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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 IADS board of trustees (November...
 Preface
 No time for complacency
 Development in a national...
 Strategies into action
 Direct services to individual...
 Identification and development...
 Development-oriented literatur...
 Liaison and interchange
 Administrative developments
 Financial statements


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



Report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053925/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report
Cover title: IADS report
Portion of title: I.A.D.S. report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Agricultural Development Service
Publisher: International Agricultural Development Service
Place of Publication: New York
Creation Date: 1977
Publication Date: [1977?-1985]
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural development projects -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: International Agricultural Development Service.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1976-1984.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1976 also called 1st report.
General Note: Published: Arlington, Virginia, 1982-1984.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000446678
oclc - 04969534
notis - ACK7856
lccn - sn 84011630
System ID: UF00053925:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report
Succeeded by: Annual report of Winrock International

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    IADS board of trustees (November 1977)
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
    No time for complacency
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Development in a national context
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Strategies into action
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Direct services to individual countries
        Page 29
        Nepal
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Indonesia
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Dominican republic
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Panama
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Ecuador
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Botswana
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Sudan
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Bangladesh
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Honduras
            Page 59
            Page 60
    Identification and development of leaders
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Development-oriented literature
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Liaison and interchange
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Administrative developments
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Financial statements
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
Full Text



INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT SERVICE

Report / 1977










Contents

Preface ............. ... ..... .... ......... 1

No Time for Complacency ........................ 3
Population and food-deficit projections continue
to indicate an urgent need to accelerate agricul-
tural production in the developing world.

Development in a National Context ................ 13
A strategy for accelerating agricultural growth,
particularly in the low-income, food-deficit coun-
tries, focuses on small farmers with the goal of in-
creasing agricultural production and rural in-
comes.

Strategies into Action ............................. 25
Operating within the context of the multiple inter-
faces of international technical cooperation, IADS
supplemented direct services to countries with
activities to develop leadership, provide technical
and policy information, and encourage inter-
change of ideas and experience among organiza-
tions and countries.

Direct Services to Individual Countries ............. 29
Nepal ......................................... 30
Indonesia ............... ...................... 34
Dominican Republic ............................. 40
Panam a .......................... ............ 44
Ecuador ................... .. ................. 47
Botswana ..................... ............. 51
Sudan ............................. ... ....... 53
Bangladesh .................... ............ .. 56
Honduras .............. .... .... ............. 59

Identification and Development of Leaders ......... 61

Development-Oriented Literature .................. 66

Liaison and Interchange ........................... 69

Administrative Developments ...................... 87
IADS is establishing formal linkages with interna-
tional centers, has organized its headquarters staff
on a regional basis, and is recruiting international-
ly to fill professional posts.

Financial Statements ............................ 97














lADS Board of Trustees
(November 1977)


eorge Harrar President Emeritus, The Rockefeller Foundation, Chairman.
irgilio Barco Ambassador of Colombia to the United States; Chairman, Board
of Trustees, International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center, Mexico.
Guy Camus Director General, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Tech-
nique Outre-Mer, France; member, Technical Advisory
Committee, Consultative Group for International Agricul-
tural Research.
Cummings Chairman, Technical Advisory Committee, Consultative Group
for International Agricultural Research; Formerly Director
General, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics, India.


Jose D. Drilon, Jr.

*John A. Hannah
*Clifford M. Hardin
Lowell S. Hardin

*W. David Hopper


William A. C. Mathieson

Saburo Okita

Julian Rodriguez Adame

*Theodore W. Schultz
Werner Treitz

*Sterling Wortman


Director, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study
and Research in Agriculture, the Philippines.
Executive Director, World Food Council.
Vice Chairman, Ralston Purina Company.
Program Officer in Agriculture, International Division, The Ford
Foundation.
President, International Development Research Centre, Canada;
member, Technical Advisory Committee, Consultative Group
for International Agricultural Research.
United Kingdom, Senior Consultant, United Nations Develop-
ment Programme.
President, Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan; Special
Advisor, International Development Centre of Japan.
Mexico, Coordinator General, International Group for Agricul-
tural Development, Washington, D.C.
Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Chicago.
Head, Agricultural Division, Federal Ministry for Economic
Cooperation, Federal Republic of Germany.
President, IADS, and Vice-President, The Rockefeller Foundation.


*Member of Executive Committee


*J. G
*Vi


Ralph W












Preface


The International Agricultural Development Service
(IADS) was established in 1975 to provide services to
developing countries wishing to strengthen and increase
the productivity of their agricultural research and de-
velopment programs. IADS is a private, non-profit, non-
political, scientific, and professional agricultural assis-
tance organization.
IADS is concerned particularly with the rapid iden-
tification and application of effective approaches to the
acceleration of agricultural productivity. It places emphasis
on those crops and animal species which provide the
livelihood and nutrition of large numbers of rural families,
including those with small land holdings, on strengthen-
ing institutions crucial to developing technology, training
personnel, and implementing production programs, and
on the reorientation and synchronization of services in
support of rapid development efforts.
IADS is not a fund-granting organization, but it may
consult with governments upon request without charge or
obligation. Other services are provided at cost to individ-
ual countries, when national authorities so request, IADS
capabilities are applicable, there is an agreed-upon pro-
gram of work, suitable financing is available, and the
IADS Trustees approve.
A Board of Trustees, the members of which are world
authorities on agricultural research and development, gov-
erns IADS. The Board's activities on behalf of developing
countries are guided by frequent consultations with
specialists of developing countries and technical assis-
tance and donor organizations. The headquarters and field
staff is multi-disciplinary and international in character.
Flexibility characterizes IADS's operations. It may
receive funds from any source for use in assisting any na-
tion in any way requested by that nation's authorities and
approved by the IADS Board, or for supporting develop-
ing countries generally through programs of research,
training, conferences, and information exchange.
In addition to describing IADS activities during
1977, this report reviews the current world situation
with respect to food, poverty, and population, and out-
lines a strategy for accelerating agricultural development.









































































































- I


n o












No Time for Complacency























There is no evidence as yet that major progress has
been made in reducing the ominous and mounting food
deficits of the poorer, less-developed countries.
In many parts of the world, 1977 was a year of good
crops: surpluses accumulated in the United States,
Canada, and a few other exporting countries. India's grain
reserves reached 22 million tons.1 But FAO reported food
shortages in 23 countries and unfavorable growing condi-
tions in some 40 others. Low productivity continued to be
accompanied by another root cause of hunger: poverty.
The hungry nations and the hungry people did not have
the money to purchase surplus foods, whether from local
farmers, neighboring nations, or distant producers.
Rapid increases in population without attendant
increases in agricultural production have created serious
food supply problems in most countries of the world.
Before World War II, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as
regions, exported agricultural commodities, including an
average of 12 million tons of cereal grains annually from


"Our farmers increased the
capacity for annual food
production during the 25 year
period from 1951 to 1976 by a
quantity which is more than the
total annual production in any
year in the country since the
dawn of agriculture about 10,000
years ago. They have to repeat
this performance again in the next
23 years."
M. S. Swaminathan, India






























'"India Has Near-Record Foodgrain
Harvests," Foreign Agriculture (January 2,
1978).
















FAO-Reported
Food Shortages, 1977

Angola
Benin
Botswana
Cape Verde
Chad
Comoro Islands
Ethiopia
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti
Honduras
Laos
Lebanon
Lesotho
Mauritania
Mozambique
Nepal
Rwanda
Senegal
Upper Volta
Vietnam
Yemen PDR


According to FAO, 23 countries experienced
actual food shortages in 1977. Of these, all
but four (Angola, Comoro Islands, Lebanon,
and Vietnam) had previously been desig-
nated as "needy" by an international agency
(see Table 3).















'Food Needs of Developing Countries. IFPRI
Research Report 3 (December 1977).


1934 to 1938. Since then they have become increasingly
heavy importers: annual net imports averaged 5 million
tons from 1948 to 1952, 19 million tons in 1960, 36 million
tons in 1966, 47 million tons in 1973, and 60 million tons in
1975.
In 1976 the International Food Policy Research Insti-
tute (IFPRI) projected grain deficits for 1985/86 of 95-108
million tons, possibly of even 200 million tons should
recent lags in production continue.
More detailed data presented by IFPRI in December
1977, including information on individual low-income
countries and extending the projections to 1990, are not
reassuring:
Longer term food prospects in food deficit
countries with developing market economies remain
unfavorable, despite good crops the last two years.
Under the conditions assumed in this study, produc-
tion of staple food crops in these countries would fall
short of meeting demand in 1990 by 120-145 million
metric tons. This is over three times the shortfall of 37
million metric tons in the relatively good production
year 1975.
The core of the food problem is the low income,
food deficit countries in which the per capital GNP in
1973 was less than US $300. These countries have
almost two-thirds of the total population of the
developing market economies (DMEs). Their food
deficit is projected to rise from 12 million metric tons
in 1975 to 70-85 million by 1990. Just to maintain
consumption at the 1975 per capital level would
require 35 million metric tons more than projected
production.1
The implications for some individual poorer coun-
tries are shown in Table 1. While most of these countries
imported only modest amounts of grain in 1975 to cover
deficits, imports could become substantial by 1990. India's
food production, which accounted for 99 percent of its
consumption in 1975, might represent as little as 88
percent by 1990, while the Sahel countries, already dis-
tressed with production at 91 percent of consumption, by
1990 might well be producing only a little more than half of
their needed staple food supplies.













Table 1. Percentage of National Food Consumption Met by
National Food Production 1975-1990

Change,
Projected 1975-1990
1975 1990 (percentage points)
Philippines 96 87-89 9
Indonesia 92 83-86 9
India 99 88-90 -11
Bolivia 76 62-65 -14
Ethiopia 98 72-74 -26
Bangladesh 93 65-70 -28
Burma 107 75-79 -32
Nigeria 98 61-65 -37
Sahel group 91 54-56 -37

The countries above are not the only nations in
difficulty; many of the developing countries must double
their food crop output within 15 years, some in as few as 8
years, if they are not to be dependent on external sources
for their politically sensitive basic commodities.
Table 2 shows the annual growth rates of production
that would be required to meet two targets for production
of staple foods. The "low" target would maintain nutri-
tional levels equivalent to those of today. This represents a
perpetuation of present hunger on a growing scale-
hardly a satisfactory goal. The "high" target would pro-
vide 110 percent of the minimum dietary energy supply.
The projected rates of increase required in some
countries are so high as to be unattainable. But the rates of
increase necessary for most developing countries even to
reach the "low" target are well above the long-term 1.5-2.0
percent growth rate in agriculture typical of the developed
world. To achieve these growth rates will require excep-
tional research and development efforts. The past ap-
proaches of the now-industrial countries of North America
and Europe would simply be too slow.
The projections presented by IFPRI, FAO, and other
agencies, based on estimates of population growth and of
increased demand for food as incomes rise, and on past
performance of the countries concerned, are not predic-
tions; they are not inevitable. If performance in most
countries were to improve substantially during the next 15
years, their deficits could be reduced significantly, if not
eliminated.

























































'Two of the four 1990 targets for which
the December IFPRI report estimates
required rates of growth in production of
major staple food crops:

(i) Food needs to provide 1975 average per
caput consumption levels for the increased
population in 1990 ("low" target).
(ii) Food needs under a low income growth
assumption-assumes a rate of growth
impeded by high energy costs.
(iii) Food needs under a high income
growth assumption-assumes that
non-OPEC developing market economy
countries will resume their long-term
economic growth rates of pre-energy-crisis
years and that those with slow growth will
increase to 1.5 percent per year.
(iv) Food needs to meet minimum calorie
recommendations-assumes a nutritional
target of 110 percent of the recommended
minimum dietary energy supply as calculated
by FAO; this would meet the needs of all
people while allowing 10 percent extra for
individuals whose consumption exceeds the
average ("high" target).


Table 2. Estimated Rates of Growth of Production of Staple Foods Needed
to Meet Low (minimal) or High (desirable) Targets by 1990,
Selected Countries.'



1975 Growth Rates Needed Percentage Increase over
Population (Percent) 1975 Production
(Millions) Low High Low High


Bangladesh
Burma
Taiwan
India
Indonesia
Korea, Republic of
Malaysia
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Thailand

North Africa/Middle East
Afghanistan
Algeria
Cyprus
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Libya
Morocco
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen, PDR

Sub-Sahara Africa
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Ethiopia
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Ivory Coast
Kenya
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Rhodesia
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Somalia


5.7
3.3
9.7
4.0
4.3
5.8
6.5
2.9
4.6
5.8
8.8
1.4


4.7
9.7
8.3
5.3
6.7
6.6
>10.0
>10.0
>10.0
5.2
>10.0
6.4
6.5
8.2
3.6
8.5


5.7
4.2
3.7
4.0
5.2
4.3
7.2
4.2
5.5
4.8
4.8
5.8
3.9
4.1
5.8
4.0
5.6
5.5
3.8
4.8
6.3
5.1
7.0


















1975 Growth Rates Needed Percentage Increase over
Population (Percent) 1975 Production
(Millions) Low High Low High


Tanzania
Uganda
Upper Volta
Zaire
Zambia
Latin America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican
Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Surinam
Trinidad &
Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela


3.7
3.1
2.9
3,3
4.0


< 0
4.6
3.0
4.9
3.9
7.5

8.1
5.2
4.0
3.7
0.8
3.2
4.3
>10.0
4.0
4.0
5.2
3.4
6.2
< 0

>10.0
0.1
9.6


96 196
56 72
105 111
78 126
196 235

222 318
114 180
80 140
72 111
13 37
60 165
88 147
>318 >318
80 102
80 108
114 154
65 68
147 180
18

>318 >318
2 3
296 >318


Even if the IFPRI projections were overstated, there
would remain the urgent need to alleviate the poverty
and improve the standards of living of great numbers of
rural poor in scores of developing countries. Their produc-
tivity and incomes must be increased, if rural and general
economic and social progress are to be achieved.
Many international organizations have reached or
articulated similar conclusions. Meeting at Manila in June
1977, the World Food Council among its actions recom-
mended that the international community substantially
increase its assistance to achieve at least a 4 percent
sustained rate of growth of food production in developing
countries. The Council estimated that this would require
the international community to provide external resources
of US$ 8.3 billion (at 1975 prices) on an annual basis with


Overleaf: shaded areas indicate nations
the major international agencies have
designated as having food deficits and
associated poverty problems. These
designations are listed by country in
Table 3, on the page following.
























-VOW




















CIMMYT
The CGIAR.asiociate. inlerna- TPOPIC OF CaNICER (Mexico)
iiO n al a.1 ric u ltu ra3 re s e a rc h c e n ,-- - - -
ters are
IRRI. Iniernvic.nal R..c 49 51
Research Institute 41 50
CIMMYT. Internal;onal Maize CIAT
and Wreat Improvement EQUATOR (Colombia) 9
Center
CIAT, Inrernationai Center
for Tropical Agriculture
IITA, Internalional In-tiulte of
Tropical Agriculture CIP
CIP. International Pc.ia.o Center TROPIC OF CAPRICORNt (Peru)
ICRISAT, Inlernatii nal Crops -
Research Institute for the
Semi-Aria Trop cs
ILRAD. Internalbonal Laoor3tior
lor Research on Animal
Diseases
ILCA. Inlernalional Livestock
Center lor Africa
WARDA. West Africa Rice
Der-elopment Associalion
IBPGR, International B'ard
for Plant Genetic Resources
ICARDA. Inlernalional Centre
for Agricultural Rpeearch in
the Dr) Areas
AVRDC, Asian Vegetable
Re,earcn and Development
Center associated stalusl
















ICARDA
(Iran. Lebanon. Syria)
hh^f \>
S\ Jy'~


AVRDC
- (Taiwan)


(Liberia)


460


mmm


I"


















LDCs. The list of the 25 Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) was
established by the Committee for
Development Planning during the
Fifty-First Session of the Economic and
Social Council held in March-April
1971. The classification was based on
the following criteria: per caput gross
domestic product of US$ 100 or less in
1968, share of manufacturing in gross
domestic product of 10 percent or less,
and literacy rate in the age group of 15
years or more of 20 percent or less
around 1960.
MSAs. At its Sixth Special Session of
April-May 1974, the General Assembly
of the UN set up the United Nations
Emergency Operation to help the
countries Most Seriously Affected
(MSAs) by the economic crisis. These
were countries with a per caput income
of less than US$ 400 in 1971 for which
projections showed the likelihood of an
overall balance-of-payments deficit in
1974 equivalent to 5 percent or more of
imports. Forty-five countries are now
on this list.

PFDCs. The Consultative Group on
Food Production and Investment has
designated 18 countries as being
Priority Food-Deficit Countries
(PFDCs) on the criteria either that:
(i) It is likely to face by 1985 a deficit of
more than one million tons of cereals
just to maintain present inadequate
level of nutrition, or
(ii) Its food deficit, although small in
absolute terms, poses a major problem
at the national level because per caput
dietary energy supplies are not enough
now to meet even an average of 95
percent of the country's nutritional
requirements.

FPCs. Forty-three countries have been
chosen by the World Food Council to
be Food Priority Countries (FPCs) as
fulfilling at least three of the following
five criteria:
(i) Per caput income below US$ 500 (in
1975 prices).
(ii) A projected cereal deficit by 1985 of
500,000 tons or more and/or a cereals
deficit of 20 percent or more as a
proportion of estimated cereals
consumption.


Table 3: Countries Designated as "Needy"
by a Major International Agency


Population
Country (millions) LDC MSA PFDC FPC PQLI
Africa 1 Egypt 38.9 i* 46
2 Sudan 16.3 / 33


3 Mauritania
4 Mali
5 Niger
6 Senegal
7 The Gambia
8 Upper Volta

9 Cape Verde Rep.
10 Guinea-Bissau
11 Guinea
12 Sierra Leone
13 Ivory Coast
14 Ghana
15 Benin

16 Ethiopia
17 Somalia
18 Uganda
19 Rwanda
20 Kenya
21 Burundi
22 Tanzania
23 Malawi
24 Mozambique
25 Madagascar


* *

* *


U, 15
* l, l 15
* V 14
1 22
i 22
* -' 17

1,1. 46
i'i" 10
i' 20
S 29
28
31


* i,, 16
* t.L 19
1^]^ 33
0* l^ 27
ie 40
* 23
* V'i' 28
A/i 29
i 23
44


26 Chad 4.2 t 20
27 Cent. Afr. Emp. 1.9 >k" 18
28 Cameroon 6.7 *0 28
29 Botswana 0.7 38
30 Lesotho 1.1 6 50
Asia 31 Yemen AR 5.6 i'-'i 27
32 Yemen PR 1.8 o.o- 27


33 Afghanistan
34 Pakistan
35 India
36 Nepal
37 Bhutan
38 Bangladesh
39 Sri Lanka
40 Maldives

41 Burma
42 Lao PDR
43 Kampuchea
44 Indonesia
45 Philippines
Pacific 46 W. Samoa
Americas 47 El Salvador
48 Honduras
49 Guatemala
50 Guyana
Caribbean 51 Hati


* 0


* 0






* 0


0.2 *
4.3 *
3.3 *
6.4
0.8 0
5.3 0 0


1.-i

i-i-
i-i.-


86
i 67
i/ 50
53
i- 84
* A."" 31


Country number keys to map location on preceding page.














some $6.5 billion of this on concessional terms, to be
combined with a doubling of internal investment by the
food priority countries.
During the year, the international commitment to
agricultural development as a tool for rural and national
development grew. The International Fund for Agricul-
tural Development surpassed its initial target budget of
US$ 1 billion to be used for grants and loans to help in-
crease agricultural production in the developing world
with particular emphasis on the poorest food deficit
countries.
Concern for the small farmer and the importance of
meeting basic food requirements has been consistent with
the new emphasis on target groups-the concept that
unless a specific portion of the benefits of growth is
directed at the poor as an integral part of a country's
development strategy, they will continue to be poor.
Such concerns are reflected in the World Bank's focus
on small farmers and the rural poor as the core of a
"poverty-oriented rural development" strategy, as well as
in the "basic needs" action program of the International
Labour Organization. Basic needs, in this case, include
two elements: (a) minimum family requirements for food,
shelter, clothing and certain household equipment and
furniture and (b) essential services such as water, sanita-
tion, transport, and health, educational and cultural
facilities. The Overseas Development Council in 1977
created a new Physical Quality of Life Index (see Table 3),
in an effort to measure development progress in terms of
what happens to people.
Differences exist about the data, assumptions, and
interpretation involved in classifying countries and de-
termining strategies for action. But action is urgently
needed-action which must be taken by the developing
countries themselves, beginning with their own agricul-
tural research and development systems and the national
framework of policies and priorities within which they
operate.


(iii) Degree of under-nutrition in terms
of proportion of population which is
under-nourished or in terms of the
average availability of calories in
relation to minimum requirements.
(iv) Inadequate agricultural
performance in terms of average
historic increase in food production,
total and per caput, during the last
decade.
(v) Potential for more rapid and
efficient increase in food production
including the availability of
under-utilized resources to produce
food.
In 1977, the World Food Council
ranked the FPCs according to the
severity of their food problem. Rating
was based on projected food deficits,
calorie consumption, growth of food
output per caput in the last decade, and
1975 GDP per caput. Food problems
were rated as severe (i'), very severe
(s'1z), and extremely severe (r/'i~ ).
PQLI Index. In 1977 the Overseas
Development Council introduced the
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), a
preliminary effort to determine how
well societies are able to meet the basic
human needs of their poor. It is a
measure of results, not inputs. ODC
selected three indicators-infant
mortality, life expectancy, and
literacy-to represent the wider range
of conditions which development
programs seek to improve. Individual
countries were ranked on a scale of 1 to
100 for each of the three indicators,
then given a single index rating repre-
senting an equally weighted average
of the three. Sweden received the
highest Index rating (100) with a life
expectancy averaging 75 years, infant
mortality of 9 per 1,000, and a literacy
rate of 99 percent. Mauritania, at PQLI
15, has corresponding figures of 38,
187, and 1-5; Kenya, at PQLI 40, of 50,
119, and 20-25. Figures for all countries
considered are reported in the ODC
publication The United States and World
Development: Agenda 1977.
n.a.: information not available.


















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Development in a
National Context


Requisites, Strategies, Resources


agriculture is the major
sector of the economy in most
developing market economy
countries and improving
productivity and purchasing
power of those engaged in
agriculture is for most developing
countries the route to sustained
economic progress." IFPRI











Central to IADS activities in 1977 was a continuing
concern about the ways in which nations might accelerate
the development of their agriculture and rural areas. By
such means, developing nations can expect to increase the
productivity of millions of small farmers and the incomes
of people in rural areas. Such a broad strategy deals with
both sides of the hunger equation: supply and income.
Work neared completion on a book that discusses the
major components of a strategy to accelerate national
agricultural development. In a 5-day workshop in June
1977, some 70 scientists and specialists discussed the
strategy in relation to their experience, suggested possible
revisions, and considered how the strategy might be
employed in different situations.
Components of the strategy guided the work of
IADS-formed review and feasibility teams on planning
missions in a number of countries. Finally, within the













































"While specific measures to feed
hungry people have their rightful
place and must be pursued, it is
now realized that the basic
remedy is development. But it is
not enough to achieve this only in
.i ,,i :il.. national terms; what is
required is to ensure that
development improves the lot of
the poorest strata of the
population, where hunger and
malnutrition are most prevalent."
Protein Advisory Group


constraints of previously planned and funded programs
and in accord with country priorities, the strategy was
employed in implementing national agricultural research
and development programs in which IADS was involved.
Projections of population growth and food require-
ments are pushing the world into accelerated, forced-pace
efforts to increase production, boost incomes, and reduce
poverty. These efforts represent a major new era of ag-
ricultural development, and contrast greatly in content
and time dimension with those of the past. The first era of
agricultural development, the evolution of the traditional
farming systems still used by the majority of the world's
farmers, has spanned several thousand years. The second
era, the rapid development of a science-based and indus-
try-supported agriculture principally in temperate zones,
has occurred mainly in the first 75 years of this century.
Now, scores of nations are striving to develop their
agriculture not in 75, but in 10 to 15 years. Hunger is not
the only pressing issue. Food shortages and population
pressures involve political stability and national secur-
ity issues as well as economics and concern for human
welfare. Authorities of these countries are concerned with
more than increased food production; they also need to
generate more jobs, more income, and greater access to
educational and health services. Moreover, agricultural
development itself will require concerted efforts by gov-
ernments to provide necessary roads and power systems,
adequate supplies of inputs, ready markets and favorable
policies.
Basic to the success of these efforts is each govern-
ment's commitment to development, and the extent to
which policymakers are articulate in expressing this com-
mitment. It requires leaders willing and able to provide
continuous support and direction over sufficient time for
programs undertaken to produce results, and, concur-
rently, to deal with a wide range of potential assistance
from the outside.
Governments which have made the commitment to
agricultural development are becoming aware of the
underlying requisites for agricultural development to oc-
cur, of the strategies necessary to accelerate development,














of the operational principles for managing these efforts, The basic strategy for agricultural
and of the resources required, development is to raise the
productivity and incomes of small
Requisites farmers. Farmers will increase
Farmers in almost every area of the world have dem- productivity if the needed
onstrated that they can and will increase productivity if: requisites-technology, training,
inputs, and markets-are in place.
They have access to new technologies (varieties and
practices) significantly higher in productivity and profit-
ability than those in use.
They can be instructed on their own land by scientists
and production specialists in how to employ the new
technologies effectively.
They can obtain inputs-seeds, fertilizer, pesticides,
credit-in their communities, when they need them, and
at reasonable prices.
Facilities exist for marketing or storing the harvest, and
prices offer an incentive to increase production.
When these factors are present, farm-level develop-
ment can occur. The simultaneous availability of these
goods and services, on time and at prices which permit
profits, is crucial.

Strategies
In its broadest sense,the strategy for increasing agri-
cultural productivity and increasing rural incomes syn-
thesizes the experiences and views of many development
authorities. It includes at least the following elements:
Exploit the multiple sources of rural income-agriculture,
extractive industries, manufacturing, tourism, public
works, and programs financed by entities external to
rural localities.
Build on the multiplier effect of rising farm income,
which generates demand for goods and services needed
in modern farming and for increased consumer goods
and services.
Concentrate on stimulating additional production by
small farmers; operators of larger farms will take advan-
tage of increased opportunities, adapting new technol-
ogy of their own accord.
Reorient organizations serving farmers and rural


















































"It is the poverty itself that is a
social liability. Not the people
woho happen to be poor. They
represent immense human
potential. Investing in their future
productivity-if it is done
effectively-is very sound
economics."
Robert S. McNamara


families; this may include the transformation of land
tenure arrangements.
Facilitate widespread farmer participation in the market
economy.
Synchronize the provision of all necessary services-
roads, markets, input supply-locality by locality.
When sufficient infrastructure is present, one of the
more effective development strategies is the mounting of
commodity programs aimed at increasing production of
major crops on a national scale. When an adequate
infrastructure does not exist, or when a nationwide effort
to improve a particular commodity bypasses some area of
the country, defined-area development programs, de-
signed to improve productivity and standards of living in
a particular area, may be most effective. Wherever possi-
ble IADS has encouraged a combination of these two
strategies, supplementing them as appropriate with ef-
forts to strengthen relevant institutions.
Commodity Programs. A commodity program con-
centrates on increasing the output of a single commodity
as rapidly as possible to meet national requirements and
goals. This strategy has been used successfully with both
export and basic crops. The concepts are simple, and
results can be dramatic if governments invest needed
resources, establish clear-cut output and farmer-
participation goals, and insist on necessary inter-agency
cooperation.
In successful programs, a central technical group for
each commodity determines goals and devises strategies
for increasing output, identifies target regions for early
attention, establishes working relationships with scien-
tific institutions in other countries and thus introduces
practices and materials for local trial or adaptation, and
facilitates orderly involvement of all relevant institutions
and individuals in the country.
The actual feasibility of any new technique is estab-
lished by placing experiments on farms. Both farms and
experiment stations are used for intensive training of
technicians.
The commodity approach has weaknesses: individ-













ual farmers, localities, or regions may not benefit, either Successful development strategies
because that commodity is not important to them, or be- often combine national
cause it is not possible for them to produce it-if, for commodity programs and
example, one of the four requisites for farmer participa- defined-area campaigns,
tion is not met. supported by synchronized public
and private services.
Defined-Area Programs. The purpose of a
defined-area program is to improve the standard of living
of as many people as possible in a particular area. Such a
program may concentrate on agriculture alone (Puebla,
Mexico) or on a limited number of development factors
(Comilla, Bangladesh). "Integrated rural development"-
the effort to simultaneously improve roads, input supply
markets, agricultural productivity, employment in light
industry or public works, education, health, and
housing-is also being tried in many regions.
Aside from their stated goals, defined-area programs
may benefit both the region and the nation in several
ways: they can serve as pilot projects to develop methods
for wider adoption; they provide many opportunities for
local participation and training; they can provide multiple
income opportunities.
Such programs can also have weaknesses, unless
planning and operations take the following problems into
account: technical staffs tend to be small, made up of
generalists rather than specialists; often, because of their
programs' regional nature, they are isolated from the main-
stream of national government agency activities.
Synchronized Government Services. Both com-
modity programs and defined-area campaigns depend
upon synchronized government services oriented to sup-
port accelerated rates of development. Such services are a
basic component of any national strategy for forced-pace
development, and, if provided, will benefit the country in
many ways.
The objective of synchronization is to provide simul-
taneously, in each locality throughout the country, all the
materials, services, and conditions (including incentive
prices) farmers need to adopt productive systems. It em-
braces the horizontal collaboration of units of government
at each level, the vertical integration of activities of local

















































"Improved food supplies and
nutrition, together with basic
services such as health and
education, can not only directly
improve the physical well-being
and quality of life of the rural
poor, but can also indirectly
enhance their productivity and
their ability to contribute to the
national economy."
World Bank


.and district units involved in specific programs with
those of regional and national units, and cooperation
between government and industry.
Operational Principles. Any approach to develop-
ment may lose effectiveness because of inappropriate and
short-sighted goals, competition among vested interests
for limited resources, fragmentation and dilution of ef-
forts, or shortages of qualified personnel. Such difficulties
can be minimized and agricultural development acceler-
ated by adopting and following a set of operational princi-
ples, as for example:
Establish long-term (up to 20-year) as well as short-term
goals.
Gear planning for agriculture to planning for other sec-
tors.
Design feasibility studies so that they can be completed
quickly.
Involve all relevant organizations; include colleges and
universities.
Synchronize efforts and encourage cooperation among
personnel of different agencies and with industry.
Emphasize in-service training to provide sufficient
numbers of technicians trained in skills and able to take
increasing responsibility.
Encourage as many farmers as possible to participate in
the development process.
Expand and vary programs region by region, depending
on the level of infrastructure development and the extent
to which improved technologies have been developed or
identified.
Gather information to provide feedback for program
modifications and to measure progress.

Resources
How rapidly and how well a nation can accelerate its
agricultural development depends largely on the availabil-
ity and efficient management of at least five resources:
knowledge, experience, information, materials, and fi-
nances.













Knowledge. Agricultural development requires
people with knowledge (expertise) in scientific and tech-
nical fields relevant to the agricultural potential of the par-
ticular country. Countries with inadequate numbers of
such qualified people may need expatriate scientists and
managers for extended periods of time if they are to
achieve rapid agricultural development.
Expatriate personnel assigned to developing nations
generally perform one of two functions: performance or
advisory technical assistance. In the former, the expa-
triate performs a task for which local people are not
available, filling a personnel gap in the host country and
providing direct leadership for the functions he assumes.
In the latter, expatriates communicate information, skills,
and operating procedures to the nationals with whom
they work, with the objective of improving the nation's
personnel and institutional capabilities. It is their respon-
sibility not to do the job, but to work with those who do
the job.
It is extremely important for the recipient nation, the
assistance agency, and the individuals directly involved to
understand which of the two roles is intended. The
expectations and performance requirements differ greatly.
Even though his sponsor may not expect the advisor to
perform technical tasks, the host government or individ-
ual nationals may; it is sometimes difficult to get mutual
understanding that the advisor's function is to help create,
energize, and guide the conditions through which the
nationals will provide the needed technical services.
The nation can work simultaneously to increase its
national personnel resources by training its own agricul-
tural scientists in national or other programs, by obtaining
or providing scholarships for its young professionals to
study outside the country, and ultimately, by strength-
ening its agricultural schools and colleges. (See Leadership
Development, page 61.)

Experience. Because the new era of agricultural
development requires the swift and effective adoption of
new approaches to development, relevant experience is a
priceless resource. The greatest pool of this experience


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".. our rice production program
showed us how political will,
combined with technology, credit
and price support, could
galvanize our rural sector for the
demanding task of meeting food
sufficiency targets." Ferdinand E.
Marcos, President of the
Philippines, addressing the Third
Session of the World Food
Conference, June 1977


20


rests within the developing countries, where growing
numbers of individuals have had 5, 10, 15, or more years
of significant involvement in a variety of programs. In the
process of institution building, many developing coun-
tries have tested models from the developed and develop-
ing worlds and have created indigenous models respon-
sive to the direction and pace of development their
societies demand.
Rapid communication of these experiences is essen-
tial to the forced pace nations wish to maintain. Donor and
assistance agencies are trying to facilitate communication,
exchange of information, and interchange of personnel
among the developing countries, and are seeking ways to
increase the personal and professional attraction for ex-
perienced personnel to remain in their own countries. At
the same time, officials of many of these countries have
initiated actions to establish inter-country linkages, re-
gional institutions, and international federations.
To an increasing extent, senior professionals in the
developing countries seek and cherish continuing profes-
sional rapport with their colleagues in the developed
world. They accomplish this through person-to-person
and institution-to-institution linkages. Younger profes-
sionals welcome and need relationships with expatriates
available on either a short- or long-term basis to whom
they can turn for guidance on resolving problems or to be
reassured that they are proceeding appropriately.
Another important step has been the integration,
within developing countries, of experienced agricultural
and social scientists into the planning, implementing, and
managing of development programs. The first step in such
a process frequently comes through formal and informal
linkages between agricultural universities, other institu-
tions of higher learning, and the government. (See Liaison
and Interchange, page 69.)
Information. A vast amount of agricultural and
development information-not only technical informa-
tion, but "where to go to find something out, who has
done what and with what result, who has the money to
support what project"1-exists in the minds and experi-
ences of people. Only a small fraction of it is available in












reference books or bulletins; of these, few are written or
organized to enhance their use by persons concerned with
development.- '
Data about a developing country itself, data basic for V
planning development efforts, cannot be imported; it '
must be generated locally. Data for planning is most
acceptable if the country's own professionals gather and
analyze it, although they frequently use outside consul-
tants and specialists to help establish systems for collect-
ing the data efficiently and rapidly on a continuing basis, -
and to assist in analysis. tA
Policymakers generally need several categories of
data, including benchmark data on physical resources,
human resources, and economic activities, information on
producer behavior, agronomic data, current supply data,fi -r ra.
marketing news and statistics, and forecast data and tH I''ot
analyses. n j iuC itiy c ,'ir l andto tIh
1act t c 'tart !tii toii IOf t rii r l 'l Ia l
Frequently, the data needed for good planning does
not exist, is difficult to get, or lacks reliability. Faced with dIvcl tp litt I; oltI/;,r rI o .
the necessity of making decisions, the planner needs to /,rov,;'l s.oii;,,os s.c.ti, tl, th1
identify such data as does exist in provincial, regional, iu'itri otte unique
and national offices, and in the files and publications of agr'cultural pro!lcIms aIui
international organizations. If time permits, a sample potUaltI<.
study may be conducted to check the reliability and
validity of the data at hand.
Provision of adequate kinds and amounts of techni-
cal information to support agricultural development ef-
forts requires assistance agencies and developing coun-
tries to work together to survey the spectrum of technical
information available, identify what is needed, arrange for
linkages or communication systems to ensure its continu-
ous availability, and establish channels to ensure that
appropriately "packaged" information flows smoothly to
the persons who most need it. At the local level, it is
extremely important that information flow is syn-
chronized with other resources farmers need to increase
production. (See Development-Oriented Literature, page
66.)
Materials. Agricultural production programs need
physical inputs: new seeds, fertilizer, tools. If these are 'William Foote vhyte, orlnam:myg fr
not locally available, they must be imported. Thultra Dilopmn Brunswick
not locally available, they must be imported. The process N. : T.ransa.tion, inc 1075).
















































"Our situation today is that we
have had almost thirty years of
experience testing and
implementing a variety of
projects, programs, and strategies
S. we have significantly large
areas of consensus about the
key factors and strategies to
impact the complex process called
'agricultural development.'"
Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.


requires planning and decisions about the extent to which
such resources will be used to generate and validate new
technology, equip institutions, mount field programs, or
provide the inputs farmers need. The process requires
hard decisions, based on the best available data. Invest-
ments can be in salaries, buildings, equipment, transpor-
tation, maintenance, supplies, or other operational sup-
ports. Experienced managers generally seek an appropri-
ate balance or compromise, and provide means for adjust-
ing future distribution of resources to keep programs
productive.
Linkages with international and regional research
centers and with institutions in other countries can make
available a wide spectrum of germ plasm for use in local
breeding and varietal adaptation programs. Assistance
agencies can either furnish inputs in kind, or provide
funds to buy them.

Finances. Funds alone are no substitute for other
resources, nor does their availability guarantee that ap-
propriate or adequate resources will be available when
needed. But funds frequently are needed to get the de-
velopment process firmly started and to ensure the con-
tinuity of the most limiting resources in a particular
situation.
In recent years the principal international, regional,
and bilateral funding and assistance agencies have shifted
much of their financial support from grants to loans. One
result is that leaders of developing countries evaluate
critically the quality and costs of imported resources. They
give priority to use of their own qualified professionals
and local resources in the development efforts to which
they are most committed.
Use of expatriate funds for the advanced training of
young professionals continues to receive high priority,
particularly if the training provides an opportunity to
develop or strengthen continuing professional linkages.
More recently, international concern has centered on
the finances and other resources needed to establish or
further develop national agricultural research and produc-
tion systems.













Managing Resources. Nations differ significantly
in their ability to mobilize and manage resources and the
availability of needed resources in-country. Within a par-
ticular nation, these abilities and needs become increasing-
ly transitory as the country increases its professional man-
power pool, gains experience, creates indigenous ap-
proaches to development, establishes viable linkages with
research and training institutions in other countries, en-
courages investment in local agricultural manufacturing
and processing industries, and from a stimulated national
economy is able to increase tax revenues in further sup-
port of development.
The changing needs for resources implied by the
differences among countries and the fluid situation in each
country pose problems both for nations seeking resources
and for potential donor and assistance agencies. The kind
of help a nation perceives itself as needing can differ from
what it actually needs; conversely, because of operational
constraints or policies, a donor or assistance agency may
be able to provide services which, at the time they are
available, the nation may not want, need, or be able to use
or manage effectively.
As the support base for a development program
moves from primarily expatriate to local resources, subtle
changes occur in the knowledge and experience required
for efficient management. While the differences may ap-
pear minimal, a locally supported program places a pre-
mium on the ability of the manager to reconcile political
issues, achieve inter-agency coordination and coopera-
tion, compete for resources, and resist political pressures
to expand the program area or services beyond the current
capacity of the organization.
In situations primarily supported by expatriate or-
ganizations, the terms of the implementing agreements,
the presence of expatriate personnel assigned to the pro-
gram, and the actual or implied presence of donor repre-
sentatives to some extent protect and isolate the national
manager from certain local pressures. Whether this is an
advantage or disadvantage depends upon the situation
and the organizational context of the development pro-
gram. It is a factor for expatriates and local management to
consider.


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Strategies into Action


IADS in 1977



"The new seed-fertilizer
technology has provided the
first major opportunity to increase
yields among small-scale,
low-income producers of
traditional crops. Although
considerable adaptive research
and breeding is required, the
technology can lead to substantial
increases in output in many areas,
even where the density of
population is very high .."
World Bank


The founders of IADS described for the organization
a broad range of potential activities. It could undertake
almost any service upon request of a developing-country
government, if it would substantially increase agricultural
production and improve standards of rural living. These
would be the "direct services" of the organization to
individual countries. In addition, the founders proposed
that IADS seek financial support for a range of "indirect
services" important to agricultural development in most
countries.
Effective operation of such an organization, it was
assumed, would depend upon its ability to respond
rapidly and flexibly to requests from the developing
countries. IADS would work within the complex of inter-
faces associated with international technical assistance.
These interfaces arise from the multiplicity of organiza-
tions concerned-public and private, national, regional,
and international, bilateral and multilateral; the large
number of developed and developing countries involved;
and the vast range of relevant technical, financial, and
managerial issues.













IADS would be able to participate in the planning
and implementation of national agricultural programs. It
might provide experienced agricultural scientists and ad-
ministrators to national agencies for agreed-upon services.
And it would arrange study experiences for staff of na-
tional programs; such programs might range from short
tours, for senior officials of developing countries to in-
spect operating programs in other countries, to formal
academic programs at educational centers for young pro-
fessionals.
Mention was made of workshops, conferences, and
short courses, in the developing countries and elsewhere,
and of internships for national program staff to gain
experience in projects relating to their interests. IADS
might, acting as a procurement agency, purchase and
forward supplies and equipment for a national program.
In short, IADS might act in almost any way on an
agricultural development problem that a country re-
quested, provided funds were available and the IADS
Board of Trustees approved.
Such guidelines might, at first glance, appear to
invite the development of a nebulous overall program,
perhaps self-contradictory in internal detail. But that has
not been the case in IADS operations in its initial 2 years.
In IADS's direct services, several operational features
lessen the possibility that this might happen. IADS does
not have country programs of its own, and does not have
funds to undertake projects on behalf of others. IADS
participates only when specifically invited to do so by a
developing country. The country either has or seeks the
funds needed, with IADS assistance if it chooses. These
orientations assure that IADS will become involved only
when it has established credibility with the nation con-
cerned (and usually with a donor agency as well) and that
its involvement will continue only so long as the requested
services give the desired results.
The additional guidance of the IADS Board of Trust-
ees, generally put forward as approval of major program
areas in which opportunities should be sought and coun-
sel against ones of peripheral value, has brought focus and
internal consistency to the program. When approaches













vary from country to country, these variations are dictated
by the needs of the countries concerned, their levels of
development, and the availability of manpower and other
resources.
What national authorities want and need becomes
clear rather quickly when approached on the business
basis that the lADS procedure fosters. In IADS operations
it has become evident that most of the developing coun-
tries feel much less need for expatriate experts than some
international and developed-nation institutions expect.
Some developing countries may have been disappointed
with results in the past, and many now have personnel
equivalent in qualifications to most of the available expa-
triate specialists. They also know their own countries, and
understand many of the nuances that underlie existing
conditions and ways of doing things.
When they need help, leading scientists and agricul-
tural administrators in the developing countries are much
better situated now to specify their requirements and much
less disposed to accept substitutes than they were a few
years ago. It is a rapidly changing scene, by no means
uniform, and one which IADS and other technical assis-
tance agencies need to take into account.
Sometimes, of course, the developing-country
agency may be off-target in estimating its needs, and the
donor or lending institution may be right. But in IADS's
experience progress often will be achieved more rapidly if
the assistance agency moves in concert with the develop-
ing country's own perceptions. Even if there is a short-
term lag in results, the long-term bases for success are
probably more substantial if the program moves at a pace
and with the resources which the country views as needed
and feasible.
These developments are reflected in the kinds of
manpower resources requested of IADS by the countries
with which it now has contractual arrangements. The
demand is for experienced mid-career scientists or ad-
ministrators. The persons sought are among those most
scarce in the lists of professionals available for and in-
terested in employment in technical assistance posts.
Scientists with the desired level of experience are in strong


Vh t ( 'I'l aIICU~tl I II C/

I t I L t 4 Cilf j~)l













demand in their own countries. If fully qualified, they
must have the necessary qualities of character and person-
ality to surmount substantial cultural differences.
If judged by current programs, the developing coun-
tries presently see IADS as having its greatest capability in
establishing agricultural research institutions and in ap-
plying research to production problems. IADS has had
fewer opportunities for involvement in national planning
of the agricultural sector, although these may come to
the fore if there is growth of confidence in IADS. Donor
and lending agencies appear to concur in this analysis.
Views in the developing countries of what agricul-
tural research is and what it can do for development are by
no means uniform. No country is interested in research for
its own sake, and some country authorities have become
disillusioned about the contribution of research to de-
velopment. They often feel that they have little to show for
considerable investments in agricultural research. They
tend to be interested in research only if it is tied closely to
action at the farm level. Dissatisfaction with conventional
extension efforts also exists.
IADS views agricultural research in the developing
countries as a continuum, ranging from the establishment
of long-term development goals to organization of
problem-solving capabilities, accelerated development of
improved agricultural production and marketing systems,
and adoption of more productive and profitable systems
by farmers.
External sources of technology-institutions in the
advanced nations and in other developing countries, and
most especially the international agricultural research
centers-must be linked effectively to each national effort,
from development of technology to its application in
farmers' fields. Country programs with which IADS is
involved generally are oriented to this type of integration.
The range of indirect services IADS has considered is
broad to permit exploration of activities which might
become substantial if interest among developing countries
and donors justifies it. The principal activities explored
thus far have been development-oriented literature, to
marshal credible information for use by developing-













country authorities in establishing or strengthening their
own programs; liaison among developing countries;
liaison between the assistance community and the de-
veloping countries; and the identification and develop-
ment of leaders for national programs.
Decisions on which projects to develop are based
upon their acceptance by developing countries and donor
agencies. During the initial period IADS has had a modest
fund for exploring needs for action. In several areas the
first efforts have reached a point where the product (such
as initial publications in the development-oriented litera-
ture series) can be tested. If they appear to be satisfactory,
additional funds will be sought to continue the activities.
In some instances it seems likely that the exploratory work
will be expanded substantially under IADS leadership. In
others, other agencies may assume major responsibility.
As this happens, IADS expects to undertake exploratory
work in still other areas of potential "indirect service."
On balance, it appeared at year-end that the major
effort of IADS, as measured in man-years or budget, will
be provision of services to nations; three-fourths or more
of the organization's efforts may be of this type.


DIRECT SERVICES TO
INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES
Since undertaking its initial contract operations in
Nepal in late 1976, IADS has established cooperative
working relationships with nine countries; preliminary
discussions are underway with several others. In every
case, IADS involvement resulted from invitations from
authorities of the developing countries.
Activities described in this section, country by coun-
try, range from preliminary discussions of strategies for
rapid development to assistance in planning, provision
of short-term consultants and long-term leaders, and
full-scale implementation of nationwide programs with
varying amounts of logistical support and differing mag-
nitudes of training.
IADS has entered into cooperative relationships with
each of the nine countries at one of the above stages and,


S11,;ta(.llitltj)i to 071,)1/ ill
17llil.Cti lc'iltio tlta trognilli C 1til

l t ullt' tilo ift












in some, has continued with the country into more ad-
vanced phases. In other cases, the country has elected to
proceed on its own or in cooperation with one or more
other organizations.
Preliminary discussions with Paraguay serve as an
example of the process through which IADS may develop
a working relationship with a country and possible assis-
tance agencies.
In response to a request from the Government of
Paraguay and USAID, IADS staff visited Paraguay in April
1977 to review a proposal for a program to enable the
Ministry of Agriculture to address the priority institu-
tional constraints which inhibit its efforts to assist the
small farmer. These constraints are in the areas of re-
search, intermediate technology, distribution of quality
seeds, and sector planning.
Questions were raised about the proposed restruc-
turing of the national research organization, the linkage of
research with extension, and the specific crops to receive
priority. As a result of this visit, Paraguay and USAID
arranged for two consultants (Dr. Floyd Williams of
USAID and Dr. Eugenio Martinez of The Rockefeller
Foundation) to help revise the proposal.
Implementation of a project based on the revised pro-
posal is being considered by the Government of Paraguay,
with possible financial support by USAID.

Nepal
The pressure of population on limited land resources
dominates Nepal's development problems and accen-
tuates the need for rapid progress. There is little idle land;
progress will depend upon increasing crop production on
many small farms, ranging in size from 0.4 to 3 hectares.
Present efforts focus on increasing production of wheat,
rice, and maize in two areas: the Terai, plains south of the
Himalayas, and the Hills.
Agriculture is a central activity in Nepal: farming
and related activities provide more than 90 percent of the
employment and contribute some 68 percent of the gross













domestic product and 80 per-
cent of the merchandise ex-
port. While rice and wheat H Ir.1L'',
are most important in the
Terai, the Hills represent a
greater share of the maize
area and production.
About 94 percent of
Nepal's population of nearly
13 million live in the rural
areas, where population den-
sity is high and growing. It has passed 930 persons per
cultivated square kilometer in the Hills. Density in the
Terai is less, about 340 persons, but annual population
growth there is about 2.6 percent as compared with 1.4 in
the Hills. Farm production has not kept pace with popu-
lation growth.
Problems confronting the subsistence farmers of
Nepal, particularly those in the Hills, defy solution by
conventional methods. Rapid increases in the productiv-
ity, incomes, and welfare of these small farmers will
require development, testing, and application of new
methods and adaptations of improved practices.
Efforts to increase production throughout the coun-
try are directed at improving crop technology through
farm-based research, training field workers and farmers,
establishing more irrigation, increasing supplies of ag-
ricultural inputs, developing roads and transportation
systems, and providing facilitating institutions and
policies.
The Nepalese authorities recognize the importance
of research to provide the technology needed for agricul-
tural development. Special efforts are being made to orient
research to production problems on farmers' fields and
improve linkages between research and extension ac-
tivities. With a view to increasing the output of research
scientists, the physical facilities at research stations are
being improved and the institutional structures involved
in agricultural research are receiving serious considera-
tion.


-m ___


Although national in scope, the
commodity programs in Nepal must
develop technologies suited to a wide
range of local growing conditions.
Research on multiple cropping will be
conducted in six regions, each
representative of other areas of the
country where the results can be
applied.















IADS Services to Nepal:
Project Details

Objectives: To provide technical
assistance and services to Nepal for
strengthening national
production-oriented agricultural
research and extension activities in
cereal crops.
Magnitude: Estimated contract costs
are $2,524,000 for work to be completed
by September 30, 1979. IADS will
provide up to 282 man-months of
specialists (in residence, and as
consultants). The training component
includes 234 man-months of advanced
degree training, and 360 man-months
of other training.
Basis of Involvement: Contract
between His Majesty's Government of
Nepal and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant to Nepal.
Wayne H. Freeman, Project Supervisor.


The Integrated Cereals Project in which IADS is
participating is designed to strengthen Nepal's research
capability in cereals and other crops grown in rotation
with them, and to improve the technology delivery system
so as to increase national food production.
This project, which will devote a major share of its
activity to accelerating agricultural development in the
Hills, includes research, training, and production pro-
grams. It stresses a strong linkage between research and
extension through early testing of research results in
on-farm trials, demonstration of superior production prac-
tices, and rapid seed dissemination through mini-kit
programs. The methodologies used are based on concepts
established by IRRI and CIMMYT. These centers have
emphasized on-farm research on production problems
which often are location specific and cannot be addressed
by research in experimental fields or in laboratories.
These on-farm tests are a major component of each of
the national coordinated programs on rice, wheat, and
maize in the Hills and the Terai. Trials, including 6 to 10
varieties grown in farmers' fields at 50 to 100 locations, are
supervised jointly by the research and extension staffs of
the Department of Agriculture. Simple trials to determine
fertilizer response, optimum plant populations, or effec-
tive pest management also are conducted in farmers' fields.
Experimental production plots have also been
planted to test the effectiveness of a package of practices
and to provide a source of seed for dissemination to
neighboring farmers. This system of farm testing provides
a rapid evaluation of farmer reaction to a new variety or
management practice and, in turn, helps the scientist
tailor the technology to farm conditions.
In the cropping systems program 95 percent of the
research is conducted in farmers' fields, using a
methodology developed by IRRI. Of six farm research sites
planned, three were operative in 1977, with about 100
farmers participating at each site. Component
technologies are studied in relation to the existing crop-
ping patterns, and alternative patterns or crops are
explored in order to identify ways to increase productivity
of a crop, land, or other resources in a given period.













Farmer participation is basic to the success of the system,
and farmers are involved in decisions concerning the
treatments and patterns to be tested.
The methodology of site research in cropping sys-
tems brings biological research staff, socio-economists,
extension workers, and farmers together in a collaborative
effort to identify and disseminate an improved package of
production practices. The project has instituted farmers'
committees to review plans with the staff, to evaluate
all site research, and to recommend modifications or
additional research to serve farmers' needs. These commit-
tees are expected to become a powerful mechanism in
guiding research programs and in ensuring their orienta-
tion toward solving farmers' problems.
In-country training is crucial. At present, the num-
ber of qualified Nepalese personnel is insufficient for
full-scale development of appropriate technology and its
dissemination. Absence of staff for training when agricul-
tural programs are being accelerated further aggravates the
problem. The availability of a training officer provided
through IADS and the establishment of training programs
within Nepal are accelerating manpower development.
A 2-week production training program was or-
ganized during the year for technicians working with rice
as well as maize. Similar programs are planned for those
concerned with wheat and cropping systems. In-country
training is being improved by procurement of teaching
materials and soliciting the support of training officers of
the international centers. Short-term training and study
tours stimulate leadership and develop capability without
taking much time from the project.
Fifteen individuals participated in 4- to 7-month
courses at the international centers. Senior staff members
in leadership positions attended workshops and confer-
ences and made study tours. Five individuals continued
advanced academic studies (see Leadership Development,
page 66; seven other candidates were identified-two
for doctoral programs and five for master's programs-for
enrollment in various institutions, primarily in Asia.
Six IADS scientists, with Dr. Wayne H. Freeman as
the project supervisor, are participating in project im-


On-farm research in Nepal will help
ensure the applicability of new varieties
and practices. Farmer committees work
with scientific staff to evaluate results
and recommend additional research.


'















Nepal Study Team
Department of Agriculture
His Majesty's Government of Nepal
Amresh M. Pradhananga
Deputy Director General (Crops)
K. R. Keshery
Deputy Director General (Livestock)
Syed M. Shah
Chief Plant Pathologist
IADS
Ralph W. Cummings
Chairman, Technical Advisory
Committee, CGIAR
Wayne H. Freeman
Supervisor, Integrated Cereals
Project, Nepal
Joseph C. Madamba
Director General, Philippine Council
for Agriculture and Resources
Research
Albert H. Moseman
IADS Representative
Robert K. Waugh
Adjunct Director, Institute of
Agricultural Science and Technology,
Guatemala


A joint Nepal/IADS study team worked
during the year on a proposal for a new
Nepal Council for Agricultural Research.
-"


plementation. Dr. Freeman is responsible to S. B. Nepali,
Director-General of the Department of Agriculture, who is
also the project director. The other IADS scientists work
with national leaders of commodity and cropping systems
programs and the production/training program. Four
Peace Corps volunteers joined the project to assist with
cropping systems research on farmers' fields and produc-
tion programs in four regions.
In addition to the IADS resident staff, several short-
term consultants have advised on specific topics. Princi-
pal consultancies were concerned with seed production
and processing, storage construction, equipment pro-
curement, planning and implementation of a cropping
systems program, experiment station development, and
organization of the national research system. In addition,
staff members of CIMMYT, IRRI, and ICRISAT provided
assistance.
During the year, a national committee developed a
working paper for the establishment of an Agricultural
Research Council. A draft "Proposal for a Nepal Council
for Agricultural Research" was put into final form by a
joint Nepal/IADS review team for consideration by His
Majesty's Government. It is anticipated that any reorgani-
zation plan approved will recognize the importance of
problem-oriented agricultural research, of the multi-dis-
ciplinary approach, of strengthening research and exten-
sion linkages, and of improving experiment station facilities.


Indonesia

Agriculture is the principal economic activity of
Indonesia, generating about half of the gross national
product, providing two-thirds of the employment, and
constituting about 80 percent of non-oil exports. The fifth
most populous country in the world, Indonesia has a
population of more than 135 million, about 82 percent of
whom live in rural areas on some thousand islands.
Most of Indonesia's farms are small. About 70 per-
cent are less than one hectare in size. In Java, Madura, and
Bali, the three islands containing more than 80 percent of














the total population, farm
size averages 0.6 to 0.7 hec-
tares.
Indonesia has a dual 4.
agricultural structure, con-
sisting of 12 to 13 million
smallholders cultivating 5
some 13 million hectares and r Ur.I A R Jakarta
about 1,300 large estates to- 7
telling about 1.7 million hec-
tares. Smallholders dominate JAVA
in the production of all sub-
sistence and cash crops with the exception of oil palms.
Production methods range from labor-intensive paddy
rice cultivation, to dryland farming of food and com-
mercial crops, and to shifting, slash and bur prac-
tices in the less settled regions.
Indonesia is depending upon increased agricultural
productivity to meet expanding domestic requirements
and improve foreign exchange earnings. Low national
average yields characterize most crops. Rice yields have
increased in recent years to about 2 ton/ha, while yields of
the palawija crops (all other food crops) have declined.
Yields of maize, the second largest crop in land area, are
about 1 ton/ha. Increased production of maize, oilseeds,
cassava, pulses, and sorghum for dry-season cropping is
needed to achieve more effective water use.
Roughly two-thirds of Indonesia's rubber produc-
tion, which accounts for 10 percent of the value of pro-
duced crops, comes from smallholders with average yields
of .33 ton/ha, as compared to .56 ton/ha under similar
circumstances in Malaysia.
The Government of Indonesia, in its Second Five-
Year Plan (1974-1979), has stressed the importance of
agriculture in the creation of opportunities and improve-
ment of living standards for the rural population. The
program emphasizes intensification of agricultural opera-
tions with a consequent increase in production in Java,
and exploitation of the under-utilized resources of the
Outer Islands, estimated to have 40 million hectares of


Indonesia's program to strengthen its
national agricultural research system
involves multi-disciplinary,
multi-location research. Research on
rice and palawija crops is conducted at
Bogor (1) and Sukamandi (2). Work on
highland vegetables will be conducted
at the Lembang Research Institute (3).
The Sungai Putih Research Institute (4)
will become the national center for
rubber research, while the Sembawa
Research Institute for Estate Crops (5)
will develop technology for the
smallholders who farm about 80 percent
of Indonesia's rubber area.
















IADS Services to Indonesia:
Project Details
Objectives: To provide Indonesia's
Agency for Agricultural Research and
Development (AARD) with technical
assistance and services for the
strengthening of national
production-oriented research on rice,
rubber, vegetables, and upland crops.
Magnitude: The contract provides for
62 man-years of specialist services over
the period of the project, October 1,
1976 to September 30, 1981, and
amounting to $9,935,000 in estimated
costs. Of this, $2,406,000 is allocated to
provide 133 fellowships to cover 225
man-years of training.
Basis of Involvement: Contract
between Republic of Indonesia and
IADS.
Funds: World Bank loan to Indonesia.
Edwin B. Oyer, Project Specialist.


cultivable new land, approximately four times the area
now under cultivation in these islands.
With these goals in mind, Indonesia has been reor-
ganizing its Ministry of Agriculture, assigning the respon-
siblity for research to a new Agency for Agricultural
Research and Development (AARD). The Government of
Indonesia and IADS signed a contract in February 1977 for
cooperation in the implementation of the agricultural
research project. Under this contract, IADS is providing
AARD with technical assistance in commodities of impor-
tance to Indonesia. These include four commodity groups:
rice, palawija crops (primarily maize, soybeans, sorghum,
and cassava), highland vegetables, and rubber.
The possibilities for improving production of the
commodities included in the project are indicated by the
present low national average yields. Improved genetic
materials for rubber have already been identified. Varietal
improvement through introduction of genetic materials,
breeding, and selection programs will be a major factor in
raising yields and production of the other crops. Specific
disease and pest problems have been identified for most
of the commodities. Deficiencies in soil and water man-
agement, and in cultural practices, can be corrected
through multi-disciplinary research.
International research programs exist for most of the
crops in this project. Strong ties have already been estab-
lished between the national rice program and IRRI. Efforts
are being made to improve linkages with CIMMYT for
maize, CIAT for cassava, AVRDC for vegetables and
soybeans, ICRISAT for sorghum, and CIP for potatoes.
Indonesia is a member of the International Rubber Re-
search and Development Board, which regularly brings
together scientists of all rubber research institutes for
technical discussions. There are also close working rela-
tionships between the Indonesian institutes for rubber
research and the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia
and the Rubber Research Centre of Thailand.
Indonesian farmers have demonstrated an active
interest in trying new technologies in the past; dissemina-
tion of research results will be accelerated by the further
strengthening of extension capabilities envisaged in the













World Bank loan project involving cooperation between
FAO and Indonesia's Agency for Education, Training, and
Extension. To facilitate delivery of the new technologies,
research centers under AARD are developing a cadre of
subject-matter specialists who will have primary respon-
sibility for establishing cooperation and liaison with ex-
tension workers in the dissemination of research findings.
The IADS project specialist, Dr. Edwin B. Oyer,
joined the AARD staff in April 1977. He reports to Mr.
Sadikin, head of AARD, and works closely with Dr.
Ace, head of the Project Implementation Unit. Of the four
program specialists to be provided by IADS, two-one for
rubber and one for highland vegetables-started work
soon after the project was initiated. The recruitment of
specialists for rice and palawija crops was temporarily
postponed after consultations between AARD and IADS.
Presently, the IADS project specialist and the IRRI team
leader are filling in for the program specialists for palawija
and rice, respectively. Both the rice and palawija programs
are well developed and many well-qualified Indonesian
scientists are involved in their implementation. Other
IADS specialists working in Indonesia are a financial
administrator and an equipment planning and procure-
ment specialist.
The preparation of a document on national programs
for the four commodities was a major activity which
required involvement of and discussions among senior
scientists and research administrators. Each national pro:
gram identified major research problems and described
the organizational framework in which scientists of differ-
ent disciplines and at different locations can work in a
multi-disciplinary and multi-locational cooperative effort
to carry out production and problem-oriented research.
Three major inputs of the project into these programs
include fellowships, facility improvement, and technical
assistance in commodity programs.
Fellowships. Two years ago AARD estimated that
about 900 scientists were involved in agricultural research,
including those spending some time in administrative
duties. AARD estimates that 2,500 Indonesian scientists
are needed to meet existing research needs. A master plan






























Dr. J. Ritchie Cowan, IRRI liaison
scientist, Dr. Z. Harahap, plant
breeder, Dr. D. M. Tantera, leader of
the Indonesian rice program, and Dr.
Edwin B. Oyer, IADS project specialist,
inspect an entry in the rice germplasm
nursery.


for long-term training fellowships has been prepared.
Twenty-one local fellowships for master's degrees are
essentially filled and the trainees are now pursuing study
programs at Indonesian universities. Seven Indonesians
have been selected and all formalities completed for their
enrollment in U.S. universities during the winter of the
1977/78 academic year.

Facility Improvement. Three of the Indonesian
program leaders for palawija crops, highland vegetables,
and rubber joined the head of AARD and the IADS project
specialist in a tour of research facilities in selected coun-
tries in East and Southeast Asia. A representative of the
consulting architectural firm also participated in a portion
of the tour for a review of facilities at several research
centers in Taiwan and the Philippines. AARD updated the
topographic maps of each of the construction sites for civil
works, and necessary formalities for the identification of
construction contractors are underway. Consulting en-
gineers prepared a master plan for experiment station
development for the four programs.
The IADS equipment specialist cooperated in the
development by program leaders and specialists and
the architects of the master list of equipment needed for
the four national programs. He also worked with the
architects in the planning and design of laboratories.
Commodity Programs. Of the four programs, the
one on rice is most developed. In addition to the substan-
tial support provided by the Government of Indonesia, the
rice program has been supported by several donor agen-
cies through IRRI as well as through bilateral arrange-
ments with the governments of Canada, Japan, and the
Netherlands. Many rice scientists have received master's
and doctoral degrees abroad.
While developing its relationships with AARD,
IADS also maintained a close link with IRRI, which con-
tinues to be involved in strengthening national research
capability in rice and rice-based cropping systems. The
Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops will be a
principal location for the implementation of the national
rice and palawija programs.













Work was initiated several years ago to develop a
separate experiment station for rice. Much of the farm
development work as well as construction of office and
laboratory buildings for rice has been completed. AARD
decided that the initial plan, reflecting separate experi-
mental areas for rice and palawija crops, should be mod-
ified to incorporate an integrated experiment-station facil-
ity for the two programs. The Sukamandi Research Insti-
tute will be upgraded by the civil works portion of the
World Bank loan.
The highland vegetables program is being defined; it
suffers from a lack of trained scientists and adequate
research facilities. The Lembang Research Institute, with
new and remodeled facilities, will become the principal
center for highland vegetables research.
Indonesia has the largest area of planted rubber in
the world but production levels are low. About 80 percent
of the Indonesian rubber area is farmed by smallholders
who produce yields of slightly more than half those
produced on estates. One of the primary challenges to the
rubber program is to increase yields and therefore produc-
tion in this large sector. The Sungai Putih Research
Institute in North Sumatra, when fully established, will
become the national rubber center. It will do adaptive
research on problems of production and technology. It also
will give attention to problems of estate production. The
Sembawa Research Institute for Estate Crops in South
Sumatra will concentrate on innovative technology for the
smallholders.
AARD has been preparing a proposal to the World
Bank for a second loan to continue development of the
organization. Components of this proposal include addi-
tional fellowships, experimental farm and station de-
velopment, renovation and extension of AARD's research
institutions, including the headquarters, and technical
assistance in the management and implementation of the
project.
The proposal includes research support for develop-
ment projects in other government agencies, especially
transmigration. These development projects will utilize
the expanded research network which is proposed.













Dominican Republic
Recent concern about agricultural development in
the Dominican Republic represents a shift from emphasis
on estate management and a few export commodities to
agricultural diversification and production of food crops to
meet local needs. This shift has been accompanied by
increasing attention to ways of helping small farmers
improve their productivity and incomes.
In recent years, declines have been registered for 12
of the Domincan Republic's 18 major food and export
crops. It is estimated that reasonable nutritional levels can
be attained in the next decade only through sustained
increases in the production of basic local foods. Increases
in food production on peasant farms will require not only
new land management techniques and other basic inputs
to the farming system, but continued efforts to incorporate
the isolated peasants into the national economy. Improved
technology, credit for small farmers, agrarian reform,
marketing facilities, farm-to-market roads, and commu-
nity development and extension are some of the needs.
An informal relationship has developed between
IADS and several agricultural institutions in the Domini-
can Republic, principally the Secretariat of Agriculture
and the Instituto Superior de Agricultura. The resulting
interaction has provided opportunities for IADS to work
with a highly motivated group of young professionals. It
has also enabled IADS staff to become acquainted with the
agricultural potentials and problems of a small country
and to assess the applicability in such circumstances of
recommended strategies for accelerating agricultural de-
velopment.
The relationship began with an invitation of the
Dominican government for IADS representatives to visit
and discuss approaches to resolving the country's food
and agricultural problems. Drs. J. George Harrar, Sterling
Wortman, and E. J. Wellhausen visited the country in
1976. Their trip culminated in a review with the President
of the Dominican Republic, Joaquin Balaguer, of a de-
velopment strategy involving the establishment of two
specific activities: national research-based commodity
production programs, beginning with rice, and a













defined-area integrated rural development pro-
gram in the Dominican Sierra.
Plans for both activities moved forward in
1976 and 1977, assisted in part by short-term
consultants from a number of agencies, includ-
ing IADS.


Commodity Program. Dr. P. R. Jennings,
rice scientist of The Rockefeller Foundation,
visited the Dominican Republic as an IADS con-
sultant to review the Dominican rice breeding
and research program. Dr. F. C. Byrnes of IADS
helped design and organize a series of intensive rice pro-
duction training courses to provide, within a year, a
large number of competent staff to work with rice farm-
ers, particularly in the new land reform areas. In a series
of courses at the Juma Rice Station, 77 rice specialists
were trained under a course leader, Mr. Eugenio Tasc6n,
provided by CIAT. These specialists will furnish leader-
ship for rice production campaigns in 1978.


Defined-Area Program. Dominican scientists and
administrators are developing comprehensive plans for
part of the country's Sierra, a mountainous central region
characterized by low incomes and a high rate of rural
unemployment. The Sierra project (Plan Sierra) does not
embrace the entire mountainous region of the Dominican
Republic, but covers a representative portion of a size
deemed manageable with present staff and resources.
Plan Sierra has grown out of a series of local seminars
and working groups in which the Secretary of State for
Agriculture, Pedro Bret6n, and representatives of gov-
ernment, education, community, church, and private en-
terprise have participated. The Association of Caribbean
Universities and Research Institutes (UNICA) has cooper-
ated throughout, giving particular emphasis to defining a
role for higher education in Caribbean food production
programs.
Dr. Byrnes worked with the planning group in
clarifying objectives, outlining initial activities, and iden-


The Dominican Republic has begun a'
comprehensive effort to raise rice
production, with 77 rice specialists
trained during the year at the Juma Rice
Station furnishing leadership for the
program. A defined-area program in
the Sierra region, where deforestation
and population increases have created
food and income problems, will seek
solutions that can be applied in other
mountainous areas of the country.




























Representatives of several Dominican
organizations-here, Mr. Bias Santos,
director of the Instituto Superior de
Agriculture, and Mr. Norberto
Quezada, director of the Center for
Economic and Nutritional
Research-are participating in the
Sierra project.


tifying potential resources, while Dr. Gustavo A. Anto-
nini, University of Florida and UNICA, coordinated de-
velopment of the overall proposal. In the process, a num-
ber of advanced graduate students from the Dominican
Republic have become involved in their country's de-
velopment plans.
The Sierra, which encompasses a variety of climates,
zones, vegetation, land forms, and soils, is a microcosm of
rural conditions in the Dominican Republic and the
Caribbean as a whole. With a population of 150,000,
mostly small subsistence farmers, the region of 4,900
square kilometers is characterized by rugged terrain and
soils of relatively low agricultural productivity, rural pov-
erty and isolation, and declining agricultural yields be-
cause of soil erosion, increasing population pressures, and
land fragmentation.
The historical changes that have taken place within
the Sierra over the past 30 years have had a pronounced
effect on its landscape and people. Since the early 1940's,
when the Sierra was almost completely covered with a
dense forest canopy, the region has been effectively
stripped of its primary natural resource. Soil erosion and
government restrictions on timber cutting have forced
large numbers of people to migrate to urban centers and
even out of the country.
Increasing population pressures, aside from forcing
"cityward" migration, have brought increasingly steeper
and drier lands into cultivation, further depleting the
natural resource base.
Those involved in planning, particularly the Under
Secretary for Agricultural Planning, Juan Nufiez, and his
staff, recognized early that the problems of the Sierra-
food production, poverty, social well-being, resource
depletion-were multifaceted and required an integrated
approach. It was further realized that achieving the poten-
tial of the region depended upon active involvement of
local people. This meant giving educational institutions an
important role in rural schooling, adult education, farmer
training, local leadership building, and technical and
professional training in fields critically related to food
production and rural development.














The planning group developed a set of social,
economic, technological, and political goals for the Sierra
region:

Improve the quality of life of the region's population as
measured by the following indicators: minimum income
and range of income, nutritional level, employment op-
portunities, community and family unity.
Increase the meaningful participation of local people
through associations and other institutions in planning,
implementation, and evaluation of their own develop-
ment.
Identify the means to facilitate the implementation of
government agrarian reform programs without con-
tradicting the plan's other ultimate goals.
Use Plan Sierra as a model of integrated rural develop-
ment, involving the coordinated efforts of public agen-
cies and private institutions at local, regional, and na-
tional levels.
Manage and protect soils, water, and forest resources.
Contribute to stabilizing the balance of payments.
Involve institutions of higher education in the rural
development process.


For each goal intermediate goals were defined, the
attainment of which would necessitate specific action
projects. The group indicated, for example, that to achieve
the goal of improved quality of life it would first be
necessary to increase the productivity of coffee, as well as
the annual crops of tobacco, corn, peanuts, beans, cassava,
pigeon peas, and sweet potatoes, and to improve grazing
conditions.
Non-agricultural activities in the Sierra are locally
important, although small in scale. The planning group
agreed on several intermediate goals to be reached in
developing these resources:

Broaden the marketing base and increase both produc-
tivity and production efficiencies of manufactured arti-
cles, such as furniture, handicrafts (chiefly woodwork-
ing and the weaving of wicker baskets) and the process-













ing of foods (such as hardtack from bitter cassava, candy
and cheese) and charcoal.
Introduce into manufacturing new types of articles that
can be produced in the Sierra.
Provide small rural producers and processors with better
access to public and private sources of credit, and in-
crease their access to modern production inputs.
Identify other income-generating activities to meet daily
household needs.
Apart from these pursuits directly involving small
producers, mining and tourism schemes have been started
recently.
At year-end, the final proposal for commencing Plan
Sierra was scheduled for presentation to the President in
January 1978. With approval expected and the leadership
already identified, the project was scheduled to be under-
way in March. Negotiations have been proceeding with
donor agencies for the financing of several components
of the project.
As strategies are refined and personnel trained in the
Sierra, and the viability of the approach becomes evident,
it is expected that this model will be considered for the
other four mountainous regions of the Dominican Repub-
lic.

Panama
In 1976 the Government of Panama, recognizing the
importance of research and technology transfer in its
overall agricultural development strategy, created a na-
tional agricultural institute, the Instituto de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias de Panama (IDIAP), to generate technologies
aimed at increasing productivity with special attention to
small and medium-sized farmers. The institute's organiza-
tion and program were designed with the assistance of
consultants provided by IADS with funding from USAID.
The Government of Panama subsequently asked
IADS to provide a specialist to work with IDIAP to help
guide its further development within the proposed














framework. A 1-year contract
between IADS and USAID,
which is providing funding,
was signed in September
1977. At the request of
IDIAP, IADS assigned Mr. Gualaca
J. D. Traywick to work with Santi
the Director General of
IDIAP, Carmen Damaris
Chea, and her staff in prepar-
ing a 5-year development
plan for IDIAP in the areas
of research, technology
transfer, staff development, research facilities, and tech-
nical assistance.
During 1977, Ing. Chea and Mr. Traywick visited
several Central and South American countries to study
national action programs and establish liaison with other
national and international agricultural research institutes.
The first of several consultants to serve during the contract
period, Dr. J. A. Rigney, dean of international programs at
North Carolina State University, spent 2 weeks in Panama
in October.
Agriculture has become crucial to Panama's de-
velopment efforts. Between 1960 and 1970 Panama experi-
enced a period of rapid economic growth, principally
because of increased exports of bananas, petroleum pro-
ducts, shrimp, and sugar. Since 1970, growth has slowed
considerably, and Panama now faces major economic and
social problems, aggravated by a rapidly increasing poptt-
lation and insufficient utilization of its human and natural
resources. A population increase of 36 percent is projected
for the decade 1970-1980; and, according to present trends,
supply deficits of most food crops will continue to grow
unless major efforts are made to increase agricultural
productivity.
Despite poor soils, Panama has natural resources
sufficient to meet most of its own food and agricultural
needs. These resources are a climate suitable for year-


Agricultural research in Panama will
center not only on increasing the
productivity of land already under
cultivation (n), but on conserving the
country's substantial natural resources
as new areas are opened for agriculture.
IDIAP, Panama's new national
agricultural institute, has offices at
Panama and Santiago; its main research
station is located at Gualaca.















IADS Services to Panama:
Project Details

Objectives: To assist the Government
of Panama in organizing an institution
with the capability of planning,
coordinating, and implementing an
effective national agricultural research
and technology transfer program,
particularly for the low-income
producer, and of mobilizing internal
and external resources for this purpose.
Magnitude: The 1-year contract
provides for 16 person-months of direct
labor. Total budget is $117,584.
Basis of Involvement: Contract
between the U.S. Agency for
International Development and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant funds made
available to USAID/Panama.
Jack Dee Traywick, Agricultural
Research Administrator.




















Ing. Carmen Damaris Chea, Director
General of IDIAP, and Ing. Daniel Perez
of IDIAP inspect a maize
demonstration plot with scientists from
CIMMYT.


round crop production, hundreds of rivers, tremendous
potential for inland and estuary fish production, an
adequate amount of cleared land, and commercially valu-
able forest still covering half of the country's land area.
In contrast to many developing countries, Panama
has a land base, population distribution, and economic
situation that makes its concurrent goals of increasing
agricultural output and improving the welfare of its rural
poor complementary. In fact, since more than half of its
inhabitants live in rural areas, Panama may utilize the
"intermediate technology" approach to development, an
approach which places high value on the improvement of
the quality of life-through small-scale economic ac-
tivities, local self-sufficiency, a lifestyle focused on vil-
lages and small towns, and maintenance of a "natural"
ecology-and on employment and the equalization of
income distribution.
Several constraints that might limit the pace of ag-
ricultural production increases, or even undermine the
success of Panama's proposed production systems, have
been identified and are receiving attention. To ensure
maximum effectiveness of the IDIAP program on a na-
tional scale, the institute has determined that it will be
necessary to:

Encourage increased agricultural activity by making in-
vestment in agriculture more attractive to large landhold-
ers and other investors.
Enlarge the supply of well-trained technicians and
"technology packages" to assist small farmers directly.
Develop and implement land-use policies to maximize
the nation's long-run benefits from the resources of the
new areas being opened.
Plan and encourage investment in storage, transporta-
tion, food processing, and other marketing facilities. Few
farmers now have proper grain drying and storage
facilities, and substantial storage losses are incurred from
rodents, insects, and spoilage.
Increase the availability of agricultural credit and help
farmers use it.














Ecuador

Ecuador's economy has changed rapidly since oil
was first produced there in quantity in 1972. Roads,
potable water systems for cities, electricity for rural areas,
oil refineries, and education remain high among the coun-
try's development priorities. The Government of Ecuador
has stated its determination to bring into the economy the
lower-income groups which constitute approximately 60
percent of the country's population. Accordingly, action is
being taken to carry out agrarian and social reforms.
There is evidence that production of some crops in
Ecuador is decreasing, that of a few at an alarming rate.
Wheat production has decreased from 87,000 to 47,000
tons in three successive crops. The reasons for this severe
drop in production are not readily apparent. Sharp in-
creases in the price of fertilizer, farm equipment, and
other inputs have undoubtedly contributed to a reduction
of wheat acreage, and to a decrease in production. Land
tenure, marketing, price policy, and credit for large as well
as small farmers must be further investigated to determine
their importance in relation to production and productiv-
ity.
Work on a national program for integrated rural
development continues. An Inter-Ministerial Agreement
is being prepared which will provide an institutional
framework for rural development projects. In principle it
will provide for:
A Consejo Superior (high-level council) composed of ap-
propriate ministers, which will approve policies,
strategies, programs, and budgets.
A Coordinating Committee to handle routine matters for
the Consejo Superior.
A National Director for the integrated rural development
program who will, in addition to his other duties, act as
secretary of the Coordinating Committee.
Project leaders, named by the Consejo Superior, who will
be given sufficient executive authority, responsibility,
and autonomy of budget to be able to execute their
projects efficiently.


While preparing an institutional
framework for integrated rural
development, Ecuador is proceeding
with two initial regional projects.
Increased rice production is the first
step in development of the Guayas
River basin. In the region around
Cayambe, once a leading
wheat-growing area, farmers and
others are involved in efforts to
determine reasons for the recent severe
drops in both acreage and yields of
wheat.





































Water management is essential to
increasing the productivity of farms in
the Guayas River basin, where there
is prolonged deep flooding during the
wet season. Here, a prototype pump,
designed and fabricated by CIAT, is
being installed at an INIAP experiment
station to facilitate draining during
floods.


A financial mechanism which will be an integral part of,
and consistent with, the institutional system of rural
development.

During 1977, two initial projects of highest priority
were selected by the Ecuadorian government: one in the
Guayas River basin, north of Guayaquil, based on lowland
rice technology; and the other centered around Cayambe,
a major wheat-growing area north of Quito. Even though
the national rural development organization had not been
finalized at planting time, Ecuadorian authorities decided
that, in order not to lose the rice-planting season, IADS
should collaborate with the Ministry of Agriculture and
the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
(INIAP) and proceed with the first steps.
In the meantime, the National Planning Office, the
Ministry of Agriculture, and INIAP personnel are col-
laborating on the project to form the Inter-Ministerial
Agreement. At the request of the government an IADS
representative, Dr. U. J. Grant, was posted to Ecuador in
March 1977; he reports to the head of the National Plan-
ning Office and participates in agricultural and rural
development planning. Detailed plans are being prepared
for the rice and wheat projects, including the personnel,
equipment, and budget required to develop an adequate
program.
The Rice Project. The lower Guayas River basin
produces more than 90 percent of Ecuador's rice and can
easily produce an excess for export if market prices are
attractive and facilities are developed.
INIAP's strong rice-breeding program has collabo-
rated closely with CIAT and IRRI in the development and
release of modern, dwarf, fertilizer-responsive varieties
and technology which have produced more than 5,000
kg/ha in areas with adequate water control and modem
inputs. More than half of the lower Guayas River basin,
however, has little or no water control, and is subject to
prolonged and deep flooding during the rainy season and
a shortage of water during the dry season. In 1977, INIAP
initiated a project for the selection of the varieties best













suited to the existing deep-water conditions and re-
quested that IADS provide a rice specialist to assist in the
design of rice production systems, water control, and rural
development.
At IADS's request, CIAT assigned Mr. Loyd Johnson
to Ecuador from September through December 1977. This
specialist has cooperated with INIAP economists to iden-
tify the present production technology and problems, and
with INIAP plant breeders to initiate a deep-water rice
program, in direct cooperation with the national rice
program specialists and rice farmers under the most dif-
ficult farm conditions. He will continue in Ecuador under
an IADS/INIAP contract during 1978, with funds supplied
by the government.
Potable water is a major problem for the rice farmers.
They obtain water from the rains, flood waters, and drains
when it is available, but for 2 or 3 months during the year,
as the dry season progresses and the local water supply
fails, they must haul water from Guayaquil at a cost of US
$5 to $20 per cubic meter. A pilot low-cost well for a farm
family is being installed in the alluvial soil as an initial
project with a local cooperative.
While progress on other aspects of the integrated
development project is slow but steady, the rice work is
moving and presents an exciting opportunity for a multi-
disciplinary team to function, each specialist within his
own agency, discipline, and area of interest, but with a
cooperative rather than competitive attitude. Rice
technology will be a major factor, but overall development
of the area will require the participation of many
specialists not normally involved in rice production.

The Wheat Project. The Cayambe wheat project
may prove to be more difficult than the rice endeavor.
Wheat acreage in the project area, located in what was
formerly one of the best wheat-producing regions of the
country, has dropped from 25,000 to less than 5,000
hectares in three seasons.
INIAP, in collaboration with CIMMYT, is carrying
out a survey and a series of production trials throughout













the project area to determine the factors associated with
the decrease in wheat area and production. Conversations
with wheat farmers of the area indicate that low prices
relative to costs of production, lack of an adequate market-
ing system, high cost of inputs, machinery, and labor,
and other uncertainties are all contributing factors.

Collaboration with INIAP. INIAP has negotiated a
loan from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) to
strengthen Ecuadorian research and development in ag-
riculture with an emphasis on fruits, vegetables, and
poultry.
Fruits and vegetables account for 30 percent of the
national income received from crops, yet sufficient re-
sources have not previously been available to develop
research programs on these crops. In addition, Ecuador
has had no national program on poultry, although the
poultry industry is developing rapidly now that produc-
tion of basic foodstuffs is increasing.
INIAP has requested that IADS enter into a contract
to furnish the initial leadership necessary to develop the
fruit, vegetable, and poultry programs while Ecuadorians
are being trained. It is anticipated that 10 to 12 specialists
will be needed.

Need for Training. A major component of the
INIAP/IDB loan program provides for the training of
Ecuadorian personnel. Numerous leaders are needed for
Ecuador's agricultural research and development pro-
grams.
There is need to strengthen Ecuador's training and
educational organizations. Graduate education, at least to
the master's level, is urgently needed. U.S. Representative
Paul Findley, co-author of the Title XII, "Famine Preven-
tion and Freedom from Hunger" legislation, visited
Ecuador in August 1977; subsequently authorities of
Ecuador visited Mr. Findley, USAID, and a number of
U.S. land-grant universities to become familiar with the
system of agricultural training, research, and extension in
the United States.














Botswana
In 1976 the Government of Botswana requested IADS
assistance in obtaining a Director of Agriculture Research
to fill a key post which had become vacant. After investi-
gating the situation and considering several alternate ap-
proaches, IADS recommended that Botswana request help
from the Norwegian Agency for International Develop-
ment (NORAD). NORAD agreed to post Dr. Kristian
Oland, a distinguished scientist with considerable experi-
ence in Africa, as Director of Agricultural Research.
Shortly after taking up his duties in May 1977, Dr.
Oland and his staff, with the assistance of Dr. Ralph W.
Cummings, Jr., of IADS, prepared an Incoming Director's
Report. The Botswana research staff reviewed the draft
report and prepared position papers on objectives,
strategies, and programs, including organizational struc-
ture, staff positions, staff development, committee struc-
tures, and physical facilities. These contributions were
integrated into the final report. The report reviews present
agricultural research efforts and suggests directions for
future research activities in relation to the priority needs
of the country.
Agricultural research will play an important role in
meeting the development goals set by the Botswana Na-
tional Development Plan (1976-1981). Despite encourag-
ing progress in mineral exploitation, agriculture is, and
will be into the foreseeable future, the mainstay of Bots-
wana's economy: one-fourth of the gross domestic product
is derived from agriculture; six-sevenths of the population
live in rural areas.
Influenced by uncertain rainfall and by the accessi-
bility of the European meat market, Botswana's agricul-
tural sector has relied on a successful beef production
system, with little exploitation to date of its crop produc-
tion potential. Agricultural research to introduce new crop
varieties, new animal breeds, and improved production
practices, if carried out effectively, can help moderate
annual fluctuations in crop yields and diversify growth as
well as increase the rate of growth in the agricultural
sector.


With improved varieties, farming
techniques, and water management,
Botswana will be able to increase crop
production in the irrigable land (0)
along rivers in the eastern part of the
country and in the Okavango Delta.
Botswana may seek donor financing for
a study in Ngamiland to devise simple
ways of helping the rural poor improve
their agricultural productivity.














II Sorghum II Maize
(thousands of tons)
100


D -

50




1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
Wide annual fluctuations in crop yields
in Botswana are associated with highly
variable rainfall. Improved technology
will make yields more reliable.


One of the principal recommendations in the report
is to strengthen research on crops. The more than 100,000
hectares of irrigable land along rivers in the eastern part of
the country, mainly unused, and the undeveloped
Okavango Delta, the largest inland delta in the world, are
indicative of rather generous resources for crop produc-
tion development.
The report also recommends intensified study of
techniques for dryland farming, in an effort to increase
yields and to make them more reliable by reducing the
large annual fluctuations. The cereals selected for attention
are sorghum, maize, millet, and wheat. Cash crops re-
search will give priority to groundnuts, cowpeas,
sunflower, beans, and soybeans. Agricultural systems
research will embrace crop rotations, soil management
(with emphasis on soil moisture conservation), and tool
and implement studies. Research on agronomic practices
will include time of planting, weeding, fertilizer use, and
plant spacing.
Within a period of 2 years, research is expected to
produce recommendations on minimum practices for the
major dryland crops. Thereafter, an increased number of
the research staff will be deployed on trials in farmers'
fields to validate and demonstrate under prevailing farm-
ing conditions the efficiency of the recommended
technologies.
Particular attention will be given to pulses and
oilseeds as cash crops. The water requirement of these
crops can be met easily in most years; they are appropriate
in crop rotations, and contribute to long-term soil fertility.
The number of people who could benefit from increased
cash crops research, many of them in the disadvantaged
part of the population, is considerable. Botswana proposes
to seek donor financing for a cash crops research program.
There is sustained growth in animal production, and
the strong animal science research program is, under
favorable circumstances, adequate to support continued
growth and development. As drought could disrupt the
present growth trend, a sustained research effort over a
number of years, to seek ways of dealing with this
problem, is being recommended.













Animal research has been focused until now on beef
production. Yet Botswana's undeveloped smallstock re-
source (goats, sheep) is considerable, and deserves re-
search attention. A large part of the population, including
many of the rural poor, own sheep and goats. The high
fertility of smallstock as compared to cattle is significant
in respect to productivity per land area unit and capital
invested. A smallstock development project is presently
being formulated.
More research must be aimed at ways to benefit
Botswana's rural poor, who are unlikely to be served
directly by progress following ongoing agricultural re-
search. Botswana may seek donor financing for a program
in Ngamiland aimed at making agricultural production
technology available to the poor. Such a program would
comprise studies of present farming, food supplies, and
resources available for change. It would also study new
technology for improved water control to permit the
growing of a number of summer as well as winter crops.

Sudan
Slightly less than 2.6 million square kilometers in
area, Sudan is the largest country on the African conti-
nent. It is overwhelmingly dependent on its agriculture:
farm products account for about 98 percent of the country's
foreign exchange, chiefly from cotton, sesame,
groundnuts, gum arabic, and livestock. Imported agricul-
tural products-sugar, wheat, rice, tea, coffee, and a
number of other foods-presently account for a substantial
part of foreign expenditures.
More than 85 percent of the population live in rural
areas and participate directly in agriculture. The popula-
tion of more than 16 million are of diverse ethnic groups
and more than 100 languages are spoken.
Sudan is one of the few countries in the world with
vast potential for horizontal expansion in crop
production-exploiting additional land resources. Only 8
percent of the cultivable land is now used.
The Government of Sudan in its development pro-
gram is giving priority to the agricultural sector. During















Sudan Study Team

Government of Sudan
Hussein Idris, Co-Chairman
Former Minister of State for
Agriculture, Food, and Natural
Resources
Mohamed Osman Mohamed Salih
Director General, Agricultural
Research Corporation
Ali El Khidir Kambal
Professor of Plant Breeding and Head
of Department of Agricultural.
Botany, University of Khartoum
Sayed Mohamed Osman El Sammani
Jonglei Development Projects
IADS
Albert H. Moseman, Co-Chairman
Research Administrator and IADS
Representative
Kenneth L. Turk
Professor Emeritus of Animal Science
and former Director of International
Agriculture, Cornell University
Bill C. Wright
Soil Scientist and Research Programs
Coordinator, The Rockefeller
Foundation
Loyd Johnson
Agricultural Engineer and
Experiment Station Development
Specialist, The Rockefeller
Foundation
Thomas J. Army
Soil and Water Specialist and
Research Director, Special Consultant
to IADS


During 1977 a joint Sudan/IADS study team
prepared a plan for further development of
Sudan's Agricultural Research Corporation
(ARC), integrating earlier reports and taking
into account the goals of Sudan's Six-Year
Plan.


the next Six-Year Plan emphasis will be placed on achiev-
ing self-sufficiency in wheat, producing exportable
surpluses of sugar, and increasing exports of sorghum,
groundnuts, and sesame.
In 1975, the Minister of State for Agriculture, Food,
and Natural Resources requested that the Ford Foundation
study selected crop and discipline capabilities and suggest
ways to strengthen Sudan's agricultural research and re-
lated services. Twenty consultants and specialists pre-
pared reports on ten basic food crops, seven disciplines,
and four administrative services.
Because of the large and diverse agricultural scope
and potential of Sudan, it was felt that prospective re-
search developments would interest many national and
international institutions. A summary of the consultants'
reports was presented in an international workshop at
Khartoum in November 1976. Following the workshop,
Sudanese officials and the Ford Foundation agreed that
the reports of the study teams and the information pro-
vided through the workshop should be integrated into a
major plan for the further development of Sudan's main
agricultural research agency, the Agricultural Research
Corporation (ARC). IADS was invited to undertake this
task, with continued financial support by the Ford Foun-
dation.
Preliminary observations and discussions in January
and February 1977 led to the formation of a joint team of
IADS and senior Sudanese agricultural research
specialists. The team carried out its assignment in July and
August 1977 with logistical support from the government,
the Ford Foundation, and local agencies. It visited major
production areas (excluding the Western region which is
being reviewed by the World Bank), and met with local
agriculturists, farmer representatives, and public officials
to determine local agricultural needs and potentials and
the research requirements for development.
Sudan's goals and objectives for agriculture, as pre-
sented in its Six-Year Plan, were taken into account. While
the plan does not specify priorities, it defines develop-
ment goals, objectives, and production targets, and de-
scribes the types of development schemes contemplated in













different farming areas. Some of those schemes involve
projects for which levels of technology in Sudan are not yet
adequate. The joint team gave special attention to steps
that would ensure maximum effective use of research
resources presently available, and would build the
longer-term capabilities needed for a continuous flow of
development-oriented technology.
IADS coordinated with the World Bank to ensure
that the team's recommendations and the proposal for a
Western Savannah Agricultural Research Project, to be
financed in part by the bank, would be in harmony.
In its final report, presented to the Minister of
Agriculture in November 1977, the joint team recom-
mended:
Priority attention to the reorganization of ARC and
improvement of its operation and management. As the na-
tional corporation established to produce improved
technology for Sudan's agricultural development, ARC
must provide improved materials and practices for the
varied farming systems and ecosystems throughout the
country. This requires the ARC leadership and research
staff, from the director general through the coordinating
leaders of the national inter-disciplinary research teams,
to maintain a national perspective and focus.
A coordinated multi-disciplinary team approach to ag-
ricultural research in Sudan, to facilitate the development
and application of improved technology throughout the
country, and to serve all types of farming regions. The
Union of Agricultural Research Scientists of ARC recog-
nizes the shortcomings of a discipline-oriented approach
to research for accelerating agricultural development, and
has urged that ARC research be reorganized with a coor-
dinated multi-disciplinary approach.
Development of a research station network, to serve
present farming areas as well as new schemes to be set up
under the Six-Year Plan. Sudan has a long and creditable
history of research designed to guide agricultural de-
velopment. The existing locations are important for the
further intensification and vertical development of present
schemes, but agricultural development to date, for which
research stations were established, has been concentrated


The plan recommends the expansion of
Sudan's well-established research
station network, now concentrated in
the eastern riverine areas, to produce
improved technology for farming
systems and ecosystems throughout the
country. The ARC headquarters would
be moved to Um Dom, near the capitol,
to facilitate a new, national focus.















Sorghum Wheat Sesame Ground Sugar-
nuts cane
Area in Output
Production (thousands of
(thousands of metric tons)
feddans)000
-- 15,000------


L' i
1982
+235%


+ 48%


Sudan is aiming at self-sufficiency in
wheat and exportable surpluses of
sugar (which it now imports) and other
crops by 1982. The expected higher
yields will make total output increase
faster than area planted.


Iu/


in the riverine areas. The lack of research facilities is a
principal limiting factor in the further development of
agriculture in the Western Savannah, the Southern Re-
gion, the rainfed mechanized farming areas, and other
selected locations-such as the Northern Region-where
new schemes are to be undertaken.
The existing research stations provide a base for
developing an effective national network to serve the
needs of agricultural development throughout Sudan.
Special research stations, for selected commodity or prob-
lem areas, would complete the national network.
Priority attention to manpower development and im-
proved personnel management, for professional and techni-
cal staff. The national agricultural research system of
Sudan will require a substantial increase in the number of
scientists, from approximately 360 at present to about 700
by 1990. The number of technicians should in this time
increase from the present 460 to about 1,500.
Attention to economic and social factors, which will
become more important as the pace of agricultural de-
velopment and change is accelerated.
Improvements in the transfer of technology, to ensure
more rapid application of research results to farmers'
fields. The extension services in Sudan are decentralized,
and primary responsibility for funding, staffing, and
operations is vested in the provinces.
Cooperation with external agencies. Such cooperation
is already extensive, and the resources for cooperative
technical assistance have increased substantially in the
past decade.
Continuing, long-term attention to further develop-
ment of the national research system, with substantial
flexibility to adapt to changing priorities in national
development.


Bangladesh
Modernization of agriculture is a dominant factor in
the economic and social development of Bangladesh.
About 95 percent of the population of some 82 million live
in rural villages, and it is estimated that 80 percent of the













total population are directly engaged in agriculture. Popu-
lation density is about 500 people per square kilometer;
the annual growth rate is at least 3 percent. Opportunities
to develop new lands are limited, and the 10 million
hectares of cultivable land now available must be made
more productive if the per caput annual income of about
$70 is to be improved.
The goals of the government include attaining self-
sufficiency in food grains and creating more employment
for rural people. Consequently, the agricultural sector is
commanding priority attention, beginning with research.
In November 1977, IADS signed an agreement with
the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh to
provide technical support for the Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute (BARI) and the Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Council (BARC). Under the agreement, IADS
will provide the services of a research planning advisor
and project supervisor, four senior specialists, and three
junior specialists. The project is funded by a USAID grant.
In the Bangladesh agricultural research system, there
are marked contrasts in research capabilities for different
agricultural commodities, and there is perhaps a greater
dispersal of agricultural research activities than in many
other developing nations. During the last 2 decades a
number of new independent research institutes dealing
with rice, sugarcane, jute, tea, and other crops have been
established with operational flexibility to deal with vari-
ous aspects of agriculture. Rice is the only food crop which
has received adequate attention, and the Bangladesh Rice
Research Institute, with technical assistance from IRRI,
has become a strong center for rice research.
While the new institutes were granted considerable
operational autonomy and financial support, the Directo-
rate of Agricultural Research and its research units
functioned strictly in accord with the civil service rules of
the government, with much less operational freedom, and
experienced periods of financial constraints.
In 1976 the Government of Bangladesh conferred an
autonomous status to the Directorate of Agricultural Re-
search, which has now been reorganized as BARI. BARI
has the responsibility for research on food crops (except


Bangladesh, with few opportunities to
develop new land for agriculture, must
improve the productivity of the land
already under cultivation. The
country's flat alluvial terrain, extensive
river system, and heavy rainfall have
made it traditionally dependent on rice
production. But wheat and other crops
can be grown successfully during the
winter months. A new physical plant
for the Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute, which is responsible
for research on food crops other than
rice, will be completed at Joydevpur in
1978.























SL



Dr. Kazi M. Badruddoza, director of
BARI, and Dr. M. Amirul Islam,
executive vice-chairman of BARC,
discuss the Bangladesh project
agreement with Dr. D. S. Athwal, IADS
program officer for Asia.




IADS Services to Bangladesh:
Project Details
Objectives: To establish a well-
supported and staffed agricultural re-
search system for non-rice crops and
cropping systems through strengthen-
ing BARI and assisting in the growth of
BARC.
Magnitude: The $1,684,000 contract
provides for 144 man-months of
specialists (in residence, and as consul-
tants) plus 108 man-months of junior
specialists through a subcontract with a
voluntary organization. The time span
is 3 years, beginning with November
1977.
Basis of Involvement: Contract be-
tween the People's Republic of
Bangladesh and IADS.
Funds: USAID grant to Bangladesh.


rice), including vegetables, oilseeds, and
horticultural crops. It also has a teaching
component conferring bachelor's and mas-
ter's degrees on 80-100 persons every year.
Using financial support from USAID and its
own resources, the Bangladesh government
is building a new physical plant for BARI
to be completed in 1978.
Bangladesh has traditionally strength-
ened individual research institutes at dif-
ferent times. While this was probably the
most feasible approach in the past, partic-
ularly when financial resources were scarce,
these institutes are now as a result under various minis-
tries. The government is aware of the need to coordinate
agricultural research, and following recommendations of a
number of advisory teams and committees, it estab-
lished BARC in 1973 to promote, coordinate, and eval-
uate agricultural research.
The Bangladesh project in which IADS is cooperat-
ing will assist with the establishment of multi-disciplinary
research programs (on wheat, legumes, oilseeds, vegeta-
bles, and cropping systems) to accelerate the development
of technology adapted to local conditions. While the
central thrust of the project will be to strengthen BARI, it
will also support and assist in the growth of BARC,
particularly in the development of capability for coordina-
tion of research at the national level, and the establish-
ment of a service unit for logistical support to expatriate
scientists.
The initial project calls for USAID support for 3
years, although it is recognized that a longer time span
will be needed to adequately strengthen and integrate
Bangladesh's national research system. It is anticipated
that additional funding will be available, from USAID and
possibly other donors, beyond the initial period.













Honduras


Agriculture, the principal sector of the
economy of Honduras, accounts for about
37 percent of the gross domestic product
and some 65 percent of the nation's ex-
ports. Much of the country's terrain is
mountainous, and only about one-third of
the land area is suitable for agriculture.
There is considerable opportunity to ex-
pand agricultural production, however, as
only about 30 percent of the potentially
arable land is cropped. Further, average
yields on currently cropped land are low and could be
increased substantially with improved technology.
Honduras has been classified as a "food-priority
country," indicating actual and anticipated grain deficits
with possible constraints on the financing of future re-
quirements. The Honduras "Food Investment Strategy:
1978-1987," considered by the Consultative Group on
Food Production and Investment in September 1977, in-
volves major redirection of agricultural policy towards
food production and improved nutrition of the rural and
urban poor.
In response to an invitation by the Minister of
Natural Resources, Rafael Leonardo Callejas, IADS partic-
ipated in a study designed to recommend steps for
strengthening the national agricultural research organiza-
tion, Programa Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
(PNIA). The study group, made up of members of PNIA
and specialists provided by IADS, made the review and
completed a draft report in October and December 1977.
The study took into account the role of agriculture in
the Honduran economy and, in particular, national plan-
ning for food production. The principal targets are the
small and medium-sized farmers, who produce most of
the country's basic food crops and who most need im-


Potentials for increasing crop
production in Honduras are high. Only
about 30 percent of the arable land (n)
is now cropped, and low average yields
can be substantially raised by new
technology. PNIA will use its existing
experiment station network to conduct
commodity and problem-related
research.















Honduras Study Group

PNIA, Honduras
Antonio Ram6n Sila, agronomy
Mario Contreras, plant pathology
Franklin Rosales, plant breeding
Juan Jos6 Osorto, plant breeding
Frank Peairs, entomology
Daniel Gait, agricultural economics
Inter-American Development Bank
Alvaro Diaz, forage improvement
The Rockefeller Foundation
Robert K. Waugh (Guatemala), research
administration, animal science
Peter E. Hildebrand (Guatemala),
agricultural economics
Jerome H. Maner (Brazil), animal science
IADS
Guy B. Baird, agronomy, research
administration
Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., agricultural
economics

The multidisciplinary Honduras study
group prepared a report recommending
steps to strengthen PNIA, Honduras's
national agricultural research
organization.

Administration
Farming Systems
Animal Sciences
Crops 66
60 -
54

40
-


-_ ___ --- -



1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982

Research staff additions recommended
by the report represent a 90 percent
increase in the next 5 years.


proved technology and increased income. It was agreed
further that research should continue to emphasize the
basic food crops (maize, sorghum, beans), with increasing
attention to vegetables, oilseed crops, and livestock.
During the next 5 to 10 years, most of the increased
production of basic food crops is expected to come from
the 30 percent of cultivable land currently being cropped.
Thus research in the near future will focus primarily on
development of technology to increase production on land
now under cultivation. Eventually, the sizeable reserve of
largely unexploited arable land will play an increasingly
important role in the agricultural economy of the country,
and will call for greater research attention.
The proposed reorganization and reorientation of
PNIA focuses on multi-disciplinary research, at the farm
level and with farmer participation. This research would
be related to commodity or problem-oriented research
organized on a regional or national basis, making use of
the existing network of six experiment stations. This
recommended approach to agricultural research in Hon-
duras is similar to that used by the agricultural technology
institute (ICTA) of Guatemala.
The success of PNIA will depend on the effectiveness
of its linkages with research and technology transfer
institutions which have similar goals. The report stresses
cooperation with the national agricultural extension pro-
gram, and recommends inclusion of extension personnel
in the farm-level inter-disciplinary research teams. Rec-
ommendations are also made to strengthen the existing
ties with such international and regional research centers
as CIAT, CIP, CIMMYT, and CATIE (the Centro Ag-
rondmico Tropical de Investigacidn y Enserianza, located in
Costa Rica).
Support for the proposed program over the next 5
years would involve a substantial increase in the locally
funded budget, as well as the budget derived from exter-
nal sources. Part of the latter will be provided by a loan
from the World Bank to be administered by IICA, the
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas. There is also a
prospect of a loan from IDB in support of research, but
additional external support will be needed.













IDENTIFICATION AND
DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERS
One of the most critical issues in mounting and
directing fast-paced agricultural development programs is
finding experienced leadership to manage them. This is a
staffing problem for developing countries and technical
assistance agencies trying to help them.
Given the central role of agricultural research in most
countries' development plans, there is a critical need to
improve national institutional structures for agriculture
and, within them, to organize and manage on a national
scale professional teams or task forces to improve com-
modities and production practices.
There are few persons available with experience in
establishing or operating national research systems for
agriculture in the broadest sense, including crops, live-
stock, soil and water management, crop production, and
economic and social factors. Similarly, there are few per-
sons available who have the experience of putting to-
gether and providing coordinating leadership for national
multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional agricultural re-
search programs for improving the production of major
commodities or addressing limiting factors in agriculture.
Regardless of the agencies involved, the problem
remains essentially the same. Most developing nations
have some resources and capabilities for agricultural re-
search, but in most cases it becomes necessary to form a
more effective national organization. In addition to the
crop, animal, and other technological problems to be
resolved, there are those associated with creating a na-
tional research network, developing and training man-
power, providing technical support services, establishing
linkages with extension and other agencies for technol-
ogy transfer, maintaining relationships with other agen-
cies, both public and private, and interacting with exter-
nal assistance agencies.
IADS has given this problem high priority and has
addressed it in several ways. It is trying to identify,
worldwide, individuals with such experience and to in-
corporate information about them into its roster of de-


Developing countries need
qualified personnel to help
manage agricultural research and
development programs.
Ultimately, national institutions
will provide such personnel. In the
meantime, countries can build
training for national personnel
into their programs, arrange for
study abroad, and when
necessary, obtain the services of
expatriate personnel.













velopment specialists. Through discussions and corres-
pondence, staff members have continued to focus atten-
tion on this issue. More recently, IADS has been cooperat-
ing with USAID, the U.S. universities (through the Board
for International Food and Agricultural Development), the
World Bank, and other organizations in efforts to charac-
terize the nature of these positions, to identify potential
sources of candidates, and to develop methods whereby
new candidates might learn from those who have had such
experience.
During the year IADS also concerned itself with
expansion of its personnel roster, opportunities for leaders
to consider development strategy alternatives, and, in
particular, with advanced-level training of young profes-
sionals from the developing countries.
Personnel Roster. IADS continued to invite ag-
ricultural and development specialists throughout the
world to participate in its roster of personnel interested
in work, on a short- or long-term basis, in technical assis-
tance.
IADS established the roster in 1976 as a service to
individuals, developing countries, technical cooperation
organizations, donor agencies, and lending institutions. A
resume and specific information-field of specialization,
level of experience, countries in which worked, languages
spoken-are being collected for each individual, and the
data incorporated into a system for rapid screening and
retrieval.
While the roster is open to anyone wishing to file
credentials and is available to any agency seeking person-
nel, IADS has taken deliberate steps to identify and
register experienced individuals, particularly nationals of
developing countries and professionals who are about to
retire and wish to continue using their skills and experi-
ence.
Airlie House Workshop. Some 70 persons-
agricultural scientists, economists, sociologists, develop-
ment specialists, and others-accepted the invitation of
IADS to participate in a June 1977 workshop at Airlie
House, Virginia, on strategies for rapid agricultural
growth.













Participants were told: "The purpose of IADS is to
help countries that may request it to achieve rapid agricul-
tural growth in the next few years. The purpose of this
workshop is to see what progress we can make towards a
consensus as to the best strategies to be employed to that
end."
Draft chapters of the forthcoming book on acceler-
ated agricultural development (see Development-Oriented
Literature, page 67) were made available as background
papers to stimulate and focus discussion in individual
workshop sessions. In each session, the participants re-
lated their own experiences on the particular subject and
indicated their extent of agreement with the positions set
forth in the background papers. Participants heard first-
hand reports of agricultural commodity programs and
defined-area campaigns in Mexico, the Philippines,
Kenya, Turkey, Korea, Tunisia, India, Thailand, Colom-
bia, Ecuador, Sri Lanka, Brazil, the Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Nepal, and Indonesia.
The moderator of the conference was Dr. Paul A.
Miller, a distinguished scientist and administrator who
currently is president of the Rochester Institute of
Technology. He was assisted by Dr. Milo Cox, professor at
the University of Arizona, and Dr. Omer Kelley, private
consultant. Both of these agricultural scientists had retired
recently after years of experience in technical assistance.
In the workshop, individuals with widely different
education, orientation, and experience by exchanging
views, found a common ground on which they might
cooperate to further agricultural development. Several
discussions reflected the changing scene in country de-
velopment, the growing demands for expertise and ex-
perience in management, and the attendant implications
for expatriate personnel. Participants pointed out that
many local people have become qualified to work on their
own problems, and efforts are beyond the pilot stage.
Activities now must be built into the regular program
fabric.
In a similar vein, other participants cautioned about
advocating reorganization, in that each reorganization
stimulates others. Moreover, reorganization is no pana-
cea; a parallel task is how to make each organization func-


f.
'':., I

a

Tile pool of ex.pcrieniced personnel
availbleAI to dClT'zeopzn71 Colilty'IeR
Canl Ile eXIP~d'a~d 1b.1 tleul'It'


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A report on the TARDA Workshop,
including a description of the Cornell
course, a list of sources of case studies,
and a bibliography of reference
materials identified by participants, is
available from IADS or Cornell
University (Program in International
Agriculture, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, Ithaca,
New York).


tion. They suggested that more attention be given to insti-
tution-building as well as to the need for linkages among
local agencies.
A major contribution of the workshop was the partic-
ipants' strong emphasis on synchronized and reoriented
government services as the basic component of an agricul-
tural development strategy.
The TARDA Workshop. Developing-country au-
thorities often meet their need for persons to manage
agricultural development programs and related agricul-
tural institutions by assigning such responsibilities to
their most highly trained professional personnel, young
scientists who are recent graduates of advanced-degree
programs in foreign universities.
This practice creates at least two problems: it diverts
the scientists' attention and energies away from research,
and it casts them in administrative roles for which they
have had little or no preparation.
Given the prospect that developing countries of
necessity are likely to continue this practice for some time,
IADS joined others in 1977 to explore ways in which
academic institutions might help young scientists prepare
themselves for such assignments. In March 1977, some 20
persons from 13 institutions participated in a Cornell
University workshop on Teaching Agricultural and Rural
Development Administration. The event was organized
and sponsored by the university, the Agricultural De-
velopment Council, and IADS.
The workshop recognized that graduate students in
agricultural sciences rarely are aware of the need, while
still enrolled, to develop a repertoire of administrative
skills and sensitivities. Participants agreed on the value of
having students become familiar with the special charac-
teristics of administrative situations which relate to ag-
ricultural and rural development, and of students' being
better prepared to accept managerial responsibilities.
Participants agreed on four sets of goals to be
achieved in courses for such students: awareness of or-
ganizational structures and task environments; sensitivity
to problems associated with technical and administrative
decision-making, especially under conditions of ambiva-













lence, uncertainty, and rapid change; familiarity with
rural urban biases and an understanding of the realities of
agriculture and rural life; and exposure to an array of
communication methods and leadership skills.
Two broad categories of training formats possible in
a university context were considered: an "add-on" format
and a specialized curriculum. The first format includes
most of the administrative training currently available.
The second ranges from creation of a degree program in
agricultural and rural development administration to the
systematic integration of such development concerns into
a student's dissertation research. The format may vary de-
pending on student needs, institutional structures and
resources, and course complementarity.
Discussions on instructional content concentrated on
a course in development administration originally offered
by Cornell in 1976. The group recommended that the
teachers:
Broaden the focus from agricultural to rural development.
Emphasize the difficulties of making decisions under
time and information constraints.
Stress methods for learning about rural situations.
This last suggestion reflected the observations of several
participants that administrators tend to become detached
from farmers, depend upon questionable survey data, and
need more encouragement and incentive to talk directly
with farmers.
Discussions identified many current teaching mate-
rials and approaches. Of all the teaching methods and
materials mentioned, case studies were most highly rec-
ommended. This stimulated further consideration of types
of cases and how to use them.
Program-Related Training. One of the important
but informal criteria IADS uses in deciding whether to
become involved in a cooperative program with a country
is the opportunities the contractual arrangement provides
for training national scientists and specialists. Most of the
training is carried out within the country on an in-service
basis, and some in research and production-oriented
courses or internships at international centers.


I I II I g II I 1 7 ; 1 7 Y I I I 1~'1 t i cll 11 "117
i l it' Zi'c oiiaigl'coi'PIt till liY lj!

oil~lltis i'l'1~111' 111~1














Most programs provided for enrollment of a few
individuals in academic programs leading to master's or
doctoral degrees. Logistical and follow-up arrangements
for the academic training are provided by the Fellowship
Office of The Rockefeller Foundation in cooperation with
IADS.
During 1977, the first year in which IADS has been
involved in country programs, the following individuals
from Nepal and Indonesia were enrolled at the univer-
sities indicated:

Nepal
University Field Degree
Anggoro Hadi Permadi Minnesota Plant Breeding Ph.D.
S. Budiman Tirtawidjaja Ohio State Chem. Engineering Ph.D.
Abdul Madjid Michigan State Horticulture Ph.D.
Sudarwohadi Sastrosiswojo Minnesota Plant Pathology Ph.D.
Widjaja W. Hadisoeganda Minnesota Plant Pathology Ph.D.
Winarno Minnesota Horticulture Ph.D.
Indonesia
Rajman Chaudhary Tuskegee Institute Plant/Soil Science M.S.
Ganesh Kuman California (Davis) Entomology M.S.
Thaneshwar Pokhrel New Mexico State Agronomy M.S.




DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED LITERATURE

Developing nations have too few experienced ag-
ricultural leaders. Many persons who determine agricul-
tural policy or manage agricultural programs know little
about the crops and agricultural production and marketing
systems with which they are dealing. Many of them are
eager to be better informed. Written information available
about crops, animals, and other agricultural production
factors, however, is poorly suited for the non-experts-
doctors, lawyers, businessmen, military officers, profes-
sional administrators-who are often responsible for ag-
ricultural programs. Even leaders with scientific training
have difficulty in finding up-to-date, credible, and
quickly absorbable information outside their area of ex-
pertise.
The existing agricultural literature does not seem to
serve leaders well for several reasons. Much of it is written













in academic language by specialists and for specialists. It
is fragmented: a comprehensive picture cannot be ob-
tained without looking at many narrow articles in numer-
ous publications. Much of it is relevant to temperate
regions rather than to the tropical world where most
developing countries lie.
IADS has attempted to stimulate the production of
publications on subjects relevant to agricultural develop-
ment which will be comprehensive, credible, and easily
read. Such books or reports would help developing-
country officials organize agricultural development, and
they would point out additional sources of information
and technical help.
In 1976 IADS initiated work on several manuscripts
to demonstrate the range and types of publications it
believes would be useful for persons (in governments or
international agencies) who plan or administer agricul-
tural programs of any type at the national, regional, or
local level. Such publications, it was believed, would in
addition be useful to any agricultural worker who needs
broad information outside his own specialty and to
teachers and students in courses related to agricultural
commodities produced in developing countries.
Three manuscripts neared completion during 1977:

To Feed This World: The Challenge, the Strategy, writ-
ten by Dr. Sterling Wortman and Dr. Ralph W. Cum-
mings, Jr., of the IADS staff, with the help and coopera-
tion of many world authorities, is aimed at agriculturists,
planners, policymakers, and politicians who are con-
cerned about the ability of developing nations to feed their
people. The book reviews the changes that have taken
place, particularly since 1960, in the understanding of the
scientific basis of agriculture in the developing world, in
the organization of research and programs to galvanize a
stagnant agriculture, and in international, financial, and
scientific assistance for agriculture. Drawing on recent
lessons, the book describes the tools nations can use to
accelerate agricultural growth and proposes a strategy for
using those tools in concert. During 1977, the final chap-
ters were written and sent to reviewers for comment.


Development-oriented literature
can provide administrators and
policymakers, many of whom are
not agriculturalists, with concise,
authoritative, up-to-date, and
easily read information about
agricultural commodities and
production factors.













The final draft of a book on seed programs was
completed at the end of the year. Inadequate production
and distribution of crop seeds are often the downfall of
schemes to bring better technology to farmers. The book is
for administrators and managers who are concerned with
seed production and distribution but who are not neces-
sarily seed specialists themselves. It explains the organiza-
tional procedures and technical considerations appropri-
ate to seed programs in nations with limited manpower
and funds. The book was written by Mr. Johnson E.
Douglas in collaboration with several international au-
thorities in seeds and related matters. Mr. Douglas, a seed
specialist with long experience in North Africa and India,
now works with CIAT.
Modern rice farming and how nations in the de-
veloping world can promote it are discussed in a manu-
script written by Dr. Robert F. Chandler, Jr., director
emeritus of IRRI. The book examines the scientific ad-
vances that have taken place in tropical rice and explains
their implications for nations that are organizing to help
farmers grow rice more productively. IRRI and IADS will
be co-publishers.
Two other volumes are in preparation. One on
multiple cropping is being drafted. The second, on
potatoes in developing regions, has been outlined and CIP
has agreed to act as co-publisher. Funds are being sought
to underwrite the book.
Several shorter publications are in press:
Agricultural Assistance Sources describes the activities
and organization of 20 bilateral, multilateral, and private
organizations that are interested in tropical and subtropi-
cal agriculture. It includes information on the countries in
which each organization works, the procedures it follows
for identifying and funding programs, the range of techni-
cal agricultural expertise in the organization, and key
addresses.
Natural Rubber: Organizations and Research in Produc-
ing Countries examines current rubber research in In-
donesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Nigeria,
Ivory Coast, Liberia, Trinidad, and Brazil. It explains the
research structure, describes major areas of research and
identifies leading scientists.













Agricultural Development Indicators is a statistical
handbook which provides 26 indicators related to agricul-
tural development for each of 140 low-income nations and
geopolitical entities. The data permits quick comparison
of these countries' agricultural development status and
potential.


LIAISON AND INTERCHANGE
Participation of IADS staff members in a variety of
activities continued the process, initiated in 1976, to gain
understanding of the structure, capabilities, activities,
and interests of donor, funding, and technical cooperation
agencies, as well as the problems and potentials of the
developing countries.
Staff members met informally with agency and coun-
try personnel and participated in several international
conferences. IADS provided logistical support for a num-
ber of activities involving agricultural scientists and ad-
ministrators of the developing countries.
IADS entered into publication exchanges with a
number of organizations, and continued its efforts to gain
insight into and information about the work of non-
governmental organizations and the private sector.


Attention to National Systems
Donor and technical assistance agencies have
stressed the importance of national agricultural research
and development systems for a number of years. During
the last decade, however, they have been mainly con-
cerned with establishing and funding the network of
international agricultural research centers.
More recently, in recognition of the factors cited
below, most of these agencies began (some as early as
1973) to seek more effective, efficient means of helping or
supporting national agricultural development efforts. Dur-
ing 1977 this topic became a central issue on the agenda of
many conferences and IADS was invited to participate in a
number of these. Representatives of developing countries
and the technical assistance community had opportunity
to review IADS's initial efforts in relation to the range of


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program possibilities to support national activities and to
consider how such services might be institutionalized and
supported on an international basis.
The concerns evidenced in these conferences repre-
sented a growing recognition among relevant parties of at
least the following points:
Agricultural development is basic to general economic
advance; hence agricultural progress must be accelerated.
National governments wish to reduce their dependence
on external supplies of basic food commodities for rea-
sons of national security.
Concern about rural unrest creates a desire to promote
rural prosperity and employment.
Many of the factors limiting agricultural production and
productivity have a national uniqueness, are frequently
location specific because of their biological nature, and
usually involve social, economic, or political issues. As a
consequence, national institutions increasingly realize
that it is necessary to develop or adapt solutions appro-
priate to the physical and social environment of each
locality.
National institutions are trying to increase their capacity
to take full advantage of agricultural technology being
developed by the international and other centers, as
well as by research organizations and industries within
their countries. National governments want to meet
today's needs, but, more importantly, to be able to cope
effectively with production and food problems of the
future; they want to strengthen their own institutions.
Multi- and bilateral donors and technical cooperation
agencies encounter problems in their efforts to assist or
give support to national development efforts. Issues
related to concentration, synchronization, and indepen-
dence of actions frequently frustrate both donors and
recipients of aid.

Assistance-community discussions of national sys-
tems culminated in September 1977 in the establishment
by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR), itself the result of earlier interaction of
concerned members of the technical cooperation commu-
nity, of a task force to explore ways to help strengthen the














national agricultural research capacities of developing
countries. The task force, made up of 14 individuals with a
wide range of relevant experience and interests, has been
directed to submit its report to the CGIAR by August 1978.
Its specific assignment is "(a) to consider the need for and
desirability of providing additional external assistance to
strengthen national agricultural research in developing
countries and the potential demand for such assistance on
the part of the developing countries; (b) to consider
alternative means for accomplishing this purpose; and (c)
if the task force concludes that some new initiative by the
CGIAR to strengthen national agricultural research
capacities is desirable, to prepare a specific action pro-
posal for the creation of an international service or other
appropriate entity for consideration by the CGIAR."
While the CGIAR and its component members had
discussed earlier how additional efforts to help strengthen
national agricultural research systems might be mobilized,
the steps directly leading to the establishment of the task
force began in November 1976 at the Bellagio Study and
Conference Center in Italy. At the invitation of The
Rockefeller Foundation, staff members of 14 donor and
technical assistance agencies met to discuss new ap-
proaches to accelerated agricultural development, and the
possible roles for IADS or other agencies in this process.
Background statements on possible activities to sup-
port national programs were discussed. Participants
quickly agreed on the general need for the range of
activities outlined. But the group evidenced a central
concern about finding ways to provide a reasonable base
of financial support, not only to underwrite such ac-
tivities, but to preserve the flexible, nonpolitical, profes-
sional characteristics upon which it felt the effectiveness
of an implementing organization would depend.
Discussions made clear that the ability of IADS or
any similar entity to receive direct financial support from
governments would depend upon its acquiring the status
of an international organization. The group recommended
a full investigation of the range of possible means by
which such an organization might receive core support
from multilateral, bilateral, and other donors. Such sup-


The CGIAR Task Force
Richard Demuth, Chairman
William K. Agble, Ghana
Kazi M. Badruddoza, Bangladesh
David Bell, Ford Foundation
Almiro Blumenschein, TAC
Nyle Brady, IRRI
Guy Camus, TAC
Robert Cunningham, United Kingdom
William Gamble, IITA
Hussein Idris, Sudan
Klaus Lampe, Federal Republic of
Germany
Eduardo Alvarez Luna, Mexico
Floyd Williams, United States
Dato' Mohamed Tamin bin Yeop,
Malaysia













port would complement funds accruing to the organiza-
tion from contracts and special projects.
In a closing session, the participants accepted the
invitation of the German Foundation for International
Development to meet again in April 1977. At the recom-
mendation of the group, IADS arranged for Mr. Harold
Graves, former secretary of the CGIAR, to prepare a dis-
cussion paper which would explore the need and possi-
ble alternatives for establishing an implementing organi-
zation on an international basis.
Meeting at Munich in April 1977, staff members of
technical cooperation agencies reviewed the first draft of
the Graves report, suggested additional dimensions to be
explored, and discussed possible program areas of general
concern to developing countries and cooperating agencies.
After 3 days of discussion, the group produced a statement
which read, in part:
"We believe that an essential function can be per-
formed by an international service with the task and
purpose of strengthening national agricultural research in
developing countries. We see the service as operating in
full cooperation with and supplementary to existing and
related programs of the FAO and other organizations.
"The service we envisage would cooperate, on the
request of recipient governments, in the planning and
implementation of national agricultural research programs
and would help to create or strengthen national research
institutions by various means. The service would help to
provide a bridge between the work of the international
research network of the CGIAR and national research
programs; it would facilitate the interchange and dissemi-
nation of information on agricultural research; it would
aid cooperation among national research services; and it
would promote and assist in the training of staff for
national research enterprises.
"For the purposes of such a service, agricultural
research would be considered to include some elements of
extension, insofar as research-related activities of exten-
sion workers are involved and inasmuch as agricultural
research involves a constant dialogue and interchange
between research efforts and extension efforts. In addi-














tion, it is considered essential that agricultural research
include a socioeconomic component."
In the statement, the Munich group also stressed the
need to make such a service international in concept,
charter, support, staffing, and location, and pointed out
that it believed "the best way for a service of the kind
envisaged to become international is through the
CGIAR."
In a revision of the paper presented at Munich, Mr.
Graves outlined the importance of strong, aggressive
national agricultural research programs and traced the
deliberations of the CGIAR and its Technical Advisory
Committee (TAC) with respect to the issue. Dr. Werner
Treitz, acting for the Munich group, presented this paper
to the CGIAR along with the recommendations of the
Munich group.
Through TAC and CGIAR, and in other ways, repre-
sentatives of the developing countries have indicated their
concern about their agricultural research and development
efforts.
Eleven representatives of developing countries,
meeting at Bellagio in February 1977, reviewed potential
program areas of possible value to their countries, added
others, and then regrouped them into three major areas:
comprehensive national agricultural development pro-
grams, human resource development, and development-
oriented literature. This group also addressed a num-
ber of general issues in technical assistance, and the
report was circulated to representatives of the technical
cooperation community. (See February Bellagio Confer-
ence, page 74.)
Authorities of 20 national agricultural research sys-
tems, meeting at Bellagio in October 1977 to consider the
potentials for cooperation among national agricultural
research systems, issued a declaration which stated:
". agricultural technologies have to be location
and situation specific. While concepts and basic research
material can be adapted by one country from another, the
precise technology will have to be developed locally and
tailored to the condition of each area in such a way that the
ecological strengths of an area are maximized and ecologi-


Munich Participants
April 1977

Jose Emilio Araujo,
Institute Interamericano de
Ciencias Agricolas
Francis Bour,
France
Ernest-G. Br6der,
Federal Republic of Germany
Fernando Caceres,
Inter-American Development Bank
Lowell S. Hardin,
Ford Foundation
Jaap J. Hardon,
The Netherlands
Leon F. Hesser,
United States
Klaus Lampe,
Federal Republic of Germany
Lars Leander,
Sweden
William Mashler,
United Nations
Development Programme
Gerard Ouellette,
Canada
Michel Penent,
France
John A. Pino,
The Rockefeller Foundation
A. Ramboux,
Belgium
Werner Treitz,
Federal Republic of Germany
Professor Vanderveken,
Belgium
Rolf Wilhelm,
Switzerland
Douglas Williams,
United Kingdom
Montague Yudelman,
World Bank


A conference at Munich in April 1977
envisioned the creation of an international
service, under the CGIAR, to help create or
strengthen national agricultural research
institutions, to "provide a bridge between
the work of the international agricultural
research network of the CGIAR and national
research programs."













cal risks and handicaps minimized. Thus, a strong and
dynamic national agricultural research system is a must for
sustaining a dynamic development program for convert-
ing the land and water endowments of each area into
wealth meaningful to the public. Without a strong re-
search base, it will not be possible to increase food
supplies, reduce poverty and stabilize prices and sup-
plies ...
"We urge governments and assistance agencies to
develop and maintain strong national agricultural de-
velopment efforts, led by scientific and technological ser-
vices that can and must, in concert with other agencies,
assure that each nation has maximum probability of
achieving its own goals. .. ." (See October Bellagio
Conference, page 77.)
IADS has strongly supported the establishment
within CGIAR of a mechanism to foster rapid develop-
ment of national agricultural research and development
systems and to enable assistance organizations and de-
veloping countries to find new and easier ways of
cooperating. Establishment of such a service in CGIAR
could result in much innovation and contribute impor-
tantly to the increased productivity of farming in scores of
countries in difficulty.

Cooperation Among Developing Countries
February Bellagio Conference. A group of agricul-
tural scientists and administrators from the developing
countries met in February 1977 at the Bellagio Study and
Conference Center to consider new approaches to techni-
cal assistance in accelerating agricultural development.
Moderators for the discussions were Dr. Armando
Samper, Dr. Bhakdi Lusanandana and Dr. Djibril Sene,
while Dr. Joseph Madamba and Mr. Luis Crouch served as
chairmen of two task forces. One task force considered
general issues related to technical assistance while the
other concentrated on the programs and priorities of IADS.
The participants examined issues of immediate
interest to developing countries and grouped these into
three general areas:














Comprehensive national agricultural development pro-
grams as a central component of rural development, and
leaders and specialists for such programs;
Human resource development, including training pro-
grams and the establishment of an international agricul-
tural management training institute;
Development-oriented literature.

The group recommended that IADS:

Be highly discriminating with regard to projects with
which it becomes involved until the decentralized model
of IADS administration proves itself, limiting its partici-
pation to in-country development contracts and en-
deavoring to establish new standards of excellence in
execution.
Make every effort to institutionalize new activities, within
the framework it has outlined, and try to bring in new
sources of funds. In addition, IADS should utilize its
relationships with assistance agencies and donors to
facilitate liaison with developing nations, and assist
with proposal preparation and arrangements for financ-
ing development activities.
Endeavor to be innovative in the area of leadership
development and training where IADS has comparative
advantages. It cited training in management of develop-
ment activities as a specific need.

The group also considered the range, forms, and
styles of technical cooperation currently available from the
assistance community, and commented upon these from
the standpoint of developing countries, in relation to five
questions:

What degrees of choice do developing countries have
among sources of technical cooperation? The consensus was
that at present the choice among sources of technical
cooperation is essentially limited by:
Level of confidence that the developing country has in its
own planning capability and data base.
Amount of its own resources that a country can generate
to support its own program priorities.
Extent of knowledge that a country has on the kinds,


Possible IADS Services
For Discussion
Bellagio, February 1977

Analysis of agricultural development
opportunities
Support of commodity production
programs
Strengthening of national agricultural
research and training systems
New approaches to technical assistance
Cooperation with the smaller, poorer
countries
Development-oriented literature
Training in development management
Exchange and translation of
information
Liaison among developing countries
Liaison with and among assistance
agencies


Meeting at Bellagio in February 1977,
developing-country scientists and
administrators considered services of
possible importance to national agricultural
research and production efforts.













forms, and terms of technical cooperation to which it
should or could have access.
What factors lead the developing countries to make
specific choices among sources of technical cooperation? Fac-
tors are:
Extent of confidence that the country knows what it
needs and wants.
National capacity to absorb the technical cooperation
offered.
Extent of the country's available resources for its own
priorities.
Quality or appropriateness of the expertise provided by
the technical cooperation organizations.
Amount of counterpart expense involved (foreign ex-
change and national currency) and the financial terms.
Political acceptability of the technical cooperation avail-
able.
Given the emerging trend among donor-assistance agen-
cies for developing-country governments to be the executing
agents for technical cooperation projects, what are the general
implications for the countries? The consensus was that this
tendency is strongest in some Asian and African coun-
tries. In such situations, it is imperative that the develop-
ing countries have sufficient in-country expertise to make
effective use of the assistance provided. It was stressed
that the countries must be able not only to develop their
own experts but also to provide incentives to keep them
within the country. The group felt that a number of
developing countries already have sufficient top-level ex-
pertise to make effective use of foreign technical coopera-
tion but that the problem, in some cases, is the lack of
recognition by the international or national authorities
that the country already has such a capability.
Given the emerging trend among donorlassistance agen-
cies for developing-country governments to be the executing
agents for technical cooperation projects, what are the general
implications for consulting and implementing agencies? The
group said that the implications depend on the levels of
national manpower and resources. Consultancy require-














ments will range over the spectrum of short- to long-term
assignments. In general, short-term consultants will be in
greater demand. Where a long-term consultant is re-
quired, it was stressed that immediate steps should be
taken to develop in-country expertise to replace the long-
term consultant as soon as possible. It was suggested that
consultants could also be drawn from nationals in the
private sector. It was observed that local consultants not
only know the situation better and can be as impartial as
expatriate consultants, but also tend to be more committed
to the country's agricultural development.
The group indicated that requirements for external
implementing agencies in developing countries also will
depend on the local situation. If there is no local capabil-
ity, a joint expatriate/national team should be developed
for implementation of programs.

What would be the mechanism for putting together
"flexible funds" with which to support urgent national agricul-
tural programs? In general, national budgets for agricul-
tural development programs are quite inflexible and it is
often difficult to get funds released. National budgets are
generally inadequate. Likewise, a great deal of foreign
technical cooperation has conditions attached which ren-
der the assistance inflexible. This characteristic is particu-
larly true of bilateral aid; in general, the assistance pro-
vided by major foundations is more flexible.
The biological nature of agricultural activities re-
quires speed and flexibility of action to ensure greatest
effectiveness. The group felt that IADS should help find
ways to establish funds to support such priority agricul-
tural development activities.
It was suggested that a consortium of technical
cooperation agencies which are helping a particular coun-
try could set up a continuing flexible fund pool which
could be matched by the country concerned. This could be
available for constraint-free use in high-priority develop-
ment activities, whether ongoing work or new initiatives.
October Bellagio Conference. Strong national ag-
ricultural research systems are imperative for national
development. This was the conclusion of the Bellagio


Bellagio Participants
February 1977
Enrique Ampuero, Ecuador
Jos6 Emilio G. Araujo, IICA
Lusanandana Bhakdi, Thailand
Alfredo Q. Carballo, Costa Rica
Luis B. Crouch, Dominican Republic
Alexander Grobman, Colombia
Joseph C. Madamba, Philippines
Armando G. Samper, Colombia
Mokhutshwane Sekgoma, Botswana
Djibril Sene, Senegal
B. K. Soni, India

According to the Bellagio participants,
developing countries often have sufficient
top-level expertise to make effective use of
assistance provided from the outside.
Whenever possible, consultants should be
drawn from the country itself, perhaps from
the private sector. At the least, joint
expatriate/national teams should be
developed for project implementation.













Declaration, issued by the leaders of national agricultural
research systems of 20 developing countries at the end of a
week-long conference in October 1977 at the Bellagio
Study and Conference Center.
Preparations for the Bellagio meeting included two
activities designed to provide resource persons for the
conference with a broad perspective. Serving as the re-
source person from Latin America, Dr. Armando Samper
convened a group of agricultural research and develop-
ment administrators at Villa La Leiva, Colombia, for a
2-day session. Similarly, Dr. Jos6 D. Drilon, Jr., the
resource person from Southeast Asia, visited with a num-
ber of agricultural research and development adminis-
trators in their own countries before proceeding to Bel-
lagio.
Some highlights of the Bellagio Declaration follow:
1. At the World Food Conference held in Rome in
November 1974, it was resolved by member nations of
the U.N. that by 1984 no child should go to bed hungry,
no man should fear for his next day's bread and no
human being's physical and mental potential should be
stunted by malnutrition. Progress in achieving these
goals has been slow although three years out of the
10-year frame set by the Congress have elapsed.
.we have a wealth of information on the
problems before us and also on the methods of solving
them. Yet strangely and sadly, the requisite blend of
political will and professional skill which alone can help
to achieve the goals set by the World Food Conference is
yet to emerge in many developing nations.
2. The developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin
America were in several cases exporters of food before
World War II. They are also the centers of origin of most
crop plants and domesticated animals. Agriculture also
had its early beginning in the developing part of our
planet. It is hence an irony that today under-nutrition
and malnutrition are widespread in many developing
countries. Even in countries which have food reserves
many people go hungry due to lack of purchasing
power. Agricultural development should hence be an
instrument of achieving both national food security and
general economic prosperity.















3. The generally satisfactory food reserve position in the
world today should not lull governments into compla-
cency. The present state of global grain reserve should
only be regarded as a breathing spell during which
developing countries should re-double their efforts in
agricultural research and development as well as in the
over-all areas of rural development.
4. The only pathway for agricultural advance open to most
developing countries is bringing about a continuous
increase in terrestrial and aquatic productivity without
detriment to the long term production potential of the
land and water resources of the country. Further, the
technologies developed and propagated should be com-
patible with the agro-ecological, socio-economic politi-
cal factors prevalent in each country. This is why
agricultural technologies have to be location and situa-
tion specific.
5. The world must produce at least 50 percent more food
by 1984 and double the total food output before the end
of this century if the dietary standards recommended by
the World Food Conference are to be achieved and if
widespread hunger and destitution are to be avoided.
Each developing country must make every possible
effort to increase the productivity of crops, farm animals
and fisheries. Efforts should be made to reduce regional
imbalances in development and to ensure that the fruits
of technological advance are shared by all farmers irres-
pective of the size of their holdings and by agricultural
labor. The success of the developmental projects should
be monitored in human rather than only in commodity
terms by using yardsticks like the additional income
derived by small farmers and the number of additional
man-days of employment generated.
6. We urge governments and assistance agencies to de-
velop and maintain strong national agricultural de-
velopment efforts, led by scientific and technological
services that can and must, in concert with other agen-
cies, assure that each nation has maximum probability
of achieving its own goals.
We urge our colleagues in national agricultural
research services worldwide to organize and orient their
efforts to rapid achievement of national goals, to utilize
problem-centered rather than discipline-centered ap-
proaches to research, and to take the initiative in


Bellagio Participants
October 1977

William Agble, Ghana
Enrique Ampuero, Ecuador
Kazi M. Badruddoza, Bangladesh
Almiro Blumenschein, Brazil
Alfredo Bustamante, Venezuela
Francisco Cardenas, Mexico
Jacques Diouf, Liberia
Jose D. Drilon, Jr., Philippines
Thomas G. Flores, Philippines
Josue Franco, Colombia
Astolfo Fumagalli, Guatemala
Young Soo Ham, Korea
Joseph C. Madamba, Philippines
Philippe J. Mahler, FAO
Luis C. Marcano, Venezuela
Martin F. Naumann, Argentina
John C. Obi, Nigeria
S. W. Sadikin, Indonesia
M. O. M. Salih, Sudan
Armando G. Samper, Colombia
Louis A. Sauger, Senegal
M. S. Swaminathan, India
Dato' Mohamed Tamin bin Yeop,
Malaysia


Meeting in October 1977, leaders of
national agricultural research systems
of 20 developing countries issued a
declaration focusing on the urgent need
for action, the availability of solutions,
and the need for national political
commitment to solve the world food
problem.















Organizational Committee
IFARD

Jose D. Drilon, Jr., Philippines
Luis C. Marcano, Venezuela
William Agble, Ghana
M. S. Swaminathan, India

The Bellagio participants initiated plans for
an International Federation for Agricultural
Research in Developing Countries.



































'International agricultural research centers.


arranging for cooperation with all other agencies con-
cerned with agricultural development, recognizing that
only through joint efforts by all can any country hope for
the great gains for its people that are now both desper-
ately needed and possible to attain.
We stress that agricultural research should be seen
in a developmental framework including not only basic
and applied investigations but the whole process of
development of appropriate technologies and their
widespread dissemination.
7. Those of us who have assembled at Bellagio will on our
part dedicate ourselves to the task of accelerated agricul-
tural development.
8. We have addressed ourselves to the problems of
strengthening national research capability and deriving
benefit from IARCs' with great humility. It is our sincere
hope that our recommendations will receive careful and
prompt consideration from the Director General of FAO,
the President of IBRD, the Administrator of UNDP, the
Chairman of IFAD, the Chairmen and Members of
CGIAR and TAC, and all donor agencies.
9. In the ultimate analysis, the agricultural future of de-
veloping countries would depend upon what each coun-
try itself does or does not do. We have every hope that the
enlightened leaders of developing countries will accord
the priority and support that agricultural research and
development needs for ushering the day when no child
or woman or man goes to bed hungry.

In another action, the Bellagio participants proposed
to establish an International Federation for Agricultural
Research in Developing Countries (IFARD). The goal of
IFARD would be to accelerate agricultural progress by
providing an institutional framework for sustained and
concerted activity on the part of national agricultural
research and development systems.


Liaison with Non-Governmental Organizations

Efforts continued in 1977 to identify and gain under-
standing of the extensive activities of the wide range of
private, philanthropic, and religious agencies, collectively













known as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in
relation to agricultural and rural development in the
developing countries.
To this end, IADS cooperated closely with the Tech-
nical Assistance Information Clearing House (TAICH) and
the American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign
Service, the principal sources of information about the
work of U.S. NGOs.
TAICH regularly collects and collates information
about the in-country activities of a vast number of NGOs.
Using TAICH's country reports, lADS has supplied its
field staff with information about the presence and in-
country activities of these organizations. During the year
TAICH and IADS worked on ways to expand the report
components related to agriculture. IADS also continued its
efforts, through TAICH and other channels, to obtain
similar information about the activities of NGOs based in
other developed countries, particularly in Europe.
AFSC Meeting. In cooperation with the American
Friends Service Committee's World Hunger Project, lADS
arranged to meet in October 1977 with officials of 11 NGOs
with national headquarters in the New York area, to
discuss problems and issues of mutual concern.
lADS introduced two questions for discussion:
What ways might be found for IADS to communicate and
collaborate with NGOs in countries where it is working?
Is better in-country communication-among NGOs, be-
tween NGOs and international agencies-needed gener-
ally, and might IADS help facilitate it?
How do NGOs ensure the adequacy and accuracy of tech-
nical information available to in-country staffs? Might
there be ways to improve present methods, and, if so,
how might IADS be helpful?
There was general agreement that while communica-
tion in-country is not optimal, field staff have little time
for formal liaison activities. In some countries, however,
NGOs have formed in-country councils-often to coordi-
nate emergency or disaster relief-which have continued
and provide them with an effective forum for discussion
and collaborative action.


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In obtaining technical information, NGO field staff
operate as much as possible in the national context,
turning to government, local universities, and local FAO
and UNDP representatives. Only when such information
is not available locally do field staff seek help through the
home office.
Problems attend this process. The regular flow of
technical information into or within a country may be
inadequate. The assistance of international agencies that
are working in the country and might be helpful can only
be sought if the NGO field staff are aware of their
presence, which often they are not. Because of the difficul-
ties and time lags, field staff may seek up-to-date technical
information only selectively, and sometimes not at all.
On the issue of quality of information obtained
through present channels, and the mechanisms if any that
ensure its applicability at local levels, participants agreed
that these are important questions about which staff in the
field probably are the best informed.
Informal follow-up has confirmed that (a) while
inter-NGO cooperation in-country is relatively satisfac-
tory, liaison with the large international and bilateral
agencies is sketchy, and not easy for the time-pressed
NGO field staff to pursue; and (b) the issue of technical
information availability is of interest to NGOs concerned
with agricultural and rural development.
Late in the year, TAICH and IADS agreed to cooper-
ate in a pilot study to identify and describe the various
kinds of in-country councils currently operating. This
work is being carried out by a graduate student in interna-
tional affairs, through arrangements with Columbia Uni-
versity.

Private Enterprise and Development
Challenged by repeated questions about the possible
roles of private enterprise in stimulating agricultural de-
velopment, particularly among small farmers, IADS com-
missioned a preliminary study of the issue.
Mr. Richard Gartrell, engaged by IADS through
arrangements with the Harvard University Graduate













School of Business Administration, analyzed the role of
business and industry in accelerating agricultural de-
velopment, with particular reference to extending
science-based, industry-supported agricultural technol-
ogy to small farmers and rural areas in the developing
world.
His report identifies structural factors which facili-
tate interaction between business and small farmers, sets
forth implications for policy affecting structure, and out-
lines specific potential activities for business, govern-
ment, and assistance agencies.
The study assumed that it is possible to increase the
availability of and access to food by increasing the profita-
bility of the operations of small farmers in developing
countries. Achieving such a goal entails research and
development to provide appropriate technology, training
in its use, efficient logistical systems to deliver inputs to
farmers and farm goods to market, and marketing efforts
to expand the demand for farm products.
His conclusion: "Many of the functions which must
be performed in helping those people to produce and earn
to meet their hunger needs are essentially business func-
tions. While there is much that business cannot do be-
cause of its competitive, economic nature, there are also
many things which business can do to accelerate that
development. Steps must be taken to accelerate the linking
of business and small farmers in ways that are mutually
beneficial."
He suggested that business can help meet food needs
either by incorporating into normal operations measures
which include farmers and encourage their increased
productivity, or introducing special projects, apart from
their normal operations, which address those needs. En-
couragement of the small farmer is considered the option
with by far the most potential for significant impact.
The final chapter outlines implications and some
specific possibilities for action for business, governments,
and assistance agencies:

Implications for Business. The report predicts in-
creasing interaction of business with government in ad-


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dressing economic issues. "As population continues to
grow and places pressures on resources, a low-profile,
isolationist or non-participating approach by business
will become less acceptable."
Specific recommended actions include:
Establish decentralized input-supply and product-
purchasing systems suitable for low-volume, labor-
intensive production systems.
Disperse processing plants in rural areas and develop
more local suppliers.
Disseminate pricing and grading information widely.
Develop expanded uses for labor-intensive crops.
Undertake research on technology for small farms.
Commit more resources to education and training.
Serve on government boards and assist in development
of government programs and projects.
Implications for Government. The need of small
farmers for distribution systems suggests that the more
dispersed transportation, communication, and storage
systems can be made, the more small farmers will be able
to benefit. If government encourages business to disperse
its plants and operations in rural areas, it can stimulate an
array of related development activities.
Governments can also stimulate the businesses most
directly related to small-farmer development and, where
appropriate, encourage businesses to procure supplies
from domestic sources.
The report suggests a number of ways government
can tap business resources for its own use:

Invite business executives to sit on government boards
and commissions.
Develop mechanisms by which the normal conduct of
business operations can enhance the condition of small
farmers.
Contract with business for the performance of services
such as distribution of products, conduct of research, or
test marketing of products developed through govern-
mental research.













Implications for Assistance Agencies. The report
suggests that assistance agencies seek understanding of
the implications for both business and government of the
advisory role the agencies frequently play. Assistance
agencies can perform better if the structural fits and
misfits among business, government, and small farmers
are understood.
Assistance agencies seeking an organization to
bring capital, technology, or management skills to an
agricultural activity in a developing country may tend to
turn to the technology leader in the industry. But a small
firm, with fewer competing demands for management
resources and with greater flexibility, may be adequate
and perhaps more appropriate for the needs of a small
nation.
Assistance agencies are encouraged to fund research
on the nature of the differences among firms within
industries and on the differences across industries. They
could also sponsor seminars on the agricultural develop-
ment process for leaders in business and government in
individual developing countries. In these, leaders could
discuss strategies for agricultural development in relation
to national needs, priorities, and resources and in light of
the availability of land, capital, and labor.


Further Research. The report identified several
possible areas for future study:

Organization within firms to permit handling of small-
farmer business without reductions in competitiveness
or performance efficiency.
Development of measures of appropriate-sized firms
within an industry.
Identification of criteria for selecting industries whose
activities are inherently most beneficial to small farmers.
Development of techniques for linking high-volume
logistical systems with low-volume systems so that small
farmers could have more efficient access to inputs and
markets, input suppliers could expand primary demand,
and consumers could gain access to larger supplies.


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Administrative

Developments
"The most valuable assistance a
foreigner can give small farmers
will rarely be large amounts of
money for machinery or
infrastructure development.
Rather, it is a plan, based on the
realities of the small farmer's own
situation, whereby he can move
himself ahead without becoming
dependent on outside foreign
assistance." Elliott R. Morss et
al., Strategies for Small Farmer
Development









Principal administrative developments in 1977 re-
lated to Board of Trustees' actions, the establishment of
procedures to accommodate the growth of IADS's pro-
grams, the acquisition of staff to explore new program
possibilities and support country activities within geo-
graphic regions, and the identification and employment of
some 30 short-term consultants for specific missions.
IADS made substantial progress toward establishing
formal working relations with individual international
agricultural research centers. In the Integrated Cereals
Project in Nepal, IADS developed arrangements with
CIMMYT and IRRI to incorporate some of the centers'
outreach activities into the new project.
After discussions with the directors of several cen-
ters during 1977, a general memorandum of understand-
ing for cooperation between a center and IADS was
drafted. The first such memorandum was signed in
September 1977 with the International Potato Center; draft
memoranda are being reviewed by directors of several
other centers.


































Lowell S. Hardin


Ralph W. Cummings


These memoranda outline the following procedures
for cooperation: when a developing country requests that
IADS provide technical assistance in a commodity which
is the responsibility of an international center, that center
and IADS (with the concurrence of national authorities)
will develop means for providing the needed services
jointly, in a way that will ensure complementarity of
inputs of the two organizations and the greatest benefits
for the country.
This kind of arrangement would in fact involve
cooperation among at least four partners: the host coun-
try, which requires the technical assistance; the donor
agency or agencies providing external financial support;
IADS, with responsibility for provision of services or
project implementation; and the pertinent international
center, offering new knowledge, basic research products,
and a possible site for training.
Besides working together to help a country outline
its overall commodity development programs, IADS and
cooperating centers can cooperate with national institu-
tions to improve research organizations, develop long-
range plans, and prepare projects. Workshops and special
purpose training also may be undertaken jointly.



Board of Trustees
The IADS Board of Trustees met in May and
November 1977, each time for 2 days. Dr. J. George
Harrar, Board Chairman, presided.
Four members of the Board were reelected: Dr.
Virgilio Barco, Dr. Guy Camus, Dr. Ralph W. Cummings,
and Mr. William A. C. Mathieson. The Board elected one
new member, Dr. Lowell S. Hardin, bringing the total
membership to 15.
Elected to serve on the Executive Committee were
Dr. Harrar, Dr. John A. Hannah, Dr. Clifford M. Hardin,
Dr. W. David Hopper, and Dr.Sterling Wortman, with Dr.
Barco and Dr. Theodore W. Schultz as alternates.
Elected to the Nominating Committee were Dr.
Cummings, Chairman, Dr. Jose D. Drilon, Jr., and Dr.













Camus, and to an Audit Committee, Dr. Barco and Dr. L.
Hardin.
Late in the year, two members of the Board resigned
to avoid possible conflict of interest with new respon-
sibilities they had assumed in the technical assistance
community. These were Dr. Hopper, who was leaving his
post as President of the International Development Re-
search Centre of Canada to become a vice-president of the
World Bank, and Dr. Cummings, recently retired as direc-
tor of ICRISAT, who had been elected chairman of the
Technical Advisory Committee of the CGIAR.

STAFF
During 1977, the IADS professional staff grew from 7
to 26 full-time members: 10 at IADS headquarters, and 16
in the field. The assignments for which staff were needed
called for persons of particular ability and specialized
experience. To obtain the services of the most highly
qualified professionals, and still to maintain flexibility
during a highly dynamic period of organizational and
program development, IADS employed its staff both di-
rectly and by secondment from The Rockefeller Founda-
tion. Where appropriate, specified term appointments
were used.


Headquarters Staff
During the year it became increasingly clear that the
greatest demand on IADS would be for direct services to
individual countries. To meet this demand, IADS added to
its headquarters staff three senior program officers experi-
enced in working for the national agencies of developing
countries.
These officers assumed responsibility for IADS's
direct support activities in different geographical regions:
Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean,
Africa and the Mideast. This would enable them to work
intensively with countries in their assigned regions and
with donor and lending agencies active in those regions.
While not all of IADS's activities can be handled on a



























U. S. Athwal


Steven A. Breth


regional basis, those which directly serve countries can
be, and since three-fourths or more of IADS's program
activities will be related to specific countries, this regional
orientation likely will become a primary organizational
feature of IADS.
Dr. D. S. Athwal, program officer for Asia and the
Pacific, is a native of India. A plant breeder by profession,
he came to IADS from the International Rice Research
Institute, where he served for 10 years as IRRI's assistant
director, associate director, and deputy director general.
In these posts he was responsible for IRRI's international
activities and became widely acquainted with the Asian
area.
Dr. Guy B. Baird, program officer for Latin America
and the Caribbean, is a soil scientist with extensive
experience in Latin America and Asia, both as a scientist
and as an administrator of agricultural research. He was
director of The Rockefeller Foundation's Indian Agricul-
tural Program for several years before becoming deputy
director for agriculture in the Technical Assistance
Bureau of USAID. In this post he maintained liaison with
the various international agricultural research centers
and the CGIAR, as well as with many bilateral projects.
Dr. Bill C. Wright has been seconded to IADS by The
Rockefeller Foundation to serve as program officer for
Africa and the Mideast. A soil scientist, Dr. Wright
worked for several years in India, particularly on ag-
ronomic aspects of wheat production, as part of India's
successful "green revolution" in'wheat. He then partici-
pated in Turkey's successful program to increase national
wheat production.
Recognizing that successful agricultural develop-
ment depends on understanding economic forces and
applying economic principles, IADS included in its initial
headquarters staff an officer specialized in agricultural
economics; thus while IADS does not have an agricultural
economics program, it is able to provide an economics
component in program development and implementation
for individual country activities.
In mid-1977 resources in this area were strengthened
by the addition of a visiting scientist in agricultural


"In o 116-













economics, Dr. S. K. Ray. Dr. Ray, on leave from the
Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, India, is spend-
ing a year working on various analyses that will assist
IADS in decision-making, e.g. compiling indicators of
human resource development, policy formulation and
effectiveness, and financial commitment to development
programs for a range of low-income countries.
A number of other specialities are often needed in
the development of programs for individual countries.
Knowledge and experience in irrigation, seeds, extension,
fertilizer technology, and other areas are frequently called
for and may soon be needed on a continuing basis. As the
overall program develops, additional specialists will be
employed. For the time being, when such services are
required for specific country activities, IADS engages
them on a consultancy basis, either directly, or through
The Rockefeller Foundation, which continues to make its
staff in Agricultural Sciences available to IADS on a
case-by-case basis.
The preparation of development-oriented literature
represents the major program activity of IADS in indirect
support of agricultural development worldwide. Mr. Ste-
ven A. Breth joined the headquarters staff in August 1977
to head this work as program officer for publications. Mr.
Breth is trained in agricultural journalism and agricultural
economics, and has broad experience with publications of
international and developing-country organizations for
technical as well as general audiences. Before coming to
IADS from CIMMYT, where he served as science writer,
Mr. Breth headed the Office of Information Services at
IRRI.
Mr. Stephen M. Katz joined the headquarters staff in
September 1977 as IADS's financial and administrative
officer. He attends to IADS's grant and contractual affairs,
and supervises general services for the headquarters staff
and logistical support to staff on field assignments. Mr.
Katz, an accountant with experience in general manage-
ment as well as fiscal affairs, was seconded to IADS by The
Rockefeller Foundation. Before joining IADS, he worked
in fiscal management both in the Foundation's New York
headquarters and in its overseas program in Thailand.


p-


Guy B. Baird


S. K Ray


Stephen M Katz

























wayne n. freeman


Edwin B. Oyer


U. J. Grant


Field Staff
At the start of 1977 IADS had one staff member sta-
tioned abroad, assigned to Nepal: Dr. Wayne H. Freeman,
project supervisor in Nepal's newly formed Integrated
Cereals Project. Dr. Torrey Lyons, wheat breeder, and Dr.
Donald R. Schmidt, maize breeder, were in Nepal as part
of a CIMMYT activity since incorporated into the project.
During 1977, the size of the field staff grew from 3
senior professionals to 16, assigned to five countries. The
assignments called for experienced mid-career scientists
and administrators to work with national authorities in
developing major program segments. The IADS country
representatives or team leaders in each country program
are characteristic of the group in terms of breadth of
experience and background.
Dr. Freeman, project supervisor in Nepal, is an
experienced crop scientist and administrator in interna-
tional agricultural development. He served for several
years in the Indian Agricultural Program of The Rockefel-
ler Foundation, most recently as joint coordinator of the
All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project. At the
conclusion of that project IADS requested that his services
be made available by secondment. He worked with Nepal
authorities in developing the plans for the country's new
Integrated Cereals Project, and following signing of the
implementation contract between IADS and the Nepal
Directorate of Agriculture, assumed responsibility for con-
tinuing program development.
Dr. Edwin B. Oyer reports to the director of the
AARD project in Indonesia and is responsible for IADS's
work on the project. He is a plant physiologist with
particular experience with vegetable crops. His profes-
sional career has included administration, extension, re-
search, and university teaching. Immediately before join-
ing IADS, he was director of Cornell University's program
in international agriculture. He was also project leader of
the Cornell University team at the University of the
Philippines College of Agriculture, and subsequently
served as associate director of the Asian Vegetable Re-
search and Development Center in Taiwan.













Dr. Kristian Oland, the IADS representative in
Botswana, is a horticulturist widely experienced in teach-
ing, research, and administration. Dr. Oland's interna-
tional experience has been specific to the region where he
is assigned: he served as Dean of Agriculture, and as
professor and head of the Department of Crop Science, at
Makerere University in Uganda for 6 years. Before going
to Botswana, Dr. Oland coordinated foreign programs at
the Agricultural University of Norway. Dr. Oland is a
native of Norway, and his services to Botswana as director
of agricultural research are being provided by his coun-
try's aid agency, NORAD.
Dr. U. J. Grant is the IADS representative in
Ecuador. A plant breeder, Dr. Grant was responsible for
The Rockefeller Foundation's research with corn in Col-
ombia and India before he assumed leadership of the
Foundation's Colombian Agricultural Program. He was
the first director general of the Centro International de
Agriculture Tropical, serving in this post throughout
CIAT's early years.
Mr. Jack D. Traywick directs IADS's work in cooper-
ation with Panama. He is an agricultural engineer with
extensive experience in Peru, India, and Ecuador, in
North Carolina State College and Rockefeller Foundation
programs.
To find the best qualified specialists available, IADS
recruited internationally; nine professionals employed as
team members in 1977 came from six countries. For
Nepal, IADS employed Dr. Mun Hue-Heu, a rice specialist
from Korea; Dr. Hugo Manzano, a cropping systems
specialist from Colombia; Mr. Eduardo Perdon, a training
specialist from the Philippines; and Dr. Marlin Gene Van
Der Veen, an agricultural economist from the United
States. For Indonesia, Mr. Fred F. Fairman, the financial
administrator, came from the United States; Dr. Keith J.
Templeton, the rubber specialist, from New Zealand; Mr.
Ulrich Verstrijden, the equipment procurement specialist,
from the Netherlands; and Dr. Harold W. Young, the
vegetable specialist, from the United States. Mr. Loyd
Johnson, from the United States, was assigned as agricul-
tural engineer and rice specialist for Ecuador.


ack D. Tra:ick
Jack D. Travwick






















































Ralph W. Cummings, Jr.




*On part-time assignment from
The Rockefeller Foundation.


Headquarters Staff


Sterling Wortman,* President
A. Colin McClung, Executive Officer
Laurence D. Stifel,* Secretary
Alexander Daunys,* Comptroller
Webb Trammell,* Treasurer
Esther S. Stamm,* Assistant Secretary
Rajaram Ramanathan,* Assistant Comptroller



Dilbagh S. Athwal, Program Officer
Guy B. Baird, Program Officer
Steven A. Breth, Program Officer
Francis C. Byrnes, Program Officer
Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., Program Officer
Stephen M. Katz, Financial Officer
Albert H. Moseman, Representative
Susanta K. Ray, Visiting Economist
Bill C. Wright, Program Officer



Anne C. Lounsbury, Program Assistant
Robert M. Shannon, Accountant
Janet Warwick, Administrative Assistant
Linda R. Weinstein, Program Assistant



Gerie K. Aronson, Secretary
Aurora Brunetti, Program Aide
Carol Jimenez, Secretary
Marsha E. London, Secretary
Fern S. Marder, Secretary
Cosmos Moses, Bookkeeper
Elizabeth Thomas, Secretary
Carol Walske, Secretary
Sam Wright, Word Processing Typist
Joan Zulkoski, Secretary


A. Loirn ivicuiung













Field Staff

INDONESIA







NEPAL


PANAMA Jack Dee Traywick,
Agricultural Research Administrator


ECUADOR


Ulysses J. Grant, Representative
Loyd Johnson, Agricultural Engineer,
Rice Specialist


BOTSWANA Kristian Oland, Representative





Counsel
Patterson, Belknap, Webb & Tyler
Robert M. Pennoyer

Auditors
Arthur Young and Company


r wo
Sterling Wortman


Francis C. Brnes


Edwin B. Oyer, Project Specialist
Fred F. Fairman, Financial Administrator
J. Keith Templeton, Rubber Specialist
Ulrich Verstrijden,
Equipment Procurement Specialist
Harold W. Young, Vegetable Specialist


Wayne H. Freeman, Project Specialist
Mun Hue-Heu, Rice Specialist
Torrey Lyons, Wheat Breeder
Hugo Manzano,
Cropping Systems Specialist
Eduardo Perdon, Training Specialist
Donald R. Schmidt, Maize Breeder
Marlin Gene Van Der Veen,
Agricultural Economist




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Financial Statements
"Almost two thirds of the
population of developing nations
inhabit rural areas. The greatest
emphasis should be placed on the
development of the agricultural
sector, particularly the
expansion of food production. In
my analysis, this is the crux for a
global development strategy."
Hideo Boh (Japan), World Bank















SUMMARY
Grant funds received in 1977 totalled $1,520,000;
$1,270,000 from The Rockefeller Foundation and $250,000
from Lilly Endowment, Inc. In addition, $231,793 of grant
funds received in 1976 were available for use in 1977. Of
the $1,751,793 available in 1977, $1,285,895 has been used
for operating costs and the balance will be applied to
support for 1978.
During the year, IADS entered into contracts with (1)
the Republic of Indonesia, (2) the United States Agency for
International Development and (3) the People's Republic
of Bangladesh, to provide technical assistance and other
services required to implement agricultural development
projects undertaken in Indonesia, Panama and
Bangladesh. The contract with the Republic of Indonesia
runs through December 1981. Estimated reimbursable