AGRCLT0URAL INST I1.
oract N2 AID/Ia-58
Ma 1h, 1971 -December 31,
DIVERSITY OF FLORID
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA-AID PROJECT IN EL SALVADOR CONTRACT No. AID/IA-586
MARCH 1, 1971 TO DECEBER 31, 1971 CONTENTS
I Summary 1
A. Objectives 1
B. Important Developments 1
II Projected Progress 2
A. Background 2
B. Goals for Reporting Period 3
C. Goal Centered Activities and Accomplishments 3
Short Term Advisor Program 3
Curriculum Changes 5
Administrative Visits 5
Teacher Training Activities 5
Instructional Aids 6
Integration With CENTA 6
D. Problems 7
III Projected Goals and Activities 8
IV Additional Activities 8
APPENDIX A 9
APPENDIX B 13
APPENDIX C 14
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA-AID PROJECT IN EL SALVADOR
CONTRACT No. AID/IA-586
MARCH 1, 1971 TO DECEMBER 31, 1971
1. To improve the quality of graduates of the Escuela Nacional de
2. To assist the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura in its integration into CENTA (Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria).
CENTA will be a coordinated national center for teaching, research and extension activities within the Ministerio de Agri-cultura y Ganaderia.
B. Important Developments
This project is a partnership with the University of Florida and USAID
as one partner and the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia and the
Escuela Nacional de Agricultura as the other partner. It is a 'learning by doing' experience for the Salvadorean counterparts, not a
'learning by watching' experience.
The administrator and the staff of the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura
are involved with the University of Florida-AID team in the planning,
execution and evaluation of all project activities. The project is
designed to leave, upon completion, an improved, on-going program that
counterparts have helped to build and have the desire and ability to
Many changes have taken place at the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura
since the beginning of the project. These changes are due to four
factors (1) the initiative of ENA personnel, (2) the interest and cooperation of the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, (3) the
recommendations made by the University of Florida advisors and, (4) the technical assistance and advice from USAID in El Salvador including the
Program Office, Food and Agriculture Officer, USDA/PASA Team and
personnel from the Utah State University and Oregon State University.
In addition to the Contract Chief of Party, the University of Florida has contributed 24 short term advisors for a total of 44 tours. After
reviewing the local situation with his counterparts, the advisor
recommends needed changes in production practices, course content and
teaching methods. To date, twelve new course outlines have been
prepared by advisors and their counterparts and are now in use. Many
other outlines have been improved and countless new production practices
have been adopted.
A strong phase of the project has been the participant training program.
This is designed to improve the level of training of the teaching staff
of ENA. It includes in-service workshops on and off-campus, scholar
ships for study abroad and English instruction. At the beginning of
the project the teaching staff at ENA included one at the master's
degree level, nine at the bachelor's level and 17 below the bachelor level. Today the staff includes one ph.d., two masters, 17 bachelors
and 8 below the bachelor degree level. In addition, five staff members are presently enrolled in degree programs abroad and two in non-degree
programs. Seven more are scheduled for training in 1972, four at the
master level, two at the bachelor and one in a non-degree program.
Every University of Florida advisor has encountered situations unique
to his respective field. Their reactions are varied but they all agree
in one respect: they are impressed by the ability, keen interest,
enthusiasm, cooperative spirit and gratitude displayed by their respective counterparts and administrators in the Ministerio de Agricultura y
I PROJECT PROGRESS.
This is a summary of project activities from August 16, 1969 to February
28, 1971 and a detailed description of activities from March 1 1971 to
December 31, 1971.
The primary objectives of this contract are to improve the quality of
graduates of the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura and to assist this
school in its eventual integration into CENTA. CENTA is the Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, a coordinated national center for teaching, research and extension activities within the Ministerio de
Agricultura y Ganaderia.
The Escuela Nacional de Agricultura serves a vital role in the agricultural economy of El Salvador as it is the primary institution in the
country for training agricultural technicians. In view of this importance the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia initiated an improvement and expansion program at ENA in cooperation with USAID, the University of Florida and the World Bank. The major emphasis of the University of Florida-AID project is with improvement of instruction whereas the major emphasis of the World Bank loan is expansion of facilities. The expansion of facilities will enable ENA to increase its present enrollment
from 250 to 450 students.
Under the present contract of the project the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences of the University of Florida has provided a Chief of Party who also serves as the Agricultural Education Advisor for a total
of 29 months. Twenty four short term advisors in various technical agricultural fields have contributed seven and a half man-months to the project in El Salvador. The activities of the project are oriented toward achievement of the project's objectives and include curriculum planning,
changes in production practices recommended by advisors, teacher training
activities, purchase of new instructional aids and coordination of activities with the research and extension divisions of the ministry.
A loan for 01,714,000 has been negotiated with the World Bank through the Ministry of Education for expansion of teaching facilities at ENA.
It is anticipated that construction will begin in January, 1972 and be completed in 1974. Major construction will include: a classroom building that will include three demonstration rooms and four laboratories; four dormitories; farm mechanics shop; milk processing plant and laboratory; milking parlor; swine unit; beef barn; and tool storage.
World Bank Loan Budget for ENA
Construction 0 880,000
Total 0 1. 714.000
B. Goals for the Reporting Period
1. To improve the quality of instruction at the Escuela Nacional de
Agricultura (ENA) by:
a. developing new course outlines that include the latest agricultural technology.
b. adjusting production practices to include the latest agricultural
c. improving the level of competence of the teaching professors and
instructors with advanced training, in-service workshops and
d. adding new instructional aids, reference materials and textbooks.
2. To assist the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura in its integration with
CENTA (Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria) by coordinating
appropriate activities with the research and extension divisions of
the Ministry of Agriculture.
C. Goal Centered Activities and Accomplishments
Short Term Advisor Program
The primary impetus for achieving the goals of the project has been provided
by the various long term and short ter advisors from the University of Florida. They recommend changes that will add the latest agricultural technology in their respective fields to the teaching curriculum and production practices at ENA.
Advisors in specific fields are requested by the administration of ENA after consultation with the Minister of Agriculture, USAID Food and Agriculture Officer and the Contract Chief of Party. This selection is based largely on curriculum deficiencies at ENA and in some cases on agricultural
research needs of El Salvador. A chronological list of the advisors who have participated in the project is attached in APPENDIX A.
Each advisor is assigned a counterpart. Their recommendations are supervised by the Contract Chief of Party and administrators of ENA and in many cases they return periodically to study the progress and make additional recommendations. They also consult with the other agencies of the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, local farmers, agri-businessmen and the faculty of Agronomy at the University of El Salvador.
Twenty four short term advisors have completed a total of 44 assignments at the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura. The length and number of assignments of an advisor is determined by the particular situation. Figure 1 indicates the number of tours by individual advisors and Figure 2 the length of tours.
Figure I Figure 2
Number of Tours Length of Tours
One Tour ................. 11 One Week.................. 9
Two Tours ........ *** ** 9 Two Weeks........... *. 28
Three Tours .................. 1 Three Weeks ..... ......... 4
Four Tours ................. _3 Four Weeks................ 2
Total Number of Advisors 24 Five Weeks................ 1
Total Number of Tours 44Figure 3 indicates the number of assignments according to the various
areas of work.
Number of Tours According to Areas of Work
Animal Science........ .. (7)*
PAntrotect.... ........ ...... 0.00000..* ..... 000 ... 0..... 11(4)
Figure in parenthesis indicates tour during present reporting
period. The first column indicates the total number of tours since
the project began.
** Includes Agricultural Economics, Soil, Botany and Agricultural Engineering.
The advisors, upon their arrival at ENA review the production practices, course outlines and teaching methods with their counterparts. At the termination of their tour each advisor submits a report including their recommendations. Copies of these reports are on file in El Salvador and at the International Programs office at the University of Florida. APPENDIX C is a compilation of reports from the advisors. A comprehensive list of recommended changes in production practices was included in the previous progress report.
Major changes in the curriculum have also been recommended. These have involved new course outlines, addition and deletion of certain courses, the rearranging of course sequences and the addition of teaching materials and equipment.
Twelve new course outlines have been prepared by the Florida advisors and are now being taught by their counterparts. They include the following courses: Principles of Food Technology, General Botany, Basic Soils, Soil Fertility, Soil Conservation, Agricultural Economics, Statistics, Genetics, Introduction to Plant Pathology and Nematology, Entomology, Farm Shop and Agricultural Machinery. These are comprehensive course outlines including bibliographies, texts and visual aids. In many cases the advisor has been able to return to ENA to assist his
counterpart in the initial teaching of the new course.
Two administrators from the University of Florida visited the project in March; Dr. Charles B. Browning, Dean of Resident Instruction and Dr. Hugh L. Popenoe, Director of International Programs and Contract Coordinator.
Six department chairman visited the project in September in order to get better acquainted with their role and responsibilities. They were Dr. G. A. Marlowe, Vegetable Crops, Dr. Charles F. Eno, Soils, Dr. Darell E. McCloud, Agronomy, Dr. Ernest T. Smerdon, Agricultural Engineering, Dr. Jack Van Horn, Dairy Sciences and Dr. Kenneth R. Tefertiller, Agricultural Economics.
Teacher Training Activities
An intensive program is in affect to improve the teaching effectiveness of the faculty at ENA. This program includes on and off-campus workshops, scholarships for study abroad and English instruction. Figure 4 indicates the level of training of the faculty at ENA at the beginning of the project in 1969 and the improvement made by the end of 1971.
Level of Training of ENA Teaching Staff
... .... ..._1969 19 ?1 ......
Degree Number Percentage Number Percentage
Ph.D. 0 0 1 4%
Masters 1 4% 2 7%
B.S. Level 9 33% 17 60%
Egresado 7 26% 3 11%
Less 10 37% 5 18%
Since the beginning of the project seven professors of ENA have received their degrees from institutions abroad. Six of these received AID scholarships. Four instructors are presently studying at U.S. universities with AID scholarships, one professor is pursuing his masters degree in Costa Rica and two others are participating in non degree programs abroad. Another professor also attended the 1971 summer session at the University of Florida in order to enable him to teach the new Genetics course.
English instruction has been emphasized at ENA for these reasons: to enable the staff to keep abreast of the latest agricultural technology via references written in English; communication with English speaking advisors and; to prepare them for further training at English speaking institutions.
During the reporting period 18 staff members of ENA have been studying
English at the Centro de El Salvador y Estados Unidos. AID-El Salvador provided scholarships for this training.
In 1969 four (14%) of the faculty were fluent in English. At the end of 1971 sixteen (57%) are fluent in English.
Arrangements were made to secure three Peace Corp teachers to enable ENA professors to continue their education in the United States. They have also served as team-teachers and are providing a valuable contribution to ENA.
A study of the instructional material available at ENA revealed a critical
need of teaching material and teaching aids. As a result, many bulletins, reference books (Spanish and English), periodicals and teaching aids have been secured.
Recent acquisitions have included a mower and scales for the forage introduction and evaluation program; a 35 mm camera and attachments; a filmstrip cabinet, a complete set of soil color charts; subscriptions for three agricultural magazines; textbooks and reference books for the swine and beef courses, and; many other reference books and bulletins.
Integration With CENTA
CENTA is the National Center of Agricultural Technology (Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria). It includes the research, extension and
educational divisions of the Ministry of Agriculture and will become a reality in January 1972. Eventually, this center will be located at San Andres. At the present time the Center for Agricultural Research and Extension is at Santa Tecla and the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura at San Andres. These three divisions are being combined under one Director
General in order to facilitate greater coordination of resources.
The formation of CENTA coincides with an expansion of activities and facilities of research, extension and education within the Ministry of Agriculture.
Consultants from Florida were willing to offer their services to research and extension personnel as this is the nature of their activities at the University. They have advised on particular research projects and in some cases have participated in short courses for extension personnel.
Probably the best example has been the Coordinated Forage Introduction and Evaluation Program. This program was initiated by the late Dr. John E. McCaleb and is presently being coordinated by Dr. Luis Tergas. The following divisions of the Ministry of Agriculture are participating in this program: Research, Extension, Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Diversification Project and the Peace Corp. It has involved (1) an introduction garden of over 400 varieties of grasses and legumes, (2) field test plots in various parts of El Salvador, (3) grazing trials, and
(4) pasture management workshops for extension agents and cattlemen.
AID also co-sponsored with the Ministry of Agriculture and IICA (Instituto
Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas) a short course in teaching methodology for the faculty of ENA and extension supervisors.
Problems are noted due to their relationship with the accomplishment of the project's goals. The Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia is aware of these problems and steps are being taken to overcome them.
1. The level of formal training of the faculty at the Escuela Nacional de
Agricultura is a handicap. Even with the progress that has been made, 89% of the professors have had no graduate level training and 29% have
not attained a Bachelor's degree.
2. There is a low number of high caliber candidates available for scholarships leading to advanced degrees. Three factors contribute to this
situation, (a) small faculty (28 professors), (b) the low level of
training mentioned in the first problem, and (c) usually only employees
of the ministry are elgible for scholarships.
3. Rigid entrance requirements of the various universities in the United
States also pose a problem to our participant training program. This
situation is particularly acute at the University of Florida, one of
the institutions best suited to serve the training needs of El Salvador.
Admission personnel are quite inflexible when evaluating English scores
(TOEFL) and Graduate Record Examinations.
Aplicants for scholarships receive a good English training locally and
are well screened before being recommended for further training. The two primary criteria used in the screening process are (1) ability, as
shown in test scores and previous grades, and (2) desire as revealed by
previous performance on the job.
4. Insufficient counterpart funds is also a problem. This affects the
purchase of instructional equipment, construction of teaching facilities, educational travel, adequate salaries for personnel and salaries for replacement personnel while other are studying for advanced degrees.
III PROJECTED GOALS AND ACTIVITIES.
The scope of the project will broaden January 1, 1972. This will be
the birthday of CENTA, the Centro acional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, a
coordinated national center for teaching, research and extension activities.
The major objective of the University of Florida-AID project will be to
assist in developing CENTA, a viable teaching, research and extension
institution. Florida's input will be five long term advisors (two years
each) plus additional short term advisors to supplement the long term
The long term advisors will function at the department level, assisting their respective counterparts in the coordination of research, teaching and extension activities. The departments selected for the initiation
of this phase of CENTA are agronomy, animal science, plant pathology,
agricultural education and extension and agricultural economics.
The long term advisors will be involved in on-going research projects, planning and development of new research activities, teaching and curriculum development, extension training and other extension activities.
Florida-AID project personnel will also continue to assist in the participant training program and the selection of needed instructional and
A three week in-service Short Course on Communications Methods has been scheduled for January, 1972 for ENA personnel and extension supervisors.
AID will co-sponsor this short course with the Ministry of Agriculture
and TICA (Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas).
The short term advisor program and participant training program will
continue during 1972 and. 1973.
IV ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES.
The Contract Chief of Party also serves as agricultural education
consultant to the Ministry of Education. This has involved assisting in
the development of four regional vocational agriculture institutes at the secondary level. Teacher training activities received the major
emphasis during the reporting period.
The Contract Chief of Party also spent a week at the University of Florida in June with his counterpart, Dr. Carlos Burgos, Director of the
Escuela Nacional de Agricultura. The purpose of this visit was to
consult with the administrators of International Programs, animal science
advisors and pertinent department chairmen.
The session with the animal science advisors resulted in a coordinated
list of recommended changes for improving the animal science curriculum
The purpose of the session with the department chairmen was to acquaint them with the University of Florida-AID project activities. This will
enable them to be more knowledgeable in recruiting and backstopping
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA STAFF MEMBERS
ASSIGNED TO EL SALVADOR UNDER CONTRACT AID/IA-586 (Chronological Listing)
No. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITIE AREA OF WORK
1. August 16, 1969 Dr. Harry E. Peirce Contract
to present Agricultural Educa- Administrator
tor and Chief of and Curriculum
2. January 22, 1970 Dr. John C. Glenn Beef Breeding
January 30, 1970 Associate Animal and Management
3. February 15, 1970 Dr. Simon E. Malo Fruit ProductFebruary 28, 1970 Assistant Horti- ion Management
4. February 23, 1970 Dr. Vernon G. Perry Nematode
March 6, 1970 Nematologist Survey
5. May 11, 1970 Dr. Robert Harms Evaluation of
May 22, 1970 Chairman, Dept. of Poultry ManaPoultry Science gement Practices
6. June 2, 1970 Dr. James Wing Evaluation of
June 13, 1970 Professor of Dairy Dairy ManageSciences ment Practices
7. May 17, 1970 Dr. Rex L. Smith Genetics CuMay 30, 1970 Assistant Agrono- rriculum and
mist Crop Breeding
8. May 17, 1970 Dr. Robert Allison Survey
May 30, 1970 Fiber Technologist Possibilities
Emeritus of Fiber Crop
9. June 7, 1970 Dr. John McCaleb Pasture ImproveJune 30, 1970 Associate Agrono- meant
10. August 16, 1970 *(2)Dr. Robert Harms Poultry ManageAugust 22, 1970 Chairman, Dept. of ment
11. August 29, 1970 (2)Dr. James Wing Dairy Management
Sept. 13, 1970 Professor of Dairy
Indicates the number of tours.
No. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITLE AREA OF WORK
12. Sept. 8, 1970 Clarence Rogers Farm Mechanics
Sept. 26, 1970 Associate Agricul- Curriculum and
tural Engineer Facilities
13. Sept. 27, 1970 (2)Dr. Vernon Perry Nematology CuOct. 11, 1970 Nenatologist rriculum and
14. Sept. 27, 1970 Dr. Louis Kuitert Entomology Cu
Oct. 11, 1970 Entomologist rriculum and
15. Sept. 27, 1970 Dr. Carol Miller Plant Pathology
Oct. 11, 1970 Assistant Plant Curriculum and
Pathologist Plant Disease
16. Oct. 4, 1970 (2)Dr. John McCaleb Pasture ManageOct. 18, 1970 Associate Agro- ment and Renomist search
17. Oct. 5, 1970 (2)Dr. Simon Malo Fruit ProductOct. 18, 1970 Assistant Horti- ion Management
18. Nov. 2, 1970 Dr. Gordon Prine Sorghum Research
Nov. 14, 1970 Associate Agrono- and Management
19. Nov. 16, 1970 Dr. Ralph Smith Soybean Research
Nov. 25, 1970 Associate Agronomist
20. Nov. 30, 1970 (3)Dr. Simon Malo Fruit Production
Dec. 4, 1970 Assistant Horti- Management
21. Jan. 29, 1971 (3)Dr. John McCaleb Forage Crop
Feb. 17, 1971 Associate Agrono- Introduction and
22. Feb. 21, 1971 Dr. Charles Wilcox Dairy Breeding
March 6, 1971 Associate Dairy Program
23. Feb. 21, 1971 (2)Dr. John Glenn Beef Breeding and
Feb. 27, 1971 Associate Animal Management Program
24. Feb. 28, 1971 (2)Dr. Louis Kuitert Entomology CurriMarch 13, 1971 Entomologist culum and Insect
No. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITLE AREA OF WORK
25. Feb. 28, 1971 (2)Dr. Carol Miller Plant Pathology
March 12, 1971 Assistant Plant Curriculum and
26. March 6, 1971 Dr. Albert Lorz Edible Cowpea
March 10, 1971 Horticulturist Production
27. March 14, 1971 Dr. Harold Wallace Swine Management
March 27, 1971 Animal Nutritionist
28. March 20, 1971 Dr. John Greenman Farm Management
April 3, 1971 Agricultural Curriculum and
Economist Enterprise Management
29. March 16, 1971 (4)Dr. Simon Malo New Fruit Tree
March 19, 1971 Assistant Horti- Collection
30. March 28, 1971 Dr. Charles Browning Project AdminisMarch 30, 1971 Dean of Resident tration
31. March 29, 1971 Dr. Hugh Popenoe Project AdminisMarch 30, 1971 Director of Inter- tration
32. April 12, 1971 Dr. Joseph Bertrand Nutrition and
April 24, 1971 Associate Animal Management of
Nutritionist Beef Cattle
33. April 19, 1971 Dr. Wm. Christiansen Feed Composition
April 21, 1971 Associate Animal Project
34. April 20, 1971 Dr. C. B. Ammerman Veterinary MediApril 23, 1971 Associate Animal cine Conference
35. April 20, 1971 Dr. W. W. Thatcher Veterinary MediApril 23, 1971 Assistant Animal cine Conference
36. April 20, 1971 Dr. Fuller Bazer Veterinary MediApril 24, 1971 Assistant Animal cine Conference
37. April 18, 1971 Dr. Ray Dennison Evaluation of
May 1, 1971 Chairman, Dept. of Food Processing
Food Science Program
38. April 18, 1971 Dr. Ernest Ford Botany CurricuMay 1, 1971 Professor of lum
ao. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITLE AREA OF WORK
39. Nay 2, 1971 Dr. Wade McCall Soils Curriculum
May 15, 1971 Visiting Professor
40. May 16, 1971 (4)Dr. John McCaleb Forage Crop IntroJune 4, 1971 Associate Agronomist duction and
41. June 13, 1971 (2)Dr. Gordon Prine Sorghum Research
June 26, 1971 Associate Agronomist and Management
42. July 11, 1971 Dr. A. C. Tarjan Nematode Survey
Aug. 14, 1971 Nematologist
43. Aug. 8, 1971 (3)Dr. Louis Kuitert Entomology CurriSept. 3, 1971 Entomologist culum and Insect
44. Aug. 8, 1971 Dr. Luis Tergas Forage Crop IntroSept. 4, 1971 Associate Agronomist duction and
45. Aug. 15, 1971 (2)Dr. Ralph Smith Soybean Research
Aug. 28, 1971 Associate Agronomist
46, Aug. 24, 1971 Dr. L. H. Purdy Plant Pathology
Sept. 4, 1971 Chairman, Plant Curriculum
47. Aug. 24, 1971 (3)Dr. Vernon Perry Nematology CurriSept. 1, 1971 Nematologist culum
48. Aug. 30, 1971 (2)Dr. John Greenman Farm Management
Sept. 18, 1971 Agricultural Curriculum and
Economist Enterprise Management
49. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. G. A. Marlowe Project AdminisOct. 2, 1971 Chairman, Vegetable tration
50. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. Charles Eno Project AdminisOct. 2, 1971 Chairman, Soils tration
51. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. Darell McCloud Project AdminisOct. 2, 1971 Chairman, Agronomy tration
52. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. E. T. Smerdon Project AdminisOct. 2, 1971 Chairman, Agricul- tration
53. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. H. H. Van Horn Project AdminisOct. 1, 1971 Chairman, Dairy tration
No. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITLE AREA OF WORK
54. Sept. 26, 1971 Dr. K. Tefertiller Project AdminisSept. 30, 1971 Chairman, Agricul- tration
55. Oct. 17, 1971 (2)Dr. J. Bertrand Nutrition and
Oct. 30, 1971 Associate Animal Management of
Nutritionist Beef Cattle
56. Nov. 8, 1971 (2)Dr. Harold Wallace Swine Management
Nov. 19, 1971 Animal Nutritionist
57. Nov. 8, 1971 (4)Dr. Vernon Perry Nematology CurriNov. 20, 1971 Nematologist culum
58. Nov. 28, 1971 Herbert Dunlap Diary Processing
Dec. 3, 1971 Dairy Equipment Equipment
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA STAFF MEMBERS
SCHEDULED TO PARTICIPATE IN AID CONTRACT IN EL SALVADOR SHORT TERM ADVISOR
No. DATES OF ASSIGNMENT NAME AND TITLE AREA OF WORK
1. Jan. 6, 1972 Dr. Luis Tergas Forage Crop IntroFeb. 6, 1972 Forage Specialist duction and
LONG TERM ADVISORS
1. At Post Dr. Harry Peirce Project AdminisContract Chief of tration,AgriculParty tural Education
2. Jan. 11, 1972 Clarence Reaves Animal Science
Professor of Dairy Department
3. Jan. 26, 1972 Dr. G. Beinhart Agronomy DepartAgronomist ment
4. Feb. 29, 1972 Dr. H. N. Miller Plant Pathology
Plant Pathologist Department
5. April 6, 1972 Dr. P. Hildebrand Agricultural
- 14 APPENDIX C
DEPARTAMENTAL LIST OF ADVISOR'S REPORTS
NAITE AREA OF WORK DATES OF ASSIGNMENT
Dr. John Glenn 'Beef Breeding and Jan. 22-30, 1970
Management Program Feb. 21-27, 1971
Dr. Robert Harms Evaluation of Poul- May 11-22, 1970
try Management Aug. 16-22, 1970
Dr. James Wing Evaluation of Dairy June 2-13, 1970
Management Practices Aug. 29-Sept. 13, 70
Dr. Charles Wilcox Dairy Breeding Feb. 21-March 6, 71
Dr. Harold Wallace Swine Management March 14-27, 1971
Nov. 8-20, 1971
Dr. Joseph Bertrand Nutrition and Mana- April 12-24, 1971
gement of Beef Cattle Oct. 17-30, 1971
Dr. Ray Dennison Evaluation of Food April 18-May 1, 1971
Dr. Rex Smith Genetics Curriculum May 17-30, 1970
and Crop Breeding
Dr. Robert Allison Survey Possibilities May 17-30, 1970
of Fiber Crop
Dr. John McCaleb Pasture Improvement June 7-30, 1970
Oct. 4-18, 1970
Jan. 29-Feb. 17, 71
May 16-June 4, 1971
Dr. Gordon Prine Sorghum Research Nov. 2-14, 1970
and Management June 13-26, 1971
Dr. Ralph Smith Soybean Research Nov. 16-25, 1970
and Management Aug. 15-28, 2971
Dr. Luis Tergas Forage Crop Intro- Aug. 8-Sept. 4, 1971
duction and Jan. 4-Feb. 6, 1972
NAME AREA OF WORK DATES OF ASSIGNMENT
Dr. Vernon Perry Nematode Survey Feb. 23-March 6, 1970
and Curriculum Sept. 27-Oct. 11, 1970
Aug. 24-Sept. 1, 1971
Nov. 8-20, 1971
Dr. L. C. Kuitert Entomology Curricu- Sept. 27-Oct. 11, 1970
culum and Insect Feb. 28-March 13, 1971
Survey Aug. 8-Sept. 3, 1971
Dr. Carol Miller Plant Pathology Sept. 27-Oct. 11, 1970
Curriculum and Feb. 28-March 12, 1971
Dr. A. C. Tarjan Nematode Survey July 11, Aug. 14, 1971
Dr. L. H. Purdy Plant Pathology Aug. 24-Sept. 4, 1971
Dr. Simon E. Malo Fruit Production Feb. 15-28, 1970
Management Oct. 5-18, J970
Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1970
March 16-19, 1971
Dr. Albert Lorz Edible Cowpea March 6-10, 1971
Clarence Rogers Farm Mechanics Sept. 8-26, 1970
Dr. John Greenman Farm Management March 20-April 13, 1971
Curriculum and Aug. 30-Sept. 18, 1971
Dr. Ernest Ford Botany Curriculum April-18,-May 1, 1971
Dr. Wade McCall Soils Curriculum May 2-15, 1971
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDL-AID PROJECT IN EL SALVADOR CONTRACT No. AID/la-586
JANUARY 1, 1972 TO JUNE 30, 1972 CONTENTS
I SUMMARY 17
A. Objectives 17
B. Important Developments 17
II PROJECT PROGRESS 18
A. Goals for Reporting Period 18
B, Goal Centered Activities and Accomplishments 18
Technical Assistance 18
Participant Training 22
C. Problems 23
III PROJECTED GOALS AND ACTIVITIES 23
IV ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES 24
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA-AID PROJECT IN EL SALVADOR
CONTRACT No. AID/la-586
JANUARY 1, 1972 TO JUNE 30, 1972
The major objective of the University of Florida-AID Project is to
assist in the development of a viable research, extension and
teaching institution, the Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (CENTA).
B. Important Developments.
CENTA was inaugurated January 1, 1972 after over two years of planning by the Ministry of Agriculture. It is a semi-autonomous institution within the Ministry of Agriculture that now coordinates the research, extension and teaching activities of the Ministry under one DirectorGeneral.
The University of Florida was requested to assist in the development of CENTA by providing five long term advisors in the following areas: agricultural education (at post since August, 1969), animal science, agronomy, agricultural economics and plant pathology. The four additional team members were recruited and arrived at post during the reporting period.
The four new team members devoted the first months of 1972 to getting acquainted with their respective counterparts and the local agricultural situation. Each advisor, however, has already made distinct contributions within his particular area.
The major impetus of the advisors is expected to be in administrative guidance. However, to gain the confidence of his counterpart and to secure grassroots grasp of the local agricultural problems, each advisor assists with the day-to-day activities in research, extension and teaching.
The administrative changes resulting from the inauguration of CENTA have been steady but slow due largely to two factors, (1) a new government administration has been elected and inaugurated, and (2) ministry personnel have been naturally apprehensive regarding changes, It appears now, however, that administrative changes within the Ministry of Agriculture will be minimal and meetings have been scheduled to acquaint CENTA personnel with the background and development of CENTA. In the meantime, the Florida advisors are working with their counterparts in the following areas, (1) present research projects, (2) planning new research projects, (3) curriculum development, (4) extension activities, (5) participant training program, and (6) ordering needed equipment.
- PROJECT PROGRESS.
A, Goals for Reporting Period.
1. To improve the coordination of research, extension and teaching
activities within the Ministry of Agriculture in the following areas: animal science, agronomy, agricultural economics, plant
pathology and agricultural education.
2. To improve the research program by assisting the Salvadorean
staff with the execution and evaluation of present projects and
the identification of needed additional research projects.
3. To improve the quality of instruction at the Escuela Nacional
de Agricultura (ENA) by assisting the Salvadorean staff with the:
a. development of new course outlines that include the latest
agricultural technology and modern teaching methods.
b. adjustment of production practices to include the latest agricultural technology, and
c. improvement of the level of competence of the teaching staff
with advanced training, in-service workshops and short
4. To improve the extension program by assisting Salvadorean specialists with their extension activities.
5. To improve the participant training program by assisting with inservice training workshops and helping to select scholarship
6. To obtain equipment needed for research, extension and teaching.
B. Goal Centered Activities and Accomplishments.
1. Technical Assistance.
The primary responsibility for achieving the project goals will
belong to the various long term and short term advisors from the
University of Florida.
The long term advisors function at the department level, assisting
their respective counterparts in the coordination of research, teaching and extension activities. The departments now having
advisors are agronomy, animal science, plant pathology, agricultural economics and agricultural education. The short term advisors
supplement the activities of the long term advisors.
a. Dr. Harry E. Peirce Contract Chief of Party and Agricultural
Education Advisor. Arrived at post August 16, 1969. Major counterparts are Dr. Carlos Burgos, Director of Agricultural
Education and Eugenio Salazar Beneke, Director General of Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (CENTA).
Activities Assisted with four week communications workshop in January for 35 professors and extension supervisors. This was a joint effort sponsored by the Instituto Interamericano
de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA), AID and the Ministry of Agriculture.
Prepared a teaching unit in Spanish "Applying Farm Management Principles to Decision Making" for use in the farm management
and extension courses and in-service training of extension
agents and farm credit agents.
Assisted with participant training program by preparing seven PIO/Ps for participants and contacted several universities for
Developed the film schedule for ENA in cooperation with the
professors, RTAC and USIS.
Assisted Dr. Burgos in the preparation of the educational
section of the USAID loan application. The loan for $4,000,000
for the development of CENTA was approved by USAID in Washington,
Discussed curriculum evaluation and proposed changes in course
scheduling at ENA with Director Dr. Carlos Burgos.
Attended the Central American Beef and Dairy Cattle Short Course
and Exposition in Guatemala along with three members of the
Animal Science Department.
Attended the Central American Conference for Middle Level Agricultural Schools with counterpart, Dr. Carlos Burgos in Guatemala.
Dr. Burgos was elected vice president of the Directores de Escuela
Agricolas Secundarias de Centroamerica y Panama.
b. Professor Clarence W. Reaves Dairy Scientist. Arrived at post
January 11, 1972. Major counterparts are Mauricio Salazar, Jorge
Dimas, and Oscar Landaverde.
Activities.- Utilized the first six months largely for orientation,
getting acquainted with the livestock industry of El Salvador and
the work of the various agencies in the Ministry of Agriculture,
the Animal Science staff at ENA and their work, the ENA herd
operations and studying Spanish.
Judged the Dairy Cattle Show of the National Livestock Exposition
of El Salvador and attended the Central American Beef and Dairy
Cattle Short Course and Exposition in Guatemala.
Provided plans for a CENTA Animal Science building to be included with the AID loan with assistance from livestock research personnel at the University of Florida.
Assisted counterpart with the development of forms and methods
for improving the breeding status of the dairy herd. Also made an
analysis of the breeding history of the herd to identify problems and methods of improvement that will improve the economic returns
of the CENTA herd and also of farmer's herds in El Salvador.
Assisted the milk recording section of the Direccion General de
Ganaderia and the short term PASA consultant on (1) upgrading the
production record program so it will be more valuable as a management tool for participating dairymen and (2) sunmarizing the limited data available on the daughters of AI sires of the Ganaderia
Artificial Insemination Center.
Assisted the Animal Science Department in selecting fly control
methods at the livestock barns. Spray material was provided by the
University of Florida-AID project.
Prepared instructions for fitting dairy cattle for show and sale
for use in teaching and student competition. Conducted classes for
students at ENA on fitting and showing of dairy cattle.
c. Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand Agricultural Economist. Arrived at post
April 6, 1972. Major counterpart is Eduardo Pefia.
Activities Worked full time on CENTA loan application from April
10 to May 25.
Worked with Jim Lemley, PASA consultant to IRA for three weeks in
April and May.
Initiated activities in Department of Farm Management (Administracion Agricola) of the Direccion General de Econcnia Agropecuaria y
Planificacion (DGEAP) on May 25.
During June we worked on establishing a program of work for the
Department which, in effect, also began functioning on May 25 when
the loan paper went to Washington. A preliminary draft of considerations for a work plan was prepared for the Director, DGEAP, the Subsecretario and the Minister.
Planned and initiated a fertilizer study on 6 horticultural crops
in cooperation with ENA and CENTA personnel.
Planned and initiated record keeping and economic studies of corn demonstration plots in 17 extension agencies (about 70 demonstrations).
Planned and initiated study to obtain farm level prices of basic
grains in cooperation with the marketing department of DGEAP.
Completed book on Methodology of Applied Research (co-authored with Chris Andrew) which is now translated and will be used in
training of CENTA personnel.
Requested review of manual on response surface analysis written in Spanish by CENTA statistician so it can be published In July
or August. This manual is very important for work of CENTA.
Discovered a two year lag in the processing of experimental data
at CENTA. Obtained several computer programs from the Department
of Agricultural Econoics, University of Florida, to use on the
IBM-360 in San Salvador to try to alleviate the problem and be
ready to process the results of new experiments as soon as they
are ready. Will continue working with Biometria of CENTA and
IE4 on these data.
d. Dr. George Beinhart Plant Physiologist/Agronomist. Arrived
at post January 26, 1972. Major counterparts are Mario Apontesp
Santa Tecla, and Carlos Suarez, ENA. Direct working contacts with all members of the professional staff at Santa Tecla and
Activities Met with Forage Production Comittee February 1 to
plan activities for 1972. Have served as member of this committee
since that date and participated directly and indirectly in
several of the projects sponsored by the committee.
Working with Ings. Suarez and Reyes at ENA; providing photographs
for classroom visual aids and helping to plan various projects
related to field demonstrations and experiments.
Working with staff at Santa Tecla that is assigned to the several
areas of agronoey. In addition to forages, I participated
directly in programs of oil crops, corn, and herbs and special
crops. I provide such help as is possible on an individual basis;
traveling to field sites to inspect progress and problems and
helping to obtain needed supplies, seeds and information.
Attended the Central American Cattle Short Course in Guatemala in
e. Dr. Howard Miller Plant Pathologist. Arrived at Post February
29, 1972. Terminated assignment June 2, 1972 due to medical
reasons. Major counterpart was Roger Landaverde.
Activities Attended Spanish classes full-time in March and April.
In May he became acquainted with the research activities at Santa
Tecla and teaching program at ENA. He took several field trips with his counterpart to become acquainted with the plant disease
problems in El Salvador and began work with the certified seed
f. Short Term Advisors.
1. Dr. Luis E. Tergas Tropical Pasture Specialist. Dates of
tour: January 6 February 6, 1972. Major counterparts were
Porfirio Zepeda Marin and Victor Vasquez.
The objective of his tour was to review the activities of the
Forage Improvement and Production Program and to provide technical assistance to program the research activities in 1972.
He met with the local committee twice, organized a one day
workshop for ranchers and two one day workshops for extension
He assisted with the evaluation of the introduction garden and
the planning of several fertilizer trials and the bloodsampling
program. The latter was designed to determine calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels in cattle in the dry season.
2. Dr. Chris Andrew Agricultural Economist. Dates of tour: June
21-28, 1972. Control Officer was Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand.
Activities Assisted in the establishment of priorities for
the Agricultural Economics Department and also brought the
computer program cards. Collaborated with Dr. Hildebrand in
the preparation of two tentative research projects in which
the Agricultural Economics Department of the University of
Florida may participate by sending two students to do the
work. One project is an economic analysis of land and labor
intensive cattle operations on small farms to be conducted in the northern zone of El Salvador. The other is a study of the
comparative advantage of the country in producing various
vegetable crops for import substitution and exportation.
2. Participant Training Program.
The USAID participant training program expanded considerably in 1972 with the advent of CENTA. The projected expanded personnel
needs places an increased demand on the already limited supply of agricultural technicians trained in research, extension and
teaching. USAID presently has 13 CENTA personnel receiving
advanced training abroad and 22 more scheduled for training with
Dr. Carlos Burgos, Director of Enseianza Agropecuaria, is scheduled
to visit agricultural universities in Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela and Costa Rica. The purpose of these visits is two-fold, (1) to
get better acquainted with them (special fields, length of time to
earn B.S. and M.S. degrees, etc.), and (2) to acquaint them with
the level of instruction at ENA.
Participants scheduled for study at English speaking institutions are enrolled in English classes at the Centro El Salvador y Estados Unidos.
A communications short course (four weeks) was conducted in January
at ENA for 35 professors and extension supervisors.
Research and teaching equipment purchased by USAID during the
reporting period included: two calculators, photography equipment valued at $400 including a 35 m camera, accessories and developing equipment, and seven cassette tape recorders (for language lab).
The University of Florida also sent eight cartons of research and educational materials. Also ordered but not received as yet are:
40 text books, "El Taller En La Granja", a library card catalog
duplicator, and educational slides valued at $200.
The major problem confronting the advisors on the University of Florida-AID team is mobility. USAID originally agreed to allow the
University of purchase vehicles for project use. They reneged on
this agreement, however, and advisors presently rely on the Agricultural Section Vehicle Pool for transportation. This arrangement
results in inefficient use of the advisors time and the problem will
get greater as additional advisors are added to the Agricultural Section. In addition, several of the vehicles now in use are old
and unsafe for use in the field.
II PROJECTED GOALS AND ACTIVITIES.
The goals and activities for the extended project will continue as stated in the beginning of this report (page 18). One significant addition will
be the departmentalization of activities within CENTA. The eight consolidated subject matter departments will replace the sections programs and
department existing now and will serve the combined Direcciones of
Research, Teaching and Extension. These departments will be Crop Science, Animal Science, Agricultural Chemistry, Plant Protection, Soils, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering, and Agricultural Education and
Social Science. The advisors will assist their respective counterparts (department chairmen) with the administrative procedures involved with
the new organization.
A new plant pathologist is presently being recruited for a two year
period. The University of Florida has also been requested to recruit
a vegetable crop specialist.
Two short term advisors scheduled to assist in the fall of 1972 are
Dr. Simon Malo, Horticulturist, and Dr. A. P. Lorz, Vegetable Specialist.
IV -ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES.
The Florida advisors continue to meet weekly with the other members of
the Agricultural Section. These meetings enable the participants to inform each other of' their respective programs and they also improve
coordination of activities.
Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director of International Programs at the University
of Florida, made an administrative visit to El Salvador April 26 and