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 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 IADS board of trustees (November...
 Closing yield gaps
 Some lessons of experience
 The consultative group and national...
 The storage of agricultural...
 IADS in 1978
 Administrative developments
 Financial statements


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



Report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053925/00003
 Material Information
Title: Report
Cover title: IADS report
Portion of title: I.A.D.S. report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Agricultural Development Service
Publisher: International Agricultural Development Service
Place of Publication: New York
Creation Date: 1978
Publication Date: [1977?-1985]
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural development projects -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: International Agricultural Development Service.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1976-1984.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1976 also called 1st report.
General Note: Published: Arlington, Virginia, 1982-1984.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000446678
oclc - 04969534
notis - ACK7856
lccn - sn 84011630
System ID: UF00053925:00003
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report
Succeeded by: Annual report of Winrock International

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    IADS board of trustees (November 1978)
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
    Closing yield gaps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Some lessons of experience
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The consultative group and national agricultural research
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The storage of agricultural leaders
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    IADS in 1978
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Bangladesh
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Botswana
            Page 44
        Central America
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Dominican republic
            Page 49
        Ecuador
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Honduras
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Indonesia
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Nepal
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Panama
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Senegal
            Page 67
        Other countries
            Page 68
        Leadership development
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Development-oriented literature
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Liaison
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Administrative developments
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Financial statements
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text


INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT SERVICE

Report / 1978













Preface


This is the third annual report of the International
Agricultural Development Service. This report:
describes the large gap that separates current crop
yields in most developing nations from yields that
might be achieved with available technology.
explains some lessons that IADS is learning about
national master plans, the linguistic capability of
advisors, regional and international research,
short-term consultants, and the need for discretion-
ary funds.
discusses the plans of the Consultative Group on
International Agriculture Development to fund a
service for national agricultural research.
explores the critical shortage of agricultural leaders.
reviews IADS activities in 1978.
We hope you will find this report useful and in-
interesting. If you have comments and questions about
IADS and its work, I invite you to write to me.
Sterling Wortman, President













Contents


Closing yield gaps .............................. 1


Some lessons of experience ....................... 11


The Consultative Group and
national agricultural research ................... 19


The shortage of agricultural leaders ............... 29


IADS in 1978 ................................ 37
Bangladesh ................................... 42
Botswana ................................... 44
Central America ................. ............. 45
Dominican Republic ............ ... ........... 49
Ecuador ..................................... 50
Honduras ................................... 54
Indonesia .................................... 57
Nepal ......... ...... ...... .... ............ 60
Panama ............... ..................... 64
Senegal ....................................... 67
Other countries ................. ............. 68
Leadership development .................. ..... 68
Development-oriented literature ................. 73
L iaison ......................... ............. 77

Administrative developments .................... 85


Financial statements ......................... 91














































IADS trustees' meeting in November 1978.


John Pino of The Rockefeller Foundation and J. George
Harrar.


Jose D. Drilon, Jr. and William A. C. Mathieson.














lADS Board of Trustees
November 1978


J. G
V


Jose D

Johr
Cliffor
Lowe
William A. C
S
Julian Rodri,

Theodore
W


Sterlir


eorge Harrar President emeritus, The Rockefeller Foundation, chairman
irgilio Barco Ambassador of Colombia to the USA; Chairman, Board of
Trustees, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Guy Camus Director general, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Tech-
nique Outre-Mer, France
). Drilon, Jr. Director, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study
and Research in Agriculture, the Philippines
i A. Hannah President emeritus, Michigan State University
d M. Hardin Vice chairman, Ralston Purina Company
11 S. Hardin Program officer in agriculture, The Ford Foundation
. Mathieson Senior consultant, United Nations Development Programme
aburo Okita President, Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan
guez Adame Coordinator general, International Group for Agricultural De-
velopment
W. Schultz Professor emeritus of economics, University of Chicago
erner Treitz Head, Agricultural Division, Federal Ministry for Economic
Cooperation, Federal Republic of Germany
ng Wortman President, IADS, and vice-president, The Rockefeller Foundation






















































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Closing Yield Gaps






















Yields of staple food crops in most developing coun-
tries remain only a fraction of what they could be. Yet,
production of these crops on long impoverished soils
provides a large part of the livelihood of great numbers of
the rural poor, whether farmers or landless laborers. These
yield gaps-the difference between what yields are and
what they could be-represent an enormous "food re-
serve" on which nations now must call.
Persons concerned with agricultural and rural de-
velopment must realize the importance of closing the yield
gaps rapidly. That understanding is emerging, but all too
slowly, among political leaders, agricultural scientists, and
personnel of assistance agencies. Considering how quickly
most developing countries will have to double food
availability, the need for urgency is difficult to escape.

New pressures on productivity. Political and scien-
tific leaders of virtually all countries are becoming more
concerned with improving productivity of their farms,
especially the small ones. Their motivations are diverse.


(facing)
Asian farmer preparing his land.
The productivity and incomes of large
numbers of farmers-whether they
produce food crops, other crops, or
animals-must increase if standards of
living are to rise, if hope is to replace
hopelessness, if migration to cities is to
be slowed, if rural unrest is to be
averted.
















Doubling times
Estimated number of years in which food produc-
tion in selected countries would need to double to
meet projected consumption requirements
Doubling
Country time (years)
Asia
Bangladesh 13
Burma 22
Taiwan 7
India 18
Indonesia 17
Korea (Republic) 12
Malaysia 11
Nepal 25
Pakistan 16
Philippines 12
Sri Lanka 8
Thailand
North Africa/Mideast
Afghanistan 15
Algeria 7
Cyprus 9
Egypt 14
Iran 11
Iraq 11
Jordan 7
Lebanon 7
Libya 7
Morocco 14
Saudi Arabia 7
Sudan 11
Syria 11
Tunisia 9
Turkey 20
Yemen (P.D.R.) 8
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola 13
Benin 17
Burundi 19
Cameroon 18
Chad 14
Ethiopia 17
Gambia 10
Ghana 17
Guinea 13
Ivory Coast 15
Kenya 15
Liberia 12
Malagasy 18
Malawi 18
Mali 12
Mozambique 18
(continued, facing page)






'See Chapter 2 of To Feed This World: The
Challenge and the Strategy (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1978).
2See chapter 8 of To Feed This World.


First, many are worried about security of food
supplies. During 1978 at least 30 countries with combined
populations of almost 500 million were reported to have
abnormal food shortages for varying periods of time. The
ominous world food deficits have caused realization that
in a period of tight world supplies (as in 1973-74) imports
of staple food may be extremely costly, if food is available
at all.1 Dependence on uncertain international supplies
during periods of domestic shortage is politically risky for
any government.
Second, political leaders are uneasy about growing
restlessness among long-neglected rural peoples. They
realize that the productivity and incomes of large numbers
of farmers-whether they produce food crops, other crops,
or animals-must increase if standards of living are to rise,
if hope is to replace hopelessness, if migration to cities is
to be slowed, if rural unrest is to be averted.
Third, growing domestic markets are needed for
products of factories and businesses. Many political lead-
ers perceive that their rural populations could become a
substantial market if rural people make even modest gains
in their disposable income. The growth in supply of goods
and services required for progressive farming creates jobs
throughout the economy.
Fourth, it is becoming clear that faster national
agricultural progress is possible.2 Some countries have
done quite well. The main new requirement: the national
political will to make the necessary investments of men
and money and to change policies which depress the
profitability of family or group farms. International banks
and bilateral assistance agencies are encouraging govern-
ments to support rural development by increasing lending
for this purpose.


Magnitude of yield gaps. What is the scope for
raising productivity per hectare? This question can be
partially answered in at least two ways. First, the lowest
and the highest average national yields can be compared
on the assumption that the nations with lowest yields can
raise their averages to the level of the nations with the
highest (while allowing for extremes of agro-climatic con-
















editions Second, the highest national yields can be com-
pared with world record yields, usually achieved under
experimental conditions, to determine what potential
productivity levels are at least theoretically possible.



Differences among national yields. National yields
must be compared cautiously. FAO data, used here, gener-
ally are based on information supplied by the member
governments whose own purposes may be served by
inflating or deflating figures. Moreover, reported yields
are often only informed guesses because of the limitations
of personnel and financial resources and the remoteness of
many farms. To compensate for yearly fluctuations due to
weather or other causes, we have chosen to average 1974,
1975, and 1976, the three latest years for which we had
data. A crop may be grown under quite different condi-
tions in different countries; for example, wheat in some
countries depends on scanty rainfall while in some others
it is grown with irrigation. Only countries with significant
areas under production (we have chosen at least 1000
hectares) provide meaningful measurements of country
yield levels. But these cautions notwithstanding, the data
as a whole probably represent a useful indication of the
orders of magnitudes of the gaps.
Comparison of the highest and lowest national aver-
age yields suggests a 10- to 20-fold spread between ex-
tremes. The world average yield for each crop is, gener-
ally, only one-third or less of the yield achieved by the
country with the highest national average. The world
average includes figures for countries of Europe and North
America, and Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, where
yields generally are high. The average yields for the
developing countries as a group are much lower than the
world average. This is revealed by an examination of the
yield levels currently being achieved by nations for some
representative crops:

Wheat. The highest national average yields-over 5
tons per hectare-are obtained by The Netherlands and
Denmark. Seventeen other countries, mostly in Europe,
have yields of 3 to 5 tons. The remaining 73-wheat


Doubling times (cont'd)
Doubling
Country time (years)
Niger 13
Nigeria 13
Rhodesia 19
Rwanda 15
Senegal 11
Sierra Leone 14
Somalia 10
Tanzania 13
Uganda 16
Upper Volta 15
Zaire 13
Zambia 17
Latin America
Argentina
Bolivia 10
Brazil 19
Chile 14
Colombia 13
Costa Rica 8
Dominican Republic 7
Ecuador 10
El Salvador 12
Guatemala 14
Guyana 34
Haiti 11
Honduras 12
Jamaica 7
Mexico 15
Nicaragua 14
Panama 11
Paraguay 20
Peru 10
Surinam
Trinidad & Tobago 7
Uruguay
Venezuela
Source: From highest requirement growth rates
calculated by the International Food Policy Research
Institute, Food Needs of Developing Countries: Pro-
jections of Production and Consumption to 1990.
'No serious pressure to meet domestic require-
ments.
**Less than 7 years.




















National and world average yields
(average 1974-76)

Number of Yield in tons per hectare
Number of
producing Highest national World Lowest national
countries average average average

Cereals
Wheat 92 5.4 1.6 0.3
Rice 111 6.1 2.4 0.4
Maize 131 8.0 2.8 0.4
Sorghum 72 4.3 1.2 0.4
Millets 65 3.9 0.7 0.3
Barley 74 4.6 1.9 0.3
Rye 39 4.2 1.7 0.2
Oats 51 4.6 1.6 0.2

Food Legumes
Dry beans 82 2.4 0.5 0.1
Broad beans 36 3.5 1.1 0.2
Dry peas 54 3.8 1.2 0.2
Chickpeas 33 1.9 0.6 0.3
Lentils 28 1.6 0.6 0.2
Soybeans 39 2.0 1.4 0.2
Groundnuts 85 5.6 1.0 0.3

Oilseeds
Castor beans 26 1.9 0.5 0.2
Sunflowers 39 1.9 1.1 0.3
Rapeseed 32 2.9 0.8 0.4
Sesame 53 1.3 0.3 0.1
Linseed 33 2.1 0.4 0.2
Cotton seed 81 3.2 1.2 0.2

Root and Tuber Crops
Potatoes 102 39.8 13.4 2.3
Sweet potatoes 78 24.2 9.2 0.3
Cassava 71 17.9 8.9 1.8

Fibers
Flax 11 1.1 0.4 0.3
Jute 23 3.0 15 0.7
Hemp 18 4.8 0.6 0.3
Sisal 23 1.3 0.8 0.2

Vegetables
Beans, green 41 13.9 6.0 0.6
Cabbage 57 59.5 17.9 1.7
Carrots 46 47.0 21.0 5.4
Cauliflower 32 44.8 12.9 6.6
Cucumbers 40 206.5 14.9 2.1
Eggplant 23 32.8 12.5 2.5
Garlic 32 19.9 5.1 1.4
Melons 33 38.5 13.3 4.0
Onions, dry 77 34.7 11.3 1.8
Peas, green 41 25.0 5.9 0.7
Peppers, green 37 32.7 8.2 0.9
Pumpkin, squash 41 38.7 5.3 2.0
Tomatoes 92 164.0 20.0 0.7
Watermelons 45 40.1 12.2 3.5

Beverages
Coffee, green 63 3.5 0.5 0.2
Cocoa beans 46 2.2 0.3 0.1
Tea 27 2.1 1.0 0.4

Source: FAO


















growing countries for which FAO reports yields harvest
less than 3 tons; of these, 37 obtain only 1 to 2 tons, 22
achieve less than 1 ton; and four are under 0.5 ton!

Rice. Among the 111 rice-producing countries, Spain
and Japan achieve top yields (6.1 and 5.9 tons per
hectare, respectively). Eighteen countries each produce 4
tons or more. Yet in 78 countries yield levels are 3 tons or
less, including 57 at 2 tons or less, and 13 under 1 ton.

Maize. One hundred thirty-one countries grow signifi-
cant areas of maize, most of it consumed by humans. The
top national yields are recorded in Malaysia (8.0 tons per
hectare, but on only 3000 hectares), New Zealand (7.6
tons), and Switzerland (6.2 tons). Eleven countries
achieved 5 tons or more. Yet 107 countries have average
yields of 3 tons or less; of these, 90 achieve less than 2
tons, including 39 with averages under 1 ton.

* Sorghum. Highest national average yields of sorghum, a
dryland crop, occur in Spain (4.3 tons per hectare) and
Italy (3.9 tons on 3000 hectares). Six countries average
over 3 tons. Of the 72 sorghum producing countries,
however, 57 average less than 2 tons and, of these, 34 are
under 1 ton. The poorest yields are approximately 0.4
tons per hectare.

* Barley. The top average yields among the 74 barley-
producing nations are in Rhodesia (4.6 tons per hectare
on 4000 hectares) and Belgium-Luxembourg (4.4 tons). In
16 countries yields are 3 tons or more. There are 46 with
yields under 2 tons; of these 23 achieve less than 1 ton.

* Millets. Grain crops collectively referred to as "millets"
generally are grown in areas even too dry for sorghum.
Of the 65 countries that grow millets, Egypt obtains the
highest average yield (3.9 tons per hectare) on irrigated
land. In 21 countries yields range from 1 to 2 tons.
Forty-one countries average less than 1 ton, with lows
(under 0.3 ton per hectare) in Mauritania, Sikkim, and
Burma.

* Dry beans. Top national average yields among the 82
countries producing dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are
achieved by the USSR (2.4 tons per hectare) and Egypt
(2.3 tons). Six countries average 1.5 tons or more. But
there were 39 countries obtaining only 0.5 to 1.0 ton per
hectare, and 21 achieving less than 0.5 ton.


Food shortages, 1978
Countries reported to have experienced a shortfall in
basic food supplies below usual consumption re-
quirements, caused by crop failures, interruption in
imports, or disruption of internal distribution at
some time during 1978.


Country
Afghanistan
Angola
Burundi
Cape Verde
Chad
Comoros
Congo
Djibouti
Ecuador
Ethiopia
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea-Bissau
Guinea
Indonesia
Lao PDR
Lebanon
Madagascar
Mall
Mauritania
Mozambique
Nepal
Niger
Pakistan
Senegal
Sudan
Togo
Upper Volta
Viet Nam
Zaire
Zambia
TOTAL


Population
(millions)
17.8
6.4
4.0
0.3
4.3
0.3
1.5
0.1
7.8
30.2
0.6
10.9
0.6
4.8
140.2
3.6
2.9
8.0
6.3
1.5
9.9
13.4
5.0
76.8
5.4
17.1
2.4
6.5
49.2
26.7
5.5
470.0















Crop yields:
World record vs highest national average
Yield (tons per hectare)
Highest national
Crop World record* average*
Wheat 14.5 5.4
Rice 14.4 6.1
Maize 21.2 8.0
Sorghum 21.5 4.3
Barley 11.4 4.6
Soybeans 7.4 2.0
Potatoes 94.1 39.8
Cassava 60.0 17.9

*Chou, Marylin; Harmon, David P., Jr.; Kahn,
Herman; and Wittwer, Sylvan. World Food Prospects
and Agricultural Potential. New York: Praeger, 1977.
**1974-76 average, based on reports by FAO.


Groundnuts (peanuts). This crop is grown on significant
areas in 85 countries. Top national average yields occur
in Malaysia (5.6 tons per hectare) and Israel (3.8 tons),
both under irrigated conditions. Eight countries exceed 2
tons; yet 43 average under 1 ton.
Sesame seed. Production data are reported for 53 coun-
tries, with top average yields in El Salvador (1.3 tons per
hectare) and Egypt (1.2 tons). Forty-two countries obtain
0.75 ton or less; of these, yields are 0.5 ton or less in 29
countries.
Potatoes. The potato is produced in 102 countries. The
top national average yield is registered by Switzerland, at
40 tons of tubers per hectare. Seventeen countries, mostly
in Europe and North America, average above 20 tons. But
71 countries average 15 tons or less; of these, 12 average
less than 5 tons.
Sweet potatoes. This crop is widely grown in the tropics
and subtropics; data are available from 78 countries. The
top average yields are in Sudan (24 tons per hectare) and
Egypt (21 tons), both with limited but irrigated area
under production, and Japan (20 tons). For 57 countries,
average yields are less than 10 tons; for 23 of these, less
than 5 tons.
Cassava. One of the major sources of calories for the
poor in the tropics, cassava is reported by 71 countries.
Average yields exceed 10 tons per hectare in 22 countries,
the highest being Malaysia, at 17.9 tons. Thirty-nine
countries average 8 tons or less, and 16 of them less than
4 tons.
Tomatoes. Production data are reported from 92 coun-
tries, six of which have national average yields of 50 tons
per hectare or more. The highest yields (on limited areas)
are for Belgium-Luxembourg (164 tons) and Netherlands
(145 tons). Seventy-three countries average 25 tons or
less, with 31 of these achieving less than 10 tons.


Best national yields vs. experimental potentials.
There also is a wide gap between the highest national
average yields and the top yield achieved experimentally.
It would be unreasonable to expect national averages to
match experimental potentials, which are usually achieved
under exceptionally favorable circumstances which cannot



























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A researcher showing farmers the insect
attacking their rice crop.
The difference between what yields are
and what they could be represents an
enormous "food reserve" on which
nations now must call.


Some nations have raised cereal yield
over 50 percent in two decades


1960 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 1


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Rising yields
In recent years, increases in cereal output in de-
veloping regions have depended more on higher
yields than on expansion in land area.
1952-56 to 1964-66 1964-66 to 1975-77
Yield Area Yield Area
change change change change
Region % % % %
Asia 14.0 9.2 28.7 8.0
Africa 12.1 16.3 12.4 14.9
Latin America
& Caribbean 17.0 30.3 21.3 17.0
Europe 38.0 -3.7 37.0 -3.0
USSR 35.0 7.3 26.0 2.0
Oceania 12.0 71.4 0.2 30.4
Canada & USA 51.0 -16.4 25.0 13.9
Source: FAO


be duplicated over wide areas. But examination of these
data suggest the scope for improvement existing in most
countries.



Evidence of progress. In recent decades, total ag-
ricultural production has increased both in the developed
and less developed regions of the world, with increases in
yield responsible for a substantial part of the gains.
Increases in wheat and rice yields in some countries of
South and Southeast Asia since the 1950's have been
dramatic. More recently, large gains have been achieved
by Turkey in wheat and by Colombia in rice.
Further contributions of area and yield to increases
in total agricultural output will vary from country to
country depending on the ease with which additional
good land can be planted to crops, and the spread of
improved technology. For most of the densely populated
countries, however, there is only one option: yields per
hectare must be raised even further.



Means of increasing yields. Farmers have demon-
strated that they will adopt higher yielding farming sys-
tems if four requirements are met simultaneously:

a higher yielding, more profitable production system
must be available and tailored to the conditions of the
farmer's locality
the farmer must be instructed in use of the system under
conditions which he can duplicate
inputs required must be available at reasonable cost
there must be a convenient market at which the farmer
can sell his products at a price that allows a reasonable
profit

With such requisites for adoption of better technol-
ogy by farmers, governments can rapidly raise output
through organization of national commodity production
programs. To achieve maximum gains in farmer participa-
tion and incomes, defined-area development campaigns
should be organized in each ecological and political area.














Finally, governments must take steps to synchronize and
reorient public and private services, locality by locality.3
The three elements of the strategy are highly complemen-
tary. Because most national agricultural plans still do not
incorporate all three approaches, progress is neither as
rapid nor as cost effective as it could be.
Responsibility for closing the yield gap in each
country must rest with each government, for only the
government can set the policies, make the decisions,
strengthen the institutions, and organize the programs of
work necessary to reach and benefit the rural people. But
with the will to do so, most governments can raise
productivity and incomes substantially, benefiting urban
and rural dwellers alike.


"The past quarter century has
been a period of unprecedented
change and progress in the
developing world. And yet despite
this impressive record, some 800
million individuals continue to be
trapped in what I have termed
absolute poverty: a condition of
life so characterized by
malnutrition, illiteracy, disease,
squalid surroundings, high infant
mortality, and low life expectancy
as to be beneath any reasonable
definition of human decency.
Absolute poverty on so
massive a scale is already a cruel
anachronism. But unless
economic growth in the
developing countries can be
substantially accelerated, the now
inevitable increases in population
will mean that the numbers of the
absolute poor will remain
unacceptably high even at the end
of the century."
Robert S. McNamara in World
Development Report 1978















3This three-part strategy is described
in greater detail in To Feed This World,
Chapter 10.



















!; :






H.


A


-
a -
:1: C--. S.'
>~~. t.-)-
~ ~ r x ~s


.-V


yl
~' L~ '
r


*-^l














Some Lessons of Experience























Master Plans
Many countries lack well-conceived master plans for
strengthening agricultural research and for accelerating
agricultural and rural development. Comprehensive plans
are needed to coordinate work effectively and to allocate
funds efficiently. But, in addition, they are essential for
making good use of help offered by external assistance
agencies. In the absence of a national plan that projects
priorities, programs, and requirements for 5 to 10 years,
the external agencies themselves attempt to identify
priorities, and they often compete with one another to
provide support for the areas of need that they perceive.
Sound master plans for agricultural development
must be based on well-defined goals and strategies.
Otherwise, research cannot be expected to provide the
technology needed, nor to complement the commodity-
oriented and defined-area development projects required
to reach national and regional targets of production and
development.


(facing) A progressive Ecuadorian
farmer and his family.
The technical cooperation community,
and many developing countries, have
shifted their focus and now stress the
importance of helping the small farmer
and meeting the basic needs of the rural
poor as the first step toward successful
economic development.













Many nations need assistance in developing master
plans for agricultural systems which they can use to guide
their own support, as well as to provide a basis for
inviting external agencies to fund high priority projects.
IADS, as an impartial professional organization, has been
in a position to help a number of countries examine their
goals and strategies, and develop master plans for agricul-
tural research systems, including Honduras, Panama,
Nepal, Sudan, and Senegal.


The Language Problem
Governments and external assistance agencies are
increasingly turning their attention to the technology
needs of the small farmer. Research is becoming more
centered on farms and farmers, which means the scientist
and the farmer must be in more frequent contact. A
scientist who cannot speak the national language without
an intermediary will have difficulty understanding and
working with the small farmer.
Experience is showing that effective expatriate tech-
nical assistance to national agricultural research systems
depends, to a significant extent, on the expatriate's
knowledge of the common language. Language compe-
tence must receive more emphasis when personnel for
both long-term and short-term assignments are selected.
In many instances experts can be found who already speak
the language, but when experts are not available with the
needed language capability, training may have to be
provided.
IADS is addressing this problem by developing an
extensive international roster of experts. In so doing,
probabilities are increased, as the roster grows, of being
able to match the expertise needed with someone who has
the language capability needed.

Use of Regional and International Assistance
Any developing country can have access to a grow-
ing volume of relevant technology and expertise which is
available from institutions outside its borders. This has




















Research leaders must see that
physical facilities-experiment
stations, laboratories, scientific
equipment, etc.-and supporting
manpower are available where needed
and at a level of sophistication
appropriate to the system's needs.

Planning an experiment station in
Indonesia.













"Except in times of environmental
or political crisis, the first cause of
hunger is poverty; and that same
poverty, by limiting the effective
demand for food, restricts the
production of food also."
A. H. Bunting


important implications for the size, nature, and financial
requirements of national agricultural research systems.
For a variety of motives, many developing countries
are attempting to become too self-sufficient in agricul-
tural research. In doing so they are missing opportunities
to capitalize on external technology for agricultural de-
velopment, whether from other countries, or from regional
and international institutions. Consequently large in-
vestments often may be made to develop agricultural
research systems that, in the long run, are too expensive
and complex for the nation to maintain.
Small poor countries, especially, should fully exploit
relevant external technology because they really cannot
afford large agricultural research systems. Foreign assis-
tance agencies do such countries a disservice by encourag-
ing elaborate research systems. Instead, countries and
assistance agencies should be alert to opportunities to
avoid unnecessary duplicative research in national systems
through full use of what is available from the outside.
To take advantage of relevant outside technology,
however, a national research system must exist which can
evaluate and adapt imported technology. Thus, every
nation needs an agricultural research system; but the
scope of its activities should be shaped by the technical
and financial resources of the country and availability of
appropriate agricultural technology from abroad.


Short-Term Consultants
In developing countries, directors of research and
production projects often cannot find a competent
specialist for every scientific discipline needed to carry out
the program activities efficiently. Usually the most impor-
tant disciplines are staffed first; less critical posts are left
vacant until more personnel can be trained. But the lack of
an expert on a specific subject may impede the entire
project. In one country where plant breeders were success-
ful in producing new high-yielding varieties, the lack of a
good seed production organization kept the varieties from
reaching farmers' fields. None of the project's researchers













had time to spare from their regular assignments nor were
any fully competent to establish and manage a seed
program.
In such a situation a short-term consultant can
greatly enhance the range of expertise available to a
project. A top-quality seed production specialist, for
example, can quickly design and set into motion a seed
production effort to break the bottleneck obstructing a
project.
To make best use of a short-term consultant, his
assignment should be specific and limited. By focusing
the consultant's task rather narrowly he will be able to
complete his work within the time available. In addition
detailed preparations should be made before the consul-
tant arrives, so his work can begin immediately, with no
time lost. In one country prior to the arrival of a consultant
on experiment station development, the topography and
soils of the experiment station were mapped and pits were
dug to permit the soil profiles of the experimental fields to
be examined. Rough plans were also prepared for build-
ings to be constructed and samples of local building
materials (with prices) were obtained. The consultant
began work in the fields the day he arrived in the country.
Sometimes a continuing relationship with a short-
term consultant can also be highly useful. For example, a
foreign university-based sorghum researcher might spend
several weeks each crop season with a nation's sorghum
research program, exchanging ideas and materials and
becoming well-acquainted with the special production
problems of the country. This familiarity not only in-
creases the quality of the consultant's advice, it makes him
and his university better able to provide relevant ad-
vanced training of scientists from the country.
Short-term consultants from international programs
and centers can perform a similar function. Even brief
face-to-face contacts between personnel of national pro-
grams and representatives of external institutions often
lead to the establishment of far-reaching forms of coopera-
tion.
Two other points are important. First, before the
consultant leaves he should meet with the local authorities




























S


,.G '-.-. .



Researchers en route to visit trials in
farmers' fields.
Generally, field work and programs
are hampered by inadequate
infrastructure, communications,
roads, bridges, transportation.


to brief them on his findings and recommendations. And
he must write his findings before returning to his home
base.
Second, eminent authorities should be sought for
short-term assignments. Such persons not only produce
excellent work, but their reputations impart credibility to
their views. This is particularly important for giving local
officials confidence in the consultant's recommendations.



Discretionary Funds
In one Asian country a few years ago, an entire
season's field experiments were lost because a part for an
irrigation pump, costing a few dollars, could not be
bought in time through the government's central purchas-
ing organization. The disruption of large and costly re-
search and development projects because of the unavaila-
bility of inexpensive items or services is all too common.
Problems arise for many reasons: governmental fi-
nancial regulations often are inflexible; the authority to
spend money may be vested in several officials which
requires excessive time and labyrinthine paperwork, or the
authority may rest with only one person who is unavail-
able or on leave; or government payments may be so slow
that local merchants are reluctant to sell to government
organizations.
Modest purchases requiring foreign exchange, such
as replacement parts for imported equipment or small
amounts of imported chemicals, are especially trou-
blesome in most developing countries.
Perhaps even more important, the inability to buy an
airplane ticket from local funds can seriously affect the
training of national scientists. One international agricul-
tural research center offered to provide training in experi-
ment station management for a young farm manager of an
African country, but it could not underwrite the air
transportation costs involved. It was impossible to obtain
the foreign exchange from the country's financial re-
sources. Fortunately the director of research had at his
disposal a small amount of discretionary funds which he













was able to use for this purpose, enabling the farm
manager to accept the offer of free training by the research
center.
A source of discretionary funds-and the amount
does not have to be large-is invaluable to the success of a
research or production program in developing countries.
When the project budget is drawn up, a discretionary fund
should be a specific item in the foreign-exchange portion
of the budget. These funds should be at the disposal of the
project leader and subject to normal accounting proce-
dures.


"... the world has a surplus of
food only because it has too many
people-half a billion, probably
more-who cannot buy the barest
minimum they need. It is a
fictitious surplus that reflects not
abundance but deprivation."
Sudhir Sen in Worldview



















6At




















I"
Iz

















:AL.






























Jowl









Iv.I

.. o
I; IL !I 4













The Consultative Group

and National

Agricultural Research

















"Most developing countries must make a much
stronger long-term commitment to build and strengthen
their agricultural research systems." This was the conclu-
sion of the special report done for the Consultative Group
on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in 1978.
CGIAR is the consortium of donors which supports the 11
international agricultural research centers.
National research to the forefront. The CGIAR
"Task Force on International Assistance for Strengthening
National Agricultural Research" found a clear and urgent
need for raising the national agricultural research capabil-
ity of developing countries. General strengthening of na-
tional systems was seen as necessary in order to generate
and adapt technology for local conditions. Moreover, all
commodities that are important to a nation or locality need
research, in addition to the major food commodities which
are currently given attention by centers in the CGIAR
system.
To help deal with these problems and to make
existing programs-both bilateral and international-


(facing) Terraced fields in Nepal.
Production of staple food crops on long
impoverished soils provides a large
part of the livelihood of great numbers
of the rural poor, whether farmers or
landless laborers.


















Hunger
Number of persons and proportion of population
consuming insufficient calories in 58 countries


Country Number
(millions)
1972174

Argentina 0.5
Korea Rep. 1.3
Turkey 2.7
Venezuela 0.8
Libya 0.1
Paraguay 0.2
Egypt 2.9
Ivory Coast 0.4
Mexico 4.4
Syria 0.7
Morocco 1.6
Saudi Arabia 1.0
Brazil 13.5
Iraq 1.4
Malawi 0.7
Chile 1.5
Iran 4.6
Cameroon 1.0
Tunisia 0.9
Madagascar 1.3
Nicaragua 0.4
Thailand 7.1
Ghana 1.9
Sierra Leone 0.6
Burma 6.6
Peru 3.3
Togo 0.5
Senegal 1.1
Pakistan 17.2
Colombia 6.8
Nepal 3.5
Kenya 3.7
India 175.2
Ecuador 2.0
Sudan 5.1
Indonesia 38.7
Swaziland 0.1
Dominican Rep. 1.6
Zambia 1.6
Philippines 14.6
Tanzania 5.1
Botswana 0.2
Mozambique 3.2
Liberia 0.6
Afghanistan 6.8
Ethiopia 10.2
Honduras 1.1
Bangladesh 27.0
Guatemala 2.2
Haiti 1.7
Somalia 1.2
Guinea 1.7
Zaire 10.2
Bolivia 2.3
Niger 2.0
Mauritania 0.6
Mali 2.7
Chad 2.1


Source: FAO, 1977. Fourth World Food Survey


Percentage of total
population
1972174 1969/71

2 2
4 4
7 7
7 7
7 13
8 6
8 7
8 9
8 9
10 12
10 14
12 14
13 14
14 17
14 19
15 11
15 23
16 14
16 24
17 14
18 17
18 18
20 22
21 20
22 19
23 23
24 24
25 25
26 24
28 29
29 27
30 24
30 26
30 30
30 30
30 34
33 35
33 38
34 35
35 35
35 35
36 33
36 34
37 42
37 43
38 26
38 32
38 38
38 38
38 43
40 42
41 38
44 34
45 52
47 36
48 36
49 38
54 34


more effective, the task force recommended that a service
for strengthening national agricultural research be estab-
lished under CGIAR auspices. This action would be a
logical extension of CGIAR's efforts to increase global
agricultural production through improved technology.
In examining national research programs and their
prospects, the task force benefitted from prior studies by
FAO, the Technical Advisory Committee of CGIAR, the
World Food Conference, and other international, bilateral,
and national agencies. There was no doubt that the needs
are there, that they are sizable, and that urgent attention is
indicated. But more precise analysis from country to
country or region to region was made difficult by the
extreme variability. Overall, there is encouraging evi-
dence that many countries are placing greater emphasis on
agricultural research. A measure of this is the growth in
numbers of agricultural research workers in the develop-
ing countries. The task force report cites references indi-
cating that there are now perhaps 20,000 research scien-
tists at work in the developing countries (exclusive of the
People's Republic of China)-about twice as many as a
decade ago. Each year, about 3000 individuals from de-
veloping countries receive training in agricultural sciences
through programs supported by bilateral and interna-
tional agencies. Moreover in the past decade the capacity of
institutions in developing countries to develop their own
scientists has risen steadily and strongly. Many are now
training scientists in unprecedented numbers and to a
level of expertise not previously possible.
Many developing countries are also investing
heavily in agricultural research. But, again, the record is
mixed and the data are difficult to evaluate precisely.
Frequently, funds that are labelled for research are actually
expended for other services, so that the real impact is less
than it appears to be. Also, inflation has shrunk buying
power so that even when budgets have increased, the
benefit may be small. Generally, however, since the World
Food Conference of 1974, many developing countries have
expanded their support of agricultural research.
On the other hand, in some developing nations
support for national research programs has slackened,













reflecting, perhaps, a certain amount of disillusionment
with past results. Sometimes this dissatisfaction has been
incorrectly directed at the research unit, for failures in
other parts of the system may have been more at fault.
Inadequate supplies of inputs, poor credit facilities, un-
realistic pricing policies, poor transportation and market-
ing facilities, and a host of other factors can prevent the
successful application of research results, no matter how
good they might inherently be. The research manager
must recognize this and take steps to deal with it.


The crucial role of managers. The successful de-
velopment of an agricultural research system requires that
those who manage it keep politicians and policy makers
aware of why supporting research serves the national
interest. To do so, the manager must understand national
development. And he must work with national planners to
ensure that proposed projects are technically feasible
while at the same time keeping researchers at work on
high-priority objectives. In other words, research must be
relevant to national goals in agricultural production and
rural income generation, and research must influence the
selection of those goals. The research system must have
adequate liaison with cabinet-level agencies concerned
with funding, and it must cooperate with agencies con-
cerned with credit, inputs, markets, regulatory activities,
etc. Interaction with agencies involved with evaluation
and application of technology is so vital that the bound-
aries between them and the research system should not be
sharply drawn. These numerous relationships must be
constantly reviewed and adjusted if the research system is
to flourish and produce as expected. Only when a satisfac-
tory environment for research exists in terms of public
policy can the system thrive.
Along with fostering a favorable environment for
research, the manager must deal with a range of problems
related to the implementation of the research itself. He
must recruit manpower of an appropriate aptitude and
calibre and he must arrange for upgrading of the skills and
talents of his staff through training. He must provide














lADS SERVICES TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
and locations of international agricultural centers

* lADS contractual assist-
ance to national pro-
grams, 1978
Botswana: Ministry of Ag-
riculture
Bangladesh: Bangladesh
Agricultural Research
Institute and Bangla-
desh Agricultural Re-
search Council
Ecuador: Instituto Nacion-
al de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias
Indonesia: Agency for Ag-
ricultural Research and
Development
Nepal: Integrated Cereals
Project
Panama: Instituto de In-
vestigaci6n Agrope-
cuaria de Panama
* Consultants arranged
through IADS, 1978
Central America: World
Bank Mission
Malaysia: Malaysian Ag- TROPIC OF CANCER
ricultural Research and -- -------------- ---
Development Institute
Thailand: World Bank CIMMYT
Mission IDIAP
Senegal: Institut Sbn6- Panama
galais de Recherches EOUATOR CIATj
Agricoles


CIP


TRHCP1C OF CAPRICZORIJ


centrall America
central America


International agricultural
research centers asso-
cialed witn the Consul-
laitve Group on Interna-
lional Agriculture
IRRI, International Rice
Research Institute (Phil-
ippines)
CIMMYT, International
Maize and Wheat Im-
provement Center
(Mexico)
CIAT, International Cen-
ter lor Tropical Agricul-
ture (Colombia)
























U-si115


IBPCGF


AVRDC
IRR-----.--

SIRRI

h. AJ^P


WARD


AARD
Indonesia
ill 111 1 -----------1


IITA. International !nsti-
tute of Tropical Agri-
culture INigeria)
CIP, International Potato
Center (Peru)
ICRISAT, International
Crops Research Insti-
tute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics (India)
ILRAD, International Lab-
oratory for Research on
Animal Diseases iKenyal
ILCA, International Live-
stock Center lor Alrica
iEthiopial


WARDA, West Africa Rice
Development Associa-
tion (Liberia)
IBPGR, International
Board for Plant Genetic
Resources (Italy)
ICARDA, International Cen-
ter for Agricultural Re-
search in the Dry Areas
(Lebanon, Syria, Iran)
AVRDC, Asian Vegetable
Research and Develop-
ment Center (associate
status) (Taiwan)


Vb


f"
















Much grazing land in Central America
is low in productivity because of eroded
soils, a long dry season, and poor
management. 4
In view of the similarities in
agro-climatic areas, agricultural
commodities, and problems of .
agricultural development of the six
Central American countries, efficiency
might be gained through generation of .
some of the needed technology through
a regional approach.














proper incentives for the staff to stay with research. He
must encourage cooperation among various disciplines
and the development of multidisciplinary teams to ensure
that the output of technology is appropriate to needs of
farmers and the goals of the nation. He must encourage
formal and informal links between his organization and
others in the country and elsewhere, and with interna-
tional sources of technology. He must see that physical
facilities-experiment stations, laboratories, scientific
equipment, etc.-and supporting manpower are available
where needed and at a level of sophistication appropriate
to the system's needs.
Thus it is clear why the task force cited the scarcity of
qualified research managers as a central impediment to
the development of national agricultural research systems
around the world. In fact, one of the main reasons for
launching the new service is to maximize the effective use
of existing manpower and to expand the supply.














Mandate for a service. In outlining the functions of
the service, the task force stated that the basic objective
would be to strengthen the capacity of the developing
countries to plan and carry out agricultural research. It
would do so by providing technical assistance to national
agricultural research systems, concentrating largely on
matters of research policy, planning, organization, and
management. The basic principles of the new service,
stated in the task force report were:

(a) It would provide assistance to an individual country
only upon the request of the government of that
country.

(b) It would seek to complement, and not compete with,
the many other sources of technical assistance, such as
FAO, bilateral agencies, and private organizations. It
would determine its priorities and frame its programs
in such a way as to encourage full utilization of
technical expertise from other qualified sources accept-
able to the government being assisted.

(c) It would be authorized to help governments deal with
important problems throughout the whole scope of
their agricultural research systems, from helping to
organize the training of national personnel to meet
research manpower needs, at one end, to assisting the
establishment of secure research/extension links at the
other. The Service would be expected to concentrate its
assistance largely on program, policy, organizational,
and management issues; but, subject to the provisions
of sub-paragraphs (b) and (e), it would also be able to
help governments deal with important problems at
operational and project levels.

(d) It would work closely with the nationals of each as-
sisted country with the view to enabling that country
to become self-sufficient in planning and implementa-
tion of agricultural research as soon as possible. It
would be prepared to undertake a long-term commit-
ment to work with a government to improve research
capacity; but would do so only when the government
was prepared to undertake a comparable long-term
commitment.













"The evident truth is that the gap
is constantly increasing between
'the many who have little and the
few who have much.' The values
of our culture are threatened. The
fundamental rights of man are
being violated. The devastation of
wars continues. The great
enterprises for man's betterment
have not solved adequately the
problems that challenge us."
Statement of Latin American
Roman Catholic Bishops
Meeting in Puebla, Mexico


(e) It would normally commit itself to provide assistance
on a long-term basis only when the costs of the Ser-
vice's assistance are fully funded by a source other than
the CGIAR, on terms precluding the possibility of any
future claim by the Service on the CGIAR. Such full
funding would be a necessary condition for the Service
to provide long-term assistance for the implementation
of specific research programs or projects.


Categories of national systems. The task force also
analyzed the potential demand for the proposed service
and the kinds of assistance that might be required. De-
veloping countries were grouped into four categories.
Category A consists of countries that generally have
adequate manpower, skilled in both the management and
conduct of research, and that have, or are on the way to
having, well-organized research infrastructure and
adequate contact with research institutions in the de-
veloped countries and with the international centers. The
national research establishments of these countries are
largely self-supporting and need little external technical
assistance for planning or operations. The task force
identified six countries in this group.
Category B consists of countries which have gener-
ally adequate levels of manpower, but whose research
activities are fragmented, uncoordinated, and isolated
from the development process. Countries in this category
need assistance in reorganizing the research structure, in
research management, and in several key scientific or
support areas. There are perhaps 10 countries in this
category.
Category C is composed of countries large enough to
require a balanced agricultural research system, including
programs for varietal improvement, but lacking essential
research infrastructure and usually having only a few crop
research programs of limited scope. The needs of these
countries are generally twofold: to develop effective or-
ganization and management at the top, and to build the
scientific manpower to conduct research programs. This
category contains the largest number of developing coun-
tries, perhaps about 40.













Category D consists of about 35 small countries that
have very limited resources and not enough area in any
single crop to warrant a complete research system. These
countries mainly need improved capability for research,
largely of an adaptive nature, for a few important com-
modities, and to develop the necessary physical facilities.

Prospects. The task force's report was favorably
received by CGIAR members at their meeting in
November 1978. A sub-committee was formed to deal
with the proposition and it held its organizing meeting
immediately. Plans were made to identify an executing
agency and to move forward rapidly in 1979, drawing on
the extensive background work done by the task force.
As noted by the task force, there is considerable
overlap between the program they have outlined for the
proposed service and the existing program of IADS. The
terms of reference for IADS are broader than "research"
but, to date, research has been the main focus for all of the
organization's direct services to developing countries. In
commenting on this, the task force recommended that the
CGIAR discuss the formation of the new service with
IADS and attempt to benefit by IADS' experience in this
line of endeavor.
The IADS Board of Trustees, at its meeting in
November 1978, turned particular attention to the pro-
spective CGIAR-sponsored service. The consensus was fa-
vorable to the new service and the trustees instructed
IADS officers to cooperate fully with the CGIAR in its
deliberations.




;44' ,r.'-rw) r 5 *
r*ip ''" ~


I j I
.' 1


A'I*


000 o,


iA













he Shortage (facing Researchers examining a rice
e Sho rt e of disease nursery.
Agricultural Leaders Research managers must encourage
cooperation among various disciplines
and the development of
multidisciplinary teams to ensure
that the output of technology is
appropriate to needs of farmers and
the goals of the nation.














National and international organizations engaged in
agricultural research and development share a serious
problem: identifying, qualifying, and maintaining the
agricultural professionals they need. The problem, espe-
cially acute in developing countries, has been of primary
concern to IADS, particularly in the countries where it has
assistance contracts.
Most countries need to accelerate agricultural de-
velopment to meet the demand for food and to generate
jobs and income in rural areas. The role of new technology
in increasing production and productivity is now well
recognized. But technology usually must be tailored to
specific agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. This
process requires competent and active national research
and development programs, including experiment sta-
tions in different environments.
While qualified manpower is a prerequisite to the
building of national research capabilities, few developing
nations have adequate numbers of professionals with the
necessary education and experience. Fierce competition
exists for experienced professionals. The quality of man-


29
























































'Pearson, Lester B. (Chairman). Partners
in Development: Report of the Commission on
International Development. New York:
Praeger, 1969.


agement greatly influences the productivity of scientific
and technical manpower, and the number of qualified
managers is limited.
In 1968 the Pearson Commission1 addressed the
problems of recruiting, preparing, and retaining person-
nel for technical assistance assignments. It urged assis-
tance agencies and donor governments to improve the
training of their expatriate staffs, and governments, in-
stitutions, and private firms, through career guarantees, to
encourage professionals to undertake technical assistance
assignments. Among other recommendations, the com-
mission proposed the creation of a corps of experts who
would make a career of technical assistance.

The operational context. Professionals engaged in
agricultural development operate in a special set of com-
plex biological and social variables, and a vast array of
constraints and obstacles. Superior performance depends
upon education and experience, but the demands for
accelerated development leave little time for adequate
preparation or qualifying experience.
If they are to be successful, professionals engaged in
national agricultural development-at whatever point-
must know what to do. Moreover, they must know how to
do it, when, where, within what time frame, and with
whom. They must learn to anticipate and identify con-
straints and develop the ability to avoid or surmount
obstacles. They must understand goals and strategies for
reaching them as quickly and at as low a cost as circum-
stances permit.
Agricultural development involves complex biologi-
cal variables in complicated socio-economic situations.
While the problems may be old, much of the technology is
new, perhaps being introduced from outside the country,
and must be locally tested and adapted.
National goals and food-poverty issues dictate
speed, but research and related operations usually are
limited by low budgets. The depth of professional support
staff is shallow.
Generally, field work and programs are hampered by
inadequate infrastructure-communication, roads,













bridges, transportation. Effective linkages between re-
search, extension, and farm production frequently are
missing. Synchronization and coordination of services are
minimal.

Professional qualifications. To perform effectively
in this context, a development professional needs special
qualifications. In addition to preparation as a scientist or
other specialist, he must have knowledge and understand-
ing of the social, economic, and political aspects of de-
velopment, as well as the ability to adjust to living and
working in what may be unfamiliar and stressful organi-
zational or cultural settings-an ability especially impor-
tant for the expatriate.
Advanced degrees normally equip professionals to
plan and conduct research in their speciality, but not
necessarily to identify and work on significant,
production-limiting problems in complex environments,
nor to function effectively in multidisciplinary teams.
Academic qualification, therefore, must be accompanied
by dedication to agricultural research and development
and understanding, patience, and the other personal qual-
ities needed for good working relations. In addition, for
those working as expatriates, success will generally be
associated with the professional's ability and willingness
to function in a low-key manner as a member of local
research groups in problem-solving studies.
If the assignment goes beyond the actual perfor-
mance or direction of research, the roles become complex
and take most agricultural scientists into areas in which
they have little or no experience as advisors, coordinators,
managers, or senior administrators. They usually work at
higher organizational levels than previously, and in roles
which require building and maintaining relationships
among many organizations and institutions.
Most countries still requiring expatriates for action or
advisory posts insist on senior personnel with both dem-
onstrated expertise and previous international assign-
ments. In most cases, such positions require experienced
research administrators with a broad knowledge of ag-
ricultural development problems. Some observers say the













situation calls for "agricultural statesmen" with the di-
plomacy and skills needed to establish close working rela-
tionships and the competence to advise on a broad range
of issues.
Overall, agricultural and rural development pro-
grams place special demands on managers:
The urgency of the food-poverty situation requires ac-
tion, not contemplation. Managers in development must
be able to move ahead confidently and aggressively. This
requires experience, commitment, and courage.
Agriculture, by its nature, is constantly variable, and the
rapid growth of current technology makes it more so.
Those who manage agricultural development must un-
derstand the biological, environmental, seasonal, and
economic factors responsible for this variability.
The manager also must be able to recognize agricultural
development as a social and economic as well as a
technological process, and to identify and marshal re-
sources for solving human and organizational problems.
Success in development depends on the synchronization
of a vast range of services provided by many agencies
over which the manager has no direct control. The
manager must be able to persuade and lead: he deals
with political leaders who often do not understand ag-
riculture or the circumstances of farmers and rural life;
similarly, he can motivate farmers or others and dem-
onstrate what is necessary, but he cannot dictate.
This context places a premium on innovation, in-
genuity, and problem-solving skills, what one writer
describes as "the art and science of pushing strings."

Factors affecting manpower needs. Institutions
concerned with preparing professionals for development
must consider not only the context in which the individual
will operate, and the skills he may need to operate
successfully, but other issues as well. Policy changes,
international and national, influence the need for people
and the kind of work to be done. Availability and com-
mitment of potential staff are affected by perceptions of
the urgency of the overall situation, the differences among
countries, and the multitude of organizations involved in













preparing and employing scientists. Finally, the emphases
of development itself are constantly evolving.
Most developing countries must expand their pro-
fessional staffs significantly if they are not to depend
increasingly on others for technical assistance. To double
the number of researchers in developing countries in 10
years, with allowances for 10 percent staff replacement and
30 percent student dropout, Peter Oram (International
Food Policy Research Institute) estimates that more than
5500 new students must be started each year. More than
20,000 additional graduates would have to be produced
each year to meet the needs of extension and related
services.
Even more critical, however, is the need for experi-
enced senior managerial and planning personnel. The
logistics necessary to meet this need also are difficult.
Nationals in key posts are seldom able to leave for ex-
tended training periods. An expatriate selected for an
assignment rarely has sufficient time to acquire additional
orientation or experience before assuming his new role.
Young professionals, anticipating difficulty obtaining a
first international post, cannot realistically be expected to
take extraordinary measures to acquire additional knowl-
edge or experience.
As countries continue to develop their own profes-
sional staffs, the long-term need for expatriate personnel is
likely to diminish, but slowly and over a relatively long
period, particularly in the smaller, less-developed coun-
tries. This does not necessarily imply a reduction in the
desirability of internationally oriented training for profes-
sionals from developed countries. It may signal, rather, a
changing rationale for providing the broadened education
and experience required in technical assistance. As the
world becomes increasingly interdependent, it will be
important for developed countries to prepare their per-
sonnel, not solely to work abroad, but so that they bring to
their work at home a world view, making them better
scientists, educators, and citizens.
Significant changes in the international scene di-
rectly influence the number and kinds of personnel
needed in national agricultural research and related pro-


Husking coconuts.
All commodities that are important to a
nation or locality need research.













grams. Among these changes are the growing population,
mounting food demands, the increasing desire of nations
to be self-sufficient, and the changes in policies and
emphases of donor and technical assistance agencies.
Some of the changes most significant to professionals in
agricultural development programs and the organizations
that train them are:
Speed of development. It is now recognized that
many of the developing countries must double their food
crop output within 15 years, some in as few as 8 years, if
they are not to be dependent upon external sources for
their basic commodities. Achieving these growth rates
will require exceptional research and development efforts,
concentration on goals, synchronization of services, and
favorable public policies. The task calls for scientists and
administrators with a broad understanding of the overall
problems and necessary competence and dedication.
Emphasis on the small farmer. The technical coopera-
tion community, and many developing countries, have
shifted their focus and now stress the importance of
helping the small farmer and meeting the basic needs of
the rural poor as the first step toward successful economic
development. In many developing countries, this signals
major changes in development planning.
Increased flow of technology. The international ag-
ricultural research centers are producing an increasing
number of selections of improved plant germ plasm and
production technologies. These pose new opportunities
and problems for national authorities, who must mobilize
and manage their limited resources to maximize the op-
portunities this new technology offers, and still mount
programs for other commodities not covered by the inter-
national centers.
New emphasis on technology transfer. Concerned
with the slow adoption of new varieties and cultural
practices by many farmers, the international centers and
many national programs have been reviewing the ques-
tion of technology transfer. Some research organizations
are changing strategies for identifying and solving the
problems of small-scale and subsistence farmers, paying
more attention to social variables, and conducting mul-













tidisciplinary studies of mixed and multiple-cropping
systems. Methods of extension are being reviewed to
develop effective ways of reaching small farmers. Appro-
priate technology, in the.sense of technology that is bio-
logically adaptable, economically viable, and socially ac-
ceptable in the locale where it is to be used, can only be
created through an interaction of research and extension,
and a continuing dialogue between scientists and farmers.
Increased funding. The new emphasis on develop-
ment has brought an increase in funds for agricultural
programs and projects. But increased availability of funds
does not automatically accelerate agricultural develop-
ment, because lack of adequately trained people to iden-
tify and develop sound proposals leads either to funding
of poorly conceived projects or non-utilization of the
money by countries most needing it for development. As a
consequence, donor agencies compete for the privilege of
supporting well-planned projects. Moreover, when new
projects are funded, this creates additional demands for
people, especially for those with managerial abilities.
Management skills to deal with this increased
amount of investment capital are often lacking, particularly
in the smaller, poorer countries that are meant to be its
beneficiaries. The situation suggests a staffing strategy
that emphasizes the assigning of a minimum number of
experienced, highly qualified expatriates coupled with a
maximum multiplier effect through in-service training of
nationals.
Shifting assistance policies. Donor governments and
assistance agencies sometimes change operational styles
and project criteria. Countries, usually involved with
several aid agencies, have difficulty adjusting rapidly to
these changes, particularly when the objectives and pro-
cedures of various agencies appear to be contradictory.
Recognition of development as social process. There is
growing recognition that development efforts, if they are
to succeed, must be managed more as a human than a
technological process, the success of which depends upon
knowledge and understanding of those "being de-
veloped." This approach to development requires profes-
sionals with social science as well as technical and man-
agerial skills.


"We now have a potential to
increase food production three
times. If we can increase our
irrigated area from 137.5 million
to 167 million acres as planned in
the next five years, and get the
pumps, inputs and credit out,
Indian agriculture is going to
make huge strides. Two or three
bad monsoons might delay things
a bit and make them look bad, but
nothing can really affect what's
happening."
Raj Krishna in The Christian
Science Monitor
























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lADS in 1978






















IADS has considered itself to be an experimental
organization in that it is authorized by its charter to
undertake a wide range of services to developing coun-
tries, but it is not mandated to provide any particular type
of service unless requests from developing countries pro-
vide clear evidence of demand. The IADS budget has been
adequate to permit exploratory discussions, reviews, and
surveys requested by countries, and it has been sufficiently
flexible to permit considerable innovation. Nevertheless,
under the charter, long-term projects require special fund-
ing. IADS is not a granting or funding agency, but rather
one that provides or arranges agreed-upon services on a
cost-reimbursable basis, if they are to go beyond the study
or planning stage. It may help a country find funds, but it
does not provide them itself unless the modest survey-
type input be so considered. And even there, other
possible funding sources are contacted before IADS' re-
sources are expended.
The largest and most rapidly growing part of IADS'
total program in 1978 was direct support to individual coun-


(facing) Farmer taking seeds of a new
variety home to plant.
Technology usually must be tailored to
specific agro-climatic and
socio-economic conditions.













tries. There was an increasing interest in asking IADS to
help plan or reorganize national research institutions. An
increasing number of countries recognize the importance
of research in their drive for increased food production
and improved rural living standards, and they are pre-
pared to spend substantial funds in support of research. It
is evident that good planning is necessary if these expen-
ditures are to have the expected pay-off and there is a
strong desire in many countries to draw on outside
expertise for such planning. In addition to helping to
prepare master plans for the research establishment, IADS
participates in program implementation under long-term
contracts.
All of the countries with which IADS is involved in
long-term programs aim to improve the qualifications and
numbers of their research staff members. This is a time-
consuming process but one which is moving along well in
all of the projects. Qualified young staff members are
being sent abroad for graduate training and for special
courses at the international agricultural centers. In certain














projects in-service training programs are being estab-
lished, particularly for extension workers.
One of the principal problems of any national ag-
ricultural program is to relate appropriately to the national
planning agency, the finance ministry, and other agencies
that are responsible for national development. Unless the
agricultural research unit is closely associated with na-
tional goals and carries out studies that foster develop-
ment, it cannot expect to receive adequate support. On the
other hand, the research agency should help shape realis-
tic national goals. All national research agencies with
which IADS cooperates are grappling with this problem in
one way or another. In some countries, institutions have
been established to foster this interaction and the job is
relatively easy. In others the organizational structure of
research is so fragmented within the government that
making progress towards realistic goals is much more
difficult.
Agricultural research agencies must work closely
with agencies that bring new technology to farmers. Some



















Nepalese farmers who are cooperating
with researchers in farm trials.
General strengthening of national
systems is necessary to generate and
adapt technology for local conditions.













"Here then is the challenge for the
international community for the
rest of this century-to reorder
our priorities so that every
member of the family of man can
be liberated from hunger and
disease and the acute hardship
that is the permanent lot of
millions of the world's citizens.
Offer a hungry peasant bread or
democracy for his starving family
and he will choose bread."
James Callaghan


countries have organized government services to foster
this interaction. Thus, the research unit may participate in
the training of extension personnel and help design and
implement production campaigns. This contact ensures
that campaigns are based on sound technology. But
equally important is the opportunity for researchers to
learn where flaws in the technology lie, and consequently
where more research is needed. These interactions are so
important that IADS has encouraged the national research
agencies with which it works to define "research" broadly
enough to encompass elements of technology transfer.
IADS sees participation in the transfer as an obligation for
the researcher as well as an opportunity.
Maximization of use of the technology arising at the
international agricultural research centers is another im-
portant concern of the national programs. For many small
developing countries, the centers are the chief resource
base for new technology. Many of them cannot afford
comprehensive research on every crop their farmers grow.
Previously, they could only turn to temperate-climate
countries for ideas and materials, but now they have a
source which can be influenced to focus more directly on
their needs. They sense that they must take care that their
national goals are fully recognized as they draw on the
centers. The enthusiasm that can be generated for a
particular commodity must not cause the national program
to alter its priorities. Also, the centers' tendency to focus
on a limited number of commodities must be balanced by
national research that fits these commodities into appro-
priate farming systems. The centers themselves are aware
of these concerns and are researching farming systems as
well as commodities, but there is a role for an agency such
as IADS to help the country look at the array of oppor-
tunities from its own point of view.
Requests received by IADS in 1978 suggest that a
major trend in programs will be towards surveys, studies,
workshops, and advice that relate to some of these issues.
Questions are being asked about the organizational struc-
tures and operating procedures that will enhance the con-
tribution that the national program can make to national
needs. Some studies that IADS assists are undertaken as













the first step in seeking funds for research. Others relate
to re-orienting agencies, to enable them to be more re-
sponsive to urgent national needs. IADS has given top
priority to responding to requests for consultants on these
topics. This type of activity requires specialized and
highly qualified personnel and can be quite time-consum-
ing for headquarters staff members. However, if success-
ful, such studies can have an extremely high payoff in
that high quality national programs can be the eventual
result. The staffing and operational procedures of IADS
seem likely to move more and more in the direction of re-
sponding to these important needs.
IADS is heavily involved in Asia. The underlying
balance of food and population in Asia demands that
means be found to increase food crop productivity. Gov-
ernments in the region face serious food shortages and
generally recognize that research is imperative if the prob-
lem is to be solved. Also, many Asian countries have de-
veloped their research staffs to the point that leaders
among them are ready to embark on new initiatives. Not
only is there recognition of the need for research on the
part of government (and funding agencies), but there are
research personnel to form the nucleus.
The demand in Asia for support of programs with
which IADS works is so great that the IADS trustees de-
cided to add an additional program officer to work in Asia
or, alternatively, to arrange for several qualified individuals
to work on IADS obligations in the area on a part-time,
but continuing basis.
In Africa there also appears to be a widespread rec-
ognition of the need to establish and improve national re-
search organizations. Often, the scarcity of local research
personnel is a limiting factor in getting on with the job.
At present there may be a greater need in certain Afri-
can countries for expatriate personnel to participate in
the implementation process as well as in planning. To
stimulate the rapid and systematic investigation of op-
portunities in the Africa-Mideast region, IADS plans to
add an additional program officer who will be based in
the area. Because of the distance between Africa and the
New York headquarters it seems desirable to have an offi-















IADS services to Bangladesh:
Project details
Objectives: To assist with the estab-
lishment of well-supported and staffed
agricultural research programs for
wheat, grain legumes, vegetables, and
oilseeds, and cropping systems through
strengthening BARI and assisting the
growth of BARC.
Magnitude: The US $1,684,000 con-
tract provides for 156 man-months of
specialists (in residence, and as consul-
tants) plus 108 man-months of junior
specialists through a subcontract with a
voluntary organization. The time span
is 3 years, beginning with November
1977.
Basis of Involvement: Contract be-
tween the People's Republic of
Bangladesh and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant to Bangladesh.
Murray Dawson, project supervisor


Bangladesh Research
Review Team
M. A. Islam
Executive vice-chairman, BARC
K. M. Badruddoza
Director, BARI
Aminul Islam
Dean of Biological Sciences, Dacca
University
M. A. Mannan
Member director, BARC
A. H. Moseman
Representative, IADS
D. S. Athwal
Program officer, IADS


cer in the field who will deal with matters which have
heretofore been centered at headquarters.
In Latin America the need for some services offered
by IADS may be less prevalent than elsewhere. Certainly,
IICA (Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences) has
been instrumental in responding to many of the requests
from national programs. Some of the countries have had
active national programs for several decades and there is
less need for outside participation at the operating level.
Even some of the more mature programs, however, have
encountered problems in holding key staff members and
in sustaining the support of national planning agencies.
High-level consultants may prove invaluable in some of
these situations. Also, countries continue to be interested
in planning regional efforts to deal with common prob-
lems. IADS intends to work closely with IICA as well as
with the international centers and donor agencies in
evaluating problems and opportunities.


BANGLADESH

Two of the world's great rivers, the Ganges and the
Brahmaputra, join in Bangladesh and flow to the sea.
During the annual flood of these rivers and their
tributaries, rice is the only crop possible in a large portion
of Bangladesh. But other crops are grown in low-lying
areas as the flood recedes and in hilly areas. With a
population density of over 550 persons per square kilome-
ter and with population doubling every 25 years,
Bangladesh has a critical need for higher food output.
Crops other than rice have not been heavily researched.
Improved systems of farming and better varieties could
raise the productivity of many small farmers.

Contract with IADS. IADS signed an agreement with
the People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1977 to help
organize and implement multidisciplinary, problem-
oriented research programs for important commodities
and cropping systems. IADS provides technical support
for research on cropping systems and crops other than rice
through the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute.














(Rice research is handled by the Bangladesh Rice Research
Institute.) IADS also helps to develop the Bangladesh Ag-
ricultural Research Council which has the responsibility
for coordinating national agricultural research.
IADS is supplying five senior specialists: a project
supervisor, an agronomist, an agricultural economist, an
agricultural engineer, and an administrative specialist.
Four arrived in Bangladesh during the year. One other will
arrive in 1979. Through a subcontract with a voluntary
agency, the Mennonite Central Committee, IADS has
arranged for two assistant agronomists and an assistant
agricultural engineer to work with the senior specialists.
Much of the research work of the Bangladesh Ag-
ricultural Research Institute (BARI) is concerned with
wheat, grain legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, and cropping
systems. The IADS team was involved in helping to
prepare a masterplan for BARI to guide future develop-
ment and to provide a framework for using external aid
efficiently. Also, the team helped with preparation for
research work during the 1978/79 cropping season and
participated in the layout and management of field exper-
iments on wheat, potatoes, and cropping systems. In
addition, wheat farmers are being surveyed to provide a
picture of their practices and problems. The results will
influence future experiments.
BARI is moving its headquarters from Dacca to
Joydebpur, about 30 kilometers away. Developing as
much as possible of the Joydebpur experimental farm for
1978/79 experiments was one of the most urgent tasks for
BARI and IADS scientists. IADS specialists assisted with
land survey and establishing priorities in farm develop-
ment. IADS also supplied a short-term consultant to
advise on land levelling and drainage.

Research review. Integrating agricultural research
in Bangladesh is an important goal of the Bangladesh
Agricultural Research Council (BARC). To finds ways to
strengthen the functions of BARC, and to improve na-
tional agricultural research in general, Bangladesh formed
a research review team. The team, composed of four of
Bangladesh's agricultural research leaders and two consul-


BANGLADESH
1969-71 = 100


-

I'

--l / '.1:


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74 76


1 -















IADS services to Botswana:
Project details

Objectives: To assist the government
of Botswana in furnishing leadership to
the agricultural research organization.
In this unique arrangement, the
Norwegian Agency for International
Development (NORAD) provides the
services of the director of agriculture
research for the Botswana Ministry of
Agriculture. At the same time, the di-
rector is an IADS representative, and
IADS furnishes him with supporting
services and a small amount of dis-
cretionary funds used to support re-
search in Botswana. Botswana is at-
tempting to maintain its vigorous re-
search in animal production, increase
crops production research, and greatly
enlarge the training of Botswana scien-
tists.
Magnitude: NORAD has posted the
director of agricultural research for ap-
proximately 5 years. IADS provided US
$30,000 in 1978 in addition to support
activities by the IADS headquarters
staff.
Basis of Involvement: The govern-
ment of Botswana and IADS agreed to
cooperate with this project through per-
sonal visits and exchange of letters.
Kristian Oland, representative.


tants from IADS, has drafted a report which is being re-
viewed by senior research administrators. A final report
and recommendations will be prepared in 1979.

International staff support. As part of the IADS
collaboration, a unit is being established under BARC to
provide logistic support, such as housing arrangements,
for expatriate scientists. This unit, called the International
Staff Support Coordination Cell, will serve IADS staff
members, but in the future its responsibility may be
extended to other foreigners working with BARC.



BOTSWANA

Most of Botswana is an arid plateau. The population
of 700,000 is concentrated in the higher rainfall areas of the
east. The forbidding Kalahari Desert in the west and the
vast Okavango swamps in the north are lightly populated.
Cattle rising is the chief agricultural activity, and cattle
provide 90 percent of Botswana's exports (though that may
change abruptly as Botswana's mineral wealth begins to
be exploited on a larger scale). Crops are grown with
rudimentary methods.
The director of agricultural research in Botswana,
Kristian Oland, is an IADS representative. He is posted in
Botswana by NORAD, the Norwegian assistance agency.
IADS assists Botswana's research program by arranging
purchasing and shipping services, and by supplying a
limited amount of discretionary funds which can be used
to circumvent bottlenecks in the research program. These
funds have been used chiefly to finance the travel of young
scientists to training centers.
Botswana has been quite successful in expanding
agricultural research, which in the past has been concen-
trated on animal production and dryland farming tech-
niques. Recently, a research project on crop production
was started with assistance from the U.S. Agency for
International Development; research in dairy production
was expanded, primarily with local funding and some
assistance from Denmark; the seed production unit is














being strengthened with British assistance; a horticultural
research project has begun; and an agricultural develop-
ment program in the Okavango area has been submitted
to SAREC (the Swedish assistance agency) for financing.
ICRISAT has helped develop the principal experi-
ment stations in Botswana, and Botswana scientists have
received training at ICRISAT in India. The New East
Foundation is now supplying the services of a manager for
the experimental farm.


CENTRAL AMERICA

The countries of Central America face serious chal-
lenges in agricultural and rural development to meet the
food needs for their 20 million citizens. Just to provide
minimal diets, basic food production must increase much
faster than it has during the last two decades.
At the same time, exports of agricultural com-
modities must be expanded and means must be found to
enable the small farmer to raise his income and improve
his standard of living. This points to the need for attention
to the full range of commodities grown, or that could be
grown, and a farming systems technology that will enable
him to increase productivity and profitability. Strengthen-
ing of national agricultural research and farm advisory
services is a requirement to ensure that the technology
needed to accelerate agricultural development is available
and used.
In view of the similarities in agro-climatic areas,
agricultural commodities, and problems of agricultural
development of the six Central American countries, effi-
ciency might be gained through generation of some of the
needed technology through a regional approach. Further,
the size of the countries places limits on possibilities for
developing large and expensive systems for generating
and transferring technology. Efforts must be made to capi-
talize on technology generated by institutions external to
the region.
Under a contract with the World Bank, IADS con-
ducted a study to identify measures to strengthen agricul-
tural research, farmer advisory services, and seed pro-


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74 76


BOTSWANA
1969-71 = 100




./ \

,,
J/ / F ^
/ ':, p :.l.u-


90














Weed control trial in Latin America.
Research must be relevant to national
goals in agricultural production and
rural income generation, and research
must influence the selection of those
goals.


grams in Central America. The study team, headed by an
IADS staff member, included specialists provided by the
World Bank/FAO, the Inter-American Institute of Agricul-
tural Sciences, and the U.S. Agency for International De-
velopment. Strong field support was given by the Inter-
American Development Bank. In the study, consideration
was given to the roles of national, regional, and extra-
regional institutions. Particular attention was directed to
technology for small and medium-scale farmers. Govern-
ments have a growing concern about the welfare of these
farmers, and their capacity for producing basic food grains
and livestock.














Research. Investment in research can be profitable,
and all of the countries of the region are attempting to
strengthen national research programs with the assistance
of external financing. In several countries, autonomous or
semi-autonomous organizations for research, which have
desirable means for flexibility of operation, are being
established.
The study of national research systems in Central
America led to five primary recommendations:

Research agencies should be organized in a way that will
facilitate work on the major commodities and area-
development needs of the country.
Research and extension should be more closely meshed.
Long-range plans for budgets and staffing should be
made.
"Neglected" commodities such as cassava, vegetables,
and livestock should get more attention and farming
systems research should be emphasized.
More research should be done on the farm with the
participation of the farmer and extension personnel.

Farmer advisory services. The national extension
services are comparatively weak. They receive far less
attention from governments and external assistance agen-
cies than research. Extension agencies are directly assist-
ing too few farmers. Ways must be found to enable the
existing field staff to reach a much larger audience more
effectively. Some possible techniques are the "training
and visit" method in which the agent works with groups
of farmers rather than individuals; strengthening staff
skills through in-service training; and using farmers'
organizations, farmer-leaders, and mass media to multiply
the impact of the extension workers.

Improved seed. The amount of high quality seed of
genetically improved varieties and hybrids available in
Central America is seriously deficient. For beans, in
particular, good seed alone could significantly raise yields.
Moreover as agricultural production in the region acceler-
ates, the need for improved seed will expand. Major
problems range from seed legislation, quality control, and


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 /4 /7


CENTRAL AMERICA
1969-71 = 100









Sr--- .:



i A C I















Central America
Study Team

IICA
Mariano Segura, research specialist
Heman Chaverra, research planning
SAID
Delbert Myren, communication specialist
IADS
Guy B. Baird, program officer
World Bank
Anacleto Apodaca, extension specialist
Erik Ipsen, economist


multiplication programs to processing, storage, and dis-
tribution and sales.
To strengthen national seed programs, legislation
should be improved to enhance seed trade within the
region and encourage exports; responsibility for seed
quality control should be separated from responsibility for
production; the private sector, including farmers' associa-
tions, should be encouraged to play a greater role in the
seed industry; and mixed public-private corporations
should be created to promote production, processing, and
marketing of certified seed where these activities are
inadequate.

Proposals. Six major recommendations were made
for regional activities:
Farming systems. Regional cropping systems research
programs should be broadened, substantially
strengthened, and placed on a long-term basis. Central to
this is the role of CATIE and its relationship with the six
countries in a regional farming systems research net-
work.
Livestock. A coordinated regional livestock research
program should be developed. The coordinating center
should be at CATIE headquarters in Costa Rica. It should
have the capability to draw on the national livestock
programs and to take advantage of work outside of the
region, notably at CIAT.
Vegetables. A coordinated vegetable research program
should be developed. CATIE would be the logical loca-
tion for the coordinating center, with the program being
closely linked to the proposed farming systems research
program. As with the proposed regional livestock net-
work, full advantage would be taken of existing national
programs and interests in developing the regional pro-
gram. An important extra-regional linkage would be
with the Asian Vegetable Research and Development
Center in Taiwan.
Beans. A regional program should be developed for the
production of disease-free bean seed. CIAT has demon-
strated the dramatic effect on yield that can result
through the use of disease-free seed. Availability of such
seed is a problem throughout the region. Central













America appears to have some favorable areas for pro-
duction of improved seed.
Cassava. The potential for expanded production of cas-
sava in the region should be studied. This crop seems to
merit a more prominent place in the diversified agricul-
ture of small farms. It is a highly efficient converter of
solar energy into carbohydrates and protein and it lends
itself to a wide range of uses from food and feed to
manufactured goods such as starch and ethyl alcohol.
Extension methodology. A cooperative regional project
should be established to promote better methods for
technology transfer. Without exception, extension ser-
vices in the region are weak.
The revised report has been submitted to the World
Bank, and it may be used as the background document for
a workshop involving Central American countries and
interested external assistance agencies.


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

During 1978, IADS maintained its contacts with
Dominican institutions in agricultural development, al-
though a long political campaign slowed implementation
of projects.
In November the government announced its deci-
sion to implement Plan Sierra, a defined-area development
program in a mountainous central region of the Domini-
can Republic where incomes are low and there is a high
rate of unemployment. The area is a microcosm of rural
conditions in the country and the Caribbean as a whole.
The planners of the project have outlined a set of social,
economic, technological, and political goals. They hope to
use Plan Sierra as a model of integrated rural development
involving the coordinated efforts of public agencies and
private institutions.
The rice training courses for extension workers or-
ganized with IADS and CIAT collaboration continued
during 1978. The direction of the courses is now under
Dominican personnel. The courses are designed to train
the extension workers as part of a broader initiative to
increase rice productivity and production, and to elimi-















DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1969-71 = 100
130

120 Total


11 -






I I 1. I I


1968 70
Source: FAO


74 76


nate the national deficit in this crop. During 1978, 37
extensionists received certificates. Field days in demon-
stration farms in six rice-producing districts were or-
ganized so that farmers might inspect varieties and culti-
vation practices. The field days, organized by people who
have taken the courses, have been instrumental in the
rapid adoption of several new varieties from Colombia. A
national rice program will be started in 1979. The program
was recommended to the government by an IADS team
which visited the country in 1976.
The Instituto Superior de Agricultura (ISA) in 1978
proposed the creation of a center for training in problem-
solving and administration, to serve all institutions of the
agricultural sector. Francis Byrnes of IADS helped ISA to
prepare the proposal. The overall purpose of the center
and its activities is to prepare needed managers for ag-
ricultural development projects and corporations for the
rest of the century. Approximately 2000 qualified people
are required in the next 4 years to meet the urgent
objectives of the Dominican government to rapidly over-
come food deficits.
The proposed center would offer four levels of in-
struction:
Symposia for the analysis of specific agricultural prob-
lems, attended by functionaries and academics as-
sociated with the agricultural sector.
Short in-service training courses for agricultural manag-
ers and program leaders, emphasizing management
techniques.
Moderate length courses for non-baccalaureate agricul-
tural technicians with proven field capacity.
A master's program in agricultural economics and man-
agement for baccalaureates with proven work experi-
ence.

ECUADOR

Ecuador's food production continues to suffer from a
drought that began in 1977. The drought, however, does
not fully explain the persistent decline in output of rice
and wheat, the most important cereals in Ecuadorian















































diets, that has occurred in recent years. Rice production
has fallen from 320,000 tons in 1975 to about 230,000 tons
currently. Farmers are planting less rice because of lack of
credit, low prices, inadequate technical assistance, and
insufficient good seed. The area and production of wheat
in Ecuador have fallen by half in the last decade. In 1977
alone, wheat area plummeted 25 percent to 41,000 hec-
tares. While Ecuador now produces only about 40,000 tons
of wheat a year, despite a wheat price that is nearly double
world levels, it is importing 250,000 tons a year.
At the government's request, IADS has posted a
representative in Ecuador, and his primary assignment is
to help the National Planning Office, the Ministry of


Members of the joint IADS-Senegal
review team in a rural village.
Questions are being asked about the
organizational structures and operating
procedures that will enhance the
contribution that the national program
can make to national needs.















ECUADOR
1969-71 100



1 T-. .
lci

1 -

S / '
'., .*


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74 76


Agriculture, and INIAP (the national agricultural research
agency) plan agricultural and rural development. In addi-
tion, a consultant arranged through IADS is assigned to
work with INIAP investigators on rice production.

Leadership for rural development projects. While
formal organization of a national system for integrated
rural development was delayed as the nation held a series
of elections which will culminate with the presidential
election in 1979, steps toward long-range agricultural
planning were made in the Guayas River rice project (near
Guayaquil) and the Cayambe wheat project (near Quito).
The rice project was formally organized during 1978, and
the responsibility for both development projects was
shifted from the National Planning Office to the Ministry
of Agriculture. The Vice-Minister of Agriculture and the
Zone Chief who represents the Minister of Agriculture in
the Guayaquil area, have taken charge of organizing the
rice project. A project leader has been appointed, who will
work under an advisory committee representing cooperat-
ing organizations. Many questions of administration and
financial support for the rice project remain to be resolved,
however.

The rice project. The 30,000-hectare rice project area is
located in Ecuador's major rice region near the southern
coast. The project activities will begin in a 7000-hectare
area which has a high density of small farmers and many
cooperatives. The area is mostly less than 2.5 meters above
sea level, has heavy clay soils, and is continually flooded
by the Guayas River during the rainy season (January to
August). The depth of the flood waters varies greatly
depending on the amount of recent rain, and the tides. In
addition the landscape is irregular so that within a
5-hectare farm some fields may be under 200 centimeters
of water while others have no standing water. Con-
sequently, farmers are unable to maintain an optimum
water level in the rice fields, and low yields result. On the
other hand, the flooding permits farmers to plant rice even
well into the dry season.
After the major seasonal floods have ended, many














farmers can irrigate their fields by opening the levees
during high tides. As the season progresses, water is
pumped from low-lying areas to higher ones.
An economic and engineering survey of the project
area was made by a team representing several Ecuadorian
agencies. Based on the survey a report was prepared to
request support for the project from the World Bank.
Research by INIAP and the regional development
agency is aimed towards finding ways to raise production
without massive canals and dams. Tests of varieties that
can grow or elongate fast enough to keep ahead of rising
flood water continued in 1978. Lines were planted under
farmer's conditions, and, with advice from INIAP, farmers
are multiplying lines that performed better than their own
varieties. Varieties that can grow in water depths of 20 to
150 centimeters should allow farmers to plant earlier and
thus increase the amount of land that can be planted twice
a year.
INIAP and the Ministry of Agriculture are also inves-
tigating ways to improve land preparation and the use of
shallow wells for supplemental irrigation. A study of
salinity of well water is also under way.
Many other conditions will influence the progress of
the rice project. For example, farmers in this land reform
area lack title to the land so they have difficulty getting
credit. Transportation costs are high because much of the
rice is transported on horseback or by canoe. Housing,
schools, and sewage disposal are rudimentary. Drinking
water is a critical problem, especially in the dry season.
The rice project will attack these problems as well as those
relating directly to rice technology.

The wheat project. In the Cayambe project area, as in
Ecuador as a whole, wheat production has dropped pre-
cipitously in recent years. As a first step in remedying
wheat production problems, INIAP collaborated with
CIMMYT in a survey of the area. In two of three zones
surveyed, the typical farm has only 2 hectares, while in the
third zone, farms averaged 6 hectares. Farmers hand plant
wheat on about a third of their land and follow a rotation
involving crops such as potatoes, broad beans, maize, and


IADS services to Ecuador:
Project details
Objectives: To assist the government
of Ecuador in the planning, implemen-
tation, and evaluation of rural de-
velopment projects that include in-
creased agricultural productivity of the
small farmers, as well as the provision
of basic infrastructure and services in-
cluding education, health, and hous-
ing.
Activities: Attention is focused ini-
tially on two regional projects: one is in
the Guayas River Basin where rice is the
principal crop; the second is in the
highlands around Cayambe-once a
leading wheat-growing area. A project
is being developed whereby INIAP will
strengthen research on fruits, vegeta-
bles, and poultry, with technical sup-
port to be provided by IADS.
Basis of Involvement: Under an
agreement with Ecuador, IADS has a
representative in that country who is
linked to the national planning body
concerned with rural development
projects. External financing for the
INIAP-IADS research project is ex-
pected to be provided by the Inter-
American Development Bank.
U. J. Grant, representative.
































72 74 76


HONDURAS
1969-71= 100
120

Total
110 Agr.
\ Output





Food output
per person Z
so /
.

\



80 \ /
\/
v
L _j i I i i


barley. Most wheat varieties planted were developed by
INIAP but some are no longer recommended. Half the
farmers use no fertilizer. Although two-thirds of the
farmers apply herbicides, weeds are a persistent problem.
Nearly all heads of family work off the farm, many for
weeks at a time. This may account for shortages of skilled
farm labor at critical periods.
The value of trials of varieties and techniques during
1978 was reduced by the drought.

Collaboration with INIAP. INIAP and IADS have
nearly completed discussions of a contract under which
IADS would supply personnel to start research programs
on fruit, vegetables, and poultry. The funds would come
from a loan by the Inter-American Development Bank to
INIAP.

Training. Following a visit to the USA by a small
group of Ecuadorian policy makers, including the Vice-
Minister of Agriculture, a study of ways to provide ad-
vanced training to Ecuadorian agricultural scientists was
conducted by the University of Missouri, Oklahoma State
University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The
study may lead to support by USAID for training Ecuado-
rians in the USA.


HONDURAS

Two plantation crops, bananas and coffee, dominate
Honduras' agricultural economy. Exports of the two crops
alone account for 40 percent of Honduras' foreign ex-
change earnings. Production of staple foods-maize, rice,
and beans-has not kept up with the nation's rapid
population growth, however. Consequently food imports
have risen sharply in recent years.
In early 1978 a report on "Agricultural Research in
Honduras" was delivered to the Minister of Natural Re-
sources. It recommended measures for reorganizing PNIA
(the national agricultural research program) and included
a detailed 5-year plan for development. The report, which
was prepared by a study group consisting of members of


1968 70
Source: FAO













A training course participant receives
his certificate.
In the past decade, the capacity of
institutions in developing countries to
Develop their own scientists has risen
steadily and strongly.










: -







PNIA and specialists provided by IADS, served as the
background for a proposed development grant of about
US $1.9 million from the U.S. Agency for International De-
velopment (USAID). The grant would provide technical
advisors, training, vehicles, and field and laboratory
equipment, which would complement inputs to national
agricultural research made by the Honduras government,
and regional and international organizations.
With support of USAID, multidisciplinary research
directed primarily to needs of the small farmer will be
strengthened. This research will have two interlinked
approaches. The first, farming systems research, is being
done mostly in farm fields with farmer participation by
small teams whose members have background in both the
bio-physical sciences and the socio-economic sciences.
Eventually teams will be based at each of the six research
stations in the national network.
The second approach, "farming systems component
research," consists mainly of research done at experiment















A South American farmer transporting
grain to market.
The research system must have
adequate liaison with cabinet-level
agencies concerned with funding, and
it must cooperate with agencies
concerned with credit, inputs, markets,
regulator activities, etc.














stations to support the on-farm research. It includes the
national commodity-oriented research projects which in
turn are linked, where appropriate, to international cen-
ters such as CIAT, CIMMYT, and CIP.
As recommended in the report, PNIA is establishing
a central research unit in Comayagua. This station is near
enough to Tegucigalpa, the capital, to maintain good
communications with PNIA headquarters there, and with
the Ministry of Natural Resources. It will provide research
and training that need not be duplicated in each region.
Work at the Comayagua station is under way to provide
the farming systems teams called for in each of the
agricultural regions of the country by 1982.
The study provides a master plan for PNIA which
can enable the government and foreign assistance agen-
cies to use resources more effectively for agricultural
research and technology transfer. This master plan, how-
ever, will have to be revised periodically as PNIA gains
experience, as PNIA's resources grow, and as Honduras'
priorities for agricultural development change.


INDONESIA

Indonesia, a nation of ten thousand islands,
stretches 4800 kilometers (about the distance from London
to New York) along the equator. The population of 135
million is heavily concentrated in Java. To expand food
production, Indonesia urgently needs to raise the produc-
tivity of existing farms and to find ways to make efficient
use of underexploited land on the more thinly populated
"outer islands."
The Agency for Agricultural Research and Develop-
ment (AARD) has nationwide responsibility for agricul-
tural research. Under a loan from the World Bank, AARD
employs five foreign agricultural specialists arranged
through IADS. The IADS resident staff comprises a project
specialist, a rubber specialist, a vegetable specialist, an
equipment-planning and procurement specialist, and a
financial administrator. Work on palawija crops (staple
crops other than rice) is assisted, for the present, by the
project specialist and by short-term consultants.


INDONESIA
1969-71 = 100
/"





-,--


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74
















IADS services to Indonesia:
Project details
Objectives: To provide Indonesia's
Agency for Agricultural Research and
Development with technical assistance
and services for the strengthening of
national production-oriented research
on rice, rubber, vegetables, and upland
crops.
Magnitude: The contract provides for
62 man-years of specialist services from
February 1, 1977 to December 30, 1981,
and amounting to US $8,931,320 in es-
timated costs. Of this $2,406,000 is allo-
cated to provide 133 fellowships to
cover 225 man-years of training.
Basis of Involvement: Contract be-
tween Republic of Indonesia and IADS.
Funds: World Bank loan to Indonesia,
and local currency from the government
of Indonesia.
Edwin B. Oyer, project specialist


Agricultural planning. AARD participated in the
formulation of Indonesia's third 5-year development plan.
The plan lists several objectives for AARD including:
identification of problems constraining agricultural pro-
duction and development
supplying new data and information to improve the
formulation of agricultural development policy
increasing the quantity and quality of food, livestock and
fish production
increasing the production of agricultural commodities for
industrial raw materials
promoting the utilization of natural resources while
safeguarding the environment

Resident specialists and consultants. IADS spe-
cialists participated in reviews of various national com-
modity research programs and assisted with planning and
implementing these programs.
IADS helped AARD to plan the purchase of equip-
ment and to review the design of buildings at four
experiment stations, which will serve as centers for na-
tional programs on rice, palawija crops, vegetables, and
rubber. IADS also helps AARD with its training program.
A proposal for a second World Bank loan was pre-
pared, which would support AARD's activities more
broadly, and especially would permit AARD to improve
agricultural research in islands in addition to Java.
Several short-term consultants worked for AARD
during the year. An agricultural economist advised on a
survey of small-scale rubber producers, another consulted
on food policy research, and a third provided advice on
resource management and use. A plant breeder worked
with maize researchers and a communication specialist
prepared a brochure which explains the activities of
AARD, its role in supporting national development, and
the accomplishments of its several research institutes.
Indonesia's agricultural research has, for the most
part, focused on Java. Little research has been done on
other islands where agro-climatic conditions may differ
substantially and where new lands are rapidly being
opened. IADS provided a short-term consultant to AARD













for planning of a seminar aimed at making a general
inventory of the resources available for agricultural de-
velopment in Sumatra and identifying researchable con-
straints to these potential development opportunities. The
seminar to be held in 1979 is expected to provide
guidelines and priorities for strengthening research on the
island of Sumatra.

Training. AARD, with the assistance of IADS, is
embarked on an ambitious program to raise the qualifica-
tions of its staff. At the end of 1978, under the World Bank
loan, 36 AARD scientists were attending universities
abroad or had gained admission. Twenty-three are work-
ing on masters degrees at Bogor Agricultural University
and some of them will be selected to pursue doctorates
abroad.
Twenty scientists and administrators of AARD par-
ticipated in short overseas visits ranging from conferences
lasting a few days to 6-month training courses at interna-
tional agricultural research centers. AARD plans to offer
training opportunities to the support staff as well as the
research staff. Better trained individuals in such areas as
library science, laboratory analysis, and experiment sta-
tion management will improve services to the scientific
staff.
AARD established an English Training Project be-
cause proficiency in English is a significant roadblock for
many Indonesian scientists who wish to study in coun-
tries where English is the language of instruction. Three
members of the Bogor foreign community who have
experience in teaching English as a foreign language
conducted two 8-week courses in 1978. At the end of each
course, the students took TOEFL (Test of English as a
Foreign Language) which is the first hurdle in gaining
admission to an English-language university. The course
will be continued in the future.

Sumatra project. IADS was selected during 1978 to
be the contracting agency for a project focused on the
island of Sumatra. Its agro-climatic conditions differ con-
siderably from those of Java. The aim of the project is to
















IADS services to Nepal:
Project details

Objectives: To provide technical as-
sistance and services to Nepal for
strengthening national production-
oriented agricultural research and ex-
tension activities related to cereal crops
and cropping systems.
Magnitude: Estimated contract costs
are US $2,524,000 for work to be com-
pleted by September 30, 1979. IADS will
provide up to 282 man-months of
specialists (in residence, and as consul-
tants). The training component in-
cludes 234 man-months of advanced
degree training, and 360 man-months
of other training.
Basis of Involvement: Contract be-
tween His Majesty's Government of
Nepal and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant to Nepal.
Wayne H. Freeman, project supervisor.


develop a network of nine experiment stations which will
address the food production problems of Sumatra.
Under the proposed contract, IADS will assist by
providing five resident specialists for the project and by
arranging for training of Indonesian scientists abroad.
The project will be financed by a grant and loan from the
U.S. Agency for International Development. Indonesia's
Central Research Institute for Agriculture, a unit of
AARD, will be responsible for the project.


NEPAL

Agriculture supports 90 percent of Nepal's 13 million
people. The Terai, the humid lowlands stretching across
southern Nepal on the border of India, has a third of the
population, but produces two-thirds of the Kingdom's
agricultural output. The main crops are rice, wheat, and
maize. In the "hills," farmers painstakingly till narrow
terraced fields which blanket the hillsides. Farmers grow
chiefly maize and wheat on a subsistence basis. Most of
the area is isolated; roads are rare. Meager yields, com-
bined with population growth, is increasingly forcing
people out of the hills into the Terai.
IADS is assisting Nepal's Integrated Cereal Project.
The project's primary research activities are developing
and testing new varieties and production practices, inves-
tigating better cropping systems, and making socio-
economic studies related to cropping systems. The project
is also developing and distributing kits to spread new
varieties and new farming practices, coordinating training
for agriculturalists in Nepal and abroad, and improving
the facilities of experiment stations.

Cropping systems. With Nepal's scarcity of arable
land, higher output must come largely from more efficient
and productive cropping patterns. To keep research fo-
cused on the needs of small farmers, most experiments are
conducted in farmers' fields, in five locations (three more
than last year). One of the sites is in the Terai (the humid
plains) and the rest are in the "hills" where most of
Nepal's population lives.

























Unless the agricultural research unit is
closely associated with national goals
and carries out studies that foster
development, it cannot expect to
receive adequate support.
Laying out a trial in a farmer's field.


,-7,


^ ^ .- .':' -- **
* ' _















NEPAL
1969-71= 100





Total
Agr.
Output



// Food output \
V per person \


1968 F7
Source: FAO


Economists of the Integrated Cereal Project began
interviewing farmers in five locations to determine the
predominant cropping patterns and their socio-economic
underpinnings. At each location information is being
gathered on climate, topography, water use and availabil-
ity, cropping intensity, labor use, animal population,
yield levels, and farm size.
The data gathered will enable the research program
to search for alternative cropping patterns more systemati-
cally and to pinpoint changes in varieties or management
practices which would improve existing patterns. The
results will also influence plans for subsequent socio-
economic studies which will be carried out in conjunction
with agronomic experiments.
The survey also includes detailed questions on the
traditional rice varieties farmers grow. The answers will
guide plant breeders in tailoring varieties to farmers'
needs.


Wheat. For wheat, a major advance was the release
of a new variety, UP262. Trials of wheat cultural practices
confirmed that ridging would improve wheat stands and
raise yields in the Bhairawa region, an irrigated area that
has a high water table and consequently poorly aerated
soils. The identification of a site in the inner Himalayas
where good evaluation of yellow rust susceptibility is pos-
sible in the off-season will improve disease screening
as well as permitting an extra generation of wheat breed-
ing material to be grown each year.


Rice. Rice trials focused on quick-maturing var-
ieties to permit double cropping. Varieties that could be
planted in the early season and harvested promptly would
allow farmers to follow with their normal late-maturing
varieties. Four rice varieties looked promising for early
planting and will be tested extensively before possible
release. An outstanding full-season variety was also iden-
tified for wide testing.
Nearly 10,000 seed packets of promising rice vari-
eties were distributed to farmers for trial. The rice breed-


72 74 76













ing program was greatly expanded. About 6000 breeding
lines are under study, half for the hills and half for the
Terai. Trials for screening lines for resistance to blast
disease were begun. This is an important step because
blast affects rice throughout Nepal, and changes that
improve growing conditions for rice are favorable for the
disease, too. A new virus disease was observed and
provisionally identified as rice dwarf virus, which is
found in Korea and Japan.


Maize. Trials in the Terai established that maize
grown with irrigation in the dry winter season can be
highly productive. With fertilizer and proper planting
densities, good maize takes advantage of the season's
bright sunlight, despite cool temperatures, and produces
exceptional yields. Winter irrigation is already possible
in some parts of the Terai and new irrigation projects are
under construction. While maize production in the winter
could be highly profitable, many farmers will have to
learn to manage water carefully because maize is sensi-
tive to excessively wet soil.
Two maize varieties were earmarked for pre-release
trials in farmers' fields.

Training. Several new training programs for exten-
sion workers were associated with the distribution of seed
packets and the operation of on-farm trials. Special train-
ing programs were also conducted for rice, for wheat, for
maize, and for cropping systems. A training program in
extension methods and practices was held for 20 extension
leaders.
Thirty-six research scientists traveled abroad to at-
tend workshops or to make brief study tours of research
centers. Nineteen scientists were involved in training
programs lasting 4 to 7 months at IRRI or CIMMYT.
Eight agricultural scientists were selected to pursue
advanced degrees. Six are already enrolled: three in India,
one in the USA, and two in the Philippines. Five others
previously selected are working on advanced degrees in
the USA.













Publications and meetings. The results of research
were compiled in several publications issued during the
year including annual reports of the maize, rice, and
wheat programs, and reports of the cropping systems
socio-economic studies and experimental results. A semi-
nar on hill agriculture was held. Workshops on maize, on
summer crops, and on winter crops were conducted.

Experiment station development. At the Bhairawa
experiment station in the Terai, extensive land shaping
was done under the supervision of an IADS consultant.
Construction of offices and laboratories is under way at
the three main commodity research stations. Facilities for
seed processing and storage began to be constructed at
one of the four research centers for which they are
planned. At two hill stations, storage structures are being
erected.

Foreign expertise. Five foreign resident specialists
work with the Integrated Cereal Project by arrangement
with IADS. In addition, the project employed a number of
short-term consultants during the year to provide
specialized advice on such crops as maize, wheat, rice,
chickpea, pigeonpea, and soybeans as well as on such
subjects as research organization, experiment station de-
velopment, and cropping systems.

PANAMA
Panama's population growth rate of 3.1 percent a
year makes massive food deficits a grim prospect unless
agricultural productivity is soon raised sharply. During
the 1970's, increases in yields of rice have barely kept pace
with population, and yields of maize and beans, the other
basic food crops, have been stagnant. In addition, yields
of these crops are the lowest in Central America.
In the past, production has been raised by opening
new land, and Panama still has large amounts of un-
exploited jungle in the east. But virgin land is not fertile,
and an immense investment in roads and other infrastruc-
ture would be necessary to expand farming. Raising yields














on existing cropland seems a more promising way to
increase Panama's output. In addition, a portion of the
land now used for grazing cattle might be converted to
cropland.
IADS collaborates with IDIAP, the national agricul-
tural research institute, under a contract between IADS
and USAID which supports a full-time project supervisor.
In 1978 this 1-year contract was extended for 6 months in
order to allow time for studies and preparation of the
documents needed to obtain long-term financing for
IDIAP.
IDIAP's Board of Directors, and its Technical Com-
mittee, approved in 1978 a plan to intensify research for
small and medium-sized farmers through area, commod-
ity, and problem-specific activities. As a result, IDIAP, in
collaboration with consultants from IADS, CATIE (Centro
Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza),
CIMMYT, and ICTA (Guatemala), has been redirecting
research and extension activities towards nine priority
areas. Multidisciplinary teams are beginning area diag-
nostic studies and on-farm research projects.
In May, a preliminary document was prepared
which established the basic justification for a loan and
grant proposal for presentation to USAID. The document
described a 5-year development program for IDIAP, in-
cluding the inputs required. The total cost of the 5-year
project is estimated at US $13 million, of which Panama
would provide 55 percent and USAID the rest. The USAID
funds would provide staff training, construction, equip-
ment, vehicles, and materials, and technical assistance. If
approved, the project will start in 1979.
Considerable time was spent preparing IDIAP's
5-year "National Plan for the Generation, Adoption, and
Transfer of Appropriate Agricultural Technology." The
plan will be reviewed and updated each year, so that the
IDIAP will have a rolling long-term plan in operation.
Consultants from IADS, CATIE, and IICA (Instituto Inter-
americano de Ciencias Agricolas) helped prepare the plan.
Progress was made in staff improvement and train-
ing. The number of professional staff members was raised
to 44, a 25 percent increase. Seven staff members received


IADS services to Panama:
Project details
Objectives: To assist the Republic of
Panama in organizing an institution
with the capability of planning, coor-
dinating, and implementing an effec-
tive national agricultural research and
technology transfer program, particu-
larly for the low-income producer, and
of mobilizing internal and external re-
sources for this purpose.
Magnitude: The 18-month contract
provides for 24 person-months of direct
labor. Total budget is US $184,627.
Basis of Involvement: Contract be-
tween the U.S. Agency for International
Development and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant funds made
available to USAID/Panama.
Jack Dee Traywick, agricultural research
administrator.















PANAMA
1969-71 = 100
130


120
Total
Agr.
110 Output





90

i = = i i I


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74 76


short-term training (up to 6 months) at international
institutions. Six staff members were in training for post-
graduate degrees as compared with one the previous year.
Some in-service training was provided by short-term
consultants.
Since a small operating budget has seriously ham-
pered IDIAP's development and ability to carry out its
responsibilities, a concerted effort was made in the careful
preparation of the proposed budget for 1979. An overall
budget increase of nearly 100 percent has been solicited.
Other advances during the year by IDIAP include
establishing an information service and documentation
center, starting the computer service in data-processing,
improving inter-institutional (national and international)
collaboration, and creating a publications department.
Three types of publications were begun: a news bulletin, a
monthly program/commodity newsletter, and an annual
technical journal.
Short-term consultants provided through the IADS
contract to IDIAP and to USAID, to assist in preparing the
loan/grant project documents, included Ralph Cummings,
Jr., IADS; Reggie Laird, from the Chapingo Post-Graduate
School in Mexico and The Rockefeller Foundation; Robert
Waugh, Peter Hildebrand, and Sergio Ruano from ICTA,
Guatemala; Jackson A. Rigney, North Carolina State Uni-
versity; and Milton Morris, University of Florida.
Although numerous problems remain, it would ap-
pear that the organizational structure has been developed
and basic strategies agreed upon so that IDIAP, assuming
that financing will be approved, will be able to make good
progress during the next several years in achieving its two
major objectives:
Working initially in priority area-specific programs,
generate, adapt, and validate appropriate technology to
increase agricultural production and productivity, family
incomes of small and medium-sized farms, and rural
employment
Design, validate, and participate in implementing
farmer-service dissemination systems, and through rural
institutions, foster widespread adoption of improved
technology















SENEGAL

Senegal's 5 million people depend heavily on ag-
riculture. Agriculture employs 80 percent of the work force
and accounts for nearly half of Senegal's export earnings.
Nevertheless, food makes up 25 to 30 percent of annual
imports. Senegal intends to become less dependent on
groundnuts, the major export crop, by intensifying pro-
duction of other crops and livestock. Larger output of
millets and sorghum, the major food crops, and such
crops as rice and maize, and greater off-take from cattle
herds could stem the rise in imports of basic foods.
Improved production of citrus, bananas, potatoes, and
onions would meet a rapidly growing local demand.
Higher production of mangos and avocados might open
export markets.
To achieve these goals, Senegal aims to expand the
problem-oriented research and make research and exten-
sion activities function more smoothly. In 1978 Senegal
asked IADS to help review agricultural research programs
and organization. During November a team composed of
Senegalese scientists and IADS consultants reviewed
internal assessments previously prepared by Senegalese
scientists and administrators, and visited key agricultural
areas.
The team's report suggested organizing research
stations to reflect the agricultural diversity of Senegal.
Only 400 kilometers separates the arid Sahalian lands of
the north from the tropical rainforests of the south. In each
of six major ecological zones, a regional station would
focus on local agriculture. All stations would however take
part in nationwide commodity or problem-oriented re-
search projects, and each station would act as the national
headquarters for one or another of the projects. The team
also examined the need for vastly increased training and
means of determining economic consequences of pro-
posed research.
In 1979, Senegal will undertake a second phase of
this research assessment. Specific research programs will
be planned and requirements for operating budgets,
buildings, equipment, and personnel will be determined.


1968 70
Source: FAO


72 74 76


Senegal Review Team

ISRA
Gora Beye, director, National Center for
for Agronomic Research
N. Gillet, technical counsellor
G. Pocthier, technical counsellor
IADS
B. C. Wright, soil scientist and IADS
program officer
R. F. Chandler, Jr., former director, IRRI
and AVRDC
J. P. Fontenot, animal scientist, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute
J. W. Hammond, agricultural economist,
University of Minnesota


SENEGAL T:r,
1969-71 100 ,., ,







I,

Ii


\ i


I i
i,

S | ^I III














OTHER COUNTRIES
The government of Sudan has adopted in principle
the 1977 report of the joint Sudan-IADS team which
recommended ways to strengthen the national agricultural
organization and its programs. A research project in
western Sudan financed by Sudan, the World Bank, and
the U.S. Agency for International Development is to be
implemented in 1979. This project will enable Sudan's
Agricultural Research Corporation to significantly im-
prove its research capabilities.
Ghana has asked IADS to consider helping to
evaluate its crops research programs. Discussions pertain-
ing to that possibility are continuing between IADS offi-
cers and the director of crops research for Ghana.



LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

Since 1977, IADS has discussed ways to identify and
prepare professionals for national agricultural programs
with representatives of the international agricultural re-
search centers, World Bank, the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development, and the Board for International Food
and Agricultural Development, the group directly con-
cerned with the involvement of U.S. universities in tech-
nical assistance projects.
Several critical problems related to the personnel
needs of agricultural research and development have been
identified:
There is a worldwide shortage of experienced agricultural
professionals to staff or to serve as advisors in national
agricultural programs.
Agricultural professionals with experience in establish-
ing and managing agricultural development strategies,
organizations, and programs are particularly scarce.
Young professionals encounter serious obstacles to ob-
taining their first international assignments.
Mid-career professionals desiring to quality for interna-
tional posts find few readily available opportunities to
do so.














OTHER COUNTRIES
The government of Sudan has adopted in principle
the 1977 report of the joint Sudan-IADS team which
recommended ways to strengthen the national agricultural
organization and its programs. A research project in
western Sudan financed by Sudan, the World Bank, and
the U.S. Agency for International Development is to be
implemented in 1979. This project will enable Sudan's
Agricultural Research Corporation to significantly im-
prove its research capabilities.
Ghana has asked IADS to consider helping to
evaluate its crops research programs. Discussions pertain-
ing to that possibility are continuing between IADS offi-
cers and the director of crops research for Ghana.



LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

Since 1977, IADS has discussed ways to identify and
prepare professionals for national agricultural programs
with representatives of the international agricultural re-
search centers, World Bank, the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development, and the Board for International Food
and Agricultural Development, the group directly con-
cerned with the involvement of U.S. universities in tech-
nical assistance projects.
Several critical problems related to the personnel
needs of agricultural research and development have been
identified:
There is a worldwide shortage of experienced agricultural
professionals to staff or to serve as advisors in national
agricultural programs.
Agricultural professionals with experience in establish-
ing and managing agricultural development strategies,
organizations, and programs are particularly scarce.
Young professionals encounter serious obstacles to ob-
taining their first international assignments.
Mid-career professionals desiring to quality for interna-
tional posts find few readily available opportunities to
do so.














There are organizational and logistical obstacles to the
exchange of experienced professionals. For example, it is
difficult for a professional to become experienced in
international work and still maintain an institutional
base in his home country.
Few universities teach agricultural scientists about de-
velopment or the management of development organiza-
tions.

Out of this interaction came the decision to hold a
workshop in 1979 on preparing professional staff for
national agricultural research and related programs.
Workshop planners concentrated on three groups of pro-
fessionals:
Nationals of developing countries working in mid-level
to senior positions in research organizations in their own
countries
Mid-career scientists of any country who wish to prepare
themselves for positions related to organization and
management of national agricultural research and related
programs in developing countries
Young professionals, of any country, seeking responsible
positions in their own or other countries, or with assis-
tance agencies


Management of Agricultural Research

During 1978, IADS, with the assistance of a consul-
tant, designed materials and training programs on the
organization and management of national agricultural
research systems. The materials, organized in modules,
would serve for in-service training of mid-level and senior
personnel, for preparing personnel being assigned to
developing countries under technical assistance contracts,
and as resources for other training programs.
After reviewing existing case studies and other in-
structional material, relevant readings, and related re-
search, the consultant concluded that few useful instruc-
tional case studies existed, that the actual organized train-
ing opportunities were limited, and that relevant reference
materials were scattered in books, journals, and proceed-


Allowing for a wide margin of
possible error and despite an
assumed fall in fertility of as much
as 30 percent in the next two
decades, the lowest forecast for
world population in the Year 2000
is 5800 million (as against 4000
million in 1975).
Rafael M. Salas


69













ings of conferences. The consultant and IADS staff mem-
bers then drafted a preliminary outline for a training
program, identified areas in which new case studies were
required, and arranged for the consultant to interview
representatives of universities, assistance agencies, and
non-government organizations engaged in development.
In these interviews, the objectives included sharpening
the focus of the program, obtaining relevant materials,
and identifying knowledgeable persons who could be
called on as training activities develop.
A proposal for funding of various aspects of training
program development is being drafted.



The Personnel Register
IADS maintains a register through which profes-
sionals interested in international development may indi-
cate their availability and qualifications. The register
contain 1500 names. IADS and others use the register in


70














identifying possible consultants or persons for longer-
term assistance assignments.
During 1978 the information about these profession-
als was transferred to a computer system. Computer
storage and retrieval enables IADS to serve itself, other
organizations, and those registered more efficiently and
rapidly. IADS is able to screen for qualifications in five
major categories-education, experience, commodity,
country, and language.


Advanced-Degree Fellowships

Most IADS contracts with developing countries pro-
vide funds for some scientists and specialists to work
toward advanced degrees at foreign institutions. Logisti-
cal arrangements for academic training are provided by
the fellowship office of The Rockefeller Foundation in
cooperation with IADS. During 1978, the following indi-
viduals from Indonesia and Nepal were enrolled at univer-
sities outside their home countries:



















lADS briefing session for researchers
about to depart for Bangladesh.
Development professionals must have
knowledge and understanding of the
social, economic, and political aspects
of development.























































Carrying products to market.
S-. a -












Inadequate supplies of inputs, poor
credit facilities, unrealistic pricing
policies, poor transportation and
marketing facilities, and a host of other
factors can prevent the successful
application of research results, no
matter how good they might
inherently be.


FIELD DEGREE


INDONESIA


University of Aston (UK)
Eddy Amir Rubber technology
Suharto Honggokusumo Rubber technology
University of Minnesota (USA)
Anggoro Hadi Permadi Plant breeding
Chairil Rasahan Agric. economics
Sudarwohadi Sastrosiswojo Entomology
Tjeppy Soedjana Agric. economics
Toga Silitonga Forestry
Winarno Crop production
Muhammad Kosim Kardin Plant pathology
North Carolina State University (USA)
Widjaja Hadisoeganda Nematology
University of Akron (USA)
Budiman Tirtawidjaja Polymer technology


Hasnam

Abdul Madjid

Marsum Dahlan
Sultoni Arifin
Syam Mahyuddin


Texas A&M University (USA)
Plant breeding
Michigan State University (USA)
Plant breeding
Cornell University (USA)
Plant breeding
Agric. economics
Communications


University of Wisconsin (USA)
Fathan Muhadjir Plant pathology
University of London (UK)
Djasman Pardede Entomology
University of the Philippines at Los Bafios
Rachmat Kartapradja Crop production
Amsir Rifin Plant breeding
Marudin Sianturi Development communication
Listeria Sitanggang Horticulture
Zainal Suhud Horticulture
University of Mysore (India)
Mohammad Saleh Food technology
Suparno Food technology
University of Washington (USA)
Sumpeno Putro Food/fish microbiology


Sweta Rabegnatar

Haeruddin Taslim

Ridwan Dereinda
Farid Bahar


Auburn University (USA)
Fisheries science
Catholic University (Belgium)
Soil fertility
University of Florida (USA)
Extension education
Agronomy


M.S.
M.S.

Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.
Ph.D.
M.P.S.

M.S.

M.S.

Ph.D.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.

M.S.
M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.
Ph.D.


NAME














NEPAL
Texas A&M University (USA)
Bharat Adhikary Genetics M.S.
University of the Philippines at Los Bafios
Jugdish Baral Agric. extension Ph.D.
Mahesh Panth Agronomy Ph.D.
Tuskegee Institute (USA)
Rajman Chaudhary Plant & soil science M.S.
University of Illinois (USA)
Shiva Chaudhary Agronomy M.S.
Michigan State University (USA)
Sharad Dhital Rural sociology M.S.
University of California, Davis (USA)
Ganesh Kumar Entomology M.S.
University of Missouri (USA)
Raghwendra Mishra Biofertilizers M.S.
New Mexico State University (USA)
Thaneshwar Pokhrel Agronomy M.S.



DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED LITERATURE

Ideas about agriculture in the tropics and subtropics
have changed radically in the last 20 years. For a broad
range of foods, the technological possibilities have been
revolutionized. Even the realization that producing more
food in the tropics is not a thoroughly intractable
problem-that scientific research can point the way to
higher productivity-is a breakthrough. It has under-
mined any excuse for neglecting agriculture in devel-
oping nations.
Information on recent agricultural advances in the
tropics is largely scattered through the professional jour-
nals and other publications which scientists use to reach
other scientists. Few books exist that explain current
agricultural technology in the tropics to administrators
and policy makers and that show how to use it to raise
national agricultural productivity. These individuals, and
their advisors, need up-to-date information, that is con-
cise and plainly written, when they are starting or revamp-
ing agricultural programs. The objective of IADS devel-
opment-oriented literature is to fill this need. Beyond the
primary audience, development-oriented literature may
















Development-oriented
Literature

Participants Ad Hoc
Committee Meeting
February 23 and 24, 1978

Eduardo Alvarez Luna, Mexico
M. M. Elgabaly, Egypt
J. D. Ferwerda, The Netherlands
O. P. Gautam, India
Hugo 0. Graumann, U.S.A.
Robert D. Havener, U.S.A.
Donald L. Plucknett, U.S.A.
Guy Vallaeys, France
Ramon Valmayor, The Philippines
J. B. D. Willis, U.K.


serve personnel of assistance agencies, many agricultural
researchers, and teachers and students.
The objectives of the development-oriented litera-
ture program were reviewed by a group of international
authorities which met in New York in 1978 at the invita-
tion of IADS. Their principal conclusions were:
that literature that is concise, authoritative, up-to-date,
and easily understandable would help policy makers,
administrators, and their advisors make better decisions
about agricultural development;
that among commodities, priority should be given to
preparation of material on rice, wheat, maize, sorghum,
cassava, potato, groundnuts, beans, cotton, tomato,
cowpea, pearl millet, sweet potato, chickpea, coconut,
broad beans, lentils, pigeon pea, soybeans, jute, and
bananas and plantains;
that among factors of production, priority should be
given to water and land resource systems, rural institu-
tions, seeds, fertilizers, mechanization for small farms,
storage, and marketing;
that existing information, especially in languages other
than English, should be examined closely to avoid du-
plicating publications that already serve this need;
that an international advisory panel should be formed to
help find suitable authors and reviewers, to oversee the
preparation of the literature and to revise the list of
prospective topics periodically; and
that funds should be sought to support the writing and
publishing of books and papers.
In September 1978, the Johns Hopkins University
Press published To Feed This World: The Challenge and the
Strategy. The book was written by Sterling Wortman and
Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., of IADS. As the title makes
plain, the book explores today's food-population-poverty
problem and outlines a strategy for dealing with it. The
book received a front page review in the "Book Week"
section of the Washington Post. Reviews have also ap-
peared in several other U.S. newspapers and in The
Guardian (U.K.). Johns Hopkins has made the book avail-
able throughout the USA in urban and college bookstores.
Courses being taught at University of California at Davis,

















































North Carolina State University, and the University of
Arizona, are already using To Feed This World as required
texts. By the end of the year the first printing was nearly
sold out. Johns Hopkins plans a second printing in 1979.
Review and editing of Rice in the Tropics: A Guide to
the Development of National Programs was completed dur-
ing the year. The book was written by Robert F. Chandler,
Jr., former director of the International Rice Research
Institute, at the request of IADS. Rice in the Tropics is
being published by the Westview Press (Boulder, Col-
orado) and will be off the press in early 1979. It will have
250 pages. The costs of developing the manuscript were


Sorghum storage on an experiment
station in West Africa.
There is encouraging evidence that
many countries are placing greater
emphasis on agricultural research.














"Four observations to keep in
mind when extending a helping
hand to either a blind person or a
hungry nation: E An intangible
ingredient of success is respecting
the need and desire for
independence. D Achieving
independence through job
opportunities and market access is
more beneficial to the individual
and the society than receiving
continuous disability stipends or
food aid in perpetuity. ] At
times, the blind may stumble or
the hungry have a bad harvest.
Short-term assistance and
judicious use of world food banks
can put an individual or a nation
on its feet after such a fall.
O Attempting to understand and
being erroneously confident that
you fully comprehend the feelings
of others are distinctly different.
Walking around with a blindfold
or refraining from food may
provide some insights, but
remember the difference. You can
always take off the blindfold and
open the refrigerator door when
you wish to discontinue the
experiment."
Daniel G. Sisler in New York's
Food and Life Sciences


partially supported by GTZ (German Agency for Technical
Cooperation) and the International Rice Research Institute.
Richard Harwood's manuscript Small Farm Develop-
ment: Understanding and Improving Farming Systems in the
Humid Tropics is edited and will go to press in 1979.
Harwood is an experienced researcher and consultant on
cropping systems. The book lays out a technical and
conceptual approach to conducting research on cropping
systems-the matrix of crop animals, farming practices,
markets, and customs that is the basis of most farmers'
livelihoods. A grant from the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development supported preparation of Small Farm
Development.
A book on managing seed programs by Johnson E.
Douglas is in the final stages of editing. Books on potatoes
and tomatoes are being started. Both, like other books in
the development-oriented literature series, are aimed at
policy makers and administrators in developing nations.
Two printings of Agricultural Assistance Sources, to-
taling 1000 copies, were nearly exhausted. This publica-
tion covers the 20 organizations that offer financial and
technical assistance to agriculture internationally. The
operations, interests, and structure of each organization
are described. An enlarged and updated edition is in
preparation.
Several thousand copies of Agricultural Development
Indicators were distributed. For each of 100 countries, this
publication gives data on 20 indicators of agricultural
development. Indicators is being used in courses at several
universities. A new edition will be published in 1979.
Other publications issued during the year were
"World Food Problems and the Role of the International
Agricultural Development Service," a paper given by D. S.
Athwal at the 14th Asian-Pacific Food Production Confer-
ence in Singapore; "Origins of IADS," a reprint from the
IADS First Report11976; and two newsletters.
The potential for using agricultural information data
banks as a basis for preparation of annotated bibliog-
raphies and short reference papers is being explored.














LIAISON
Well-planned liaison can help overcome the con-
straints to effective dialogue and understanding imposed
by geographical dispersion or separation, disciplinary
orientation, professional vocabulary, and preoccupation
about a particular subject or program. Through liaison,
organizations and the people who represent them arrive at
decisions to integrate, collaborate, or cooperate, and at
more efficient use and sharing of resources, synchroniza-
tion of efforts, and maximization of results. Often, how-
ever, organizations assume that concert of action and
opinion is the purpose of liaison and that discussion fails
unless it leads to agreement. Such an assumption tends to
confine liaison to situations where agreement is likely to
occur, where there is little or no pressure to be coordinated
more than one wishes, or where a group already is agreed
on the degree of cooperation desired.
Equally dynamic, and probably just as important,
however, is the liaison that provides a context within
which two or more organizations wishing to do so may
maintain a friendly and informed independence. Here,
there is mutual awareness, but not necessarily agreement;
mutual respect but not necessarily cooperation.
What a country or organization thinks about or how
it perceives others affects how it operates. Difficulties are
more apt to arise when these thoughts and perceptions
develop out of a lack of knowledge or inadequate com-
munication. Successful liaison activities provide a knowl-
edge base sufficient to dispel the misperceptions that can
generate fear or antagonism.
Experiences with and observations of liaison ac-
tivities in a variety of contexts help to identify some of the
obstacles to effective liaison:
When bound by pressure to arrive at coordinated efforts,
organizations with similar perspectives tend to talk with
each other about issues on which they already are in
substantial agreement. This may lead to expenditure of
joint energies on a relatively narrow range of pos-
sibilities.















D. S Athwal, Sterling Wortman, and A.
Colin McClung look on as John T.
Murdock of the Midwest Universities
Consortium on International Activities
signs a memorandum of understanding
with lADS.


i- _

















Some organizations tend to vest the responsibility for
liaison in a single office or individual. This can only
represent a token attention to the issue. As with effective
public relations, concern for liaison must become the
responsibility of all staff members.
Liaison among organizations at headquarters level may
facilitate and legitimize liaison among field representa-
tives, but does not guarantee it; the problems and
orientations in the field may differ greatly. Conversely,
effective liaison in the field is not a reliable predictor of a
similar state of affairs among headquarters offices.
Many organizations fail to establish means for storing,
processing, sharing, and retrieving the information
gained through liaison. In such circumstances, they lack
an organizational memory that will enable them and
others to benefit from their experiences.
No single organization exhausts the range of methods
and tools for gathering and sharing information through
liaison: visits, conferences, correspondence, publica-
tions, consultations, etc. In using each liaison method,
specific problems may arise. For instance, production of














publications does not guarantee that they reach those
most able to benefit from them. The cost of journals is
prohibitive in many developing countries, the access to
libraries difficult, and the library holdings usually
meager.
Some conferences-national, regional, international, or
intercontinental-produce disappointing results, despite
substantial investment in travel and arrangements, be-
cause of inadequate program planning or failure to take
steps to ensure those necessary for success are invited.
Staffing and funding constraints limit some organiza-
tions' participation in broad communication activities.
This sometimes leads to the establishment of group
mechanisms-national councils, federations of coun-
tries-which can disseminate and receive needed infor-
mation. The experience of these efforts is not widely
available.
The bulk of IADS staff activity in 1978 was directed
to maintaining the communication already established
with developing countries and technical cooperation or-
ganizations, including the non-governmental private
sector. A few cases are noted below to illustrate the range
of activities in which IADS is engaged.


Developing Countries

Through liaison, countries may discover effective
ways to achieve the two seemingly contradictory goals: to
achieve self-sufficiency, and to become effective partici-
pants in an increasingly interdependent world. IADS
gives high priority to helping improve the channels of
communication and interchange among the developing
countries. They have much to learn from and share with
each other.
IADS participated in a preliminary planning meeting
at CIAT for a 1979 conference which will bring together
Latin American policy makers and scientists to discuss
basic constraints to agricultural production with a view to
identifying technological and policy alternatives.
With funds supplied by The Rockefeller Foundation
and USAID, IADS arranged a travel and orientation tour of













agricultural production and management training insti-
tutes in Asia for two Dominicans-one the director of the
Institute Superior de Agricultura and the other from the
Secretariat of Agriculture. Among the organizations vis-
ited were the Asian Vegetable Research and Development
Center, Taiwan; the International Rice Research Institute,
the College of Agriculture at Los Baiios, the Southeast
Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in
Agriculture, and the Asian Institute of Management,
Philippines; and the International Center for Research in
the Semi-Arid Tropics, the National Institute for Rural
Development, and the Indian Institute of Management,
India.

Assistance Organizations
IADS continued its efforts to develop effective work-
ing relationships within the technical cooperation com-
munity. Interpretation and implementation of the Title XII
Amendment (1975) to the Foreign Assistance Act of the
1961 U.S. Congress have created problems for IADS and
others. The IADS president, Sterling Wortman, met twice
with the Board for International Food and Agricultural
Development, created under Title XII.
The IADS staff has maintained communication with
those responsible for creating the International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD), established upon rec-
ommendation of the World Food Congress in 1974. Visits
exchanged by officers of IFAD and IADS led to the
decision to assist IFAD in planning a workshop in 1979.
The principal objective of the workshop will be to help
IFAD identify the types of programs and projects to be
supported in low-income countries.

Industry and Business
Early in 1978, The Rockefeller Foundation, in coop-
eration with IADS, initiated informal discussions to
explore the possible roles of business and industry in
efforts to speed the rate of agricultural and rural develop-
ment abroad. The Rockefeller Foundation has been en-













gaged since the early 1940's in developing the scientific
base to extend the agricultural revolution into the tropics
and subtropics. In recent years it has become clear that, if
the world food-poverty problem is to be alleviated, the
agricultural revolution must be extended rapidly into the
rural areas of many developing countries, particularly to
small farmers. The success of the effort will depend to a
substantial degree on the activities of industry and busi-
ness.
The agricultural revolution has been industry-
supported as well as science-based. Industry has contrib-
uted not only to the development of technology but to the
provisions of supply systems, and to new means of
processing, storage, and marketing. It has contributed
new systems of communication and transport. It has
provided important links in the chain from farmers to
consumers at all levels-local, national, and international.
Industry's many contributions, however, have not
been widely understood and appreciated. Little attention,
the IADS staff found, has yet been given to the role of
business and industry in the new acceleration of agricul-
tural development. The literature that is available tends to
define industry involvement only in terms of corporate
investments in developing countries-only a small part of
the total array of private-sector interests and oppor-
tunities.
From discussions with business leaders, it was con-
cluded that new types of participation by industry would
not only promote accelerated development, but would
benefit people and businesses in both developed and
developing countries. Further, large and small U.S. busi-
nesses indicated interest in participating in new ways, if
the new efforts promised to be both highly effective and
visible.
Consequently, 25 leaders of agricultural businesses
met at the offices of The Rockefeller Foundation to discuss
their interest in these matters. These initial discussions
involved some of those industries most directly related to
agriculture. It was felt that unless the ideas and issues
were deemed important, relevant, and feasible by busi-
ness people experienced in international agriculture, there


"Historians (even cynical
historians) will have to consider
naming the middle and late 20th
century 'The Age of International
Assistance.' The reasons for the
upsurge and proliferation of
assistance agencies have been
various: political, economic,
humane, propitiatory-probably in
that order of degree of influence.
They have been rooted in a
realization that the rapid
development of modern methods
of communication and their
popular application has
precipitated a world-wide
interaction of policies and an
interdependence of rich and poor
nations. Assistance has been
increasingly directed most
strongly towards the rural
sector."
Mary Cherry in SPAN














Panama's many rivers are a virtually
untouched resource.
With the will to do so, most
governments can raise productivity and
incomes substantially, benefiting
urban and rural dwellers alike.


would be little point in presenting them to others. The
specific purpose of the meeting was to identify actions
which could be taken by and for industry to accelerate
agricultural development wherever that is needed.
Each invitee received a copy of To Feed This World:
The Challenge and the Strategy, which describes strategies
for accelerated agricultural development, along with a set
of questions relating to specific aspects of the world
food-poverty-population equation. In addition, a paper
by Edward L. Felton, Jr., and John Edmunds, commis-
sioned for the meeting, analyzed some of the issues and
opportunities for the private sector beyond the matter of
investment. During the meeting a second paper, "Outline













for a Prospectus: International Agricultural Development
Program," provided the basis for further discussions.
The participants generally recognized the multiple
roles of industry and business in the development of the
low-income countries and considered the proposals to be
of sufficient importance to warrant the attention of the
chief executive officers of major corporations. Several par-
ticipants volunteered to arrange such conversations.
Concurrently, IADS officers participated in meetings
of other groups interested in private participation in
development. These included the Aspen Institute for
Humanistic Studies, USAID, the Conference Board, the
Foundation for International Technological Cooperation,
the President's Commission on Hunger, and the Industry
Council for Development.

Institutional Cooperation
IADS has signed memorandums of cooperation with
four international centers: International Potato Center
(CIP), in 1977, and the International Rice Research Insti-
tute, the International Center of Tropical Agriculture
(CIAT), and the International Institute for Tropical Ag-
riculture in 1978.
IADS continued its efforts to cooperate with the
university community in the USA and elsewhere. IADS
has collected information about the various university
consortia and has discussed possible programs in certain
countries with several consortia. A memorandum of
agreement was signed with the Midwest Universities
Consortium on International Activities (MUCIA), outlin-
ing a general plan of cooperative activities.
IADS also made special efforts to participate in and
furnish speakers for meetings of institutions and organiza-
tions primarily concerned with education and training,
including Harvard University, University of Colorado,
Iowa State University, University of Virginia, and Colum-
bia University.
















4



















1
,: \~ 2) r











'C.
5' 1














"K -.. ,
mr,...._
Su tS
,4'.
N"~i
lid 4.1













Administrative

Developments


















Trustees
At its meeting in May, the Board of Trustees
reelected four members: Julian Rodriguez Adame, John A.
Hannah, Lowell S. Hardin, and Werner Treitz. Elected to
the Executive Committee were J. George Harrar, Virgilio
Barco, John A. Hannah, Clifford M. Hardin, and Sterling
Wortman, with Theodore W. Schultz as alternate. W.A.C.
Mathieson resigned from the Board in December.
At the November meeting, the Board approved the
program of work and budget for 1979 and encouraged the
staff to cooperate with the Consultative Group for Interna-
tional Agricultural Research in establishment of a new
service for national agricultural research (See p. 19).

Headquarters Staff
There were no changes in the professional staff at
IADS headquarters in New York in 1978. IADS managed a
growing volume of work, particularly in new or explora-


85















Headquarters Staff


Sterling Wortman, president
A. Colin McClung, executive officer



Dilbagh S. Athwal, program officer
Guy B. Baird, program officer
Steven A. Breth, program officer
Francis C. Bymes, program officer
Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., program officer
Stephen M. Katz, financial officer
Albert H. Moseman, representative
Bill C. Wright, program officer



Debra Avidan, program assistant
Carol Jimenez, administrative assistant
Richard LoPresti, chief accountant
Anne C. Lounsbury, program assistant
Linda R. Weinstein, program assistant
Joan Zulkoski, administrative assistant



Amy Attias, secretary
Aurora Brunetti, program aide
Gloria Burke, bookkeeper
Norma Ilowite, word processing specialist
Joyce Kruskal, secretary
Marsha E. London, secretary
Fern S. Marder, secretary
Hal B. Morgan, secretary
Cosmos Moses, staff accountant
Amelia M. Nilsen, secretary
Ellen S. Robinson, secretary
Sarah W. Soong, secretary
Carol Walske, secretary














Field Staff

BANGLADESH
Murray D. Dawson, project supervisor
John A. Bolton, agronomist
Danilo Malabuyo, administration specialist
C. Geoffrey Swenson, agricultural economist
BOTSWANA
Kristian Oland, representative

ECUADOR
Ulysses J. Grant, representative
Loyd Johnson, agricultural engineer, rice specialist
INDONESIA
Edwin B. Oyer, project specialist
Fred F. Fairman, financial administrator
J. Keith Templeton, rubber specialist
Ulrich Verstrijden, equipment procurement specialist
Harold W. Young, vegetable specialist

NEPAL
Wayne H. Freeman, project supervisor
Mun-Hue Heu, rice specialist
Hugo Manzano, cropping systems specialist
Eduardo Perdon, training specialist
Marlin Gene Van Der Veen, agricultural economist

PANAMA
Jack Dee Traywick, agricultural research administrator


Corporate Officers*

Sterling Wortman, president
Laurence D. Stifel, secretary
Alexander Daunys, comptroller
Webb Trammell, treasurer
Esther S. Stamm, assistant secretary
Rajaram Ramanathan, assistant comptroller
Roddy Holt, assistant treasurer
*On part-time assignment from The Rockefeller Foundation


Edwin B. Oyer and Surachmat Kusmo
at the Horticultural Research Institute
at Lembang, West Java.


~e~.fl

















Consultant services arranged through IADS, 1978


INDONESIA
Barlow, Colin
Cummings, R. W., Jr.
Everett, Herbert
Ruttan, Vernon
Ward, William B.
NEPAL
Cuyno, Rogelio
Finfrock, Dwight
Harwood, Richard
Hittle, Carl
John, V. T.
Katz, Stephen
Moseman, A. H.
Pritchard, David
Rao, M. V.
Walther, Fritz


Agricultural economics
Resource survey
Maize research
Constraints on food production
Communications

Training
Experiment stations, wheat research
Cropping systems
Cropping systems
Rice diseases
Financial accounting
Cereals project
Financial accounting
Wheat research
Wheat research


BANGLADESH
Finfrock, Dwight Experiment stations
Katz, Stephen Financial administration
Moseman, A. H. Agricultural research review
Rigney, Jackson A. Institutional organization
PANAMA
Hildebrand, Peter Socio-economics research
Laird, Reggie Agricultural research planning
Londono, Diego Agricultural research planning
Morris, Milton Agricultural research planning
Rigney, Jackson A. Agricultural research planning
SENEGAL
Chandler, R. F., Jr. Agricultural research organization
Fontenot, J. P. Agricultural research organization
Hammond, Jerome Agricultural research organization
THAILAND
Moseman, A. H. World Bank mission
MALAYSIA
Cushing, Robert Research administration
ECUADOR
Marin Ramirez, M. Poultry
Morales, Gustavo Poultry
CENTRAL AMERICAN TRIPARTITE STUDY


Chaverra, Heman
Fransen, James
Grobman, Alexander
Ipsen, Erik
Myren, Delbert
Roberts, Lewis
Segura, Mariano
Wellhausen, E. J.


Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension
Agricultural research and extension


INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER
Byrnes, Francis C. Training














tory areas, by drawing upon consultants. D. L. Plucknett
and W. J. A. Payne, were associated with work in
development-oriented literature, while Edward L. Felton,
Jr., and John Edmunds developed materials related to the
role of business in development. In addition, Edmunds
helped draft a program for training professional staff in
the organization and management of national agricultural
research systems.

Field Staff
At year end, IADS had 18 senior professionals work-
ing in six countries and candidates were being inter-
viewed for four unfilled posts. In addition IADS has four
junior professionals in Nepal and coordinates the ac-
tivities of three more in Bangladesh.
Four persons joined IADS in 1978 following signing
of a contract with Bangladesh. Murray Dawson, project
supervisor and research planning advisor in the
Bangladesh project, is an experienced soil scientist and
agronomist. He has worked professionally in Canada,
USA, New Zealand, and Thailand. In Thailand, he was a
visiting professor at Kasetsart University and served as a
project consultant to the Ford Foundation Multiple Crop-
ping Project at Chiang Mai University. Other members of
the professional staff in Bangladesh are John Bolton, who
was previously principal scientist, Department of Soils
and Plant Nutrition, Rothamstead Experimental Station;
C. Geoffrey Swenson, agricultural economist, who previ-
ously had worked in India and Indonesia on assignments
with the Ford Foundation, U.S. Agency for International
Development, and the Agricultural Development Council;
and Danilo G. Malabuyo, administrative specialist, who
was previously vice president, Benguet Agricultural Cor-
poration, Manila.
The role of IADS as a consulting organization ex-
panded significantly in 1978, with some 40 consultancies
being provided to eight countries and four agencies on an
individual or team basis. Such assignments ranged from a
day to 3 months in length. The bulk of these were
accomplished by IADS staff members.
The accompanying table reports only formal consul-


"Less than 0.25 percent of the
agricultural GNP is currently
spent on agricultural research in
the developing nations, compared
to 1-2 percent in the industrialized
countries. This is obviously
unfortunate, because it is in the
developing countries that the
benefit of research could now be
most important. Agricultural
research and development must be
built up in, and on behalf of, such
countries."
Trilateral Commission













station arrangements. A large amount of consultation oc-
curs informally through correspondence, through the vis-
its of IADS program officers to countries within their
geographic area of responsibility, and through the visits of
representatives of national programs to IADS headquar-
ters.




Allocation of Resources and Time Accounting
IADS receives grants for its general, or "core," opera-
tions, and for special projects. It may also receive funds
from contracts, both for specific direct costs and for
indirect, or overhead, costs incurred in carrying out these
contracts.
Basically, the core budget provides the manpower
and related resources necessary to offer services. Special
project funds are needed to carry out the work or provide
services. Thus the core budget contains funds to permit
the headquarters staff to travel to developing countries to
discuss problems and possible projects, but it does not
contain funds for carrying out these projects. It contains
funds to permit editorial work, but not funds to commis-
sion preparation of manuscripts or to cover printing costs.
Implementation of program activities always requires
either a grant or a contract.
The terms of grants or contracts involving IADS
stipulate that the IADS core budget will be reimbursed for
the input of headquarters staff resources. The reimburse-
ment covers direct staff time and a fair proportion of
indirect costs. The aim is to ensure that projects under-
taken by IADS are self-supporting, but with no excess
charges.
To determine charges for an activity, accurate re-
cords of all staff activities must be kept. Program officers
and support staff record their activities on a half-hourly
basis while at headquarters and on a half-day basis while
travelling. It is therefore possible to charge costs, both
direct and indirect, with a precision equivalent to that of a
private consulting agency.

















Financial Statements


ARTHUR YOUNG & COMPANY

277 PARK AVENUE
NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017



The Board of Trustees
International Agricultural Development
Service, Inc.


We have examined the accompanying balance sheet of
International Agricultural Development Service, Inc. at
December 31, 1978 and 1977 and the related statements of
support and revenue, expenses and changes in fund balance and
changes in financial position for the years then ended. Our
examinations were made in accordance with generally accepted
auditing standards and, accordingly, included such tests of
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as
we considered necessary in the circumstances.

As more fully described in Note 3, International
Agricultural Development Service, Inc. has material transac-
tions with The Rockefeller Foundation.

In our opinion, the statements mentioned above present
fairly the financial position of International Agricultural
Development Service, Inc. at December 31, 1978 and 1977 and the
results of operations, changes in fund balance and changes in
financial position for the years then ended, in conformity with
generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent
basis during the period.



a/n^ ^ y


March 14, 1979















BALANCE SHEET

December 31, 1978 and 1977

1978 1977
ASSETS
Cash (primarily demand savings account) $ 456,147 $ 418,037
Short-term securities, at cost 550,000 345,445
Grants receivable (Note 3) 30,500 250,000
Accounts receivable including
unbilled receivables 694,584 751,705
Advances 128,180 62,452
Office equipment and furniture,
at depreciated cost 15,900 19,547
Total assets $1,875,311 $1,847,186

LIABILITIES AND FUND BALANCE
Accounts payable $ 122,279 $ 219,645
Advances received on contracts 619,325 678,090
Deferred support-grants (Note 3)
The Rockefeller Foundation 539,802 236,731
Lilly Endowment, Inc. 330,481 479,167
USAID 21,812 -
892,095 715,898
Total liabilities 1,633,699 1,613,633

Fund balance:
Designated reserve (Note 4) 225,712 214,006
Undesignated 15,900 19,547
Total fund balance 241,612 233,553
Total liabilities and fund balance $1,875,311 $1,847,186


See accompanying notes.















STATEMENT OF SUPPORT AND REVENUE, EXPENSES
AND CHANGES IN FUND BALANCE

Years ended December 31, 1978 and 1977

SUPPORT AND REVENUE 1978 1977
Grants (Note 3):
The Rockefeller Foundation $ 956,929 $1,265,062
Lilly Endowment, Inc. 148,686 20,833
USAID 8,688 -

1,114,303 1,285,895

Contracts and service arrangements 1,858,048 990,742
Investment income 81,344 48,306
Gifts 1,428 -


Total support and revenue

EXPENSES
Contracts and service arrangements
Non-contract programs and projects:
Service to individual countries
Leadership development
Development-oriented literature
Liaison and interchange


Program support:
Country programs
Training and communication


General administration

Total expenses
Excess of support and revenue over expenses
Fund balance at beginning of year

Fund balance at end of year


3,055,123 2,324,943



1,622,053 864,061


344,544
31,639
178,795
86,343
641,321


249,239
147,757
396,996

386,694

3,047,064
8,059
233,553

$ 241,612


250,764
49,143
86,064
88,801
474,772


368,324
143,875
512,199

452,469

2,303,501
21,442
212,111

$ 233,553


See accompanying notes.