Front Cover
 Title Page
 A message from the University of...
 The University of Nebraska aid...
 Status summary
 University of Nebraska mission...
 Counterpart personnel
 Colombian personnel
 Responsibilities of the University...
 The proposed 1969 staffing...
 The fellowship program
 ICA-Nebraska fellowships
 Of general interest
 Agricultural economics
 Animal science
 Agricultural engineering
 Plant and soil sciences
 Veterinary medicine
 Back Cover


Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053936/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: 3 v. ill. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus) -- Mission in Colombia
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario
Mid-America State Universities Association
Publisher: The Mission
Place of Publication: S.l.
Creation Date: 1968
Publication Date: 1968-1970
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- International cooperation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: The University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Jan. 1, 1968-Dec. 31, 1968-1970.
Issuing Body: In cooperation with: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Universidad Nacional de Colombia and The Mid America State Universities Association.
General Note: Contracting agencies: United States Agency for International Development, The Ford Foundation and the Kellogg Foundation.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03592262
System ID: UF00053936:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Semi-annual report
Succeeded by: Final report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    A message from the University of Nebraska
        Page 1
    The University of Nebraska aid contract program
        Page 2
    Status summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
    University of Nebraska mission in Columbia administrative roster
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Counterpart personnel
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Colombian personnel
        Page 17
    Responsibilities of the University of Nebraska
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    The proposed 1969 staffing pattern
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The fellowship program
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
    ICA-Nebraska fellowships
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Of general interest
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Agricultural economics
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Animal science
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Plant and soil sciences
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Veterinary medicine
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text






JANUARY 1, 1968- DECEMBER 31, 1968


in cooperation with:




The Mid-America State Universities Association Cooperating


For the Period January 1, 1968 to

December 31, 1968

In Cooperation with:


Contracting Agencies:

United States Agency for International Development

The Ford Foundation

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation



This report reflects the activities of the University of Nebraska Mission

in Colombia covering the period from January 1 through December 31, 1968.

This year represents the second full year of performance in Colombia in

cooperation with the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario and the three branches

of the National University.

During the year all but five of the AID positions had been filled for some

period of time. Three staff members completed their tour of duty and returned

to the United States. This report reflects a wide range of activity and we

believe a most worthwhile contribution to the Colombian educational institutions.

It is our hope that this report will assist in providing a better understanding of

this cooperative effort.

The participation and assistance of the Universities of the Mid-America

State Universities Association is gratefully acknowledged.

W.E. Colwell, Dean
International Programs


Clifford M. Hardin, Chancellor

Joseph Soshnik, President, Lincoln Campus

Board of Regents
Term Expires
Richard E. Adkins, Osmond January, 1971
B.N. Greenberg, York January, 1971
Richard L. Herman, Omaha January, 1973
Edward Schwartzkopf, Lincoln January, 1973
J. G. Elliott, Scottsbluff January, 1975
Robert L. Raun, Norman January, 1975



In accordance with the provisions of Contract No. USAID-514-58-T,

we submit herewith the progress report of the University of Nebraska

Mission in Colombia covering the period January 1, 1968 through December

31, 1968.

Entered into Contract

No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6

March 7, 1966

May 10, 1966
July 1, 1966
March 31, 1967
May 26, 1967
February 13, 1968
May, 1968

SCOPE: The contractor agrees to render technical advice and assistance
to Colombia for the purpose of assisting the Instituto Colombiano
Agropecuario (ICA) in carrying out a program of agricultural
development. In rendering of technical advice and assistance
to the cooperating country the contractor will utilize its own
personnel and facilities of member institutions of the Mid-America
State Universities Association.

This program is designed to improve the quality of the educational system
in the agricultural field on the campuses of the National University located at
BogotA, Medellfn, and Palmira, and to help ICA develop as an effective institution
for the integration of agriculture and livestock education, research and extension.

W.E. Colwell, Dean
International Programs
University of Nebraska, Lincoln

E.F. Frolik, Dean
College of Agriculture and Home
University of Nebraska, Lincoln


December 31, 1968

Members on Board, January 1, 1968

23 Aid Financed
3 Kellogg Foundation
6 Ford Foundation

To complete Staffing Plan:

4 AID Financed

Note: Certain positions will be discontinued at the conclusion of the
current tours of duty, ard others will be added.

Fellowship students studying in United States for Advanced Degrees:

AID January 1, 1967 Departure ....... 1
August-September, 1967 Departure. .11
January-February, 1968 Departure.. 3
June, 1968 Departure ............. 4
August-September, 1968 Departure .20

Short Term Fellowships ................ (19) months

Kellogg Foundation .................... 8

Ford Foundation ...................... 6

In addition Ford Foundation is providing family support for 22 families
of students who have fellowships under the AID program.

Reports Issued:

First Report to December 31, 1966
Second Semi-Annual Report, January 1 to June 30, 1967
Program Projection -- 1966 to 1971
Third Semi-Annual Report July 1 to December 1967
First Annual Kellogg Report to December 31, 1966
First Annual Ford Report to June 30, 1967
Second Annual Kellogg Report to December 31, 1967
Supplement to Semi-Annual Report, Individual
Reports of Staff Members, January 1 to June 30, 1967
Supplement Report, Individual Reports of Staff Members
July 1, 1967 to December 31, 1967


Second Annual Ford Report July 1, 1967 to June 30, 1968
Program Projection Revision 1966 1971
Annual Report January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1968 herewith
Supplemental Report, Individual Reports of Staff Members January
1, 1968 to December 31, 1968.



For the Period January 1, 1968 June 30, 1968

Director of International Programs, Lincoln.............. A. C. Breckenridge
Chief of Party and Director, Bogota..................... W.E. Colwell
Assistant to Chief of Party and Assistant Director......... C. R. Elder
Administrative Assistant............................... Gary Whiteley

For Period July 1 December 31, 1968

Director of International Programs:
July 1 July 31 ................................
August1 December 31........................

Chief of Party and Director, Bogota:
July 1 to November 30 .........................
December 1 to December 31.......... .......

A. C. Breckenridge
W.E. Colwell

C.R. Elder
Clayton K. Yeutter

Assistant to Chief of Party and Assistant Director........ Albert D. Flowerday
Administrative Assistant.............................. Gary Whiteley


For Period January 1 to June 30
Agricultural Economics....................... ......... Daniel D. Badger
Agricultural Engineering .............................. W. Wesley Hobbs
Animal Science...................................... Alex G. Warren
Plant Sciences........................................ Frank Davis
Extension.......................................... Dale Flowerday
Veterinary Medicine................................ Harry C. Mussman

For Period July to December 31, 1968
Agricultural Economics..............................
Agricultural Engineering..............................
Animal Science.......................................
Crop Physiology.................. ..................
Extension...................... ......................
Veterinary Medicine.................................

Peter Hildebrand
W. Wesley Hobbs
H. H. Stonaker
Frank Davis
Dale Flowerday
Louis Tritschler

Primary Responsibility: To coordinate the Nebraska efforts of the project
and with personnel of ICA and the National University. It also includes as-
sistance in developing the project program of work, reports and budget re-
quirements. The Project Leader will represent his project group in devel-
oping plans and cooperative programs involving other Mission groups in
providing advice and counsel to the Director and Assistant Director.


Assistant to the Director (Medellfn)...................... Deane M. Manbeck
Assistant to the Director (Palmira)....................... Ronald E. Stoller

Primary Responsibility: To represent the Nebraska Mission in matters of
logistic support at Medellfn and Palmira respectively.

Procedure and Guidelines for Selection and Replacement of Project Leaders
and Assistant to the Director

1. The designations are made by the Chief of Party with approval of Director
of International Programs, Lincoln.

2. Prior to January 1 and to July 1 each year, the list will be reviewed and
brought up to date for the ensuing six months period.

3. To provide over-lapping between project leaders, the general plan will
be to designate the new man well ahead of departure date of the retiring
project leader.

4. Modifications in project groups, (additions, regrouping, or deletions)
will be made from time to time to reflect program changes and personnel
on board.



University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia

Name Position

Date of


William E. Colwell,
Director Jan. 1 to June 30

Aug. 10, 1966

Date Return

June 26, 1968

C.R. Elder
Assistant Director, Head Center for
Agriculture Communications to July
30, Director, July 1 to Nov. 30

Clayton K. Yeutter,
Director, Dec. 1

Ben B. Norman,

Harry C. Mussman

Larry S. Jeffery
Agronomist Weed Control

Loyd K. Fischer (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

J.J. Feight (Kellogg)
Information Training

Norman Teter
Agricultural Engineer

October 3, 1966

Nov. 14, 1968

Aug. 10, 1966

Sept. 2, 1966

Sept. 10, 1966

Dec. 30, 1967

Jan. 9, 1967

Feb. 3, 1967

Theodore Vera
Veterinarian Feb. 20, 1967

Gary Whiteley
Administrative Assistant

Albert D. Flowerday (Kellogg)
Extension Administration
Assistant Director July 1

June 12, 1967

June 19, 1967

Dec. 10, 1968

Nov. 11, 1970

Aug. 9, 1968

Oct. 1, 1969

Aug. 16, 1968

Jan. 23, 1969

June 30, 1969

Feb. 2, 1970

Feb. 19, 1969

June 11, 1969

June 18, 1969


Daniel D. Badger (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

Louis G. Tritschler

Clarence V. Ross
Beef Production- Management

W. Wesley Hobbs
Agricultural Engineer

Max F. Bowser (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

Don F. Bushman
Animal Nutritionist

Frank S. Davis
Crop Physiologist

Christopher 0. Andrew (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

Alex G. Warren
Poultry Production
Extension Training

Ivan Gail Rush
Extension Livestock

Stephen L. Brower
Rural Sociologist

Gerald Feaster (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

Peter Hildebrand (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

Howard Stonaker
Animal Breeding and Production

Keneth D. Frank
Soil Fertility and Management

James L. Driscoll (Ford)
Agricultural Economist

July 1, 1967

July 1, 1967

July 3, 1967

July 18, 1967

July 19, 1967

August 1, 1967

Aug. 4, 1967

Aug. 26, 1967

Sept. 5, 1967

Sept. 18, 1967

Sept. 22, 1967

Feb. 17, 1968

June 1, 1968

June 1, 1968

Sept. 19, 1968

Nov. 25, 1968

June 30, 1969

June 30, 1969

July 2, 1969

July 18, 1969

July 18, 1969

July 30, 1969

Aug. 3, 1969

Aug. 25, 1969

Sept. 4, 1969

Sept. 17, 1969

July 1, 1968

Feb. 16, 1970

May. 31, 1970

May 31, 1970

Sept. 18, 1970

Nov. 24, 1970


Deane M. Manbeck
Agricultural Engineer

Marlyn C. Low

William H. Collins
Agricultural Engineer

Michael Steiner
Agricultural Economics

Gary O. Conley


Ronald E. Stoller

Carl J. Jorgensen
Crop Physiologist

Roger Burdette
Agricultural Economist

Daniel Bullis
Animal Nutritionist

George H. Dunkelberg
Agricultural Engineer

Oct. 24, 1966

July 3, 1967

July 18, 1967

June 13, 1968

Sept. 2, 1968

Sept. 1, 1967

Sept. 8, 1967

Oct. 2, 1967

Oct. 20, 1967

Sept. 9, 1968

June 30, 1970

July 2, 1969

July 17, 1969

June 12, 1970

Sept. 1, 1970

Aug. 31, 1969

Sept. 7, 1969

Oct. 1, 1969

April 10, 1969

Sept. 8, 1970



Agricultural Economics

Juan G. Acosta

Lufs E. Avalos

Ivan Agudelo

Agricultural Economist

Agricultural Economist

Head, Section of Agricultural
Economics and Extension,

Agricultural Economist, National
University, Bogota

Alfredo Carrasco

Eduardo Chac6n

Guillermo Cuellar

Jaime Delgado

Vicente F16rez

Alfonso Forero

Alberto Franco

Agricultural Economist

Professor of Farm Management
National University, Palmira

Agricultural Economist

Agricultural Economist (Extension)

Agricultural Economist

Director Department of
Agricultural Economics,

Agricultural Economist
National University, Medellfn

Agricultural Economist
National University, Medellfn

Agricultural Economist
National University, Palmira

Adriano Garcfa

Humberto GonzAlez

Diego Londoflo

Jorge Lopera

Agricultural Economist

Jorge Pulido

Fabian Ramfrez

Jesfs Marfa Sierra

Arturo Tob6n

Jorge Vargas

Agricultural Engineering

Agricultural Economist

Agricultural Economist, National
University, Medellin

Agricultural Economist (Extension)

Agricultural Economist, National
University, Medellin

Agricultural Economist,

Jorge Quintero

Alvaro Duran

Hernando BuriticA

Director, Agricultural Engineering
Department, ICA-Tibaitata

Director, National Program of
Structures, ICA-TibaitatA

Soil and Water Program,

Power and Machinery Program,

Carlos Rodrfguez

Alvaro Valencia

Victor Porras

Fabio Bustamante

Soil and Water Program,

Processing Program,

Soil and Water Program,

Director of Agricultural Engineering
Department; National University,

Process Engineering; National
University, Medellin

Luis Villa


Luis Ferro

Jose Chaparro

Alberto Alvarez

Gustavo Restrepo

Marco Arellano

Mechanized Agriculture, Machinery
National University, Medellfn

Mechanized Agriculture, Machinery
National University, Medellfn

Mechanized Agriculture, Medellfn
National University, Medellfn

Director of Agricultural Engineering
Department; National University

Animal Science

Daniel Abadfa

Humberto Arango

Fernando Casas

Guillermo Cedeilo

Pedro M. Contreras

Arturo Gil

Fernando G6mez

Luis Jairo G6mez A.

Ernesto Huertas

Camila Arriaga

Veterinarian; National University,

Animal Science; National University,

Professor, Animal Science and
Veterinary Medicine; National
University,' Medellfn

Veterinarian, Extension Animal Science
Specialist; ICA-Palmira

Veterinarian, Beef Cattle Specialist;

Biochemist; National University,

Swine Production; ICA-TibaitatA

Veterinary Medicine, Animal Science;
National University, Medellfn

Animal Science, D. V. M.;

Chemistry; National University,


Alejando Wancier

N6stor Rojas

Ottomario Marfn

Biochemistry; National University,

Animal Science; National University,

Poultry Science; ICA- Tibaitata

Extension Communications

Rodrigo Duarte T.

Ivan Agudelo

H6ctor Alarc6n

Vicente Alba

Luis Eduardo Chaves

Edgar de la Cruz

Gustavo Cock U.

Gabriel Cubillos Z.

Jos6 Marfa C6rdoba

Adel GonzSfez

Mario Iglesias

Nubia Londofio U.

Euripides Mercado

Director, Division of Extension;

Head Department of Agricultural
Economics and Extension; Nat-
ional University, Medellfn

Center of Communications;

Director, Center of Communications;

Extension Coordinator;

Communications Assistant;

Head of Communications

Extension Coordinator;

Photographer; ICA-Palmira

Dean, Faculty of Agronomy; National
University, Palmira

Extension Methods Professor;
National University, Palmira

Communications Assistant;

Assistant Professor Extension;
National University, Medellfn


Miguel Morales

Horacio Ochoa

Luis Eduardo Patiflo

Joaqufn E. Quir6s

Eduardo Ramos

Rafael Rodrfguez

Fabio Zapata

Plant and Social Science

Victor Calder6n

Sail Camacho

Celmira Castafio

Jaime Daza

Carmen Llanos

Mario Lobo

Luis Malaver

Hugo Manzano

Extension Communications; National
University, Palmira

Communications Specialist, Tulio
Ospina, ICA

Director of ICA Station;

Communications Assistant;

Rural Sociologist; ICA-Tibaitata

Photographer; ICA-Tulio Ospina

Extension Assistant Professor;
National University, Medellfn

Head, Sugar Cane; ICA-Palmira

Assistant in Horticulture;

Associate Professor, Physiology;

Associate Professor, Soils;
National University, Bogota

Biological Science; National University

Assistant in Horticulture;
ICA- Sta. Lucfa

Assistant Professor in Physiology;
National University, Palmira

Head, Soils Department;


Omar Marfn

Francisco Ocampo

Alberto Puyo

C6sar Ramfrez

Danilo Rfos

Guillermo Riveros

Victor Romero

Alfredo Saldarriaga

Rafil Salazar

Rodrigo Torres

Veterinary and Medicine

Luis Ariza

Augusto Bonilla

Jorge G6mez

Rafael GonzAlez

HernAn Morales

Assistant in Hosrticulture;

Associate in Physiology, Cacao;

Assistant Physiologist, Cacao;

Assistant Porfessor Soils;
National University, Bogota

Head Program of Horticulture
and Fruit; ICA-Palmira

Head of Physiology; Colombia

Instructor in Soils; National
University, Bogota

Entomologist; ICA, Palmira

Assistant Physiologist, Fruit;

Horticulture and Gruits;

Ambulatory Clinic; National
University, Bogota

Ambulatory Clinic; National
University, Bogota

Ambulatory Clinic; National
University, Bogota

Professor of Public Health;
National University, BogotA

Microbiology; National
University, Bogota


Gustavo Rave

Jairo Rey

Fernando Villafafie

Pedro Villegas

Clinical Pathologist;

Ambulatory Clinic;
National University, Bogota

Pathologist; ICA-LIMV

Microbiology; ICA-LIMV




Bochica Building

Marfa Eugenia Bernate
Ligia Garcia
Emilia Mejfa
Patricia Paez Reyna
Marfa Victoria Latorre

National University

Irma Guerrero
Emma Berryman
Irma Fandiflo



Hernando Raigoso
Hernando Vanegas
Eduardo Corredor
Alfonso Rodrfguez
Carlos Aponte
Efrafn Ramos
Hernan Silva
Pedro Rodrfguez
Manuel Rodrfguez
Jesfs Antonio Rfos


I. C.A.

Luis Alfonso Daza

Clara In6s de Davis
Clara In6s Arce (typist)
Marfa Ruth de Vanegas
Lucy Vargas de Torres
In6s Ortega


Marta Eugenia Duque
Stella Ochoa



Nelson Sandoval M.


Elvira Junco


Ligia de Le6n



As the contracting agency, the University of Nebraska has accepted

the responsibility of assisting the Institute Colombiano Agropecuario, and

through ICA, the National University and several other Colombian cooperat-

ing agencies in the general field of agricultural education as a result of an

invitation of the Government of Colombia and U. S. Agency for International


Although the principal source of funds in the future will be through a

loan agreement between the Colombian government and the University of

Nebraska, the Ford Foundation of New York and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation

of Battle Creek, Michigan are also providing support, as they have since the

inception of the program in 1966. Their assistance is in clearly identified a-

reas of the total program which are integral parts of the University of

Nebraska effort.

From the beginning it was known that this undertaking was so extensive

that the University of Nebraska could not provide total staffing from its own

faculties. For that reason, the Mid-America State Universities Association

(MASUA) agreed to share in the responsibility for staffing and to make other

contributions vital to the ultimate success of the project. In this way the pro-

gram in Colombia has the combined support and resources of several institutions

in the United States where there are common interests and philosophies in educa-

tion, teaching, research and extension.


The University of Nebraska acknowledges the valuable inputs of other

International agencies. On a day-to-day basis, close working relationships

are maintained between this Mission and the Rockefeller Foundation as well

as that of the United Nations Special Fund in animal sciences, and other pro-

jects under the auspices of AID assisting with the agricultural effort in Colom-


The Scope of Activity

Under the contract, the University of Nebraska agrees to render tech-

nical assistance to ICA; and through ICA to the National University for the

purpose of: (a) assisting those entities in improving the organization and

integration of their higher educational facilities and research and extension

activities in all fields of agriculture; (b) assisting ICA in further developing

its graduate college in agricultural sciences and its agricultural research and

extension programs; and (c) assisting ICA to serve as an effective institution

for the integration of agricultural education, research, and extension programs

carried out by the National University and other Colombian government entities.

This assistance will be rendered primarily by:

(1) Furnishing regular and short term professional staff members,

and support therefore, from the University of Nebraska and from associated

Universities in the Mid-America State Universities (MASUA), who will work

in Colombia with Colombian counterparts from ICA and the National University

both at ICA's principal research and extension stations and on the campuses

of the National University located in Bogota, Medellfn and Palmira; and such

other governmental agencies as the parties may be mutually agree upon;

(2) Financing scholarships for Colombians working in an agricultural


field who are approved by ICA, the University and AID, who will pursue gra-

duate studies in the United States in their respective agricultural fields at

locations chosen by the University of Nebraska and ICA, and who will return

to Colombia to strengthen the professional staffs and faculties of ICA, National

University, and other related Colombian entities;

(3) Participating in the preparation of the analysis and recommendations

directed to increasing ICA's effectiveness in coordinating agricultural edu-

cation, research and extension.

The University of Nebraska has agree d to provide the following as-


1. To ICA and the National University in the development of the Gra-

duate Program by helping with the determination of curricula, the development

of course outlines, the training of staff, and, by the actual teaching of some

courses until competent Colombians are available.

2. To ICA in developing improved techniques and methodology in re-

search in such fields of agricultural science as may be mutually agreed upon;

3. To ICA in upgrading the competence of the personnel of various or-

ganizations conducting extension-type activities in order to develop an ef-

fective extension service at the national level by:

a) assisting in the establishment of an under-graduate curriculum

designed to incorporate the elements of extension education into the general

agricultural higher education program, according to the needs of Colombia;

b) establishing post-doctorate and post-master's training for

departmental staff members already competent in agricultural technology

to enable them to become effective extension specialists; and


c) improving the technical competence of existing ICA information

center personnel and in providing continuous in-service training in both exten-

sion and communications activities;

4. To the National University in the projection of annual targets for

optimum numbers of graduates in the agricultural fields of specialization at

the National University's three campuses, and in the development and implement-

ation of the plans needed for the realization of these targets;

5. To National University in improving subject matter content of agri-

cultural courses offered at its three campuses;

6. To ICA and the National University in the establishment of curricula

and in the development of faculty for the subject matter areas needed but not

adequately provided at the three campuses, including animal science, veterinary

medicine, agricultural economics, sociology, including rural sociology, agricultur-

al extension including communications.

7. To the National University in the broadening of agricultural education

at the three campuses through the participation of the faculties and students

in extension and research;

8. To ICA and the National University in the improvement of the tech-

nical competence of their faculties and administrative staffs with particular

emphasis on:

(a) Methods of instruction and the use of instructional materials;

(b) Selection, guidance, testing, and counseling of students;

(c) Planning, budgeting, accounting, and administrative techniques

9. To ICA and the National University in providing in-service training


for their staffs.

It should be recognized that the institutional building indicated in the

scope of activities is a means to an end, not the end in itself. The end is to

maximize agriculture's contribution toward the ultimate goal of a more content-

ed, better fed, more healthy and better educated people; and a stronger nation

economically as well as socially.

It is clear that the education in agricultural sciences referred to in-

cludes that of the graduate level as well as that for undergraduates and adults.

The ICA graduate program, which was initiated in 1967, will provide oppor-

tunities for specialization in each of several fields. The Nebraska Mission

is dedicated to help make this program successful. It will contribute to the

instruction and thesis supervision as well as to the organization and policies

of this most important addition to the educational facilities of Colombia.

It should be abundantly clear from an examination of this report that

the role of the Nebraska Mission is not one of spearheading action programs;

rather it is in education in the agricultural sciences to help equip Colombians

to meet their country's needs and to help them recognize the vast potential

awaiting development, the importance of getting on with the job, and the pos-

sible ways of going about it.

With this understanding and the urgency associated with it, our role is

more meaningful, our participation more serious, and our dedication more

intense. The degree of success that the Nebraska Mission is to have in the

ensuing years, will, of course, depend upon many factors, but listed as num-


ber one among these is the calibre and dedication of personnel imported to

assist with this task. With continued cooperation of sister institutions of

the Mid-America State Universities Association and continued cooperation

of the Colombian entities and other international Agencies, there is every

reason to expect a noticeable impact in a few years.

The size of this impact will be the real yardstick that all cooperat-

ing agencies may properly use.



The contract between ICA and the University of Nebraska provides that

the University will use its best efforts to provide a total of 342 man months of

technical assistance to the program in Colombia. In addition a total of 60 man

months are provided for staff on the campus at Lincoln: a campus coordinator,

an assistant, secretarial, clerical and other help.

Specialized Field Personnel

Administration ......................................... 24 months

Position 1 Director

Position 2 Administrative Assistant

Animal Sciences........................................ 72 months

Position 17 Animal Breeding and Genetics

Position 18 Agricultural Biochemistry

Position 20 Animal Science Extension Specialist

Position 16 Animal Nutrition (Palmira)

Position 15 Animal Breeding (Medellfn)

Position 30 Dairy Manufacturing (Medellfn)

Plant and Soil Sciences .................................. 60 months

Position 3 Weed Control

Position 14 Crop Physiology

Position 12 Soil Fertility and Management

Position 29 Crop Physiology (Palmira)


Position 26 Crop Physiology (Medellfn)

Agricultural Economics .................................. 24 months

Position 7 Agricultural Economist (Palmira)

Position 6 Agricultural Economist (Medellfn)

Ford Foundation Sector

Position Fl Agricultural Economist (Policy)

Position F2 Agricultural Economist (Farm Management)

Position F3 Agricultural Economist (Marketing)

Position F4 Junior Agricultural Economist

Position F5 Junior Agricultural Economist

Position F6 Junior Agricultural Economist

Agricultural Engineering ................................. 60 months

Position 8 Process Engineering

Position 25 Power and Machinery

Position 10 Soil, Water and Structures (Palmira)

Position 5 Power and Machinery; Soil and Water (Medellfn)

Position 11 Structures, Processing, Extension (Medellfn)

Extension.............................. ................... .... 36 months

Position 27 Extension Supervisory and Communications Specialist (Palmira)

Position 31 Extension Supervisory and Communications Specialist (Medellfn)

Position 21 Rural Sociologist

W. K. Kellogg Foundation Sector

Position K1 Specialist in Extension Administration

Position K2 Specialist in Program Planning


Position K3 Specialist in Mass Communications

Veterinary Medicine ................................... 48 months

Position 4 Clinical Pathology

Position 22 Ambulatory Clinics

Position 23 Microbiology

Position 24 Clinics

Short Term Consultants .................................. 18 months



To Strengthen the Faculties at ICA, the National University
and Other Colombian Entities

By all odds, one of the most important functions of the University of
Nebraska Mission is to assist in providing post-graduate training for the
staff members of ICA, the National University, and to some extent other
governmental or semi-governmental agencies of Colombia.

From its inception, the encouragement, selection, and financing of
advanced training has been a major objective of the Mission. The reason
for this emphasis is of course obvious.

Advanced Degree Requirements

At the beginning of the Nebraska Mission, an estimate of the number of
fellowships in agricultural sciences needed for ICA and for each of the branches
of the National University was made for the five year period 1966 through
1971. It appears that these figures were essentially sound and that there
is no reason for a change of these estimates at this time. They are for the
5-year period mentioned above:

Faculty of Agronomy Medellfn 37
Faculty of Agronomy Pal mira 11
Faculty of Agronomy 13ogotai 35
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and
Animal Sciences Bogota 25
ICA 83

Total Advanced Degrees 194

Of the above totals it was expected that the Nebraska Mission, through
resources from AID, Ford Foundation and W. K. Kellogg Foundation would
provide approximately 145 of these fellowships for study in the United
States. The remainder would be provided by Rockefeller Foundation, F. A. 0.,
the ICA-Ford fellowships and the National University.

It is now quite evident that there will be a sufficient number of high
calibre applicants from which to select this number of participants. Thus
the limiting factor may be the amount of funds available for fellowships.

Ahead of Schedule

To date the Nebraska Fellowship program is considerably ahead of
schedule as far as total number of participants are concerned.


During the 1967 calendar year, a total of 16 participants was sent to
the United States for graduate study. This was exactly the number projected.
Thirteen of these were with AID support, two Ford and one Kellogg. It had
been originally projected that five would be supported by Kellogg, five by
Ford and six by AID.

However in 1967, whereas a total of 26 new fellowships starts was
projected, in reality a total of 38 new fellowship students were sent outside
of Colombia to begin post-graduate studies. Thus the number of fellowship
starts for the two periods is 54 as compared with a projected number of 42.

In addition to the 54 fellowship in which the candidates are pursuing
work leading to either the Master's or Ph. D. degrees, a total of 6 short
term fellowships, ranging from three to six months in length have been

The list of fellowship students currently studying abroad is as follows:


A group of ICA/Nebraska Fellowship students in a special orientation and

intensive English course at the University of Nebraska in August 1968. Here

they are meeting with Dr. W. E. Colwell. Dean of International Programs at

the University. Following the course at Lincoln. the candidates proceed to

their respective study institutions throughout the United States.


Sponsoring Inst.

Agricultural Economics
1. Mario Valderrama
2. Hector Murcia
3. Darfo V61ez
4. German Bernal
5. Juan Gustavo Acosta
6. Jaime Bernhardt
7. Luis Emilio Avalos
8. Diego Londofio
9. Ramiro Orozco
10. Jorge Torres
11. Eduardo Chac6n
12. Alfredo Carrasco
13. Mario Alberto Garcfa
14. William Perez

Agricultural Engineering
1. Humberto Rey
2. Fabio Tob6n
3. Le6n Reyes

I. C. A.
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
I. C. A.
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
Min. Agric.
U. Nacional

U. National
U. Nacional
IT. Nacional


U. Nebraska
Oklahoma S.
Oklahoma S.
U. Nebraska
U. Missouri
Iowa State
U. Missouri
Oklahoma S.
Oklahoma S.
Kansas State
U. Nebraska
U. Nebraska
U. Arizona
U. of Paris

Colorado S.
U. Minnesota
U. Nebraska

Agricultural Extension and Communications
1. 'Iernin P6rez I. C. A. Iowa State
2. Jaime Guti6rrez I. C. A. U. Missouri
3. Mois6s Alvarez I. C.A. U. Missouri
4. Oscar Bricefio I. C.A. Cornell
5. Alvaro Castilla U. Nacional Iowa State
6. Susana Amaya INCORA U. Wisconsin
7. Jos6 Ricaurte Garcf I. C. A. N. Carolina S.

Kind of



Field of Degree

Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Ag. Econ. Ph. D.
Ag. Econ. Ph. D.
Ag. Econ. M. S.
Econ. Div. M. S.

Ag. Eng.
Ag. Eng.
Ag. Eng.

M. S.
M. S.

M. S.

Inf. &Comm. M. S.
Rural Soc. Ph. D.
Ext. Educ. Ml. S.
Ext. Educ. M. S.
Ag. Educ. M. S.
Mass. Oxnm Ph. D.
Adult. Educ. Ph. D.








1-1-, u

Sponsoring Inst.

Animal Science
1. German Dfaz
2. Gonzalo Villa
3. Mario Gonzalez
4. Edgar Ceballos

Plant and Soil Sciences
1. Jos6 Eliecer G6mez
2. Manuel Grillo
3. Fernando Villamizar
4. Rafael Cancelado
5. Gustavo Jim6nez
6. Michel Hermelin
7. Cesar Escobar
8. Enrique Rodrfguez
9. Jos6 Antonio Beltrdn
10. Orlando Sanchez
11. Javier Bernal
12. Cesar Cardona
13. Omar Marfn
14. Emiro Rojas
15. Jorge Mesa
16. Samuel Ricardo Ochoa
17. Abd6n Cortez

Food I'echnology
1. Ligia Restrepo
2. Wenceslao Vargas

U. Nacional
U. Nacional
U. Nacional
I. C. A.

U. Nacional
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
U. Nacional
U. Nacional
U. National
I. C. A.
I. C. A.
I. C.A.
I. C. A.
I. C.A.
I. C. A.
I. C.A.
U. Nacional
U. P. Tunja

I. C. A.
U. National


U. Missouri
U. Nebraska
Oldahoma S.
Washington S.

Iowa State
U. California
Colorado S.
U. Missouri
U. California
Colorado S.
Michigan S.
Washington S.
U. Nebraska
U. Hawaii
Cornell U.
U. California
U. California
U. Nebraska
U. Nebraska
U. California
Purdue I .

U. Nebraska
.N. Carolina S.

Kind of



Field of Degree

Animal I1s.
Animal Sd.
Animal Sd.
Animal Sd.

Crop Phys.
Soil Science
Soil Science
Crop. Phys.
Soil Science
Pl. Path&PFs
Crop Phys.
Crop Phys.
Crop Phys.
Crop Phys.
Weed Contid
Soil Science
Soil Science
Soil Science

M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
Ph. D.

M. b.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
Ph. D.
Ph. D.
M. S.
M. [-,.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
Ph. D.

AID Food Tech. M. S
AID Food 'T'ch. M. S.



-7-6 S







1-25-67 3-69
8-5-67 8-1-69

Biochemi st r
1. Leonel Varoas

Ag. Biochem.M. S. --7-4;S -7-70

U. Nacional U. Nebraska AID

Sponsoring Inst.


Kind of

Field of


Date Date
Left Return

1. Ricardo Martfnez
2. Pedro OiMoro

Veterinary Medicine
1. Jose M. Jim6nez
2. Ricardo Ochoa
3. Alfonso Ruiz
4. German Arbelaez

Short Term Fellowships
1. Gildardo l\arfn
2. Plinio Sierra
3. Francisco Villamizar
4. Cesar Ramfrez
5. Carlos E. Cort6z
6. Jaime Rojas

U. Nacional
I. C. A.

I. C. A.
I. C. A.
I. C. A.
U. Nacional

I. C. A.
I. C. A.
U. Nacional
I. C. A.
I. C. A.

Iowa State
N. Carolina S.

U. Minnesota
Cornell U.
Iowa State
Purdue U.

N. Carolina S.
Colorado S.
Diff. Insts.
Diff. Insts.
IICA-Costa Rica
Iowa State

AID Statistics M. S. 8-5-67 8-5-69
AID Statistics Ph.D. 8-23-68 8-23-70



Vet. Med.
Vet. Med.
Vet. Med.

M. S.
M. S.
M. S.
M. S.

Soil Test.Sem.
Vet. Med.
Fertil. Tech.
Fertil. Tech.
Ext. Methods
Audio Visual





The sponsoring institutions, together with the source of support, are
summarized in the following table:


ICA 13 5 2 5 25
National University 18 3 3 1 25
A.P. Tunja 1 1
Ministry of Agriculture 1 1
Fedearroz 1 1
33 8 6 7 54

*Ford Funds used for family supplements with support for the participant
from AID.

It now appears that the peak of the number of fellowship starts required
may come in 1969 rather than in 1970 as had been previously anticipated.
Judging from applications which have now been received by ICA-Nebraska,
totalling more than 110, it would appear that there will be at least 65
qualified candidates for Nebraska Mission fellowships for the calendar year
1969. This compares with a previously projected number of 32 starting
fellowships, and is considerably higher than was even anticipated in 1970
when only 38 new starts were projected.

It can be expected that, beginning in 1970 there may be a sizeable
decrease in the number of fellowships necessary to provide the needed
faculty members for ICA and the National University.

The ICA Graduate Program

The ICA graduate program started in February 1967, with an enrollment
of 13 for the first year. This, too, was one year in advance of expectations.
The 1968 enrollment totals 42 as compared with an estimated 16 first year

The Nebraska Mission will make every effort to see that a strong
group of graduate students enter the program each year in the area in
which ICA is offering degrees. Thus it can be expected that fewer fellowships
will be offered for study at the Mster's level each year forward. At the same
time there will be a higher proportion of applications for study toward the
Ph.D. degree.

The fellowship committee of ICA/Nebraska will be urged to develop
criteria for selecting students, to go to the ICA program and develop qualifi-
cations necessary for consideration for study outside Colombia.


Each area of specialization in the Nebraska Mission has made a
careful estimate of the numbers of advanced degrees necessary to move
institutional development forward as rapidly as feasible and possible.



For ICA and for the Nebraska Iission, 1968 was a year which mark-

ed a great surge of activity. It was also a year of change.

For ICA and Nebraska it was a period of transition in which the AID

portion of the Nebraska Mission will be financed by loan funds rather than

by grant funds from the Agency for International Development.

It was a year which witnessed a complete reorganization of the

Ministry of Agriculture and the various government entities associated with

it, including ICA.

It was also a year in which the activity of the Nebraska Mission and

the number of people on the staff may have reached its highest point.

By the close of the year, 54 agricultural students from ICA, the Na-

tional University and other Colombian institutions were in the United States

pursuing studies toward Master of Science or doctoral degrees, far surpas-

sing the projected numbers which were expected to receive fellowships

during the period.

The growth and expansion of the Extension Service in ICA also far

exceeded expectations, with the appointment of a large staff of subject

matter specialists, a broad training program and an expansion of the a-


A Department of Agricultural Engineering with a graduate program,

an extensive research operation and plans for extension activities emerged

in ICA. At the same time the new Department of Agricultural Economics


was improved.

Satisfactory progress was recorded for nearly all the goals outlined for

1967 in the 5-Year Projection Report. At the close of the year this Program

Projection was revised to reflect the experiences of the first 26 months of

operations and to indicate new goals and objectives of ICA, the National Univer-

sity and the Nebraska Mission. With the experience of the past several months

behind him, each.staff member has prepared a realistic plan of work for 1969.

These plans of work, together with the individual reports are published as a

supplement of this report and are available upon request.

Personnel Changes

Several major administrative changes took place during the year. At the

National University, Dr. Ricardo Sandino became Dean of Veterinary Medicine

and Zootecnia, replacing Dr. Alvaro Guti6rrez. At Palmira, Dr. Adel Gonzalez

became Dean of the Faculty of Agronomy replacing Dr. Rafael Bravo; and at

the close of the year Dr. Miguel Hernandez resigned as Dean of the Faculty

of Agronomy at Medellin and was succeeded by Dr. Oscar Ospina.

In the Ministry of Agriculture, Dr. Enrique Pefialosa was named Minister

of Agriculture to succeed Dr. Enrique Blair. Dr. Vicente Davila, of the Exten-

sion staff at ICA, was named Secretary General of the Ministry.

At ICA, Dr. Jorge Quintero was named Director of the newly formed

Department of Agricultural Engineering and Dr. Alberto Franco was named

head of Agricultural Economics to succeed Dr. Alfredo Carrasco who left for

advanced study in the United States.

In AID, Arthur Anderson succeeded Ray Harkins as Deputy Director;


John A. Oleson, former regional legal advisor, became Assistant Director

of the Mission to succeed Harry Martin. Dr. Keneth McDermott assumed

duties as Rural Development Officer and James Bleidner was named assistant

Rural Development Officer.

At Rockefeller Foundation, Dr. Jerry Grant was named executive

director of CIAT, and Dr. Robert Waugh, who had served for many years

as Assistant Director became Director of the Colombian operations for the

Foundation. Dr. James Plaxico became agricultural advisor for the Ford

Foundation in Colombia.

Within the Nebraska Mission there were also changes. Dr. A. C.

Breckenridge, who had served as Vice-Chancellor for International Programs

at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, resigned to return to academic teach-

ing. Dr. W. E. Colwell left the Mission in Bogota on June 26 and became

Dean of International Programs on August 1 at Lincoln. At the time of Dr.

Colwell's departure, C. R. Elder was transferred from the Kellogg sector to

the AID sector and became Chief of Party and Director of the Mission on an

iterim basis. On December 1, Dr. Clayton Yeutter took over the duties as

Director fo the Mission and Chief of Party. Dr. A. D. Flowerday became as-

sistant director of the Mission on July 1.


Cooperation of the Mid-America State Universities Association has

been a vital component of any success the Nebraska Mission may have had

to date. The wholehearted support of these Universities has made it possible


to recruit a staff of competent professional people. Representatives of each

of the institutions are included on the staff roster.

Special acknowledgment is made to the following members of the

Mid-America group:

Colorado State University . ... Fort Collins

Iowa State University.................... Ames

Kansas State University................ Manhattan

Oklahoma State University............... Stillwater

University of Missouri .................. Columbia

In addition to the assistance of the above institutions from the stand-

point of staffing, it is appropriate to acknowledge the valuable assistance

many of the senior administrative officers have rendered in each of the sub-

ject matter areas.

W. K. Kellogg Foundation Support Extended

At mid-year, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation extended its support for

the ICA-Nebraska program for an additional 2 1/4 years. The Foundation

granted an additional $200, 000 to support the program in Extension and

Agricultural Communications until March 31, 1971.

The grant will enable ICA and Nebraska to enter into Phase II through

its support for the program.

In addition, the new grant provides for a minimum of 24 man-years

of fellowship support.

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation has been an active partner in assistance

to ICA. It sparked the development of an interest in Extension activities and


has provided much assistance and counsel in the actual development of

the ICA Extension Service. To this end it has supported the first 2 1/2

years of the program with a grant totaling $348, 529, together with 23

men-years of fellowship support.

In the brief period that the Kellogg sector of the Nebraska Mission

has been functioning, excellent progress has been made. However, the

magnitude of the job, together with ICA's new and expanded responsibil-

ities in extension made it highly important that continued technical as-

sistance be made available.

In August of 1967, the anticipated transfer of Extension Service

from the Ministry of Agriculture took place. Thus ICA was suddenly

thrust Into the role of national leadership in the extension movement at a

time when there are tremendous pressures for increased food production.


K. &

, ^ _

Signing the Loan Agreement Contract: Left to right Dr. Clifford Hardin,

Chancellor of the University of Nebraska; Dr. Jorge Ortfz M6ndez, Di-

rector General of ICA; Dr. Canuto Cardona, Director of the Division of

Research, ICA; Dr. B. N. Greenberg, President of the University of

Nebraska Board of Regents. Lincoln, Nebraska, October 14, 1968.

From Grant to Loan Funds

Early in 1968, officials of AID/BogotA informed ICA and the Nebraska

Mission that because of severe cuts by the U. S. Congress in appropriations

for direct grants for foreign aid, it would not be possible to finance the ICA/

Nebraska contract at the current level. An alternative method was proposed

of financing whereby funds from the Agricultural Sector Development Loan

might be used to finance U. S. $1, 000, 000 of the contract.

After considerable discussion and conferences, ICA and Nebraska

agreed to renegotiate a new contract utilizing funds made available under a

loan agreement.

On October 14, in Lincoln, Nebraska, the contract was signed with

Dr. Jorge Ortfz M6ndez representing ICA, and the Board of Regents of the

University signing for Nebraska.

Special Consultants and Visitors

The title, Doctor Honoris Causa of the National University of Colom-

bia was conferred upon Dr. Clifford M. Hardin upon the occasion of his

visit to Colombia in March of this year.

This was the first honorary degree to be accorded by the University

in several years. In accepting the honor Chancellor Hardin expressed his

pleasure in the improvements which had been made in the educational

field thanks to the decided action of Dr. Jorge Ortfz M6ndez, Director

General of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario and to Dr. Jorge M6ndez

Mun6var, Rector of the University.


Visitors and Short Term Consultants who made a distinct contribut-

ion to the Nebraska Mission/ICA program during the year were:

Ben Greenberg

A. C. Breckenridge

R.J. Graham

E.F. Frolik

C. J. Bierschwal

CLifford Hardin

Don Hanway

R.W. Kleis

John Adams

Russell Mawby

Marvin Twiehaus

R. W. Koch

J. A. Rigney

Glen Vollmar

W. E. Colwell

Charles Oldfather

Robert Ruyle

John Kissler

R. W. Koch

Member Board of Regents

Vice Chancellor-U. Nebraska

Chairman, Dept. Information

Dean, College of Agriculture

Prof. Vet. Medicine- Missouri

Chancellor -U. Nebraska

Chairman, Dept. Agronomy

Chairman, Def. Ag. Eng.

Director Ag. Ext. Service

Vice-President Kellogg F.

Chairman, Dept. Vet. Science

Prof. Dept. Animal Science.

Dean Internat. Programs NCS

Chairman Dept. Ag. Economics

Dean Int. Programs UN


Nebraska Educational Tele-
vision Commission

Director U. Nebraska Print-
ing Office (retired)

Prof. Dept. Animal Science

Jan.7/68 Jan. 10/68

Jan. 8/68 Jan. 13/68

Jan. 9/68 Jan. 22/68


Jan. 20/68-Feb. 7/68

March 2/68-March 5/68

March 25/68-April 6/68

Ap. 15/68-Ap. 25/68

Ap. 15/68-Ap. 27/68

Ap. 16/68-Ap. 23/68

May 2/68-May 11/68

May 2/68-May 18/68

April 8/68-April 10/68

Jun. 1/68-Jun.12/68

Sept. 12/6ept.2/-ept. 20/68

Sept. 16/68-Sept. 20/68

Sept. 23/68-Sept. 29/68

Oct. 1/68-Dec. 20/68

Nov. 12/68-Dec.4/68





I. Evaluation of Program to Date

A. Major achievements
1. Initiation of graduate program leading to the M. S. degree.
2. Establishment of three National Programs:
a. Production Economics and Farm Management
b. Marketing
c. Policy
3. Initiation of three major research projects and several
smaller projects.
4. Establishment of the Colombian Association of Agricultural
5. Fourteen persons are studying abroad on fellowships:
a. 6 from ICA
b. 6 from National University
c. 2 from other institutions:
Ministry of Agriculture
Banco de la Repfiblica
6. About 500 volumes of books have been secured and
distributed to:
a. Department of Agricultural Economics ICA
b. ICA library at Tibaitata
c. Each National University Campus

B. Barriers to more rapid progress
1. Lack of a full time department Director at ICA resulting
in insufficient communication with Nebraska staff.
2. Inadequate counterpart support.
3. Poorly defined leadership of National Programs
4. Little enthusiasm for a major in agricultural economics at
National University in Bogota.

C. Areas requiring more emphasis.
1. Integration of extension activities into the department and
the National Programs.
2. Integration of activities with National University and establish-
ment of a major in agricultural economics at N. U.
3. Development of professional leadership of the National Pro-
grams and corresponding research projects.
4. ICA participation in agricultural economics at outlying
research stations, particularly at Palmira and Medellin.



This report is an appraisal of the University of Nebraska ICA program
in Agricultural Economics two years after its initiation. Based on the
progress to date, a plan of work for 1969 is projected and some indication
of future direction and needs are made.


Agricultural Economics is a new discipline in Colombia, with little
university level activity in teaching or research, and only a small number
of trained agricultural economists. Hence, the broadest objective of the
Agricultural Economics Program of the Nebraska Mission is to foster
the development of the profession of agricultural economics in Colombia.

ICA initiated a Department of Agricultural Economics in 1965 to
supplement and complement its other activities. The department was
established with a part-time Director (M. S.) and a few people at the B. S.
level in economics, agriculture, and veterinary medicine who had an
interest in the discipline. A major task of the Nebraska Mission is to help
ICA and National University develop functioning, professional departments
of agricultural economics capable of undertaking meaningful research
projects, producing.well trained agricultural economists at both the
undergraduate and post-graduate levels, and entering into the new extension
service activities of ICA. This involves the coordination of courses in
the agricultural economics careers at the three National University campuses
as well as the establishment of the graduate program at ICA in Bogota.

To support department development at ICA and National University, ::
the Mission has a program to send some of their personnel to the U. S. on
fellowships for advanced study. In helping to develop a strong country-wide
interest in, and discipline of, agricultural economics, some fellowships are
also available for personnel of other public institutions who have a need for
trained agricultural economists.

A third undertaking of the Nebraska Mission, particularly through the
participation of the Ford Foundation, is to help establish an association of
Colombian agricultural economists to further the interests of the profession
in the country.

The main emphasis of the Nebraska program is in Bogota where there
are six economists. One economist is located at Palmira and another is in
Medellfn. The following report is divided into two parts beginning with the
activities in Bogota.


D. Present Staffing (Second semester -1968)






Lopera M. S.
Vargas 13. S.
Diaz B. S.
Fldrez (Ext) B. S.
Sierra (Ext) B. S.




B. S. Hildebrand Ph.D.
Bowser M. S.
Andrew M. S.

Fischer Ph.D.
Feaster M. S.



Fellowships (ICA) /


M. S. Hildebrand Ph. D.

(Ph. D.)
(M.L S.)
(M. S.)
(MV. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(short course)

1/ Under a previous program with Ford Foundation, several candidates
were sent to the U. S. (or other countries) on ICA-FORD fellowships
These candidates are so identified. All others are on fellowships
administered by the Nebraska Mission.

(U. N. )


(Ph. D.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)


Badger IPhl. I).

E. Current Research.

Project Nationa

Marketing MKT

Beef M~rketingMKT

Ag. Infra-
structure POL

Sheep Prod.
& Mktg. PROD

Potato Prod. PROD

Productivity PROD

Extension PROD


Cost. of Prod PROD

F. Graduate Program (Second


Colombian Nebraska

Vargas Andrew

Delgado Bowser








Semester 1968).


Course No.. Colombian
Price Theory 3 Lopera

Ag. Policy 4 Lopera

Production 12 Lopora

Methodology 4

Math for Econ. 8

Number of full time graduate students
Number of part time graduate students
Number of students from department








Graduate Student Major Prof. Field
Jorge Ruiz Franco
Roberto L6pez Franco Prod.
Ma. Cristina Moreno Badger

G. Extension.

Sierra and F16rez were working full time under supervision of
the Directors of the Departments of Agricultural Economics and

H. Undergraduate teaching (Univ. Nacional)

The only direct participation in the Agronomy Faculty was
attempting to stimulate interest in. a Career in Agricultural
Economics. A course in Agricultural Policy (required for 4th
year students) was developed and taught in the Economics Faculty.

II. Plan of Work for 1969

A preliminary projection of the Colombian staffing pattern shows the
minimum number during 1969. For this reason, much of the work
of the senior Nebraska staff will be activities which normally would
be accomplished by Colombian staff. As it is counter to Mission
policy for the Nebraska staff to work unilateral, without a Colombian
counterpart be ing involved; this kind of activity will be held to a
minimum. However, during 1969 there will be some unilateral
activity in the interest of advancing the overall accomplishments of
the department. Some courses, for instance, will be taught by the
Nebraska staff without a counterpart in attendance. At the same time,
however, the department will have a Colombian M. S. to head each
of the national programs.

A. Staffing.
1. First semester (Jan. 1969)
Program Colombian Nebraska

Production Suescfin M. S. Badger Ph. D.
Vargas B.S.
Diaz: B. S.

Marketing Samper M. S. Driscoll Ph. D.
Delgado B. S. Bowser M. S.
Pulido .Andrew NM. S.





Planning (Proposed)

Fellowships (ICA)

(U. N. )





M. S. Hildebrand Ph. D.
B. S. Feaster M. S.
B.S. (Ext)
B. S. (Ext)
B.S. (Ext)

M. S.

(Ph. D.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)

(Ph. D.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)
(M. S.)


2. Second semester (Aug. 1969)






Suescfn M. S.
Dfaz B. S.




Planning (Proposed)


M. S.
M. S.
B. S.

M. S.
B. S.

M. S.


"Open" Ph. D::
"Open ".M. S.

Driscoll Ph. D.
"Open" M. S.

Hildebrand Ph. D.
Feaster M. S.



Program Colombian Nebraska

Fellowships(ICA) Chac6n (Ph. D.)
Lopera (Ph.D.)
Acosta (M. S.)
Avalos (M. S.)
Bernhardt (M. S.)
Orozco (M. S.)
Tasc6n (M. S.)
F16rez (M. S.)
Sierra (M. S.)
Forero (M. S.)
Vargas (M. S.)

(U. N.) Carrasco (Ph. D.)
Torres (M. S.)
Perez (M. S.)

Two Nebraska instructor's positions will open during the year. In
order to maintain a balance in the staffing pattern, one of these should
be in production, and the other in marketing or policy. Also during
the year a senior position in Production becomes vacant.

B. Research.

The greatest research effort of the Mission will probably continue
to be done by the three instructors who operate practically full time
in this activity. The research activity of the three senior professors
should ideally be with the direction of the research activities of the.
instructors, the Colombian staff, and the graduate students. However,
conditions could operate to put a higher amount of direct research into
the hands of the senior professors. One of these is the shortage of
Colombian personnel during the year. It is likely, for instance, that
the potato production study will be completed by Badger working alone.

During the year all three major research projects (those of the three
instructors) should be completed with theses and other publications
being written. The theses themselves will probably remain in English
but the other reports will be in Spanish and will be submitted through
ICA channels for publication. The study on potato production will be
completed and will result in an ICA publication. Also to be completed
are the studies on the productivity gap and on sheep production and

With the arrival of at least three new Colombian members of the depart-
ment and two new Nebraska instructors, several new projects will be
initiated. The shortage of Colombian personnel is going to make it


difficult to furnish counterparts to all the Nebraska personnel, but
it is hoped that every effort will be made on the part of ICA to
fulfill this part of the commitment.

C. Graduate Program

1. First semester (Jan. 1969)
Course Colombian Nebraska

Intro. Ag. Ecom Lopera

Marketing Samper Driscoll

Resource Econ. Lopera Badger

Stat. for Soc. Sci. Hildebrand

Monetary & Fiscal Pol. Visitante (if possible)

2. Summer

Course Colombian Nebraska

Economic Dev. Lopera Hildebrand

Price Analysis Samper Driscoll

3. Second semester.

Course Colombian Nebraska

Price Theory Suescfn Driscoll

Ag. Policy Valderrama Hildebrand

Prod. Econ. Suescfn Hildebrand

Methodology Steiner

Credit & Finance Rinc6n

Math. Econ. Driscoll

The minimum number of full time graduate students in the department
should be 5 or 6 during 1969 with an increase to 10 or 12 in 1970. In .
order to sustain this number of graduate students it will be necessary
for ICA to provide a number of assistantships to the department.


D. Extension.

The activities of the extension personnel of the department should be
associated more closely with the National Program and they should be
better incorporated in the department than they have been in the past.
This association will depend partly on the leadership of the Programs
and partly on the nature of the activities of the extension staff. As
F16rez and Sierra are scheduled to leave on Fellowships during the
year, there will probably not be much of a chance to integrate their
projects. However, Feaster's counterpart will be on extension
appointment, so this position should be easily integrated into the
National Policy Program.

E. Undergraduate teaching and integration with National University.

The Facultad recently acquired the full'time services of Eduardo
Montero a new M. S. (Ohio State) who appears to be again creating
interest in initiating a major in agricultural economics and also in
the integration of the Facultad and ICA. During the year it should
be possible to work out a time table for establishing the major. At
the same time, it appears that personnel from the university will be
incorporated into the research program of ICA. Nebraska staff time
will be used to help plan the curriculum and course content and
to advise the university staff in research.

F. Fellowship program.

The location, selection and processing of Beca candidates will
continue to absorb a great deal of the time of the senior Nebraska
personnel. The possibility of sending the most promising ICA
candidates straight through for the Ph. D. degree could well be
reevaluated as this will increase the number of Colombians actually
working in Colombia and reduce the length of time to staff the
agricultural economics department with the proposed number of
Ph. D. 's. Also, the Fellowship program for graduate study at
ICA should be amplified.

G. Association of Colombian Agricultural Economists (ACEA).

The Nebraska Mission will continue to work with ACEA. An annual
meeting is scheduled in February 7, 8, 9, with publication of
proceedings to follow.

H. Longer range projections.

Present plans provide for the last B. S. level staff member of the
department at ICA to leave on a fellowship in 1970. By the end of
1971 the department should have one Ph. D. and 12 people with an


M. S. However, part of the M. S. personnel will probably return
to the U. S. for a Ph. D. so that 1971 represents a peak in M. S.
staff in the department. At National University there should be
at least one Ph. D. and four M. S. degrees in 1971.

The department at ICA is in the process of proposing some rather
basic changes in the organization of both the Colombian and the
Nebraska staff. These changes could completely change the nature
of many programs, so it seems inadvisable at the present time to
be more specific about future programs.


In these locations, the Nebraska Mission personnel are housed at
National University rather than at the ICA stations because it was
decided to put primary efforts on the undergraduate program. As a
result, the greatest share of their work is in developing the courses
and the curriculum at the respective campuses. Little progress has
been made at either location in integrating with ICA owing primarily
to the lack of ICA agricultural economists. Perhaps it is the housing
of Nebraska personnel with the Facultad, perhaps it is the longer
period of interest in agricultural economics, or perhaps it is other
factors, but these two campuses have advanced quite rapidly in the
field of agricultural economics.

I. Medellfn

A. Staffing.

Michael Steiner Ph. D. Nebraska

Ivan Agudelo M. S. (Ext) U. Nal. (Admin.)

Arturo Tob6n M. S. U. Nal.

Humberto GonzAlez B. S. U. Nal.

Fabian Ramfrez B. S. U. Nal.

Sergio Cardenas B. S. U. Nal. (part-time)

Three fellowship candidates are presently programmed for Medellfn
for 1969. These are: FabiAn Ramfrez (now in the Facultad), Jaime
Baby and Jaime Aristizabal (both new). In addition, Humberto Gonzalez
will apply for a Fellowship for August, 1969.


B. Plan of work for 1969.

Primary emphasis during the year will remain in curriculum
development, course content and teaching methods. Much work
is needed in this area to establish a clear concept of the training
needed for a student to function adequately as an Agricultural
Economist after completing the program. It is also needed to
serve as a basis for determining staff needs in the future to
insure adequate staffing for the program being offered.

Research cooperation will be initiated with ICA particularly in the
area of farm management and production economics, through the
5th year theses as well as through staff participation. However,
the effectiveness of this activity will be low from the ICA point of
view until there is an agricultural economist in residence at Tulio
Ospina. On the other hand, a great deal of data are available and
it will be a profitable experience for the staff of the Facultad to
initiate some projects.

Efforts are being made to recruit a man with particular interest
in marketing. If such a man joins the Facultad in 1969, the Mission
Economist will be able to help him to initiate teaching and research
programs in this presently neglected area.

C. Longer range projection.

It is anticipated that as Facultad personnel return with their degrees
that emphasis will be put on the third area of work agricultural
policy. Furthermore, it is projected that the enrollment in
agricultural economics will be between 200 and 250 students by 1972
at which time there will be a need for a total staff of about 10 people
in the department. Hence, the outlook for success appears good with
a possible termination of Mission participation in 1972.

Integration with ICA will not progress rapidly until some agricultural
economists are appointed at Tulio Ospina. It is not necessary to hire
people at the M. S. level as the resident Nebraska staff member can
train an Ingeniero Agr6nomo who has an interest in and can work full
time on research in agricultural economics.

II. Palmira

A. Staffing.
Roger Burdette M. S. Nebraska
Adriano Garcia B. S. U. Nal.
Guillermo Cuellar M. S. Un. Nal. (Part time).



German Bernal (M. S.)
Diego Londoflo (M. S.)

B. Present Situation

A great deal of progress has been made in improving the teaching
in the Facultad in Palmira. The Colombian counterpart teaching
the marketing course was given sufficient guidance and assistance
during the past semester,\ that he is capable of taking full responsibility
for this course in the future. The same counterpart is now teaching
a course in Economics with applications to Agriculture. Although,
he takes full responsibility for most of the lectures in this class, the
Nebraska Economist spends from one to five hours daily with him in
outlining the class lecture materials and in reviewing the lectures
following the class. With the experience gained during the semester
in teaching this class the counterpart will be capable of taking full
responsibility for this course the next time he teaches it. Another
counterpart who is teaching Farm Management and has more experience
in teaching has been given some assistance. This has been primarily
in the form of review of his class outlines, review his class lectures
from time to time and recommendations as to the availability of
certain materials from Farm Management and Agricultural Economics

The counterpart and the Nebraska Mission Economist are writing an
Agricultural Marketing textbook in Spanish which will serve for
university level courses in general marketing. Work started on this
text in 1967.

Accomplishments in the research activities at the ICA experiment
station have fallen far short of the goals that could have been met.
This is due primarily to the fact that the experimentstation does not
have a counterpart who is responsible for Agricultural Economics.
In spite of this handicap, some assistance has been provided to.
the physical science departments on economic activities. The Dairy
Department has been given assistance in calculating silage making
costs and the Nebraska Economist is now assisting to some extent
with a pasture experiment on which it is planned to get costs as well
as the carrying capacity and milk production from four types of pastures.
However, these have been activities which one might classify as
economic services that do not have long term benefits as no
counterpart is being trained to carry on these activities upon the
departure of the Nebraska Mission Economist.


C. Plan of Work for 1969.

It is hoped that during 1969 more time can be devoted to the
development of Agricultural Economics research and extension
work. However, any progress which is made will depend to a
very large extent upon the actions taken by ICA to provide research
counterparts. In any case, it is going to be possible to do more
research with the students from the Agronomy Faculty during the
coming year. The Nebraska Economist has been assigned as the
faculty advisor to one student who is making a study of the
potential interchange of 10 agricultural products between Colombia
and Venezuela. Another student plans to write his thesis on the
marketing of tomatoes in the Cauca Valley with special emphasis
on prices, supply, and demand at Palmira and two or three other
local markets.

If ICA does not appoint an Agricultural Economist with whom the
Nebraska Mission Economist can work as a counterpart then he
will continue to devote most of his efforts to the Facultad de
Agronomia. Although his principal counterpart, Dr. Garcia, will
be able to take full responsibility for the teaching of Marketing and
General Economics classes, he still lacks training in many other
Agricultural economics subjects. These include: agricultural
price analysis, economic development, economic research
methodology and statistics with applications to Agricultural
Economics. The dean has a new position approved at the faculty
for an Agricultural Economist. If the new appointee should be a
young ingeniero agr6nomos with only some very preliminary training
and experience in economics, a great deal of time will be spent
with this new counterpart.

The textbook on Marketing should be completed during the year.

D. Longer range projection.

The Dean of the Agronomy Faculty recognizes the benefits to
be obtained in fully integrating the staffs of the faculty and the
Experiment Station. He is making a concerted effort to get at
least one joint Faculty-Experiment Station appointment made in
agricultural economics with another two appointments to the ICA
staff as farm management and marketing men, responsible for
the research and extension work in these fields. The same
appointees will be available to teach classes at the Agronomy
Faculty. When the Faculty members now away on fellowships
return to Colombia he plans that each member will be responsible
for at least one research project in addition to his teaching


Assuming that suitable appointments are made by ICA, it would
appear that achievement of an integrated ICA-Univ. Nal. faculty will
be relatively easy in Palmira. In addition, the possibilities of
integrating the Universidad Nacional program with the Universidad
del Valle show promise of great potential from this part of the program.




L Ford Sector Bogota

A. Position F 1 Peter E. Hildebrand, Project Leader

1. Teachirfg (graduate program)
Scheduled to teach the following courses:

a. Statistics for Social Sciences (no counterpart)

First Semester

b. Economic Development (assist Lopera)

Summer session

c. Production Economics (with Suesc(n)

Second semester

2. Research

Will be "advisor to national program in agricul-
tural policy which has been reestablished. This
provides, for the first time, an opportunity for
the Senior Professors to have a direct influence
on the research of many of the people in the De-
partment. In this context, will work with counter-
parts in developing and conducting research pro-
jects in agricultural policy. Lopera is the Di-
rector in charge of the program and the chief
counterpart. Will continue working with Feaster
as his project is in the national program in Policy.

3. Extension

The three (two present and one appointed) extension
personnel of the department have beenput in the policy
program, so their activities will now be the partial
responsibility of this senior professor.

4. Other activities


Will probably take over the responsibility for the Beca
program during 1.969. Increased activity with National
University is anticipated, particularly in the area of
cooperative research. Will also become more directly
involved in the activities of ACEA.

5. Counterpart participation

For the first time, will have a counterpart- Jorge Lopera
who has been\ designated in charge of the National Policy
program. Presumably will also have informal counter-
part relationships with Alberto Franco and Jorge Suescin
(new M. S.. in the department and administrative assistant
to Franco) .

B. Position F2 Daniel D. Badger

1. Teaching (graduate progranr
Scheduled to teach the following course:

Resource Economics ( with Lopera)

First semester

2. Research

a. Supervise completion of beef cattle and potato market-
ing research projects of Bowser and Andrew and
assist in writing publication in Spanish.

b. Develop farm management study on beef cattle.

c. Continue economic analysis of cost of producing po-
tatoes and hopefully complete analysis and write publi-

d. Continue cost analysis study on sheep and wool enter-
prises in Colombia.

e. Continue training counterparts in research techniques
and methodology for agricultural economics research.

f. Serve as "advisor to the national program in Pro-
duction and Farm Management. Counterpart, and
Director in charge of the program, is Suescfin.

3. Fellowships

a. Process applications for fellowship applicants for sum-
mer and fall, 1.969 admission.

b. Assist applicants in language and developing graduate


a. Work with Lopera, Secretary Treasurer of ACEA, in
final plans and programming of 1. 969 annual meeting
(February) .

b. Assist in developing directory of members and of the

c. Assist in initial planning of 1. 970 annual meeting.

5. Undergraduate curriculum

a. Assist in development of common curriculum in Agri-
cultural Economics in three branches of National Uni -
versity and cooperating universities.

b. Assist in developing teaching materials for individual
courses, as requested.

C. Position F 3 James L. Driscoll

1. Teaching
Scheduled to teach the following courses assuming language is
adequate :

a. Agricultural Marketing ( Assist Samper )

First semester

b. Analysis of Agricultural Prices ( with Samper )


Summer session

c. Mathematical Economics (no counterpart)

Second semester

2. Research

Will be advisor to national Marketing program with Sam-
per as counterpart. In this capacity will assist in develop-
ing and conducting the marketing research of the personnel
and graduate students of the department.

3. Other activities

Time will be consumed in orientation and language training.
Will gradually become involved in the Beca and ACEA
programs and cooperative activities with National University.

D. Loyd K. Fischer

Assignment terminates in January 1.969. Preparing a paper on
Colombian agricultural policy which' will be submitted to ICA for

II. AID Sector

A. Position No. 6 Michael P. Steiner Medellfn

1. Undergraduate teaching

Primary emphasis will be placed on curriculum development,
structuring course offerings, and providing such aid as is
needed or wanted in the improvement of teaching methods and
course content in the area of production economics and farm

2. Research

To a large extent, cooperation in research with ICA will depend
on whether or not an agricultural economist is appointed at
Tulio Ospina. Much work is needed on the evaluation of
data obtained from experiments in the various departments.
The staff at National University could easily be integrated


into such a research program and it also lends itself to work
in the area of fifth year theses.

In the absence of ICA participation at Tulio Ospina,
research efforts will be geared primarily to fifth year theses
work and whatever projects are of interest to the students.

3. Other activities

Will be directly involved in the annual ACEA meetings which
will be held in Medellfn in February. On a continuing basis
aid the Beca program by looking for candidates and counsel-
ing them on methods and procedures etc.

B. Position No. 1 Roger F. Burdette Palmira

1. Research

It is hoped that during 1.969 more time can be devoted to
the development of Agricultural Economics research and
extension work. However, any progress which is made
will depend to a very large extent upon the actions taken
by ICA to provide research counterparts. In any case,
it is going to be possible to do more research with the-.
students from the Agronomy Faculty during the coming year.
The Nebraska Economist has been assigned as -the faculty
advisor to one student who is making a study of the potential
interchange of 10 agricultural products between Colombia and
Venezuela. Another student plans to write his thesis on the
marketing -of tomatoes in the Cauca Valley with special emphasis
on prices supply, and demand at Palmira and two or three
local markets.

2. Undergraduate teaching

If ICA does not appoint an Agricultural Economist with whom
the Nebraska Mission Economist can work as a counterpart
then he will continue to devote most of his efforts to the
Facultad de Agronomfa.





The objectives for the work in Animal Science are as follows:

To encourage maximum use of available scholarships by qualified

Colombians for advancing'their education and experience under the best

qualified graduate programs available in MASUA and other universities

in the United States.

To assist in the development of Colombian institutions that will be

able to permanently serve the livestock industries and agriculture of Co-

lombia through education, research and extension.

To participate in curriculum building through teaching and the

development of teaching materials which can be useful under Colombian con-

ditions for Colombian students. To explore and help develop those graduate

programs at the Master of Science level in Animal Science which seem


To assist in the initiation and execution of research projects as ap-

pear to be urgently needed in the solution of the important livestock problems

of the country.

To assist in the initiation or support of certain livestock extension

programs as appear to be most urgently needed.


The scholarship (Beca) Program

There are 22 possible applicants for fellowship in the Animal Sciences

for 1969. Four students are currently on fellowships in the U. S. A special

effort has been made by ICA and the National University to provide arrangements

whereby there will be replacements and other provisions so that graduate

study in the U. S. will be available to a number of qualified Colombians.

This will hopefully, in time, compensate for the relatively great shortage

of Ph. D. trained animal scientists in Colombia.

Institutional Development.

The Animal Science Group along with FAO and ICA has been represented

in meetings called by Dean Sandino of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and

Zootecnia regarding reorganization of this faculty. The organizational structure

that has been prepared and approved by the Rector is one that appears to be

satisfactory to our group as conducive to the ultimate development of an

effective professional animal science program in the University. The proposal

is for three departments within the Faculty, each with its own department head.

These would be departments of animal health, animal physiology and zootecnia.

Animal scientists in the Mission through their joint responsibilities at the Uni-

versity and ICA are attempting to relate satisfactorily to all three activities...

extension, teaching and research. It is hoped that this can contribute to a

strengthening of working ties between the research and educational and extension

components in Colombia.


The courses that have been taught in part or totally by Nebraska professors

during 1968 are shown in Table 1.

Generally speaking, considerable success seems to be possible in the

teaching area. Mimeographed notes in Spanish have been prepared and distributed

to students, which are greatly appreciated by them because of the high cost

and unavailability of up-to-date texts. Laboratories in Biochemistry and

Nutrition have been improved through the purchase of new equipment, and in

Biochemistry at BogotA there has been an innovation of importance by pro-

fessors in the various biochemistry courses by joining forces and dividing

teaching responsibilities according to their specialities.

Research. -

Research activities and publications are summarized in Tables 3 and 4.

Scientific meeting attended are shown in Table 5.



Assistantes provided by Nebraska Mission personnel
at the National University.

in the teaching of courses in animal science

Level of Hours / Week Number of Visiting Professors,
Professor Responsibility* Location Course Lecture Lab. Students Counterparts

Bullis B Palmira Feeds and Feeding 3 3 34 1 Counterpart

C Palmira Dairy Production 3 3 9 1 Counterpart

C Palmira Animal Science I 3 3 17 1 Counterpart
1 Counterpart
A(1/4 sem) Palmira Biochemistry 3 3 45 2 Visiting Professors
1 Counterpart for
Bushman A Bogott Biochemistry 2 6 43 Laboratory
Dr. Cardenas 1 /2 of
A Bogota Biochem-Graduate 3 0 7 Dr. Rodrfguez Lectures

A(3/4 sem) Palmira Biochemistry 3 0 45

Ross B BogotA Breeds of Livestock 2 1 30

B BogotA Judging I 2 1 5

B BogotA Judging II 1.5 1.5 15

Stonaker A BogotA Animal Breeding 3 2 9 2 Counterparts

Warren B BogotA Poultry Production 1-2 2-3 26 4 Counterparts

A- Major responsibility, B- AdvilJry, C- Minor



Assistance given by Nebraska Mission Personnel in research project.

Professor Levels of
SResponsibility* Location Nature and scope at project
Effect of various levels of urea and cane molasses fed in combination
Bullish C Palmira ICA to dairy cows on levels of milk production.
Palmira ICA ard Effect of four pasture species on milk production, forage production,
C National University and milk production costs.
Palmira National
C University Effect of hormone treatments on fattening cattle on grass pastures.
Palmira National Feeding value of brown sugar (panela) for laying hens and
C University broilers.

Bushman A Bogota Availability of phosphorus for livestock in natural rock phosphates.

A_ Bogot Causes of dti:arrhea in chickens fed rations containing molasses.

Ross C BogotA-ICA Supplements for growing and finishing Holstein steers on corn or
oat silage.

C BogotA ICA Rations for growing Holstein steers.

C BogotA ICA Production systems for milk production.

Stonaker C ICA Cattle breeding research conducted at "La Libertad", "Turipana".
Testing of the feasibility of use of cane bagasse as poultry litter
Warren C Palmira ICA compared to wood shavings or rice hulls.

* A Project leader, working as a participant, advisor under project leader
B Participating in data collection, analysis and interpretation
C Advisory only



Research publications, course syllabi, and other technical publications prepared by Nebraska Mission personnel in
cooperation with counterparts.

Authors Title or Nature of Publication

Guillermo Cedeflo and
Daniel D. Bullis

Guillermo Cedeflo, Daniel D. Bullis
and Ernesto Huertas

Ernesto Huertas, Guillermo Cedeflo
and Daniel Bullis

C. V. Ross

A. H. Stonaker


Care of the Dairy Cow.

Dairy Cattle Herd Records.

Effect of different levels of urea and
molasses fed in combination or milk

Beef Cattle Production and Management

Animal Breeding

ICA bulletin in preparation

ICA bulletin in preparation

ICA bulletin in preparation
Paper presented at ALPA

Manual in preparation.

Syllabus of notes for course in
animal breeding taught at
National University.


Scientific meetings attended by Nebraska Mission Personnel in 1968.-

Professor Name of Meeting Date Attended Location of Meeting



C.V. Ross

Ivan G. Rush

H.H. Stonaker

A. Warren

American Society of Animal Science

Third Annual Meeting of the Colombian Society
of Biochemistry

World Congress of Animal Production

American Society of Animal Science

World Congress of Animal Science
CIAT Animal Science Study Group

Latin American Ass'n Animal Production

National ExteAsion Training Conference

July 28 Aug. 2, 1968

Nov. 1 2 / 1968

July 14 --20, 1968

July 28 Aug. 2, 1968

July 14 20 1968
July 31 Aug. 17, 1968

Dec. 4- 8 /1968

Oct. 15 18, 1968





University of Maryland

Stillwater, Okla.

University of Md.
Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil,
Lima, Peri

Blacksburg, Virginia


Visits to farms, ranches and agribusinesses made by Nebraska Mission Personnel in 1968.-

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit

Bullis Coconuco, July Phillipie Zambrano- 150 cow dairy herd Requested a visit to
Sec. Agriculture review management practices.
Cauca, Dept.

Coconuco, October Juan Mosquera 50 cow herd Requested visit to look over
pasture management program.

Miamie, April, June, Nov. Barney 250 cow dairy herd Cooperating with Facultad
on management practices studied's and legume

Popayan, June Holstein' Breeders Short course held on a Dairy farm near
Association PopayAn..

El Nus

Near Medellfn &
Rfo Negro

It It

ft f1 it


Sept. 23

Sept. 24

Finca de Antonio

Hacienda Manzana-
res Dr. Javier

Hacienda Xochimil-
co Julio Moreno

Beef and Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cattle


Charolais & Holstein


TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit



El Nus
Near Medellfn &
Rfo Negro

ift t ft

11 11 t1

1t f1 II

Near La Pintada


Near Buga & Buga
La Grande
11 "

Sept. 24

Sept. 25

Sept. 28

Sept. 28

Oct. 5

Oct. 15/17

Oct. 18

Oct. 18

Hacienda Las Palmas
Ministerio de

Hacienda Riopaila
Ingenio Riopaila

Hacienda Escocia
Dr. Julio Ospina

Hacienda Capri -
Sr. Gilberto Soto

Hacienda Montenegro
Fondo Ganadero
de Antioquia

Granja Experimental
de Palmira ICA

Hacienda La Lucer-
na Carlos DurAn

Hacienda La Josefi-
na Cicolac




Dairy and Swine

Beef (Cebd)


Dairy (Crossing to form breed)

Brown Swiss

TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit

Conley Near Caucasia Nov. 8 Caucasia Bernardo Beef Commercial

Near Sta. Rosa Nov. 9 Hacienda La Caroli- Dairy and Swine
na Dr. Javier Gue-

Medellfn Nov. 11/13 Hacienda Paisandd Dairy
Universidad Na.

Near Segovia Nov. 18/20 Hacienda La Salada Beef (Cebfi)
Frontino Gold Mine

Los Llanos


Sta. Marta



Feb. 16

Feb. 19 22

Feb. 24

Roberto Cavalier

Fernando Gaviria

Dfa de campo

Visited El Pifial ranch to see how he operates

To discuss cattle operations in the coast

To visit operation and to obtain pictures of
crossbreeding work

To observe experiments in progress


TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit



Mar. 26

April 22

May 24 -

May 27 -


La Dorada




Cf cuta

La Libertad



Fincas in Magda-
lena Valley

Humberto Quintero

Huila Fair

Exp. Station

Tolima Fair

N. Santander Fair

The ranch of Julio

Exp. sta. at Pasto

Ranch of Garcfa

To see ranch operations in Magdalena Valley

To observe his ranch operation

To meet cattlemen to see cattle

To see sheep experiments in Pasto and to
obtain photographs

To meet cattlemen, and to see andghoto-
graph cattle.

To meet cattlemen and to see and photograph
cattle for class work

To study an excellent cattle herd.

To help plan exps.

To help with a meeting to discuss.production

June 20 23

June 27 29


Oct. 17 19

Nov. 8

TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit

La Dorada

Sheep Ranch-Bogota,
Slaughter plant

El Pifial, Llanos

La Libertad, Llanos

Choc6, Santaba


Cota-Purina Swine


La Providencia

Frontino Gold
Mine Ota.








Feb. -Sept.




Humberto Quintero

Eduardo Pulido
Gustavo Bernal

Carlos Rodrfguez

Jaime Duran

Emilio Yamhura

Francisco Serrano

Paul Schroeder

Gabriel Vegalarga

Francisco VUega T.

Jerry Crombie

Assisted in corral design and management

Assisted Sheep mgt and worming Program
Learned some about the marketing and
slaughtering process

To gain familiarity with Llanos

To visit finca and study for Extension Infor-

Advise on management problems

Visit swine and poultry operations

Advise in management problems

Advise in management problems

Advise in management problems

Visit ranch and record keeping system

TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person (s) Visited Nature of Visit

Rush .Swine Farms Mani- July Various small Advise on constructions of new buildings
zales farms

Dairy Farms Ubat6 Sept. Campesino Assisted in setting up a Dairy result de-

Stonaker Farms in Bogota Sept. 18, 1968 Jaime Pradilla, Livestock Study Group with W. E. Ensminger
area "El Rodeo" mgr; Sr. Kraus,
Guemseys Kraus' Cha- owner

Sop6 Cund. Oct. Sandino brothers Thoroughbred breeding farm with class

Soacha Cund. Oct. 24, 1968 ICA ICA sheep stations with class

Villavicencio Nov. 7, 1968 ICA, Dr. Gonzales ICA cattle breeding station with class

SENA Agricultural training center with class


Bucaramanga, Fusa-
gasuga, Bogota area

Oct. Nov. 1967 I Francisco Serrano

Visited 20 farms in these areas to get idea
of problems in Colombia.

TABLE V Contin.

Professor Location Date of Visit Person(s) Visited Nature of Visit

Spring of 1968

Summer of 1968

Summer of 1968

Fall of 1968

December 1968

Drove from Bogota to Armenia, Bu-
ga, Palmira, Call, Pereira, Mani-
zales, etc. and visited poultry farms
at all these cities.

Visited Cartagena 3 times visited 18
farms ranging from Campesino to
very large ones.

Visited farms around Medellin

Visited more than 20 farms in Cali-
Palmira-Buga area and held local
meetings on management problems.

Visisted Pereira area for farm
visits and local poultry association




Programmed short courses and demonstrations in livestock and poultry in which Nebraska Mission Personnel assisted in 1968. -

Subject Nebraska Personnel Responsibility Location Date Number Attending Remarks

Animal Production

Beef Cattle Breeding

Beef Cattle Prod.

Beef Cattle Prod.

Beef Cattle short

Sheep short course
for P. C.

Swine Result De-

Turkeys, Ducks,





*A- M














jor responsibility; I














- Assisted actively




Ibagu6 and other










; C- Advisor






Nov. 5 + 25

Nov. 23

Nov. 26

Active Interest

Planned for Feb.

Canceled for lack
of No.

Demonstration of
feeding platano &
banana to swine.

For P. C. V's

For P.C. V's

Poultry Ass.

Poultry Ass.


Bulletins, extension folder and news articles prepared by Nebraska Mission personnel in cooperation with counterparts.

Title Authorship Type of Publication Date Published Where Available

Culling Laying Hen

Laying Hen Management

Ducks & Geese

Rabbit Production

Keeping Hens in Cages

Raising pullets

History of Poultry Breeds


Brooding Chicks

Castraci6n de Cerdos 2nd

Performance testing of
Beef Cattle 1st.

Farrowing Facilities for
Swine 1st.

Mineral Supplementation

Warren Alvarez

Warren Marfn

Warren Marfn

Warren-Marfn- Maner

Warren Maner

Warren Marfn



W& M




Have given council and as-
sistance on several other
bulletins and leaflets however
do not share authorship.

Extension folder

it It

Magazine Art.

Poultry housing




News Article

May 68






Dec. 1968

Jan. 1969

Feb. -Mar.69

* Prepared but not
yet published


Orientaci6n Agro-

I t I




General Press





1. Assist in the development of a professional level Graduate Program

in Agricultural Engineering at the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario

TibaitatA Campus.

2. Assist in the development of a professional level Under-graduate Pro-

gram in Agricultural Engineering at the National University in Mede-


3. Assist, as time and staff permits, in the up grading of the Service

Course level programs at National University BogotA and Palmira.

4. Assist in the planning and development of the joint University del Va-

lle National University-ICA professional level Undergraduate Pro-

gram in Agricultural Engineering.

Major emphasis will be placed upon:

A. Teaching:

(a) Assist in development of appropriate curricula at all the

above locations.

(b) Teach, or assist in teaching, professional level courses in

the graduate program and in the Medellfn program until such

time as Colombian staff are available to assume full respon-


(c) Assist, as time permits, in teaching certain laboratory

courses at National University Bogota and Palmira.


B. Research:

(a) Provide guidance in the development of appropriate research


(b) Provide leadership in the implementation of appropriate re-

search projects until such time as Colombian staff are avail-


C. Extension:

(a) Provide guidance in the development of appropriate extension

programs in agriculture and agricultural industry.

(b) Implement, or assist in the implementation, of appropriate

extension activities.

D. Physical Facilities:

(a) Assist in the development of appropriate facilities.

(b) Aid in the procurement of teaching and research equipment

and reference materials.


Development of Professional Undergraduate Program at the National

University Medellfn

The professional program completed its fourth year in early December.

120 students are enrolled in semester levels 1 through 8. Thirteen students

are entering their fifth and final year, and will be graduated with a B. Sc. Degree

in Agricultural Engineering in December of 1969. This will be the first graduat-

ing class of agricultural engineers in Colombia.

The professional curriculum has undergone further rision '. ,.


this past year. The present curriculum seems quite good. The agricultural engi-

neering department at Lima, Per6, which is the oldest in Latin America, is using

the Medellin curriculum as a model for the improvement of its own curriculum.

The lack of Colombian staff has resulted in the Nebraska staff, especially

Dr. Manbeck, carrying an extremely heavy teaching load especially in view of the

fact that he teaches one course in the graduate program. Staffing is the most se-

rious problem at this time. As a partial remedy for this situation we are enrollinp-

two potential staff members in the ICA Graduate Program for the term beginning

in January of 1969. They should receive their M. S. degree in Agricultural Engi-

neering in two years.

While the lack of adequate laboratory facilities has been a hidrance, this

may soon be remedied with the completion of the completely remodeled and great-

ly expanded facilities in early March of 1969. Equipment now on hand, and on

order, will enable movement into a modest research program.

Development of Graduate Teaching Program:

Although the graduate program in agricultural engineering was approved

in late December of 1967, it was too late to recruit students for the term begin-

ning in January 1968. There was also the additional problem of ICA not havi-ng

a formally organized Agriculture Engineering Department through which to

implement the graduate program. Therefore, the formal initiation of the program

was made during June when the ICA Department of Agricultural Engineering vas


Six graduate students enrolled for the semester beginning in August. Four

of these were enrolled in soil and water engineering, one in process engineering,


and one in processing with emphasis upon processing and field machinery

design. Three of these students either are, or will be staff members of

the ICA Agricultural Engineering Department. The quality of these students

is quite high, and they are progressing very well. Three courses, plus a

a seminar and special problems were taught during this semester. These

were taught by Teter, Manbeck, and Hobbs, with Quintero having major

responsibility for the seminar, and various staff members supervising the

special problems.

The teaching department now has four full-time senior staff members,

two senior staff with one-fourth time responsibilities, and three junior staff

members who are one-half to three-fourths time students in our graduate


The present curriculum is an interim one which will be in use until

such time as most of our graduate students will be graduates from the

professional undergraduate program at Medellfn, or other professionallevel

programs. Changes at that time will reflect the educational background of

those students.


Development of the Research Program:

The ICA Agricultural Engineering Department, as formally organized

in June, consists of four programs each of which is under the direction of

a senior staff member:

Soil and Water Resources Jorge Quintero

Structures Alvaro Durin


Processing Norm Teter

Machinery Wesley Hobbs

Each of the above programs has one or more senior and/or junior staff

members. George Dunkelberg, and Deane Manbeck, are working in two or

more programs. This organization applies equally to research and teaching,

and in general, to extensions

The research program is moving ahead quite rapidly. We were not

required to await formal initiation of the department before planning and

engaging in research activities, and, as a result, we were able to undertake

a considerable amount of significant research during the year. The rational

behind this early emphasis upon research is:

1. Teaching programs not supported, to a considerable degree, by

research findings are likely to be rather sterile academic procedures.

This is especially true for foreign professors, and is only slightly

less true for native professors.

2. Teaching programs should be directed to the techniques of problem

solving. Therefore it is necessary to determine What are the

problems? What are their real parameters? Are they capable of

solution with the resources available? If not, what additional resources

are necessary?

3. Many research problems in agricultural engineering must be conducted

in the field, and /or in cooperation with agricultural industry, private

individuals, or other academic departments. Therefore, agricultural

engineering did not need to wait for tis own laboratory facilities, nor

for formal initiation of the department. Valuable time would have been


lost had we done so. Events are providing that this was the correct

course of action.

4. Agricultural engineering, as a new profession in Colombia, is on

trial. Interested people are waiting to see if it really has anything

new to offer. In general, other professionals are skeptical of the

need for this new program. They have a "wait and see" attitude.

Therefore, it was necessary for us to move rapidly into visible

activities such as applied research. We are achieving this necessary


Formal research projects, consisting of design and fabrication, that are

conducted by the Nebraska staff and which are actively underway are: potato

storage systems at three locations; a new concept in portable pipeline milking

facilities; farrowing crates; specifications for tilt-up construction in concrete;

potato harvester; corn planter modifications; a pre-tillage conditioner for da se

grass sods; laboratory grain and rice drier; moldboard plow design and production;

basic tillage studies; small farm grain and rice drier; implements for two-wheel

tractors; and a corn sheller. In all of these projects we are assisted by Colombian

staff members. With the exception of the potato storage facilities and the milking

facilities all of the above projects are being fabricated in the ICA laboratories by

the staff and technicians of the department.

The design work has been completed on all of the above projects, and most

of them have either been fabricated and tested, or are currently being fabricated.

All of the above implements will be fabricated and commercially marketed by

Colombian companies. Four of these companies are currently financially

assisting us in these research activities.


Development of Extension Activities:

The Agricultural Engineering Department formally initiated its extension

activities in November. Sr. Alvaro Duran, M. S. in Agricultural Engineering,

was named ICA Coordinator of Agricultural Engineering Extentions. William

Collins was named Coordinator of Agricultural Engineering Extension from

the Nebraska Mission. They ivll take the major lead in the development of

this phase of agricultural engineering in Colombia.

An agricultural engineering "National Plans Service" has been initiated

with a full-time professional draftsman under the immediate direction of Alva-

ro Durin. The major emphasis at the present time is upon the design of facil-

ities and equipment for the poultry industry. This area was chosen because

(1) the poultry industry is made up mainly of very large operators who need,

want and are willing to accept technical assistance, and (2) the ICA and Nebraska

poultry staff have been actively seeking our assistance.

Norman Teter has been actively engaged in a number of activities for

feed processing, poultry processing, seed processing, potato processing,

and in panela processing.

Wesley Hobbs, with the active assistance of Jorge Quintero, Deane Manbeck,

and Luis Ferro has been promoting the development of the infant farm machinery

manufacturing industry in Colombia.

The cooperation of USAID Rural Development Office, and the small

Industries Section of the National Planning Office has been obtained. With

their assistance it appears that the promotional and financial assistance of

Caja Agraria will be gained, which can result in the necessary financial assist-

ance through loans, for the rapid development of the industry.


Mechanization of Colombian agricultural production is dependent upon

the development of the agricultural machinery manufacturing industry for

the production of such implements as moldboard and disk plows, secondary

tillage implements, planters for corn, soybeans, cotton and potatoes, potato

harvestors, corn sheller, small grain driers, land smoothers, fertilizer

spreaders, hammer mills, fans, refrigeration equipment, livestock handling

facilities and other similar equipment. Colombia cannot obtain the required

amount of foreign exchange needed to import these items on a large enough

scale to sufficiently mechanize agriculture to meet the rapidly growing demand

for food.

Development of Physical Facilities:

The new laboratory building for agricultural engineering was completed

on the ICA TibaitatA Campus during the month of November. It will provide

us with adequate teaching and research laboratory space for the foreseeable


Although office space has been somewhat inadequate for most of the year,

it has now improved considerably. It appears that it will improve further in

the next few weeks.

With the receipt of the teaching and research equipment now on order

we will be in fairly. good condition at this stage of development. However, as

the program develops more equipment will be badly needed. ,


Teaching, Research, and Extension Palmira

The Nebraska staff member, George Dunkelberg, arrived on September

12 th. at the Palmira Station. His efforts since then have been mainly devoted

to program planning, getting acquainted with Colombian agriculture, working

out operational agreements, and in laying the foundation for the research and

extension program.

An agreement has been reached with the ICA and National University -

Palmira personnel on a procedure to be used in assisting in the upgrading of

the agricultural engineering service department staff at the National University

in Palmira. In general this will be accomplished in the following manner:

1. Provide scholarships to the ICA Graduate Program in agricultural

engineering. This study program can lead to these staff members

attaining professional level qualifications, and therefore be able to

teach on either the service course level or the professional level.

2. Through the services of the Nebraska agricultural engineer, provide

special staff training in the identification of actual field problems in

agricultural engineering, determining their real dimensions, tech-

niques in their solution, and in the dissemination of these solutions

to students and farmers in solving similar problems.

3. Techniques in formal research.

4. Assistance in development of course materials for existing courses.

5. Improved techniques in laboratory activities, especially in field labo-

ratory use.

The Nebraska staff member at Palmira has made considerable progress,

in a relatively short time, in implementing the above guidelines.

Considerable time has been devoted to extension engineering-type

problems, especially in connection with the poultry industry, and in cooperation

with the ICA-Nebraska poultry staff.

A beginning has been made in program development in soil and water

engineering, with the newly acquired soil and water counterpart. This pro-

gram should move rapidly in the near future.

The new agricultural engineering laboratories now being constructed at

ICA-Palmira will greatly facilitate the program in the coming year.





Assistance given by the Nebraska Mission in Colombia under the general

title of Extension includes the following areas:

1. Center for Communications.

2. Extension Service.

3. Department of Social Science.

Support for personnel, equipment and supplies was received from AID

and the W. K. Kellogg Doundation. Four extension or extension related positions

were supported from AID grant funds and three positions from Kellogg funds.

The original Kellogg Foundation grant which terminated December 31, 1968

was renewed in June 1968 to continue support until March 31, 1971. The

new AID loan contract will continue support for the other extension related

positions until December 31, 1969, with the likelihood of continued support after

that date.

AID personnel were: Marlyn Low, located at Medellfn and working with

the extension-communications staffs of National University, and the ICA

experiment station (Tulio Ospina); Ronald Stoller, located at Palmira and

working with the extension-communications staffs of National University and the

ICA Experiment Station (CNIAP); Ivan Rush, located at Bogota and working

with the ICA Animal Science extension personnel at the ICA Experiment Station

(Tibaitata), and Stephen Brower, located at Bogota, (January 1, 1968 June

30, 1968) and working with the ICA Department of Social Science staff at the


ICA Experiment Station (Tibaitata).

Kellogg personnel were: C. R. Elder (January 1, 1968 June 30, 1968),

amd J. J. Feight, located at BogotA and working with ICA Center for Communi-

cations staff at the ICA Experiment Station (Tibaitata), and A. D. Flowerday,

located at BogotA and working with ICA Extension Service and Department of

Social Science staffs at the ICA Experiment Station (TibaitatA).

Center for Communications

The Communications Center improved in efficiency and effectiveness

during 1968. However, progress was not as rapid as had been anticipated.

The major obstacles are inadequate space for both staff and equipment, lack

of experience of personnel, low salaries, and the non-acceptance of the com-

munications staff as professionals by the general ICA staff. However, the

new employees are becoming more familiar with the equipment, acquiring

greater competence in the performance of their duties and improving the

system for handling orders. An addition to the present building has been

promised for early 1969. In the later months of the year the ICA administrat-

ion gave its support and approval for needed changes and improvement in the

Center. In spite of the new ICA pay scale, it is very doubtful if salaries

for service personnel will be greatly improved.

Publications: The printing section has not been able to keep pace with

the rapidly increasing needs of ICA for printed material for research, ex-

tension and teaching purposes. This is due in part to poor efficiency caused

by inadequate space and inexperienced personnel, but is due also to an un-

believable increase in work load and some equipment and personnel defi-


ciencies. Additional plate making, printing, and binding equipment will be

ordered and assurance has been given by the ICA administration that addition-

al personnel can be hired.

Photography: The photographic laboratories have not yet reached

professional caliber but are making progress. Space is not adequate and the

photographers need to establish work priorities, production schedules, and

closer coordination with the press, publications, and exhibit sections. If

researchers would take more of their own record shots with loan cameras,

this would allow photographers more time to take creative photographs for

press and publication.

Radio: All of the radio equipment has arrived and has been installed

in a rudimentary studio. Tapes are being produced for Radio Nacional and

Radio Sutatenza; radio scripts and promotional spots, complete with music,

have been produced. These indicate only mere beginnings of the total po-

tential use of radio by ICA to disseminate information.

Press: Considerable progress has been made in the press services

at all locations. Increase in quantity of releases and improvement in quality

is apparent. However, there is still more potential than is currently being


Visual Aids: The demand for visual-aid equipment is increasing

dramatically, primarily for teaching use. With increased use there is

need for increased training in the proper care and most effective use of

overhead and slide projectors.


The preparation of exhibits for fairs and exhibitions requires more time

and expense than can be justified. It is very doubtful that this is a very effective

method to use either for dissemination of information or the improvement of

public relations.

Teaching and Training: A tremendous need exists to begin programs of

"in-service" training in all phases of communications for ICA personnel engaged

in teaching and extension. Equally important is the need to work more with the

three branches of National University to develop course outlines and a complete

curriculum for a communications-extension minor for university students.

Extension Service

The major accomplishments in the area of extension were (1) the organiza-

tion, training and implementation of a field force of 42 extension agents, (2) the

appointment of a staff of 39 subject matter specialists to aid and support the

extension agents, and (3) the organization and execution of many field days

and short courses.

Extension agencies of ICA are now situated at 42 locations throughout

the country. Although this number is small with respect to the total needs,

it represents a substantial step forward in the dissemination of research to

the field. Agents will need considerable administrative and program assist-

ance during the formative years to make certain that extension meets the

needs of the local situation. Every effort must be made to provide guidance

and counsel to these new agents.

Subject matter specialists have been appointed in the majoritN of the


ICA National Programs of research. The caliber of individuals appointed was

very high, in some cases, the director of the national program. Now, these

specialists must be trained through short courses and seminars in extension

methods and techniques.

Many field days and short courses were held and well attended during the

past year. The audiences are very attentive and appreciative of the information

distributed. However, both activities could be improved by the use of more

illustrative materials, less formal presentations, and more positive recom-

mendations for production problems. Hand out materials should be more

"extension" in nature and less like a research report.

Department of Social Science

The Department of Social Science was restructured from the Department

of Information by Resolution N1 00964, September 14, 1968. The Resolution

created national programs in mass media communications, extension education,

and rural sociology. This department like all of the others in ICA will be engaged

in research, teaching, and extension activities in all three programs.

Although the department has been extremely active in the area of exten-

sion, through the development and performance of short courses and seminars,

research projects and teaching have received relatively little attention. This

was due primarily to a lack of personnel, but also, considerable staff time was

spent assisting the Extension Service during the developmental stages.


Assistance at the Medellfn location was given in cooperation with the Com-


munications Section, and the Extension Coordinator of ICA and the extension

staff of the National University.

Communications Section: The staff of four persons, two professional

agronomists, a photographer, and a secretary with training in communications

has made an excellent contribution in the areas of press, radio, photography,

and publications. The two agronomists have prepared a total of ten extension

folders, printed approximately 17, 000 copies of which the majority have been

distributed at field days, short courses, and to station visitors. In addition,

they assisted with a number of field days, short courses and tours of the


Due to her ability and training in communications, the secretary was

very effective in surveying the newspapers and radio stations in the Medellfn

area to determine the type and use of material desired. Over 160 were prepar-

ed for use by the press, 65-five minute interviews were prepared during the

year. The creativity of the station photographers in supplying excellent pho-

tographs for the accompanying news stories resulted in increased use and great-

er effectiveness of the press release.

Extension Coordinator: The major duties of the Extension Coordinator

are concerned with the implementation of regional trials, coordination of

field days and short courses, and assistance in the organization of the Usua-

rios (groups of people interested in obtaining the services of ICA). Assistance

was given in these areas as staff time permitted. However, it is doubtful

if these kinds of activities are making the most effective use of ICA 'Nebraska



National University: The Section of Agricultural Economics and Exten-

sion teaches three courses which are required by all students, namely, General

Sociology, Rural Sociology, and Agricultural Extension.

I. In addition, the following electives are offered, Agricultural Communica-

tions, Organization and Administration of Extension, Program Planning and

Evaluation, Extension Vethods, and Investigation in Social Science. Advice and

assistance was given in the beginning course in extension and the course in

agricultural communications.

In addition to the teaching activities the extension staff is engaged in some

research projects. These projects generally are concerned with the socio-

economic factors affecting extension, the evaluation of extension programs,

and the relative effectiveness of different extension methods. Minor advisory

assistance was given in this research program along with some counsel for a

fifth year student in the preparation of his thesis.


Assistance at the Palmira location was given in cooperation with person-

nel of Communications Section and the Extension Coordinator of ICA and the

extension staff of the National University.

Communications: Considerable progress has been made in the develop-

ment of the Communications section. A monthly newsletter has been developed

to disseminate timely research information from the Palmira station.

A weekly radio program is being broadcast from Radio Palmira. Advice