• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administration - University of...
 ICA - Nebraska mission, professional...
 A message from the University of...
 Project for the improvement of...
 Fiscal report - July 1, 1966 through...
 Fiscal report - July 1, 1967 through...
 Fiscal report - July 1, 1968 through...
 Fondos cooperativos budget...
 Appendix A - Fellowship selection...
 Appendix B - Fellowship policy






Title: Annual report to the Ford Foundation
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053924/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report to the Ford Foundation
Uniform Title: Annual report to the Ford Foundation
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario.
University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus). Mission in Colombia.
Publisher: The Instituto,
Publication Date: 1966-1969.
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural assistance
Agriculture
Farming   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Notes
General Note: "Developing agricultural economics in Colombia."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053924
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ocm0518

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Letter of transmittal
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Administration - University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
    ICA - Nebraska mission, professional staff
        Unnumbered ( 7 )
    A message from the University of Nebraska
        Unnumbered ( 8 )
    Project for the improvement of agricultural economics in Colombia
        Page 1
        Background
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Progress to date
            Page 6
            Staffing
                Page 6
                Page 7
                Page 8
            Graduate program
                Page 9
                Page 10
                Page 11
            Undergraduate teaching
                Page 12
            Research
                Page 13
                Page 13a
                Page 14
                Page 15
                Page 16
            Colombian agricultural economics association
                Page 17
                Page 17a
            The fellowship program
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
                Page 22
                Page 23
            Update
                Page 24
        Individual reports
            Page 25
            ICA-Department chairman
                Page 25
            ICA-Nebraska mission project leader
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
            Reports by senior professors
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
            National University
                Page 41
            Reports by instructors
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 43a
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
        Short term consultants
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Conclusion
            Page 57
    Fiscal report - July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967
        Page 57
    Fiscal report - July 1, 1967 through June 30, 1968
        Page 58
    Fiscal report - July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969
        Page 59
    Fondos cooperativos budget - 1969
        Page 60
    Appendix A - Fellowship selection procedure
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Appendix B - Fellowship policy
        Page 62
        Page 63
Full Text

THIRD ANNUAL REPORT FINAL REPORT
1966-69 Grant
FOR THE PERIOD
JULY 1, 1968 THROUGH JUNE 30, 1969




TO THE

FORD FOUNDATION










INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO
Submitted by
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA MISSION
MASUA Institutions Cooperating














THIRD ANNUAL REPORT

For the Period

July 1, 1968 through

June 30, 1969


FINAL REPORT

1966-69 Grant


TO THE

FORD FOUNDATION








DEVELOPING

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

IN

COLOMBIA
















Submitted by:


INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO


UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA MISSION
(MASUA Institutions Cooperating)





APARTADO AEREO No. 7984 ALCONTuITARciTE TNMERUu
APARTADO POSTAL No. 3493 II
INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO
CABLES Y TELEGRAMAS: I CA I
BOGOTA, D. E.



September 19, 1969


Mr. William R. Cotter
The Ford Foundation
Carrera 13 No. 63-39 Office # 1003
Bogota

Dear Mr. Cotter:

With pride we herewith submit the final report relating to Ford Foundation's initial
three year grant toward the development of a new, viable, and strong profession
of Agricultural Economics in Colombia. As an annual report, this document serves
primarily to summarize the activities of the ICA-Nebraska Mission in the field of
agricultural economics during the period July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969, but it
also summarizes the principal accomplishments of the 1966-69 grant period.

Because of inevitable lags in staffing at the beginning of any new program, this report
provides a resume of essentially only two years of activity. Despite this, the
achievements have been rapid and numerous. In 1966, agricultural economics was not
a part of the Colombian educational vocabulary. Today, ICA has a viable and growing
Department of Agricultural Economics with an expanding graduate program, and the
National University has a flourishing undergraduate curriculum in Medellin, a joint
program with the University of the Valley in Call, and a third program on the horizon
in BogotA. Fellowship students, with newly gained graduate degrees from U. S.
institutions, are beginning to return to positions in Colombia, with many more
scheduled both for departure and return during the next two or three years. We
believe it to be very significant that in 1969 more students left for the U. S. to begin
graduate programs in agricultural economics, than in any other agricultural field.

Due to the support of the Ford Foundation, an excellent base has been established in
this profession in a very brief time period. The program is now developing momentum,
and we hope that you will join with us in carrying it to full maturity. We are most
grateful for your help over the past three years.

Sincerely,





Clayt Yeutter, Director rtiz Mnde
Uni rsity of Nebraska Mission General Directo
in Colombia








TABLE OF CONTENTS

Administration University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

Administration University of Nebraska Mission, Bogota, Colombia

A Message from the University of Nebraska

Project for the Improvement of Agricultural Economics in Colombia

I. Background 1

II. Progress to Date 6

Ao Staffing 6

1. ICA-Nebraska Mission 6

2. ICA 7

3. National University 9

B. Graduate Program 9

C. Undergraduate Teaching 12

D. Research 13

E. Colombian Agricultural Economics Ass'n 17

F. The Fellowship Program 18

G. Update 24

III. Individual Reports 25

A. ICA Department Chairman 25

B. ICA-Nebraska Mission Project Leader 26

C. Senior Professors 29

De National University 41

E. Instructors 42

IV. Short Term Consultants 50

V. Conclusion 57

Fiscal Report July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967 57

Fiscal Report July 1, 1967 through June 30, 1968 58

Fiscal Report July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969 59













Fondos Cooperativos Budget 1969 60

Appendix A Fellowship Selection Procedure 60

Appendix B Fellowship Policy 62













THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

Lincoln, Nebraska 68503


Acting Chancellor

Dean of International Programs


Dr. Merk Hobson

Dr. W.E.Colwell


BOARD OF REGENTS


Richard E. Adkins

B.N. Greenberg

Richard Herman

Edward Schwartzkopf

J.G. Elliott

Robert L. Raun


Osmond, Nebraska

York, Nebraska

Omaha, Nebraska

Lincoln, Nebraska

Scottsbluff, Nebraska

Minden, Nebraska














ICA NEBRASKA MISSION

PROFESSIONAL STAFF


Mission Directors

W. E. Colwell

C. R. Elder

Clayton Yeutter


Senior Professors

Bogota

Loyd Fischer *

Dan Badger *

Peter Hildebrand *

James Driscoll *

Medellin

Michael Steiner

Palmira

Roger Burdette


Instructors

Max Bowser *

Chris Andrew *

Gerald Feaster *


July

July

Dec.


Dec.

Jul.

Jun.

Nov.


1966

1968

1968







1966

1967

1968

1968


Jun. 1968


Oct. 1967


Jul. 1967

Aug. 1967

Feb. 1968


to July 1968

to Nov. 1968

to Present.







to Jan. 1969

to Jul. 1969

to present.

to present.




to present.



to present.


present.

present.

present.


* Ford Foundation Financed











September 1, 1969


A MESSAGE FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

Statement by W. E. Colwell, Dean
International Programs, Lincoln.

During the year covered by this report The Ford Foundation
Sector of the program was fully staffed from beginning to end.
Over six man years of staff time was provided by the Foundation and
with one exception each member of the team entered the report
period with approximately a year of experience in Colombia. This
was a factor in making the year especially productive. Of equal if
not greater importance to the productivity of the team was the
leadership in agricultural economics provided by ICA and National
University, In addition, significant policy decisions were reached
with respect to the integrated program involving the University del
Valle and National University at Palmira. Also, during this period
significant strides were made in the expanded graduate program in
agricultural economics at ICA-National University. The undergraduate
curricula developed rapidly, and at year's end there were 30
undergraduate majoring in this discipline at Palmira-Valle, and 110
at MedellPn.

Throughout the year, complete coordination of the work financed
by Ford was maintained with that financed under the ICA loan. The
latter sector was staffed by two men, one at Medellin and the other
at Palmira.

The fellowship program has been a success story from the beginning.
As of this date there are 24 Colombians who are being trained or who
have completed training for post graduate work in agricultural economics
on Ford Foundation Fellowships at U.S. institutions. One man is doing
non-degree work in France, Of the 25 actual or terminated holders of
Ford financed fellowships (3 terminated), 9 are employed by National
University, 12 by ICA, 2 by Banco de la Repiblica, and one each by
the Ministry of Agriculture and Cenicaf6. Three additional M.S.
candidates in the ICA-National graduate school are receiving Ford
fellowships. One of these will have studied in the U.S.A. in
addition to taking his work, and ultimately his degree, in Colombia.

As the program now appears for the period ahead, this may well
be Ford Foundation's peak support year from the standpoint of staff
financing and indeed the Foundation may well be proud of its
tremendous contribution in the development of the profession of
agricultural economics in Colombia as of this date. The University
of Nebraska is pleased to have had a role in this important period
of activity.




THE PROJECT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


IN COLOMBIA THROUGH THE INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO


I. Background

On the basis of extensive study by the Government of Colombia and with
outside assistance and advice, particularly from the Kellogg, Rockeffeller and
Ford Foundations, the Government of Colombia established, in 1962, the
Colombian Institute of Agriculture (ICA) as a decentralized public
establishment to stimulate, coordinate, and carry out agricultural research,
teaching, and extension. On November 23, 1963, the Ministries of Education
and Agriculture and the National University agreed that ICA would have the
over-all responsibility for coordination of the Colombian efforts in the
area of agricultural education and for developing the agricultural faculty
of the National University. With additional assistance from the sources noted
above and with advice from a variety of other experts in these fields ICA
prepared a five-year General Development Plan covering these subject and
proposing improvement in the agricultural faculties of National University.
This plan was accepted by Colombian authorities in May 1965, and subsequently
endorsed at a meeting in New York by potential external investors including
Ford, Rockefeller, Kellogg, IBRD, UN, and AID. On January 11, 1966, the
participation of AID in the over-all program was approved by (then) acting
AID Administrator, William Gaud.

In January and February, an advance team from the University of Nebraska
and the Mid-America State Universities Association (MASUA) developed with
USAID and ICA a scope of work subsequently approved by the Ministries of
Education and Agriculture and National University. A contract, and the
Project Agreement under which it was authorized, were signed in the presence
of the President of Colombia in early March.

At the time these agreements were being made, the profession of agricultural
economics in Colombia barely existed as is evident from the following exerpts
taken from the report of the advance study team:

"The profession of Agricultural economics is .not well developed in
Colombia; Zalthough there are a number of7 centers of activity. The
National University and ICA has a nucleus staff, competent but very small to
cope with the numerous obligations in research, teaching and extensionr7 The
University of Valle has developed a program of teaching and research in
agricultural economics in its School of Economics. However, it is regional
in orientation, without dependable financial support, and with an inexperienced
staff. The University of the Andes faculty of economics has conducted some
work on supply and demand for agricultural products in Colombia. INCORA
carries on work of a planning nature with respect to agriculture. Other
agencies, such as _the Banco de la Repiblica, the Coffe Federation, and
Caja Agraria, do economic research for their individual needs. The Economics
Faculty at the National University in Bogota has some interest in agricultural
economics; the Agrarian Reform Institute at the same location has carried on
land use studies as well as research on other topics including credit and farm
management.

"However, the number of professionally trained agricultural economists is
exceedingly small. In the ICA-National University complex there is only one
person with an M.S. in agricultural economics; 'two Ingenieros Agr6nomos are
employed for agricultural economics work, while a fourth person is studying in
the U.S. At Palmira one Ingeniero Agr6nomo and one person with a degree in
economics are teaching agricultural economic subjects. At Medellin one Master
of Science (Arizona) and a lawyer are teaching agricultural economics. Only one
Colombian, employed by CVC (Corporation del Valle del Cauca), has a Ph.D. in
agricultural economics.
-1-




THE PROJECT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


IN COLOMBIA THROUGH THE INSTITUTE COLOMBIANO AGROPECUARIO


I. Background

On the basis of extensive study by the Government of Colombia and with
outside assistance and advice, particularly from the Kellogg, Rockeffeller and
Ford Foundations, the Government of Colombia established, in 1962, the
Colombian Institute of Agriculture (ICA) as a decentralized public
establishment to stimulate, coordinate, and carry out agricultural research,
teaching, and extension. On November 23, 1963, the Ministries of Education
and Agriculture and the National University agreed that ICA would have the
over-all responsibility for coordination of the Colombian efforts in the
area of agricultural education and for developing the agricultural faculty
of the National University. With additional assistance from the sources noted
above and with advice from a variety of other experts in these fields ICA
prepared a five-year General Development Plan covering these subject and
proposing improvement in the agricultural faculties of National University.
This plan was accepted by Colombian authorities in May 1965, and subsequently
endorsed at a meeting in New York by potential external investors including
Ford, Rockefeller, Kellogg, IBRD, UN, and AID. On January 11, 1966, the
participation of AID in the over-all program was approved by (then) acting
AID Administrator, William Gaud.

In January and February, an advance team from the University of Nebraska
and the Mid-America State Universities Association (MASUA) developed with
USAID and ICA a scope of work subsequently approved by the Ministries of
Education and Agriculture and National University. A contract, and the
Project Agreement under which it was authorized, were signed in the presence
of the President of Colombia in early March.

At the time these agreements were being made, the profession of agricultural
economics in Colombia barely existed as is evident from the following exerpts
taken from the report of the advance study team:

"The profession of Agricultural economics is .not well developed in
Colombia; Zalthough there are a number of7 centers of activity. The
National University and ICA has a nucleus staff, competent but very small to
cope with the numerous obligations in research, teaching and extensionr7 The
University of Valle has developed a program of teaching and research in
agricultural economics in its School of Economics. However, it is regional
in orientation, without dependable financial support, and with an inexperienced
staff. The University of the Andes faculty of economics has conducted some
work on supply and demand for agricultural products in Colombia. INCORA
carries on work of a planning nature with respect to agriculture. Other
agencies, such as _the Banco de la Repiblica, the Coffe Federation, and
Caja Agraria, do economic research for their individual needs. The Economics
Faculty at the National University in Bogota has some interest in agricultural
economics; the Agrarian Reform Institute at the same location has carried on
land use studies as well as research on other topics including credit and farm
management.

"However, the number of professionally trained agricultural economists is
exceedingly small. In the ICA-National University complex there is only one
person with an M.S. in agricultural economics; 'two Ingenieros Agr6nomos are
employed for agricultural economics work, while a fourth person is studying in
the U.S. At Palmira one Ingeniero Agr6nomo and one person with a degree in
economics are teaching agricultural economic subjects. At Medellin one Master
of Science (Arizona) and a lawyer are teaching agricultural economics. Only one
Colombian, employed by CVC (Corporation del Valle del Cauca), has a Ph.D. in
agricultural economics.
-1-




"No center presently serves as a focal point for agricultural economics in
Colombia. Such a central point, if it existed, should provide a flow of trained
bachelor level and graduate students for private and public employees of the
country; it should conduct research in management, marketing, prices and policy
relative to agriculture; it should be an information center for agricultural
economics, with a fund of literature and statistical data readily available."

When the University of Nebraska team visited Colombia (January and February,
1966) ICA had a "National Program" in Agricultural Economics within the Department
of Socioeconomics, staffed by one technician and a part time Director with an
M.S. degree in Agricultural Economics. In June, 1966, ICA created the Department
of Agricultural Economics and provided three additional technicians. Also
attached to the new Department was a student working for an M.S. degree in the U.S.

At about the same time that the Department of Agricultural Economics was
established, ICA was informed by the Ford Foundation that it would provide a
grant of $800,000 over a three year period. This grant was for the purpose of
developing the profession of Agricultural Economics in Colombia, primarily
working through ICA and the National University. The general objective of the
program was to contribute to the development of Colombian competence in
research and teaching in agricultural economics. This objective was to be
accomplished in three segments:

1. "Initial emphasis in the program will be on developing staff
competence in ZEhe following areas of J agricultural economics:

(a) The organization and operation of Colombian farms, including
the evaluation of crop and livestock alternatives, optimum levels
of variable inputs such as fertilizer, finance, labor utilization,
size of farm, and farm planning. Assistance in statistical design
of production research in ICA, and economic interpretation of the
research results, will be given.

(b) The economics of agricultural marketing including market
organization, processing costs and efficiency, transportation,
financing, grading and distribution. Attention will be directed
toward both agricultural inputs (seed, fertilizer, feed, machinery,
breeding stock, chemicals) and agricultural products.

(c) The analysis of alternative policies, including the pricing of
inputs and outputs, import and export policy, land policy, credit
policy, public investment in development, and policy toward private
investment.

(d) The analysis of supply, demand, and price relations, and the
development of outlook information for private and public decision
makers.

2. "A /corollary7 segment of the program will be directed toward the
developing of a teaching program and teaching competence in agricultural
economics in the ICA-National University framework. The subjects
developed would desirably include:

Farm Management
Production Economics
Land Economics
Agricultural Finance
Research Methods and Statistics
Agricultural Marketing
Agricultural Policy
Price Analysis




This is not exclusive it represents a minimum. It assumes the
availability of beginning courses in macro- and micro-economic
principles, and intermediate macro- and micro-theory, as well as
other courses in trade, economic development, etc. Suitable
arrangements will need to be made in order to provide this type
of basic training fcr Agricultural economists.

3. "A third segment of this program will be the general strengthening
of the profession of agricultural economics in the country by
developing a Colombian Agricultural Society and Journal.

Development of a Colombian Agricultural Economics Society7 would
involve the identification of the professional agricultural economists of the
country, and an effort to organize a professional society. None exists
presently. Such a society would (1) help create a professional attitude toward
agricultural economics; (2) create professional standards of performance; (3)
contribute educationally to the Colombian members; (4) enhance their morale.

"This segment would be accomplished by the establishing of an annual meeting,
and the creation of a professional journal in which society proceedings, research
bulletins, review articles, and other material of professional interest would be
published".

At the time of the proposal, the program was to have been established in the
Department of Socio-economic Science of ICA and National University. The program
provided for the following personnel:

1. A staff of three senior professors from the U.S., as follows:

Farm Management
Agricultural Marketing
Agricultural Policy

2. Three instructorships to be staffed by U.S. graduate students who have completed
all work except dissertations for the Ph.D. They would carry on dissertation research
in Colombia under the supervision of the U.S. professors in Colombia.

3. Forty man-years of fellowships. It was anticipated that the research relating to
fellowships would be done in Colombia on indigenous problems.

Although the primary emphasis of this proposal was to be directed at research
and resident teaching, the needs and opportunities for extension work in agricultural
economics were to be explored and incorporated into the over-all program.

The activities envisaged in this proposal were to be coordinated with other
activities carried on under the auspicies of USAID, and the Kellogg Foundation by
virtue of a common Chief of Party.


The following five year budget was proposed:





PROPOSED FIVE YEAR BUDGET FOR


FORD FOUNDATION SUPPORT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS IN COLOMBIA


Salaries
Three senior staff I/
Three instructors (postprelim)

Retirement-at 9% of $84,000
Workmens compensation-at 1.3% of
$84,000

Allowances
Senior Staff
Transportation of personal car-
at $500
Rental allowance-at $3,800
Furniture 2/
Rest and recuperation 3/
Education allowance-at $900
Instructors
Transportation of personal car-
at $500
Rental allowance-at $3,000
Furniture 4/
Rest and recuperation 3/

Travel and Shipping Costs
Senior staff-at $3,200 per family
per round trip
Instructors-at $800 per family
per round trip

Language training -at $500 per family,
senior staff and instructors

Teaching equipment

Direct Expenses
Supplies
Communication
Vehicle operating expenses


1966-67 1967-68 1968-69


$60,000 $60,000 $60,000
24,000 24,000 24,000


1969-70 1970-71


$60,000 $60,000
24,000 24,000


7,560 7,560. 7,560 7,560 7,560

1,092 1,092 1,092 1,092 1,092


1,500
11,400
9,000
500
2,700


1,500
9,000
6,000
500


-0-
11,400
500
500
2,700


1,500
9,000
-0-
500


1,500
11,400
3,000
500
2,700


1,500
9,000
2,000
500


-0-
11,400
500
500
2,700


1,500
9,000
-0-
500


1,500
11,400
3,000
500
2,700


1,500
9,000
2,000
500


4,800 4,800 4,800 4,800 4,800

1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200


3,000 -0-


2,300


1,000
500
500


1,000
500
500


3,000 -0-


1,000
500
500


1,000
500
500


3,000


11000
500
500


Fellowships to U.S.
Number 5_/
Cost at $7,200


5 15
36,000 108,000


20 20 10
144,000 144,000 72,000


UoS. Consultants
Man months
Salary- at $2,000
Travel and subsistence


2
4,000
1,600


2
4,000
1,600


2
4,000
1,600


1
2,000
800


1
2,000
800




PROPOSED FIVE YEAR BUDGET (continued)


1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71


Support for Agricultural Economics
Society and Journal
Books and Journals
Local travel for U.S. Staff-at $1,000
Automobiles, three at $3,000
Desk calculators, six-at $1,000
U.S. travel.- coordinator and other
MASUA personnel

TOTAL DIRECT COSTS

Indirect cost allowance at 15% of
U.S. salaries and consultants


1,000
3,000
6,000
9,000
6,000


2,000
2,000
6,000
-0-
-0-


3,000
500
6,000
-0-
-0-


3,000
500
6,000
-0-
-0-


2.,500 2,500 2,300 1,500


3,000
500
6,000
-0-
-0-

500


$217,152-$252,852-$297,152-$284,552>-$220,552


13,200 13,200


$230,352-$266,052-$310,352-$297,452-$233,452


FIVE YEAR TOTAL $1,337,660


I/ Based on stateside salary plus differentials used by USAID

2/ Initial purchase perfamily estimated at $3,000. Second year unkeep estimated
at $500. Estimated $1,000 per family in third year for replacement and up-
grading. Fourth year total of $500 for upkeep. Fifth year estimate of $1,000
per family for replacement and upgrading.

3/ Conform to USAID provision for rest and recuperation.

4/ Same pattern as footnote number 2, but at reduced levels. Figured at $2,000
per family initially.

5/ Total 25 M.S. and 10 Ph.D. candidates.


-5-


13,200 12,900 12,900


_ _




II. Progress to Date

Ao Staffing

1. ICA-Nebraska Mission: Recruiting for the ICA-Nebraska staff did not
move as fast as anticipated. The first senior professor arrived in
Bogotl on December 30, 1966, six months after the initiation of the grant.

The second senior professor arrived after another six months, and
staffing was not completed until two years after the initiation of the
grant. The reporting dates of those who have been on the staff during
the first three years are as follows:


Professor Fischer
Professor Badger
Instructor Bowser
Instructor Andrew
Professor Burdette
Instructor Feaster
Professor Hildebrand
Professor Steiner
Professor Driscoll
Professor Andrew


December 30, 1966
July 1, 1967
July 19, 1967
August 25, 1967
October 2, 1967
February 17, 1968
June 1, 1968
June 13, 1968
November 25, 1968
August 1, 1969


Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogot&
AID-Palmira
Ford-Bogot&
Ford-Bogota
AID-Medellin
Ford-Bogota
AID-BogotA


These arrival dates provide about 57 percent of the"potential" number of
man-years of staff time. In terms of man months, this staff time has
been distributed as follows:


Total
Ford
AID

Senior Staff
BogotA
Palmira-Medellin


164
130
34

102
68
34


Instructors 62




II. Progress to Date

Ao Staffing

1. ICA-Nebraska Mission: Recruiting for the ICA-Nebraska staff did not
move as fast as anticipated. The first senior professor arrived in
Bogotl on December 30, 1966, six months after the initiation of the grant.

The second senior professor arrived after another six months, and
staffing was not completed until two years after the initiation of the
grant. The reporting dates of those who have been on the staff during
the first three years are as follows:


Professor Fischer
Professor Badger
Instructor Bowser
Instructor Andrew
Professor Burdette
Instructor Feaster
Professor Hildebrand
Professor Steiner
Professor Driscoll
Professor Andrew


December 30, 1966
July 1, 1967
July 19, 1967
August 25, 1967
October 2, 1967
February 17, 1968
June 1, 1968
June 13, 1968
November 25, 1968
August 1, 1969


Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogota
Ford-Bogot&
AID-Palmira
Ford-Bogot&
Ford-Bogota
AID-Medellin
Ford-Bogota
AID-BogotA


These arrival dates provide about 57 percent of the"potential" number of
man-years of staff time. In terms of man months, this staff time has
been distributed as follows:


Total
Ford
AID

Senior Staff
BogotA
Palmira-Medellin


164
130
34

102
68
34


Instructors 62






FIGURE I : UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA STAFF


PERIOD OF INITIAL GRANT

FORD SENIOR STAFF


*PETER IHILDEBRAND


* LOYD FISCHER


* AN BADGER


FORD INSTRUCTORS


AMES DRISCO L *


Max Bowser *

CHRIS ANDIEW. *

* GERALL FEASTER


AID SENIOR STAFF


1967








1967


ROGER BU DETTE

MICHAEL STEIN NER *


1968


* CHiIS ANDREW


1969


2. ICA: During the three years of the grant, there have been a total
of 20 names on the staff roster of the Agricultural Economics
Department at ICA.


-7-


1966














CARRASCO

PELAEZ

LOPERA

ORJUELA

VALDERRAMA

RINCON

AVALOS

ACOSTA

CHACON

PULIDO

VARGAS

FORERO

DELGADO

DIAZ

FLORES

SIERRA

FRANCO

SUESCUN

SAMPER

CASTELLANOS


FIGURE 2: PERSONNEL IN THE DEPARTMENT OF

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ICA, 1965-1969


I~ 1


- -I~~


_________ I


I-


-I-----


=


B.S. or Less

M.S. Degree


Studying in
the U.S.


I- .L


- .


, ,-- -.


I -
L_ -


1965


1966


1967


1968


1969





Of these two have been part-time appointments, and six have had an M.S.
degree. However, these 20 individuals, over the three year period, re-
present only about 20 total man-years of work time. Included are about
4 1/2 man-years at the M.S. level and 15 1/2 man-years at the.B.S. (or
equivalent) level.

Much of the time of the non M.S. people has been spent in finishing
5th year theses, in studying English, or in other tasks not directly
related to the work of the department. It is estimated that only about
two man-years of effective time has been achieved in tasks of the
department by the ingenieros agronomos (B.So level). Of the employees
holding an M.S. degree, nearly 2/3 of their time has been administrative
and not directly related to teaching, research or extension activities.
Only about 1 1/2 man-years of the 4 1/2 have been devoted to non-ad-
ministrative activities. Hence, effective staff time has been only about
3 1/2 man-years during the three year period.

3. National University

About 10 man-years of Colombian staff time has been available at
the three Faculties during the three year period of the grant. (Of this
time, only about 2 3/4 man-years represents M.S. personnel.) The Medellin
campus has had the most time with 4 man-years; Bogota has had 3 3/4 man-
years and Palmira 2 1/4.

B. Graduate (M.S.) Program

The department first'began to offer graduate level courses in the second
semester of 1968: At that time, three full time students were in residence.
Courses offered the second semester of 1968 were the following:

Credits Students Professor

Price Theory 3 3 Lopera
Agricultural Policy 3 4 Fischer
Lopera
Production Economics 3 12 Badger
Lopera
Research Methodology 2 4 Badger
Math for Economists 2 8 Hildebrand

The effect of the reduced number of staff can be seen in the concentra-
tion of courses. Lopera was completely responsible for one course and a
counterpart professor in two others. Badger had responsibility for two
courses, only one of which had a counterpart. In Methodology and the
Mathematics course, the Nebraska professors had no counterparts with which
to work. However, it was considered so important to start the graduate
program that some sacrifices were necessary over what would have been
considered the most desirable method of teaching.

In the first semester of 1969, the department added four more graduate
students to bring the number to seven.. In this semester the following
courses were offered.
Credits Students Professor (s)

Intro. to Ag Economics 3 4 Lopera
Ag Marketing 3 7 Samper
Driscoll
Resource Economics 3 7 Badger
Suescum
Math for Economists 1 2 Hildebrand


-9-







During the vacation period (summer session) the number of students
remained at seven Courses offered were:
Credits Students Professor (s)
Advanced Farm Management 3 12 Rincon
Advanced Ag. Policy 3 9 Montero (UN)
USDA-PASA team

An important event during 1969 was the selection by ICA-UN of a
Graduate School Dean. He is Dr. Carlos Garces, Consultant in Agricultural
Education for the Organization of American States. In the absence of a Dean,
and because the school was so new, there were no firm rules and regulations
under which to operate. Without graduate school regulations, the department
defined its own procedures which it is hoped will coincide closely with
those under consideration by the Graduate School.

Considering that there are almost no agricultural economists in
Colombia at the undergraduate level who can enter the graduate program
(graduates from the University del Valle are the exception) the number of
prerequisites for the program was held to a minimum. These now include six
hours of agricultural courses, six of economics, six of mathematics, and
three of an introductory course in agricultural economics, Some ingenieros
agronomos meet all the requirements, while some will be short only the
economics. Almost no economists have the agricultural courses, and the
majority of the veterinarians desiring admittance need all the prerequisites
except the agricultural courses.

Requirements for the M.S. degree include 23 hours of credit at the
graduate level in required courses, 11 hours of electives, and 6 hours of
research credits for the thesis. Required courses are the following:

Course Credits

Economic Theory
Microeconomics 3
Macroeconomics 3

Statistics and Mathematics
Statistics 3
Applied Econometrics 3

Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Marketing 3
Production Economics 3
Agricultural Policy 3
Research Methodology 2

Elective credits can be from Special Problems suited to the student's
individual needs, graduate courses offered by other departments at ICA-
UN, or from the following list of courses which will be offered from time
to time upon sufficient demand and staff time:

Course- ,;A Credits

Advanced Farm Management 3
Agricultural Credit and Finance 3
Analysis of Agricultural Prices 3
Resource Economics 3
Economic Development 3


- 10-







The students will be subject to two sets of final examination.v The
first will be comprehensive exams, taken after at least 80% of the course
work is completed. As now planned, these will consist of four hours of
written and two hours of oral examinations to be administrated by an
examination committee chosen by the department. The second will be a
two hour oral examination over the thesis. The examiners will probably
be members of the thesis committee.

The first graduate to enter the program will go to the U.S. for a
one semester period after completing 18 months of studies at the ICA-UN
Graduate School. The courses he takes there will be transferred to
ICA-UN where his degree will be conferred after he completes his examinations
and thesis. The second and third students to enter could complete
requirements within 18 months, depending on the time required to complete
the thesis. It is anticipated that new students who enter the program with
all prerequisites can complete the degree requirements within an 18 month
period.

The research work of these graduate students forms an integral part
ofthe department's research projects and is conducted under the auspices
of the National Programs. Tentative thesis titles of the first seven
graduate students are the following:

Marketing:

Acostat Problems in the Marketing of Swine
Rodriguez: Problems in the Marketing of Vegetables in BogotA

Policy:

Ruiz: Restraints to Mechanization of Commercial Crops

Production:

Lopez: Alternative Methods of Coffee Renovation and Diversification
Moreno: Problems in the Production of Potatoes
Rincon: Restraints to the Adoption of Improved Practices
Gallo: Costs of Milk Production under Alternative Methods in the
Sabana de Bogota

With the loss of one student in the graduate program (L6pez to the
U.S.) six full time students will remain. It is anticipated that five or
six students will begin in the second semester of 1969. This will provide
the program with an excellent input of students for the semester, permitting
a larger number in each of the classes taught. For the next year, about
15 full time students in the program would be considered optimum. Courses
projected for the second semester of 1969 are the following:

Course Professor (s)

Research Methodology Steiner (ICA)
Agricultural Policy Valderrama (ICA)
Andrew (ICA)
Microeconomics Camargo (UN)
Applied Econometrics Murcia (UN)
Driscoll (ICA)
Statistics (Biometria) Fonseca (UN)


-11-







The course in statistics is being offered by the Statistics Section
at ICA and is not actually part of the offering of the Agricultural Economics
Department. The course in Micro-economics is being offered by the Department
of Economics of National University. It is an intermediate level course,
but the graduate students will have an extra session with the professor and
additional work in order to earn credit at the graduate level.. Murcia, who
is teaching the econometrics course with Driscoll, is the first to return
under the fellowship program and is employed by the Agronomy Faculty
at National University. The methodology course will be taught once a
week, allowing Steiner to commute from Medellin. Valderrama will be
the second Fellow to return under the fellowship program.

C. Undergraduate teaching activities (National University)

The majority of the activity in undergraduate teaching has been in
Medellin and Palmira where the Nebraska Mission has full time economists
working and housed at the Faculties. During the grant period, both of
these Faculties have initiated a career (Major) in Agricultural Economics.
The major at Palmira is a joint undertaking with the University of the
valle in Cali.

In Medellin, the major was initiated in 1968 with about 25 students.
In the first semester of 1969 there were 67 students in two levels of
study, and an additional 35 to 45 are expected for the second semester of
1969. Depending on funding and availability of staff, this program could
grow tremendously in the next few years as there is a great deal of interest
in Agricultural Economics at this location. Projected student enrollment
in this major, alone, for the next few years follows

1970 140
1971 210
1972 260
1973 310
1974 370

The staff at Medellin includes one M.S. at the present time with
three candidates studying in the U.S. for M.S. degrees. A fourth was
eligible to leave, but due to personal problems, was unable to depart in
1969. The staffing pattern calls for 10 in 1970, increasing to 12 by the
second semester of 1972. A great deal of Nebraska staff time is involved
in teaching the rapidly increasing number of courses because the Colombian
staff consists of only two persons at the B.S. level and one at the M.S.
level.

Cooperation in the ICA research program began with the initiation of
a marketing project in the Urab& region of northern Antioquia. Other,
projects have been financed by the Secretary of Agriculture of Antioquia.
All projects depend upon students' fifth year theses as a basis for the
work. Hopefully, the senior staff will be able to combine the results of
the various theses into a single publication.

In Palmira, the major is a joint offering between the National
University and the University of the Valley in Cali. The initial group
of students has begun the program although many details remain to be
worked out. Because the "Del Valle" staff in economics is much greater in
number than the staff at Palmira, the majority of the courses in economics
probably will be taught in Cali, although such courses as agricultural
marketing and farm management will be taught in Palmira where there is more
opportunity to present them on a practical basis. The agricultural courses
of course, will be taught in Palmira.
12-







Because of the differences in orientation between the two schools,
it is entirely possible that the major at Palmira-Cali will have two
areas of concentration. One group may be oriented more toward a
theoretical degree, possibly as preparation for graduate training.
The other could be oriented more toward the practical side. This
would not mean that the second group would be excluded from graduate
programs, but the orientation would be more toward applied topics.

In Bogota, there is increasing interest in establishing a major
in agricultural economics, but it is not yet underway. For a time,
when Eduardo Montero, an M.S. from Ohio State, was on the Faculty,
it appeared that rapid progress would be made. Montero was spending
some time at ICA and it appeared that some integration of programs
would be achieved. Unfortunately, Montero left the Faculty for
another position.

Recently, Hector Murcia returned to the Faculty after obtaining
an M.S. under the ICA-Nebraska program at Oklahoma State. Although he
is teaching courses, and has been elected Secretary of the Colombian
Agricultural Economics Association, he is interested in beginning some
research work. His main interest is in marketing, so he has begun to
work with Samper and Driscoll.

Conversations have been carried out with the Economics Faculty
at National University regarding the establishment of a joint program
with the Agronamy Faculty to offer a major in Agricultural Economics.
Some progress is being made, but as yet, the major is not being offered.

D. Research

Research is conducted at ICA under the auspices of the National
Programs which are a sub-departmental administrative unit at the
Institute. All research financed by ICA, including cooperative
research with National University, must be sanctioned under one of its
National Programs.

Three National Programs in the Department of Agricultual Economics
were approved by resolution in March, 1968. These programs are:

Agricultural Marketing
Agricultural Policy
Production Economics and Farm Management

The Programs became operative in November, 1968. At that time, a Director
was named for each, and for each one of the senior professors from the
Nebraska Mission served as Advisor. During the first semester of 1969,
the Directors and Advisors were the following:

Marketing: Rafael Samper, Director
James Driscoll, Advisor

Policy: Jorge Lopera, Director
Peter Hildebrandy Advisor

Production: Jorge Suescin, Director
Dan Badger, Advisor


-13-





























Advising a student on thesis research. On the left Rafael Samper, Di -
rector of the ICA Department of Agricultural Economics; on the right-
Dr. Peter Hildebrand, ICA-Nebraska Mission Project Leader in Agri-
cultural Economics.


On the right Dr. James Driscoll of the ICA-Nebraska Mission staff.
On the left, learning about electronic computers is ICA staff member
Edulfo Castellanos.








Each departmental staff member is assigned to one of the National
Programs, but his work is not necessarily restricted to problems in that
particular field. Active research projects in each program and the
responsible researchers for each are as follows:

Marketing:

1. Obstacles Related to the Improvement of the Production-
Distribution System for Potatoes in Colombia.
--Andrew and Badger

2. Prerequisites and Potential for the Exportation of Beef.
--Bowser and Badger

3. Problems in the Marketing of Swine.
--Acosta and Driscoll

4. Problems in the Marketing of Vegetables in Bogota
--Rodriguez and Samper

5. Marketing Methods and Distribution Systems for Selected
Agricultural Products in the UrabA Region of Colombia.
-Steiner, Tobon and Pelgez

Policy:

1. The Relationship of Infrastructure to Agricultural Development
--Feaster, Castellanos and Hildebrand

2. Restraints to the Mechanization of Commercial Crops.
--Ruiz and Valderrama

Production:

1. Production and Marketing of Wool, Lamb and Mutton in Colombia
-Vargas and Badger

2. Economic Analysis of the Production of Potatoes in Colombia.
-Moreno and Badger

3. Economic Analysis of Selected Beef Enterprises in Colombia.
--Badger and Torres.

4. Cost of Production of Priority Products.
-Diaz and Rincon

5. The Relationship and Differences Between Present and Potential
Agricultural Productivity in Colombia.
-Lopera and Hildebrand.

6. Alternative Methods of Coffee Renovation and Diversification.
--Lopez and Badger

7. Restraints to the Adoption of Improved Practices by Colombian
Farmers.
-Rincon and Hildebrand
-14-








8. Costs of Milk Production under Alternative Methods in the
Sabana de Bogota
--Gallo and Rinc6n

9. Fertilizer Effects on yield and Grade of Potatoes
--Frank and Manzano (Soils), Hildebrand

10. Determination of Economic Doses and Mixes of Atrozene and Linuron
in Corn.
--Cardenas and Coulston (Weed Control), Frank (Soils), Hildebrand

Publications based on the above research which are now in progress
and scheduled to be published within the next few months follow. All will
be in Spanish except for those specified to be in English.

1. Obstacles Related to the Improvement of the Production-Distribution
System for Potatoes in Colombia (In English)

2. Potential for Improvement in Potato Processing in Colombia

3. Trans-shipment of Potatoes in Nariio

4. Evaluation of the Production-Distribution System for Potatoes
in Colombia: Methods and General Parameters

5. Problems in Modernizing the. Potato Production Process in Colombia

6. Problems in Coordinating The Potato Distribution Process in
Colombia

7. Policy Considerations for the Potato Production-Distribution
System in Colombia

8. Production and Marketing Problems of the Colombian Campesino

9. Prerequisites and Potential for Exportation of Beef

10. Public Policy with respect to Capital for Colombian Agriculture

11. General Aspects of Beef Enterprises in Caqueta

12. General Aspects of Colonization and Development in Caquet&

13. General Aspects of Crop Production in Caqueta

14. Relationships of Infrastructure to Agricultural Development
(In English)

15. Analysis of the Productivity Gap between Experimental Yields,
Farm Trials, and Commercial Farmers (In English and Spanish)

16. Economic Analysis of Sheep Enterprises -- Production and
Marketing of Sheep and Wool

17. Economic Analysis of Potato Production

18. Economic Analysis of Selected Beef Production Systems

-15-








19. Cost of Producing Cotton in Tolima


20. Cost of Producing Corn in Cauca Valley

21. Case Study Analysis of Financial Returns to Milk Producers

In cooperation with the Agronomy Faculty in Palmira, two publications
are in progress:

1. Silage as a Feed Source for Dairy Cows.
2. A textbook for a course in Marketing.

In the past the research program has suffered somewhat because of
instability of personnel in the Department. Some programs were started
and then dropped as people left or emphasis changed owing to changes
in administration. In other cases, people were concentrating on fifth
year theses or studying English and made no real contribution to the
program.

It would appear that the programs are now headed for a period of
relative stability. Rinc6n has just returned from La Molina (Peru)
with an M.S. and will become Director of the Program in Farm Management
when Suescun leaves to become the Regional Economist in Medellin.
Hildebrand, with 11 months remaining in his present tour, will be
advisor to this program. When Valderrama returns from Nebraska with
his M.S. he will take over leadership of the Program in Policy
replacing Lopera who will go to Iowa State for his Ph.D. Chris Andrew,
beginning a two year tour as a Senior Professor, will be advisor. In
Marketing, James Driscoll is half way through his first year as Advisor.
The Director, Rafael Samper, will continue, at least for the time being,
but will also replace Jorge SuescGn as Director of the Department. Hence,
this position is the only one subject to immediate question.

Quantity of research work in the future must necessarily remain
subject to availability of personnel. Beyond question, this remains
the most limiting restraint within the Department. Direction of the
work will be more and more indicated by the requests which the Department
is receiving for help in a multitude of areas. These requests pertain to
all three program areas, but are perhaps heaviest in the Farm Management
Program. In this program, more and more time will be spent working with
other personnel of ICA, helping them to interpret the results of their
experiments and aid in understanding the reasons that their results are
slow to be accepted by producers. A new research project planned in this
Program is: "Obstacles to the Adoption of Improved Practices and
Techniques by Agricultural Producers in Colombia".

This project will include several sub-projects some of which may involve
Marketing and Policy and will readily provide for several M.S. theses.

Other projects being planned in the Production Project are:

1. An Analysis of a Least Cost Poultry Ration
2. Possibilities of Intensified Agricultural Production
Activities in the Llanos Orientales.

Within the Marketing Program, several new projects are being contem-
plated. Those under study at the present time are:
-16-








1. Losses During Transportation of Cattle by Truck.
2. Analysis of Beef Cattle Prices in Colombia.
3. Contraband Trade of Potatoes between Colombia and
Ecuador,

Proposed new projects in the Policy Program include:

1. Problems of Micro and Macro Allocations of Credit
for the Agricultural Sector.
2. An analysis of the Role of Effective Demand on the
Development Process.

E Colombian Agricultural Economics Association (ACEA)

Dan Badger and Loyd Fischer, in collaboration with their counter-
parts in ICA and the National University, organized the initial
meeting of the association. It was held in Manizales, Colombia, in
October, 1967. About 80 people interested in agricultural economics
attended this session. About 20 of those attending were foreign
agricultural economists working in Colombia. Of the remainder, 15
were Colombian agricultural economists with advanced training in the
field, and the others were people who were working in or interested
in the field.

The second meeting of ACEA was held in Buga in the Cauca valley,
in February, 1968. Ninety people attended this meeting, and there
were both more foreigners and Colombians with advanced degrees than
at the 1967 gathering. The first journal of the association was
published as a proceedings issue of the first two meetings, and a
directory of members was also published.

The third annual meeting was held in Medellin in March, 1969.
Again, about 90 professionals attended the meeting and a strong
governing body was elected with the majority of officers having
advanced degrees in agricultural economics. The "Junta" follows:

Hugo A. Torres Presidente
Ivan Agudelo Primer Vicepresidente
Jorge SuescGn Segundo Vicepresidente
Hugo Valdts Fiscal
Oscar E. Mazuerra Primer Vocal
Jorge Vargas Segundo Vocal
Hector H. Murcia Secretario-Tesorero

The directory of members is being revised and the proceedings will again
be published in the Journal. It is anticipated that the Journal will soon
be published two or three times per year and be of more service to the
members.

The first three meetings of the association depended quite
heavily on the input of the Nebraska Mission. With the election of the
present Junta, most of whom will remain in the country for at least until
the next meeting, it is anticipated that the input of the Mission will be
significantly reduced. Close association with Hector Murcia, the
Secretary Treasurer will be maintained, and the members of the Mission
will be ready to serve in whatever capacity is requested.


-17-
































Members of ACEA registering for the 1969 annual meeting in Medellin.
In background, Dr. Dan Badger.


Research discussions. On the right ICA-Nebraska Mission staff --
member Chris Andrew; on the left his Colombian counterpart in the
marketing program, Mario Valderrama; seated a student, Jairo To-
rres. Photo taken shortly after Valderrama' s return from the U.S.
With his M.S. degree from the University of Nebraska. Valderrama' s
fellowship was financed under this grant.










The fourth annual meeting is scheduled for Cali in February
or March of 1970.

F The Fellowship Program

1. Selection Procedures:
A copy of the procedure used for selecting Ford Foundation
fellows under the ICA-Nebraska Mission program is found in Appendix
A. Substantively, the procedure is little different from previous
years, but it has been somewhat refined. The selection committee
operates on a consensus basis, and no candidate receives a fellowship
except upon the unanimous recommendation of the entire committee.

Since few candidates are fluent in English, almost all are
approved subject to qualification in the language. Subsequent to
preliminary selection, most candidates have been released, on either a
part-time or full-tume basis, from their sponsoring organizations,
and have concentrated on the study of English. Preliminary selections
for the 1969 fall semester, for example, were made in April. Little
on-the-job productivity was realized from this group in the subsequent
months, for language training was a necessity. Various study programs
were developed for these students, with the ICA-Nebraska Mission,
the sponsoring organizations, and the students themselves sharing the
cost. The programs varied in effectiveness, but must be considered
to be generally satisfactory since all students selected in April
ultimately qualified in English prior to the fall semester. The
candidates were asked to take an ALIGU examination prior to the
preliminary selections, partially as an aid in the selection
process, but primarily for the students' own benefit so that they
would realize the extent of their language deficiency, and the amount
of study ahead of them. This proved to be an excellent stimulus.

After much discussion by the agricultural economics staff of
ICA, the National University, and the ICA-Nebraska Mission, agreement
was reached on a policy for the awarding of fellowships in this field.
In other words, priorities and regulations were established with respect
to the type of individual to be selected, the study institution which
he is to attend, etc. This policy is found in Appendix B. It is the
first of its kind to be established in any field encompassed within
the ICA-Nebraska Mission program and is expected to serve as a model
for the future.

2. Present Status of the Program:
As evidence of the momentum that this program has gathered, one
need only recognize that there were no fellowship students in the
states when the first ICA-Nebraska Mission Report to the Ford
Foundation was submitted on June 30, 1967. One year later, there
were eight; two years later, on June 30, 1969, one man had returned
with an M.S. degree, one was studying on a 12 month fellowship, and
17 others were studying for degrees.

F. As of June 30, 1969, the distribution of fellowships was
as follows:
-18-











ICA 8
M.S. 7
Ph.D. 1

Universidad Nacional 9
M.S. 7
Ph.D. 1
non-degree 1

Others
Banco de la Republica 1
Min. Agriculture 1

Total 19
M.S. 16
Ph.D. 2
non-degree 1


The first two students to depart for graduate study were Hector
Murcia of the Natbnal University-Bogota, to Oklahoma State University,
and Mario Valderrama of ICA, to the University of Nebraska. After
compiling an outstanding academic record at Oklahoma State, Murcia
returned in January 1969, and is again on the Faculty of the National
University. He is a prime candidate for a Ph.D. program in the
future. Valderamma will return with the M.S. degree in August 1969.
He has received an "Outstanding Graduate Student" award at Nebraska,
and his scholastic accomplishments have been so impressive that a
Ph.D. committee has already been established for him. The expectation
is that he may begin research on his doctoral dissertation under
the supervision of the ICA-Nebraska Mission professional staff, and
will return to Nebraska for his Ph.D. course work in perhaps two
years.

Departures in January 1968 were: German Bernal of the
National University-Palmira, to the University of Nebraska, and
Dario V4lez of the Banco de la Republica to Oklahoma State University.
V6lez is expected to return in the summer of 1969 and Bernal (who has had
language difficulties) in January 1970. Both are M.S. students.

Four men attended the Economics Institute in Boulder, Colorado in
June 1968, prior to beginning their M.S. programs at the start of the
fall semester. They were Juan Acosta and Luis Avalbs of ICA, at the
University of Missouri, Diego Londofto of the National University-
Palmira, at Oklahoma State University, and Jaime Bernhardt of ICA, at
Iowa State University.

These men will return to Colombia no later than June 1970, and at
least two are expected in January 1970. Londofio's academic performance
has been so outstanding that he has already been recommended for
immediate continuation in a doctorate program. No decision has yet
been made in this regard.
-19-












In August 1968, the first two Ph.D. candidates under this program
departed for the U.S. They are Alfredo Carrasco, who was then serving
as Director of the Agricultural Economics departments at both ICA
and the National University, and Eduardo Chac6n of ICA. Both are
studying at the University of Nebraska. In that same month, Ramiro
Orozco of ICA began M.S. studies at Oklahoma State University, and
William Perez began a 12 month fellowship for study at the
University of Paris, France. In addition, Jorge Torres of the
National University-BogotA departed for Arizona to study English
at his own expense; he was later awarded an ICA-Nebraska Mission
fellowship for study at Kansas State University beginning in January
1969. Mario Garcia of the Ministry of Agriculture also left in the
fall in order to study English, and was awarded an ICA-Nebraska
Mission fellowship for M.S..studies at the University of Arizona in
January.

National University-Medellln dominated the early-1969
departures. Included were Fabian Ramirez (completely fluent in
English without ever having had a language course or lesson) to
Oklahoma State University, Jaime Baby to the University of Nebraska,
and Gonzalo Aristizabal to Iowa State University, all studying for
M.S. degrees.

Of the fall semester 1969 candidates, only two qualified in
English early enough so that they could attend the Economics
Institute in Boulder, Colorado. They were Edierth Restrepo and
Rodrigo Tascon, classmates at the University of the Valley at Cali,
and fellow employees of the Ministry of Planning at the time they
became candidates. Both men have since executed contracts with
ICA, effective upon their return with M.S. degrees from the University
of Missouri.

M.S. candidates who were preliminarily approved in April, and
who qualified in English subsequent to the final date of this report
(but before its publication) include:Jesus Sierra of ICA, who will
study at Colorado State University, Carlos Forero of ICA, who will
study at Kansas State, Jorge Vargas of ICA, who will be at Oklahoma
State, and Roberto Lopez of the Coffee Federation who will also attend
the latter institution. Lopez will, however, study in the U.S. for
only one semester, after which he will return to Colombia to complete
his degree at the ICA-UN graduate school. All of this group will
attend a 30 day orientation session at the University of
Nebraska, where they will have an opportunity to live with North
American families prior to beginning graduate studies in September 1969.

Approval has also been given to the Ph.D. program of Jorge Lopera,
an employee of ICA and M.S. graduate of the University of Wisconsin,
who plans to study for his doctorate at Iowa State University. In
addition, preliminary approval was given in April to the M.S.
candidacy of Ricardo Buenaventura, who plans to attend Texas A & M.
The Banco de Republica, Mr. Buenaventura's employer, will help him
finance an English training program in the U.S. during the summer,
after which he hopes to qualify for an ICA-Nebraska Mission Fellowship.
-20-










Assuming the future language success of Mr. Buenaventura, and
assuming the availability of financing during all of calendar year
1969, 25 students will have departed Colombia for graduate studies
in the U.S. (and one in France) since the commencement of this
program. Of this group, 12 will have been awarded fellowships in
1969. When one considers that an "in Colombia" graduate program
has also been initiated during this period, the above figures
stand as a major achievement(and great credit to Colombia's
agricultural entities) in an entirely new agricultural field.

Candidates are already on hand for 1970 fellowship competition.
Some of these men are expected to go to the U.S.; others will be
attending the ICA graduate school which is expected to gain in
strength and prestige in the coming years. Of the students now in
the U.S., most will return over the next two years, adding to the
growing staff of trained agricultural economists at ICA and the
National University. A few who are particularly outstanding will
undoubtedly continue their studies until they have completed Ph.D.
programs. Others who have already returned, or will soon be
returning, shall likewise be candidates for a second fellowship to
the U.S.-this time for a Ph.D. degree.

In January 1969, fellowships to the UCA-UN graduate school
were awarded for the first time under the ICA-Nebraska Mission
program. These fellowships were in agricultural economics and
they carry a stipend of $2,500 pesos (or about $150) per month.
They were awarded to: Jose Acosta, Pedro Rinc6n, and Jose
Francisco Rodriguez. ICA-Nebraska Mission staff members consider
this kind of program to be a high priority need for the future if
a strong "in Colombia" graduate program is to be developed. ICA
fully recognizes this, and has begun a fellowship program of its
own, matching from its budget each fellowship given by the Ford
Foundation under the ICA-Nebraska Mission grant.

To those of us who have been close to this fellowship program,
it must rate as one of the most pleasing and satisfying accomplish-
ments of the past three years.

3. Family Supplements

On the basis of a memorandum of agreement involving the Ford
Foundation, ICA, and AID, family supplements are being provided a
number of AID participants by the Ford Foundation. Under this
arrangement the participant receives an amount equal to 50% of his
subsistence allowance for those days his wife accompanies him at
his study institution, and 25% of his subsistence allowance as per
diem for each of two children for those days they accompany him at
the study institution.

Families approved for this supplement prior to calendar year
1969 are enumerated in the Second Annual Report to the Ford Foundation.
Those approved during the present calendar year include:


-21-













Sponsoring
Institution


Expected Study
Degree Institution


Gerardo Martinez
Arturo L6pez
Rodrigo Torres
Fernando G6mez
Jesus Arias
Jaime Daza


ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.N.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Illinois
Oregon State
California (Davis)
Mississippi State
Iowa State
Iowa State


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING


Carlos Rodriguez


ICA


RURAL ADMINISTRATION


Uriel Ariza


ICA


M.S.


Minnesota


VETERINARY MEDICINE


Fernando Villafafe
Pedro Villegas
Omar Hincapi6t
Mario Ruiz


ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.


Colorado State
Texas A & M
Cornell
California (Davis)


ANIMAL SCIENCE


Daniel Abadia
Humberto Arango
Francisco Villegas
Eutimio Rubio
H6ctor Benitez
Rodrigo Pastrana
JesGs M. Ram6n
Saul E. Quintero
Luis Arturo Gil


U.N.
U.N.
U.N.
ICA
ICA
ICA
ICA
U.N.
U.N.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
M.S.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.


Colorado State
Nebraska
Missouri
Missouri
Nebraska
Wyoming
Colorado State
Nebraska
Florida


-22-


AGRONOMY


Name


Date of
Departure


Jan.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Dec.


M.S.


Illinois


Febr.


Sept.


Aug.
Aug.
Sept.
Sept.


June
June
June
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sept.











The financial support for these families, which is to be
provided by the Ford Foundation, will be offset by the award of
AID fellowships to the following students in agricultural economics:


Name


Sponsoring
Institution


Jorge Torres
Fabian Ramlrez
Jaime Baby
Gonzalo Aristizabal
EdierthA. Restrepo
Rodrigo Tasc6n **
Ricardo Buenaventura
Carlos A. Forero
Jorge Vargas
Roberto L6pez*
Jesis Maria Sierra
Jorge Lopera


Expected
Degree


U.Nal. Bogota M.S.
U.Nal. Medellin M.S.
U.Nal.Medellin M.S.
U.Nal. Medellin M.S.
ICA Bog. M.S.
ICA Bog. M.S.
Banco Republica-BogM.S.
ICA Bog. M.S.
ICA Bog. M.S.
Fedecaf6
ICA Bog. M.S.
ICA Bog. Ph.D.


Study
Institution

Kansas State
Oklahoma State
Nebraska
Iowa State.
Missouri
Missouri
Texas A&M
Kansas State
Oklahoma State
Oklahoma State
Colorado State
Iowa State


TOTAL 12








* One semester only; will complete degree at ICA graduate School.

** Qualification in English still pending.


-23-


Date of
Departure


Jan.
Jan.
Febr.
March
June
June
July
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.











G. UPDATE

A series of events have occurred since June 30, 1969, which should be
mentioned. Some of these were alluded to in the preceding report, but
they are important enough to be noted here.

First, Jorge Surc=n, formerly Director of the Department after
the resignation of Alberto Franco, moved to Medellin on August 1, to
become the first Regional Economist ir the Department. Rafael Samper,
M.S. from Purdue, has formally taken over as Director of the Department.

In addition to the changes in Directorship, the other leadership
of the Department has also changed. Manuel Rinc6n is now the Director
of the Program in Farm Management, and Mario Valderrama is Director of
the Policy Program.

Five new graduate students have entered the program giving us
a total of 11 in residence and one studying for a semester at
Oklahoma State. Course enrollment, including part-time students from
various institutions is as follows:

Agricultural Policy 4
Applied Econometrics 5
Methodology .9
Microeconomics 9


-24-






III. Individual Reports of Nebraska Mission Agricultural Economists Financed by
the Ford Foundation (Report Period: July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969).


A. Report of ICA Department Chairman: Rafael Samper

Even though it has been only a short time since I became Director of
the Agricultural Economics Department it has been eight months since I
joined the Department and the program to develop Agricultural Economics
within ICA. There is no doubt that the Department has suffered from a lack
of direction which would have facilitated a more rapid organization. I
believe though that it is possible to say that the situation is changing
for the better. It is obvious that much of the ground work has been done
and the point has been reached where the'take-off' is imminent. The out-
look is good for a maximum of mutual cooperation within the team of Agri-
cultural Economists working towards establishing Agricultural Economics
within ICA. The present team is without doubt one of the best ever
assembled, allowing for the development of a close professional working
relationship at all levels within the Department. This will allow the
Department to move towards becoming more dynamic and active in its work.
Also, efforts are being made to improve communication and understanding
between the Department and the Institute at all levels.

Presently ICA has finished the Department's new home at the "ICA No. 2"
building at Tibaitatd. These facilities are adequate, allowing each program
to work as a team, and allowing for the establishment of a serious pro-
fessional atmosphere which has rarely existed.

With the present situation it will be possible to establish .an efficient
organization within the Department which will facilitate work organization
and execution. The Department more than ever now has the potential to
become through its research, teaching and extension work, a center of Agri-
cultural Economics in Colombia.

It must not be assumed though that the Department has no problems. In
graduate teaching the need has arisen to develop a closer relationship with
the Economics Department at the National University. To this end the Depart-
ment has established an education committee with representatives of the
Economics Department and Agronomy School at the National University, in this
way increasing the pool of qualified teachers available to the Agricultural
Economics Graduate Program. Another need which is presently visible is one
for an efficient administrative structure to minimize the time required of
professionals for administration. The needs in particular are in accounting
and budgeting, and in the management of personnel and students. Much of
this could simply be transplanted from an established and operating Agricul-
tural Economics Department, possibly through technical assistance and through
visits to such a department by the ICA department director.

The research demands and the training program of department professionals
in the U.S. have left the Department somewhat short of manpower. The present
vacancies have recently been filled by two economists with experience and
post-university training and one recent graduate in Agricultural Economics
from the University of the Valley. Several additional posts have been
requested and it is expected that in the immediate future the department will
be able to hire up to seven additional professionals, thus assembling the
largest working force of Agricultural Economists in Colombia to date.

There is no doubt that development is progressing at an accelerated rate.
Thus, the present need for technical assistance and participation in Agri-
cultural Economics by the ICA-Nebraska Mission is greater than ever. Considering

-25-






III. Individual Reports of Nebraska Mission Agricultural Economists Financed by
the Ford Foundation (Report Period: July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969).


A. Report of ICA Department Chairman: Rafael Samper

Even though it has been only a short time since I became Director of
the Agricultural Economics Department it has been eight months since I
joined the Department and the program to develop Agricultural Economics
within ICA. There is no doubt that the Department has suffered from a lack
of direction which would have facilitated a more rapid organization. I
believe though that it is possible to say that the situation is changing
for the better. It is obvious that much of the ground work has been done
and the point has been reached where the'take-off' is imminent. The out-
look is good for a maximum of mutual cooperation within the team of Agri-
cultural Economists working towards establishing Agricultural Economics
within ICA. The present team is without doubt one of the best ever
assembled, allowing for the development of a close professional working
relationship at all levels within the Department. This will allow the
Department to move towards becoming more dynamic and active in its work.
Also, efforts are being made to improve communication and understanding
between the Department and the Institute at all levels.

Presently ICA has finished the Department's new home at the "ICA No. 2"
building at Tibaitatd. These facilities are adequate, allowing each program
to work as a team, and allowing for the establishment of a serious pro-
fessional atmosphere which has rarely existed.

With the present situation it will be possible to establish .an efficient
organization within the Department which will facilitate work organization
and execution. The Department more than ever now has the potential to
become through its research, teaching and extension work, a center of Agri-
cultural Economics in Colombia.

It must not be assumed though that the Department has no problems. In
graduate teaching the need has arisen to develop a closer relationship with
the Economics Department at the National University. To this end the Depart-
ment has established an education committee with representatives of the
Economics Department and Agronomy School at the National University, in this
way increasing the pool of qualified teachers available to the Agricultural
Economics Graduate Program. Another need which is presently visible is one
for an efficient administrative structure to minimize the time required of
professionals for administration. The needs in particular are in accounting
and budgeting, and in the management of personnel and students. Much of
this could simply be transplanted from an established and operating Agricul-
tural Economics Department, possibly through technical assistance and through
visits to such a department by the ICA department director.

The research demands and the training program of department professionals
in the U.S. have left the Department somewhat short of manpower. The present
vacancies have recently been filled by two economists with experience and
post-university training and one recent graduate in Agricultural Economics
from the University of the Valley. Several additional posts have been
requested and it is expected that in the immediate future the department will
be able to hire up to seven additional professionals, thus assembling the
largest working force of Agricultural Economists in Colombia to date.

There is no doubt that development is progressing at an accelerated rate.
Thus, the present need for technical assistance and participation in Agri-
cultural Economics by the ICA-Nebraska Mission is greater than ever. Considering

-25-






the overall competence of the present Nebraska staff in Agricultural
Economics it is hoped that at least some of the staff members will be able
to spend more than a two-year tour in the Department.


B. Report of ICA-Nebraska Mission Project Leader: Peter Hildebrand

During the last year I have been serving as Project Leader in Agri-
cultural Economics. Approximately 40 percent of my time has been involved
in service activities associated with this position. Nearly as much time
has been involved in research activities and in my capacity as advisor to
the National Program in Agricultural Policy. The remainder of my time has
been spent in teaching activities, primarily at the graduate level. Of
course, many activities overlap, and are not easily classified. Processing
and counselling fellowship candidates, for instance, is classified as a
service activity though it could also be considered as a teaching activity.
Likewise, policy formulation with respect to the ICA-UN graduate program in
agricultural economics is more related to teaching activities than service.
Following is a detailed description of my activities during the year,
divided for convenience, into the three major categories of research,
teaching, and service.

Research:

My first activities after joining the ICA-Nebraska Mission (June 1, 1968)
were to write a report summarizing some ideas accumulated during my year with
AID in Bogota, and to finalize a research proposal which had been planned
before my joining ICA-Nebraska. The report, "Input Supply Risk as a
Constraint on Agricultural Development in Developing Countries" was translated
into Spanish and used as the basis for a seminar presentation.

The research proposal which was being developed was for a study to
compare the development potential of several regions of Colombia with special
reference to the Llanos Orientales. During the development of the proposal,
it was discussed with personnel of the Ministry of Agriculture, Incora,
Planeaci6n Nacional, the World Bank, the USDA-PASA team, AID, National Univer-
sity, and ICA. All considered it a high priority undertaking and were enthu-
siastic about it. Comitd Tdcnico of ICA suggested that I start,immediately
on the Llanos because so little was known about the potential of this region.
This fitted in perfectly with a request from the World Bank so I began a pre-
liminary study of this area. This phase culminated in an ICA report to the
World Bank entitled, "Development of Rice and.Cattle Operations in the High
Savannah Portion of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia" completed in July, 1968.

About the time this study was being completed, the Department was
assigned a new part-time Director to replace Alfredo Carrasco who was leaving
for the U.S.A. on a Ph.D. fellowship program. The new Director strongly
opposed any research with policy implications being conducted at ICA. Hence,
he was also opposed to the proposal which had been developed over the pre-
vious two months. In order to prevent unnecessary conflict, I dropped the
proposal. This, perhaps, was not too unfortunate at the time because counter-
part personnel from National University who were going to cooperate in the
project did not materialize owing to other commitments at the University.

One of the primary reasons for dropping my research proposal was because
Gerald Feaster was also developing a research project with definite policy
orientation and it was considered more important to the overall program
because of his role as Instructor. This proposal, also, was being received
enthusiastically by all entities, but was adamantly opposed by the Director
of the Department. In September, the ICA administration approved Feaster's
-26-






proposal in a decision which was instrumental in the formation of the
present scope of the Department.

Owing to several factors, among which were the lack of time and
personnel to undertake the study, my proposal remained shelved for several
months. In April, 1969, I was appointed to a committee by Edgar Gutierrez,
Director of Planeaci6n Nacional, to formulate a proposal to study the
development potential of the Llanos compared with other regions of the
country. The committee is comprised of people from Planeaci6n, Incora,
IGAC, the Ministry of Public Works, the Ministry of Agriculture, and ICA.
The proposal which is being developed is very similar to the one originally
proposed last year.

I have also been involved during the year on a study contracted to ICA
by the USDA. This study, an analysis of the differences between farm yields
and experiment station yields of crops, was the responsibility of Jorge
Lopera, who, as the Director of the National Policy Program, was my counter-
part during part of the year. This study culminated in a jointly authored
report, "The Agricultural Productivity Gap in Colombia", delivered to the
USDA in June. This report will be modified slightly, translated, and
published by ICA.

As principal advisor to Feaster, I have spent a lot of time working and
traveling with him. Directly as a result of his study, I accompanied him
and Dr. Russell Brannon, a member of his thesis committee from the Univer-
sity of Kentucky, to Caquet& in January. Indirectly related to the study,
I accompanied Drs. Davis and Frank from the Nebraska Mission to the area in
February, and I have been trying to coordinate a trip for Drs. Gartner and
Cardona of ICA.

Although I was not principal advisor to Andrew and Bowser, I have spent
quite some time (more in recent months) working with them on their research.
The work has intensified recently as they have been completing their writing.
If Andrew's thesis examination is held in Cali, as it appears likely, I will
serve as a member of his examining committee.

For a period of time, the Policy Program was assigned the responsibility
for the economic aspects of a socio-economic study being conducted by the
Extension Division. Sierra and Florez were primarily responsible and Franco,
Lopera and I were providing assistance and guidance. A questionnaire was
developed and pretested, and a small portion of the design sample was
completed before the study was terminated by Extension. At that time Sierra
and Florez began studying English in anticipation of receiving fellowships
for study in the U.S.A.

I have been serving as an advisor to a University of Florida study in
C6rdoba. Incora requested the help of ICA in determining optimum parcel
size for their Project C6rdoba No.2. We did not have the personnel or time
to provide adequate assistance, but were able to coordinate with Florida to
undertake the study. This project has not moved as rapidly as anticipated,
but it should be very useful and informative when completed.

Beginning July 1, upon Badger's departure, I will shift to the National
Program in Production and Farm Management. Manuel Rinc6n, who recently
returned from La Molina, will probably become Director of the program when
Jorge Suescdn leaves to go to Medellin as Regional Economist. (Chris
Andrew will become advisor to the Policy Program and Mario Valderrama,
returning from Nebraska, will probably become Director when Lopera leaves
for the U.S.A.). One of the primary efforts of the Production Program will
be the Llanos study. Both Rinc6n and I will be heavily involved in this
study for several months.
-27-






The Department continues to receive many requests for "Cost of Pro-
duction" studies, and more recently for help in establishing model farms.
As we are still extremely short of personnel, we are unable to satisfy all
the requests. However, we hope to be able to provide some assistance to
Agronomy and Animal Science to help them in determining their costs on
commercial trials. We are also tentatively discussing the offering of a
short course for ICA personnel in production economics in order to provide
the researchers with a better basis for evaluating their own research.

Related to these problems, and based on the "Productivity Gap" study,
is a tentative project to better relate ICA studies to farm conditions.
This would be a comprehensive study including the economics of new practices
on both commercial and subsistence farms. Because of the lack of pro-
fessionals, much of this project will depend on graduate students, at least
in the initial stages.


Teaching

One of the problems with the background of the graduate students we have
entering the graduate program is a weakness in mathematics. For this reason
I taught "Mathematics for Economists" as a Special Problems Course the last
two semesters. The first semester the course carried two hours credit; the
second semester only one hour. I hope to publish the notes from these two
courses for use by future incoming students as an area for which they will
be responsible, but for which they will receive no credit.

Although the basic degree requirements for the M.S. in Agricultural
Economics were set before my arrival, they are still being modified, as is
the basic policy for the ICA-UN Graduate School. These activities, and
course scheduling,have all required some time and effort. Recently, we have
made an agreement with the Economics Faculty at National University to give
graduate credit to our students for intermediate micro and macro theory.
The students will be given special attention (an extra hour per week with
the professor plus additional papers) in order to obtain the graduate credit.

At the present time, Rinc6n and I are scheduled to teach Production
Economics during the first semester of 1970.


Service Activities:

Many of the activities in this category are intangible--partly related
to being Project Leader, and partly related to the general area of coun-
seling. Part pertain directly to the role of the Mission but many are only
indirectly related. The writing of monthly, semi-annual and annual reports,
future job descriptions, etc., I classify as being indirect. Support of
ACEA and working with fellowship candidates are directly related to the
purposes of the Mission.

My monthly reports indicate a low of 20 percent of my time in service
activities in May, 1969, to a high of 65 percent in January. In January,
Drs. Rhodes and Vollmar visited Bogotd for a review of the Mission. This
was also combined with preliminary presentations to the Ford Foundation for
a renewal of the grant to ICA-UN. In May, the majority of the month was
spent on research activities including the completion of the "Productivity
Gap" study, the Llanos Committee, and working with Bowser and Andrew.

Chronologically, the first three months (July-September) were spent
becoming familiar with the job, the various entities, and the new Director
of the Department at ICA. The primary task in October and November was the
-28-







1969 Job Description for the new AID contract. In December, we were
working on the Annual Report of the Mission. January, February and March
were occupied in writing several reports and attending meetings related to
the Ford grant. In April and May we were again writing a 1969 Job Descrip-
tion for AID (this time in a new, shortened form). Now we are working on
the Annual Report for Ford. The selection, counseling and processing of
fellowship candidates has strung out over several months and is still not
completed for the fall semester. Of course, the search for candidates is
a continuous process.

Compared with my time, which has averaged over 40 percent in "Service
Activities", the other senior professors in BogotA have spent about 10
percent. In Palmira and Medellin, where each senior professor has some
administrative duties, the average is about 20 percent.



C. Reports by Senior Professors

1. Report by Daniel Badger

My Objectives and Accomplishments

1. To upgrade the competence of Colombians working in the various areas of
Agricultural Economics in ICA (The Colombian Institute of Agriculture),
National University, the Ministry of Agriculture and other official agencies.
Our goal is to develop professional competence in Agricultural Economics in
Colombia. This I have tried to do by training students and counterparts as
follows: (1) Through teaching of graduate courses in which Colombian
students were trained and two professors were made aware of my teaching
methods, (2) through assisting in preparation of materials for extension
beef and dairy cattle short courses, and in presenting a paper to 300 beef
cattle producers in Ibagud with the assistance of my research-extension
counterpart; (3) through research projects jointly developed by Colombian
professionals in ICA and in the UN-ICA graduate program; and, (4) through
frequent contact and advising and counseling of young professionals working
in the National University and ICA system, as well as in other official and
semi-official agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Banco de la
Repblica, Fedegan and Caja Agraria.

2. To train Colombians through the Ford-Nebraska fellowship program.
We have also been successful in accomplishing the up grading of competence
of Colombian professionals through the Ford and AID fellowships of the ICA-
Nebraska contract. Some geographical balance has been achieved in the
graduate training of these Colombian professionals in the U.S. and else-
where. Of the 17 who were sent abroad by June 1, five entered the Univer-
sity of Nebraska, five went to Oklahoma State University, two to the Univer-
sity of Missouri, two to Iowa State University, and one each to Kansas State
University and the University of Arizona, and one for a one year period of
study to France. Of the new group now leaving, two are scheduled for Missouri,
one for Kansas State, one for Colorado State, one for Oklahoma State and one
for North Carolina State.

During the last two years, much of my time was utilized in publicizing
the fellowship program, in selecting candidates, and in helping these
candidates complete the paperwork necessary to leave the country to begin
graduate training (applications, writing letters of reference, applying for
English exams and housing, etc.)
-29-








3. To improve undergraduate.instruction in Agricultural Economics and to
develop B.S. Programs of study in the Curricula. I assisted in the develop-
ment of a core curriculum of courses to be offered in the undergraduate
programs in agricultural economics at the National University branch in
Medellin and the joint program between the National University branch in
Palmira and the Universidad del Valle.

Many improvements and changes still need to be made, for example,in
reducing the number of hours and in combining some courses. However,
significant progress has been made, and careers in Agricultural Economics
at the undergraduate level have begun. Hopefully, the program in National
University, Bogot& will begin soon.

B.S. degree programs in three geographic areas of the country (Bogota,
Cali, Palmira, and Medellin) should adequately serve the needs of Colombia
for professionals trained in this area. Other universities, departmental
and private, can and should develop strong service courses in Agricultural
Economics to broaden the training of their general agronomy and animal
industries students.

I have not had as close and as continuing an association with Agricul-
tural Economics Professors in the Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Nacio-
nal, Bogotd, as we had planned, or as I would have liked. I have been
heavily involved in the graduate teaching program at ICA, in developing
research projects with Instructors and graduate students, in the fellowship
program and in organizing the'professional association. I did try to main-
tain office hours for a while at the National University, but never seemed
to have contact with;any bf the young professors. Either they were teaching
a class or else working on their fifth year thesis in someplace other than
the Ag. Econ. office. They all had thesis projects underway under the
supervision of a Colombian professor.

I was asked to teach a farm management course at National University in
the second semester of last year. However, the National University still
had not approved a career in Agricultural Economics, and the course would
have been a service course for general agronomy and animal science students.
I was already committed to teach two graduate courses that semester and I
also did not feel that my function in Colombia was to teach service courses
for other fields, but rather to develop a career in Agricultural Economics.

I do not want to leave the wrong impression. I have worked with and
have tried to help various of the National University Professors. I
attended some staff meetings of the Bogota group with Alfredo Carrasco,
then Department Director. I lent text books and teaching materials (my
farm management notes and my production economics notes) to both Nilson
L6pez and Alfredo Carrasco. I sat in on a few of the farm management
classes when Alfredo was teaching the course. I also had close contact and
a good relationship with Ivan Agudelo and his Ag. Econ. group in the
Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Nacional in Medellin. Since Hector
Murcia returned to National University from Oklahoma State University with
his M.S. degree, I have had almost daily contact with him in ICA.

4. To develop the M.S. Program in Agricultural Economics in NU-ICA.
During the past year and one-half I have assisted in the development of
the M.S. Agricultural Economics Program in the Joint National University-ICA
graduate effort. We now have seven full time graduate students in the
Department. In.the second semester 1968 (August-December), I taught the
Production Economics course to 12 students with Jorge Lopera as my teaching
assistant and counterpart. I also taught a course in Research Methodology


-30-






with 4 students and no teaching counterpart. In the first semester 1969
(January, May) I taught the graduate course in Resource Economics to our
seven full time students. Jorge Suescfn was my teaching assistant and
counterpart in this course.

Many teaching aids were developed for these three courses. Three
complete sets of notes in Spanish are now available to future teachers of
these courses, Spanish translations of Journal articles, speeches, and
chapters of books were reproduced on stencil and are available for use by
students who enroll in these courses in the years ahead.

I feel we have made much progress in developing a strong M.S. program
in Agricultural Economics in Colombia. Colombians returning to ICA and to
the National University system from the U.S. with M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
should be able to step into a well organized program and carry it forward.
Certainly the needs are great in Colombia for professionals trained at the
graduate level in Agricultural Economics.

The National University, and the Departamental and private univer-
sities all need well trained Agricultural Economists. Also, the programs
and requirements of official agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture,
IDEMA, Caja Agraria, INCORA, and INDERENA are such that each of these
agencies needs from one to several M.S. level agricultural economists.

We believe there should be a strong demand for graduates of the two
M.S. programs in Agricultural Economics now functioning in Colombia: one
at UN-ICA and the other at the Universidad del Valle, in Call. What we
need most now is fellowship and/or assistantship support from AID, Ford,
and/or ICA to support graduate students in our program.

5. To establish a National Professional Organization of Agricultural
Economics in Colombia and to establish a Journal of the Association.
The Ford Foundation through the University of Nebraska Mission provided a
budget to foster the organization and development of Asociaci6n Colombiana
de Economia Agricola (ACEA), and to publish a Journal of the Association.
Loyd Fischer and I, in collaboration with our Agricultural Economics
counterparts in ICA and National University, organized the initial meeting
of ACEA. It was held in Manizales in October 1967. We had about 80 people
interested in Agricultural Economics at the first meeting. About 20 were
extranjeros (U.S. and other professional agricultural economists working
in Colombia), about 15 were Colombians with advanced training in Agri-
cultural Economics, and the remainder were those interested in and/or
working in, the field who had training in veterinary medicine, economics
or general agriculture.

The second meeting of ACEA was in Buga, (near Cali and Palmira) in
February 1968. At that meeting we had about 90 professionals in attend-
ance, with both more foreign personnel and more Colombian Agricultural
Economists with advanced degrees. The Association was strengthening. As
a followup to this second meeting, a journal (proceedings of the papers
presented at the reunion) and a directory of members were published and
given to all members of the Association.

The third annual meeting of the Association was held in Medellin in
March 1969. By all measures, this was the most successful meeting despite
last minute changes in the program. About 90 professionals attended the
reunion. We elected a strong Junta Directiva (governing board) with most
of the officers having M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. The Minister of Agriculture,
Enrique Pefalosa, was the banquet speaker. Progress is being made in
revising the directory of members and in publishing the proceedings journal
-31-






of the third annual meeting.


I believe the professional Association can and will play a strong
role in fostering the development of the Agricultural Economics profession
in Colombia. It will be used as a means to develop and publish infor-
mation about both undergraduate and graduate teaching programs, to
publicize existing and proposed research projects and to make available
lists of published research in the field. The Association will serve as
a forum or sounding board for developing policy proposals to better serve
Colombian agriculture. I am humbly proud to have served a small part in
the development of this Association.

6. To develop a research program in the major areas of Agricultural
Economics.


Instructor Marketing Research Projects

We did not have a senior professor in the Ford marketing position in
ICA until December 1968. Since the first two Instructors in our program
had major interests in the area of marketing, I served as advisor to them
in developing two research projects in that area, and with ICA approval,
we initiated the following studies in July and August 1967.

A) Obstacles to improvement of the Potato Distribution System
in Colombia (Chris Andrew's study).

B) Requirements and Potential for Beef Exportation by Colombia
in the 1970's (Max Bowser's study).

Both of these studies are now complete, and reports are being prepared
in both English and Spanish. ICA publications in Spanish hopefully will
be available by the end of this year. During the early stages of these
two projects, I assisted in the coordination of the research procedures,
development of questionnaires, field trips, etc. Also during the past two
months I have spent considerable time with the two Instructors in reading
and revising the reports of these projects.


Farm Management Research Projects

My primary interest and responsibility has been to stimulate research
in the area of farm management. Previously ICA had no studies in the area
of agricultural economics. Despite many years of accumulation of research
results on feed trials, seed and fertilizer experiments, no effort had been
made to utilize these results for purposes of economic analysis, or to
coordinate the physical research projects so that economic analysis could
be accomplished. Hopefully, this can be accomplished in the near future,
under the leadership of the National Program in Farm Management in ICA.

As spin-offs or more specifically as sub-projects of the beef cattle
and potato marketing projects, we developed two farm management studies on
these two products. One study is an economic analysis of the production
of potatoes in the departments (states) of Narino, Boyacd, and Cundinamarca.
One of our seven full time graduate students has been working on the sub-
project, and will use the data as a basis for her thesis. Since she also
holds an assistantship, she will prepare a bulletin for ICA on this study.

About 125 producers were interviewed in the summer of 1968 and Chris
Andrew has used some of the production data in his thesis. However, the


-32-






bulk has been tabulated by the Colombian graduate student. A detailed
outline has been developed for the thesis and ICA bulletin, and some of
the data have been analyzed. I believe the graduate student concerned
has learned much about the organization and development of a research
project and the research methodology involved in seeing the project
through to completion. Also, the fifth year University students, whom
we hired to do the interviewing in the three departments, gained an
insight into the Agricultural Economics discipline and an appreciation of
the importance of this kind of research to assist Colombia's economic
development.

The other sub-project is a study on the economic analysis of selected
beef cattle enterprises in two major beef regions of Colombia (los Llanos
and C6rdoba). Very little information was available on the management
practices, the costs of production, and production and marketing problems
of beef cattle producers. However, some of the fundamental problems, such
as low birth rates, very extensive management, long time to market, etc.,
have been accepted as common knowledge for some time.

A fifth year student in the Faculty of Economics at National Univer-
sity, Bogota, is using this study as the basis for his thesis. He helped
take some of the interviews (complete the questionnaires) and has assisted
in tabulating and analyzing the data. Two other fifth year economics
students from Bogota interviewed producers for me in Vichada (in the Llanos),
and two fourth year Faculty.of Agronomy students in the University of C6r-
doba interviewed producers in C6rdoba. Again this has been a good method
to stimulate interest in Agricultural Economics, and to recruit students
to do graduate work in this field.

Since producers do not keep records, and some did not want to give
accurate information for fear of tax agencies, we were unable to get
completely accurate information, and the quantity of information desired.
However, in beginning agricultural economics research projects in a
developing country, where no previous base existed, one expects to make
mistakes, and must take what he can obtain.

Hopefully, this study and the potato study can serve as a base to
developing future farm management studies that will generate more accurate
and more useful information for use by ICA and other extension agencies in
working with producers and in providing guidelines to official marketing
(price support, and storage) and policy making agencies of the national
government. Hopefully such future economic research will also be useful
in orienting the physical research programs of ICA.

I have been the thesis advisor for Roberto L6pez, on leave from
FEDECAFE, who is one of our full time students in the NU-ICA graduate
program. His thesis project is "Economic Analysis of Alternative Methods
of Renovating Coffee". He has made much progress on this study in recent
months. We only lack information from a questionnaire on producer attitudes
in changing from one system of coffee production to another. He should
obtain and analyze these data by late July, and have his thesis completed
soon thereafter. We have tentatively planned a joint ICA-FEDECAFE publi-
cation on this study.

For about the last 10 months, I have had Jorge Vargas as a research
counterpart. We developed a project outline for a study on the economics
of sheep production in Colombia. After two months of frustration in
obtaining approval to begin the project, in obtaining research funds for
travel and to hire interviewers, we actually began protesting the question-
naire in late October. We selected the departments in which to concentrate
-33-





the study, visited the regions to obtain names and addresses of sheep
producers, and to select the sample.

We obtained about 100 valid questionnaires. The information which
was obtained first in Nariflo was incomplete, due to faulty questionnaires
and due to special problems that exist in that area. We were able to use
that information solely for general information.

The data have been tabulated and analyzed and my counterpart is in
the process of writing the results of the study. Unfortunately the study
will not be completed before I leave. We had difficulty in obtaining
funds for travel to obtain needed information as a result, valuable time
was lost in developing the study. Also, my research counterpart is a
candidate for fellowship to study at the M.S. level in the United States.
Consequently, he has used much of his time in the past three months in
formal intensive English classes, in arranging his affairs to leave the
country, in obtaining paper for passports, etc. This has sharply
reduced his input (and consequently mine, since I only work on the study
when he is available to take the lead) into the study.

Jorge has gained valuable insight into research methodology in farm
management and has an appreciation of the problems involved in developing
such studies and in seeing them through completion. I believe that he will
be able to take major responsibility for a research project upon his return
from graduate training. If so, I will have accomplished my objective in
research, because as I see it, my job here was not to develop a study and
write a bulletin under my byline. My job was to train Colombians how to
do research in the various areas of agricultural economics, with particular
emphasis in farm management.

7. To develop some extension materials in Agricultural Economics.
Very little has been done in the area of extension due to lack of counter-
parts to work in this area and due to lack of time on my part. Our
department has collaborated with the Animal and Dairy Science extension
professionals in ICA in developing material in farm management for ICA
short courses on beef cattle and on dairy cattle.

I prepared and presented a paper in Spanish at a Beef Cattle Short
Course in Ibagud on February 20, 1969. There were approximately 300 beef
producers in attendance. The title of the paper was "Decision Making and
Farm Management Considerations". The paper was published in Curso Corto
sobre Ganado de Cane, publicaci6n miscelanea No. 11 of ICA.

Hopefully when Luis Avalos returns from Missouri, he can take the lead
in developing some farm management extension materials for use in ICA short
courses, etc. Luis developed two farm records books before leaving for
graduate training. The department needs to begin a record keeping program
with selected producers for several of the more important crop and live-
stock enterprises.

8. Other Activities. During the last two years, I have been involved in
day to day counseling with Colombian Agricultural Economists in ICA and in
the National University system. I have advised them, traveled to all parts
of the country with them, and shared my ideas and philosophy in developing
an Agricultural Economics Program with my Colombian friends.

I have been coordinator of the ICA departmental education committee
and as such have advised on the selection of agricultural economics students
for admission to the NU-ICA graduate program and have advised on the selection
of candidates for fellowships. The big problem now is lack of funds for
fellowships to attract students to our program. We also scheduled courses
-34-






to be taught, and arranged for Instructors to teach the courses.

I worked with Loyd Fischer in the selection and purchase of many books
and other teaching materials for use in the three branches of National
University and in ICA. I served the Agricultural Economics group as
project leader until July 1, 1968.

I developed a weekly program of seminars for our graduate students and
young staff, and the program worked successfully for one semester. After
developing the program for the second semester, it was cancelled by the
part time director of the department. He evidently considered such
seminars or talks by personnel of INCORA, DANE, Caja Agraria, the Ministry,
as well as visiting speakers from the U.S., to be a waste of time. Hope-
fully these seminars can be re-initiated in the second semester 1969. They
serve a useful purpose in making our group aware of what is going on and
what is being done in Agricultural Economics by other agencies.


Some Recommendations

1. Fellowship needs. We need some funds to support (with stipends)
several graduate students in our graduate program in NU-ICA. Since it
appears that neither ICA nor NU have sufficient funds for such assistance,
I would hope that the ICA-Nebraska Mission could work with Ford and/or AID
in supporting about 5 such "assistantships" per year in Agricultural Eco-
nomics. We heed this to attract strong, well qualified candidates to our
program, and to give us the numbers of students needed to justify teaching
the courses.

2. Director of Department of Agricultural Economics in ICA. There is
probably no need to continue mentioning the need for a full time Colombian
Director in ICA Agricultural Economics. This problem has existed since the
Nebraska Mission Program in Agricultural Economics began January 1, 1967.
(See previous annual reports.) The second part time Director resigned one
month ago. Rumors are that a full time Director has been appointed, but
no official announcement has been made.

My hope would be that in the future, the Colombian personnel in each
department would have some voice in the selection of new department
directors.





2. Report by Loyd Fischer (Departure January 1969)

I. Objectives of assignment

The general objective of the assignment is to upgrade the profession
of Agricultural Economics in Colombia.

Subsidiary objectives are:

a) Contribute to the development and improvement of teaching and
research at the three campuses of National University and at Tibaitatd,
with special emphasis in the areas of agricultural policy, resource
economics and agricultural financed
-35-






b) Assist in strengthening library collections and improve the
availability of reading materials to students and faculty;

c) Locate and identify prospective applicants for fellowships and
assist the applicants in their preparations for graduate training;

d) Assist in the organization of a Colombian Association of Agri-
cultural Economics.

II. Narrative of Activities

A. To improve teaching at National University and ICA.

1. Participated in conference with the agricultural economists
at each of the campuses of National University and Tibaitata
concerning the courses to be taught, the staff available for
teaching, and the text and reference books needed.

2. Participated in conferences with administrators and
professors of the Economics faculties of National University,
Bogota and the University of the Valley, Cali. Proposals have
been made and some action initiated with respect to cooperation
between those faculties and the agricultural economics faculties
of National University.

A formal agreement has been entered into between National Univer-
sity and the University of Valley to develop an integrated teaching
program in agricultural economics. The details of the arrangement
are in the process of being worked out.

3. Provided counsel and assistance on a continuing basis to
professors at the three campuses of National University with
respect to curriculum development, course content, selection of
texts and reference books and improvement of teaching methods.

4. Particular attention was given to a new course "Introduction
to Agricultural Economics". This course is now.required for all
students in the Department of Economics.

5. Developed and taught, with the assistance of Jorge Lopera, a
seminar course in "Agricultural Policy" in the ICA graduate school.
In this course, we made a special effort to gain the active par-
ticipation of the students.

B. To improve library collections and increase availability of reading
materials.

1. Served on the library committee of the Nebraska Mission.

2. Ordered multiple copies of about 500 titles, primarily from
RTAC, FAO and various Latin American publishers. These books are
predominantly in Spanish.

3. Distributed reading material which had been received to the
three libraries of National University, and to TibaitatA.

4. Conferred on numerous occasions with Mr. Lee; the new librarian
at Tibaitatd, concerning library problems. Mr. Lee's arrival is a
most encouraging development and will certainly contribute greatly
to this objective. He has become a member of our library committee


-36-






and has indicated in other ways a strong desire to be of
assistance to us in every way possible.

5. Ordered quantities of several text-books now available in
Spanish with the intent to make these available to students.

C. To assist in the identification, screening and placement of
prospective applicants for fellowships.

1. Visited formally and informally on numerous occasions with
professors and students at the three campuses of National Univer-
sity, the University of the Valley, and Antioquia University to
discuss the fellowship program.

2. Contacted administrators of various institutions (e.g. Caja
Agraria, Banco de la Repdblica, Banco Ganadero, Federaci6n de
Ganaderos, Federaci6n de Cafeteros, and INCORA to solicit
cooperation in our fellowship program. These institutions were
asked (1) to release employees for advanced training and (2) create
positions to which fellowship recipients might be obligated.

The response from the administrators was universally favorable.
In each case, offers were made to cooperate in the program.

As a result of the contacts made by Dr. Badger and myself a list
of names of about 40 potential fellows has been compiled. Efforts
are continuing to process the applications received and locate
other prospects with the final objective of identifying highly
qualified individuals as fellowship applicants.

D. To improve research and research capacities of ICA staff.

1. Provided counsel and assistance on a continuing basis with
respect to the research activities of ICA agricultural economists
and to Max Bowser and Chris Andrew of the Nebraska Mission.

2. Contacted and interviewed individual farmers, located in a
number of areas and producing a variety of products, concerning
their problems of operation. In particular, efforts have been
made to probe into the effect of various public programs and legal
provisions on the operations of the farms. Contacts have been made
with dairy,swine, broiler, egg, cattle and sugar operations.

In addition, reviewed publications attempting to ascertain the
cumulative effect of various governmental actions on agricultural
development.

This activity has proved rewarding in that insights have been gained
into the institutional framework in which Colombian agriculture
operates. Such insights are essential for teaching a graduate course
in agricultural policy. They are also essential for counseling
individuals in policy making-positions.

From the information obtained,a paper on Colombian agricultural
policy was prepared. Jorge Lopera has agreed to assist in the
preparation of a paper in Spanish. He will appear as coauthor on
a draft to be submitted to ICA for publication.


-37-






3. Participated in conferences with administrators and researchers
from ICA, NU, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Land Tenure
Center with the objective of coordinating research activities of
the various entities. Provided counsel and assistance to Gerald
Feaster delimiting a research problem. Contacts have been made and
excellent working relationships have been established with the
administrators of INCORA, both in Bogota and in the field.

E. To assist in the establishment of a Colombian Association of
Agricultural Economics.

Met on several occasions with members of the executive committee
to plan the 1969 meeting of the Association. The theme of the
meeting was agricultural policy.








3. Report by James Driscoll (Arrival November 1968)

I arrived in Bogota on November 25, 1968 to initiate a two year tour
as advisor to the National Marketing Program in the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA). As is
the case with most new arrivals, two to three weeks were necessary to
handle administration details, house-hunting, etc. An intensive language
training program (4 hours per day) was initiated the second week in
December. This intensive training lasted approximately one month, and was
gradually scaled down until language training was terminated in May.

My counterpart (Rafael Samper) was hired by ICA on December 15, but had
substantial administrative problems. Consequently, it was approximately
the middle of January before he was completely free to assume his duties
as the Director of the National Marketing Program.

Objectives of Assignment

The Nebraska senior staff member assigned to each of the three national
programs within the Department of Agricultural Economics at ICA is
responsible for the development of a research program, and for some
extension activity. Assistance also is to be given to the Asociaci6n
Colombiana de Economia Agricola (ACEA) in order that a professional organi-
zation can be available to the members of the profession in Colombia.


Teaching

Primary emphasis during January and February was given to the develop-
ment of a course in agricultural marketing which Samper and I were respon-
sible for teaching during the first semester. I also taught a course in
advanced agricultural marketing as a Special Problem offering. Preparation
of class notes for these two courses took a great deal of time since few
relevant references were available. The short lead time in which to prepare
for the courses also required that we concentrate our efforts on this
activity. The notes developed for these two courses will be revised as
more references are obtained.


-38-






With respect to other teaching duties, the marketing group has been
assigned responsibility for teaching Applied Econometrics and Agricultural
Price Analysis. Both of these courses will be offered for the first time
during the next year. Reference materials are being obtained and course
notes are being developed for both of these courses.

A solid core of reference material has been obtained for both courses,
and efforts now are directed to supplementing this material.


Research

The National Marketing Program also has the responsibility to develop
a research program in the area of agricultural marketing. Samper and I
were the first staff members assigned to this program, although the projects
of Chris Andrew and Max Bowser were in this area. The present full-time
staff of this program for research purposes consists of one person with
some university work and one person who has completed all university
requirements except his thesis, in addition to Samper and myself. One
professor of the National University (M.S.) works half-time with the program.

Some research projects currently in process were developed directly
from the research of Chris Andrew and Max Bowser. Others have been
designed to complement these efforts. The research of Max Bowser will be
complemented by further research in beef marketing and in the marketing of
other types of meat animals. Chris Andrew's research will be complemented
by some research concerning vegetable marketing. The program leaders also
will assist fifth year students in agricultural economics and economics
whenever these students request assistance through the program. Other
projects will be developed as man-power permits.

The following research projects are currently in various stages of
processing:

1) An Analysis of a Grading System for Rice

(fifth year thesis)

2) Market Channels for Beef at the Wholesale level in Bogota
(fifth year thesis)

3) The Colombian Potato Chip Industry

4) An Analysis of the Demand for Vegetables in Bogota
(M.S. Thesis)

5) Market flows of Poultry and Eggs in Colombia

6) Losses during Transportation of Cattle by Truck in Colombia

7) Analysis of Beef Cattle Prices in Colombia

8) Contraband Trade of Potatoes Between Colombia and Ecuador


The first five projects are currently underway and numbers six and
seven will be initiated soon. Preliminary work has been done on the eighth
project, but it appears that a great amount of additional information will
be necessary to compile a worth-while publication.
-39-






Some work has also been done with the Instituto de Mercadeo Agricola
(IDEMA) to improve their series of prices for agricultural products at
the wholesale level. The results of this work probably can be prepared
in the form of an ICA publication.


Extension

At the present time, the Department does not have an extension
coordinator, Extension activities of the Department have been limited
by this fact. Papers have been prepared for presentation at short
courses for beef cattle producers. Other extension contacts have
been limited primarily to agricultural producers who come to the
Department to seek assistance. As the number of publications of the
Department increases, there probably will be a greater demand for such
services.


Administrative

Many duties must be conducted independently of the Marketing
Program. One of these duties is that of obtaining books in economics
and statistics for the ICA library. A great amount of time has been
spent in this activity.

A cooperative arrangement has been made with the Director of the
ICA library regarding book purchases. The library has Rockefeller
Foundation funds available for its use, but these funds are restricted
to purchases in the United States. Most Spanish language books cannot
be purchased in the States. Consequently, Mission funds have been
devoted almost exclusively to the purchase of Spanish language books
(approximately 100 titles during the past six months). A list of
approximately 150 titles in English which are desirable for the
graduate program has been submitted to the library. This arrangement
should result in a more efficient utilization of the funds available
from the two sources.

The Colombian Association of Agricultural Economics (ACEA) appears
to have strong leadership at the present time. The present junta
directive is determined to make the Association relevant to its members
during the entire year, and not just at annual meeting time. Conse-
quently, the Mission can probably reduce the amount of time spent in
direct participation in the governing of ACEA. However, a certain
amount of contact will still be necessary in order to determine the
best use for Mission money available for the organization.

Direct Mission contact with ACEA will be limited primarily to work
with the Secretary-Treasurer of the organization. The Secretary-Treasurer
should have the greatest impact upon the members of the organization since
his office is responsible for maintaining contacts and for publishing the
journal.

ICA currently lacks qualified statisticians and computer programmers
who can assist the Department in its research and data processing problems.
Most of the computer programs available to the ICA research effort are
analysis of variance programs for various experimental designs. The
regression programs which were available had limited applications. One
of my first duties was to try to improve the data processing capabilities
of the department.
-40-






Three programs were written for the department during the last six
months. Two of these are modifications of programs obtained from the
States. The third is a new type of regression program which was designed
to minimize the limitations of the available computing facilities. Work
has been started on another program which is designed to analyze price
series for seasonal, cyclical and trend variation. Other programs will
be written or adapted for step-wise regression, K class estimators and
other statistical procedures which should be available to a functioning
department of agricultural economics. Detailed descriptions of the use
of the programs will be written and distributed in the form of departmental
mimeographs or ICA bulletins.


Plan of Work

During the next year, several of the current beca students will
terminate their degrees and return to the department. Most of these
persons will have obtained an M.S. degree without thesis. Consequently,
an important task of the Mission staff will be the orientation of these
new department members to research.

Besides the problem of training these new people in research methods,
a great amount of work will be necessary to train them in the analysis of
data. My principal duties will be confined to supervising the research of
people assigned to the marketing program. However, a certain amount of
time will also be necessary in order to help all members: of the depart-
ment attain some degree of proficiency in the analysis of data which they
have obtained. Papers will be written to illustrate the methods of
preparing data for analysis by computers.

Some time will also be devoted to the improvement of the selection of
books currently available in the ICA library. Primary emphasis will be
given to Spanish publications. This is a time consuming task since no
bibliography of Spanish titles exists. Some books in English will also
be obtained since the people who were trained in the States can profitably
use these in the preparation of their class notes.




D. Report from National University; Hector Murcia

I was at Oklahoma State University for one and one-half years under a
fellowship granted by the Mission of the University of Nebraska in Colombia.
At the end of this period (February 1969) I obtained an M.S. degree in
Agricultural Economics and returned to Colombia.

Currently I am working at the National University of Colombia in the
Agronomy Faculty as an Assistant Professor. The first semester of 1969, I
taught a course in Farm Management to undergraduate students and worked to-
ward the organization of the Agricultural Economics Department of the Facul-
tad de Agronomla. I also spent one to two days per week at Tibaitata
(ICA Experiment Station) in order to become acquainted with the research
projects that the department of agricultural economics was developing, and
to see if I could initiate a research project within this department for
my own training in this field.

This semester (second semester of 1969) I am teaching two courses: Farm
Management at the National University and Applied Econometrics at the gradu-
ate school of NU-ICA. Besides teaching these courses, I am initiating a


-41-







research project during the month of September.


Another of my functions during this semester will be that of planning
and organizing the agricultural economics career at the National Univer-
sity, Bogota. At the present time, we are writing the formal proposals
for the creation of this career, and we hope to receive the first students
by February, 1970. In order to organize this career, we will need the
cooperation of the following institutions: Facultad de Agronomia of the
National University and the Department of Agricultural Economics at ICA.
A career committee will be appointed soon in order to discuss the obstacles
to the career, to try to resolve these obstacles, and to determine course
requirements, etc. A great deal depends upon the willingness of the members
of this committee to overcome obstacles if we are to have the career created
by 1970. Additional advisory assistance from the Mission of Nebraska may be
needed.

I am also serving as the Secretary-Treasurer of the Colombian Agri-
cultural Economics Association. We are trying to organize a National meeting
in Cali for March, 1970. ACEA appears to be a viable organization, and we
hope to have a productive meeting in Cali.

My plans for 1970 are the following:

First Semester

1) Teach courses at the National University and/or ICA. I would like
to teach only one course so that I can spend more time on research.

2) Help to organize the IV National Meeting of the Colombian Agri-
cultural Economics Association.

3) Continue to develop the career of Agricultural Economics at the
NU, Bogota.

Second Semester

1) If I do not go to the States for a Ph.D., I will be teaching
courses at NU and/or ICA and doing research.

2) Possibly apply for a fellowship in order to study for a Ph.D.
Before considering another fellowship I would need to consider the
following factors: field of specialization in Agricultural Economics,
possibilities of starting work on my dissertation in Colombia, as
well as other conditions of importance to me and to the National Uni-
versity.





E. Reports by Instructors

1. Report by Chris Andrew

I. Potato Marketing Research Activities:

The past year has been devoted primarily to terminating the research
'project entitled "Improving Coordination and Performance of the Production-
Distribution System for Potatoes in Colombia". As summarized in the previous


-42-






annual report, trucker wholesaler and retailer interviews had been
collected by June 30, 1968. Some coding and card punching had been
completed also, but most of this work was in process from July to
December.

Interviews with potato producers were obtained in July. The depart-
ments (states) of Narifo, Cundinamarca and Boyacd were selected for the
production interviews because they include between 70 and 80 percent of
Colombia's annual production and display various marketing problems. The
sample was drawn by selecting municipios within each department and then
selecting producers from each municipio. A total of 125 usable interviews
were obtained, 31 in Boyacd, 55 in Cundinamarca, and 41 in Narifo. Three
students from the INNCA University performed the interviewing and coding
of those questionnaires.

Consumer interviews were also obtained in July by two methods from 197
consumers. Barrios were randomly selected from four sectors of the city
from which blocks were randomly selected. An interview was taken at the
house nearest the northeast corner of the block. This accounted for 102
interviews. Another 95 interviews were obtained from consumers while they
were purchasing potatoes. The stores and plazas for these interviews were
selected to represent various income levels within the city. A girl from
National University did all of the interviewing and coding for this study.

Under supervision of Jorge Pulido, (counterpart beginning in September,
1968) 18 interviews were obtained from potato chip processors in Cali and
Bogotd. Jorge is summarizing these interviews and will prepare a research
monograph from the results. This monograph will also serve as a thesis to
fulfill requirements for his two year program at ILMA.

A price survey to specify potato price spreads within the potato market
system was performed during a three week period in February. Prices were
obtained simultaneously in several rural markets and at all levels within
the Bogota market to specify differentials. Eduardo Montero, Department
Chairman at National University, and two of his fifth year students assisted
with this research.

By December all coding, key punching and card verifications were
terminated. With assistance from Jim Driscoll and Biometria at ICA a,
frequency count program with means, variances and histograms was developed.
This seemingly easy task required two and one half months of concentrated
effort because of the limited memory capacity and general programming prob-
lems for the IBM 360 computer at INCORA. Thus, on March 15, data processing
began and was terminated by April 15.

Since that time two drafts of the thesis have been prepared and reviewed
by Rafael Samper (Director of the National Marketing Program, Agricultural
Economics Department, ICA), Lauro Lujan (member of the National Potato and
Yuca Program at ICA), Pete Hildebrand and Dan Badger, (Nebraska Mission
Agricultural Economists), and the Michigan State University Guidance Commit-
tee chaired by Harold Riley. Within the year Harold Riley has discussed
the research with me on about six different occasions made possible by his
involvement in the MSU/AID marketing project in Cali. This close association
has been very beneficial, and has relieved the Agricultural Economists of
the Nebraska Mission Staff from some of the more burdensome responsibilities
of research consultation. A final oral examination will be held in Colombia
in July over the thesis. Three MSU staff members and Pete Hildebrand will
serve as the examining committee.

At present, plans are underway to translate and rework the thesis into


-43-


































Interviewing a potato retailer for a Department research project. On
the left ICA-Nebraska Mission staff member Chris Andrew. At the
center is a student interviewer and on the right the retailer.


Nebraska instructor and his counterpart presenting a seminar on a joint -
research project. Left to right ICA staff member Edulfo Castellanos,
ICA-Nesbraska Mission Instructor Gerald Feaster, ICA staff members
Manuel Rinc6n and ]Eduardo Chac6n.







four research bulletins. This work will be performed as soon as possible.


II. Accomplishments:

Within the year and the duration of the research program, twenty six
students from National University, INNCA, and the University of Narifio
were trained in various applied research techniques. Four of these students
worked within all phases of the research except the final writing phase.
They received training in sampling, questionnaire preparation, pre-testing,
interviewing and coding. Three students then transferred to Gerald Feaster's
research program and received further in-depth research training from which
two joined PIMUR (Proyecto Integrado de Mercadeo Urbano y Rural) in Cali.
The remaining student joined CARE. In both cases their research experience
and training was the deciding factor in attaining these job opportunities.

ICA staff members have also been associated with the research. Jorge
Vargas and Jorge Pulido (counterpart) both worked with the producer
interviews in July. Jorge Pulido is gaining experience in formulating
and summarizing a research project in his work with potato chip processors.
Very close coordination was maintained throughout the year, as was true
in the previous year, with Lauro Lujan in the Department of Agronomy (ICA)
and the National Potato and Yuca Program. By traveling with Lauro and
through nearly weekly discussions, we have been successful in merging
experience, training and ideas in an interdisciplinary research program.
His contributions to questionnaire development and to the written research
summary were valuable and further cooperation and consultation will be
maintained after termination of the research.

Because of the forced need for data processing facilities for the
instructor research a beginning has been made in developing a capacity
at ICA to process data for social scientists. The frequency program,
however, is also in use by the physical sciences. Although the time
involved in acquiring this capacity was significant, it provides a
lasting input for ICA along with informal training for two members of
the statistics department. This work is being continued by Driscoll
and Feaster. Juan Acosta, a fellowship student at the University of
Missouri, is studying both agricultural policy and computer programming
and will return to a partially established program of data processing.
The present work will save valuable time for Juan and the department.


III. Other Activities:

The survey of Agricultural Economics problems encountered by Peace
Corps Volunteers was summarized, under my supervision, by a Peace Corps
Volunteer and a senior Ag. Econ. student from the University of Missouri.
This report is in process of being published in Spanish.

I attended the American Farm Economics Association meetings in
Montana in August, and had an opportunity to visit with several of the
Ag. Econ. Department heads of MASUA institutions. In December we
returned to the U.S. for a vacation, stopping for one day in Columbia,
Missouri, where I talked with Juan Acosta and Luis Avalos, two of.our
Ag. Econ. fellowship students, and their advisor Phil Warnken about
their programs.

I have been involved in numerous meetings concerning the programs


-44-






and policies of the Department of Agricultural Economics at ICA. I
prepared several memorandums for Pete Hildebrand, particularly concerning
agricultural marketing activities and the instructor program. I also
presented two seminars on potato marketing during the year.



2. Report by Max Bowser

I. Objectives of Assignment

The primary objective of this assignment was to conduct research on
some phase of an agricultural economics topic of major importance to Colombia.
Research efforts were concentrated on a marketing transportation study of the
beef cattle industry. More specifically, this study emphasized the pre-
requisites and potential for the exportation of beef by Colombia in the 1970's.
This specific research study was reviewed and approved by Dr. Badger and Dr.
Fischer after consultation with Dr. Ortiz Mdndez, Director of the Instituto
Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Dr. Alvaro Gartner, ICA, and Dr. William E.
Colwell, previous Director of the Nebraska Mission.

A second objective was to assist the senior professors in Agricultural
Economics in developing and presenting seminars for both Colombian and
Nebraska Mission staff members and graduate students. A third objective is
to publish the results of my research and to assist in implementing some of
the recommendations as time permits.

Special efforts have been made to analize beef production possibilities
and expected domestic beef consumption. Within the analysis of the potential
and prerequisites for beef exportation by Colombia are the following sub-
objectives:

1. To identify and describe the major production areas for beef
cattle in Colombia, both present and potential, and to identify
these areas with respect to their impact on domestic and export
supply of beef.

2. To estimate the potential supply of slaughter cattle for the
decade of the 1970's from the major production areas and to describe
the programs necessary to achieve this supply.

3. To estimate the potential domestic-market consumption of beef in
Colombia.

4. To estimate the export potential for Colombian beef.

5. To determine the internal marketing structure and product flow
patterns necessary to meet the potential domestic and export demand
for beef.


II. Activities

I arrived in Bogota in July, 1967. A considerable amount of the first
six months in Colombia was spent learning Spanish. I attended Spanish
classes at Los Andes University, and in October began an additional hour
each day with a tutor. Classes at Los Andes ended in December but I con-
tinued with the one hour of tutoring four days per week until July 1968.


-45-






Much of the first six months was spent conducting background research
about the beef cattle industry in Colombia. This included familiarization
with the various public, semi-public and private entities associated with
beef cattle operations. Trips provided first hand information about the
major production regions, consumption centers, the basic marketing
processes involved and problems prevalent in the cattle industry.

Early in 1968, a tentative plan of work was developed. Research
continued to provide a better viewpoint of the cattle industry. A reten
study of truckers in late January and early February, 1968, provided
basic information about cattle movements into Bogotd, Colombia's largest
consumption center. Several studies had previously been done in Colombia
about regional and departmental characteristics of beef cattle marketing.
No study did justice to analyzing the national beef cattle industry with
respect to future potential both for domestic consumption and exportation.
Therefore, in August 1968, this research project was aimed at determining
the prerequisites and potential for exportation of beef by Colombia in
the 1970's.

Much information has been obtained about the beef cattle industry in
Colombia. There are many sources of information about the livestock industry,
and data from each of these vary in ease of accessibility, completeness, and
with each other. The Banco de la Repdblica, Banco Ganadero, FEDEGAN (Fede-
raci6n Colombiana de Ganaderos), USAID, Fondos Ganaderos, INDUGAN (Industria
Ganadera Colombiana), private studies, DANE (Departamento Administrativo
Nacional de Estadistica), work by fifth-year students at the National Univer-
sities, and interviews with slaughterhouse personnel, ferias, and finca
owners were the principal sources of information.

Colombia was divided into five major beef supply and consumption regions.
The production parameters of weaned calf crop, mortality rates, time-to-
market and female culling rate which differ among regions, were used to
project beef supply from each of the production regions. Two levels of
production potential were used: 1) improved management and, 2) slightly
changed management. Domestic consumption was estimated for each region by
using the beef consumption data plus projected regional population increases.

After calculating the regional beef supply and consumption, the gross
national beef export potential is established for each year from 1968 to
1979 for the two levels of beef supply. Adding dairy extraction and
subtracting clandestine slaughter (10% of official slaughter) a more
realistic export potential is depicted.

All calculations and analyses have been completed. The English version
of the written report is in its final stages of revision and Spanish
translation is nearing completion. The report from this study should
provide a basis for future planning in the beef cattle industry in Colombia.

We acted as a host family for the Chris Andrew's when they arrived on
post August 25, 1967. I attended the annual meetings of the American Agri-
cultural Economics Association during August, 17-21, 1968.

I presented a paper on the "Beef Cattle Marketing Situation in Colombia",
for a beef cattle short course held in Ibagud in February, 1969. This
meeting was well attended by the cattlemen of that area. The paper has been
published in an ICA bulletin, Curso Corto Sobre Ganado de Carne Ibague,
Febrero 18 al 27 de 1969, Publicaci6n Miscel&nea No. 11.


I have assisted Alfonso Chundt, a National University student, on his







fifth year thesis on wholesale cattle marketing in Bogota.


Minor Problem

Although Jaime Delgado was assigned as my counterpart in August 1968,
in effect he has not been able to work with me in this capacity. Therefore,
the continuity of further beef cattle research will not be as strong as it
could have been.


III. Projected Plan of Work

During the remainder of my tour of duty in July, 1969, I hope to
refine the English version of the report and assist with the Spanish
translation. I also plan to continue to assist a fifth year student
from National University, Bogotd, with his thesis on cattle marketing in
the Bogota area. As time permits, I hope to consult with various agencies
and individuals who are continuing work in the beef cattle industry in
Colombia.





3. Report by Gerald Feaster

Conceptually, and in practice, the Nebraska Mission Instructor Program
is oriented toward research in Agricultural Economics. The Program is
designed to strengthen the research arm of the ICA Agricultural Economics
Department by the initiation and completion of research in critical areas
while simultaneously training Colombian personnel in research methods
*through counterpart relationships. A companion and consistent objective
is that the research should serve as the basis for the Ph.D. dissertation
for the Nebraska Mission participant. Within these guidelines a research
project directed toward an evaluation of the impact of agricultural
infrastructure was proposed. The proposal was made after consulting with
numerous Colombian agricultural agencies and entities. The general
objectives of the research have been outlined in an earlier report.

In September, after considerable deliberations, the agriculture
infrastructure research project was approved by the ICA administration.
The research is being conducted within ICA's Department of Agricultural
Economics National Policy Program. The field data for the study have been
collected and analysis is well under way. The primary focus of the study
is to determine the effect of agricultural infrastructure, such as credit
and roads, on both individual farm and regional development.

In January, Dr. Russell H. Brannon, Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Kentucky, consulted on the research project, meeting with
staff in Bogota and visiting the field research site in Caquet&. In
March a progress report was prepared and distributed. The report included
objectives, progress, and plans.

Colombian Counterpart:

The most significant development during the reporting period was a
strengthening of the research effort by the addition of a full time
Colombian counterpart to the research project. The counterpart, Edulfo
Castellanos, came to the Department's National Policy Program in December
from the Extension Division of ICA. Although Castellanos had had no


-47-





previous training in agricultural economics he has proved himself to be
extremely capable and motivated. He has made an outstanding contribution
to the departmental research program.

The Colombian addition has added an extra dimension to the research
and has provided additional insight, breadth, and depth to the study.
Since joining the project, Castellanos has made a significant contribution
to many phases of the research. Some of his major contributions have
been: collaboration in questionnaire revision, planning of field surveys
(mapping, sampling procedures, interview routes, logistics, etc.), the
questionnaire interviewing of 30 colonos in the survey zone, coding of
questionnaire data, and assistance in computer programming and other parts
of the analysis. Presently Castellanos has primary responsibility for
writing several departmental reports based on the primary data. The focus
of the report will be agricultural production and marketing within the
colonization zones with particular emphasis on levels of technology and
management.

The active participation of Colombian personnel on current research
projects will have both short and long run benefits. In the short run a
major contribution will have been made to much needed current research.
Perhaps more important, with respect to building a viable department, is
the long run benefit provided by the research experience. With the
training received the Colombian counterpart will not only be able to
provide continuity to the departmental research programs but will be in
a position to teach and train others in the basic techniques of research
and investigation. It seems that in the future it would be wise to
involve actively as many inexperienced Colombian personnel as possible in
on-going research projects, before, during and after their formal training.
It appears the pay off is tremendous.

Research:

The underlying hypothesis of the study is that the lack of a supporting
infrastructure is a major obstacle to increased agricultural production in
Colombia, and that the provision of additional agricultural infrastructure
is necessary to create an environment which will provide incentives for
Colombian farmers to make decisions which will result in increased agri-
cultural production.

The INCORA colonization project, Caquett No.1 was selected as the
research site. The infrastructural services within the colonization zone
include roads, supervised credit, schools, and health services. INCORA
personnel at both the national and regional level have cooperated in the
research. The director and personnel of the CaquetA Project No. 1 have
been particularly helpful with respect to implementing the field level
surveys and assisting in securing information on costs of infrastructure
within the colonization zones.

Farm level survey: With respect to the farm level analysis, a questionnaire
was prepared and then pretested. Basically the questionnaire survey was to
determine the operation and performance of the farm firms,within the
colonization zones. The questionnaire also includes sections on credit,
transport, extension, schools, and health services. Besides determining
the level of production of the farm firms an effort was made to design the
questionnaire so as to provide a basis for relating performance of the firms
with the availability of infrastructural services.

While it is intuitively obvious that roads, credit and other infra-


-48-






structural services have an effect on the farm firm, the type and
magnitude of these effects are not so obvious. A large part of the
farm level analysis concerns ways and means of identifying and measuring
the availability of certain infrastructural services and identifying the
associated effects on production. Approximately one month was spent in
designing and revising the questionnaire prior to the pretest.

The pretest of the questionnaire was made the 1st week in October.
The following week the questionnaire was revised and preparations were
made for a survey in La Mono (a colonization zone). The six survey
personnel had training in agricultural economics at the university level.
Three of the six personnel had previous experience in survey work (working
with departmental personnel on a potato marketing study).

The interview work in the zones was quite time consuming, difficult,
and required extensive coordination. Major problems were lack of population
maps, the securing of mules and guides, and heavy rains. Over a 12 day
period the interviewers were able to obtain schedules from 90 individual
colono farms.

The colono level survey that was begun in October was continued in
January and February. The questionnaire was revised and some sections
amplified. Although the questionnaire was revised, a basic core of
questions was common to both interview surveys. At the termination of
the second survey approximately 190 questionnaires were completed,
including those from the previous survey.

In the January survey three additional zones were interviewed. The
zones were chosen, and the samples within the zones selected, in such a way
as to provide a geographic cross section of the settlement patterns. It
was particularly important that newly arrived colonos be included in the
survey. The most isolated zone was accessible only by air taxi and by
river. The service center was a small town located on the river. As
there was no complete population map of the region, the sample was selected
on the basis of time/distances along several routes which radiated out
from the service center on the river.

As in the previous survey, INCORA personnel in the Caquet& Project No. 1
assisted materially in the colono level survey. INCORA was particularly
helpful with respect to mapping, planning routes, and in the securing of
mules and guides for the survey. Fewer problems were encountered in the
January survey than was the case in the October survey. Although this was
due in part to experience gained in the earlier survey and better weather
conditions (less rain), the success of the January survey was due largely
to the contributions of the Colombian counterpart in planning, coordination
and implementation.

Analysis: The information from the colono-level questionnaires was coded
and then transferred to IBM cards. With the aid of a computer program
adapted by Jim Driscoll and Chris Andrew of the Department, the data from
the four zones were summarized in terms of frequency distribution, averages,
and standard deviations. This summary type analysis is providing the basis
for several supplementary reports that are being prepared on the agricul-
tural activity in Caquet&.

Regression analyses are being used to aid in determining more explicitly
the relationship between agricultural infrastructure, and development. Most
of the latter half of the reporting period was devoted to the regression
analyses. The majority of the time was spent adapting a regression program


-49-





to the INCORA computer, developing regression models, and testing of the
regression models. Jim Driscoll was instrumental in developing the new
regression program for the analysis. Although a regression program was
available it was not well suited to economic analysis. The new program is
quite flexible and should greatly facilitate data analysis in the Depart-
ment and will also be available for other departments.

After the regression program became functional, several regression
models were tested. The dependent variables in the models were indices
of development, e.g., value of land and cattle, farm practices adopted
and capital equipment indices. Some of the more important independent
variables that were used included distance to roads and service centers,
quantity of credit, and number of extension visits. Also included were
independent variables such as age, education, agricultural experience,
aspiration indices, and other socio-economic type variables. In some of
the models selected variables were transformed to a per hectare and per
hectare per year basis so as to provide a more meaningful indicator of
development density and development rates.

With the regression models 30 to 80% of the variation in the
dependent variables could be "explained", depending on the particular
model and zone. The preliminary regression analyses support the credit
and road hypothesis. The preliminary results indicate there is a positive
and significant relationship between credit and value of land and cattle,
and that there is a negative and significant relationship between distance
to a road and value of land and cattle. A strong negative relation between
distance to a road and credit utilization was noted. It also appears that
the impact of agricultural infrastructure varies with farm size.

Plans for the project are a continuation of the regression analysis in
order to determine more precisely the impact on the individual farm firm.
The preliminary regression models will be refined and amplified. Based on
the farm level analyses, regional benefits and costs associated with the
infrastructural investment in the colonization zone will be estimated. The
results and conclusions of the analyses will be written up as departmental
publications.

Although the present focus of the research will be concluded in the
next reporting period, it is expected that the overall agricultural infra-
structure project will continue with emphasis on other agricultural
enterprises and other regions.





IV. Short Term Consultants

In January 1969, the ICA-Nebraska Mission agricultural economics pro-
gram received its first critical review. This review was conducted by Dr.
Glen Vollmar, Chairman of the Department of Agricultural Economics, University
of Nebraska, and Dr. V. James Rhodes, Chairman of the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics, Universiy of Missouri. Prior to their arrival, Drs. Vollmar
and Rhodes agreed that the review would be conducted jointly but independently,
and that separate reports would be written in the event of disagreement. How-
ever, the latter possibility did not materialize, and their report follows.


-50-





REPORT OF A PROGRAM REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS: DEVELOPING
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS IN COLOMBIA


INTRODUCTION

This report includes a summary of a review and recommendations for
strenghtening future Agricultural Economics development in Colombia. The
review was directed at Agricultural Economics activity in Colombia as related to
ICA, the National University, and the University of Nebraska Mission since the
first staff member arrived, December 30, 1966, through January, 1969.

The reviewers were in Colombia January 20-31, 1969, on a consulting trip and
for this review. During this period, the reviewers talked with United States and
Colombian students, staff and administrators who are involved with Agricultural
Economics in Colombia. Discussions were held in Palmira, Cali, Medellin and
Bogota. A detailed schedule is attached.

Both reviewers admit that they have had limited experience in Colombia. This
was the third consultation trip for Vollmar and the first for Rhodes. Dr. Rhodes
has been on program assignments in India and Argentina which gave additional back-
ground for the review.

Copies of this report are being submitted to Dr. W.E. Colwell, Dean of Inter-
national Programs, University of Nebraska and to Dr. Clayton Yeutter, Director of
the University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia.


THE PROGRAM

The "Developing Agricultural Economics Program" in Colombia is supported by
funds from the Ford Foundation and AID. At the present time the Nebraska Mission
staff includes five senior Agricultural Economists, three located in BogotA and
one each in Palmira and Medellin. There are also three post-prelim instructors.
They are located in Bogotd. Complete details of program development are not given
here.

In order to develop the point that the Nebraska Mission program is relatively
new, the reporting dates of the first contingent of Agricultural Economics staff
in Colombia are as follows:

Professor Fischer 1/ December 30, 1966 (Ford-Bogotd)
Professor Badger July 1, 1967 (Ford-Bogota)
Instructor Bowser July 19, 1967 (Ford-Bogotd)
Instructor Andrew August 25, 1967 (Ford-Bogota)
Professor Burdette October 2, 1967 (AID-Palmira)
Instructor Feaster February 17, 1968 (Ford-Bogota)
Professor Hildebrand June 1, 1968 (Ford-Bogotd)
Professor Steiner June 13, 1968 (AID-Medellin)
Professor Driscoll November 25, 1968 (Ford-Bogota)

Agricultural Economics as a social science is new to Colombia. Familiarity
with the potential productivity of Agricultural Economics in the development of
the Colombian Economy was almost nonexistent when the program started. Trained,
professional Agricultural Economists are extremely few in number as compared with


1/
Returned to U.S. January 23, 1969.


-51-





Agronomy, Animal Science and other fields. Therefore, the challenge has been to
build Agricultural Economics as a contributor to the development of the Colombian
economy from literally "the ground up".

The objectives of the program are briefly stated as follows:

1. To upgrade the competence of Colombian personnel engaged in teaching,
extension, or research in Agricultural Economics.

2. To improve curricula of undergraduate and graduate instruction in
Agricultural Economics.

3. To conduct research in marketing, farm management and agricultural
policy.

4. To strengthen library collections of pertinent books and journals.

5. To establish a-Colombian Society of Agricultural Economics and a
journal.


ACCOMPLISHMENTS

When one takes into consideration (1) the Agricultural Economics "base"
that existed in Colombia at the beginning of the program and (2) that the program
has been underwayfor only approximately two years, we found the accomplishments
to be many and quite striking. High points include the new graduate program in
Agricultural Economics in Bogotd, development of undergraduate curricula at Pal-
mira and Medellin, an Agricultural Economics research program underway at ICA,
Bogotd, several (sixteen) fellowship students now in the U.S. doing graduate work
and one in France, the development of a Colombian Society of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, and an increasing interest in Agricultural Economics by Colombian students,
staff, and administrators in ICA and the National University. The Nebraska
Mission Agricultural Economics staff has shown in this relatively short time that
working along with their Colombian counterparts has important effects in regard
to increasing the level of competence of the Colombians now working in Agricultural
Economics positions.


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. A unified program for Colombia:
A continued effort to develop a "cohesive" set of goals and strategies for
Agricultural Economics in Colombia is of primary importance. A new discipline,
new staff and considerable change in staff and counterparts, Department Directors
or Project Leaders (both U.S. and Colombian) and the lack of counterparts for most
Nebraska personnel until the second year of the program has tended to draw away
from stability in program direction and growth. Particularly, the sending of
qualified Colombian students and staff to the U.S. for further training has added
to this during the first two years. Beca students will begin returning to Colombia
during the current year. This will add considerable Colombian staff contribution
to Agricultural Economics development. (This turnover and the lack of trained
counterparts in a new discipline might have been avoided by a heavy cost in time --
i.e. the Nebraska Mission could have located a staff member in Colombia who would
have done nothing but send becas to the U.S. for two or three years and then a
program started with ICA and National University after the Becas began to return).

The confusion of starting a relatively new field of work and probably not
enough thought and effort in program planning among U.S. staff and Colombian counter-
parts at all three locations (Palmira, Medellin and Bogota) have resulted in the


-52-






need to bring Colombian and U.S. staff efforts together in a unified Agri-
cultural Economics program. Specific recommendations are:

A conscious attempt by those concerned, with encouragement from adminis-
tration,to define goals and strategies on a National basis, i.e. Bogota, Palmira
and Medellin.

There needs to be a full-time Colombian Department Director at ICA/Bogotd.
This is no reflection on the efforts of Dr. Franco. We feel that he is doing well
on a part-time basis (about two one-half days a week) but there is an obvious lack
of time to develop adequate communication and the cohesive kind of program that
seems to be underway in,for example, Agricultural Engineering. It appears that
communication within the Department of Agricultural Economics is improving. 1/

More time for the program to develop will shake down the details. Also,
more trained people will be returning to the staff in Bogota, Medellin and Palmira.
The next two years should show considerable progress in terms of a "cohesive" pro-
gram and Agricultural Economics productivity.

2. Nebraska Mission Staffing:

A. It is recommended that the three senior U.S. staff (Ford) at ICA/Bogot&
be continued and that an additional AID position be added for work with National
University/Bogota. An alternative to an additional position is to place one of
the present senior staff at National for about one-half time. It is questionable
as to how much effect such a small input would have. Also, this alternative would
reduce the research effort at ICA. However, we feel that it is important to develop
a strong working relationship with National. Whether assistance is provided in
teaching service courses, developing a career in agricultural economics, or in
involving fifth-year students in useful Agricultural Economics research, or in
all of these, these are decisions which should be made by National in conjunction
with Nebraska and ICA. 2/ The Nebraska project leader should put high priority
on developing liaison and communication with Dr. Montero, Chairman of Agricul-
tural Economics at National.

B. It is recommended that the AID senior staff positions at Medellin and
at Palmira be continued. There has been some recommendation on the part of some
who have an interest in the program that all Agricultural Economics resources be
concentrated at Bogota. We recommend continuation of senior staff positions at
Medellin and Palmira for the following reasons:

The student unrest at National/Bogota is too great to concentrate all
resources on an uncertain and unstable program.

The agricultural diversity of Colombia demands some dispersion of efforts.
Each location has unique potentials, e.g. Palmira seems to be the only location
where much interest can be developed in training Agricultural Economists for farm
management positions.




-Ed. note: As was discussed earlier in this report, this problem has now been
resolved by the naming of Rafael Samper as full-time Director of the Department.

/Ed. note: Another AID position was added on August 1, 1969. It is being
filled by Chris Andrew, who completed his Ph.D. requirements at Michigan State
University, and who has extended his Colombia tour until 1971.


-53-







The Nebraska Mission would no doubt receive considerable political animosity
from both regions, Medellin and the Cauca Valley, if these positions were moved
to Bogota.

C. It is recommended that the three instructor positions (Ford) at ICA/BogotA
be continued.

The instructors have made a vital contribution to the development of the
research program and have added to the Agricultural Economics competence of the
Colombian ICA staff. As Colombians return from their graduate training programs,
the U.S. instructors and Colombian staff should tie together in partnership
research efforts so that the Colombian returnees (who will have Master's Degrees)
will receive some Ph.D. equivalent research experience.

Critics have argued that the instructors take valuable time of the U.S.
senior staff away from their efforts with the Colombian staff. On the contrary,
the evidence shows that the instructors spend as much time assisting senior staff
on research as vice versa.

An important concern is that an agricultural economics effort and profession
not only be built but also that it be relevant to the real problems of Colombia
and that important Colombian agencies such as ICA and INCORA and important groups
in Agriculture and Agribusiness look to Agricultural Economists for the contri-
butions of which they are capable. The demonstrationn research" and the effort
of adding to the competence of Colombian counterparts to do research when they
return from their graduate programs are key factors in any strategy of making
Agricultural Economics output relevant to the economic growth problems of Colom-
bian Agriculture.

D. It is recommended that formal position descriptions be developed for U.S.
instructors, senior staff and the project leader. Some attention should be given
in instructor position description to research direction or areas so that .a
"critical mass effort" is developed relative to some of the agencies and/or
groups mentioned under 2B.


3. Colombian Staffing:

We believe that the addition of at least one Colombian staff at Palmira and
one Colombian staff at Medellin who have joint appointments perhaps one-half
research (ICA) and one-half teaching (National) would be quite beneficial to the
future development of Agricultural Economics at these locations.


4. Publication output:

A. We recommend that a publication policy be developed for Agricultural
Economics publications.

B. There is need for a numbered, mimeograph series of Agricultural Economics
reports. This series should be coordinated between the three locations, i.e. Bo-
gott, Medellin and Palmira.

C. There is need to get the Colombian Journal of Agricultural Economics
underway. Publication of annual meeting proceedings and one other issue a year
(even though only 10 to 15 pp. in length) should be considered as a minimum. It
appears natural that the U.S. staff should share responsibility with Colombian
staff in terms of article contribution, editing, and final printing.


-54-








5. Fellowship Programs


A. It is recommended that a clear and formal procedure be developed for
the recruitment and processing and selection of future candidates. It is
suggested that in order to have some division of responsibility among the U.S.
Agricultural Economics staff that the Nebraska Mission Agricultural Economics
Project Leader take entire responsibility of this phase of the fellowship program
for the U.S. Agricultural Economics group. We support the idea of a formal
selection procedure such as the one recently proposed.

B. It is recommended that consideration be given to sending some portion
of future fellowship M.S. candidates in Agricultural Economics to the Graduate
Program in Agricultural Economics in Bogota. A few might be sent to other South
American graduate programs such as Viscosa in Brazil.


SUMMARY STATEMENT

An overall look at institution building by Dr. Phil Warnken, University of
Missouri, after two years of evaluation of University-AID efforts in Latin America
suggests six elements in institution building which must be effected:

1. Leadership
2. Organizational Structure
3. Program Content
4. Technical Competence
5. Fiscal and physical resource base
6. The overall attitudes of the institution.

Let's compare the Nebraska Mission Agricultural Economics Program against
these elements.

The fellowship program has an obvious and direct impact upon technical
competence. In the long run the fellowship program may have equal impact and
influence upon program content, overall attitudes of the institution, leadership,
and organizational structure. The heavy reliance of the Nebraska Mission effort
on the fellowship program gives every promise that it will be effective in
institution building.

The Nebraska Mission Program is more than the fellowship program, of course.
As already suggested, the in-Colombia U.S. staff efforts are quite essential to
the development of program content and the overall institutional attitudes
necessary to a successful Agricultural Economics program. The U.S. staff's
impact upon organizational structure may sometimes be quite significant, although
the Colombian input here must always be decisive.

While it is too early to predict with certainty the success of the Nebraska
Mission Colombian effort in Agricultural Economics, it seems clear that good
progress has been made in two years (a relatively short time period) in favorably
effecting the key elements in institution building. If this momentum and
continuity can be maintained for a reasonable period in the future, the prospects
seem good for the establishment of a competent and relevant Agricultural Economics
profession with undergraduate and graduate teaching programs and effective research
output.
-55-







SCHEDULE: PROGRAMS VOLLMAR AND RHODES, COLOMBIA
January 20-31, 1969


January 20

January 21


January 22


* Travel to Bogota.


* Discussion with Nebraska Mission staff.
* Dinner with Director Yeutter, Project Leader
Hildebrand, and Dr. Fischer.

* Met with Nebraska Mission and Colombian staff at ICA.
* Afternoon meeting with Dr. Ortiz Mdndez, Dr. Cardona,
Dr. Duarte and other administrators in ICA.
* Traveled to Medellin. Discussion at Facultad and at
Dr. Steiner's home.


January 23


Met with
Met with
Traveled


Nebraska Mission and Colombian staff
Dean Oscar Ospina.
to Cali.


at Medellin.


January 24


January 25

January 26

January 27


January 28


January 29


January 30


January 31


* Met with Nebraska Mission and Colombian staff at Palmira.
* Met with Dr. Trant at Universidad del Valle.
* Met with Dean Gonzalez at Palmira.
* Visited Michigan State Marketing research program office
at Cali.

* Rhodes and Vollmar, conference with Director Yeutter.

* Sunday.

* Nebraska Mission Staff Meeting.
* Meeting of Nebraska Mission Agricultural Economics staff.
* Met with Dr. Ken McDermott, RDO, AID.
* Met with Dr. James Plaxico, Ford Foundation at the CIAT
office.

* Visit National University, Bogota.
* Met with Dr. Alberto Franco and staff at ICA.
* Worked on review report.

* Met with Dr. Gartner.
* Met with ICA staff.
* Reception at Dr. Hildebrand's residence.

* Report made to Nebraska Mission, ICA group. Dr. Cardona,
Dr. Gartner and some of their staffs present.
* Met with Agricultural Economics staff.
* Dinner at Dr. McDermott's residence (AID).


* Return to the United States.


-56-








V. Conclusion

Many of thb recommendations of the Vollmar-Rhodes report have already been
implemented, for the five months subsequent to their report have been extremely
productive. With Rafael Samper, as a full-time Department Chairman, providing
excellent leadership, the Colombian-North American working relationship has been
superlative, and the entire program has gained substantially in momentum.

The Vollmar-Rhodes January report was quite complimentary. We are confident
however, that if a review were held today, it would be much more complimentary.
For this reason, ICA and the University of Nebraska are especially proud to submit
this third report on the development of agricultural economics in Colombia and
most gratified that the Ford Foundation has so generously supported this effort.





FISCAL REPORT TO FORD FOUNDATION


Period covered July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967

Interim Report Number 1


Budgeted
and Paid


Visiting Professor

Short Term Consultants

Fellowships
Library Materials, Teaching
Aids and Equipment

Ag. Econ. Society & Journal

Total Direct Costs

Indicrect Costs

TOTAL COSTS


$154,252.00*


5,600.00

36,000.00

20,300.00


1,000.00

$217,152.00

13,200.00

$230,352.00


Expenditures

$31,680.88

853.77


-0-


5,343.06


5.25

$37,882.96

1,398.04

$39,218.00


Unexpended
Balances

$122,571.12

4,746.23


36,000.00

14,956.94


994.75

$179,269.04

11,801.96

$191,071.00


* Post differential included in these totals.


The above figures are transposed from the Interim Report Number 1 footnoted
as follows: "The undersigned hereby certifies that the information on the fiscal
report is corrected and such detailed supporting information as the Ford Foundation
may require will be furnished at the contractor's home office or base office as
appropriate promptly to Ford on request".


By:


Carl R. Yost, Comptroller


Date: July 28, 1967


-57-








V. Conclusion

Many of thb recommendations of the Vollmar-Rhodes report have already been
implemented, for the five months subsequent to their report have been extremely
productive. With Rafael Samper, as a full-time Department Chairman, providing
excellent leadership, the Colombian-North American working relationship has been
superlative, and the entire program has gained substantially in momentum.

The Vollmar-Rhodes January report was quite complimentary. We are confident
however, that if a review were held today, it would be much more complimentary.
For this reason, ICA and the University of Nebraska are especially proud to submit
this third report on the development of agricultural economics in Colombia and
most gratified that the Ford Foundation has so generously supported this effort.





FISCAL REPORT TO FORD FOUNDATION


Period covered July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967

Interim Report Number 1


Budgeted
and Paid


Visiting Professor

Short Term Consultants

Fellowships
Library Materials, Teaching
Aids and Equipment

Ag. Econ. Society & Journal

Total Direct Costs

Indicrect Costs

TOTAL COSTS


$154,252.00*


5,600.00

36,000.00

20,300.00


1,000.00

$217,152.00

13,200.00

$230,352.00


Expenditures

$31,680.88

853.77


-0-


5,343.06


5.25

$37,882.96

1,398.04

$39,218.00


Unexpended
Balances

$122,571.12

4,746.23


36,000.00

14,956.94


994.75

$179,269.04

11,801.96

$191,071.00


* Post differential included in these totals.


The above figures are transposed from the Interim Report Number 1 footnoted
as follows: "The undersigned hereby certifies that the information on the fiscal
report is corrected and such detailed supporting information as the Ford Foundation
may require will be furnished at the contractor's home office or base office as
appropriate promptly to Ford on request".


By:


Carl R. Yost, Comptroller


Date: July 28, 1967


-57-








FISCAL REPORT TO FORD FOUNDATION


Period covered July 1, 1967 through

Interim Report Number 2



Visiting Professors

Short Term Consultants

Fellowships

Dr. Carrasco, Australia

Library Materials, Teaching
Aids and Equipment

Ag. Econ. Society and Journal




Uni. of Nebraska Indirect Costs


June 30, 1968


Budgeted for
Above Period

$145,000.00

8,400.00

142,200.00

3,000.00


18,000.00

4,000.00

$320,600.00


23,000.00

$343,600.00


Expenditures
for Above
Period
$ 99,070.77

35.02

20,462.17

2,262.18


12,957.74

424.57

$135,212.45


6,927.38

$142,139.83


Unexpended
Balances

$ 45,929.23

8,364.98

121,737.83

737.82


5,042.26

3,575.43

$185,387.55


16,072.62

$201,460.17


CASH RECONCILIATION


Income to 6-30-68

Expenditures

1966-67 period
1967-68 period
total expended to date

BALANCE OF CASH ON HAND


$230,252.00


39,281.00
142,139.83


181,420.83

$ 48,831.17


"The undersigned hereby certifies that the information on the fiscal report is
correct and such detailed information as the Ford Foundation may require will be
furnished at the Contractor's Home Office or Base Office as appropriate promptly
to Ford on Request."



By:
Carl R. Yost, Comptroller

Date: October 24, 1968


-58-





FISCAL REPORT TO FORD FOUNDATION


Period covered: July 1, 1968 through June 30, 1969

Interim Report Number 3


Visiting Professors

Short Term Consultants


Fellowships


Library Materials, Aids and
Equipment

Ag. Econ. Society & Journal


Indirect Costs


TOTAL COSTS


Accumulative
Budget
To Date


$413,500.00

16,800.00

288,000.00


22,800,00

6,000.00

$747,100.00

52,900.00

$800,000.00


Budget
For Above
Period


$144,052.00


5,600.00


144,000.00


500.00


3,000.00

$297,152.00

13,200.00

$310,352.00


Expenditures
For Above
Period


$130,521.54


2,154.67


103,376.64


658.37


235.73

$236,946.95

13,660.28

$250,607.23


Expenditures
To
Date


$263,535.37

3,043.46

123,838.81


18,959.17


665.55

$410,042.36

21,985.70

$432,028.06


Unexpended
Balance
To Date


$149,964.63

13,756.54

164,161.19


3,840.83


5,334.45

$337,057.64

30,914.30

$367,971.94


CASH RECONCILIATION


Income to 6-30-69
Expenditures
1966-67 period
1967-68 period
1968-69 period
total expended to date


$455,252.00


39,281.00
142,139.83
250,607.23

BALANCE OF CASH ON HAND


"The undersigned hereby certifies that the information on the fiscal report is correct and such detailed information as
the Ford Foundation may require will be furnished at the Contractor's Home Office or Base Office as appropriate promptly
to Ford on request.


By:


Carl R. Yost, Comptroller


Date: July 29, 1969


432,028.06




FONDOS COOPERATIVOS BUDGET, 1969 (Pesos)


Personnel $162,800
Contractual Services 65,000
Transportation 85,000
Equipment and Supplies 135,800
Miscellaneous 5,600

TOTAL $454,200

These are counterpart funds, provided by the U.S. government to ICA, and
allotted to the Agricultural Economics Program of the ICA-Nebraska Mission. The
funds are used for in-country expenses such as: secretarial salaries, rental of
parking spaces, travel expenses for Colombian personnel working on ICA-Nebraska
Mission agricultural economics research projects, rental of data processing
services, maintenance and operation of vehicles, office supplies and equipment,
maintenance of equipment, and others.





APPENDIX A

SELECTION PROCEDURE FOR FELLOWSHIP
CANDIDATES IN THE ICA-NEBRASKA MISSION PROGRAM


I. A Colombian student who wishes to apply for an ICA-Nebraska Mission fellow-
ship shall first:

a. If through ICA indicate his interest to the appropriate section head
who will, in turn, seek the approval of the Director of the applicable
National Program, and the Director of the applicable ICA Department.

b. If through National University the approval of the appropriate depart-
ment head and, if required, the appropriate dean.

II. Once the aforementioned approvals are obtained, the applicant shall submit
one copy of each of the following documents to the Director of Education, ICA,
and a copy to the Director of the University of Nebraska Mission:

1. "Formulario Preliminar para Aspirantes".
2. "Datos personales".
3. Transcript of his University grades.
4. Not less than three letters of recommendation, two of which must be
from Colombians familiar with applicant's personal character and
professional qualification, and one from a staff member of the
Nebraska Mission.

The aforementioned documents shall be submitted not less than six (6) months
prior to the beginning of the semester or quarter in which the applicant hopes to
begin graduate study.

III. Preliminary processing shall then be provided as follows:

a. The Director of the Nebraska Mission and the Director of Education, ICA,
shall each appoint a member of their respective staffs, in the discipline
in which applicant proposes to study, to advise the applicant as to:


-60-




FONDOS COOPERATIVOS BUDGET, 1969 (Pesos)


Personnel $162,800
Contractual Services 65,000
Transportation 85,000
Equipment and Supplies 135,800
Miscellaneous 5,600

TOTAL $454,200

These are counterpart funds, provided by the U.S. government to ICA, and
allotted to the Agricultural Economics Program of the ICA-Nebraska Mission. The
funds are used for in-country expenses such as: secretarial salaries, rental of
parking spaces, travel expenses for Colombian personnel working on ICA-Nebraska
Mission agricultural economics research projects, rental of data processing
services, maintenance and operation of vehicles, office supplies and equipment,
maintenance of equipment, and others.





APPENDIX A

SELECTION PROCEDURE FOR FELLOWSHIP
CANDIDATES IN THE ICA-NEBRASKA MISSION PROGRAM


I. A Colombian student who wishes to apply for an ICA-Nebraska Mission fellow-
ship shall first:

a. If through ICA indicate his interest to the appropriate section head
who will, in turn, seek the approval of the Director of the applicable
National Program, and the Director of the applicable ICA Department.

b. If through National University the approval of the appropriate depart-
ment head and, if required, the appropriate dean.

II. Once the aforementioned approvals are obtained, the applicant shall submit
one copy of each of the following documents to the Director of Education, ICA,
and a copy to the Director of the University of Nebraska Mission:

1. "Formulario Preliminar para Aspirantes".
2. "Datos personales".
3. Transcript of his University grades.
4. Not less than three letters of recommendation, two of which must be
from Colombians familiar with applicant's personal character and
professional qualification, and one from a staff member of the
Nebraska Mission.

The aforementioned documents shall be submitted not less than six (6) months
prior to the beginning of the semester or quarter in which the applicant hopes to
begin graduate study.

III. Preliminary processing shall then be provided as follows:

a. The Director of the Nebraska Mission and the Director of Education, ICA,
shall each appoint a member of their respective staffs, in the discipline
in which applicant proposes to study, to advise the applicant as to:


-60-








1. The general nature of the graduate program to be pursued;
2. The university or universities at which the desired program might
feasibly be undertaken;
3. The language requirements of the University or universities to
which applications will be submitted; and
4. The additional documents which must be submitted by applicant
(See attachment) and
5. Assist the applicant in obtaining an employment agreement with
ICA, the National University, or other approved official or semi-
official entity, as may be appropriate.

IV. a. After preliminary processing has been completed, the application shall
be evaluated by a fellowship committee composed of the following members:

(1) The Director of Education, ICA Chairman
(2) Director of Nebraska Mission
(3) For Applicants through ICA: The Director of the ICA Department
representing the discipline in which applicant hopes to study.
For Applicants through National University: The appropriate Dean.
For Ford Foundation Fellowships: The committee shall also include
the Director of Ford Foundation Agricultural Programs in Colombia
or his designated representative.
(4) Project Leader of the Nebraska Mission in the discipline in which
applicant hopes to study.

b. The fellowship committee shall meet at the call of the chairman, who
shall notify committee members as to date, time, and place.

c. The Director of the Nebraska Mission shall make available to all commit-
tee members not less than three (3) days preceding the meeting all documents
which were submitted for initial processing.

d. All actions of the committee shall be by unanimous vote.


V. Approval of an application by the fellowship committee shall be subject to:

a. Further approval by:

(1) For Kellogg Foundation Fellowships the official of Kellogg
Foundation to whom this responsibility has been assigned;
(2) For AID Fellowships the official of AID, in Colombia, to whom
this responsibility has been assigned and

b. Submission by applicant of all documents enumerated on the attached list.


VI. Once an application has been approved by the applicable grantor, the Director
of the Nebraska Mission or his designated representative, and the appropriate
ICA department head and National University Dean shall be responsible for
assisting the applicant in preparing documents essential to admission for
graduate study, and in submitting same through the Dean of International
Programs, University of Nebraska, to the appropriate university or univer-
sities.
-61-






APPENDIX B

FELLOWSHIP POLICY
ICA NEBRASKA MISSION
(Agricultural Economics)


1. Eligible Recipients

All candidates for M.S. fellowships must have a Titulo Universitario and be
in the upper third of their graduating class. Ph.D. candidates will be chosen
from among the outstanding professionals who hold the M.S. degree.

Because of the nature of the objectives of ICA to build and strengthen the
agricultural institutions throughout Colombia, it is considered appropriate to
offer becas to personnel from a wide variety of institutions. However, recog-
nizing the limitation of funds, five levels of priorities have been delineated.
Potential candidates from the first level should be exhausted before financing
becas for persons from the second category, etc. The five categories, in
descending order of priority follow:

a. Persons presently working in the National University system or at ICA,
and who will return to these institutions.

b. Persons, though not working at National University or ICA, who will
sign a contract to work at these institutions on their return.

c. Professors from agronomy or agricultural faculties of other universities
who will work at their own universities upon their return.

d. Persons from other public institutions that do not have a fellowship program,
but desire personnel trained in agricultural fields.

e. Persons from semi-official institutions, whose institutions desire them
to be trained in agricultural fields, but that do not have a fellowship
program.


2. Location of Studies

All Ph.D. candidates will study in the United States.

As it is the desire of ICA-UN to have a staff with diversified training, a
wide variety of universities both in the United States and in Latin America, will
be considered for M.S. candidates. On the other hand, it is also the policy to
build to and maintain a minimum number of students in each ICA-UN graduate program.
(This minimum will be determined by those persons responsible for the develop-
ment of each graduate program, as delineated in the rules and regulations for the
operation of the ICA graduate school.) Filling this minimum number shall have
priority over becas to other institutions.

For these students who will be sent to universities in the U.S., priorities
will be given to MASUA institutions or to other universities with a strong Latin
American orientation.

The final selection of an institution will be made jointly by: the Nebraska
Mission professor assigned to assist the student in the development of his
graduate program, the ICA or National University professor assigned to assist the
student, and the student himself.


-62-






3. Period of Study

Generally the policy is that the period will be the minimum time necessary
to complete the requirements. It is recognized that differences between students
and between universities necessitate flexibility. Decisions as to time require-
ments will be made in consultation with the students' major professor after the
preliminary program of study has been devised.

As a general guide it is considered that 18 months is adequate for an M.S.
.degree without a thesis. If the student writes a thesis, the time period will
probably need to be extended to two years. For a Ph.D. candidate, two years
should be adequate to complete all requirements except the thesis. The Ph.D.
thesis will, whenever feasible, be completed in Colombia.


4. Obligations

If the student is studying abroad and is receiving an official commission
with salary in addition to the beca, he will have an obligation of three times
his length of stay outside the country. In all other cases, the student will
have an obligation equal to twice the length of time he is studying for the
degree.


-63-




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