of the ICA-Nebraska Mission staff in Crop Physiology. At the
termination of his tour, Dr. Davis was Nebraska Mission Project Leader
in this field. He was the first man ever to be named an Honorary Pro-
fessor by the Faculty of Agronomy at the National University.










Principal speaker at the July 23, 1969 ceremony was Dr. Jorge
M.ndez Munevar, who was then Rector of the National University. The
words of Dr. Mendez are so meaningful, not only to Dr. Davis, but to
anyone involved in international programs, that they are included in
this report in the following section.

Dr, Davis received his B.S. degree from the University of Missouri
in 1955, his M.S. from the same university in 1960, and his Ph.D. from
the University of Nebraska in 1964. He is a member of three scholastic
honorary societies Alpha Zeta, Sigma Xi, and Gamma Sigma Delta. Prior
to joining the program in Colombia he held research positions, primarily
in the area of weed control, with the Universities of Missouri, Nebraska,
and Texas A & M.

The accomplishments of Dr. Davis in Colombia were many. He concen-
trated heavily on developing the NU-ICA graduate program in crop physio-
logy at TibaitatA and the undergraduate program at the National Univer-
sity-Bogotd. His magnificent personality and love of people gained him
tremendous popularity with students and faculty alike. But he-found
time to i'nitiiatea research program too, and his willingness to work far
more hours than any man should endeared him to everyone with whom he was
associated.

His most important legacy is trained people? But he also provided
the leadership in development of a crop physiology text which is now
being used both in undergraduate and graduate teaching throughout Colombia.

Dr. and Mrs. Davis arrived in Colombia with four children of their
own, but they left with another a vivacious little Colombian girl whom
they adopted shortly before their departure. In September, Dr. Davis
joined the faculty of the Department of Range Science at Texas A & M
University.

The second Honorary Professorship went to Dr. Harry Mussman who in
September completed three years as a member of the ICA-Nebraska Mission
staff in Veterinary Medicine. Like Dr. Davis, at the termination of his
tour Dr. Mussman was also Nebraska Mission Project Leader in his field.

Dr. Mussman is only the second man to be so honored by the Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine at the National University-Bogota. In the award
ceremony, Dr. Luis Guillermo Forero Nougues, acting rector of the Na-
tional University, praised the performance of Dr. Mussman and the Nebras-
ka Mission. "Very few times," he said, "has a person merited the title
of Honorary Professor of the National University (Dr. Mussman) is
already an old colleague of this University, where he has given an ad-
mirable account of himself, not only in the academic field, but also in
the administrative one."

In a career which chronologically almost parallels that of Dr.
Davis, Dr. Mussman received his B.S. degree from the University of Wis-
consin in 1955, his M.S. from Kansas State University in 1957, his Ph.D.
from the same institution in 1959, and a D.V.M. (Doctorate of Veterinary
Medicine) from Kansas State in 1965. Like Dr. Davis, Dr. Mussman is
also a member of AIpha Zeta and Sigma Xi, both of which are leading














































Dr. Harry Mussman, second from right, as he is named an Honorary Pro-
fessor at the National University. On the left, Dr. Luis Guillermo
Forero Nougues, Acting Rector; next to Dr. Forero is Dr. Santiago Fon-
seca representing the Consejo Superior (the governing body of the uni-
versity), and on the right Dr. Ricardo Sandino, Dean of the Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine.

scholastic honoraries, and he received his D.V.M. cum laude.

Dr. Mussman was a member of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine at
Kansas State University prior to accepting an appointment with the ICA-
Nebraska Mission in 1966. One of the first staff members to arrive in
Colombia, he spent three highly successful years with the Veterinary
Medicine program at ICA and the National University. Dr. Mussman's pri-
mary specialty is clinical pathology, and he provided tremendous leader-
ship in this area, particularly in teaching and in working with students.
For example, in 1969 he supervised 10 undergraduate theses, eight of
which received "meritorious" ratings.

Though Dr. Mussman knew no Spanish upon his arrival in Colombia,
he mastered the language perhaps more fully than any other Nebraska Mis-
sion staff member. This, of course, greatly added to his effectiveness
in the classroom. He is now completing a Spanish text on Veterinary
Clinical Pathology which will be available for use in both graduate and







4

undergraduate courses here in Colombia (and perhaps elsewhere in Latin
America as well).

In a nutshell, Dr. Mussman was and is an outstanding professional.
During his tenure in Colombia, he commanded the personal and professional
respect of all those with whom he worked. This is why he is an "HoHorary
Professor" at the National University and now a valued member of the Vet-
erinary Medicine faculty at the University of Nebraska.











SECTION II


Address by
Dr. Jorge Mendez Munevar 1/
Rector, National University


The title that is given today to Dr. Frank Davis is merely a natural
manifestation from the National University to one who for years has of-
fered us all his talent, all his energy, and one who has produced so many
favorable results for the National University, ICA, and Colombian agri-
cultural development in general.

We are assembled here tonight to honor him and to show him our sincere
affection and respect. Frank Davis has become a person respected by the
professionals of agricultural science in Colombia. He has gained the af-
fection of Colombian administrators, professors, and students alike. I
have repeatedly received favorable reports of his activities in the Uni-
versity, and I have come to consider him, from my rectoral retreat and
from my fondness for agricultural sciences, a famous North American in
Colombia. He probably should be identified as the most famous American
in this University in recent years. I know of his achievements and his
success. Because of this, it is a great satisfaction for me as a Colom-
bian to be present in this ceremony. And for the same reason, the pre-
sence of all of us in this manifestation of affection is justified here
tonight.

But I wish to point out another motive that makes this ceremony im-
portant. A motive, perhaps, even more important than that of honoring a
great friend of Colombia and our University. It is that this ceremony
symbolizes the success that international technical cooperation can have
in universities of developing countries such as ours. And the impact
that the union of international technology with a genuine national effort
can have on the development of our countries. The success of Frank Davis,
in effect, is demonstrating several things. First: that an international
scientist can adapt himself to foreign conditions, become adjusted to new
surroundings, and apply the sophisticated techniques of industrialized
countries to the creation of an indigenous science in the country he
serves, in this case, Colombia. It is no longer a matter of the transfer
and forced imposition, artificial and'in general ineffective and useless,
of foreign science or knowledge, but of the patient search for new con-
cepts and new knowledge that can be specifically applied to a country such
as ours. Second: that said international science can be applied without
being conditioned or accompanied by ideologies or political influence,



1/ On bestowing the title of "Honorary Professor" upon Dr. Frank Davis,
July 23, 1969.










and without selfish applications on behalf of foreign interests. Third:
that there is much that a country such as ours can achieve through inter-
national scientific collaboration, if the national entity being served
has a clear and defined program. Most of the problems that continue to
surround foreign assistance, both financial and scientific, are due to
lack of well established programs in the national entity in which the in-
ternational scientist may carry out a concrete and pre-determined task.
Fourth: that the cooperation between international science, the Univer-
sity, and operating public entities (ICA in our case), can have an enor-
mous impact on the national welfare. To us, as a University, the aspect
of international cooperation represented in the homage paid to Frank
Davis in this ceremony, is particularly decisive. It is often said that
the University does not participate in national life; we, nevertheless,
are dedicating our efforts toward a closer relationship and more effective
participation. This does not mean, however, that we have not had many
successful examples of university participation in national life. The
case of agricultural sciences is one of those. With the base that we have
in academic resources, and in the educational accomplishments of our four
agricultural faculties, supported by ICA's research program, we are parti-
cipating decisively in the plans of the Ministry of Agriculture, and with
the Ministry we are preparing a decisive transformation in the production
systems of the Colombian campesino.

In twenty years, the impact of our agronomists, veterinarians, animal
scientists, agricultural engineers, agricultural economists, and, in gen-
eral, the impact of our agricultural research, will foster the adoption
of new techniques, the utilization of new varieties of seeds, the eradi-
cation of livestock diseases, etc., in a manner so intense that it will
easily mean the difference between being a starving country, and a coun-
try well fed, whose agriculture serves as a solid base for industry, and
can export an additional 200 to 300 million dollars in agricultural pro-
ducts per year. That difference can represent the decisive difference
through which we can continue being a country viable and strong, instead
of entering the category of a country in physical and moral bankruptcy.

It is that effort of ICA and the National University, represented by
Frank Davis this afternoon, which international science is helping. Dr.
Davis has become the symbol of that success in international cooperation.

I thank Dr. Davis for the spirit that he has demonstrated for my coun-
try and my University. And I hope that upon his return to his country,
he will remember us with the same affection he has had for us during his
tenure in Colombia.












SECTION III


STAFFING


A. The ICA-Nebraska Mission professional staff as of December 31, 1969
was as follows:

In Nebraska


William E. Colwell

Clyde Noyes


Lincoln

Lincoln


Dean of International
Programs
Administrative Assis-
tant


In Colombia


Administration


Clayton K. Yeutter
Gary L. Whiteley


Bogota
Bogota


:Director
Administrative Assis-
tant


Agricultural Economics


Peter E. Hildebrand*
Project Leader
Christopher O. Andrew
James L. Driscoll*
Gerald Feaster*
Michael P. Steiner
Roger F. Burdette

Agricultural


W. Wesley Hobbs
Project Leader
Norman C. Teter
Deane M. Manbeck
William M. Collins
George H. Dunkelberg


Bogota

Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Medellin
Palmira


Production Economics

Agricultural Policy
Marketing
Development
Marketing
Marketing


Engineering


Bogota

Bogota
Medellin
Medellin
Palmira


Power and Machinery

Processing
Power and Machinery
Structures
Soil and Water


Agricultural Extension


Thomas F. Trail
Project Leader


Bogota ,


Extension Education
and Administration


* Financed by the Ford Foundation












SECTION III


STAFFING


A. The ICA-Nebraska Mission professional staff as of December 31, 1969
was as follows:

In Nebraska


William E. Colwell

Clyde Noyes


Lincoln

Lincoln


Dean of International
Programs
Administrative Assis-
tant


In Colombia


Administration


Clayton K. Yeutter
Gary L. Whiteley


Bogota
Bogota


:Director
Administrative Assis-
tant


Agricultural Economics


Peter E. Hildebrand*
Project Leader
Christopher O. Andrew
James L. Driscoll*
Gerald Feaster*
Michael P. Steiner
Roger F. Burdette

Agricultural


W. Wesley Hobbs
Project Leader
Norman C. Teter
Deane M. Manbeck
William M. Collins
George H. Dunkelberg


Bogota

Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Medellin
Palmira


Production Economics

Agricultural Policy
Marketing
Development
Marketing
Marketing


Engineering


Bogota

Bogota
Medellin
Medellin
Palmira


Power and Machinery

Processing
Power and Machinery
Structures
Soil and Water


Agricultural Extension


Thomas F. Trail
Project Leader


Bogota ,


Extension Education
and Administration


* Financed by the Ford Foundation











Richard W. Tenney **
Robert Whittenbarger


Bogota
Bogota


Communications
Rural Sociology


Animal Science


Howard H. Stonaker
Project Leader
Don H. Bushman
Ivan G. Rush

Gary 0. Conley
Richard R. Day
Alex G. Warren


Bogota

Bogota
Bogota

Medellin
Medellin
Palmira


Animal Breeding

Animal Nutrition
Extension (beef cat-
tle)
Animal Breeding
Dairy Manufacturing
Poultry Science


Agronomy


Kenneth D. Frank
Project Leader
George Beinhart

Thomas M. Fullerton

Gary 0. Jolliff


Bogota

Bogota

Bogota

Medellin


Soils

Crop Physiology (gen-
eral)
Crop Physiology (weed
control)
Crop Physiology (gen-
eral)


Home Economics


Jean Audrey Wight


Bogota


National Leadership


Veterinary Medicine


Theodore Vera
Project Leader
Jay H. Sautter
William A. Wolff
Kenneth S. Preston


Bogota

Bogota
Bogota
Bogota


TOTAL 31 (in Colombia)


B. Staff members who served the Mission during only
included:

In Nebraska


Veterinary Microbiology

Veterinary Pathology
Ambulatory Clinic
Ambulatory Clinic and
Extension




a portion of the year


Doug Genereaux


Lincoln


Administrative
Assistant


Departed in
June


** Financed by the Kellogg Foundation. Allother positions,financed by
AID.










In Colombia




Dan Badger

Max Bowser


Agricultural Economics


Bogota

Bogota


Production Eco-
nomics
Instructor Pro-
gram


Departed in
July
Departed in
July


Agricultural Extension


A. Dale Flowerday




J.J. Feight

Marlyn Low

Ronald E. Stoller


Bogota




Bogota

Medellin

Palmira


Director, Social
Science Depart-
ment & Project
Leader
Communications

Extension and
Communications
Extension and
Communications


Departed in
August


Departed in
June
Departed in
July
Departed in
August


Animal Science


Daniel D. Bullis

C.V. Ross


Palmira

Bogota


Nutrition

Production and
Management


Departed in
April
Departed in
June


Agronomy


Frank Davis

Carl Jorgensen


Bogota

Palmira


Crop Physiology
Project Leader
Crop Physiology


Departed in
August
Departed in
August


Veterinary Medicine


Harry Mussman

Louis Tritschler


BogotA

Bogota


Clinical Pathology Departed in
Project Leader September
Ambulatory Clinic Departed in
June


C. Program Continuity

Leadership of the program was quite stable during 1969. Drs. William
Colwell and Clayton Yeutter served in their respective capacities as Dean
of International Programs and Director of the Colombia Program for the
entire year. In addition, Drs. Peter Hildebrand, Wesley Hobbs, and H.H.
Stonaker served full years as Project Leaders in Economics, Engineering,
and Animal Science respectively.










The only transition occurred in Agricultural Extension, Agronomy, and
Veterinary Medicine, due to the departure of the Project Leaders in these
particular programs. Dr. Thomas Trail succeeded Dr. A. Dale Flowerday as
Project Leader in Ag Extension (in September); Dr. Ken Frank succeeded
Dr. Frank Davis as Project Leader in Agronomy (in August); and Dr. Ted
Vera succeeded Dr. Harry Mussman as Project Leader in Veterinary Medicine
(in September). Both Dr. Frank and Dr. Vera had had considerable experi-
ence in Colombia prior to assuming their new and enlarged responsibili-
ties, so the transition was not difficult. Dr. Trail arrived subsequent
to Dr. Flowerday's departure, but they did have an opportunity to confer
briefly at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln. In addition, Dr. Trail's
long experience in Latin American programs has made it possible for him
to adapt readily to his new surroundings in Colombia.

Much of the credit for the success of this program in 1969 must go to
the aforementioned project leaders, whose:performance during the entire
year was simply superlative.


D. The "in Colombia" staffing plan


for 1970 is as follows: (AID only) 1/


Primary Assignment
Location Working with


Field and Position


1. Administration 24 man months


a. Director
b. Administrative Ass't


Bogota
Bogota


Various agencies
Various agencies


2. Animal Science 75 man months


Animal Breeding
Animal Nutrition
Extension (beef cattle)
Animal Science (general)
Dairy Manufacturing
Poultry Science
Animal Breeding (1/4 time)


3. Veterinary Medicine 48 man months

a. Veterinary Microbiology
b. Veterinary Pathology
c. Ambulatory Clinic
d. Ambulatory Clinic & Extension

4. Agronomy 60 man months

a. Soils
b. Crop Physiology (general)
c. Crop Physiology (weed control)
d. Crop Physiology (general)
e. Crop Physiology (vegetables)


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Medellin
Medellln
Palmira
Nebraska


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota


ICA & Nat.
ICA & Nat.
ICA
Nat. Univ.
Nat. Univ.
ICA & Nat.
ICA & Nat.


Univ.
Univ.


Univ.
Univ.


ICA & Nat. Univ.
ICA & Nat. Univ.
Nat. Univ.
ICA & Nat. Univ.


Bogota ICA
Bogota ICA
Bogota ICA
Medellin ICA
Undetermined


Nat.
Nat.
Nat.


Univ.
Univ.
Univ.


1/ The Ford Foundation will support approximately 24 man-months in ag
economics, and the Kellog Foundation 12 man-months in ag extension,
along with considerable short term consultant support.










5. Agricultural Engineering 72 man months


Power and Machinery
Processing
Soil and Water
Power and Machinery
Structures
Soil and Water


Bogota
BogotA
Bogota
Medellin
Medellin
Palmira


ICA
ICA
ICA
Nat. Univ.
Nat. Univ.
ICA


6. Agricultural Extension 24 man months


a. Extension Administration
b. Rural Sociology


Bogota
BogotA


ICA
ICA


7. Agricultural Economics 36 man months


a. Agricultural Policy
b. Ag Economics (general)
c. Farm Management


8. Home Economics 21 man months

a. National Leadership
b. Leadership-teaching program


Bogota
Medellln
Palmira


Bogota
Manizales


ICA
ICA & Nat. Univ.
ICA & Nat. Univ.


Various agencies
Univ. of Caldas


The proposed "in U.S." staffing plan (60 man months) is as follows:


Position


Location


Campus Coordinator
Administrative Assistant
Three secretaries


Lincoln, Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska


In addition to the staffing described above, 24 man-months of short
term consultants have been authorized.

The major changes, as compared to Calendar Year 1969, are as follows:

1. The inclusion of a one-fourth time assignment in Animal Science to
be carried out by Dr. Robert Koch of the Department of Animal
Science at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Koch held a similar
assignment in 1967 and 1968, but was unable to participate in the
program in 1969.

2. The addition of a soil and water position within the program of
Agricultural Engineering. This reflects a demand created by the
rapid development of irrigation in Colombia.

3. The initiation of a program in Home Economics through the use of
one position which had formerly been dedicated to Agricultural
Extension, and the addition of a new position which will thus
provide a beginning base of two people. (Only 21 man-months are
programmed by contract for this particular field because one of the











positions will not be filled until sometime in 1970.) This is a
response to the great need for assistance in Home Economics in
Colombia.

4. The addition of a position in Bogota to the Agricultural Economics
program. This represents an effort to off-set the decrease in
staffing support from the Ford Foundation.

5. An increase of six man-months in short term consultants (24 man
months in total).


E. The non-professional ICA-Nebraska Mission staff
was as follows:


as of December 31,1969


In Nebraska


Maria Victoria Rodriguez
Maria Magdalena Komarek


Lincoln
Lincoln


Executive Secretary
Secretarial &
Accounting Resp.


In Colombia

Administration


Concepci6n Bretos
Maria Cristina Rico
Nini Serrano
Ligia Garcia
Ana Emilia Mejia
Maria Antonieta P6rez
Javier Rinc6n

Alfonso Rodriguez
Hernando Urrego
Elvira Junco


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota

Bogota
Bogota
Bogota


Executive Secretary
Fellowship Processing
Bilingual Secretary
Accounting
Accounting
Spanish Secretary
Administrative
Assistant
Chauffeur
Chauffeur
Custodial Resp.


Ag Economics


Maria Cristina Arciniegas
Elizabeth Child
Clara In6s Arce
Carlos Aponte
Stella Ochoa
Ana Duque


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Medellin
Palmira


Bilingual
Bilingual
Bilingual
Chauffeur
Bilingual
Bilingual


Ag Extension


Lucy de Torres
Eduardo Corredor
Jaime Sanchez


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota


Bilingual
Chauffeur
Chauffeur


Secretary
Secretary
Secretary

Secretary
Secretary


Secretary











Agronomy


Amparo Forero
Jos6 M. Rodriguez

Veterinary Medicine

Irma Fandifto
Consuelo de Jaime
Ligia de Le6n
Hernando Vanegas
Antonio Rios
Efrain Ramos

Animal Science

Irma Guerrero
Elizabeth Garcia
Pedro Rodriguez
Amparo G6mez

Ag Engineering

In6s Ortega
Marta Duque
Mary Ramos
Luis Alfonso Daza


Bogota
Bogota


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Bogota


Bogota
Bogota
Bogota
Medellin


BogotA
Medellin
Palmira
Palmira


Bilingual Secretary
Chauffeur


Bilingual Secretary
Bilingual Secretary
Bacteriologist
Chauffeur (Amb. Cl.)
Chauffeur (Amb. Cl.)
Chauffeur


Bilingual
Bilingual
Chauffeur
Bilingual


Bilingual
Bilingual
Bilingual
Chauffeur


Secretary
Secretary

Secretary


Secretary
Secretary
Secretary














SECTION IV


FINANCING


Until 1969, the ICA-Nebraska Mission program was supported almost
entirely by grant funds from AID, the Ford Foundation, and the
Kellogg Foundation. However, because of world-wide reductions in U.S
foreign aid, it was necessary to change the AID support to loan fi-
nancing, effective January 1, 1969. The alternative would have been
to continue with grant funding, but with a major reduction in staffing.
ICA and the University of Nebraska agreed that this was not a desirable
alternative since it would have emasculated the program. Therefore,
both entities acceded to the proposal that 1969 AID funding be provided
by means of a loan to the Colombian government, and thence to ICA.

It is too early to appraise all the ramifications of this change, but
it is obvious that the program had a bevy ;of accomplishments in 1969 that
would not have been possible had financial support been drastically re-
stricted.

The 1969 AID dollar budget totaled one million dollars. A report of
the expenditures thereunder is included in Appendix C. The entire sum
was obligated, though not expended, prior to December 31, 1969. Carry-
over obligations are almost entirely in the areas of equipment purchases
and participant costs, particularly the latter. Expenditures for personal
services were considerably less than anticipated, thereby making possible
the award of several additional fellowships. Total fellowship obligations
for the year will total approximately $250,000, in contrast to the $119,000
originally budgeted. This has provided a tremendous impetus to the fellow-
ship program.

An additional $261,487 dollars were expended in the form of pesos for
housing and educational allowances, a portion of staff salaries, trans-
portation of household goods, international airline tickets for staff
and participants, shipping costs for equipment, etc. And one million pe-
sos were expended for equipment and supplies purchased in Colombia, do-
mestic air travel, vehicle repairs, contractual services, and many other
miscellaneous items essential to the operation of the program. Peso funds
were also made available through the ICA-Nebraska Mission budget for pay-
ment of the salaries of ICA-Nebraska Mission Colombian employees. "Coun-
terpart funds" are used for most of the expenditures enumerated in this
paragraph.

The Ford Foundation continued to support the program in agricultural
economics during 1969. The original $800,000 dollar Ford Foundation grant
was for a three year period terminating June 30, 1969. However, the grant
period has been extended and negotiations are now underway for a new two
year grant. These negotiations should be finalized in the near future.








16

1969 was the first year of a second grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foun-
dation in the areas of agricultural extension and communications. This
new grant is scheduled to terminate on March 31, 1971, but ICA and the
University of Nebraska plan soon to submit a proposal for continued sup-
port in the development of these most essential subject matter areas.

Budgetary and expenditure data relative to the Ford and Kellogg Foun-
dation grants can be found in the annual reports which have been submit-
ted to these entities.













SECTION V


DISTINGUISHED VISITORS AND SHORT TERM CONSULTANTS


The first member of President Nixon's cabinet to visit Colombia was
Secretary of Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin, who was here for several days
in February. We were deeply honored by this visit for Dr. Hardin (as
Chancellor of the University of Nebraska) was perhaps more instrumental
than anyone in developing the ICA-Nebraska Mission program.

In December, we hosted another University of Nebraska administrator
who was heavily involved in the original contract negotiations of 1966.
This was Dr. Joseph Soshnik, who 'is now President of the University of
Nebraska at Lincoln, and who has direct responsibility for the adminis-
tration of the present program. President Soshnik was accompanied by
Mr. Richard Adkins, President of the University of Nebraska Board of Re-
gents, and Mr. Robert Raun, Vice-President of the Board of Regents.

Several representatives of institutions participating in the Mid-Amer-
ica State Universities Association visited Colombia during 1969. These
included:1Dr. Elmer Kiehl, Dean of the College of Agriculture at the Uni-
versity of Missouri; Dr. James Whatley, Dean of the College of Agricul-
ture at Oklahoma State University; and Dr. Vernon Larson, Coordinator of
International Programs at Kansas State University. We were especially
pleased to welcome these men since the cooperation of the MASUA institu-
tions is unquestionably essential to the success of this program.

Dr. Russell Mawby of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and Dr. Lowell
Hardin of the Ford Foundation were with us on two separate occasions
during the year. Dr. Hardin was accompanied on one of these occasions
by Mr. Harry Wilhelm of the Ford Foundation. With the large input that
these two foundations have in the ICA-Nebraska Mission program, their
continuing counsel is most welcome.

Dr. Arthur Coutu, Dean of International Programs at North Carolina
State University, spent two days with us in March, at which time we were
also visited by Dr. Jacob Tejada of New Mexico State University. Dr.
Tejada was here to evaluate the possibilities for developing a short term
training program (in New Mexico, in Spanish) for ICA's extension staff.

A unique visitor was Dr. Harold Breimyer, a member of the agricul-
tural economics faculty at the University of Missouri. Dr. Breimyer was
here in November to participate in an AID evaluation of the ICA-Nebraska
Mission.


Short term consultants for 1969 included:










Institution


Dr. Larry Jeffery


Dr. Russell Brannon




Dr. James Rhodes




Dr. Glen Vollmar




Dr. John Quisenberry




Dr. L. K. Crowe


Dr. Frank Baker




Dr. William Splinter




Dr. B. W. Kingery


Dr. John Adams


Dr. Max Clegg


Dr. William E. Colwell


Dr. J. O. Young


Dr. Anita Dickson


Department of Agronomy
University of Nebraska

Department of Agricultural
Economics
University of Kentucky

Chairman, Department of
Agricultural Economics
University ofaMissouri

Chairman, Department of
Agricultural Economics
University of Nebraska

Chairman, Department of
Poultry Science
Texas A & M University

Department of Animal Science
University of Nebraska

Chairman, Department of
Animal Science
University of Nebraska

Chairman, Department of
Agricultural Engineering
University of Nebraska

Dean of Veterinary Medicine
University of Missouri

Director of Agricultural
Extension
University of Nebraska

Department of Agronomy
University of Nebraska

Dean of International Programs
University of Nebraska

Chairman, Department of
Horticulture & Forestry
University of Nebraska

Associate Dean, Home Economics
Purdue University


January 1 week


January 1 week




January 2 weeks




January 2 weeks




January 2 weeks




February 4 weeks


February 1 week




February 1 week




February 2 weeks


February 1 week


April


April


May


June


2 weeks


1 week


1 month


2 weeks


Month


Period


Name










Name

Dr. Doretta Hoffman




Dr. Virginia Trotter




Mr. Ewing Canaday

Mr. Robert Ruyle


Mr. Robert Gilden


Dr. William E. Colwell


Mr. Clyde Noyes





Mr. Carl Mueller


Dr. William Splinter




Mr. Paul Fischbach



Dr. Dermot Coyne


Institution

Dean, College of Home
Economics
Kansas State University

Dean, College of Home
Economics
University of Nebraska

Stillwater, Oklahoma

Nebraska Educational Televi-
sion Commission

Federal Extension Service,
U.S.D.A.

Dean of International Programs
University of Nebraska

Administrative Assistant to
Dean of International
Programs
University of Nebraska

University of Nebraska
Business Office

Chairman, Department of
Agricultural Engineering
University of Nebraska

Extension Irrigation Spe-
cialist
University of Nebraska

Department of Horticulture &
Forestry
University of Nebraska


Month

June




June




June

July


August


September


19

Period

2 weeks




2 weeks


weeks

week


3 weeks


1 week


October 1 week





October 1 week


November 1 week




November 10 days



December 2 weeks













SECTION VI


THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


It is not unusual for a Mission such as this to function in a dynamic
environment, but the environment of Colombian agriculture was especially
dynamic in 1969. This was particularly true in ICA, which underwent a
major reorganization in late 1968. In the reorganization, ICA absorbed
a gamut of agencies and a host of responsibilities which resulted in
nearly doubling its size (in personnel).

Dr. Jorge Ortiz M4ndez served as Director General of ICA throughout
1969, and provided superlative leadership in what was a most trying year
for the organization (from an administrative standpoint). In the res-
tructuration, ICA established a new "Gerencia" of Planning, and Dr.
Canuto Cardona was named Director. As an additional duty, Dr. Cardona
was given responsibility for coordination with all international agencies,
including the Nebraska Mission.

Dr. Alvaro Gartner became director of the Technical Gerencia, which
encompasses the research, teaching, and extension functions that had been
ICA's sole responsibility prior to the reorganization. Within this Ge-
rencia, Dr. HernAn Chaverra was named Director of Research and Acting
Director ofExtension. Dr. Manuel Alvarez serves as Director of Educa-
tion, and Dr. Carlos Garc6s as Dean of the NU-ICA Graduate School.

In the next echelon, but within the Technical Gerencia, Dr. Manuel
Torregroza continues to serve as Director of the Department of Agronomy,
and Dr. Jorge Quintero as Director of the Department of Ag Engineering.
The only Nebraska Mission department head is Dr. Thomas Trail, who
succeeded Dr. Dale Flowerday in this position. During the year, Dr.
Rafael Samper replaced Dr. Alberto Franco as Director of the Department
of Ag Economics, and Dr. Jaime Estupifan succeeded Dr. Ned S. Raun (a
former Nebraskan and employee of the Rockefeller Foundation) as Director
of the Department of Animal Sciences.

A new "Development" Gerencia was created to administer all of ICA's
new responsibilities, which include basically all the functions of a
State Department of Agriculture in the U.S. Dr. Rodrigo Duarte was given
responsibility for this major new activity, which encompasses technical
assistance, the extension service, seed certification, control of the
quality of agricultural inputs, and a whole host of additional programs.
Of most interest to the Nebraska Mission is the presence of the extension
service in this gerencia. From the standpoint of coordination, it may
well have been preferable to place the extension service with the
Technical Gerencia, as is usually the case. Nevertheless, it is advan-
tageous simply to have it within ICA, and this fact alone has greatly
stimulated an interchange between the Technical and Development Gerencias.










A new Administrative Gerencia was also created within ICA, under the
direction of Dr. German Paris. The Nebraska Mission expects to work
closely with this Gerencia during 1970 the first time that the Mission
has had an input in the administrative development of this gigantic agency.

At the highest echelon of Colombian agriculture, Dr. Enrique Pefialo-
sa resigned as Minister of Agriculture in late 1969, and was replaced by
Dr. Armando Samper. This transition has not in any way impeded the
development of Colombia's agricultural programs; nor has it affected the
direction or scope of the Nebraska Mission technical assistance effort.
Both Ministers have been completely cooperative in all aspects of the
Mission program, thereby creating a positive environment in which to
work. This is of immense importance to the success of an activity such
as this.

The National University has also experienced a number of significant
changes in leadership. Dr. Jorge Mendez Munevar resigned as Rector
during 1969, and was succeeded by Dr. Enrique Carvajal, former Dean of
the Faculty of Medicine at the Bogota campus. And Dr. Miguel Hernindez,
former Dean of Agronomy at Medellin, was named to a new position as
Director of Agricultural Programs for the entire National University
system. We view this as a most important development, which has great
potential for more efficient use of both human and physical resources
within the National University.

There were no changes among the National University Deans with whom
the Mission works Dr. Adel Gonzalez, Dean of Agricultural Sciences at
Palmira; Dr. Ricardo Sandino, Dean of Veterinary Medicine at Bogota; Dr.
Oscar Ospina, Dean of Agricultural Sciences at Medellin; and Dr. Santiago
Fonseca, Dean of Agronomy at Bogota.

The most heartwarming aspect of the entire Mission program is the
cooperation that has been received from personnel of the host country.
This has not only been true of the Colombian leadership enumerated above,
but also Of the counterparts who work side by side with our staff. This
is the key to success of any technical assistance program, and it has
been a major factor in the productivity of this Mission during 1969. We
are most appreciative of the patience, tolerance, and generally magnificent
attitude of our Colombian colleagues.

The North American portions of the institutional environment have
been no less impressive. As vice-President of the Kellogg Foundation in
charge of agricultural programs, Dr. Russell Mawby has given us superlative
support in the area of agricultural extension. On the Ford Foundation
side, Dr. James Plaxico returned at mid-year to his former post as
Chairman of the Department of Ag Economics at Oklahoma State University.
His "in Colombia" agricultural responsibilities have since been assumed
by Dr. Reed Hertford. In the interim, they were carried out by Mr. Bill
Cotter, Director of the Ford Foundation's Colombia programs. Both Dr.
Plaxico and Mr. Cotter spent many hours working with us on the ag
economics program, and on proposals for a second Ford Foundation grant..
The Ford Foundation established a most desirable precedent of fellowship
support for the NU-ICA graduate program, including some support for










students in fields other than ag economics.

Special recognition must also be given the members of the Mid-America
State Universities Association the University of Missouri, Colorado
State University, Iowa State University, Kansas State University, and
Oklahoma State University, along with the University of Nebraska.

We have had a number of most welcome visitors from the MASUA
institutions during 1969, and hope that this will continue in future years.
These universities have been especially helpful in the recruitment of a
quality staff for the Colombia program, and in giving individual, special
attention to a host of Colombian graduate students. We trust that the
relationship has been mutually beneficial; without doubt, the students
have been contributing in many ways to the U.S. universities which they
attend.

At the University of Nebraska, the support of the entire administrative
staff has been excellent, but particular mention should be made of the
department heads who have given countless hours of valuable time to the
enhancement of the Mission in Colombia: Dr.William Splinter, Ag Engineering;
Dr. Frank Baker, Animal Science: Dr. Glen Vollmar, Ag Economics; Dr.
Marvin Twiehaus, Veterinary Medicine; Dr. J. O. Young, Horticulture;
Dr. Don Hanway, Agronomy; Dr. Ralston Graham, Ag Information; and Dr.
John Adams, Director of the Agricultural Extension Service.













SECTION VII


MAJOR OBJECTIVES


Detailed objectives of the Nebraska Mission, as delineated in the
ICA-University of Nebraska contract, have been included in previous an-
nual reports. The principal goals might be paraphrased as follows:

a. At ICA

1. Development of a Graduate Program in Agriculture determina-
tion of curricula, development of course outlines, training
of staff, and some teaching of courses while ICA and National
University faculty are obtaining graduate degrees in the U.S.

2. Development of Research Competence by improving research
techniques and methodology.

3. Upgrading and Development of Extension through in-service
training of the extension field staff and the "specialist"
staff; development of graduate programs in extension, com-
munications, and rural sociology; development of a strong
publications program; and improvement of mass media communi-
cations radio, television, and others.

b. At the National University (Bogota, Medellin, and Palmira)

1. Development of undergraduate curricula in animal science,
veterinary medicine, ag economics, ag extension including
communications and rural sociology, ag engineering, and
agronomy.

2. Improvement of teaching methods, techniques, equipment,
textual materials, etc.

3. Encouragement of research involvement, particularly as re-
lated to research programs of ICA.

c. At both Institutions

Establishment of a fellowship program for training of staff
at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, said staff to provide future lead-
ership in research, teaching and extension programs and ulti-
mately replace the entire Nebraska Mission staff.

Subsequent sections of this report are devoted to: (1) a discussion
of the fellowship program, (2) a summary of the highlights of 1969, and
(3) reports of the activities within each subject matter area. We leave to








26

the reader the determination of whether and to what degree progress is
being made toward reaching the above mentioned goals.











SECTION VIII


FELLOWSHIPS


A. Degree Fellowships

The ICA-Nebraska Mission fellowship program continues to be a resound-
ing success. Whereas many U.S. foreign aid programs have difficulty
finding enough qualified candidates to meet their projected training
needs, just the opposite has occurred in Colombia? The number of candi-
dates at ICA and the National University has been increasing rapidly,
and now far exceeds the budget available for fellowships. (It appears
that there will be three or more candidates for every fellowship that
can be awarded in 1970.) This is, of course, an ideal situation since
it permits selection of only the most outstanding candidates for study
in the United States.

Fifteen participants began U.S. graduate studies in 19671/, and 39 in
1968. The number rose to an amazing 50 in 1969. Twenty-nine of the
latter were financed by the Agency for International Development, 12 on
grant funds and the remainder through the ICA-Nebraska loan contract.
They are as follows:


Sponsoring
Institution


Name


Expected
Degree


Study
Inst.


Date of
Departure


Agronomy


Miguel Restrepo**
Gerardo Martinez
Arturo L6pez*
Enrique Alarc6n*
Rodrigo Torres*
Fernando G6mez
Jess Arias
-Camila Arriaga*
Jaime Daza


U.Nal. Medellin
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA Palmira
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.Bog.
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Agricultural Engineering


Carlos Rodriguez*
Jose Chaparro
Reynaldo Bernal


ICA
U.Nal. Medellln
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.


Colorado s.
Illinois
Oregon s.
Cornell
California
Mississippi
Iowa State
Illinois
Iowa State




Illinois
Iowa State
N.C. State


1/ Including Gustavo Jimenez of the National University-BogotA, who began
a graduate program in Agronomy, but after a few months decided to change
to a non-agricultural degree program which necessitated reinquish-
ment of his Nebraska Mission fellowship.


Jan.
Jan.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Dec.


Feb.
Aug.
Aug.











SECTION VIII


FELLOWSHIPS


A. Degree Fellowships

The ICA-Nebraska Mission fellowship program continues to be a resound-
ing success. Whereas many U.S. foreign aid programs have difficulty
finding enough qualified candidates to meet their projected training
needs, just the opposite has occurred in Colombia? The number of candi-
dates at ICA and the National University has been increasing rapidly,
and now far exceeds the budget available for fellowships. (It appears
that there will be three or more candidates for every fellowship that
can be awarded in 1970.) This is, of course, an ideal situation since
it permits selection of only the most outstanding candidates for study
in the United States.

Fifteen participants began U.S. graduate studies in 19671/, and 39 in
1968. The number rose to an amazing 50 in 1969. Twenty-nine of the
latter were financed by the Agency for International Development, 12 on
grant funds and the remainder through the ICA-Nebraska loan contract.
They are as follows:


Sponsoring
Institution


Name


Expected
Degree


Study
Inst.


Date of
Departure


Agronomy


Miguel Restrepo**
Gerardo Martinez
Arturo L6pez*
Enrique Alarc6n*
Rodrigo Torres*
Fernando G6mez
Jess Arias
-Camila Arriaga*
Jaime Daza


U.Nal. Medellin
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA Palmira
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.Bog.
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Agricultural Engineering


Carlos Rodriguez*
Jose Chaparro
Reynaldo Bernal


ICA
U.Nal. Medellln
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.


Colorado s.
Illinois
Oregon s.
Cornell
California
Mississippi
Iowa State
Illinois
Iowa State




Illinois
Iowa State
N.C. State


1/ Including Gustavo Jimenez of the National University-BogotA, who began
a graduate program in Agronomy, but after a few months decided to change
to a non-agricultural degree program which necessitated reinquish-
ment of his Nebraska Mission fellowship.


Jan.
Jan.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Dec.


Feb.
Aug.
Aug.












Sponsoring
Institution


Date of
Departure


Rural Administration


Uriel Ariza


Minnesota


Computer Science

Angelina Guerrero*
Guillermo Gonzalez*
Fernando Villafafle
Pedro Villegas
Omar Hincapi6
Graciela Barrios
Mario Ruiz*


U.Nal. Bog.
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.


Purdue
Wisconsin
Colorado
Texas A&M
Cornell
Texas A&M
Calif. (Davis)


Animal Science


Francisco Villegas*
Daniel Abadla
Humberto Arango
Eutimio Rubio
H4ctor Benitez*
Rodrigo Pastrana*
Jests M. Ram6n
Safl E. Quintero
Luis Arutro Gil


U.Nal.Medellin
U.Nal.Bog.
U.Nal.Palmira
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA Palmira
U.Nal.Medellin
U.Nal.Bog.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Missouri
Colorado S.
Nebraska
Missouri
Nebraska
Wyoming
Colorado S.
Nebraska
Florida


TOTAL 29


* Financed by 1969 AID grant.

** Financed by 1968 AID grant.

All others financed by 1969 AID loan.

Another 11 students were awarded fellowships by the Ford Foundation
for graduate study in agricultural economics. This is truly an amazing
accomplishment when one considers that the profession of agricultural
economics in Colombia is only about two years old* These students are
as follows:


Sponsoring
Name Institution


Expected
Degree


Study
Inst.


Date of
Departure


Jorge Torres
Fabian Ramirez
Jaime Baby
Gonzalo Aristizabal
Edierth A. Restrepo
Rodrigo Tasc6n
Carlos A. Forero


U.Nal.Bogota
U.Nal.Medellin
U.Nal.Medellin
U.Nal.Medellin
ICA
ICA
ICA


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.


Kansas S.
Oklahoma S.
Nebraska
Iowa State
Missouri
Missouri
Kansas S.


Name


Expected
Degree


Study
Inst.


M.S.


Sep.


Jan.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Sep.
Sep.


Jan.
June
June
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.


Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
June
June
Aug.










Sponsoring
Name Institution


Jorge Vargas
Roberto L6pez**
JesGs M. Sierra
Jorge Lopera


ICA
Fedecaf6
ICA
ICA


M.S.

M.S.
Ph.D.


Oklahoma S.
Oklahoma S.
Colorado S.
Iowa State


TOTAL 11


** One Semester only; will complete degree at ICA graduate school.

Primary fellowship support in the area of agricultural extension,
communications, and rural sociology comes from the W. K. Kellogg
Foundation. Eleven fellowships were awarded in 1969 in these respective
fields, as follows:


Sponsoring.
Name Institution


Expected Study Date of
Degree Inst. Departure


Enrique Andrade
Luis E. Ch&ves
David Cu6llar
Jafeth Garcia
Luis J. Jaramillo
Orlando Lugo
Gabriel Ojeda
.Joaquin E. Quir6z
Ernesto Rinc6n
Luis Hernan Rinc6n
Fabio Zapata


U.Nal.Bog.
ICA
U.Nal.Bog.
Fedecaf6
U.Nal.Bog.
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.Medellin


Ph.D.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.


N.C. State
Cornell
Wisconsin
Cornell
Michigan S.
Iowa State
Missouri
Michigan S.
Colorado S.
Iowa State
Louisiana's.


TOTAL 11


The academic performance of the Colombian graduate students has simply
been phenomenal. To date 105 have been sent to the U.S. as participants,
yet there are only a few C's on the graduate transcripts of the entire
group. Nearly all grades are A's and B's, and a large number of major
professors have requested fellowship extensions for their advises to
permit continuation for a Ph.D. program. Ordinarily, the requests are
declined because of the desire to have these students become reacquainted
with their country and gain additional experience and maturity before
embarking upon Ph.D. studies. Other factors;, such as the need for their
services at the sponsoring institution (ICA or the National University),
number of Ph. D's already trained in the particular field, age of'the
candidate, academic requirements of the position to which they will
return, etc. are also relevant. These requests are considered by case
basis, and a few students have been authorized to continue for the Ph.D.
degree.


Expected
Degree


Study
Inst.


Date of
Departure


Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.


Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.










Language is almost always a problem during the first semester. To at
least partially ameliorate this difficulty, the University of Nebraska
sponsors an orientation session during the month of August, at which time
the participants are given an opportunity to live with a Nebraska family,
study and observe U.S. agriculture, learn (through lectures) about graduate
school requirements and procedures, and polish their language competence
by means of these varied experiences. This has been a most successful
program, much appreciated by all the participants.


1969 participants attending the orientation session at the University of
Nebraska. On the far right Dr. William Colwell, Dean of International
Programs. On the far left Mr. Clyde Noyes, Administrative Assistant
in the Office of International Programs.

The first ICA-Nebraska Mission participant to return to Colombia with
a degree was Michel Hermelin, (1967 departure) who rejoined the faculty
of agronomy at the National University-Medellln in December 1968, after
completing an M.S. degree in Soils at Colorado State University. Hermelin
had a magnificent academic record, and will soon be a candidate for a
Ph.D. fellowship.

An additional 14 students completed their ICA-Nebraska Mission graduate
studies during 1969. One, a Ford Foundation fellow (Eduardo Chac6n of ICA-
1968 departure), was unable to complete his degree program because of de-
ficiencies in academic background and concomitant problems in meeting the
mathematical requirements for a Ph.D. in economics. Of the more than 100
participants, he is the first to return without a degree.

William P6rez, another Ford Foundation fellow (1968 departure), com-










pleted a special one year graduate program at the University of Paris, but


chose to continue his studies in Paris at his own expense.
to return to the National University-Bogota in 1970.

Participants who returned to Colombia in 1969 with M.S.
follows:


Name


Vargas, Wenceslao
Murcia, Hector
Restrepo, Ligia
Valderrama, Mario
Grillo, Manuel
Martinez, Ricardo
P6rez, Herngn
Velez, Dario
Cancelado, Rafael
Rey, Hunberto
Villamizar, Fernando
Bernhardt, Jaime* -


Sponsoring
InStitution

U.Nal4-Bog.
U.Nal.-Bog.
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.-Pal
U.Nal.-Bog.
ICA
Bnc.de la Rep.
UiNal.-Bog.
U.Nal.-Bog.
ICA
U.Nal.-Med.


Kind of
Pellow-
ship

AID
Ford
AID
Ford
AID
AID
Kellogg
Ford
AID
AID
AID
Ford


Field


Food Sci.
Ag. Econ.
Food Tec.& Nut.
Ag. Econ.
Soil & Water
Plant Bre.&Sta.
Communications
Ag. Econ.
Entomology
Ag. Engineering
Soils
Ag. Econ.


Mr. P6rez plans


degrees are as


Study Date of
Inst. Return**

N.C.S. Jan.
Okla.s.Feb.
Nebr. April
Nebr. July
Calif. August
Iowa S. August
Iowa S. August
Okla.S.Augu t
Miss.S.August
Col.S. Oct.
Col.S. Oct.
Iowa S. Nov.


* Originally sponsored by ICA, but contract assumed by National Univer-
sity-Medellin upon his return.

** All were awarded fellowships in 1967, except Velez and Bernhardt who
received their fellowships in 1968.

Obviously, a large number of the degree participants are still in the
U.Sv Those who began graduate studies in 1967, and who have not yet re-
turned to Colombia are as follows:


Sponsoring
Name Institution
Agronomy


Kind of
Fellow.


Expected Study Date of
Degree Institution Depart.
(1967)


Jose E. G6mez*
Cesar Escobar
Enrique Rodriguez


U.Nal.-Bog.
U.Nal.-Med.
ICA


AID
AID
AID


Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Iowa State August
Michigan August
Washington S. Sept.


Total 3

* Originally an M.S. program. Has now been extended for a Ph.D.

Participants who began graduate studies in 1968, and who have not yet
returned to Colombia include:


Name
Ag. Economics

German Bernal
Juan Acosta


Sponsoring
Institution



U.Nal.-Pal.
ICA


Kind of
Fellow.


Ford
Ford


Expected Study Date of
Degree Institution Depart.
(1968)


M.S.
M.S.


Nebraska
Missouri


Jan.
June












Name
Ag. Economics


Luis Avalos
Diego Londofo
Ramiro Orozco
Alfredo Carrasco
Mario Alberto Garcia


Sponsoring
Institution



ICA
U.Nal.-Pal:.
ICA
ICA
Min. Ag.


Kind of
Fellow.


Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford


Expected Study
Degree Institution


M.S.
Ph.D. *
M.S.
Ph.D.
M.S.


Missouri
Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Nebraska
Arizona


Ag. Engineering

Fabio Tob6n
Le6n Reyes

Ag. Extension


U.Nal.-Bog.
U.Nal.-Pal.


Jaime Guti6rrez
Mois6s Alvarez
Oscar Bricefio
Alvaro Castilla
Susana Amaya
Jos6 Ricaurte Gardia


Animal Science

German Diaz
Gonzalo Villa
Leonel Vargas
Mario Gonzalez
Edgar Ceballos


ICA
ICA
ICA
U;Nal.-Bog.
INCORA
ICA


U.Nal.-Bog.
U.Nal.-Med.
U.Nal.-Med.
U.Nal.-Pal.
ICA


Kellogg
Kellogg
Kellogg
Kellogg
Kellogg
Kellogg


AID
AID
AID
AID
AID


Ph.D.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.


Missouri
Missouri
Cornell
Iowa St.
Wisconsin
N.Carolina


Jan.
July
July
July
August
S. August


Missouri Feb.
Nebraska August
Nebraska August
. Oklahoma S. Sept.
Washington S. Sept.


Agronomy


Jos6 A. Beltran
Orlando Sanchez
Pedro Onoro
Javier Bernal
Cesar Cardona
Omar Marin
Emiro Rojas
Jorge Mesa
Samuel R. Ochoa
Abd6n Cortes
Francisco Herron

Veterinary Medicine


Fedearroz
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.-Med.
U.P.-Tunja
U.Nal.- Med.


AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID
AID


Ph.D.*
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
M.S.


Nebraska
Hawaii
N.Carolina S.
Cornell
California
California
Nebraska
Nebraska
California
Purdue
California


Jan.
Jan.
August
August
August
August
August
August
August
August
Dec.


Jose Jimenez
Ricardo Ochoa
Alfonso Ruiz
German Arbelaez
TOTAL 35


ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.-Bog.


* Original fellowship was for M.S. program,
for the Ph.D.


but have now been approved


Date of
Depart.



June
June
August
August
Sept.


AID
AID


M.S.
M.S.


Minnesota
Nebraska


August
August


AID
AID
AID
AID


M.S.
Ph.D.*
Ph.D.*
M.S.


Minnesota
Cornell
Iowa St.
Purdue


August
August
August
August










Following is a summary of the degree fellowship program:

No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1967 15

No. Returning in 1968 with Degrees 1
Fellowship Relinquished Because of Progam Change 1968 1
No. Returning in 1969 with Degrees 10
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 3

No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1968 39

No. Returning in 1969 with Degrees 2
No. Returning in 1969 without Degrees 1
No. Terminating Study Programs in 1969, but not yet
Returning to Colombia 1
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 35

No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1969 51

No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 51

Total Number of Degree Fellowships Awarded 105

No. Who have Returned with Degrees 13
No. Who have Terminated Study Programs, but have not
yet Returned 1
No. Who have Returned without Degrees 1
Fellowsips Relinquished because of Program Change 1
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 89

The following is a distribution of the degree fellowships by sponsoring
institution:

Departure in
Institution 1967 1968 1969 Total

ICA

No. Returning with Degrees 4 0 0 4
No. Returning without Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 18 28 47

Total 5 19 28 52

National University-Bogota

No. Returning with Degrees 5 0 0 5
No. Relinquishing Fellowship 1 0 0 1
No. Terminating Programs but
Remaining outside Colombia 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 5 12 18


7 6


Total


12 25










Departure in
Institution 1967 1968 1969 Total

National University-Medellin

No. Returning with Degrees 1 1 0 2
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 4 8 13

Total 2 5 8 15

National University-Palmira

No. Returning with Degrees 1 0 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 0 4 1 5

Total 1 4 1 6

Other Entities 1/

No. Returning with Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 0 4 2 6

Total 0 5 2 7

For All Entities

No. Returning with Degrees 11 2 0 13
No. Returningwithout Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Relinquishing Fellowship 1 0 0 1
No. Terminating Programs but
Remaining outside Colombia 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 3 35 51 89

Toal 15 39 51 105
1/ Banco de la Rep6blica, Ministry of Agriculture, INCORA, U.P. Tunja,
Fedearroz, and Fedecaf6.

B. Short Term Fellowships

Short term fellowships were greatly expanded during 1969. We consider
this to be an extremely important Mission activity, as such fellowships
permit concentrated study on a particular topic or problem, and simultane-
ously give the participant invaluable exposure to another culture.

Ten of these fellowships were awarded for special studies in extension
at New Mexico State University. This is a new and innovative program
which thus far shows promise of paying enormous dividends. The fellow-
ships are for a period of six weeks of intensive study of all aspects of
the New Mexico extension program. All training is provided in Spanish
in order to eliminate the language problem. (New Mexico, of course, has
a large Spanish speaking population, both in agricultural areas and at its
universities.) Five participants are sent in a group, so that they may
readily travel with their New Mexico State University sponsor throughout











New Mexico in one automobile. The first group of participants under this
program included only subject matter specialists in animal science; the
second .group included four subject matter specialists in agronomy and one
in agricultural engineering. We hope to send at least three additional
groups in 1970 including not only subject matter specialists, but also
Colombian county agents and extension supervisors.

The 1969 short term participants were as follows:


Name


Guillermo Riveros
Jos Tob6n
Jorge Quintero
Jaime Barrera
Joel Calle
Guillermo Cedefio
Nestor Morales
Fabio Rodriguez
Lucio Rodrlguez
Jairo Quintero
Ramiro Hern&ndez
Jose Londofo
Hernando Lemos
Jorge Llanos
Manuel Alvarez
Ricardo Sandino
Hern&n Chaverra


Sponsoring
Institution Field


ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.-Med.
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.Nal.-Bog.
ICA


Crop Physiology
Soils
Ag. Engineering
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Animal Science
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Extension
Ag. Education
Veterinary Med.


Study
Institution

Nebraska
N. Carolina
Various
New Mexico E
New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico E
New Mexico E
Florida
New Mexico
New Mexico E
New Mexico E
New Mexico E
New Mexico S
Various
Various


Ag. Research & Ext.Various


TOTAL 17


Approx.
Time
Period


1
St.7
4
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
2
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
t. 6
4
4


1/2 weeks
Weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks


9 weeks













SECTION IX


HIGHLIGHTS OF"1969


The fellowship program is perhaps the Nebraska Mission's most
glamorous activity. But one must recognize that a lot of "people
building" and "institution building" occurs in Colombia too. This
happens on a day to day basis, and is frequently less noticeable
than the impact of a fellowship but no less important.

ICA and the National University have made tremendous progress
in the past few years, and this is progress to which the fellowship
students have not contributed. Because of these "in country" develop-
ments, the organizational base to which the students are returning is
much stronger than would otherwise have been the case. This makes
them more productive, and further accelerates the progress of their
employer organizations.

ICA and the National University would have progressed since 1966,
with or without the help of the Nebraska Mission. This is obvious, for
both entities are making progress in areas in which the Mission is not
participating. Nevertheless, we hope and believe that the rate of pro-
gress has been considerably increased by the presence of our professional
staff.

So far as 1969 is concerned, the following were some of our high-
lights:

a. Agricultural Economics

1. Outstanding departmental leadership in the graduate school -
publication of a Departmental Bulletin enumerating course
requirements, credits, etc.; publication of a pamphlet ad-
vertising the program; an active recruitment effort for top
quality students; etc.

2. Publication of the study by Max Bowser on the potential of
beef exportation from Colombia in the coming decade, and the
study by Chris Andrew on potato marketing. Both studies will
produce a number of spin-off publications, as well as addi-
tional spin-off research projects.

3. Preparation of an undergraduate marketing text in Spanish by
Dr. Roger Burdette. This text is now in use throughout the
National University system, and may find a much broader Latin
American market.

4. Excellent advancements in the undergraduate program at the
National University-Medellin, through the leadership of Dr.
Steiner.










5. The development of the Colombian Agricultural Economics Asso-
ciation. The Nebraska Mission has contributed heavily in time
and effort to the birth of this association, but it has now
reached maturity, and leadership has passed into the hands of
Colombian agricultural economists. This is, of course, the
mark of a successful technical assistance activity.

b. Agricultural Engineering

1. A highly successful field day in Tibaitat&, at which more than
7 600 people were in attendance.

2. Development of an outstanding working relationship between the
machinery and processing programs (headed by Drs. Hobbs and
Teter respectively) and Colombian industry.

3. Rapid advancement in all areas of the graduate program. Major
successes in machinery design.

4. Fulfillment of an important goal with the completion, by 12
students, of all courses in the undergraduate curriculum at
the National University-Medellin. In early 1970 these students
will become the first ag engineering graduates in Colombia.

5. Nationwide acceptance of the National Plans Service, which pro-
vides to Colombian farmers scale drawings of livestock and
materials handling equipment and many other agricultural items.

c. Agricultural Extension

1. The maturing of the ICA Social Science Department, which was
directed during the year by Dr. Dale Flowerday and Dr. Thomas
Trail. (In addition, its three national programs Extension
Education, Mass Communications, and Rural Sociology have all
had major leadership inputs from Nebraska Mission staff mem-
bers.) The activities of the department, particularly in re-
search, have increased immeasurably during 1969, and it has
begun to command the confidence and respect of other ICA de-
partments, the National University staff, and outside agencies.

2. Performance of the publications center, which has had major as-
sistance from Drs. J.J. Feight and Richard Tenney. Though it
still cannot meet the demand for agricultural publications, the
center has already passed its 1971 goals, with a;-total of more
than one million impressions during 1969.

3. Development of radio as a mass communications technique. More
than 350 radio programs were aired in 1969, aldo more than the
1971 goal. This total will probably be doubled in 1970. The
Nebraska Mission plans to increase its input in this area in
1970, hot only through the help of Dr. Tenney, but also through
the use of a specialized short term consultant.









4. Utilization, for the first time in Colombia, of portable tele-
vision equipment in extension, teaching, and other programs.
As this equipment is used almost continually at ICA, additional
units have been ordered for all three campuses of the National
University. This should permit and foster a whole series of
innovations in 1970.

5. Execution of an agreement with New Mexico State University for
the provision of short term training to Colombian extension
personnel. A unique program, it has met with great success
thus far. The training is conducted in New Mexico, but in
Spanish, so that language does not become a barrier in the
selection of participants. The six weeks training period is
highly concentrated, and the participants are not only ex-
posed to, but become involved in, all aspects of the New Mexico
extension program.

d. Agronomy

1. The impetus that has been given to undergraduate programs at
the National University-Bogota, as evidenced by the Honorary
Professorship given to Dr. Frank Davis. Included is the de-
velopment of a textbook which is now being utilized through-
out the National University system. Both Dr. Davis and Dr.
Carl Jorgensen had important roles in the preparation of this
text.

2.. Dr. Jorgensen's research in pineapple floration. Alteration
of the time of floration could permit Colombia to time its
entry (seasonally) into the highly competitive international
markets.

3. The ambitious soil fertility research program of Dr. Kenneth
Frank.

e. Animal Science

1. The Beef Cattle Short Course in Ibague, organized principally
by Dr. Ivan Rush. Some observers have called this the finest
short course ever held in Colombia. Attending were more than
300 cattlemen, representatives of livestock organizations, ex-
tension personnel, and others. This course has served as a
springboard for dozens of subsequent courses, many organized
and conducted without any Nebraska Mission assistance.

2. The appointment of Dr. Warren as Director of ICA's National
Poultry program. In this position, Dr. Warren has been able
to develop a research and extension program that may well be
more closely related to the needs of his clientele (Colombia's
poultry producers) than any other agricultural program in the
nation.










3. The development of a strong undergraduate program at the Na-
tional University-Medellln. Dr. Conley has had a large input
in this regard, including the publication of an animal breeding
textbook in which he collaborated with Prof. R.L. Wilham of
Iowa State University.

f. Veterinary Medicine

1. The heavy teaching load and fine performances of Drs. Harry
Mussman and Ted Vera. Both have established excellent reputa-
tions, not only in the classroom, but also in the supervision
of undergraduate theses. In addition, both have authored under-
graduate texts Dr. Mussman in clinical pathology, and Dr. Vera
in infectious diseases which will be used long after their
departure from Colombia.

2. Development of a new graduate program in microbiology. Dr. Vera
has provided important leadership in the initiation of this cur-
riculum, and now serves as coordinator::of the program.

3. Initiation of a veterinary extension program, beginning with
publication of a monthly newsletter to veterinarians throughout
Colombia. This new extension activity has been made possible
by a reduction in the Nebraska Mission input to the ambulatory
clinic program.

g. The NU-ICA Graddate School

Development of this program is a high priority goal of the
Nebraska Mission. No country can ever realize its agricultural
potential without trained people, and no country can afford to
continually send itssstudents abroad for training. Thus, though
the Nebraska Mission has a most ambitious fellowship program,
that program is only a means to an end. The ultimate goal is to
achieve staff competence such that Colombia can train its own
agriculturalists.

The NU-ICA graduate school will soon have the capability of
providing M.S. level training in all major agricultural fields.
Within a few years, it will have the capability of providing
Ph.D. level training in at least some of these fields. In our
judgment, it will soon have the finest agricultural graduate pro-
gram in Latin America.

The strides that have been taken in this institution since its
birth in 1967 are truly amazing. Thirteen students entered the
school less than three years ago; in January 1970, there were ap-
proximately 80 full time and another 15 part time students. This
nearly doubles the goal that was established in the five year plan
prepared in 1966.

The Nebraska Mission staff has had a.major input into the NU-
ICA graduate school, and we are most pleased with the results.








41
h. General

We are proud of the achievements enumerated above, and the
many additional accomplishments that are discussed in the project
reports to follow. But we do not expect to rest on our laurels.
1970 is a new year with as many or more challenges than 1969.
We will simply try to join our Colombian colleagues in meeting
those challenges. Thus far this joint effort has been notably
successful, and we are confident that it will continue to be so.













SECTION X


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


1. General Objectives Accomplished in 1969

This report covers the third complete year of the agricultural eco-
nomics contribution to ICA and National University through the Uni-
versity of Nebraska Mission in Colombia. Major accomplishments were
achieved in Agricultural Economics during 1969. The Department at ICA
has progressed to one with thirteen Colombian professionals, a full
time Director, an active graduate program,-and three National Programs
for research. The participant training program has been active and
the first four professionals with the M.S. degree have returned to
Colombia; (two will be employed by National University, one by ICA,
and one by the Banco de la Repdblica). The most active undergraudate
program, that in Medellin, ended the year with 84 students. A joint
undergraduate program is also underway in Palmira with the Universi-
dad del Valle and has 60 students currently enrolled.

The progress during the year has, in fact, been so remarkable that
when one reads the projections made for 1969 given in the last Annual
Report, it almost seems as if they were for a different program. The
changes which have come about have been the result of many factors.
Undoubtedly, the most important has been the appointment of Rafael
Samper.as full time Department Chairman at ICA. Though young and in-
experienced, he has been the key to the development of a department
with a real purpose. The progress made by the Department is particu-
larly evident in the graduate program in which the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics is a leader at ICA. During 1969 the Department met
its goals for graduate students twice over-as projected in the 1968
Annual Report, and will also double its goals for the 1970 academic
year. Although the Department is one of the newest at ICA, it will
have one of the first (if not the first) graduate students to receive
an M.S. degree, and it was the first to have students finish course
requirements and take the comprehensive examination.

The research program-is also advancing very rapidly, and the first
few publications have been produced. Regional aspects of the research
program were enhanced materially with the appointment of the first Re-
gional Economist who is located at Medellin.

Also of significant importance to the general welfare of the Depart-
ment was the acquisition of adequate space in the new building at
Tibaitatg. All factors being considered, it can probably be said
that during 1969 agricultural economics was firmly established as a
discipline in Colombia at the National University and at ICA.













SECTION X


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


1. General Objectives Accomplished in 1969

This report covers the third complete year of the agricultural eco-
nomics contribution to ICA and National University through the Uni-
versity of Nebraska Mission in Colombia. Major accomplishments were
achieved in Agricultural Economics during 1969. The Department at ICA
has progressed to one with thirteen Colombian professionals, a full
time Director, an active graduate program,-and three National Programs
for research. The participant training program has been active and
the first four professionals with the M.S. degree have returned to
Colombia; (two will be employed by National University, one by ICA,
and one by the Banco de la Repdblica). The most active undergraudate
program, that in Medellin, ended the year with 84 students. A joint
undergraduate program is also underway in Palmira with the Universi-
dad del Valle and has 60 students currently enrolled.

The progress during the year has, in fact, been so remarkable that
when one reads the projections made for 1969 given in the last Annual
Report, it almost seems as if they were for a different program. The
changes which have come about have been the result of many factors.
Undoubtedly, the most important has been the appointment of Rafael
Samper.as full time Department Chairman at ICA. Though young and in-
experienced, he has been the key to the development of a department
with a real purpose. The progress made by the Department is particu-
larly evident in the graduate program in which the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics is a leader at ICA. During 1969 the Department met
its goals for graduate students twice over-as projected in the 1968
Annual Report, and will also double its goals for the 1970 academic
year. Although the Department is one of the newest at ICA, it will
have one of the first (if not the first) graduate students to receive
an M.S. degree, and it was the first to have students finish course
requirements and take the comprehensive examination.

The research program-is also advancing very rapidly, and the first
few publications have been produced. Regional aspects of the research
program were enhanced materially with the appointment of the first Re-
gional Economist who is located at Medellin.

Also of significant importance to the general welfare of the Depart-
ment was the acquisition of adequate space in the new building at
Tibaitatg. All factors being considered, it can probably be said
that during 1969 agricultural economics was firmly established as a
discipline in Colombia at the National University and at ICA.











1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.2 Medellin and Palmira

The programs at Medellin and Palmira-Cali continued to ex-
pand during the year. The Universidad del Valle has taken
the primary-leadership in the joint program at Palmira-Cali.
Here, National University and Nebraska Mission personnel
have been involved primarily in the teaching of service
courses for students in the Agronomy Faculty.

In Medellin, the ICA Nebraska Mission Economist taught two
courses the first semester and one during the second. The
courses were: Agricultural Marketing, Production Economics,
and Market Analyses. He also assisted in Price Analysis
during the second semester.

The program in Medellin received some additional assistance
during the year when ICA appointed its first Regional-Econo-
mist. An agreement was reached between ICA and the National
University that ICA personnel (including the ICA Nebraska
Mission Economist) could teach one course per semester and
devote up to half time in work involving undergraduate teach-
ing. This represents a reduction in the proportion of time
spent by the ICA Nebraska Mission Economist on undergraduate
work, but is necessary if ICA is to develop a sound regional
research program. The decrease will be at least partially
offset by the presence of the Regional Economist.

As the National University is faced with severe budget prob-
lems, recommendations were made at a meeting of the Deans (at-
tended by various other people) relative to the best use of
limited funds by the University. The suggestion was that the
Bogota Faculty should delay the opening of its course in Agri-
cultural Economics until the Medellin Faculty (with a current
enrollment of 84) could be adequately supported financially
and with staff. In order to help the staffing problem, ICA
transferred one of its returning M.S. staff to the Medellin
Faculty where he will complete his contractual obligations
(fellowship commitment) as a National University employee.
Efforst are also underway to combine the basic economics
courses taught at the Mines Faculty and the Agronomy Faculty
in Medellin to increase the efficiency of staff time. Simi-
lar attempts are being made to reduce duplication in basic
agricultural economics courses taught for the various careers
in the Agronomy Faculty..itself.

Undergraduate enrollment in December, 1969:

Medellin 84 in 3 semester (5 year Program)
Palmira-Cali 60 :-id 2 semesters (4 1/4 year Program)
Total 144










1.2 Graduate Teaching

Perhaps the greatest progress was made during the year in the area
of graduate teaching. In February, the Department of Agricultural
Economics published the first Departmental Graduate Bulletin at
ICA which compiled the current thinking of the Department and of
the Graduate School. Later, after the Graduate School published
its Regulations, the Departmental Bulletin was revised. In the
revision, a two year calendar of courses is presented in which re-
quired courses are offered each year and elective courses every
other year. This calendar permits students entering in January
with all prerequisites to terminate coursework in one year and have
six months to complete the thesis. Normal time for graduation
should be 18 months, which is the minimum under the Graduate School
Regulations.

The Department also published a flyer to advertise its graduate
program. Delays in publication prevented its effective use for
January, 1970, but it is now ready for use in the future. Never-


Rafael Samper, left, Director of the ICA Department of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, and Peter Hildebrand, right, ICA-Nebraska Mission Project Leader
in Agricultural Economics, advise a student on thesis research.


'~T~-a

~~Df~r











theless, the Department had 19 applications for admittance for
1970. Of these, 17 were approved (6 with fellowships, 3 pending
fellowships, 2 on commission from ICA, and 6 with no financial
support). It is expected that the majority of those not receiving
financial support will not enroll. With the 11 full time graduate
students currently enrolled,. Agricultural Economics should have
at least 20 full time students in January, 1970, of which 7 will
be working primarily on thesis research.

Although the Department still is lunderstaffed and lacks stability
in staffing, two of our students were the first to finish all
course requirements and take the comprehensive examination. A
third student will qualify for the comprehensive examination in
January after completing a semester of work at OklRhoma State Uni-
versity. These three students, plus four more who will qualify for
the comprehensive examination in July, should finish their theses
and receive M.S. degrees in 1970.

The Department has received excellent fellowship support during
the year. In 1969, there were 5 students on fellowships (3 fi-
fanced by the Ford Foundation and 2 by ICA). For 1970 in addi-
tion to these 5, ICA will provide 4 new fellowships and Ford 3 -
This will provide a total of 12, 6 from ICA and 6 6n a matching
basis from the Ford Foundation. On a continuing basis (ICA will
absorb the Fofd Becas on their termination) this should provide
adequate support for the program at least for a few years.

The following graduate courses were taught in whole or in part
by the Nebraska Mission staff:

Resource Economics Badger
Marketing Driscoll and Samper
Mathematics for Economists Hildebrand
Econometrics Driscoll
Microeconomics Driscoll
Policy Andrew and Valderrama
Methodology Steiner, Andrew, Driscoll, Hildebrand

1.3 Research

1.3.1 Specific Projects

The research program progressed staisfactorily during the
year. Of primary importance was the initiation of three de-
partmental publication series: 1) Boletines Departamentales,
2) Informes, and 3) Circulares. The bulletin series will be
used for limited but rapid distribution of major research
results, most of which will eventually be published by ICA
or other entities. All will be approved by the ICA editorial
staff as ICA publications. The Informes are shorter reports
or progress reports. The Circulares will generally be one
to three page publications primarily of extension interest.
Published in each series to date are:










Boletines


Bowser, Max F., "Prerrequisitos y Potencial para la Expor-
taci6n de Carne en Colombia en la Decada de 1970", (Prere-
quisites and Potential for the Exportation of Meat from
Colombia in the 1970's), Boletin Departamental No. 1, De-
partamento de Economla Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat&, Septiembre,
1969.

Andrew, Chris 0., et. al., "Problemas de Producci6n y Merca-
deo del Campesino Colombiano", (Production and Marketing
Problems of the Colombian Campesino), Boletin Departamental
No. 2, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat&,
Septiembre, 1969.

Lopera Palacios, Jorge y Peter E. Hildebrand, "La Brecha en
la Productividad Agricola en Colombia", ( The Agricultural
Productivity Gap in Colombia), Boletin Departamental No. 3,
Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat6, Octubre,
1969.


Interviewing a potato retailer for a marketing research project. Chris
Andrew observes the retailer responding to the student interviewer.










Andrew, Chris O., "Improving Performance of the Production-
Distribution System for Potatoes in Colombia", Boletin De-
partamental No. 4, Departamento de Economla Agricola, ICA,
Tibaitata, Octubre, 1969.

Informes

Diaz Granados, Freddy, "Analisis Econ6mico de Algunos Sis-
temas de Alimentacion de Vacas Lecheras en la Sabana de Bo-
gota", (Economic Analysis of Feeding Systems For Dairy Cows
in the Sabana of Bogota), Informe AR-1, Departamento de Eco-
nomia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat6, Noviembre 18, 1969.

Rinc6n S., Manuel, "Limitaciones de los Costos de Producci6n",
(Limitations of Production Costs), Informe AR-2, Departamen-
to de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Noviembre 27, 1969.

Circulares

"Costos de la Produccion por Hectarea Trigo", ( Production
Costs per Hectare Wheat),:Circular AR-1, Departamento de
Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Noviembre 12, 1969.

"Costos de Establecimiento por Hectarea Alfalfa", (Estab-
lishment Costs per Hectare Alfalfa), Circular AR-2, Depar-
tamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Noviembre 14,
1969.

"Costos de Producci6n por Hectarea, Espinal, Tolima Algo-
d6n", (Production Costs per Hectare, Espinal Tolima Cot-
ton), Circular No. AR-3, Departamento de Economla Agricola,
ICA, Tibaitata, Diciembre 10, 1969.

Several other major publications are in the final stages of
preparation. Most will be bulletins.

1. Production and Marketing of Wool, Lamb and Mutton in Co-
lombia.
2. Economic Analysis of the Production of Potatoes in Colom-
bia.
3. Analysis of 18 Ranching Operations in the Department of
Cordoba.
4. Present Status of Colonization in Caquet9.
5. Alternative Methods of Coffee Renovation and Diversifica-
tion.
6. Economic Evaluation of the Potato Chipping Industry in
Bogota and Cali.
7. Economic Analysis of the Distribution System of Beef from
the Farm to the Wholesaler in Bogota.
8. Design of a Central Wholesale Market for Cali.
9. The Relationship of Infrastructure to Agricultural Devel-
opment.









Research oriented towards assisting IDEMA in improving their
agricultural price and market information services resulted
in an invitation by FAO to attend a two weeks technical con-
ference on price and market information services in Latin
America. Rosa Elvira Galeano, who is working on this pro-
ject, attended the meeting and (jointly with an IDEMA re-
presentative also invited to the meetings) presented a pa-
per on "An Analysis and Evaluation of Price Information
Services in Colombia" which considered both IDEMA's Whole-
saler Price Information Services and Banco Ganadero's Beef
Cattle Price Information Service.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 Specific Projects

During the year the Department participated in three exten-
sion short courses. For use in these short courses, four
lectures were prepared and published:

"La Administraci6n en la Empresa de Ganado de Carne", (Ad-
ministration in the Beef Cattle Industry), by Jaime Delgado
U., Manuel Rinc6n, and Rafael Samper A.

"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne en la Feria de Medellin",
( The Beef Cattle Market in Medellin), by James L. Driscoll
and Rafael Samper A.

"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne Huilense en la Feria de Cali",
( The Marketing of Beef Cattle from Huile in Cali), by James
L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.

"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne del Caqueta en la Feria de
Cali", (The Marketing of Beef Cattle from Caqueta in Cali),
by James L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.

The new departmental publication series will also be useful
in extension work. However, little else has been accomplished
in this area partly due to lack of personnel and partly due to
lack of clear extension objectives within ICA.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

During the year a total of 12 participants departed for gra-
duate study in the U.S. Of these, one is sponsored by Na-
tional University Bogota, 3 by the National University -
Medellin and 6 by ICA. One of the others travelled at his
own expense and is studying English. If he qualifies in
English he will be awarded a fellowship (sponsoring agency











is Banco de la Republica). I/ The twelfth is a student in
the ICA Graduate Brogram who is studying one semester at
Oklahoma State University.


Sponsoring
Name Institution


Jorge Torres
Fabian Ramirez
Jaime Baby
Gonzalo Aristizabal
Edierth Restrepo
Rodrigo Tasc6n
Carlos Forero
Jorge Vargas
Jes~s Sierra
Jorge Lopera

Roberto L6pez
Ricardo Buenaventura


U.Nal. Bogota
U.Nal. Medellin
U.Nal. Medellin
U.Nal. Medellin
ICA-Bogota
ICA-Bogot&
ICA-Bogotf
ICA-Bogot&
ICA-Bogota
ICA-Bogot&

Fedecaf6
Banao de la
RepGblica


Expected
Date


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.


M.S.


Study
Institution

Kansas State
Oklahoma State
Nebraska
Iowa State
Missouri
Missouri
Kansas State
Oklahoma State
Colorado State
Iowa State

Oklahoma State
Texas A&M


Five M.S. candidates from among those originally selected
can still choose to go to the U.S. for graduate study, but
emphasis will now be given to support of the UN-ICA Gradu-
ate School. These five candidates have been unable to leave
earlier because of work commitments. Of thencfivey;,:3 re from
ICA and one each from the National University in Palmira
and Medellin. One candidate from ICA, Edulfo Castellanos,
has elected to enroll in the UN-ICA Graduate School in Jan-
uary, 1970. The others will probably leave in the summer
of 1970 either for the Economics Institute in Boulder, Col-
orado 6r for the orientation course in Lincoln.

One participant from ICA working on a Ph.D. degree at the
University of Nebraska returned to the staff here after one
year's advanced study. As he does not have an M.S. degree
he has applied for the UN-ICA Graduate School. He, along
with 3 other present members of the staff, will be allowed
to take one course per trimester during 1970. If they do
well, they can qualify to enter the school full time in
1970 to complete degree requirements while on commission
from ICA.

Other new M.S. staff for ICA and the UN faculties can be
chosen from among the graduates of the UN-ICA Graduate
School.




1/ This was Ricardo Buenaventura. He qualified for a fellowship in
January 1970.


Date of
Departure

January
January
February
March
June
June
August
August
August
August

August
July












































James Driscoll, right, explains and answers questions concerning elec-
tronic computers for an ICA staff member.

The Instructor Program began phasing out during 1969. Two
of the three Instuctors finished their projects and the re-
sults were published as Departmental Bulletins (see Bowser
and Andrew, above). Bowser's report will be published in
the November, 1969 issue of Agricultura Tropical and sever-
al thousand reprints will be ordered in the form of an ICA
Bulletin. Andrew's thesis was published in English but sev-
eral Bulletins in Spanish will be published from it during
1970. Feaster's counterpart, Edulfo Castellanos, completed
a report on Caqueta as a direct result of the joint program.
This work will be published as a Bulletin early in 1970.
Feaster will finish his thesis work in February, 1970, and
will prepare a manual which INCORA can use in project plan-
ning. He will publish the thesis in English and write sev-
eral bulletins in Spanish which will also be published in
1970.

As a substitute for the Instructor program, formerly finan-
ced by the Ford Foundation, the Farm Management Program has
acquired a post prelim Ph.D. candidate from the University
of Florida who will conduct research in capital productivity
and the effect of risk on investment in agriculture. His
salary (assistantship) is being paid by the University of
Florida (Center for Tropical Agriculture) and the research
expenses will be paid by ICA.










During the year, four candidates returned from the U.S.
with the M.S. degree. In February, Hector Murcia returned
from Oklahoma State and is working &t UN in Bogota. Mario
Valderrama (University of Nebraska) and Dario Velez (Okla-
homa State) returned during the summer and are working with
ICA and the Banco de la Repiblica (Medellin), respectively.
In December, Jaime Bernhardt returned from Iowa State and
will work with UN in Medellin.

Additional staff with advanced degrees include Rafael Samper,
Manuel Rinc6n and Jorge Suescun with ICA and Arturo Tob6n
with UN. Following is a summary of staff with advanced de-
grees as of the end of 1969.

Name

Rafael Samper* M.S. Purdue Director ICA-Bogot&
Ag.Econ. Dept.
Manuel Rinc6n* M.S. La Molina, PerG Director ICA-Bogota
Farm Mgt. Prog.
Mario Valderrama M.S. Nebraska Director ICA-Bogota
Policy Program
Jorge SuescGn* M.S. Vicosa, Brazil Regional ICA-Medellit
Economist
Hector Murcia M.S...Oklahbma.State Ag. Economist UN-Bogota
Arturo Tob6n* M.S. Vicosa, Brazil Ag. Economist UN-Medellil
Jaime Bernhardt' M.S. Iowa State Ag. Economist UN-Medellin

* Fellowships received from programs predating that of Nebraska.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA

Two important and critical changes occurred during the year
with respect to the organization and administration of the
Department.

First, early in the year during one of the extended absences
of the part time Director of the Department, the Program Di-
rectors and their Nebraska advisors organized a "Comite In-
terno" to function in an advisory and operational capacity
and to try to provide an orientation to the Department which
to that time had been lacking. Second, and sometime later,
Dr. Rafael Samper was appointed full time Director of the De-
partment.

The.new leadership has made a tremendous difference in the
functioning of the Department. The "Comite Interno" con-
tinues to operate and is working smoothly. Most of the im-
portant departmental decisions are discussed in detail by
this committee. This provides training for new departmental
personnel as well as a sound means of making decisions by ex-
amining various points of view.










Also important to the Department was the initiation of the
Regional Economist program, with the placement of the first
economist in Medellin. Additional economists will be ap-
pointed as soon as personnel are available. (Many will come
from our own graduate-program.)

1.6.2 Coordination with Short Term Consultants

Dr. Glen Vollnar, Chairman of the Department of Ag Economics
at the University of Nebraska, and Dr. James Rhodes, Chair-
man of the same department at the University of Missouri,
visited Colombia in January to make an internal evaluation
of the Nebraska Mission program in this field. Drs. Vollmar
and Rhodes had an opportunity to visit all of the ag economics
staff at Bogota, Medellin and Palmira. Their recommendations
have been most valuable, and most have already been implement-
ed.

Dr. Russell Brannon, a member of the Ag Economics faculty at
the University of Kentucky, spent one week with us in January.
Dr.Brannon is Chairman of the Ph.D. committee for Mr. Gerald
Feaster, one of our Instructors. During his Visit, he had
an opportunity to review progress in the Feaster study, and
to visit the actual site from which the research data is being
taken.

















AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING


1. General Objectives Accomplished in 1969

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

1.1.1 Bogota

In accordance with the 1969 Plan of Work only very limited
assistance was provided in the acquisition of equipment, all
of which has been delivered. At the request of Dr. Miguel
Herndndez, Director of Agricultural Programs, limited assist-
ance was provided in program planning with the objective of
minimizing duplication of effort in the three faculties of
Bogota, Medellin, and Palmira.

1.1.2 Medellin

A specific goal in the agricultural engineering program was
attained in 1969. Twelve students have completed all course
work for the professional degree in agricultural engineering.
When these students complete their individual research
projects, probably early in January 1970, they will graduate
as the first agricultural engineers produced by a Colombian
institution. This is the successful culmination of three
years of cooperative planning and teaching of Colombian and
Nebraska Mission engineers. Among other inputs these stu-
dents have had the benefit of a major revision in curricu-
lum which resulted in a much broader base of engineering
theory and experiences. This broader base will signifi-
cantly enhance their future ability to meet a broad range
of engineering problems.

During 1969 the two Nebraska Mission engineers were fully
responsible for the teaching of seven professional level
courses, including one in which they were assisted by a
Nebraska Mission engineer from Bogota. They were also
responsible for supervising the research projects of 8 of
the 12 graduating students in agricultural engineering,
and were coadvisors for two agronomy majors. This is
evidence of the respect held by the graduating students
for the efforts of these engineers. Assistance was also
provided counterparts in the teaching of four other courses,
and one of the Nebraska engineers was responsible for the
teaching of one of the courses in the graduate program.











Late in the year a time-table for the systematic upgrading
of the Colombian staff, through graduate training, was
finally obtained from the administration of UN-Medellin.
This was long overdue and its delay endangers the fulfill-
ment of Contract objectives in the time span originally
projected. At the present time only two staff members are
engaged in graduate training, one in the NU-ICA Graduate
Program who will complete his M.S. degree in August 1970,
and the second at Iowa State University who will not
complete his M.S. degree before the end of 1971. However,
one additional staff member will begin graduate training
in the U.S. in January 1970, and three more will enter
the UN-ICA Graduate Program in 1970.

A very important attainment during the year was in the
occupation of laboratory space assigned solely for the use
of agricultural engineering, and in the obtaining of a
mechanical technician to assist in the laboratory, and a
onehalf time structural technician. Since that time the
development of the laboratory facilities has proceeded
quite well, especially in the areas of machinery and
processing.


Dr. Deane Manbeck manipulates the controls as students observe the water
flow in a conservation structure model.










Acquisition of laboratory and teaching equipment and re-
ferences, mainly through the Nebraska Mission Contract, has
proceeded satisfactorily. The laboratories, with the receipt
of equipment now on order, will be quite well equipped for
undergraduate teaching, and limited research.

Present enrollment in the five levels of agricultural engi-
neering is approximately 150.

S1.1.3 Palmira

There were no Mission engineers assigned to work directly
with UN-Palmira. However, assistance was provided, through
the Mission engineer stationed at ICA-Palmira, in certain
activities. Among these were:

a. The provision of field experiences to UN staff in the
S techniques of identification and solution of soil and
water engineering problems and machinery use problems.

b. The provision of assistance in the planning of future
facilities for agricultural engineering at UN-Palmira.
This was in the form of a formal report to "Planeaci6n
Facultad de Agronomla".

c. The provision of assistance in the development of plans
and procedures for use by the joint Universidad del Valle-
UN agricultural engineering program.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives Accomplished

The development of the Master of Science Degree Program in
Agricultural Engineering became a reality during 1969 and
also made tremendous progress. As the newest of the ICA
departments and graduate programs, with an enrollment of
only four students in Semester II of 1968, it has grown
until for Semester II of 1969 it had 14 students, which
made it the second largest in the UN-ICA Graduate Program.
Pre-enrollment figures for 1970 show a minimum of 18
students.

As directors of the programs of "Processing", and "Machin-
ery", the two full-time Mission engineers stationed at
Tibaitata have played a highly significant role in the
rapid development of the department.

The graduate program now has six full-time senior staff
members and six part-time staff members on the teaching-
research-extension staff. It also has 13 junior staff
members of which seven are enrolled part-time in the
Graduate Program. Three of these will receive their M.S.
degrees in 1970 and the other four in 1971.










1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses


As the Graduate Program in agricultural engineering was
initiated at the beginning of Semester II of 1968, and
only three courses were offered at that time, 11 new
courses were taught during 1969. (The three courses
taught during 1968 were also taught for a second time).
Nebraska engineers, including one part-time Nebraska
engineer from Medellln, taught six of these courses. Two
were taught in both Semesters I and II. An M.S. thesis
research project was also directed. In addition, oneof
the Nebraska engineers from the graduate program had the
major responsibility for teaching a machinery design class
in the undergraduate program at Medellin.


Dr. Wesley Hobbs uses the blackboard to explain forces of energy.


Courses taught by Nebraska


Engineers


Engineering of Conservation of Natural Resources
Bio-engineering
Design and Evaluation of Agricultural Machinery (Semesters
I and II)










Selection and Utilization of Motor Power
Nomograph Design
Special Problems

1.2.3 Teaching Improvement, Materials, etc.

Three Spanish language texts were authored or co-authored by
Nebraska engineers, one in"Bio-Engineering", one in "Machin-
ery", and one in "Electrical Power". These are used" as
major reference texts for the common core courses in the
graduate program. These texts are oriented toward tropical
and semi-tropical conditions.

Considerable use was made of the laboratory teaching tech-
nique, and the use of actual problems faced by Colombian
agriculture. The teaching was closely tied to research
activities underway whenever such ties would enhance the
learning experience. Student laboratory design activi-
ties frequently led to the actual fabrication of the
design. This technique has resulted in greater student
interest, expanded learning experiences, and, as an extra
bonus, the development of such badly needed items of ma-
chinery and processing equipment as cotton driers, land
levelers, livestock scales, implements for a two-wheel
tractor, self-propelled crop sprayer, and several others.

A number of laboratory exercises by students have resulted
in "technical aids" and "plans" to be published as part
of the departmental extension activities.

A small and efficient teaching-research laboratory has been
developed and partially equipped. This laboratory is in
operation eight hours per day by the students, staff, and
seven excellent "tecnicos". It is used for teaching,
research, and for the fabrication of prototypes of all the
mechanical designs developed by the staff and/or students.
A field laboratory of approximately one hectare is also
being developed.

A considerable number of reference books and materials
have been obtained from the States. A fair amount, but
still inadequate, of teaching and research equipment has
been obtained. However, due to the high costs of equipping
a graduate level teaching and research department, a dire
need still exists for expenditure of another sixty to
seventy thousand dollars for laboratory equipment at the
Tibaitatd station alone.

1.2.4 Attainment of Thesis Goals

Emphasis in thesis research has been upon current, high
priority Colombian problems, and the development of efficient
techniques in applied research. The three thesis research











projects currently supervised by the Nebraska engineers meet
these requirements. One is on grain storage, a second on the
design and development of a grain drier for manufacturing in
Colombia, and the third on the design and development of a
mechanical yucca harvester. These are all high priority
needs in Colombian agriculture.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

a. Emphasis upon current, high priority problems in agri-
cultural production and processing.

b. The development of approved and efficient techniques in
applied research and in the reporting of results.

c. Publication of results, when feasible, in the most ap-
propriate form i.e. extension or scientific.

d. The fabrication of prototypes of machinery designs and
the promotion of their commercial manufacture by Co-
lombian industry.

That the above stated objectives are being attained is
shown by the following specific projects completed or
underway during 1969. The names in parenthesis are those
of the commercial companies manufacturing our successful
designs.

1.3.2 Specific Projects (with assistance of counterparts)

a. Projects Completed in 1969:

1. Processing Research

a. Portable pipe-line milking systems (Riegos T4c-
nicos)

b. Portable livestock scales*

c. Egg processing design for Turipana station

d. Feed processing plant design (PINA)

e. Potato storage designs for ICA stations

f. Livestock working equipment*

g. Fique processing Medellin

2. Machinery


a. Two Wheel Tractor, 12 hp (Ricambro)

















































Drs. Wesley Hobbs, Jorge Quintero, and Norman Teter discuss features of
the two wheeled tractor designed and tested by the Agricultural Engi-
neering Department of ICA.

b. Four Wheel tractor*, 8 and 12 hp (Casa Inglesa)

c. Land levelers*, 2.40 and 4.00 meter widths
(Casa Inglesa and Apolo)

d. Small tractor machinery development (Ricambro
and Casa Inglesa)

1. Moldboard plows*, 10" and 12"

2. Row-crop cultivator fertilizer*

3. Spike-tooth harrow*

4. Row-crop planter fertilizer*

5. Mounted disc harrow*

6. Tractor mower, sickle type

7. Rotary tractor mower*










e. Potato harvester*

f. Bed planter to facilitate furrow irrigation

Prototypes constructed in ICA- Agricultural Engi-
neering laboratories.

b. Projects underway in 1969 and continuing in 1970

1. Processing Research

a. Fique processing, UN-Medellin

b. Grain aeration and storage

c. Grain drier design**, portable types (2)

d. Bean thresher**

e. Cotton drier**

2. Machinery Research

a. Potato planter**

b. Automatic feed grinder-mixer**

c. Corn planter improvement, (Apolo)

d. Crop sprayer, self propelled 10-row**

e. Tillage studies

f. Bedder type corn planter**

g. Yucca harvester**

h. Transaxle design for 12 hp tractors in cooperation
with Casa Inglesa and Peldar

i. Transaxle design for 18-24 hp tractors in toopera-
tion with Casa Inglesa and Peldar, and with the
Mechanical Engineering Department of the National
University

3. Soil and Water Research
(Nebraska input is one-half man year at the ICA-Pal-
mira Station)

a. Furrow irrigation studies

b. Infiltration studies










4. Structures Research

a. Fence quality and fencing methods

b. Construction of semi rigid frames with native
lumber**

c. Buildings for dairy farms**

d. Poultry housing studies

e. Water supply**

** Prototypes being constructed in the ICA Agricultural
Engineering laboratories.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objective

The general objective in extension is to develop a-viable
engineering extension service as rapidly as manpower and
time will permit. With the present lack of experienced
senior staff the major emphasis has had to be in the areas
of graduate teaching and research. However, significant
progress has been made in the extension area. This is due
to the smooth working organization that we have developed in
the department, and to the excellent cooperation of the
entire staff and technicians.

Specific attainments are as follows:

1. "Servicio Nacional de Planos" Under the excellent
coordination of one of the senior Colombian staff, this
service has become highly popular with Colombian farmers.
During 1969 a total of 16 structures and items of
livestock equipment have been designed by the senior
Colombian and Nebraskan staff members, detailed working
drawings have been prepared by the "tecnicos", and have
been released to farmers. The major means of dissemi-
nation has been at short courses, by extension agents,
and through the newspaper "El Campesino".

2. "Servicio Nacional de Ayudas T4cnicas" Through this ser-
vice, which this department initiated, approximately 24
technical aids have been prepared by both Colombian and
Nebraskan engineers, and have been made available to
farmers, extension agents, students, and other interested
people. This popular method of dissemination of short
technical aids has now been adopted by all other depart-
ments in ICA.










3. Short Courses This method of distribution of informa-
tion was initiated by one of the Nebraska engineers
through the invitation of the Nebraska extension animal
scientists to participate in a series of livestock short
courses. Later the Colombian staff began to participate
in a very effective manner. We participated in a total
of six short courses of various types.

4. Technical Conferences Colombian and Nebraska staff
participated in several technical conferences sponsored
by ICA, SENA, INCORA, Arroceros, and Caja Agraria.

5.-Field Days The department held a very successful "Dia
del Campo" in February at which more than 600 people
were in attendance.

6. Fairs Departmental exhibits in structures, machinery,
and processing equipment were made at four state (depart-
mental) fairs. A first prize in agricultural machinery
exhibits was obtained at the Girardot Fair.

7. Newspapers, TV, Video-Tape, etc. Newspapers have been
used an average of once-a-week for the publication of
information. Television has been used twice, and special
Video-Tape shows have been used six times with such
audiences as INCORA administrators, industrial managers,
and other special groups.

8. Industrial Extension Activities of a combination
extension development nature have been conducted with
such agricultural machinery companies as Ricambro, Apolo,
Casa Inglesa, Riegos Tecnicos, Peldar, Ingersol, Talleres
Occidente, and others. These activities have been to
promote the commercial manufacturing of needed agricultur-
al machinery, most of which was designed and prototypes
constructed by the agricultural engineering department.

9. Special Consulting Several special consulting activi-
ties have been engaged in with such entities as PINA,
INCORA, IDEMA, CAJA AGRARIA, Cresemillas, Planeaci6n
Nacional, Ministerio de Agricultura, SENA, Planeaci6n
Fisica del ICA, Peace Corps, and CIAT.

10. Work with'innovators In the dairy and poultry indus-
tries, and to a lesser extent in beef and swine, systems
of management with the necessary equipment were discussed
with private farmers. These discussions are designed to
spread good management practice through example, to
arouse interest, to promote requests for group meetings,
and to establish a reputation of competency. As a
result we are beginning to receive requests for
extension type meetings.










11. Mission engineers at Medellin have authored or coauthored
six extension publications, and have made several contri-
butions to the plan service. Four other publications are
also being prepared.

1.5 Staff Development

1.5.1 Degree Fellowships

A. Fellowships abroad
Only three fellowships to the U.S. were granted during
1969. They are as follows:

Sponsoring Expected Study
Name Institution Degree Institution Specialty

Carlos Rodriguez ICA-Bog. M.S. Illinois Irr.&Drainage

Jose Chaparro U.Nal.-Med. M.S. Iowa State Machinery

Reynaldo Bernal U.Nal.-Bog. M.S. N.Carolina S. Irr.&Drainage

As agricultural engineering is a new career in Colombia,
there is a shortage of candidates with sufficient
aptitude in English. In addition, one of our objectives
is to maintain a balance of staff trained (at the M.S.
level) abroad and in the UN-ICA Program.

B. Fellowships to UN-ICA Graduate Program

A total of 12 fellowships and assistantships in agricul-
tural engineering were granted (from sources outside the
Nebraska Mission).

1.5.2 Short Term Fellowships

Jorge Quintero, Director of the ICA Agricultural Engineering
Department was granted a 30 day fellowship to visit several
agricultural engineering departments in the States.

One of the ICA Agricultural Engineering Extension personnel
at Medellfn, Hernando Lemos, was granted a six-week extension
fellowship to the New Mexico State University Extension Short
Course.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA and the National University

a. Inputs to ICA

As the agricultural engineering teaching-research-exten-
sion program in ICA is a new Program, and as the Colombian










staff had no experience in teaching or organizing agri-
cultural engineering programs, the Nebraska engineers
have played a significant role in organizational and
administrative activities. Two of the Nebraska
engineers serve as Directors of the Prograrmsof Machinery
and Processing respectively. The smooth working rela-
tionship of Colombians and Nebraskans in this department
has been the subject of considerable acclaim on the part
of both Colombian and North American administrators.

b. Inputs to UN

1. Medellin The two Nebraska engineers serve as leaders
of the teaching sections in structures and machinery.
Both have participated in curriculum development
activities.

2. UN Universidad del Valle program All of the
Nebraska engineers have served as advisors, along
with other ICA and UN engineers, in the development
of the curriculum.for this joint effort.

1.6.2 Coordination with short-term consultants

Nebraska personnel coordinated the activities of three
short term consultants during the year. They were:

1. Dr. William Splinter, Chairman of the Department of
Agricultural Engineering at the University of Nebraska,
who spent approximately one week with us in February
and a second week in November. Dr.Splinter is to be
commended for the excellent leadership and support that
he has given the program.

2. Mr. Paul Fischbach, Extension Irrigation Specialist in
the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the
University of Nebraska. Mr. Fischbach was in Colombia
for three' weeks during November, serving as a consultant
on various aspects of water use.

3. Mr. Robert Gilden of the Federal Extension Service,
United States Department of Agriculture, who spent three
weeks here in August. Mr. Gilden's primary concern was
with the development of our plans service, and its
coordination with the plans service of the U.S.D.A. A
position of leadership in extension agricultural engi..
neering is envisioned for Colombia through a cooperative
effort of: the Federal Extension Service, U.S.D.A.; plans
services of other countries, especially those in Latin
America; R.T.A.C. in Mexico City; and the staff of the
Department of Agricultural Engineering at ICA.
















AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


1. General Objectives

The following are the objectives for 1969. These were originally
agreed upon by ICA and the Nebraska Mission and supported by the
Kellogg Foundation.

a. To up-grade the competence of the personnel of various organiza-
tions now conducting extension type activities through short
courses and off-campus training programs.

b. To encourage maximum use of available scholarships by qualified
Colombians for advancing their education and experience under the
best qualified graduate programs available in MASUA and other
universities in the United States.

c. To assist in the initiation or support of certain extension
programs and projects as appear to be most urgently needed.

d. To establish an under-graduate curriculum designed to incorporate
elements of rural sociology, communications, and extension educa-
tion skills into the general Agricultural Program.

e. To participate in curriculum building through teaching and the
development of teaching materials which can be useful under
Colombian conditions for Colombian students. To develop those
graduate programs at the Master of Science level which seem
feasible.

f. To provide continuous in-service training and field experience in
both Extension and Agricultural Information Center activities.

g. To conduct research in Communications and Extension methods in
collaboration with other subject matter departments.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching General Objective

To assist in the establishment and coordination of a program
involving agricultural extension, teaching and research at the
three units of National University.

1.1.1 Bogoti

A course outline in agricultural communications was prepared.
Assistance was given in the development of teaching syllabi
and course outlines.for extension and extension related subjects.










1.1.2 Medellin

Dr. Marlyn Low assisted the staff at National University
in Medellin in the planning, organizing, and teaching of
three courses: Introduction to Extension, Extension
Education, and Agricultural Communications. In addition,
assistance was given in coordinating activities with
students studying General and Rural Sociology.

The Extension Department also had as its responsibility
the training of Faculty personnel in communications. In
this regard, the Extension Department was responsible for
the preparation of audio-visual material for faculty members,
and preparation of publications for agricultural extension.

The Social Science Depprtment has been in touch with the
Extension staff since the departure of Dr. Low. Our
present role is to continue assisting the staff in up-
grading course content and coordinating research projects
in extension between the University and ICA. It should be
noted that Dr. Low made a significant contribution in organi-
zing the Extension Department, in training of Departmental
staff, in organization and teaching of course material,Cand
in the preparation of audio-visual materials.

1.1.3 Palmira

National University at Palmira currently offers courses in
Extension Education and Rural Sociology. Dr. Morales was
assigned to work as Dr. Stoller's counterpart in developing
extension courses; however, very little was accomplished
because Dr. Morales did not become directly involved in any
teaching activities. Apparently it was also the feeling of
the university staff that U.S. extension philosophy and
methods had little application to the Colombian situation.
This, no doubt, acted as a barrier in limiting the partici-
pation and involvement of the Nebraska staff member. Dr.
Stolder prepared and published four bulletins which are
being used in the Extension Education class taught by Dr.
Iglesias.

1.1.4 United Nations Medium Level Educational Project

The Social Science Department assisted ICA and the United
Nations in the development of an extension education
curriculum for four technical schools. The graduates of
these schools receive the title of Practico Agricola. The
Extension Education program of the Department assisted in
training staff of the institutes in extension and communi-
cation skills.








1.2 Graduate Teaching

1.2.1 General Objectives

To institute, with Colombian participation, a Master's Degree
program in the Social Science area at the UN-ICA Graduate
School;

a. To help provide the flow of extension workers, specialists,
teachers, and administrators required by ICA and other
agencies;

b. Through research carried out by graduate students to
help identify and establish the most effective methods
of extension education and communication leading toward
the adoption of new technology and means by which to
solve pressing social problems in rural areas.

Such objectives, if achieved, would by association with ICA
do much to enhance extension work as a career and as a major
specialization for Ingenieros Agronomos.

1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses Initiated

During 1969 no courses were offered at the graduate level.
However, basic course outlines were developed for three
courses all of which will be taught in 1970. These are:
agricultural communications, extension education (special
course for several animal science students), and rural
sociology. The general curriculum for the Master's program
in the Social Science area is currently under study by a
joint group of ICA and Nebraska personnel. The final
proposal and program leading to the M. S. degree will be
presented to ICA in early 1970.

1.2.3 Thesis goals

No thesis goals have yet been set for graduate students.
However, research projects will relate directly to the
needs of the Colombian Extension Service.

1.3 Research

Until mid-1969 no research was in process due to the lack of
personnel, both Colombian and ICA-Nebraska Mission. However,
under the leadership of Dr. Flowerday a five-year plan of proposed
research projects for the areas of Extension Education, Rural
Sociology, and Mass Communications was developed by the Social
Science Department.

1.3.1 General Objectives

1. Extension Education Research projects carried out in
Extension Education are to begin with a modest research








program, testing hypotheses, and relating all research
to Colombian extension needs.

2. Mass Communications To evaluate the past work of ICA
in the area of communications in an effort to provide
guidance for more effective use and efficiency in
communications for the future.

3. Rural Sociology To'carry out coordinated research in
the field of Rural Sociology as related to Colombian
extension needs.

1.3.2 Specific Projects

a. Completed during the year

1. Extension Education

a. Evaluation of a field day conducted for poultry
producers.

b. Evaluation of a short course held for professors
of four technical institutes.

c. Evaluation of short courses held for beef producers
in Ibagu6 and Monteria.

d. Evaluation of field days held in Medellin and Suesca.

e. Evaluation of a short course concerning supervised
credit for INCORA.

2. Mass Communications

a. Analysis of the content of all ICA publications in
connection with the plans of the Ministry of Agricul-
ture.

b. Comprehension analysis of educational movies presen-
ted by ICA at the farmer level.

3. Rural Sociology

a. Socio-Economic study of the farm clientele of ICA
in regions 4 and 5.

b. To be continued in 1970

1. Extension Education

a. Survey of Extension Education Curriculum in Co-
lombian Universities.







































Dr. Whittenbarger advises Miriam HernAndez on the Socio-Economics Study.

b. Survey of Extension Education courses offered by
Colombian agricultural agencies

2. Mass Communications

a. Text comprehension of ICA publications for exten-
sion agents and farmers.

b. Analysis of comprehension of the illustrations of
ICA publications for extension agents and farmers.

c. Communications channels used by ICA consultants
to obtain agricultural information.

3. Rural Sociology

a. Evaluation of ICA field days.

b. Study of Colombian rural groups.

c. The diffusion of innovations among Colombian
farmers.

d. Attitudes of farmers toward changing crops or
other economic activities.


~I~Liil~~~~










c. To be initiated in 1970

1. Extension Education

a. Evaluation of ICA Field Days and Short Courses.

b. Survey of opinions and attitudes of ICA extension
agents concerning relationships with other agricul-
tural agencies.

c. Evaluation of the competency of field extension
staff.

2. Mass Communications

a. Communications channels used by ICA clientele to
obtain agricultural information.

b. Communications channels used by rural leaders to
obtain agricultural information.

c. Problems which extension agents encounter in the
transmission of agricultural information to ICA
clientele.

d. Special language used by farmers and cattle producers
to communicate social and agricultural events.

e. Effectiveness of communications media in influen-
cing the adoption of agricultural practices.

3. Rural Sociology

a. The role of extension workers as change agents.

b. The various types and functions of rural leadership
and the role it plays in rural development.

c. Client participation methods in Extension.

d. An exploratory study of potential ICA clientele.

1.4 Extension

1.4.1 General Objectives

1. Extension Education The overall objective is to assist
the various field and research programs of ICA in organ-
izing effective and viable extension programs directed
toward agricultural professionals and their clientele.
Through in-service training programs and direct contact
with ICA field staff, to develop extension programs more
effectively related to the needs of Colombian farmers.























































Dr. Tom Trail, Director of the Social Science Department, is working in
the area of Extension Education until a permanent staff member can be
secured for this position.

2. Mass Communications

a. To assist the Agricultural Information Office in
organizing and carrying out basic programs in
communications.

b. To assist the Agricultural Information Office in the
establishment of regional communications centers in
each of the ICA regions in order to more effectively
coordinate all aspects of communication and to better
serve the needs of the ICA field staff.

3. Rural Sociology

To disseminate sociological knowledge and to encourage
(and aid in) its application (a) to the everyday problems











encountered by ICA extension workers as promoters of
agricultural modernization; and, (b) in whatever aspects
or elements of ICA's extension programs for which such
knowledge is applicable.

1.4.2 Specific Projects, including Methods of Diffusion

a. Completed during the year

1. Extension Education

a. In-service training and short courses A total of
18 short courses were conducted during the year.
Two-hundred and fifty extension agents and other
agricultural professionals from ICA, INCORA and
other agricultural agencies participated in these
training courses. These short courses covered
subject material in the Extension Education and
Communications field.

b. Evaluation of Beef Production short courses The
program assisted Ivan Rush in making an evaluation
of four beef cattle short courses.

c. Organization of a Veterinary Medicine Extension
Committee of ICA and National University staff.
The first project of this committee is the publica-
tion of a professional newsletter directed toward
1,000 veterinarians in Colombia.

d. Field Days The extension education program or-
ganized seven field days. Dr. Stoller assisted in
the organization and execution of a field day on
Opaque-2 corn in Palmira. Dr. Low provided guidan-
ce in the organization of the annual Agricultural
Engineering Field Day in Medellin.

2. Communications

a. Publications In spite of the many problems encoun-
tered during the year some 600,000 copies of techni-
cal publications came off the ICA press. Much of
the increase can be credited to Dr. J. J. Feight in
his work in the training of personnel and the reor-
ganization of the print shop. Hernan P6rez assumed
duties as Director of the Agricultural Information
Office in September, and has given it much needed
leadership.

The print shop is still not able to keep pace with
the needs of ICA. Much of the problem is due to
poor efficiency caused by inadequate space and
inexperienced personnel, but is also due to a heavy
work load and equipment deficiencies.
I-










Dr. Low assisted in the reorganization of the ICA
print shop in Medellin. A total of 16,000 copies
of various publications came off the press. Dr.
Tenney is making monthly visits to Medellin as a
follow-up to the work of Dr. Low.

b. Photography A new photographer was hired and
trained. New equipment and facilities have been
purchased and built. The situation has improved;
however, there is still much to be done in establish-
ing work priorities, production schedules, and
closer coordination with press and production
schedules.

c. Radio A total of some 350 radio programs were
broadcast over Radio Nacional and Radio Sutaten-
za. A shift in emphasis toward the greater use of
local radio stations was begun in late 1969. Dr.
Tenney, Hernan Perez, and Gabriel Robayo are
currently designing a new radio studio. Dr. Low
was successful in Medellin in initiating a series
of three 5-minute radio programs a week over local
stations.

d. Press Although no exact figures are available, it
is evident that major improvements have been made
in distributing press releases through national and
local papers. Improvement in the quality of the
releases is also apparent. In MedellIn at least
one newspaper article a week appeared in local
papers.

e. Visual Aids There is an ever increasing demand
for visual aid equipment and the preparation of
audio-visual aids for teaching purposes. An effort
should be made to organize educational programs to
train ICA researchers and specialists in the care
and use of equipment.

f. Communications Training Courses Dr. Stoller or-
ganized and taught, to extension agents in Palmira,
a short course on the use of the 35 mm. camera. He
also organized a short course in communications for
a group of agricultural teachers.

'g. Organization of the Communication Center A week-
long conference, involving personnel from Mass
Communications, the Agricultural Information Office,
and printing services was held regarding the future
of ICA's communications program. The conference
was specifically concerned with analyzing and
defining: (1) a communications policy for ICA, (2)
the programming of personnel, and (3) the 1970 budget.










Plans were made for the regional communications
centers and some equipment was transferred to them.

h. Inventory of Equipment A complete physical inven-
tory was made of all equipment listed on previous
inventories. It is now quite obvious that previous
inventories had been done on paper. Much of the
information was proven inaccurate when the equip-
ment was physically checked.

Procedures were begun to turnover to ICA nearly
all of the communications equipment with the
exception of the TV equipment and that audio-
visual equipment which is used on a short term
sign-out and sign-in basis.

Ignacio Martinez was placed in charge of audio-
visual equipment at Tibaitata with the respon-
sibility of loaning, maintainingand repairing the
equipment. At the same time this equipment was
moved from the print shop to a special temporary
office in the main administration building.
Specific plans have been approved to include a
special equipment storage area and an audio-vistal
office in conjunction with the planned radio studio
construction.

3. Rural Sociology

a. The results of the first stage of the Socio-Economic
study of ICA's eight regions are to be formulated
in terms of, and related to, the problems of the
regions in which they were done. The results of
the study in Region 4 have now been completed and
made available for extension field staff use.

b. To be continued in 1970

1. Extension Education

a. In-service training programs for all extension
professionals. Material will cover training in
the areas of communications, extension and rural
sociology.

b. Organization and evaluation of subject matter or
technical short courses.

c. The Extension Education program will continue to
assist the Veterinary Medicine Extension Committee
in developing new ideas and opportunities for
extending priority information in this field to
ICAclientele.











d. The organization of field days was an important
project in 1969 and will expand in 1970.

e. Training of extension agents in New Mexico This
is one of the most important training programs
available for improving the skills of selected
Colombian extension agents. We hope to send three
groups of from 5-6 agents to New Mexico during
1970.

2. Communications

a. Publications Efforts will be made to improve the
efficiency of the print shop. Dr. Tenney is making
strenuous efforts to assist in the integration of
the communications program and to assure that the
goal of over 1,000,000 technical publications will
be printed and distributed in 1970. Efforts are
being made to secure missing parts for some new
equipment such as the photo-direct plate making
camera. Also some equipment is being ordered to
improve the bindery operation.

b. Photography Attempts will be made to establish
work priorities, production schedules, and closer
coordination with press and production schedules.

c. Radio Plans for 1970 call for the utilization of
a short term consultant to train personnel at Ti-
baitat& and in the regional communications centers
in up-grading their skills in this area. A goal
of 700 radio programs has been set for 1970.

d. Press Increased emphasis will be placed in getting
out press releases to both national and local papers.

e. Inventory of Equipment The majority of this
equipment will be officially turned over to ICA so
that they may begin to accept the responsibility
for its operation, care, and repair.

3. Rural Sociology

a. The Program will be in charge of evaluating various
short courses and.training programs conducted by
the Social Science Department and in cooperation
with other departments.

b. The results of the Socio-Economic study of the eight
ICA regions will be finished, and this should serve
as a base to identify certain means by which to
more effectively work with ICA clientele.










c. Representatives of the Program will continue contacts
with the Agricultural Engineering Department, the
Beef Cattle Program, and the Peace Corps, to deter-
mine how and whencooperative efforts might contribute
to more efficient and effective ICA extension pro-
grams.

c. To be initiated in 1970

1. Extension Education

a. Establishment of an in-service training policy for
ICA field staff. One of the basic problems confron-
ting ICA is that there is no policy concerning in-
service training for extension agents. Dr. Herngn
Chaverra as well as other ICA personnel are concer-
ned about this problem and they have asked the
Social Science Department to assist in defining
policy and in setting up a series of training
courses for all ICA field personnel in 1970. The
plan of the Department is to develop an In-Service
Training Manual which will be used as a basis for
training of all staff.

b. In-Service training for subject matter specialists -
The goal of the Extension Education program is to
provide in-service training in the areas of mass
communications, extension methodology and rural
sociology as required by the corps of extension
specialists of ICA.

c. Publication of a monthly extension education news-
letter to all extension agents.

d. Extension Education Specialist for the Department
of Social Sciences. In an effort to improve con-
tacts with local field agents we hope to obtain
the services of a full-time Nebraska Mission
professional in the area of Extension Education.
This is one of the Kellogg positions. This man
must be able to communicate in Spanish and prefer-
ably have had experience in Latin America. He
would probably be assigned to work with Dr. Luis
Valbuena and several of the National Extension
Service Supervisors. His primary duties would be
training of local agents in the areas of program
development, execution, and evaluation. A detailed
job description has been written. For maximum
impact he should concentrate his work with five to
ten carefully selected agencies. He would also
provide the Social Science Department with
valuable feed-back information upon which training
needs of ICA extension agents could be more
realistically assessed.












e. Organize short-term training field trip for three
ICA extension administrators to visit Extension
Services in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The
Extension Services in these three Latin American
countries have developed excellent integration of
research and extension functions. They have good
specialist staffs. Such a trip would be valuable
in showing key ICA leaders how several Latin Ameri-
can countries have successfully developed the in-
tegrated research extension function with the
specialist playing a key role in the process.

2. Communications

a. Installation of new video tape equipment in Bogota,
Palmira, and Medellin.


Dr. Richard Tenney discusses with Ignacio Martinez the care and mainte-
nance of the video tape equipment.


b. Organization of training courses in use, care, and
maintenance of video tape equipment for both ICA
and Nebraska personnel.











c. Exchange of video tapes treating specific subject
matter material in the U.S. for use in classroom,
laboratory, and extension use.

d. Major emphasis will also be placed on securing
filming equipment and a vehicle so that it will be
possible to produce four 15-minute educational
films in black and white.

e. The mass communications program, in cooperation with
the Agricultural Information Office, will begin to
investigate the possibilities of TV programming in
order to meet the needs of ICA in transmitting agri-
cultural information via this media.

f. Publications, including bulletins, pamphlets, and
single page notices, will be produced on the
following levels: (1) graphicmessages of photos
and/or drawings with a brief text at an elementary
level; (2) extensive text complementing graphics
for a more advanced level. The publications will
be designed to complement the personal contact of
the change agents.

g. The final organization of a National Center of
Communications and finalizing the establishment of
centers in each of the ICA regions will more
efficiently coordinate all aspects of communications
to service the needs of the extension agent.

h. Organization and execution of training courses for
ICA researchers and specialists in the care and
use of audio-visual equipment.

i. Formation of a Departmental Editorial Committee -
Dr. Tenney is organizing an editorial committee for
the department. Preparation was begun for the pub-
licati6n. of departmental reports and research
results. This will include an editorial procedure,
format, cover, and numbering system. At the same
time similar preparations will be started for a
series of regular information circulars of from
one to four pages in cooperation with the Agricul-
tural Information office. These circulars will be
prepared for:use by change agents for short courses
and for formal classes.

j. Preparation will be started on instructional sheets
for the major audio-visual items. These sheets
will be used for short courses, and will accompany
each audio-visual item when it is signed out.










3. Rural Sociology

a. Already planned are such activities as aiding in
the organization and evaluation of the 1970 Agri-
cultural Engineering "Field Day", continued efforts
to improve the short course evaluation form used
by the Beef Cattle Program, and the useof a part
of these evaluation forms as a very short ques-
tionnaire to gather information on the extent and
kind of extension contact provided among those who
attend the Beef Cattle short courses.

1.5 Staff Development

The true measure of success of any technical assistance program
is the number of trained people who will continue the operation,
improvement and advancement of the programs initiated. The W. K.
Kellogg Foundation has provided a total of 30 man years of fellow-
ship study to be utilized during the period of the second grant.

Eleven students received Kellogg Foundation fellowships in 1969
and are presently studying in the U.S. Their names, the area of
specialization, the anticipated degree and the university are
shown in this report in part 1.5.1.

There are approximately 25 candidates for the Kellogg Fellowships
to be awarded in 1970. All of these candidates are currently
studying English or have already shown an acceptable degree of
proficiency.

Upon the completion of advanced degrees projected, ICA will have
four staff members with advanced degrees in communications, four
in extension education, but only one in sociology. Future
programming of fellowship awards should consider giving priority
to candidates in rural sociology in order to achieve balance in
the three programs. With the establishment of eight regional
communications centers increased emphasis must also be placed on
training more professionals in the communications area.

The majority of the current and projected fellowships for students
of other agencies is in the area of agricultural extension. Na-
tional University is developing its capacity to offer courses in
extension education and communications. Courses in rural sociology
will be offered upon the return of the two professionals now
working toward their advanced degrees in rural sociology in the
U.S.

The projections for fellowships beyond 1969 have been designed
with the goal of developing the capacity of the ICA graduate
school to a level where an M.S. degree in the Social Science field
can be offered. A minimum of three Doctorates would be necessary
in each of the three fields to provide a broad base for a Master's
level graduate program.











The emphasis given to the development of ICA's own training
programs is not intended to imply that additional assistance for
some years in the future is not needed. Nor is it intended to
diminish the importance of research, undergraduate teaching, and
extension activities in these areas. It is intended to show that
a forward looking, integrated program of graduate fellowship
awards has been developed to provide the final goal of graduate
competence within ICA to award Master's degrees in the three fields
of communications, extension and rural sociology.

1.5.1 Fellowship Departures and Returns

The only Kellogg fellowship grantee to return during 1969
was Hernan Perez, who is now Director of the Agricultural
Information Office.

The following Kellogg grantees departed during 1969:


Sponsoring
Name Institution

Enrique Andrade U.Nal.Bog.


Luis E.Chaves


David Cuellar


Jafeth Garcia


ICA Palmira


U.Nal.Bog.


Fedecaf6


Luis J. Jaramillo U.Nal.Bog.


Orlando Lugo


Gabriel Ojeda


Joaquin E.Quir6z


Ernesto Rinc6n


ICA Bog.


ICA Bog.


ICA Bog.


ICA Bog.


Luis Hern&n Rinc6n ICA Bog.


Fabio Zapata


U.Nal.
Medellin


Expected
Degree


Field


Ph.D. Sociology

M.S. Ext.Educa-
tion

M.S. Communica-
tions

M.S. Ext.Educa-
tion

M.S. Communica-
tions

M.S. Communica-
tions

M.S. Communica-
tions


Study Date of
Institution Departure


N.Carolina S.


Cornell


Wisconsin


Cornell


Michigan
State

Iowa State


Missouri


M.S. Ext.& Com- Michigan
munications State

M.S. Agricultural Colorado
Extension State


M.S. Communica-
tions


Iowa State


Ph.D. Ext. Adminis- Louisiana
tration State


Aug.

Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Aug.


Total: 11










1.5.2 Short Term Fellowships

1. New Mexico Program One of the basic problems of ICA
extension specialists and supervisors is lack of exten-
sion experience and training. Training for both super-
visors and specialists needs to include the specific
areas of program planning, execution and evaluation.
More specifically, training needs to be given in the
techniques and methods used in the selection of projects,
development of action programs or campaigns, and the
planning necessary for the successful execution of such
programs.

In recognition of this need, two groups of Colombian
extension workers were sent to New Mexico in 1969 to
participate in an intensive six-weeks training course.
The groups included subject matter specialists in ani-
mal science (5), agronomy (4), and agricultural engi-
neering (1). Dr. Jacob Tejada of the New Mexico Exten-
sion Service was in charge of the training program.

A preliminary evaluation of the training course by
members of the Social Science Department revealed great
enthusiasm among the participants in regard to the
training. The reaction among the ICA leadership has
also been positive. The value of such training per-
mits the participant to apply his training to the job
situation immediately after he returns to Colombia. We
hope to send three more groups to New Mexico in 1970.

1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities

1.6.1 Inputs to ICA or the National University

1. Extension Service A series of meetings with ICA ad-
ministrative personnel regarding Extension culminated
in a redefinition of Nebraska personnel inputs. It was
agreed that the following Kellogg Foundation supported
personnel could best serve ICA's present Extension and
extension related needs:

a. A Training Specialist in Extension.

b. A Radio and Television specialist.

c. A specialist in printing and photoengraving.

After discussions with Dr. Russell Mawby, vice-President
of the Kellogg Foundation, and Dr. John Adams, Director
of Agricultural Extension at the University of Nebraska,
it was decided that positions (2) and (3) should be
combined. This new position was to be filled by a
communications specialist who could assist in all areas










of information dissemination. Dr. Richard Tenney was
named to this post in July 1969.

The AID supported positions were redefined to provide
the following assistance:

a. Director of the Department of Social Science Dr.
Tom Trail assumed this position in September.

b. Subject Matter Specialist in Animal Science Dr.
Ivan Rush occupies this position.

c. Rural Sociologist Dr. Robert Whittenbarger assumed
this position in September.

d. Home Economics Extension Specialist Dr. Jean Audrey
Wight started working in this area in December.

This reallocation of manpower terminates the two exten-
sion positions at Palmira and Medellin. In both lo-
cations, considerable progress has been made inthe
development of auxiliary communications centers and in
assisting National University in the organization of
course outlines in Extension courses. It has been
difficult for the personnel in these positions to offer
concrete assistance in the areas of extension supervision,
program planning and evaluation.

2. Social Science Department The Department of Social
Science was restructured from the Department of Infor-
mation and Development in early 1969. It consists of
three specific programs: mass communications, rural
sociology and extension education.

Program leaders have been named for each area: Dr. Vi-
cente Alba, Communications; Dr. Manuel Narvaez, Extension
Education; and, Dr. Gilberto Vejarano, Rural Sociology.
Nebraska Mission staff providing leadership and direction
are: Rural Sociology, Dr. Robert Whittenbarger; Mass
Communications, Dr. Richard Tenney; and Extension
Education, Dr. Tom Trail.

3. Coordinating Committee for Extension This committee was
formed to coordinate research projects and training
programs between the Social Science Department and ICA's
field extension service. The committee is composed of
the Director of the Extension Service, Dr. Luis Valbue-
na; the Director of the Department of Social Science,
Dr. Tom Trail; and the two'National Extension Supervisors,
David Remolina and Ricardo bjeda. The Director of the
Division of Extension, Dr. Hernan Chaverra, and the
Director of the Division of Technical Orientation, Dr.
Esteban Rico, are also members of the Committee. Dr.
Valbuena is Chairman.











4. Extension Trends and Policies There are a number of
trends within the Extension Service which are of interest
to the Nebraska Mission. These are:

a. The executive or action level of the activities of the
Extension Service is the regional level. The person-
nel of the Extension Service at the national level,
and their respective staffs are all advisors and
helpers for the Regional Managers and the regional
extension staff in the execution and conduct of field
programs.

b. All extension programs will have a definite time and
budget limitation for the organization, conduct and
evaluation of the specific program.

c. Extension programs of an agricultural nature will be
directed primarily to the medium-level farmer or the
person who has the potential capacity to support a
family above the submarginal level. Programs of
rural youth, home economics, organizations of campe-
sinos, and family planning will be made available to
all levels of Colombian society.

d. Extension agencies will be (physically) rotated every
three to five years.

5. Center of Communications The restructuration of ICA has
divided the former Center of Communications into three
separate units under three different administrators. This
restructuring concept has led to a great deal of trouble
in coordinating work schedules and getting publications
out on time. HernAn Perez, as head of the Agricultural
Information Office, is trying to pull together the
various professionals and parts of the communications
operation into a cohesive and more efficient team. Dr.
Tenney is assisting in this effort to build an esprit
de corps among the staff and a national center of
communications with regional centers taking shape accord-
ing to regional needs and the resources available.

1.6.2 Coordination with short term consultants

1. Dr. Flowerday assisted Dr. Virginia Trotter, Dean of the
University of Nebraska College of Home Economics in
evaluating the possibilities of adding Home Economics to
the list of Nebraska Mission programs. Dr. Trotter, Dr.
Doretta Hoffman, Dean of the College of Home Economics,
Kansas State University, and Dr. Anita Dickson, Director
of Home Economics Extension, Purdue University, composed
a study group which spent two weeks in Colombia during
June. The group studied the present status of the
profession of Home Economics in Colombia, potential job











opportunities for graduates in Home Economics, and the
scope and nature of extension programs in Home Economics.
The first step toward implementation of the study
committee's recommendations took place with the assign-
ment of Dr. Jean Audrey Wight in December 1969.

2. The Nebraska Mission staff assisted Mr. Robert Ruyle in
conducting a one-week short course in the use and main-
tenance of video tape equipment.

3. Dr. Flowerday spent five days with Dr. Jacob Tejada,
Extension Training Specialist, from New Mexico State
University. The purpose of the visit was to discuss
with ICA and Nebraska staff the proposed short term
training program for ICA extension personnel in New
Mexico.

4. Dr. Russell Mawby of the Kellogg Foundation was assisted
by the staff in the selection of candidates for graduate
study in the U. S.

5. Dr. John Adams, Director of Agricultural Extension at the
University of Nebraska, spent one week with us in February.
Dr. Adams' trip was deliberately scheduled to coincide
with the visit by Dr. Mawby, so that concentrated atten-
tion could be given to the entire extension program. The
Adams report, prepared as a result of this visit, provided
guidance for the program throughout the entire year.

















AGRONOMY


1. General State of the Program at the End.-of 1969

The Agronomy program suffered considerable dislocation during 1969
because of personnel changes. Both Dr. Frank Davis and Dr. Carl
Jorgensen departed in August after two year tours of duty. Dr. Tom
Fullerton arrived in August to assume the duties of the weed control
position formerly filled by Dr. Jeffery, who had departed in 1968.
Dr. Gary Jolliff arrived in September as the first crop physiologist
to be assigned to Medellin. In October, Dr. George Beinhart arrived
to assume duties formerly assigned to Dr. Davis. The position in
Palmira (formerly occupied by Dr. Jorgensen) remains vacant at the end
of 1969; hopefully, it will be filled sometime in 1970 by a vegetable
crop specialist.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching

It is seldom possible to measure the success of a teacher. By its
nature, classroom teaching defies quantitative ratings but instead
can best be evaluated by the responses of students and colleagues.
If outstanding teachers are few, their rewards are fewer. For this
reason it is particularly noteworthy that Dr. Frank Davis was re-
cognized in 1969 for his performance as a teacher by those with
whom he had worked at the National University. In August Dr. Davis
was awarded the title of Honorary Professor by the Faculty of Agro-
nomy, the first man ever to be so honored. This high honor is elo-
quent testimony to Dr. Davis' personal qualities of hard work and
dedication and to his effective work with students in the classroom.
The entire Nebraska Mission has gained stature as a result of Dr.
Davis' outstanding contributions to the National University.

1.1.1 Bogota

a. Plant Physiology

Dr. Frank Davis coordinated and taught most of the begin-
ning plant physiology course during the first semester
(February June 1969).

The other plant physiology and weed control courses were
taught by Colombian personnel. Dr. Davis continued to
provide technical assistance in subject matter content and
organization, and gave lectures in special areas. He also
advised undergraduate students on thesis problems related
to plant physiology.










Dr. Fullerton provided guidance on subject matter and or-
ganization of the weed control course during the second
semester (August December 1969). He also collaborated
with Mr. Ramiro de la Cruz (who returned to Colombia in
August with an M.S. in Agronomy from Iowa State) in plan-
ning an advanced weed control course for 1971.

Dr. Beinhart's October arrival did not provide him time
to participate in the teaching program.

b. Soils

Dr. Frank advised the teaching staff in subject matter
content, course organization, and procurement of visual
aids, and lectured on selected subjects. He also colla-
borated with Victor Romero in the establishment of an
elective soil fertility course for 1970. Field experi-
ments were established in late 1969 as part of the prac-
tical aspect of the course. Dr. Frank consulted with
undergraduates on thesis problems in soil fertility.

The ICA-Nebraska Mission staff continued to emphasize the
need for increased efficiency in teaching, e.g. by use of
more objective exams, team teaching, and smaller classes.

1.1.2 Palmira

In the first semester, Dr. Jorgensen provided technical as-
sistance to the Colombian personnel who taught the crop phys-
iology courses. He also directed the undergraduate thesis
research of several students.

Dr. Jorgensen collaborated with several Colombian colleagues
in the writing and publication of a Spanish-language text-
book of plant physiology. This book, published in 1969, is
now the basic text for undergraduate courses in the National
University system. A revision of this text was begun in 1969
with a target date of 1971 for publication. Since the new
material is already being used by the teaching staff, the ef-
fects of the revision will be evident even before publication
of the revised text.

1.2 Graduate Teaching

Dr.Davis taught two courses, Advanced Physiology and Plant Nutrition,
in the Graduate School at ICA. In addition, he developed slide
sets for use in graduate as well as undergraduate plant physiology
courses.

During 1969, only a few graduate students were majoring in the
several areas of agronomy. We feel that this reflects a serious
deficiency in the recruiting efforts of the ICA-Nebraska Mission
staff as well as our ICA colleagues. We have, therefore, set as a















































Agronomy students inspect wheat fertilization plots as a part of the
thesis work for their Ingeniero Agr6nomo degree.

goal for 1970 improved recruitment to enlarge and strengthen the
graduate program in soils, plant physiology, and weed control.

1.3 Research

1.3.1 General Objectives

Our general objective is to assist in the development of a
sound program of research centered in ICA but which will
directly benefit National University by involving both fa-
culty and students in certain aspects of ICA research.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives Progress in 1969

a. Dr. Davis continued to work with Dr. Riveros, Director
of the ICA National Program in Plant Physiology, toward
the consolidation and more efficient organization of re-
search. Because he returned to the U.S. in August, Dr.
Davis was concerned with the termination and publication
of previous experiments. The following list of publica-
tions were completed or are nearing completion: