Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 The origin of IADS
 The challenge: problems, potentials,...
 IADS activities in 1976
 Administrative developments
 Financial statements


Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053925/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report
Cover title: IADS report
Portion of title: I.A.D.S. report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Agricultural Development Service
Publisher: International Agricultural Development Service
Place of Publication: New York
Creation Date: 1976
Publication Date: [1977?-1985]
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural development projects -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: International Agricultural Development Service.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1976-1984.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1976 also called 1st report.
General Note: Published: Arlington, Virginia, 1982-1984.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000446678
oclc - 04969534
notis - ACK7856
lccn - sn 84011630
System ID: UF00053925:00001
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report
Succeeded by: Annual report of Winrock International

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The origin of IADS
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The challenge: problems, potentials, and approaches
        Page 11
        The nature and severity of national problems
            Page 12
        Characteristics of the nations in difficulty
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        The need to increase yields and income
            Page 18
        The primary solution
            Page 19
        The basis for hope
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Continuing difficulties
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Facilitating cooperation in assistance efforts
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    IADS activities in 1976
        Page 37
        Direct services to individual nations
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Program support and collective services
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Administrative developments
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Financial statements
        Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Balance sheet
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
Full Text


First Report / 1976

*Member of Executive Committee

IADS Board of Trustees

(December 31, 1976)

*J. George Harrar, President Emeritus, The Rockefeller
Foundation, Chairman.
*Vigilio Barco, Ambassador of Colombia to the United States;
Chairman, Board of Trustees, International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center, Mexico.
Guy Camus, Director General, Office de la Recherche
Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, France; member,
Technical Advisory Committee, Consultative Group for
International Agricultural Research.

Ralph W. Cummings, Chairman, Technical Advisory
Committee, Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research; formerly Director General, International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, India.
Jos6 D. Drilon, Jr., Director, Southeast Asian Regional Center
for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, the Philippines.
*John A. Hannah, Executive Director, World Food Council.
*Clifford M. Hardin, Vice Chairman, Ralston Purina Company.
*W. David Hopper, President, International Development
Research Centre, Canada; member, Technical Advisory
Committee, Consultative Group for International Agricultural
*William A. C. Mathieson, United Kingdom, Senior Consultant,
United Nations Development Programme.
Saburo Okita, President, Overseas Economic Cooperation
Fund, Japan; Special Advisor, International Development
Centre of Japan.
Julian Rodriguez Adame, Mexico, Coordinator General,
International Group for Agricultural Development,
Washington, D.C.
*Theodore W. Schultz, Professor Emeritus of Economics,
University of Chicago.
Werner Treitz, Head, Agricultural Division, Federal Ministry
for Economic Cooperation, Federal Republic of Germany.
*Sterling Wortman, President, IADS, and Vice-President, The
Rockefeller Foundation.

I a a I 1151 ,

The IADS Board of Trustees first met on December 9, 1975.


Preface .. ............ ........................ 1

The Origins of IADS ........... ............ 3

The Challenge: Problems, Potentials, and Approaches 11
The Nature and Severity of National Problems .... 12
Characteristics of the Nations in Difficulty ........ 13
The Need to Increase Yields and Income ......... 18
The Primary Solution ........................... 19
The Basis for Hope ............................. 20
Continuing Difficulties ......................... 22
Facilitating Cooperation in Assistance Efforts ..... 25

IADS Interests and Capabilities ................... 27

IADS Activities in 1976 ........................... 37
Direct Services to Individual Nations ............. 38
Program Support and Collective Services ......... 57

Administrative Developments ..................... 67

Financial Statements .............................. 73


The International Agricultural Development Service
(IADS) was established in 1975 to provide services to
developing countries wishing to strengthen their
agricultural research and development programs. IADS is
a private, non-profit, non-political, scientific, and
professional agricultural assistance organization.
IADS is particularly concerned with the rapid
identification and application of effective approaches to
the acceleration of agricultural productivity. It places
emphasis on those crops and animal species which
provide the livelihood of large numbers of rural families,
including those with small land holdings, and on
strengthening institutions crucial to developing
technology, training personnel, and implementing
production programs.
IADS is not a fund-granting organization, but it may
consult with governments upon request without charge or
obligation. Other services are provided at cost to
individual countries when (a) national authorities so
request, (b) IADS capabilities are applicable, (c) there is an
agreed-upon program of work, (d) suitable financing is
available, and (e) the IADS Trustees approve the
A self-perpetuating Board of Trustees comprising
world authorities on agricultural research and
development governs IADS. Activities of the professional
staff on behalf of developing countries are guided by
frequent consultations with specialists of developing
countries and assistance organizations. An international,
multidisciplinary staff of high caliber is being recruited.
Flexibility characterizes IADS's operations. It may
receive funds from any source for use in (a) assisting any
nation in any way requested by that nation's authorities
and approved by the IADS Board, and (b) supporting
developing countries collectively through programs of
research, training, and information exchange.
This first report of IADS describes IADS's origins,
the challenges to which it hopes to respond, and its
interests and capabilities, as well as its activities through
the end of 1976.




SP '
a ~slge




- 40


The Origins of DADS

There is a growing desire among professional
agriculturists, in the developing countries and in the
world's technical assistance community, to find ways to
speed the adoption of science-based agriculture that will
expand food output and increase incomes of great
numbers of rural people in the poorer countries.
Local food production and increased purchasing
power of the rural poor in the developing countries
have emerged as two essential components of any solution
of the world food problem.
The founders of IADS were-and still are-searching
for new ways by which technical agricultural services, as
needed and desired by developing countries, can be
provided on a thoroughly professional, non-political,
non-profit, and cooperative basis.

The concepts embodied in IADS are products of the
thinking of many individuals, and of the experiences of a
number of institutions, over nearly four decades of work
in international agriculture.
The Rockefeller Foundation, which in 1975 provided
the initial funds to establish IADS, began work in
international agriculture in the early 1940's when invited
by Mexico's Secretary of Agriculture to cooperate in
increasing productivity of that nation's basic food crops.
At that time Mexico had substantial deficits of wheat and
The dramatic increases in output achieved by Mexico
in the ensuing years are well known: the deficits were
overcome within 10 years, some 700 young people were
trained in technical agriculture and the supporting
sciences, and yields and output began to climb. Advances
with wheat were spectacular: national average yields
tripled and the improved wheat varieties provided the
basis for substantial gains in output in India and Pakistan
beginning in the critical mid-1960's. Dr. Norman Borlaug
of the Foundation staff was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
in 1970 for his role in the agricultural revolution.
The program in Mexico was staffed largely by young
Mexican technicians and scientists,' operational funds
were provided by Mexico's Secretaria de Agricultura y

The primary solution-the only
acceptable solution-to the
food-poverty problem is known:
to increase agricultural
productivity on millions of
developing-country farms, most
of them tiny, and concurrently to
increase incomes or purchasing
power of hundreds of millions of
the rural dwellers in several scores
of poor countries. This strategy
deals with both sides of the hunger

'For a discussion of Mexico's progress
during this era, see "Mexico: From the
Deficits to Sufficiency," by Roberto Osoyo,
in Strategy for the Conquest of Hunger:
Proceedings of a Symposium (New York: The
Rockefeller Foundation, 1968).

0 '0
1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975

Increases in yield and in area planted to
corn (black) in Mexico resulted in a rate
of growth in corn production (green)
between 1945 and 1965 which exceeded
the population increase.

0 1 1 I I I I I I
1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975
New varieties of disease-resistant,
dwarf wheat grown under irrigation
spectacularly increased wheat
production in Mexico from 1950 to 1970
(green), while the area planted to wheat
remained relatively constant (black).

2"The Technological Basis for Intensified
Agriculture," in Agricultural Development:
Proceedings of a Conference (New York: The
Rockefeller Foundation, 1969).

Ganderia, and progress was in large part attributable to
Mexico's own people and institutions. The Foundation's
cooperation was terminated in 1960, when all
responsibility was assumed by Mexican institutions.
In 1950, Colombia initiated a similar program which
continued for 17 years. In 1957, cooperation began with
India in the development of the Indian Agricultural
Research Institute's Graduate School and on improvement
of wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, and millets. This work
later led to the formation of the All-India cooperative
research programs for several basic food commodities, and
of the High Yielding Varieties Programme.
These activities are mentioned to make two points.
First, the Foundation's earliest work in international
agriculture involved participation in national programs.
Second, the dramatic successes of Mexico, India, and a
number of other countries clearly demonstrated that
nations can make rapid agricultural progress, given a
dynamic program of sharply focused research and training
and the commitment of government to promotion of
In 1960, the Ford Foundation and The Rockefeller
Foundation, in cooperation with the Government of the
Philippines, established the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI). IRRI quickly developed high-yielding
varieties and related technology which led to substantial
improvements in rice yields in tropical Asia. There
followed the establishment of the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in Mexico in 1966,
and, in 1967, of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia and the International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Nigeria.
In April 1969, leaders of some of the world's major
assistance agencies met at Bellagio, Italy, to consider ways
to stimulate agricultural progress in the low-income
countries, most of them in the tropics or sub-tropics.
Discussions at that and subsequent meetings led to the
decision to establish the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) to support
and expand the work of the then four international
centers, and to establish such new international institutes

as might seem appropriate.
In a paper2 presented at the 1969 conference, it was

Acceleration of world agricultural output can be fostered by the
formation of a world-wide, interlocking complex of national and
international scientific institutions, programs, and projects
designed to produce the scientific information, materials, and
manpower required to intensify agricultural production
wherever needed. Provision must be made for immediate
attention to all areas where agricultural productivity is still low
and static and where man:land ratios are most unfavorable, and
to control of many internationally serious diseases and pests. The
under-exploited tropics and certain arid areas can and should be
brought into use as required.
Development of such a network of institutions and activities will
require that national and international efforts be cooperative and
coordinated to the extent possible. Toward this end, increased
and periodic dialogue among appropriate leaders should be
established to identify neglected, high-priority needs and to
foster cooperation wherever indicated.

Among the "necessary components of the
international network" were listed (a) international
centers, (b) regional research centers, (c) international
programs and projects, (d) national research, training, and
production systems, (e) colleges of agriculture in
developing countries, and (f) centers of specialization
(universities and ministries or departments of agriculture)
in the developed nations.
The nature of the national agricultural research,
training, and production systems required was also

There is an urgent need for establishment or further
development of coordinated systems in many agrarian nations.
Such efforts should have the following characteristics:
1. Ambitious but technically feasible goals for both
production (by commodity) and farmer involvement.
2. Functioning interdisciplinary teams at major experiment
stations capable of handling all problems of each important
commodity, with smaller teams at regional stations, and with
production specialists, trained in testing and demonstration, at
the farm level.



, 1,200,000

< 1,000,000


z 400,000
- 200.000
-, 200,000




1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975

Colombian farmers rapidly accepted
improved dwarf rice varieties released
in 1968. By 1974, most of the irrigated
rice land in Colombia was planted to
the new lines and annual production
(green) had increased by nearly a
million metric tons.


S150- -

S100 - -



-.5 1s-
1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1974

Cash benefits resulting from the
Colombian rice-improvement program
over a 6-year period (green) far
exceeded the costs of the research effort
which produced the new varieties and
technology (black). In addition, the
resulting lower price of rice benefited
low-income consumers.

-- .

The International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI), located in the
Philippines, was established in 1960.

3. Continuous, competent scientific leadership.
4. Integrated involvement of colleges of agriculture and the
ministry of agriculture.
5. Serious efforts to reach the small farmer.
6. In-service training of substantial numbers of production
7. Research (and training) focused on high-priority
problems-"directed" research, carefully guided by
well-informed leaders who must insist that national interest not
be neglected.
8. Close association with appropriate international centers
and international projects.
Since investments in such research and production systems
produce capital and should provide high returns, it is hoped that
international lending agencies will assist nations with loans for
such purposes.

By 1973, the CGIAR was well established and the
number of international centers was expanding (to ten by
1976) under the guidance of the CGIAR's Technical
Advisory Committee (TAC), comprising distinguished
scientists of Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and
North America. The TAC began giving more attention to
the need to strengthen national research systems.
The need for an international agricultural
development service was first discussed in the halls at the
1973 meeting of the CGIAR. It had become clear that the
requisite network of international research centers was
rapidly taking shape with strong and growing multilateral
support. It also seemed, however, that a major gap
remained in world agricultural development efforts-the
lack of adequate means for directly assisting individual
countries to develop national institutions and programs
tailored to their needs and in line with their goals.
Two questions arose. First, would it be desirable and
possible to devise effective new institutions to work
directly with nations to help them develop their
agricultural systems, increase output and incomes, and
seek out rather than wait for needed expertise and
financial help from the outside? Second, could such new
institutions be structured to work in a complementary way

with other sources of technical and financial assistance
with corresponding objectives?
At its December 1974 meeting, The Rockefeller
Foundation's Board of Trustees was informed that an
organization such as lADS was under study and that plans
for it might shortly be presented to the Trustees for
consideration. Staff work on IADS was accelerated,
reflecting the collective view that the need was great, the
time for action short.
There were several barriers to the establishment of
an IADS-like organization. First, the CGIAR had been
established to support international agricultural research;
while the TAC recognized the importance of national
research, there was as yet no indication that the CGIAR
would establish an institution with the professional,
non-political characteristics of the research centers, but
devoted specifically to strengthening national programs.
Second, it seemed unlikely that the international and
bilateral assistance agencies could agree to establish such
an international-but private, professional,
non-political-agricultural service organization. It might
be viewed as duplicating efforts assumed to be the
responsibility of the United Nations' Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO), rather than
complementing FAO's activities.
Third, it was feared that if a private organization
were established to operate entirely from overhead or
management fees on contracts, it would suffer from major
deficiencies. The new organization's representatives could
not remain objective in consultations with governments;
they would be inclined rather to seek contracts for the
organization (to generate income) even if a country did not
need expatriate help, or if another public or private
organization might be better able to provide the services
the country required. Moreover, it was felt that some
services to national programs collectively would be critical
and that these would require grant support.
Fourth, there appeared to be only one way to
determine the utility of such an organization or the
services it proposed to offer. That would be to establish
the organization, and let experience reveal the answer.

.21 Rd

The International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT),
located in Mexico, was established in

Decreased rates of population
growth must be achieved wher-
ever necessary; otherwise there
can be no long-term solution to
the world food problem. Efforts at
economic development will con-
tribute to lowering population
growth rates, and efforts to get
food production up in the develop-
ing countries buy time for
economic development.

A paper was prepared as a basis for discussions with
representatives of other assistance organizations. They
generally favored such an initiative. It was concluded that
IADS probably should concentrate on cooperation in
science-based national agricultural development programs
like those described at the 1969 Bellagio conference and in
which The Rockefeller Foundation had been involved in
Mexico, Colombia, and India. Most countries could obtain
loans or grants for research and development programs
and most would need technical help from diverse sources.
In a revised discussion paper, dated May 15, 1975, it
was recognized that each country's agricultural
development is primarily the responsibility of its own
government; that it is urgent that poorer countries develop
their own capabilities to accelerate their agricultural and
rural progress; and that to do so, they need to draw on all
available sources of help-international institutes,
international and national banks and technical assistance
agencies, universities, industry, foundations, private
organizations, and qualified individuals.
Recognition in early 1975 of the possibility of
initially organizing IADS in close association with The
Rockefeller Foundation, and of The Rockefeller
Foundation's initial provision of some services to IADS on
a reimbursable basis, removed the major administrative
barrier. Most importantly, IADS would not be forced at
the outset to seek contracts simply to generate funds to pay
the costs of a central administrative staff; instead, it would
be able whenever appropriate to encourage nations to
handle their own problems, or to obtain assistance from
other qualified organizations.
In April 1975, Drs. Clifford M. Hardin, J. George
Harrar, and John H. Knowles applied for incorporation of
IADS in the State of New York; in June the application was
approved. An application for federal tax exemption for
IADS was approved in November.
Throughout most of 1975 other events were helping
shape the nature of IADS and define its program priorities
and its possible channels of support. Meanwhile, there
was growing interest in and discussion of new approaches
to technical assistance which could accelerate agricultural

Chief among these 1975 activities was a meeting of
representatives of the technical assistance and donor
community at "Bellagio VII," a conference held in Canada,
in June, at which the representatives adopted a statement
endorsing the idea of IADS. It read, in part:
... there was a strong consensus in favour of the proposed IADS
and many participants expressed the wish to be kept informed of
the plans for its organization and the implementation of its
services as they become available.
S. there seemed to be a consensus that no new institutions,
apart from the proposed IADS, should be created to deal with
strengthening of national agricultural research systems.
In September 1975, the Board of Trustees of The
Rockefeller Foundation, in appropriating $100,000 for
IADS expenses in 1975, agreed to the establishment of IADS,
the leasing of space, the initial participation in IADS
affairs of a number of Foundation professional and
support staff, and consideration of financial support of up
to $7-8 million over IADS's first 5 years. The Foundation
later appropriated $1.5 million toward the support of
activities in 1976, and is providing a similar amount for
The willingness of the Foundation's Trustees to
allow this new, and still experimental, mechanism to
begin functioning in such an extraordinary way is
appreciated. It is too early to determine whether IADS in
its present form is the most advantageous means of
assisting nations to help themselves in the strengthening
of their national research, training, and production
systems. But, during its first year, much has been learned;
there has been substantial progress.
The primary concern underlying the creation of
IADS is that nations in difficulty quickly become able to
provide food for their hungry people and, through
agricultural development, to work toward the improved
standards of living rural people want and are increasingly

'During the year, IADS management
discussed possible core or special
project support with a number of
potential donors. By mid-year 1976, the
Eli Lilly Endowment, Inc. approved a
grant of $500,000 covering the 2-year
period beginning January 1, 1977.

* f




,-. -" a
*'- \ > *

A. A m ...-. -

'.4 4-* R .-E-. .. ..,

c J L .1



The Challenge:

Problems, Potentials,
and Approaches

"Perhaps for the first time many
of us have learnt to survey the
human condition in the world as a
whole and to see change in
agriculture not merely as a
technical means of increasing
'food production' or 'agricultural
output', but as a central social
process in the collective advance
of mankind." A. H. Bunting

Throughout 1976, the IADS staff has assembled and
analyzed information about the world food-poverty
situation, particularly with respect to the problems and
potentials for increasing agricultural production in the
smaller, poorer countries.
The results of this activity have provided a context or
framework within which the IADS Board and staff could
define initial program activities and seek new approaches.
This context, representing a synthesis of data,
information, and experience from many sources, is
outlined in this section.



7t7- 7

-40 -20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80

The world has been becoming
increasingly dependent on grain
exports of a few countries. Before World
War II, most regions exported grain;
now Canada and the United States are
the principal exporters, the rest of the
world importing.

'See Research Report No. 1 of the
International Food Policy Research Institute,
1776 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.,
Washington, D.C., for a detailed analysis.

12 I

The Nature and Severity of

National Problems

Major new agricultural and rural development
initiatives by the poorer agrarian nations-sharply focused
on widespread and increased output of the basic foods-are
urgently needed. The primary challenge is found in the
long-term, ominous trend toward ever larger grain deficits
in the lowest-income countries, as this February 1976
projection from the International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI) indicates:

Unless the trend of production in DME (developing market
economy) countries improves in the future, production of
cereals, the major food in most developing countries, will fall far
short of meeting food demands in food deficit countries by
95-108 million tons in 1985-86 depending on the rate of economic
growth. This compares with the shortfalls of 45 million tons in
the food crisis year, 1974-75, and average of 28 million tons in the
relatively good production period, 1969/71.
A total cereal deficit of about 100 million tons in DME food deficit
countries could well prove conservative. It is based on a
projection of the production trend of 1960/74, an average increase
of 2.5 percent a year, to 1985. During the last half of that period,
1967-74, the rate has slowed to 1.7 percent. This is too short a
period and subject to too much variation from year to year to
serve as a reliable base for projecting the future. Nevertheless,
the pervasiveness of the slackening in production for all regions
and cereal crops (except for wheat in Asia, the most visible
evidence of the "Green Revolution") suggests that it may well be
difficult for DME food deficit countries to maintain their longer
term production trends. In the event performance in the future
reflects the more recent trend, cereal production could fall short
an additional 100 million tons, doubling the cereal deficit to
about 200 million tons. Such a large transfer of food, largely from
developing countries, could well be unmanageable physically or

Current difficulties have been building for decades;
the time available for action is uncomfortably short. Rapid
and substantial increases in agricultural productivity in
the developing countries must be sought.

Characteristics of the Nations
in Difficulty
In 1973 the Population Reference Bureau listed 162
countries or geopolitical entities. The additions to
membership of the United Nations reveal that new
nations are emerging, some as a result of fragmentation of
previously larger entities. Of the 43 developing nations
which have been listed as "least developed" and/or "most
seriously affected" by recent increases in prices of items
they must import, such as petroleum, food, and
manufactured products, most are newly independent: 36
have become independent since 1945, 29 since early 1960.

Most are small. Some large nations (India,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia and others, along with
groups of nations, such as those in the Sahelian zone of
Africa) are in difficulty and have understandably been of
major concern to the assistance community. But there are
scores of smaller nations with a variety of development
problems, many of which have not received adequate
In 1973 there were 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America with populations of less than 1 million; 81
with populations of less than 5 million; and 108 with
populations of 10 million or less. Their small size may
present additional difficulties as they attempt to organize
and finance the great array of institutions they require.
Most have high population growth rates. The
majority of developing nations, particularly those in the
tropics and sub-tropics, have high population growth
rates, some in excess of 3 percent per year-with
population doubling times of 22 to 32 years.

Most are poor. In 1974 there were 89 countries with
gross national product levels of less than $500 per person.
The IFPRI report reveals that about half of the projected
deficits in grain production will occur in the poorest
countries, those with annual gross national products of
$200 per person or less-those least able to pay for food

Overleaf: shaded areas indicate nations
the major international agencies have
designated as having food deficits and
associated poverty problems. These
designations are listed by country in
Table 1, on the page following.
Also shown are the locations of the
CGIAR-associated international
agricultural research centers. They are:
IRRI, International Rice Research
CIMMYT, International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center
CIAT, The International Center for
Tropical Agriculture
IITA, International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture
CIP, International Potato Center
ICRISAT, International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
ILRAD, International Laboratory
for Research on Animal Diseases
ILCA, International Livestock Center
for Africa
WARDA, West Africa Rice
Development Association
IBPGR, International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources
ICARDA, International Centre for
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas






(Iran, Lebanon. Syria)





it I

nlKenya) -

. . . _.. .




a i

A 41




LDCs. The list of the 25 Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) was
established by the Committee for
Development Planning during the
Fifty-First Session of the Economic and
Social Council held in March-April
1971. The classification was based on
the following criteria: per caput gross
domestic product of US$ 100 or less in
1968, share of manufacturing in gross
domestic product of 10 percent or less,
and literacy rate in the age group of 15
years or more of 20 percent or less
around 1960.

MSAs. At its Sixth Special Session of
April-May 1974, the General Assembly
of the UN set up the United Nations
Emergency Operation to help the
countries Most Seriously Affected
(MSAs) by the economic crisis. These
were countries with a per caput income
of less than US$ 400 in 1971 for which
projections showed the likelihood of an
overall balance-of-payments deficit in
1974 equivalent to 5 percent or more of
imports. Forty-five countries are now
on this list.

FPCs. Forty-three countries have been
chosen by the World Food Council to be
Food Priority Countries (FPCs) as
fulfilling at least three of the following
five criteria:
(i) Low per caput income. Per caput
income is a relative concept but a level
below $500 (in 1975 prices) is not far out
of line with the figure of $400 (1971
prices) used to classify countries as
Most Seriously Affected and somewhat
higher than the limit of $100 (1968
prices) for Least Developed Countries.
It is also in line with the figure of $378
or less (in 1972 prices) which is used by
the World Bank for determining
eligibility for concessional financing.
(ii) A projected cereal deficit by 1985 of
500,000 tons or more and/or a cereals
deficit of 20 percent or more as a
proportion of estimated cereals
consumption, which would encompass
countries with large absolute or relative
food deficits.
(iii) Degree of under-nutrition in terms
of proportion of population which is

Table 1: Countries Designated as "Needy"
by a Major International Agency






Country (millions) LDC
1 Egypt 38
2 Sudan 18

3 Mauritania 1.3
4 Mal 5.8
5 Niger 4.7 o
6 Senegal 4.5
7 The Gambia 0.5
8 Upper Volta 6.2

9 Cape Verde Rep. 0.3
10 Guinea-Bissau 0.5
11 Guinea 4.7 0
12 Sierra Leone 3.1
13 Ivory Coast 6.8
14 Ghana 10
15 Benin 3.2 0

16 Ethiopia 29
17 Somalia 3.2
18 Uganda 12 *
19 Rwanda 4.4 o
20 Kenya 14
21 Burundi 3.9
22 Tanzania 16
23 Malawi 0.9 0
24 Mozambique 9.3
25 Malagasy Rep. 7.7

26 Chad 4.1 *
27 Cent. Afr. Rep. 1.8
28 Cameroon 6.5
29 Botswana 0.7 *
30 Lesotho 1.1 *

31 Yemen AR 6.9
32 Yemen PR 1 7

33 Afghanistan 20 *
34 Pakistan 73
35 India 621
36 Nepal 13 *
37 Bhutan 1.2
38 Bangladesh 76
39 Sri Lanka 14
40 Maldives 0.1 0

41 Burma 32
42 Lao PDR 3.4 *
43 Kampuchea 8.3
44 Indonesia 135
45 Philippines 44

46 W. Samoa 0.2 *

47 El Salvador 4 2
48 Honduras 2.8
49 Guatemala 5.7
50 Guyana 0.8

51 Haiti 4.6 *

Country number keys to map location on preceding page.











a a
a a
a a


Most are agrarian. Except in a few city-states such
as Singapore or Hong Kong, high proportions of
poor-country populations, usually 50 to 80 percent, live in
rural zones. Most family landholdings range from a
fraction of a hectare to a few hectares; but the amount of
income that can be produced, usually quite small using
traditional farming methods, is often a better indicator of
"size" than is the number of hectares farmed.
Yields of crops and animal herds are miserably
low. Recently, the food and Agricultural Organization of
the United Nations listed average yields of maize (corn)
for 138 countries and geopolitical entities. The highest
average yield per hectare (1972-1974 average) was 6.7 tons,
in New Zealand. The United States average was around
5.4 tons, and nine countries exceeded 5 tons. But 114
countries obtained yields of 3 tons or less; of these, 80
countries obtained 1.5 tons or less. In most countries with
low productivity, maize is used primarily for human food
rather than animal feed.
Similar low yields characterize nearly all other food
crops and major animal species in developing countries.

A high proportion of the poor and hungry live in rural
areas. Many of the poor in the cities, who are more
visible, have been driven there by even greater poverty
and hopelessness in the countryside. In most countries the
incomes of rural dwellers are far below the national
average. With communication advances and improved
transportation, rural people are becoming aware of the
higher standards of living now enjoyed by other (usually
small) segments of their nations' populations. Seeing little
hope of such improvements for themselves or their
children, they are becoming increasingly restless,
sometimes resorting even to violence.
Clearly, the world food-poverty situation is
extremely serious. It is time to devote all available energies
to actions which can help alleviate hunger and poverty
and improve standards of living of the hundreds of
millions whose future is now so bleak.

under-nourished or in terms of the
average availability of calories in
relation to minimum requirements.
(iv) Inadequate agricultural
performance in terms of average
historic increase in food production,
total and per caput, during the last
(v) Potential for more rapid and
efficient increase in food production
including the availability of
under-utilized resources to produce
PFDCs. The Consultative Group on
Food Production and Investment has
designated 18 countries as being
Priority Food-Deficit Countries
(PFDCs) on the criteria either that:
(i) It is likely to face by 1985 a deficit of
more than one million tons of cereals
just to maintain present inadequate
level of nutrition, or
(ii) Its food deficit, although small in
absolute terms, poses a major problem
at the national level because per caput
dietary energy supplies are not enough
now to meet even an average of 95
percent of the country's nutritional

As farm families have access to
greater disposable income through
increased agricultural productiv-
ity, they become purchasers of
goods and services. Employment
goes up not only on farms but in
the rural trade centers.

The Need to Increase Yields and Income
Some countries still can increase agricultural output
by cropping greater areas, but the more substantial
opportunity for most is to increase yields of the basic food
crops-rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, millets, cassava,
potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, cowpeas, field beans,
chick peas, pigeon peas, vegetables, and fruits, as well as
the animal species. Any product, however, which will
increase farmers' income is important.
There is a tremendous gap between what yields are
in most sections of most countries and what they could be.
This yield gap represents a significant potential food
reserve on which governments now must attempt to call.
If world population growth trends continue at
current annual rates of 2 percent or more, there is no
long-term solution in sight to the world food problem.
Those who seek to increase food production-and even
more importantly, are seeking thereby to increase
opportunities for effective employment and
improvements in income-are in reality buying time for
men and nations to bring populationgrowth rates down,
into balance with resource potentials. That time must be
effectively used.
But the roots of the problem and the potential
solution are in the rural areas-a fact which only a few
governments have yet acknowledged in the formation of
agricultural improvement campaigns.
If millions of farmers, many with small holdings, can
be helped to increase the productivity and profitability of
their farms, an increase in on-farm employment and in
incomes of rural people can be expected. As their incomes
rise, the demand for goods and services will increase. This
has been shown to lead to increased economic activity in
rural trade centers, providing greater employment there
and contributing to a reduction in birth rates. Domestic
markets for products of urban industry will expand. Some
wealth will be created in the countryside-wealth that is
desperately needed to finance improvements in health
care, education, transportation, and housing. None of
these other improvements, however, becomes possible

until incomes of rural people begin to rise. And farm
incomes must rise through more productive farming
systems and equitable prices for farm products.

The Primary Solution

The primary solution-the only acceptable
solution-to the food-poverty problem is known: to
increase agricultural productivity on millions of
developing-country farms, most of them tiny, and
concurrently to increase incomes or purchasing power of
hundreds of millions of the rural dwellers in several scores
of poor countries.
This strategy deals with both sides of the hunger
equation: increased food production where it is needed,
and increased access of hungry people to that food
through improved incomes.
This is a large and complex task. To rapidly increase
the productivity, income, and welfare of many small
farmers and other rural residents, new methodologies
need to be developed, tested, and applied in the
developing countries. The biological components (crop
varieties, disease and insect control measures, cropping
systems, to name a few) must be created for every crop, for
each season, for every region of every country-a massive
task calling for sophisticated efforts. Scientists must
produce new farm-level agricultural systems; and industry
and governments must arrange for the supplying of inputs
and the extension of road networks, power-grids, credit
systems, and marketing facilities to the countryside.
Campaigns are needed to force the pace of agricultural
development worldwide, moving it at a speed with which
only a few developing nations-and no industrialized
ones in Europe or North America-have had recent
The food-poverty problem is one of urgency. And
more is at stake than meeting the needs for food.
Continued neglect may be accompanied by (a) increasing
unrest and instability of governments; (b) increasing
difficulties in expanding and keeping open markets for

Domestic markets for products of
urban industry will expand. Some
wealth will be created in the
countryside-wealth that is des-
perately needed to finance im-
provements in health care, educa-
tion, transportation, and housing.

products of industry, including those of free-world farms
and businesses; (c) higher food prices for consumers
everywhere; and (d) the likely loss of personal freedom of
rural and urban people alike, in country after country, as
regimentation seems necessary to governments to control
The industrialized countries, with their reservoir of
scientific and business expertise, can and must become
more substantially involved or the efforts of nations in
difficulty will fail. There is a need now to establish a
strategy for cooperative action and to make it known, to
provide the necessary funding on a sustained basis, and to
organize efforts to make them more effective.
Yet responsibility for initiating and sustaining the
campaigns in each country must rest with the country's
own government. Only it can set the nation's policies,
strengthen its institutions, and reach its farmers. Outside
agencies can, and must, assist, but that is all they can do.
Each government must have the will to act decisively, for
it alone bears the responsibility for helping its people.

The Basis for Hope
There is a basis for hope. An understanding of the
nature, the complexity, the urgency, and the primary
solution of the food-poverty problem has developed for
the most part in the past 10 years. Many nations now have
an opportunity, perhaps for the first time in history, to
deal with their problems effectively. For most, such
opportunities did not exist 10, or perhaps even 5, years
Through the efforts of the CGIAR, building on
decades of prior work by many institutions, there is now a
network of agricultural research and training centers to
which nations can turn for help with many of their
important but long-neglected commodities and farming
A still more comprehensive research effort is now
emerging, involving strengthened national institutions in
some developing countries (Mexico, Brazil, India,
Indonesia, to name a few), the international centers,

international assistance agencies and public
organizations, and private industry in developed
countries. The objective: to produce for the tropics and
sub-tropics components for higher-yielding and more
profitable crop and animal production systems, together
with improved techniques of marketing and storage.
A network of financial institutions and assistance
agencies has taken shape. This includes the World Bank,
the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian
Development Bank, the African Development Bank, and a
number of common market and regional banks. Some
countries have established national agricultural
development banks and have created credit agencies and
banking systems extending into the rural areas.
More loan funds for national agricultural programs
are becoming available. The World Bank, for example, has
increased its lending in the agriculture sector to $4.4
billion during the period 1974-1978 from $3.1 billion in
Fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have
become available in sufficient quantities to allow their use
for the first time on the vast areas devoted to food crops in
the developing countries. At the turn of the century,
production of fertilizer nutrients totaled only about 2
million tons; it now is over 90 million tons.
The growth of international industries has made
many other inputs essential to production more accessible
to the less-developed countries.
A number of assistance agencies are expanding
efforts to increase agricultural productivity with special
attention to small farmers.
Governments of the developing countries have
demonstrated that they can increase production rapidly.
In the mid-1960's India embarked on a 5-year program
which swiftly increased wheat and rice yields on 32
million acres of land. Pakistan, Turkey, the Philippines,
and other nations have had similar, though less dramatic,
successes, demonstrating that nations can raise
productivity if they are determined to do so.
Even uneducated farmers with small holdings have
demonstrated that they will, if they can, adopt new

".. .the fundamental problem ...
is to build into the whole agricul-
tural process an attitude of
experiment, trial and error, con-
tinued innovation, and adaptation
of new ideas. Once this innova-
tive and experimental spirit per-
meates the rural community, the
farm supply and marketing indus-
tries, the bureaucracy, and the
intellectual institutions concerned
with agriculture, the gulf between
city and country, between univer-
sities and farmers, between minis-
ters and village officials will be
bridged, and continuing develop-
ment can be built into the sys-
tem." Max F. Millikan and
David Hapgood.

farming systems, provided the systems are clearly more
productive and profitable than older ones.
Many authorities of developing countries are
beginning to take agricultural and rural development
seriously. No longer able to rely on the availability of free
or low-cost food supplies in international channels, and
faced with the necessity of spending scarce foreign
exchange earnings to import food, governments are
turning to the development of their own rural areas as the
best solution. Most want their country's food supplies
under national control; and many leaders, now
recognizing the political importance of the rural
populations, seek ways to increase incomes of rural
Some nations now desiring technical assistance are
prepared to finance expanded agricultural efforts
themselves. Many others, with grants and loans already
arranged, now are searching for scientific, technical, and
managerial services to implement comprehensive
programs of accelerated agricultural development.
Population growth rates seemingly are beginning to
come down in a number of countries, particularly those
advancing economically.
The climate for cooperation on problems of global
concern is better than it has been for many years. The
resolutions of the World Food Conference in November
1974, calling for the establishment of the World Food
Council, the International Fund for Agricultural
Development, and the Consultative Group for Food
Production and Investment, and its endorsement of
international efforts to support agricultural research,
indicate that behind the international political rhetoric
there is a common desire among most nations to work
toward increasing agricultural productivity and the supply
of food.

Continuing Difficulties

National institutions, especially in the poorer and
smaller countries, need considerable assistance. Some

need help to plan, organize, and implement specific
programs, establish new enterprises, and identify and
apply policies to stimulate agricultural production.
Increasing numbers now seek technical assistance to
develop staff, and to identify and devise ways to overcome
constraints to development. They are encountering a
number of difficulties:
1. In some of the hundred or more developing
countries, the potential productivity of rural areas is still
not understood (or is recognized but ignored) by national
leaders. It is important to bring opportunities to the
attention of such leaders along with an appreciation of the
measures required, the relative speed with which progress
could occur, and the need for decisive action on their part.
2. Some nations, particularly those with diversified
agricultural systems, are encountering problems in
making use of the many new sources of information and
assistance. Some find it difficult, given their limited
capabilities, to deal effectively with the many assistance
agencies on a one-by-one, project-by-project basis and to
weld the diverse offers of assistance into a coherent,
continuing national effort. The scarcity of local personnel,
the multiple responsibilities of the usually few
outstanding individuals, and their frequently changing
assignments exacerbate the difficulties.
Public and private assistance agencies, national or
international, are seeking but have not yet found suitable
mechanisms for coordinating their efforts in support of
longer-term development programs of individual
There appears to be a critical need for both (a) new
means of supplying highly competent personnel to work
with and for developing-country institutions on an
interim but long-term basis and (b) institutions in each
country for achieving more coherent and successful
national agricultural programs.
3. Most developing countries have all too few of the
well-trained, development-oriented scientific,
technological, and administrative personnel required for
public and private-sector activities. Yet much of the
scientific research and manpower training related to

"There is little doubt that the
greatest source of unity among the
nations of the Third World is their
universal desire for economic de-
velopment and human progress.
The new international economic
order for which they are striving
will in the final analysis be re-
solved by the political process
both domestically and interna-
tionally. Agriculture and the peo-
ple dependent upon agriculture
continue to constitute the largest
single segment of this basic world
problem." Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.

agricultural development still reflects the interests and
experience of developed-country institutions rather than
the urgent requirements of the countries in difficulty.
Training opportunities must be devised through
which developing-country personnel can learn how to
plan and implement accelerated agricultural programs
tailored to their own nations' conditions.
4. International banks and some bilateral assistance
agencies have experienced difficulty in finding adequate
numbers of qualified specialists for assignment to national
projects or programs. Even when they are available, there
often is no suitable professional organization to employ
them and assign them where needed.
5. Some donors report that they are willing to
support more programs in the smaller, poorer countries,
but that many such countries seem unable to identify and
prepare sound and significant proposals for consideration.
6. A weakness common to most developed-world
organizations is inexperience in organizing concerted,
accelerated public and private efforts to achieve both
production and farmer-participation goals. For the past 25
or 30 years, the United States and other industrial
countries, where many of the world's professional
agriculturists have been trained, have had intermittent
and often serious commodity surpluses. As a
consequence, there has been no need to race against time,
no organized drive to increase output on large numbers of
small farms. Few individuals or institutions in such
countries have learned through experience how to
organize, implement, and manage the fast-moving,
goal-oriented, coordinated production campaigns that
today's critical food situation requires. IADS itself must
learn if it is to be helpful.
7. All too often, publications dealing with
commodities, and available case studies of development
experiences in poorer countries, have been written for
academic audiences or for public relations purposes, not
for development personnel. Technical information is
scattered in journals, individual papers, and scientific
treatises, presenting at best a frustrating array of
fragmented information.

8. Finally, the kinds and amount of assistance
needed by the many newer and smaller countries
seemingly far exceed the combined capacity of existing
agencies, as they are presently organized and financed, to
supply or manage.

Facilitating Cooperation in
Assistance Efforts
There are already many significant participants in
cooperative developmental activity, including FAO and
UNDP, the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural
Sciences (IICA), the international banks, bilateral
assistance agencies, universities, international institutes,
and some private organizations. And, during the past
decade, cooperation among assistance organizations has
increased substantially, particularly in support of the
international agricultural research institutes. The close
working relationships among members of the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
are seemingly resulting in increased cooperation in
support of individual nations.
Still greater integration of efforts might be useful. It
is also hoped that increasing numbers of foundations,
corporations, and individuals will be able to contribute
significantly to efforts to improve agricultural productivity
and standards of living in the poorer countries.
To the extent desired by others, IADS is prepared to
use its resources to enable assistance agencies and
organizations to work in greater concert in support of
individual nations, and to facilitate the contribution of
such support, whether it is made through IADS or directly
to programs in developing countries.

* a

.g.ie^ '






~,?t- ~t

lADS Interests

and Capabilities

"At present the incomes of nearly
a billion people depend upon
farms of less than 5 hectares .
but on these mini-holdings output
per hectare can be a third as large
again as in the largest farms. ...
Here is the critical gap in capital,
productivity, and, above all, food
that the new development
approach is beginning to put at
the center of its strategy."
Barbara Ward

Many feel that the scope of IADS interests is too
broad, going far beyond its technical and managerial
capabilities. Others contend it is too narrowly scientific
and technical, that it must respond to the range of needs of
the countries in difficulty.
IADS has started small, with a few stated areas of
particular interest in which its staff has useful experience.
Meanwhile, it is exploring-particularly with
developing-country authorities-the areas of possible
IADS expansion that would best serve their nations.
IADS is basically a mechanism through which
developing-country governments and assistance agencies
can quickly marshal expertise and funds for accelerated
agricultural development-in heretofore difficult if not
impossible ways. IADS is prepared to use its flexibility to
foster cooperation in any combination useful to the
country it is invited to serve.

The primary purpose of IADS is to assist individual
countries to design, organize, and strengthen their own
institutions and programs to increase agricultural output
and to raise incomes of rural people. Emphasis is on (a)
widespread improvement in productivity of agriculture;
(b) rapid progress in meeting production or
farmer-participation goals; (c) full utilization of available
developing-country manpower, institutions, and
resources; (d) in-country training of personnel; (e) prompt
introduction and exploitation of scientific, technical, or
other advances wherever they occur; and (f) full utilization
of the available external resources that the nation wishes
to employ in pursuit of its goals.
IADS will concentrate initially on intensification of
crop and animal production.
It is anticipated that 80 percent or more of IADS's
efforts, once the organizing period has passed, will be
devoted to work with individual countries.
Most in-country work in agriculture will be financed
by the government concerned; funds from loans or grants
in the form of foreign exchange and technical support
represent additional scarce resources, which must be
carefully husbanded to reinforce the nation's total efforts
in agricultural development.
While project implementation will be an important
part of IADS's program, the expectation is that this activity
will be based increasingly upon early participation in
IADS will, if requested, cooperate with nations in
ways such as:

1. Analyses of Development Opportunities. IADS
is prepared to participate in identification of alternative
approaches to development of a nation's agriculture. This
may include (a) determination of potential for increasing
productivity and profitability of specific crops or animal
species in specific regions, or alternative means of
developing particular regions, in some cases through
field tests; and (b) the establishment of realistic goals
against which progress can be measured. Usually, IADS
will not assume responsibility for full-scale sector

analyses, as international banks and some other assistance
agencies offer such services. lADS may participate,
however, when its professional expertise would be

2. National Agricultural Research and Training
Programs. IADS's emphasis will be on coordinated
national commodity research and training programs, on
establishment of the technical basis for development of
defined regions (see below), and on problem-centered
research. These are the three complementary approaches
which can be expected to produce quick results and
sustained progress, with the highest returns on financial
investments. Longer-range programs would embrace (a)
establishment of research goals, (b) organization of
interdisciplinary research groups, (c) establishment of
experiment stations and substations, with the needed
laboratories, (d) the usually neglected on-farm
experimentation in each important locality, and (e)
arrangements for full involvement of the research
establishment in national efforts to increase output and
farm incomes.
Research establishments should be expected to train
local personnel-from potential research scientists to
farm-level production specialists-in substantial
numbers. Such in-service training should be supplemented
by arrangements for national personnel to work
temporarily at international research institutes, or work
toward higher academic degrees at appropriate

3. Commodity Production Programs. These
longer-term action programs should involve arrangements
by which relevant planning, research, extension,
input-supply, and marketing organizations are asked to
work in concert toward clearly stated national production
or farmer-participation goals for each important
commodity included. Implementation may be undertaken
by the nation concerned-with or without support by
international banks, other assistance agencies, business
interests, or IADS.

- G
J. George Harrar

"Without rapid progress in small-
holder agriculture there is
little hope either of achieving
long-term stable economic growth
or of significantly reducing the
levels of absolute poverty."
Robert McNamara


Plans, if requested, will be supplemented by
recommendations or suggestions regarding outside
organizations which might be interested in cooperating in
or supporting national efforts. IADS may, if invited, assist
in preparing proposals for loans or grants for submission
to technical assistance or lending agencies. IADS generally
is prepared to consider assisting with implementation of
the actions it recommends, if such is requested and is
4. Agricultural Development Programs in Designated
Areas. These action programs generally are intended to
increase crop and animal yields, incomes, and standards
of living of rural dwellers in particular regions, including
states, provinces, and specific agricultural areas. To be
successful, such programs should be initiated by and
involve relevant government agencies, and should be
supported by strong national research efforts as described
above. Approaches are based on techniques such as those
used in the Puebla Project in Mexico and other, similar
Projects generally will be based on a technical and
economic 1- or 2-year feasibility study-involving
farm-level research-used to determine potentials, define
problems, establish goals, and train some personnel. Such
efforts in defined rural areas have particular utility since
(a) the full range of technical, organizational, and social
problems must be confronted, (b) baseline data on the
community can be obtained at the outset, and subsequent
changes measured, (c) errors in approach can be identified
and remedied relatively easily, with minimum adverse
impact on large numbers of people, and (d) farm-level
technicians can be given superior training.
5. Strengthening of Colleges and Schools of
Agriculture. The higher educational institutions in
agriculture are important resources in any nation's
strategy to promote development. Often they have
concentrations of talent in which substantial investments
have been made. Yet some colleges and schools are
characterized by one or more of the following weaknesses:

(a) Students predominantly are from cities or from
subsistence farms and do not have experience in intensive
management of crops or animals. Nor do they get such
experience at the college or school. They may graduate
with an education but with few accompanying skills; they
consequently lack confidence in facing farmers or farm
problems. Such graduates are as ineffective as medical
doctors without internships would be.
(b) Faculty members, perhaps educated to the
doctoral level, often lack skills or field experience. As a
result, they confine themselves to classroom teaching, or
to research based on the scientific literature or on
laboratory work. They are often ill-equipped to transmit
skills to students via joint involvement in field research.
Lack of dynamic, purposeful field research at colleges of
agriculture may be the result of lack of competence-and
lack of confidence-of the faculty.
(c) Many colleges, even though active in research,
are not involved substantially in their nation's
development efforts. Experiment stations are often
ill-maintained and underutilized. Even if experiment
stations are good, there may be little experimentation at
the farm level.
(d) A nation's colleges or schools may operate
under a ministry other than agriculture and may be, for
administrative reasons, essentially out of touch with the
mainstream of the nation's agricultural activity. For a
college to be in a separate ministry is not bad in itself; for
it not to be participating in agricultural development is a
serious weakness.
In development of colleges or schools of agriculture,
IADS recommends an emphasis on:
Preparation of students who on graduation not only are
well educated but are highly skilled in agricultural (field)
Involvement of faculty in research and training in close
cooperation with action agencies, with an upgrading of
skills and confidence of faculty;

Virgilio Barco

Development of active, purposeful research and testing
programs on well-run experiment stations as part of
coordinated national efforts;
Preparation of teaching materials appropriately based on
the nation's resources, experience, and needs; and
Involvement of the institution in farm-level research, at
least in the region served.

Colleges of agriculture, because of their
concentrations of talent, can be among the leading forces
in a nation's effort to spur agricultural or rural
development. They can achieve this role by participating
in identification of development strategies, imparting
skills to students, serving as components of the national
research and training network, and devising and testing
crop and animal production systems for their localities.
A number of major universities in the industrialized
countries have had extensive experience in assisting with
the establishment or strengthening of educational
institutions in other countries. These experienced
universities can continue to be a primary source of such
Where there is a clear national interest in creating or
strengthening colleges or schools, IADS may be able to
help with programs of relatively long duration.

Characteristics and Capabilities
It is IADS policy to respond quickly to requests from
governments for consultations, subject only to
determination that central authorities of governments
have a serious interest in such talks, allocation of the time
for IADS to study relevant information in advance of
visits, and availability of funds.
Upon receipt of a written request from appropriate
government authorities of a developing country, IADS
will arrange as rapidly as it can for a representative to visit
the country to gain an understanding of the goals and
needs of the nation. This is undertaken with no obligation
either to the country or to IADS. If it appears that effective
action can be taken by national organizations without
outside assistance, IADS will suggest ways in which this


might be done. If assistance from organizations other than
IADS is indicated, IADS will suggest options for national
authorities to consider. If the country desires in-depth
study or longer-term commitments, IADS will indicate
what it might do and at what cost.
Among the characteristics and capabilities of IADS
as an organization which national authorities and
assistance agency personnel may wish to consider are:
1. IADS is competent primarily in the strengthening
of public sector agricultural institutions-research and
extension systems, colleges of agriculture, and the other
national organizations which must be involved in
successful production and marketing systems. IADS
normally does not become involved in projects which
profit-making organizations or others can do better.
2. IADS has experience with and can be expected to
recommend development of strong science-based national
commodity production systems-involving planning,
research, extension, input supply, and marketing
-augmented by in-depth development efforts on an
area basis, all supported by synchronized planning,
research, and training activities.
3. IADS will work with national authorities and
assistance agencies in identifying the sets of services
which would best serve the needs of the country. If it
appears that expatriates or assistance of external
organizations (including IADS) are not needed, IADS will
so state.
4. IADS wishes to be reasonably certain that it is
helping not only to accelerate national progress, but to
sustain it. IADS is prepared, and in fact prefers, to
cooperate with a country, when its authorities so desire,
over the extended periods of time necessary to both
achieve the nation's agricultural development goals and
ensure the permanence of its progress.
5. IADS provides a mechanism through which
national authorities or organizations may obtain the
services of the particular individuals or organizations they
prefer; it can search worldwide for talent-in North

Guy Camus

Developing-country governments
must have the will to embark on
well-organized, long-range ag-
ricultural development efforts. In-
creasing numbers of political lead-
ers of poorer countries now seem-
ingly want to take action, and are
requesting help.

America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America-as desired
by national authorities. IADS provides a professional
home for these specialists; but, unless otherwise agreed,
the individuals IADS assigns to national programs and
institutions work for and are primarily responsible to
national authorities. IADS has already been able to attract
individuals of the highest qualifications for such
IADS believes that it is generally not in the interest
of countries to be served by a series of individuals on
short, 1- to 2-year assignments. Persons assigned by IADS
to country programs or institutions, particularly program
leaders, will expect to remain on assignment for the
duration of the task, subject to satisfactory performance as
judged by national authorities and IADS.
6. IADS has close ties with the international
agricultural research institutes, and with many agricultural
scientists, educators, and development specialists
worldwide. IADS's staff members maintain liaison with
many national and international development assistance
agencies. IADS is also assessing the resources and
interests of non-governmental organizations and private
industry, so that countries can have access to their
7. IADS can arrange for post-graduate study or
specialized training anywhere in the world, placing each
individual at the particular institution (and often with the
advisor at that institution) best able to provide the
training needed. Moreover, IADS maintains contact with
the student during the training period and renders reports
to national authorities on his or her progress. The services
of The Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship Office, which
has handled more than 12,000 students worldwide, can be
called upon as needed.
8. IADS has capabilities for purchasing and
shipping equipment and supplies from any point in the
world, using the services that supported the establishment
of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the
Philippines, the International Center for Maize and Wheat
Improvement (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the Centro

International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia,
and that supported cooperative national programs in
Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Thailand,
Turkey, and other countries.
9. IADS can be considered one of the developing
nation's own mechanisms, to be called upon as needed.
The IADS offices are open for use by cooperating country
authorities when they are in the New York City area.
In summary, IADS directs its operations to the
achievement of the cooperating country's objectives, and
particularly to the development of the national capabilities
and institutions that will ensure sustained progress. It can
provide the country with dedicated, competent
professionals and needed services over sufficient periods
of time to ensure progress. Ralph W. Cummings
IADS prefers and hopes to be regarded as a
cooperating friend of the countries which use its services.


V '

,n# -






f- ,







~I~ .



lADS Activities in 1976

Working with a small staff at its headquarters in
New York, IADS in 1976 concentrated on identifying those
services which would be of greatest importance to the
countries where agricultural productivity is low and there
is interest in accelerating development. This process
involved numerous discussions with authorities of
developing countries, bilateral and international assistance
agencies, foundations working internationally, private
voluntary organizations, universities, industry, and
members of the IADS Board of Trustees. The staff
acknowledges with appreciation the cooperation and
assistance received.
Activities during the year were of two general types:
(a) direct services to individual nations, and (b) program
support operations of potential value to developing
countries collectively.
The pages which follow describe the state of program
definition at year's end as well as those activities in which
IADS engaged in 1976.

"Providing sufficient food to meet
the needs of an ever-increasing
world population is one of the
greatest challenges mankind has
ever faced. Most of the in-
crease must come from the de-
veloping countries themselves ...
and most of it must come from
increasing the productivity of
land already under cultivation."
UNDP, FAO, and World Bank


Cooperation with Countries
Early in the year, IADS received a number of
invitations from governments for consultation and, in
some cases, requests for IADS services. The number of
inquiries taxed the response capabilities of the small IADS
staff, which was attempting at the same time to establish
IADS's procedures and operating principles and to
determine the scope of its programs. Nevertheless, IADS
was involved in activities in the following countries:
Indonesia. Indonesia is in the process of
reorganizing its Ministry of Agriculture, with
responsibility for research assigned to a new Agency for
(Agricultural) Research and Development (ARD). The
implementation of the basic organizational plan of ARD
will require some realignment of the existing research
system, extensive training of Indonesian staff, and the
development of some new institutional arrangements.
Basic to the plan is the establishment of a system which
promotes the application of new technology by the farmer.
The World Bank is providing a loan of $21.5 million
to supplement $25.1 million budgeted by the Government
of Indonesia for use over the next 6 years in strengthening
research and extension. Of this, some $16 million is for
ARD, primarily for use for improvement of commodity
research programs for rice, upland crops (principally
maize, soybeans, sorghum, and cassava), vegetables, and
rubber. The loan funds will support 62 man-years of
technical assistance, 133 fellowships for training either
abroad or in Indonesia, purchase of scientific equipment,
and capital construction.
By the end of 1976, the Government of Indonesia and
IADS had reached agreement on most aspects of a contract
for IADS services to ARD in the amount of $8.9 million.
(The contract was signed on February 11, 1977.) IADS is to
provide one senior specialist, Dr. Edwin B. Oyer of
Cornell University, to work directly with the head of ARD

over a 5-year term, four program specialists for 4-year
terms, and research specialists for shorter periods. Nine
short-term and 18 long-term fellowships are allocated in
this specific program area. In addition, there will be a
financial administrator, Mr. Fred F. Fairman, who will
work closely with the director of the Project
Implementation Unit of ARD in the management of the
overall program. IADS will assist in arranging for the
training of ARD personnel.
ARD activities in 1977 will center on organizational
and institutional arrangements. Dr. Oyer and four
program specialists (including Dr. Keith J. Templeton, a
rubber specialist from New Zealand, and Dr. Harold
Young, a vegetable specialist from the United States) are to
be posted in early 1977. Consultants from several sources
will be used during the organizational stages. Research
specialists required for specific commodities will join
later, after institutional arrangements have been made.
Significant actions on training programs, experiment
station development, ard procurement planning are
anticipated during 1977.

Nepal. Since 1951, a number of organizations and
nations have been assisting Nepal with important aspects
of its agricultural development program. The United
Kingdom, for example, supports agricultural training of
Nepalese who formerly served in the British armed forces.
The Federal Republic of Germany is assisting with the
Gandaki Project, and the Swiss Government supports an
innovative Integrated Hill Development Project, both
good examples of "defined region" programs. Yet
increasing population and stagnating agricultural
production, especially in the hill regions of this
mountainous country, appear to have resulted in
declining per person food availability. The development
of the Terai-low-altitude, relatively level land at the base
of the Himalayas-has been helpful, but Nepal must
improve agricultural output throughout the countryside if
it is to feed its people. There exists a small cadre of trained
Nepalese scientists, but more are needed. Improved

Jose D. Drilon, Jr.

B. B. Khadka, Director General of
Nepal's Department of Agriculture,
and Sterling Wortman, IADS president,
signed the Nepal/IADS agreement on
September 10, 1976.

farming systems for the densely populated "hill country"
must be developed, systems that are not only productive
enough to meet the food needs of the people, but can also
protect the steep hillsides from erosion.
His Majesty's Government of Nepal has now
initiated a national program to improve production of
major cereals (maize, rice, and wheat), and to improve
farming systems which will include other crops as well. In
addition to work on the cereals and cropping systems, the
program calls for training of Nepalese scientists and
technicians. USAID expects to provide grants totalling $5
million to Nepal for foreign exchange requirements.
In early 1976, Nepal's Secretary of Agriculture
invited IADS to discuss the possibility that IADS might
serve as prime contractor for the external assistance
required. In September, lADS and His Majesty's
Government signed an agreement which includes
arrangements for cooperative work with CIMMYT on
maize and wheat and with IRRI on rice.
Dr. Wayne H. Freeman, formerly joint coordinator of
the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme
and a staff member of The Rockefeller Foundation, was
named as the IADS project supervisor to work with
Nepal's Director General of Agriculture. Dr. Donald
Schmidt and Dr. Torrey Lyons were assigned to Nepal by
CIMMYT to assist with maize and wheat, respectively.
Prof. Mun-Hue Heu of Korea, a rice breeder, will move to
Nepal in 1977. Dr. Hugo Manzano of Colombia, an
experienced specialist on cropping systems in the Andes
and formerly head of agronomy for the Instituto
Colombiano Agropecuario, will join the staff in early 1977.
The training officer will be Mr. Eduardo Perdon of the
Philippines, who had substantial experience at IRRI. An
agricultural economist still is to be identified. Four Peace
Corps volunteers, to be associated with the project, will be
trained at CIMMYT before arriving in Nepal.
The activities now underway include efforts to
strengthen Nepal's national agricultural research system
through the system's involvement in forced-pace
commodity production programs. Prospects are good for
increasing production of major cereals in the Terai, the

plain at the foot of the Himalayas. Adaptive research
based on the work of the international centers, the
evaluation of previous experience in Nepal, and the
introduction of practices found useful in nearby parts of
India, followed by intensive efforts to get these practices
implemented by farmers, are expected to lead to
noticeable increases in productivity within 5 years.
Results will be much slower in the mountainous
areas. Here, incremental improvements based on
innovations in the areas' farming systems, plus intensive
efforts in the more accessible areas to increase grain
yields, seem the most logical routes to increased
productivity and improved standards of living.
Transportation is such a problem in the hills that only low
levels of purchased inputs can be counted on in the
immediate future. The role of the technical team will be to
pinpoint weaknesses in farming systems, to investigate
the factors limiting production, and to assist the Nepalese
in utilizing this information to improve production; the
development of crop varieties tolerant to acid soils and
specifically suited to Nepal is an example.
The major innovation in Nepal's efforts will be the
attempt to devise and implement a coordinated research,
extension, and training program that concentrates on
cereal production as part of a concerted effort to increase
food availability in the country and to link such efforts
directly with those of the international institutes. With the
cooperation of the international centers, and the
establishment of close working relations among groups
now working separately in Nepal, results may well be
obtained much earlier than might otherwise be possible.

Botswana. Botswana, located in Southern Africa,
has a land area equal to that of Texas, and a population of
750,000. It has an annual population growth rate of 3.3
percent and one of the highest rates of urbanization in
Africa: in Botswana's fourth National Development Plan it
is projected that between 1976 and 1981 the total
population will increase to 1,180,000 and the proportion of
urban dwellers will increase from 14 to 26 percent.

Terraced fields in Nepal's "hill

Botswana is a semi-arid country, largely located in the
Kalahari desert and with only one large open body of
water, the Okavango Delta. Rainfall is limited and varied
and drought is not uncommon. The main agricultural
product is cattle; beef is a major export. Crops produce
only a minor part of the total farm income, with sorghum
and maize the staple food crops and pulses, sunflower
seeds, and groundnuts the major cash crops.
A number of agencies are providing professional
staff and aid funding to develop the agricultural potential
of the country. Research is being carried out by two
U.K. development teams in dryland farming and the
development of improved tillage machines and farming
systems. A USAID team is providing assistance in
developing improved crop varieties. The UNDP is
involved in providing staff in animal production and
range research, and other donors including CIDA, IDRC,
SIDA, and the World Bank are providing assistance in
crop and livestock development and research. The U.K.
provides many of the staff in technical administrative
positions while Batswana are being trained to assume
these posts.
In early 1976, IADS was approached on behalf of the
Government of Botswana regarding its need for a Director
,B of Agricultural Research, a post which had been vacant for
nearly 2 years. Botswana has a strong research program in
animal production, range research, and livestock
development. The crop research program is actively
engaged in dryland farming and evaluation of farming
systems, and expansion is planned in crop and
horticultural research. The research on sorghum which is
iS- inow underway will be expanded; cooperation with
ICRISAT will be a useful addition to development of
Therc must be avaIlable to farmers sorghum research.
ipt each country, more highly pro- IADS sent a team to Botswana in 1976 to discuss
ftableC aid complete farmtin ss- IADS's role in providing a person to fill the post of
terns. The biological components
tlmst. The r too, l o ir Director of Agricultural Research.
each season, For c-ocf Y 'eion of IADS recommended to Botswana that they seek,
ver countr-a massc task call- through the Norwegian Agency for International
ing tor sophisticated research ef- Development (NORAD), the services of Dr. Kristian
forts iclthin Individual countries Oland. NORAD agreed. Dr. Oland has had considerable

research and administrative experience in Africa and this,
coupled with his distinction as a research scientist, made
him an outstanding choice. Dr. Oland will go to Botswana
in May 1977 with NORAD financing for 5 years, more or
less depending on needs. He will serve concurrently as
IADS representative in Botswana. This will permit him to
negotiate with others for IADS and Botswana to the extent
that the nation's authorities request, recruit for projects if
need be, and maintain professional ties with IADS. IADS
will provide some of its grant funds, from The Rockefeller
Foundation, for short-term consultants, establishment of
working relationships between Botswana agencies and
those elsewhere, emergency supplies, etc., as requested by
Botswana authorities through the Director of Research.
Dr. Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., will assist Dr. Oland for a
few weeks in 1977 to develop an incoming Director's
report on development options for the country.
Other sources of flexible funds likely will be
identified and IADS may be invited to implement
contracts in the country. The government already has
indicated it may wish IADS to do this.
Persons familiar with Botswana deem it to offer
excellent conditions for cooperative activity leading to
improved agricultural output. Its effective linkage to the
international sources of improved agricultural technology
might serve as a model for other small countries.
Dominican Republic. In early 1976, two members of
the Dominican Republic's private business sector visited
IADS to inquire about possible cooperation in identifying
ways to increase output of some of the country's major
agricultural commodities and develop its economically
depressed hill areas. Following an invitation from the
Secretary of Agriculture, and after a visit to New York by
five Dominicans representing business and government,
three Spanish-speaking IADS representatives spent a
week visiting agricultural regions and institutions in the
Dominican Republic, and meeting with the Secretary and
his staff and with President Balaguer.
The IADS group recommended:
(a) that the Dominican Republic organize national

commodity-oriented production programs, beginning
with rice. It proposed that work be guided by a national
agricultural commission comprising relevant ministers
and major industry executives. It seemed clear that local
technical leadership for rice was adequate or nearly so,
that training of extension and other rice technicians could
be accelerated, and that a concerted national effort with
rice should succeed if the national commission had the
necessary funds to finance activities not covered by
ministry budgets.
(b) that a hill development authority, comprising
government, industry, and other leaders, be formed not
only to initiate studies to determine how productivity,
employment, and prosperity in the hills could be
increased, but to undertake development programs. It was
further recommended that the authority be legally
constituted so that it could receive and disburse funds
from government, assistance agencies, industry, or others
for development of the region.
Considerable progress was made on the rice program
during 1976. IADS arranged for Dr. P. R. Jennings, a rice
specialist who developed the semi-dwarf rice varieties at
IRRI and at CIAT, to review the rice research program.
Another IADS representative, Dr. F. C. Byrnes, worked
with the Dominicans on organizing the rice training
program, which will begin in early 1977, and assisted with
development of the plan for the hill region.
Work on the problems of the hills continues under
the guidance of Dominican government and industry
IADS's initial involvement in the Dominican
Republic was financed with grant funds available to IADS;
as a consequence, IADS was able to respond reasonably
quickly to the country's invitation. The cooperation
between the Dominican Republic and IADS illustrates
IADS's policy of suggesting to national authorities ways
they can take action on their own problems with a
minimum of outside help.
Ecuador. Ecuador has recently declared that the
improvement of agricultural production, and of the

general welfare of the country's small farmers, will receive
first priority among its development activities. The
Ministers of Agriculture, Health, Education, Public
Works, and Rural Housing and the Director of Planning
are formulating a number of integrated rural development
programs. They are convinced that an integrated approach
is necessary to accomplish their objectives.
While Ecuador has substantial income from
petroleum exports, and international agencies are willing
to loan additional money, development is limited by a
number of factors, including a scarcity of trained

A number of factors favor the implementation of
integrated rural development programs:
The leaders of the incumbent government have expressed
a strong desire to proceed with development programs on
a national scale. In addition, a development program for
the Guayas River Basin, which would be based on rice
production utilizing the modified Asian rice production
system developed by CIAT, has been discussed in some
detail. Other programs based on wheat production in the
highlands have high priority.
The country is relatively small and planning on a national
scale is feasible.
The country has ample natural resources which could be
developed and properly utilized.
There are excellent conditions of climate and soil, in
addition to favorable geography and ecology, and
year-round availability of water.
The government has stated that it is prepared to
finance the rice- and wheat-based development projects
over a long period of time, probably using bank loans as
well as local sources of funds. Officials have requested
help to plan and execute the projects, to train personnel,
and to develop new research thrusts.
Discussions were initiated in Quito in early 1976.
In September 1976, IADS and the Government of Ecuador
signed an agreement to cooperate; participation in 1977
will be financed by grant funds made available to IADS
by The Rockefeller Foundation.

John A. Hannah

1iu 1 c Ztc I ag nd t I t'r~i 1/4t'cPItI.
nI Ii dli~if\C ; ~ t o v tilt .p itug.

t Tt, 0 i I' ma )oi, ht Ii :g Ja It,:.t

Dr. U. J. Grant, an IADS representative, spent about
2 months in Ecuador in late 1976 working with national
groups planning (a) a rice program for the Guayas Basin,
(b) a wheat-based development project for the highlands,
and (c) creation of a national mechanism through which
various ministries could collaborate, synchronizing their
work at all levels, particularly in target regions.
Arrangements have been made for Dr. Grant to
establish an office in Quito from which he can support the
activities of the Junta Nacional de Planificacion, as
requested by its president, to whom he will report.
The projected rice program in Ecuador features a
shift from marginal upland crops to rice cultivation.
Modem rice varieties produce average yields of 5 to 6
tons ha under irrigation throughout the Americas. Rice
yields on comparable lands in Asia average 2 to 3 tons ha.
Many insects and diseases of rice which occur in Asia are
not found in Latin America.
The fertile, naturally flooded, and poorly drained
lowlands of tropical Asia are used largely for rice
production. Technology was developed over several
centuries to convert the Asian soil and water resources
into productive farmland. In contrast, similar lowlands in
the American tropics remain unproductive, although
restraints to their exploitation have been removed with
the control of human diseases and the availability of
power equipment and adapted rice varieties.
It is estimated that the Americas encompass 40 to 100
million hectares of fertile, periodically flooded lands that
can be developed for rice, using modified Asian
technology, giving employment to 10 to 25 million small
farmers. Major blocks of this land are found in Ecuador,
Colombia, Venezuela, the Guyanas, Brazil, Paraguay, and
The objectives of this project would be the
conversion of portions of the American tropics into a
major world producer of rice, and the achievement of
production increases for other crops; wheat, for example,
will be emphasized for the highland areas, utilizing the
best varieties available from INIAP (Ecuador's national
agricultural research organization) and CIMMYT.

Panama. In early 1976, the Government of Panama
indicated interest in obtaining consultants to work with a
national group in the design of IDIAP, the Panamanian
Institute of Agricultural Research, the study to be financed
by SAID.
An agreement was reached that IADS would attempt
to assist in obtaining the services of those individuals the
Panamanian authorities considered most competent for
the task. They were Dr. Alfredo Carballo Q. of Costa Rica
(Chairman), Dr. Juan Salazar of Colombia, and Dr. Reggie
Laird of Mexico.
Panama was particularly interested in the
approaches used at the Instituto Cientifico Technologico
Agricola (ICTA) of Guatemala and in the Puebla Project.
Dr. Carballo had served as a consultant to Guatemala as
ICTA was being formed and Dr. Laird had been centrally
involved in the Puebla Project.
IADS was successful in arranging quickly for their
services, as requested. An agricultural economist,
Dr. Harlan Davis of the University of Georgia, was added
to the team.
During the period May 16-July 16, a group composed
of Panamanian professionals and the four consultants met
in Panama. Their charge was to design the organization
and modus operandi of IDIAP in such a way that it could
execute the research and technical assistance
responsibilities necessary for the agricultural development
of the nation.
The first phase of this task was to carry out a study of
the public sector functions in agriculture, study
government plans and programs for rural development,
and, finally, ascertain the availability of scientific
personnel in the country and review the present
organization of IDIAP.
In recent years new concepts which provide for a
more efficient functioning of research and technical
assistance activities have been developed and tested in
countries with characteristics similar to Panama's. In
designing a new structure for IDIAP, these new
experiences, as well as the salient characteristics of the

conventional research and extension models, were taken
into account.
In July, the team's report was submitted to the
Government. It suggested the establishment of goals by
commodity and by region, a concentration of initial
activities in specific geographical regions, an emphasis on
farm-level research, means of organizing the Institute,
time-frames for phasing of expansion, and budgetary
At year's end, discussions centered on identification
of an individual whom IADS could assign to IDIAP for a
year to assist the Director with further development of the

Other Consultations. During the year, IADS
representatives participated in a number of additional
discussions and reviews.
In late 1975, IADS was approached by a
representative of Kenya regarding the nation's interest in
seeking additional help to (a) formulate and revise
agricultural development strategy, (b) evaluate and
monitor agricultural projects, and (c) design and appraise
its own management system. Emphasis was to be on
medium-sized and small farms.
The Government of Kenya had approached eight
present or potential donors, asking if they would pool
their efforts in the planning field. It was estimated that
over the next 5 years they would need, in addition to their
own staff, some 15 long-term advisor-participants from
abroad, plus a number of short-term consultants.
IADS officers understood that other qualified
assistance organizations might be interested in serving as
the executing agency for Kenya. IADS suggested that
Kenya approach the Harvard Institute of International
Development (HIID) or one of the other possible
organizations. HIID accepted Kenya's invitation and some
activities are underway.
Responding to an invitation from EMBRAPA in
Brazil, an IADS representative early in the year discussed
possible IADS involvement in providing certain services
required for implementing its World Bank loan.

EMBRAPA subsequently developed arrangements with
IICA and the Institute of International Education (IIE).
Plans are underway to strengthen the Agricultural
Research council of Bangladesh. IADS representatives
have visited the country to discuss these plans.
In November 1976, at the invitation of Sudan's
Minister of Agriculture, Dr. Hussein Idris, two IADS
representatives participated in a 2-week review of
alternatives for the development of the country's
agriculture. Also involved were representatives of a
number of the international research institutes and of
bilateral and international assistance agencies. The Ford
Foundation had already cooperated in the production of 22
studies of the Sudan's resources and commodities. IADS
has been asked to develop a master plan for strengthening
the national research system, and to determine how the
various components might be implemented and financed.
Some additional studies, to be financed by the Ford
Foundation, will be undertaken by IADS in 1977.
The Minister of Planning and Cooperation of Senegal
has invited IADS to participate in an advisory mission in
early 1977 to help identify and evaluate ways by which the
country's Institute of Agricultural Research, created in
1974, might be strengthened and its programs more
directly associated with development.
Finally, invitations have been received from
governments of Honduras and Paraguay for consultants
there in 1977.

Cooperation with Smaller, Poorer Countries
The IADS Board of Trustees, at its October 1976
meeting, and authorities of assistance agencies, at the
November 1976 Bellagio conference, stressed the
importance of efforts to serve the many smaller, poorer
countries and geopolitical entities.
Many of the countries with serious food-supply and
rural-poverty problems reportedly are not receiving
adequate attention from the assistance community.
Conversely, some assistance organizations indicate that
although they have substantial funds available which

Clifford M. Hardin

\I :

could be directed to such countries, either they do not
receive proposals to which they can respond, or the
proposals they receive are of marginal relevance and
quality. Some governments apparently have difficulty at
one or more points in the process of identifying their most
urgent needs, determining appropriate approaches to
meeting them, preparing suitable proposals for
submission to bilateral or multilateral assistance
organizations, and then implementing the work.

Using grant funds, IADS is inquiring into the
situation of these countries, with a view to:
Understanding their needs and the interests of their
Suggesting to interested developing-country
governments how these needs might be met;
Making the countries' requirements known to the
assistance community; and
To the extent feasible and desired by developing-country
governments, cooperating with national and
international agencies in implementing the programs

In this effort, IADS is proceeding generally as
follows, with some variation in accordance with each
country's situation, the wishes of its authorities, the
amount of information already available, and the extent of
agricultural development activity already underway:
1. IADS will learn what it can from available prior
studies about the current status of each country
considered, preparing useful data for ready reference.
Preliminary information has been compiled in the form of
two charts covering 160 developing countries and
geopolitical entities. The first presents general data on
each country; the second covers indicators of agricultural
Such data, while giving an overview of the situation
faced by the developing countries, cannot provide a basis
for assessing the true seriousness of problems faced by
each country, or its potential for progress. This will

require visits to individual countries by experienced
agriculturists and economists.
2. With the cooperation of the organizations
concerned, IADS is completing a study indicating the
nature of each assistance agency's activities and interest in
each of the developing countries.
3. For countries seemingly in greatest difficulty,
IADS will review recommendations for action in studies
already completed. Informal discussions will then be held
with knowledgeable people regarding the nature of the
problems, the status of current or planned assistance, and
the potential for alleviation of difficulties.
4. When desired by authorities of smaller countries,
IADS will arrange for informal visits by senior IADS
representatives or consultants. These visits will enable
IADS to become acquainted with these countries' people
and institutions, and to learn about their problems,
progress, and potential for agricultural development. If
possible, the IADS representatives will establish contact
with locally respected individuals who can help them
increase their understanding of the country.
5. After IADS has visited a country, it will prepare a
report on the country's agricultural problems and
potential. This report will be written for submission to
interested local authorities and relevant assistance
organizations. The final section will include specific
suggestions for actions by the country itself and by
assistance agencies. IADS will try to determine the degree
to which the country's problems could be handled with its
own resources and current assistance, and what additional
types of help, if any, would be particularly useful.
IADS hopes to complete several such reviews by the
end of 1977. The extent to which this program is
implemented depends upon the collection of appropriate
secondary data by the IADS staff, and upon availability of
grant funds.

Program/Project Identification and Preparation

Investigations and discussions following the
October 1976 IADS Board meeting led to the inclusion of
program/project identification and preparation as one of
the services which IADS will be prepared to provide to
developing countries and technical assistance and donor
While, in the terms used by the World Bank,
identification and preparation represent two distinct
activities in the formulation of a program or project, the
activities IADS anticipates undertaking in this area would
blend the two with emphasis on helping a country
formulate and prepare specific proposals for technical
assistance and/or funding. Some of IADS's activities in
1976 were clearly of this nature.
Generally, IADS will act in this area on the basis
either of contracts funded by the country or interested
donors, or of retroactive funding following approval of the
loan or grant proposed. In certain circumstances,
however, it may be advantageous to a country and
appropriate for IADS to facilitate pre-feasibility studies,
planning, or coordination of efforts when funds are
unavailable, or before they become available. Such IADS
involvement would require either general or special
project funds, a fact recognized by the representatives of
the technical assistance agencies at the November 1976
meeting at Bellagio.
A major difficulty facing any individual or
organization attempting to identify major opportunities
for agricultural progress, and prepare proposals to deal
with them, is to know what to recommend. IADS is no
Earlier in this report, the description of IADS
interests and capabilities mentioned five areas in which
IADS proposes to specialize initially:
Analysis of agricultural development opportunities
National agricultural research and training programs
Science-based commodity production programs
Agricultural development programs in defined areas
Strengthening of colleges and schools of agriculture

During 1976, a considerable amount of staff time was
devoted to defining strategies by which efforts in these
areas can be made more effective, increases in
productivity and output can proceed at the pace required,
and returns to investment can be made attractive. It is
expected that IADS-recommended strategies can be made
available in 1977; proposals for them were well advanced
by the end of 1976.

Leadership Development
Most developing countries have extremely limited
numbers of well-trained, development-oriented scientific,
technical, and administrative personnel. Without them,
nations cannot set in motion the complex of research,
organizational, and training activities required for
effective national agricultural development campaigns.
Needs for training of personnel of national
institutions seem to fall into at least three major categories,
which IADS has been exploring with knowledgeable
people of the countries concerned:
(a) Large numbers of people must be educated to the
bachelor's level or its equivalent, and those in agriculture
must become skilled in managing crops, animals, and
soils for high productivity. Because of the large numbers
of people required, the education must largely be
provided through national colleges and universities. Some
skills can also be taught at schools and regional colleges,
and active personnel can acquire many while involved in
field aspects of crop or animal production programs.
(b) More personnel of national institutions must
receive opportunities for specialized, advanced-degree
training at universities outside their home countries. This
is true especially for smaller countries with limited
professional educational capabilities, or larger countries
which only recently have begun to build their agricultural
(c) There appears to be an urgent need for
short-term advanced training of personnel already in

David W. Hopper

Thei necessary inputs-fertilizers,
seed, pesticides, and credit-must
be available to the farmer when
and whliere he needs them, and at a
reasonable price. Sy Istems for dis-
tribution of these products in the
rural areas must be in place, and
must function.

positions of responsibility. There is an extreme shortage of
persons trained to direct major research or development
programs-who have a comprehensive understanding of
agricultural systems as well as managerial skills.
The problem of professional preparation, however,
is not limited to developing countries. Personnel from
North America or Europe often lack familiarity with the
crops, soils, insect pests, disease organisms, animal
strains, local feedstuffs for animals, and other factors
related to the year-round agriculture of the tropics and
A second deficiency is lack of experience of
developed-country individuals in organizing accelerated
agricultural production programs or in devising research,
education, extension, input supply, or marketing systems
to support forced-paced development. They have little
experience in dealing with problems of the urgency facing
the poorer countries, or in achieving rapid progress at
costs the disadvantaged nations can afford. Especially
scarce are well-qualified individuals who are willing to
leave their own countries for the number of years required
for them to contribute significantly to a country's long-term
development effort, and to share responsibility with
national authorities for its success or failure.
These considerations have led IADS to concentrate
on four areas:

Training in Development Strategies and
Management. Because of the pervasive problems
associated with management of agricultural research and
development programs, IADS will continue discussions
with representatives of institutions concerned with
short-term management training for persons in
middle-level positions. Some possible opportunities
(a) Study tours of 10 to 30 days to enable national
program and project leaders to visit international centers,
rural development projects, and institutions in other
countries; and

(b) Six- to 12-month internships at international
centers, in institutions of other countries, with
development projects, or in agri-business.
At the end of 1976, information was being compiled
as the possible basis for a 1977 conference focusing on
experience with management program objectives,
methods, content, and utilization.

Pre-Service Training in Strategies and
Management. Many of the advanced students in
agricultural sciences who are from the developing
countries will be assigned to administrative as well as
technical posts early in their careers. Much of the training
currently available to them does not prepare them for such
management responsibilities.
IADS is maintaining liaison with agricultural
universities in the developed world which, to an
increasing extent, recognize this problem and are taking
steps to meet it. Cornell University, for example,
organized and presented a multidisciplinary course in this
area in 1976. The response of students and staff has led the
university to offer the course again in 1977.
IADS has agreed with the Agricultural Development
Council to co-sponsor a meeting in March 1977 of about 25
persons, to evaluate the objectives, content, approaches,
and materials of courses of this nature. Representatives of
universities where such a course might be appropriate and
feasible will be among the participants. A report
describing the Cornell and similar courses will be made
available to other institutions.

Development of IADS Staff and Consultants. In
order to offer meaningful and effective support to the
developing countries with which they cooperate, IADS
staff and consultants must have available to them
comprehensive, credible guidelines for meeting the
myriad requirements a country's efforts may involve.
There must, for example, be guidelines for mounting
accelerated science-based crop and animal production or

defined-area programs, strengthening national research
and extension efforts, engaging colleges and universities
in development programs, and improving seed
production and other input distribution. Much of the
IADS activity in the area of development-oriented
literature (described under Program Support and
Collective Services) is for this specific purpose.
Many highly qualified agriculturists have had little
experience in preparing proposals for submission to
international banks and bilateral assistance agencies.
IADS will make a determined effort to overcome this
weakness through training sessions.
Country programs for which IADS accepts contracts
will require specialists to furnish guidance in (a)
improving the national institutional structure for
agricultural development, and (b) forming
multidisciplinary, problem-oriented teams for
improvement of commodities and production practices on
a national scale. Yet there are few persons available to
IADS or any other assistance organization with experience
in the establishment and/or operation of such national
systems-or of organizations responsible for agriculture in
its broader and more complex sense, which includes
crops, livestock, soil and water management, crop
protection, and economic and social factors. There are,
similarly, few persons with experience in designing and
leading coordinated national programs which require the
cooperation of specialists in several disciplines, and of
institutions under different ministries or with different
Because IADS expects to encounter an increasing
demand for leaders of this type, it will enlist the help of a
number of experienced people to outline the possible
content of relevant training sessions to be used for staff
orientation-or for in-country workshops involving the
contract team and their local associates, when this
approach seems appropriate and the country requests it.

Case-Study Preparation. One major difficulty in
arranging short-term intensive management training
courses is that few fully documented and analyzed case

studies exist of successful agricultural or rural
development projects, even fewer of the failures or those
not so successful. Yet comprehensive case studies provide
excellent working material for training programs related to
development and are useful reference tools for both
administrators and scientists.
Of the great number of development programs and
projects undertaken around the world in the past decade,
some have been partially reported. One approach that
IADS is exploring is to gather additional data, as
necessary, about a number of these, and subject the
resulting information to critical analysis. If the same
comprehensive analytical framework is used for a number
of cases, valuable generalizations about such programs
and projects can be expected to emerge.


Development-Oriented Literature
Many persons responsible for planning, organizing,
implementing or managing agricultural programs in the
developing world have little or no agricultural education
or experience, particularly any related to the forced-pace
agricultural development the present world food-supply
and rural-poverty situations require.
Many political leaders are or have been doctors,
lawyers, businessmen, military officers, or professional
administrators. They must frequently make decisions
about agricultural programs without current knowledge or
adequate understanding of the problems and potentials of
the technology involved. Similar difficulties, probably less
acute, frequently exist for those with some agricultural
education or experience who find themselves in charge of
broader components of a nation's agricultural or rural
development efforts.
Much of the scientific and technical agricultural
literature that is readily available has been written by and
for agricultural scientists, specialists, and educators. Much

Theodore W. Schultz

is addressed to problems of temperate-climate agriculture.
It is not oriented to helping non-scientists understand
crops, livestock, or agricultural issues in terms of
accelerating development of agriculture and the rural
Consideration of the problem indicates that one
approach, the preparation of relevant materials in succinct
"handbooks," would help meet the need of individuals
responsible for planning or action for information in an
easily understandable and credible form. These
handbooks would be comprehensive reference manuals
ranging in length from 100 to 200 pages, written to
predetermined specifications to ensure their relevance to
development, and under the direction of international
authorities to ensure accuracy, completeness, and
The principal audience for the handbooks would be
(a) administrators and managers-whether in the
developing countries, bilateral assistance organizations,
or intercultural research and production programs in the
developing countries-concerned with agricultural and
; .', .. t rural development, and (b) IADS and its cooperators.
r Other audiences for whom the handbooks should
Shave high utility include (a) scientists in research or
development who need or want a more comprehensive
working knowledge of their own subjects as related to
Development issues, and (b) professors and students
teaching or learning about agricultural commodities,
processes, or issues in the context of development.
IADS's first task was to determine the commodities
and issues for which handbooks are most needed and the
S order of their preparation. In 1976 work was initiated on
four handbooks and on working outlines for two others.
The farmer must know before he A first draft of a handbook on farming systems
invests in a new planting or other technology (multiple cropping approaches), by Dr. Richard
operations that there will be at Harwood and Dr. Raymond Borton, is complete, and a
harvest a market for his product .
harvest a market forhich his product revised draft is expected early in 1977.
at a price upon which he can
depend. A "market" requires By June 1977, a draft of a handbook on seed
roads, transport, effective demand production and distribution, being prepared by Mr. Johnson
for products, and favorable E. Douglas with the collaboration of 16 international

authorities, will be completed and forwarded to reviewers
representative of both users and seeds specialists.
Work on a fertilizer sector analysis handbook was
begun in 1976 in cooperation with and under the
leadership of the International Fertilizer Development
The comprehensive outline has been approved for a
handbook on rice; Dr. Robert F. Chandler, Jr., will
concentrate on completing this manuscript in 1977, with
the assistance of Dr. J. Norman Efferson and Mr. James E.
Given the range of materials needed-on crop and
animal species, on technical processes related to
agricultural production, and on public-policy and
economic issues-special project funding will be needed.
In response to invitations from a number of potential
donors, IADS in late December 1976 developed and
circulated a proposal for preparation of
development-oriented literature related to major crop
IADS has also commissioned the preparation of
short, pragmatic, yet comprehensive reference papers in
specific agricultural policy areas. The objective is to
provide information useful in making and implementing
development decisions. The reports are to be written in a
sytle that will be understandable to nonspecialists.
A paper on land tenure and land reform is being
prepared in cooperation with staff of the Land Tenure
Center at the University of Wisconsin. Another, on
minimum information needs for agricultural development,
will emerge from an international workshop co-sponsored
by the Agricultural Development Council and IADS. A
third paper is being prepared on defined area campaigns.

Liaison Activities
Liaison with and among Developing Countries.
To an increasing extent, the developing countries are
producing new biological materials and are gaining
experience in new approaches to agricultural

development. IADS has been exploring with them ways to
promote the exchange of this new information and
experience among countries and regions. Where adequate
exchange mechanisms do not exist, it is important that
they be developed, particularly for the commodities and
problems which are not covered by the international
agricultural research centers or other organizations.
Of special importance are the new and growing
opportunities for developing countries to assist each
other. Increasingly, the advances and experiences of
countries have particular relevance to others facing similar
problems, with comparable limitations on resources, and
in similar climates. For this reason, IADS expects to
explore with developing-country professionals the
opportunities for more direct cooperation among them,
and to assist in facilitating such cooperation wherever
desirable and feasible.
IADS will also seek, through consultation with
knowledgeable leaders of developing countries, to
determine the general need for research on agricultural
and rural development strategies; training of relevant
managerial, scientific, and technical personnel; exchange
of information not provided by existing organizations,
services, or publications; and other activities or services
which would be of substantial value in supporting
developing-country programs on an international or
regional basis. IADS will then, with approval of its
Trustees, seek to arrange for the identified needs to be met.
IADS staff members' extensive travel during 1976 has
provided opportunities for exchanges of views with a
substantial number of developing-country personnel.
In April 1976, in cooperation with SEARCA in the
Philippines, a 3-day conference was held with some 30
agricultural leaders of nations of South and Southeast
Asia. A conference on strategies for accelerating
agricultural development, organized and hosted by the
University of Reading, was held in September 1976. About
half of the participants were from Africa, Asia, or Latin
America. Issues were discussed both in formal sessions
and informally.
IADS has scheduled a meeting for February 1977 at

the Bellagio Conference Center, where 15 invited
representatives of the developing countries will comment
upon the services that IADS proposes to make available
and relate these to the circumstances of their own
countries and areas. At the same time they will be
encouraged to suggest additional important program
possibilities for IADS or other assistance organizations to
Liaison with the Assistance Agencies. During
1976, IADS invested considerable time in discussions with
public and private assistance and donor organizations.
These discussions aimed at:
Determining ways in which the needs of individual
developing countries could be met more effectively by
their governments with or without additional assistance
from the international community;
Developing an understanding of the structure,
capabilities, activities, and interests of assistance
Explaining the nature and interests of IADS;
Establishing communication and exploring mutual
interests and the possibilities for cooperation with these
Seeking the views of the assistance community on ways
to make lADS most effective and to achieve maximum
complementarity of IADS's efforts with those of other
organizations; and
Exploring the possibility of achieving-through informal
cooperation of assistance agencies-concerted support of
accelerated agricultural development of the poorer
countries, bringing to that task the same effectiveness
which has resulted in strong international agricultural
research institutes.

During 1976, IADS representatives visited leaders of
many bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies and
foundations. Only a lack of time prevented visits to others,
and these will be arranged at the earliest opportunity.
A presentation on IADS was made to the Technical
Advisory Committee of the CGIAR in Rome in February

Sterling Wortman

"... if the process of rural de-
velopment is to be viable, there is
need not only for expanding ad-
ministrative coverage but also for
improving the performance of the
indigenous administrative sys-
tems. Technical assistance may be
needed not mainly to manage
projects but to assist in developing
local, regional, and national
capability to plan and implement
rural development programs. To
realize this objective, it seems
necessary that nationals be ac-
tively involved from the early
stages of project formulation and
implementation. .. ." Uma Lele

On November 21-24, agricultural representatives of a
number of assistance agencies met at Bellagio, Italy, with
The Rockefeller Foundation as host, to discuss new
approaches to accelerated agricultural development and
the role of IADS.
This meeting established a base for continuing
interaction with the technical assistance agencies.
Participants outlined specific areas where IADS efforts
would be useful, and accepted responsibility for helping
identify ways such activities might be financed. The
group accepted the invitation extended by the
representatives of the Federal Republic of Germany to
meet in April 1977 at Munich, with the German
Foundation for International Development acting as host.
At the request of the group, IADS commissioned
Mr. Harold N. Graves to prepare a paper exploring the
possible ways IADS might acquire the international
character necessary to enable certain governments to use
its services and contribute to its support.

Liaison with Other Organizations. Large numbers
of developed-country educational, philanthropic,
voluntary, professional, and private organizations are
involved in or interested in providing services to the
developing countries. They expend a considerable
quantity of funds, materials, and human effort annually,
much of it directed to the needs of the smaller and poorer
It is important for IADS to know of the activities of
these organizations, particularly when potential
cooperative country programs are being considered.
While there is little coordination of their work either on a
national, regional, or international basis, as is evident in
the proliferation of small, isolated projects in developing
countries around the globe, organizations that have been
operating for years in remote areas of a country are often a
source of useful information and experienced manpower,
or can provide channels through which development
programs may spread.

IADS has sought to increase its knowledge and
understanding of the activities of these organizations.
During 1975 and 1976, Dr. Grant discussed present and
projected programs in technical assistance in agriculture
with knowledgeable individuals at 30 institutions in the
United States and 25 in Europe, many of them
IADS already has close ties with most of the
international agricultural research institutes. In July 1976,
the president and executive officer of IADS met in
Washington with the institute directors to discuss IADS
and possibilities for cooperation between IADS and the
IADS is also exploring means of cooperation with
industry. Involvement of industry is essential to the rapid
acceleration of agricultural development, even in countries
with centrally planned economies. By learning what
industry is doing and might be able to do, IADS will be
able, when countries so request, to suggest courses of
action that may lead to closer working relations between
the private and public sectors.
Preliminary discussions have been held with
representatives of the FAO Industry Cooperative
Programme and the Agribusiness Council, and a close
relationship has been established between IADS and the
International Executive Service Corps. At the end of 1976,
arrangements were completed through the Harvard
Graduate School of Business for Mr. Richard Gartrell to
serve as a consultant to IADS in 1977, gathering
information on the role of industry in fostering
agricultural development in the agrarian countries.

The IADS headquarters staff plans to summarize and
make available to developing countries the information it
collects, through its liaison activities, on the structure,
capabilities, activities, and interests of multilateral,
bilateral, and nongovernmental (private, foundation,
commercial) agricultural assistance organizations.

Identification of Expertise

Effective technical cooperation depends on the
availability and employment of qualified and experienced
individuals. Since 1950, hundreds of scientists and
administrators have acquired experience that will enable
them to help developing countries achieve the acceleration
of agricultural development they seek. The full utilization
of these professionals will be a major factor in how quickly
and how effectively countries can achieve that
IADS is compiling a roster of professional people
who are interested in and have experience in agricultural
research, education, production, input supply and
marketing, or management, and who may be available
under appropriate circumstances for short- or long-term
technical assistance assignments. Such individuals are
identified through a variety of means. These have
included obtaining rosters of professionals from various
national and international organizations and, as in the
case of the United Kingdom, where Professor Walter
Russell prepared an inventory of the nation's expertise,
commissioning special studies. A number of individuals
have written directly to IADS; still other names emerge
through discussions. A resume and specific
information-field of specialization, level of experience,
countries in which worked, languages spoken-which
facilitates coding for later screening have been collected
for each individual.
In addition to serving IADS's staffing needs, the
roster initiates a longer-range effort to help achieve greater
utilization of experienced professionals in technical
cooperation. First, these professionals must be identified;
particularly important are developing-country nationals
and retired or retiring professionals, who represent an
increasingly valuable resource. Once these professionals
are identified, the assistance community can explore
flexible arrangements that will enable them to work
Second, the relatively small number of qualified
people already known to any single agency can be

enlarged by exchange of information. IADS has made its
roster available to other agencies, and is exploring ways to
increase active cooperation with other sources of similar
Third, the assistance community can increase the use
of experienced personnel by making staff available
through non-traditional working arrangements. A
number of governments, international agencies,
universities, and private enterprises already have
successful, although limited, programs for sharing and
exchanging personnel for international work. The goal of
current efforts, in which IADS is one of several interested
parties, is to encourage arrangements under which a
career employee of one agency could work for another
agency while retaining tenure, seniority, and long-term
social benefits at his home institution.
Finally, it is expected that over time the gathering
and sharing of information about the need for and
availability of personnel for technical assistance
assignments will help each agency better determine and
forecast in which fields there are likely to be shortages.
The IADS staff is also developing descriptions of the
positions for which staffing needs are most likely to arise.
This information will make it possible for IADS to evaluate
the quality of its roster and, by actively seeking
participation of individuals in the most needed areas, to
strengthen it.
This activity will serve also to address another,
related problem. As the full utilization of personnel now
qualified and available succeeds, in conjunction with all
other efforts, in accelerating agricultural development, the
activity created by that success will itself increase the
demand for trained personnel.
In this regard, IADS plans to explore ways to
establish and maintain contact with young professionals,
both to evaluate the adequacy of the numbers being
trained, and also, with the help of the job definitions
described above, to encourage these young professionals
to acquire the international experience that will qualify
them to carry on the programs of agricultural development
now being formulated.



'I F'




"The most dramatic but
unanticipated change is the
farmer's enthusiastic response to
the new technology and its
accompanying package."
Gelia T. Castillo

Board of Trustees

r .^ R' The first meeting of the IADS Board of Trustees was
held on December 9 and 10, 1975, with Dr. J. George
Harrar as chairman.
An Executive Committee was organized, the initial
members being Dr. Harrar (Chairman), Dr. Hannah, Dr.
/ ^Hardin, Dr. Hopper, and Dr. Wortman, with Drs. Barco
and Schultz as alternates.
Elected to the Nominating Committee were Dr.
Cummings (Chairman), Dr. Camus, Dr. Drilon, and
Dr. Harrar (ex-officio).
The Board agreed to meet twice each year, in May
and October. The Executive Committee will meet in
January and August.
During the year, the number of Board positions was
luhan Rodnguez Adame
increased from 12 to 16 and four new members were
elected: Mr. William A. C. Mathieson of the United
Kingdom, Mr. Saburo Okita of Japan, Mr. Julian
Rodriguez Adame of Mexico, and Mr. Werner Treitz of


IADS leases space for its headquarters from The
S"- Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas,

SMany of the services IADS needs are being provided
initially by the Foundation on a reimbursable basis. IADS
.r has established its own central files and a reference section
Designed to meet the organization's unique needs.

Wemer Treitz

Staff .

The headquarters staff continued to be a small
group, intentionally, throughout the year. Since lADS was
new and its program of work subject to considerable
alteration in accord with experience, it seemed wise to
delay employment of additional permanent senior staff,
particularly since The Rockefeller Foundation, and
especially Dr. John A. Pino, its Director for Agricultural .
Sciences, generously allowed lADS to use the services of
some key Foundation staff.
Dr. Francis C. Byrnes and Dr. Ralph W. Cummings,
Jr., were both detailed to lADS by The Rockefeller
Foundation on January 1, 1976. Dr. A. Colin McClung
joined IADS as Executive Officer on a full-time basis on
July 1.
William A. C.
Dr. Albert H. Moseman served as a representative
during the year, working out of the New York office on a
part-time basis, while Dr. Ulysses J. Grant continued to
serve as a representative for the U.S. and Europe,
operating from a temporary base at Cornell University.
Dr. Dwight S. Brothers, who had been loaned in 1975
by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation to help in the
formative stages of lADS, continued throughout 1976 as a
representative of and consultant to the new organization.
The Institute of International Education (IIE)
administers for IADS a comprehensive program of staff
benefits and services comparable to those which HE has
established and administers for the network of
international agricultural research centers. This enables
IADS to employ professional people of any nationality and
to provide them with suitable insurance and retirement

Saburo Okita

-cM 'Ir



Headquarters Staff

Sterling Wortman, President
A. Colin McClung, Executive Officer
Laurence D. Stifel,* Secretary
Alex Daunys,* Comptroller
Webb Trammell,* Treasurer
Esther S. Stamm,* Assistant Secretary
Rajaram Ramanathan,* Assistant Comptroller
Francis C. Bymes, Program Officer
Ralph W. Cummings, Jr., Program Officer
Anne C. Lounsbury, Program Assistant
Robert M. Shannon, Accountant
Janet Warwick, Administrative Assistant
Linda R. Weinstein, Program Assistant
Ann S. Gladwin, Secretary
Barbara Joels, Secretary
Madeleine Neuville, Program Aide
Daphne Patai, Secretary
Joyce Stelzl, Secretary
Joan Zulkoski, Secretary


Ulysses J. Grant
Albert H. Moseman
Clarence C. Gray IP*
John J. McKelvey*
Peter R. Jennings*
James E. Johnston*

*on part-time assignment from
The Rockefeller Foundation

Field Staff

Fred F. Fairman, Financial Administrator
(Designate), Indonesia contract
Johnson E. Douglas, Seeds Specialist
Wayne H. Freeman, Project Supervisor,
Nepal contract
Harold W. Young, Program Specialist
(Designate), Indonesia contract


Patterson, Belknap, Webb & Tyler
Robert M. Pennoyer


Arthur Young and Company


A. Colin McClung, with extensive
experience in agricultural development,
first as a scientist in country programs
in Brazil and Colombia, and later as
deputy director of IRRI and CIAT,
became IADS's full-time executive
officer on July 1.




p *~


,fi .-.
.4 ~.-




; i

i 'tj


Financial Statements

The industrialized countries, with
their reservoir of scientific and
business expertise, can and must
become more substantially
involved. There is a need now to
establish a strategy for
cooperative action and to make it
known, to provide the necessary
funding on a sustained basis, and
to organize efforts to make them
more effective.

During its first year of operations, the International
Agricultural Development Service (IADS) received grants
totaling $1,525,326 from The Rockefeller Foundation
toward the costs of its operations. Of this amount $200,000
has been designated by the Trustees as a reserve, $1,093,533
has been used for operating costs during 1976, and
$231,793, representing the unused balance of the grants at
the end of the year, will be applied to support for 1977.
In 1976, IADS entered into contracts with (1) the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID) in
Panama and (2) the Government of Nepal to supply
technical assistance and other services required to
implement agricultural development projects undertaken
by the respective governments with USAID support. The
first contract ($26,295) which provided for consulting
services was completed in 1976. The contract with the
Government of Nepal (estimated dollar cost $2,524,000)
extends through September 1979.
Expenditures for the year are summarized as follows:
Program activities:
Contracts $ 83,635
Country Programs 348,987
Training and Communication 280,603
Program Analysis and Planning 111,002

Total program activities 824,227
General administration 367,923
Office equipment and furniture
at cost less accumulated depreciation 10,028

Total $1,202,178

A reserve fund has been established with a goal of
$1 million to meet temporary cash-flow needs and possible
future obligations of IADS. The Rockefeller Foundation
contributed $200,000 to the fund in 1976.
The financial statements for 1976 and the opinion of
Arthur Young & Company, certified public accountants,
are presented on the following pages.


NEW YORK, N. Y. 10017

The Board of Trustees
International Agricultural Development Service, Inc.

We have examined the accompanying balance sheet of
International Agricultural Development Service, Inc. at December
31, 1976 and the related statements of support and revenue, ex-
penses and changes in fund balance and changes in financial
position for the year then ended. Our examination was made in
accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and
accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and
such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in
the circumstances.
As more fully described in Note 1, International Agri-
cultural Development Service, Inc. has material transactions
with The Rockefeller Foundation.
In our opinion, the statements mentioned above present
fairly the financial position of International Agricultural De-
velopment Service, Inc. at December 31, 1976 and the results of
operations, changes in fund balance and changes in financial
position for the year then ended, in conformity with generally
accepted accounting principles.

d>^ <-^L Stl-<(V5I<-.--"
u a ^ yr

March 15, 1977


December 31, 1976


Demand savings account
Checking account

Grant receivable from
The Rockefeller Foundation

Account receivable under contract,
including unbilled receivable (Note 2)
Staff travel

Office equipment and furniture
Less: Accumulated depreciation

Total assets

Accounts payable

Advance from Government of Nepal
Deferred support-Rockefeller
Foundation grant for 1977

Total liabilities

Fund balance:

Total fund balance
Total liabilities and fund

See accompanying notes.

$ 603,364





$ 64,148








For the Year Ended December 31, 1976


Rockefeller Foundation grants (Note 1) $1,293,533

Contract revenue:
Government of Nepal 64,451
USAID Panama 26,295

Interest 18,982

Gifts 1,000
Total support and revenue $1,404,261


Program activities:
Government of Nepal 57,340
USAID Panama 26,295

Country Programs 348,987

Training and Communication 280,603

Program Analysis and Planning 111,002

Total program activities 824,227

General administration 367,923

Total expenses 1,192,150

Excess of support and revenue over
expenses, and fund balance at end
of year $ 212,111

See accompanying notes.


For the Year Ended December 31, 1976


Excess of support and revenue
over expenses $212,111

Add: Depreciation expense 1,114

Total from operations 213,225

Advance from Government of Nepal 190,000

Increase in accounts payable 64,148

Deferred support-Rockefeller
Foundation grant for 1977 981,793


Purchase of office equipment
and furniture 11,142

Increase in grant receivable, account
receivable under contract, and advances 830,696


Increase in cash and cash balance
at end of year $607,328

See accompanying notes.


December 31, 1976

1. Organization and grant support
The International Agricultural Development Service,
Inc. (IADS), a not-for-profit organization, was
incorporated in the State of New York on June 13, 1975,
and commenced operations on January 1, 1976. The
objectives of IADS are to assist nations to increase
productivity and to promote national development; to aid
in the design, organization, strengthening and
implementation of programs for the expansion of
production of crops and livestock and the improvement of
the standard of living of rural inhabitants, primarily in
developing countries; and otherwise to improve the
quality of life throughout the world. The affairs of IADS
are managed by a Board of Trustees.
During the year, IADS received $1,525,326 in grants
from The Rockefeller Foundation to cover program costs
and administrative expenses. Under the terms of the
grant, any unexpended funds at December 31, 1976 were
to revert to The Rockefeller Foundation. Unexpended
funds at December 31, 1976 amounted to $231,793;
however, The Rockefeller Foundation has authorized the
use of these funds during 1977. Accordingly, this amount,
combined with an additional grant of $750,000 for use in
1977 which was announced by The Rockefeller Foundation
in December 1976, has been recorded as deferred support.
Of the $1,293,533 recorded as support in 1976, $200,000
was designated by the IADS Board of Trustees (with the
approval of The Rockefeller Foundation) as a fund balance
reserve to meet temporary cash-flow needs and possible
future obligations of IADS. Interest earned on this amount
has been included in the designated reserve.

During 1976, The Rockefeller Foundation provided
certain services (including personnel and office space) for
and made other disbursements (primarily travel, office
and miscellaneous expenses) on behalf of IADS. The
Rockefeller Foundation charged IADS $716,328 as
reimbursement for the cost of these services and expenses.
IADS intends to seek support from contract revenues
and grants from foundations, including The Rockefeller
Foundation, with the eventual objective of becoming self
supporting from contract revenues.
2. Summary of accounting policies
Basis of accounting
The financial statements are prepared on the accrual
Contract accounting
The contracts which have been entered into provide
for reimbursement of costs incurred by IADS with
specified maximum limits, including provision for
overhead expenses. Revenue is recognized as expenses
are incurred. The account receivable under contract in the
accompanying balance sheet includes $23,784 of unbilled
An advance of $190,000 was received under a contract
with the Government of Nepal and is to be used to cover
expenses of the contract. The advance is to be applied to
offset billings in the last two quarters of this contract in
Recognition of grant support
Grant awards are recorded as receivables and
deferred support when formal notification of such awards
is received from grantors. Deferred support is recognized
as support as program costs and administrative expenses
supported by grant funds are incurred. Unexpended grant
funds are reflected as a liability at the end of a grant
period, if under the terms of the grant unexpended
amounts revert to the grantor.

Office equipment and furniture
Office equipment and furniture is being depreciated
on the straight-line basis over the estimated ten-year
useful life of the assets.
3. Taxes
IADS is exempt from federal income tax under
Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Also IADS
has received an extended advance ruling from the Internal
Revenue Service that it will not be treated as a private
foundation as defined in Section 509(a) of the Internal
Revenue Code and therefore will be exempt from the 4%
federal excise tax on investment income during the
advance ruling period.
As a not-for-profit organization, IADS is also exempt
from New York State and New York City income and sales
4. Subsequent event
As of February 11, 1977 IADS entered into a cost
reimbursement contract with the Republic of Indonesia to
provide technical and related assistance in strengthening
national production-oriented agricultural research. The
contract runs through December 1981 and estimated
reimbursable costs, including a provision for overhead
expenses, aggregate approximately $8.9 million.