Glimpses of agricultural mechanization in the People's Republic of China

Material Information

Glimpses of agricultural mechanization in the People's Republic of China a delegation of 15 ASAE members report on their technical inspection in China Aug. 18-Sept. 8, 1979
Esmay, Merle L., 1920-
Harrington, Roy E
American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Place of Publication:
St. Joseph MI
American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iii, 101 p. : ill., map. ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Farm mechanization -- China ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
organized by the A-611 Committee of the International Department of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers ; [edited by Merle L. Esmay, Roy E. Harrington].

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Full Text
Production Mechanization Merle L. Esmay
(Farming) Roy E. Harrington
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF A GRICULTURAL ENGINEERS 2950 Nfles Road, Box 410 St. Joseph, M1 49085


Dr. Merle L. Esmay, Delegation Leader, Director of the ASAE International Department. Professor of Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, Michigan, 48824.
Mr. Roy Harrington, Delegation Co-Leader, Chairman of ASAE International Relations
subcommittee on China exchanges.' Product Planner for Deere and Company,
Moline, Illinois, 61265.
Mr. Albert Best, President of ASAE, Engineering Research Director with Sperry New
Holland, New Holland, Pennsylvania, 17557.
Dr. Gerald Zoerb, President of the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineers,
(CSAE), Professor and Head of Agricultural Engineering, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N OWO.
Mr. Lawrence Skromme, Past President of ASAE. Consulting Engineer, retired Chief
Engineer and Vice President of Worldwide Engineering for Sperry New Holland,
New Holland, Pennsylvania, 17557.
Mr. Howard Thompson, Agricultural Engineer. Responsible for design and development of tillage and forage harvesting equipment for Massey-Ferguson, Inc.,
P.O. Box 322, Detroit, Michigan, 48232.
Dr. Houston Luttrell, ASAE Director of the Southeast Region. Professor and Head
of Agricultural Engineering, University of Tennessee, P.O. Box 1071,
Knoxville, Tennessee, 37901.
Dr. J. B. Liljedahl, Professor of Agricultural Engineering, Purdue University, West
Lafayette, Indiana, 47907.
Ms. Jane Janney, Project Engineer with Lyntone Engineering, responsible for
design and development of Rainbird irrigation systems. 650 West Foothill
Boulevard, Glendora, California, 91740.
Dr. John E. Dixon, Professor of Agricultural Engineering, University of Idaho,
Moscow, Idaho, 83843.
Mr. Charles E. McKeon, Executive Engineer of Agricultural Engineering, Ford
Tractor Operations, 2500 E. Maple Road, Troy, Michigan, 48084.
Dr. James H. Taylor, Research Leader on traction, USDA National Tillage
Machinery Laboratory, P.O. Box 792, Auburn, Alabama, 36830.
Mr. Mark D. Shaw, Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering, Pennsylvania
State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802.
Dr. Walter Bilanski, Professor of Agricultural Engineering, School of Engineering,
Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.
Dr. Wayne Kroutil, Professor of Agricultural Engineering, University of Nebraska,
Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, North Platte, Nebraska, 69101.

Delegation Members. ................................ ................. ii
Introduction .......................................................... 1
Production Mechanization (Farming)
Lessons on Farm Mechanization for Developing Nations ................. 12
Roy E. Harrington
Forage and Ruminant Animal Production in China....................... 19
Albert M. Best
Livestock and Poultry Production Mechanization....................... 24
Merle L. Esmay
Impressions of China after 30 Years and Thoughts on Energy Use in
Chinese Agriculture ............................. .. ........ .. .. .30
Mark D. Shaw
Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Plants in People's Republic
of China ...................................................... 38
Charles E. McKeon
Tillage Machinery and Cultural Practices ........................43
Howard G. Thompson
Grain Production, Harvesting and Handling Mechanization in People's
Republic of China.................................. ....... 49
Lawrence H. Skromme
Research Institutions and Facilities................................ 60
John E. Dixon
Research Institutes................ ........................ 68
James H. Taylor
Chinese Irrigation Systems and Techniques ........................... 75
Wayne F. Kroutil
The State of Agricultural Engineering Systems Modeling and
Analysis in China .............................................. 82
W. K. Bilanski
A Glimpse of Culture .............................................. 86
Jane Janney
Agricultural Engineering Education in People's Republic of
China ......................................................... 90
John B. Liljedahl
Management and Implementation of Agricultural Engineering
Research in Universities and Research Institutes................ 95
Houston Luttrell
Education Administration, Admission, Specialization,
Graduate Placement........................................... .. .99
Gerald C. Zoerb

Merle L. Esmay Roy E. Harrington
Agricultural Engineering Product Planning
Michigan State University Deere & Company
East Lansing, Michigan Moline, Illinois
U.S.A. 48824 U.S.A. 61265
Experienced product planners of farm equipment are sometimes skeptical of very specific observations given after a single short trip to the field. While recognizing some justification for this skepticism, this report will attempt to avoid repeated disclaimers on lack of adequate observations. Rather, its purpose is to provide "Glimpses of Agricultural Mechanization in China", which hopefully will be stepping stones for those who follow in exchanging information and transferring agricultural mechanization technology.

In 1975 the National Academy of Sciences approached the American Society of Agricultural Engineers for assistance in planning a visit for the Chinese Agricultural Mechanization Society to the United States. Professor Jaw-Kai Wang, Roy Harrington and others of the International Relations Comittee of ASAE helped plan their itinerary. Mr. Xiang Nan, Vice-President, Chinese Agricultural Mechanization Society, led their 15-member delegation which visited the United States from 27 August thru 30 September 1976. They toured ten states visiting colleges, USDA research stations, farm equipment manufacturers, and farms. Mr. Xiang Nan is now Vice-Minister of Agricultural Machinery.
On a personal visit to the People's Republic of China in 1978, Professor Jaw-Kai Wang explored with the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery the possibility of an ASAE delegation touring China. In January, Mr. Hua Guozhu, VicePresident of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery, sent Professor Merle Esmay an invitation for 15 delegates of ASAE to tour China.
The delegation of ASAE member's visit to China was a professional
society exchange activity rather than a government sponsored program as had been rost previous scholarly exchanges. This meant, for one thing, that no travel funding was available other than the in-city transportation expenses in China offered by CSAM in their original invitation.
An announcement of the CSAM invitation was communicated broadly throughout the ASAE membership within the time frame allowable to formulate the

Delegation. Responses were received from over thirty interested ASAE members who had funding available for the trip. In the initial 1978 discussions Mr. Hua Gouzhu of CSAM and Dr. Jaw-Kai Wang of ASAE identified five areas of expertise for the make-up of the delegation. These were:
1) Agricultural Engineering Education
2) New product development for the farm equipment industry
3) Production management for the farm equipment industry
4) Animal production mechanization
5) Agricultural systems analysis
The China delegation was eventually formulated with a mix of ASAE
members from industry, universities and government research who also exhibited a sincere interest in present and future international activities of our profession of Agricultural Engineering. The President of ASAE was a member of the delegation as was also the President of the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineers, a past ASAE president and two ASAE board members.
Seminars in China
Early in the planning for the China trip, CSAM asked if the ASAE delegation members would be willing to present seminars in Beijing. Their request was agreed to and plans were eventually developed for two half-days of seminaring on the six following topics:
1) Livestock Production Mechanization:
Merle Esmay Livestock Production
Albert Best Forage Machinery
2) Research and Development Trends:
Roy Harringbon Trends and Planning
Howard Thompson Tillage Machinery
Gerald Zoerb Instrurrentation
3) Management and Implerentation of Agricultural Engineering Research:
Janes Taylor Research Institutes
Jane Janney Industry
Houston Luttrell Universities
4) Ilanagenent of Agricultural Machinery Production:
Charles McKeon Quality Control
Lawrence Skromme Production Management
5) Agricultural Engineering Education:
Bruce Liljedahl TextLooks
Wayne Kroutil Extension
6) Agricultural Engineering Systems Engineering:
John Dixon Systems Modeling
Walter Bilanski Systems Analysis
Mark Shaw Energy Requirements

CSAM invited over 300 agricultural engineers from most of the provinces of China to Beijing to participate in the seminars. They divided into six groups of about 50 each and they stayed with the same topic for the two half-day sessions. The seminars were held in the Great Hall of the People, the Central Government Building in Beijing, so this was another unique experience for the ASAE delegation members. Many slides were used in the presentations to minimize the task of translation. Each ASAE delegation member also prepared a written paper on their assigned topic. The papers were carried to-Beijing and given to CSAM upon arrival August 18. Prior to the scheduled seminars on August 27 and 28th, CSAM translated the papers to Chinese and made copies available to seminar participants.
Investigation Topics
Each ASAE delegation member was also assigned a topic to investigate throughout the China trip besides the seminar topics. Both topics were arrived at through consultation with the ASAE delegation members based upon their professional field of expertise and particular interest in China. The investigation topics are reflected by the reports of the members in this report.
Discussion following an inpsection of a disk harrow factory. In foreground are: Gerald Zoerb, Al Best, John
Dixon and Howard Thompson.
Semiar n Te GeatHall of the People.
In foreground are: Gerald Zoerb, Howard Thompson and Roy Harrington.

Some other assignments were made to minimize duplication amoung the delegation members in gathering information. Professor Mark Shaw was assigned the task of obtaining and listing names of all Chinese officials met by the ASAE delegation. Mark Shaw was the only member of the delegation who had previously been in China. He worked there three years during the late 1940's, so he knew and understood considerable Chinese. President Albert Best presented ASAE Certificates of Appreciation to each of the delegation hosts at the various places visited. Forty certificates were presented during the twenty-one days.
The China Itinerary
The ASAE delegation visited provinces and cities from the north to the south of China. See the map for details of places visited. The visitation itinerary and schedule was formulated by the CSAM hosts. The ASAE delegation arrived in Beijing late on August 18th. Beginning the next afternoon of August 19th, a one-week trip was made north and east to visit Harbin, Jaimuse and Chang-Hun districts. A disk harrow factory, a grain drill factory, a self propelled combine harvester factory, a state farm, Jilin Industrial College and a tractor factory were visited in the northeast of China.
Dr. John Dixon obtained copies of the menu for each of the nine
formal dinners and had them translated to English and distributed to all members.
Each Province and Municipality district visited by the ASAE delegation hosted a dinner for the group. Each dinner was a delight for Chinese food connoisseurs as it seemed each Chinese host attempted to out do the others. ASAE delegation
members became quite adept at returning toasts offered by the Chinese hosts.
Each ASAE delegation member took hundreds of photographs, Lawrence Skromme, Wayne Kroutil and Houston Luttrell proved to be the most aggressive and persistant camera clickers. Would you believe 50 or so 36-exposure rolls each? It is hoped that the pictures in this report reflect also good quality photography.
Four days were then spent in Beijing and the surrounding area between August 25th and the 29th. The Great Wall, the Ming Tomb, the Imperial Surner Palace and an opera were taken in on Sunday, August 26th. Besides the seminars
during the forenoons of August 27th and 28th, visits were made by various delegation members to two different communes, and internal combustion engine factory and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science (CAAMS).
Fran Beijing, six members of the delegation went separarely to luoyang to inspect the largest tractor factory in China. The other nine delegation members visited the Jiangdu Pumping station on the north bank of the Yangtze river and the Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College. These places are located north of Nanking. After three days of separation the split delegation rejoined for the weekend in the beautiful resort city of Hangchow. Sightseeing and relaxation were enjoyed over Saturday and Sunday.
During 2 and 1/2 days in the Shanghai area, visits were made to two
different tractor plants, a rice transplanting factory, a rotary tiller factory, a poultry producing camiune, the Shanghai Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, the Shanghai Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engines, and the Shanghai Industrial Exhibition. The last three days of the study tour were spent in the south of China in the Guangzhou area visiting the Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, the Foshan bio-gas station, the South China Agricultural College, the Guangzhou tractor-drawn farm implement factory and an area of snall hydro-electric stations.

A review and debriefing session was held on the last afternoon of
September 7th with our CSAM hosts. This was an important session for discussion of future exchange programs.
A Meeting with Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong
The ASAE delegation was invited to a one-hour meeting with Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong on Monday afternoon of August 27th in the Great Hall of the People. Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong is responsible for all of the agricultural related ministries of China. This includes the ministries of agronomy, livestock, forestry, land reclamation and agricultural machinery. Minister Yang Li Jong and Vice Minister Xiang Nan of the Agricultural Machinery Ministry also attended the meeting with Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong.
The Vice Premier briefed the ASAE delegation on the agricultural situation and problems in China. A transcript follows:
I welcome the Agricultural Engineering delegates from the United States of America and Canada to China. We also welcce your
suggestions for agricultural mechanization and modernization through the seminars presented in the Great Hall to 300 Chinese agricultural
machinery specialists.
Chinese agricultural mechanization is comparatively less advanced in China than in the United States as you have seen during
: rl
First row (left to right): Jane Janney; Yang, Li Jong, Minister of Agricultural Machinery; Roy Harrington; Merle Esmay; Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong, Al Best; Xiang Nan, Vic e Minister of Agricultural Machinery; Howard Thompson, Guo Dong Cai, President of CSAM and Director of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science (CAAMS); Mark Shaw.
Second row (left to right): Ma Shi Kul Clerk in Foreign Affairs Department of Ministry of Agricultural Machinery Yang Xiu Zhi Office Worker of Foreign Affairs Department Bureau of the Agricultural Machinery Ministry Tang You Zhang Director Foreign Affairs Department of Ministry of Agricultural Machinery; Lawrence Skromme; Gerald Zoerb; Bruce Liljedahl; Hua Guozhu, Vice President of CSAM and Deputy Director of CAAMS; John Dixon; James Taylor, Chen Ren Huang, Interpreter. Third row (left to right): Houston Luttrell; Walt Bilanski; Charles McKeon; Wayne Kroutil; Guo Ming, Officer of Foreign Affairs Bureau of Ministry of Agricultural Machinery, Vice President of CSAM and Director of CAAMS; Wang Wan Jun, Deputy Director, Chief Engineer CAAMS; Zeng Dechao, Vice President of CSAM, and Professor of Beijing Agricultural Mechanization Institute.

your several days here. China has some machines but so far only for partial mechanization. Most food production tasks still depend directly on labor. It has only been since liberation that equipment manufacturing has been undertaken for agricultural mechainzation so the time has been several decades less than in the United States or'Canada. However, we will wovrk hard to catch up with your countries.
You have seen some of the northeastern part of China and you will visit central and southern areas. China and the United States are very big countries and both are in the northern hemisphere, so the areas have similarities. China has somewhat worse natural conditions with more mountains, deserts and less cultivable area than the United Sta-tes. China also has a much higher population.
China must consider important factors in carrying out agricultural mechanization and mrodernization. The machine size must match the conditions of the area and agricultural mechanization must also be ccnmnusurate with the development of industry. Labor efficient mechanization could cause a movmnt of the laborers to the industrial cities in your country. But China, with her high population, must not let this happen as the factories could not emloy so many people in the cities. Arrangements should be made, as a part of agricultural modernization, to utilize the excess laborers of the 80% of the population that live in the country in the local rural areas in medium and small size industry.
The high investment requirements for agricultural modernization is also a problem because of China' s limited financial resources. The farmers must continue to share some of the heavy burdens so agricultural mechanization can be completed step by step.
Northeastern China has a large cultivable area with less population, thus has need for mechanization development. The farm-ers of the northeastern area can better afford machines and they are needed for maximazing production so should be given priorty over the more highly populated regions with ample laborers available.
Priorities as to the type of mechanization varies by district. In the mountainous districts the transportation must be improved with improved roads and better vehicles, so the products can be shipped to other areas.
I have recently been to thte northeastern part of China as
you have been. I operated a truck that was manufactured in the United States. It operates easily but it cost too much. China nowi has an agricultural mechanization industrial base that can manufacter medium and small size trucks appropriate for our agricultural production conditions. The foreign advanced technology must be suitable to this industrial foundation, natural conditions and the characteristics of agricultural production. In the northeast we need harvesting machines and grain dryers, as it is often wet and rainy during the harvesting season.
Forestry management needs plant-ig and harvesting mechanization. Planting mechanization is necessary as serious problem arise if the period of time is too great between the harvesting and planting operations.

China has large grassland areas but hay production is low as
there is little livestock production mechanization. Improved grass
varieties and better grassland management are needed to increase hay production. Plant, food, fiber and vegetable oil production has been
concentrated on during the last few years. Also, swine and poultry production have been increased some, but little attention has been given to beef cattle and sheep production. The mountain and prarie
districts can be developed for more beef cattle and sheep production.
Irrigation has been improved through the management of rivers
and the drilling of wells. The construction of hydroelectric power
stations has also been incorporated with river and water management.
There are, however, many rivers in need of further management. The
Yangtze and Yellow rivers are most important to our country as they provide for much fish production and several million acres of irrigated
land along both rivers. Much loss of property resulted fram the flooding
of the Yangtze river in 1954. Thus, we must build more dams and devices
to control the possible flooding of about 20 million crop acres along
the river. Hydroelectric power stations would also be incorporated.
Solving of the flooding and irrigation problems adjacent to many rivers
is of most importance in our agricultural modernization program.
The utilization of fertilizers must be increased with more
chemical fertilizer production. Phosphorous fertilization is needed in
the northeast but there is no phosphorous production there. The phosphorous fertilizer plants must then be built in the south and the product transported to the northeast. We are also going to increase the
production of other fertilized compounds. The northeast also needs
herbicides to save labor and increase production particulary for soybeans.
I hope the suggestions of your delegation, after your visit,
will help improve our agricultural mechanization and modernization. I
welcome the exchange of science and technology between our two countries
which has now increased compared to the past three decades.
We recognize that our technology is less advanced than that
of the United States but we intend to catch up. We are going to bring about the modernization of China under the lead of our party and government. our developmental direction is based on agriculture thus
agricultural mechanization has been an important position amoung the four modernizations. Finally, I hope our United States and Canadian
friends visit China again.
Vice Minister Xiang Nan of the Agricultural Machinery Ministry hosted
a dinner for the ASAE delegation and provided an additional opportunity to visit with him about agricultural mechanization in China. He listed the following
areas of concern for agricultural mechanization:
1) Ecology balance
2) Improved grassland
3) Soil and water conservation
4) Experimentation in farm machinery

5) Development of Livestock Production
6) Improvement of the feed industry
Particular stress was placed on the goal to increase livestock and poultry products in the diet of the Chinese people. It was stated that only from 13 to 14% of the food diet in China was then derived fram animal and bird products, while for many western countries the percentage is over 50.
CSAM Support of the ASAE Delegation
The ASAE delegation was cared for continuously and effectively fram the time they landed in Beijing fram Tokyo on August 18th and left Guangzhou by hovercraft on September 8th for Hong Kong. Four CSAM members travelled with the delegation continuously for 21 days. Mr. Sung, Zhang-liang was the official translator and the others helped with logistics and schedule implementation.
Besides the CSAM support crew Professor Zhang Dejun of the Chagchun Agricultural Machinery College travelled with the delegation the first week during the trip in the northeastern part of China. During the southern part of the trip, Professor Zeng, Dechao of the Beijing Agricultural Machinery Institute accompanied the delegation. Both of these men studied at the University of Minnesota during the late 1940's. They not only were able of converse easily with the delegation members in English but are outstanding professional people. Each of them added much to the trip for the delegation members. Most of the time one of the ASAE delegation members was conversing with which ever one was with us.
Professor Zhang, Dejun, in response to a CIGR and ASAE invitation to CSAM attended the June 1979 ASAE/CSAE Annual meeting in Winnipeg Canada and the July 1979, IXth CIGR Congress of Agricultural Engineering at East Lansing, Michigan. A Preliminary meeting of 13 of the 15 ASAE delegation members with Professor Zhang in Winnepeg proved most beneficial for finalization of plans and details for the trip in August and September.
Trivial Logistics
The ASAE delegation travelled over 5000 miles in China in 21 days.
About 2000 miles were by plane and 3000 by train. Travel by train totaled over 66 hours. Four long train trips included three over-night rides and one for all day. The trains were on schedule and the sleeping cars very adequate for satisfactory rest.
The delegation stayed in ten different hotels besides the three nights on trains so there were many one night stands. The longest stop was four nights in the Friendship Hotel in Beijing. Also the delegates participated in nine formal dinners.
The delegation members took an average of one thousand pictures each. That is an average of nearly one picture per minute for the group during all of the daylight hours in China.

In Sunmary
Our tour was planned in great detail and conducted to perfection. However we were even more overwhelmied by the spontaneous friendship of those people having no connection with our tour. We recall two examples from our first free evening which was in Harbin. In the absence of a comnon language, two grade school boys invited tvo of us to join them in a game of badminton. I was behind as the game ended when he placed the only birdie on the roof of an adjacent house. During the stroll of four others, a man and his young daughter invited them without benefit of a common language into a Chinese theater for a professional variety show with no admission charge. Since all seats were sold folding chairs were placed for the honored guests in front of the front row. People were pleasant, courteous, open, and friendly wherever we traveled.
Mutual objectives and cooperation were discussed between officials of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. CSAM would like to send graduate students to universities in the United States and Canada. They would like college professors from these countries to spend three to twelve months lecturing in China and would like some of their professors to do research in our universities. They are interesLed in similar length exchanges between engineers in industry.
We feel that each of the above suggestions would be beneficial to both countries. Additional exchanges of tour delegations is also desirable. The broad conmpositon of our delegation having an opportunity to geL the broad view of farm mechanization in China was highly desirable for the first exchange. While some future exchanges may be similar in nature, there is also a need for exchanges of smaller groups with rore specialized interests.
On a Sunday the group saw the Great
Wall, the Ming Tomb, the Imperial
Summer Palace and attended an opera.
Jim Taylor, Mark Shaw, Roy Harrington
(back to camera) and Al Best are
recognizable in the foreground.

Production Mechanization
Lessons on Farm Mechanization for Developing Nations pgs. 12-18
Roy E. Harrington
Forage and Ruminant Animal Production in China ....... ..pgs. 19-23
Albert M. Best
Livestock and Poultry Production Mechanization ...... ..pgs. 24-29
Merle L. Esmay
Impressions of China After 30 Years and
Thoughts on Energy Use in Chinese Agriculture . . pgs. 30-36
Mark D. Shaw
' 11

Roy E. Harrington
Product Planning
Deere & Company
Moline, Illinois
U.S.A. 61265
Current Status of Farm Mechanization
China has built a riding wheel tractor factory in each of its 3 municipalities and 26 provinces except for Tibet. We visited a 28 horsepower wheel tractor factory in Changchun and two separate wheel tractor factories in Shanghai making 35 hp and 50 hp units. We also visited a 75 hp agricultural crawler tractor factory in Luoyang as well as a self-propelled combine factory in Jiamusi and a tractor-mounted combine factory in Guangzhou.
Crawler tractor and riding wheel tractor production began in 1958 followed by two-wheel walking tractor production in 1964. China produced 113,500 tractors in 1978. It is estimated that 80% of these were riding wheel tractors and 20% agricultural crawler tractors. In the same year they produced 324,200 walking tractors. Combine production is estimated at 4,000 units in 1978. Riding tractor production has doubled in the last eight years and walking tractor production has doubled in the last four years.
In 1978 China had 557,000 riding wheel tractors & crawler tractors in use, 1,370,000 two-wheel walking tractors in use, and an estimated 20,000 combines in use. With about 128,000,000 hectares of arable land, this results in 230 hectares for each riding tractor in use. This compares to India at 465 ha and the United States at 45 ha of arable land per riding tractor in use. However, China's annual production looks more favorable with one riding tractor per 1,130 ha of arable land compared to 3,100 ha in India and 1,080 ha in the United States.
Riding wheel tractors are said to average about 2,000 hours use per year. While it has been estimated that two-thirds of this amount is for transport, our observation is that transport might account for up to 80% of the use of both riding wheel tractors and walking tractors.
Relative to India, China uses more human labor and less animal power for both transport and field work. However, the workers in China have better hand tools and carts than in India. In northern China, some donkeys, horses, and mules are used for transport and field work. Bullocks are more widely used for both jobs. Buffalo are very popular for field work in the rice areas of southern China.
The author worked as the Agricultural Implement Consultant for The Ford Foundation in New Delhi, India from 1966 to 1971.

China had 557,000 wheel & crawler farm tractors in use in 1978. 1,370,000 walking tractors and 20,000 combines were in use in 1978.

Mechanization at the farmstead for cutting forage, threshing & cleaning grain, as well as processing grain and oilseed crops appears to generally have progressed further than most other nations in Asia.
China has over one-third of all the irrigated farmland in the world with the majority of it being canal-fed flood irrigation. However, in 1978, they had over 65 million horsepower of pumps for lift irrigation and drainage. Thus, China, as is also true of India, has invested more money in mechanized irrigation pumpsets than they have for mechanizing field operations with farm tractors. This has been a wise choice in both nations as it gives a high return on investment from increased crop yields and more multiple cropping.
China has independently made great progress in modernizing their agriculture. They have developed many improved crop varieties. Considerable usage of fertilizer was very evident on our trip in the dark green color of essentially all corn fields. China probably has the highest ratio of multiple cropping of any large nation in the world. Farm management appeared good in terms of timeliness of operations and the uniformity of appearance of crops. However, weed control varied from excellent to very poor.
Government Policy
Much of government policy relates to the stated four modernizations of industry, agriculture, science & technology, and national defense. Of course, agricultural mechanization involves each of the first three.
During the first decade after liberation, the major emphasis in agriculture was on the collectivization of farmland. Currently, most farmland is operated by communes except for a number of large state farms in the far north and western parts of the country. During the past two decades, mechanization has increasingly become a top priority for agriculture with a stated goal of "Basic Mechanization by 1980". The government is promoting mechanization to increase the productivity of land and to release some labor for industrial production at the commune level. The farm worker would like to use mechanization to reduce drudgery at the four times each crop season he bends his back toward the sun for tillage,.planting, weeding and harvesting. Most tractors.that we observed in use were transporting material that otherwise would likely have been transported by people pulling twowheel carts.
One of the more important policies, which has permitted China to rapidly industrialize, has been the decentralization policy of independence and self-reliance at the smallest possible political unit. This has allowed their planned economy to function while many others have faltered because of the almost invariable alibi that some other governmental unit was preventing that particular government unit from functioning properly. On the farm, this philosophy has been of great value because most of the farm equipment is working, unlike government-owned equipment in other nations.
Self-reliance has had mixed results in factory production. Most of the factories we visited included a foundry, machine shop, gear-cutting equipment, heat treatment, sheet metal shop, fabrication, and assembly. Frequently, at least in the past, the factory produced a rather broad product line. Most factories had made a considerable portion of both their standard tooling and their specialized tooling. While this has resulted in production with no alibis for lack of output, it

has resulted in high investments for tooling, buildings, and labor relative to volume of production. It also fails to achieve the many benefits of standardized parts in terms of lower costs, better quality, and better parts availability to the user.
Another crucial governmental policy observed by our delegation was motivation of individuals by incentives. There is a greater differential in pay between the inexperienced factory worker and the most skilled hourly factory worker in China than there is in North America. The worker who excels in both quantity and quality also gets recognition by his peers when his photograph is posted in front of the factory entrance.
Since about 1976, China has been actively pursuing inputs of technology from the industrialized nations. However, they plan to be very location specific with their introduction of new technology. For example, 100 hp and above wheel tractors may be introduced in the lower population-density northern provinces, especially when their use contributes to higher yields and the reclamation of farmland. Likewise, hay and forage equipment is being sought to increase dairy and beef production in the northern and western provinces. Several North American farm equipment companies have supplied some farm equipment for one or more state farms in China. Our delegation observed John Deere tractors, a plow, a disk, and a stack wagon operating on Friendship Farm east of Jiamusi. Functional components of North American equipment were also observed on test in some of their laboratories.
There are at least two ways they can adopt technology which they find useful. An American firm has built several large fertilizer factories for China and a number of firms from various nations have quoted on building farm equipment factories. The other approach, which may be used for some of the simpler components or machines, is simply to copy their important functional principles as has been done so successfully in Japan.
Sustained technological growth must come from China's own scientists and engineers. After a low ebb of emphasis on college training about a decade ago, colleges are now flourishing in China. It is also China's intent to have a number of their students and scholars spend time in universities in a number of industrialized countries.
Many low income countries have rather grand plans for the adoption of modern technology. However, China has demonstrated its commitment' of resources for action as well as for planning. Assuming that current government policies prevail over a long period of time, China's rate of technological progress will be as rapid as their limited financial resources permit.
Modernization of agriculture could be improved in all developing nations by better infrastructure. However, we observed more construction activity in China than any of us had observed in any other nation. Throughout the country we observed construction of grain storage, housing, factories, stores, and office buildings. The various cities are being better linked by radio, electricity, highways, railroads, seaports, and airports. While some of the buildings appeared to need better quality materials and workmanship, we were impressed by the quality of their railroad tracks and the quality of buildings such as the Great Hall in Beijing and the Exhibition Hall in Shanghai.

Construction of physical facilities requires good'organization. The nation of China is politically subdivided'into-prov; n ces, counties, communes, br igades, and production' teams, with decisions made at the' lowest practical level, In some parts of the country, the state farm replaces the commune. Factories may be operated by any of these six political subdivisions depending on the required investment in the factory and the importance of its output to that political unit.
While their 1900 farm equipment factories may not make complete economic sense, they have spread technology throughout the nation and have been close enough to the farmer to understand his needs and supply him repair parts. They have also been a good source of productive employment for off-season farm labor 4 China has been one of the most successful nations in creating physical infrastructure with minimum capital outlays. This has been possible due to her ability to organize and utilize off-season farm labor to build roads, buildings, irrigation canals, etc.
Infrastructure for modern technology is much easier to build with an educated population. China is probably the most educated poor nation in the world. Their formal education in schools appears to be very practically oriented. Many of their factory workers have at least nine years of education. In addition, vocational training is offered to adults by many factories and communes.
The quantity of Chinese people is obvious as soon as one enters the country. However, the quality of the Chinese people made a more lasting impression on our delegation. China probably has the longest continuous civilization of any nation on earth. It has a rich heritage of culture and the arts. China is known for some of its early technological advances such as paper, gunpowder, and porcelain.,
The Chinese people appear to have many attributes which encourage technological improvement. Their research appears to be on practical problems in their area of responsibility. Self development of each individual's mental and physical skills is admired and practiced. People are encouraged to practice a broad spectrum of skills. Training is widely available to upgrade and further broaden their skills.
It is customary for people holding responsible jobs to include some physical as well as mental work. Supervisors seem to understand the tasks of the various people working for them. Leaders appear to solicit ideas and be willing to learn from users and workers.
In our tour of factories, we repeatedly observed ingenious tooling and products which were attributed to a variety of users, workers, engineers, and supervisors. As an interesting example, we observed a rotary combine with several novel features which was produced in China about five years before they were introduced in North America. Thus it appears that their people are well equipped to absorb and adapt the technology they obtain from industrialized nations.
Some generalized personality trai ts also have an indirect influence on the ability to adopt technology. We found the Chinese to be honest, friendly, pleasant, and open. Each of these is important in the transfer of ideas within a country and between countries. They are organized, punctual, precise, and clean. Each of these attributes is important in the conduct of good research, testing, and development.

China stresses action as well as Ping-Pong is only one of many ways the
planning. system encourages development of
An official of CSAM illustrates his China has been producing rotary comcloseness to agriculture. bines since 1970.

The individual Chinese considers it normal to be working for the group and conversely, the group is equally accustomed to working for individuals.; Although farms have been collectivized, individual families have retained'small plots for growing some of their own food.
China and India each now have a little over one farm tractor per 2,000 population. However, China's tractor production is increasing faster than that in India. China is also using more walking tractors than any nation other than Japan. With her well developed irrigation'system, high usage of multiple cropping, and increased emphasis on modern agronomic practices, we can expect increased farm income to be available to pay for increased farm mechanization.
Government policies place great emphasis on agriculture and within agriculture, the importance of basic mechanization. A major influx of outside technology is now being encouraged and will be limited primarily by economic constraints. China is wisely adapting technology to the specific needs of each region of her country.
China's political infrastructure is effective in advancing technology. Construction of physical facilities is progressing at a rapid rate. Education is good and receiving increased emphasis at the college level. Other countries should observe and learn from China as it progresses on its major program of four modernizations.

Albert M. Best
Engineering Research Director
Sperry New Holland
China, in total land area is 2.5% larger than the United States. China also is approximately the same distance north to south and east to west as the U.S. and in the same latitude. I will use this comparison throughout the report to refer to geographical areas of China and where they would be located if superimposed over the United States.
Our itinerary in China was starting from Peking traveling north to near the northern border and then south to the southern part of China. This.was along the eastern coast and would compare with starting at Philadelphia, traveling north to Northern Maine, and then south to Southern Florida. This part of China is largely arable with adequate rainfall for general farming. There is a greater temperature range from north to south in China than in the U.S.
China has approximately .12 hectares of arable or tillable land per person. With this limited land availability per capita nearly all of the food production, including cereals and feed grains, are consumed directly by people. For example, while China has 11,348,000 hectares of corn and approximately 250 million hogs, very little is fed directly to hogs. The hogs are fed primarily on garbage and harvested water plants. With nearly all of the land area being suitable for cultivation, there are very few dairy and beef cattle in the eastern part of China.
The Chinese officials and technicians on frequent occasions made references to their goals to expand ruminant livestock production, primarily in the more western regions where there are large areas of natural grassland. The Chinese people do not have a history of dairy products being a significant part of their diets, therefore, much of their interest in expanding ruminant livestock production

is to increase the numbers and performance of beef animals on their natural grasslands. Apparently much of the forage needs to be improved for increased livestock production. We-were unsuccessful in obtaining any significant statistics on their livestock numbers and future goals. We look forward to receiving such information from them at a later date, however, it was not available in time for this brief summary of their forage-livestock activities.
The geographical area of China that would compare to approximately a 500 kilometer radius from Salt Lake City is primarily desert. The remaining western two-thirds of China surrounding this desert area consists primarily of grazing land. An article in the March 16, 1979 issue of Beijing Review stated that when Lin Biao and the "gang of four" were in power, large tracts of grasslands in Qinghai and.Gansu provinces (which would compare approximately with the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Colorado in the U.S.) were plowed and planted to cultivated crops. This resulted in a loss of equilibrium in ecology, serious soil erosion, water loss and steady encroachment of drifting sands on the land. This land is now being returned to grasslands as they recognize the fragile climactic conditions in that part of the country, with livestock grazing and forestry being the most suitable economic use for these areas.
The best information I have available on forage and ruminant animal production was 'obtained from Volume 31 of the FAO Production Yearbook, 1977. All of the statistical information that follows was taken from this reference. Table 1 shows a comparison of the total area and the various land uses in China and the United States.
Table 1
Total Area and Land Utilization China and U.S. (1000 hectares)
China U.S.
Total-Area 959,696 936,312
Land Area 930,496 912,689
Arable Land 118,320 178,453
Perm. Crops 620 1,878
Perm.Pasture 204,000 261,235
Forest 109,180 294,000
Others 498,376 177,123
Arable Land/Capita 0.12 hectare 0.81 hectare
As can be seen from the above table, China has extensive permanent pasture lands and possibly some of the forest land can also be grazed for ruminant livestock production. Some of the 498,376,000 hectares of land classified as others may also be made suitable for grazing. It is evident from this data the necessity for China to use fully and in the most appropriate manner all of its agricultural lands.

Dairy Cattle
As mentioned in the introduction, China does not have a history or custom of dairy products being a significant part of their diet. The FAO report estimated the number of milk cows in China in 1977 at 6,514,000 compared to 10,984,000 in the U.S. The animal per capita ratio would be approximately 20 people per dairy animal in the U.S. and 140 people for each cow in China.
Even more startling than the number of cows in relation
to population is the total milk production and the availability of milk per person. The total milk production in China is 3,846,000 metric tons (1300 lbs./animal/yr.) or approximately 9.5 lbs. per person annually compared to 55,772,000 metric tons or 560 pounds per person per year in the U.S.
We obtained no information as to the geographical distribution of the dairy cattle in China, or the percentages of cattle in different herd sizes. In the areas visited they have primarily large herds, located near large cities. The Red Star Commune, located near Beijing, includes an area of 160 square kilometers, (39,520 acres) a total population of 85,000 people, and nine separate dairy farms with a combined total of 2200 dairy cattle.
The feed at the dairy farms visited at the Red Star Commune, consisted primarily of corn silage and some grain. The silage they were feeding was primarily all forage with almost no grain content. Due to the limited time of our stop, it was impractical to get a complete rundown of their feeding program.
They were harvestin g silage at the time of our visit, with two East German forage harvesters, which we were only able to observe from a distance as time did not permit us to stop where the harvesting operation was taking place. The silage was being hauled with four-wheel trailers and tractors and unloaded by hand into trench silos. The chop length was approximately two centimeters with most of it at a diagonal cut. There appeared to be a greater variation in length of cut than generally observed with most of the harvesters in this country.
Adjacent to the silo they were filling, they were removing silage from another trench silo by hand. The silage was being loaded into animal-drawn wagons for hauling to the barn for feeding.
The Friendship Farm which we also visited was located in the northern part of China and has a total land area of 206,000 hectares and 500 milk cows. In comparison, this particular farm had 4000 horses and a total of 4000 cattle, including the 500 milk cows. We did not see any of the dairy or beef cattle at the Friendship Farm.

Beef Cattle
Again referring to the FAO report, it shows an estimated cattle population of 65,129,000 in China. In checking the comparable figure for the U.S., we have to assume that the above-figure for China includes all cattle, both dairy and beef.
Subtracting the previous figure given for the number of dairy cattle and allowing for a 35% replacement number, we arrive at a total of 56,309,000 beef cattle in China, compared to 107,959,000 for the U.S. The same general relationship of dairy cattle and milk production in China also exists relative to the tonnage of beef that is slaughtered. The U.S. has 1.9 times more beef animals than China; however, they slaughter 7.8 times more metric tons of beef per year.
These figures reflect the difference in the number of months required for the animals to reach market weight. From the various comments that were made on this subject, apparently very little forage is harvested for winter feeding. With this type of production system, cattle will gain weight during the summer but then lose much of it during the winter months.
Status of Agronomic And Animal Husbandry Research In China
According to information received from Professor Zeng Dechao, professor of agricultural engineering, Peking Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, there are three agricultural colleges in China that have animal husbandry and veterinary medicine programs. Only a general location for these universities was given by Professor Zeng.
In reviewing the Administrative Atlas for the People's Republic of China and the World of Learning reference on world universities, it is assumed that these three universities are:
1. Inter-mongolian University, Huhehot, Inner Mongolia Province,
Northeast China.
2. Lanchow University, Lanchow, Kansua Province, Northcentral
3. Unable to find a specific reference for the third university;
however, believe it to be in Urunchi, Sinkiang Province, in Northwest China. There is a library at that location which
lists 70,000 volumes, which is very small compared to most
of the other libraries in China.
In addition to the three agricultural colleges listed above, the World of Learning also lists Shansi Agronomy College, Taiyuan, Shansi Province. Taiyuan is located approximately 300 kl. southwest of Beijing.

It must be recognized that there may be some error in the naming and selection of these agricultural colleges from the limited information received during our visit.
Projections indicate that China's population could increase from somewhat under one billion people at the present'time to between 1.3 and 1.5 billion by the year 2000. This would represent close to a 50% increase in food needs during the next 20 years. It is believed they must make a determined effort to increase livestock production from their grasslands, not only to improve the diets of their people but also-to increase total food output.
With the adaptation of improved technology China should
be able to substantially increase its ruminant-livestock production. The greatest challenge may be the transfer of such technology to the farm level as large land masses are involved. A substantial number of trained people and effective communication techniques will be required to transfer new technology to the farmers or herdsmen, as they are referred to in Chinese literature.
Parallel with the required technology transfer, capital investment in harvesting equipment will also be needed for the timely harvesting of forage during periods of maximum growth and nutritive value. Forage transport, storage and feeding practices will need to be developed that are economically compatible with local requirements. Maps of China would indicate that much of this area has limited transportation facilities, such as roads, railroads, canals, etc.
We did not have an opportunity to visit with agronomists and livestock specialists during our travels in China. From conversation with engineers on this subject, my impressions are that the number of qualified researchers and other knowledgeable people in these fields are limited in relation to needs. It is believed that outside technical assistance will be required to achieve the rate of technological advancement desired.
Vice Minister of Agricultural Machinery ASAE President A. M. Best (right) Ministry Xiang Nan presented sea shell presented a Certificate of Appreciapicture to each ASAE delegate. Shown tion to agricultural equipment factory receiving his is Merle Esmay, host in Shanghai.

Merle L. Esmay
Professor of
Agricultural Engineering
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Sane 13 percent of the food diet in the Peoples Republic of China is estimated as being from livestock products (milk, meat and eggs). This is in contrast to over 50 percent in some western countries. China plans to increase the livestock product portion in order to improve its nutritional level. Also China wants to better utilize its grassland resources with increase numbers
of cattle, sheep and goats.
Vice Premier Wang, Ren Zhong emphasized in his briefing for the ASAE delegation, August 27, 1979, in Beijing, that the mountain and prairie districts must be developed for more beef cattle and sheep production. He stated that the large grsssland areas produce little hay because of the undeveloped livestock industry. Improved grass varieties and better grassland management are needed to increase hay production. He went on to say that swine and poultry production have increased some but most attention up to now has been directed towards increasing plant food, fiber and vegetable oil production.
Vice Minister Xaing Nan of the Agricultural Machinery Ministry also placed emphasis on livestock production during discussions on August 25 and 27 1979 in Beijing. In response to a question about what were the major areas of concern in the broad field of agricultural mechanization he listed the following:
1. Ecology Balance Between Natural and Cultivated Plants.
2. Improved Grasslands
3. Soil and Water Conservation and Irrigation
4. Research and Experimentation of Agricultural Machinery
5. Development of Livestock Production
6. Improved Feed Industry
This list of areas for more future emphasis indicated the considerable breadth of concern and responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Ministry. This breadth is in contrast to the Agricultural Machinery title of the Ministry which irrplies a narrower focus mainly towards field production power and machinery.

The broader title of Agricultural Engineering might more descriptively include soil and water management, electric power and feed processing, livestock production mechanization as well as field production mechanization.
Livestock Production
China consists of 9,600,000 kmr of land of which sare 300 million hectares are grassland. About 30 percent of China is mountainous and hilly. These areas provide a great potential for expanded food production. It was pointed out in a Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery (CSAM) paper offered by Mr. Tuan, Chih Cheng, In August, 1979, that the 300 million ha of grassland remain. mostly undeveloped while in the United States 130 million cattle are maintained on about 200 million ha of grassland. China has an estimated 10 million cattle now. There was only an estimated 400,000 milk cows in China in 1979. This averages out to one milk cow for each 2250 people. Most of the milk cows are located near the large cities.
Estimated livestock numbers (given in millions of head) in China are as follows:
1977 1978 1979
Hogs 292 301 309
Sheep and Goats 161 170 190
Large Animals 94 94 94
Goats make up about 40 percent of the sheep and goat category. The large animal category includes cattle, horses, donkeys, mules and camels. Of this number about 10 million head are cattle. The beef cattle are mainly grazed over the vast grasslands of the north and northwest and the semi mountainous regions of the south and south-west.
Pork makes up the major animal meat diet in China. The annual pork output is similar to that of the USA on a per capita basis. Hog production is scattered throughout China, although there tends to be greater concentrations of hogs around the large cities. There are now a few large intensified hog production enterprises with numbers of hogs in the hundreds of thousands.
The number of poultry, chickens and ducks, are hard to estimate as most peasent families have sate. Large intensified poultry farms are being developed. There are now more than 30 farms with over 100,000 chickens each. There are now slightly over 500 conntues and state farm producing 1300 million chickens. Of these 500 conmiues 121 are in the Beijing area and 299 in and near Shanghai. To date the emphasis has been on egg production, howver meat type broilers are being increased rapidly.
Livestock and Poultry Production Facilities
Development of mechanized, intensive livestock and poultry production facilities in China is now in the initial stage. A few isolated large modernized egg and milk production enterprises have been established on state farms and large corirnunes generally near the densely populated urban centers. Generally speaking the livestock and poultry facilities are quite traditional and labor intensive.

One dairy farm was visited by the ASAE delegation on the Red Star commune near Beij ing. In one stanchon type miking barn there were mechanical milking units connected to a pipe line delivery system. From the pipe line the milk went into milk cans thus it was not a complete bulk andling system. Other barns of this same dairy enterprise were of a more traditional type consisting of open sheds and hand milking. The two adjacent pictures show these two types of milking systems. We saw only one of nine dairy farms on this one commune which had a total of 2200 cows.
A horizontal bunker type silo was being filled with freshly cut
forage on this same dairy farm. It appeared to be an economical and appropriate storage facility although not very mechanized nor sophisticated. Soe of the silage was being hauled from the field to the silo with tractor pulled wagons and sae by horse pulled wagons. As shown in the pictures.
The ASAE delegation visited one poultry, egg production, enterprise on a commune in the Shanghai area. This ccmnune was 56.6 km in area with 2260 ha of farm land. Of this farm land 156 ha were used by private families (about
7 percent of the total). The total population was 22,915 people consisting of 6100 families and a labor force of 14,000. Income to each individual was stated as being in accordance with the work done. The ccauune was organized into 17 brigades and they in turn into 168 production teams. There were 14 enterprises financially responsible to the brigade level.
The cnmmune had 2 junior high schools, 1 high school, 18 primary
schools, 24 kindergardens, 158 nurseries and one 90 bed hospital. Each brigade had a clinic with 3 or 4 "barefoot" doctors. All medical care and schooling was free unless families had more than the prescribed on child. We were told that families that have the second child receive only expenses for one, and if they have more than two the allocation for the one child 's reduced. The commune had 37 apartment buildings with an area of 30,000 m Womn retire at 60 and men at 65 years of age.
The commune produced sane 360,000 fowl and 2700 pigs in 1978. Some
270,000 kg of eggs were produced and marketed. One of the egg producing poultry
enterprises was inspected by the delegation. Everyone entering the facilities of the poultry farm was first required for purposes of disease control to put on rubber boots, a white coat and a white hat.
There were all stages of mechanization in this one egg production enterprise. The mst mechanized building was equipped with wall to wall cages and a moving platform above for management of the birds. Feed and water distribution and the collecting of eggs and waste materials was all mechanized. There were a few small ventilation fans in the sidewalls as well as windows. Eggs were collected on a belt conveyor and then placed by hand into straw padded boxes. Another egg production building was equipped with double-deck stair-step type cages. This seemed to be a rore appropriate level of nechanization as feed gathering could either be by hand or semi mechanized with a motorized conveyor feed cart and egg gathering was by hand. One of the other buildings was for the production of fertile eggs, thus it was a floor-type. A false floor on which the birds could move freely was made of bamboo slats and suspended 1/2 meter above the concrete floor of the building where a manure scraper was located.

Pipeline milking system at commune dairy. Wall to wall, flat deck poultry cages.
Bamboo trusses for farm buildings. Welcome to commune poultry farm. Boots and coats worn by Esmay and Taylor were provided for disease control.

This appeared to be a very practical and low cost arrangement f or a breeding flock.
The cage equipped houses and in particular the wall-to-wall cage operation were not complete systems. Environmental control for the house was inadequate. Insulation and controlled air movement were minimal. Egg handling was mechanized from the cages but then reverted to hand movement and packaging in quite crude straw lined boxes in which cracking was undoubtedly quite prevalent. Better environmental control will increase production during both cold and hot weather seasons. The high cost of mechanized egg production systems is diffucult to justify with just labor efficiency unless complete enough to increase production during hot 'and cold season, maintain high quality with proper egg cooling, minimize feed required per dozen eggs and reduce cracked eggs to an acceptable
The available curricula in the agricultural colleges and teaching
institutes provided little or in most cases no opportunity for training in the field of livestock and poultry production mechanization and housing. This was in spite of the emphasis placed on increasing livestock production by both Vice Premier n, Ren Zhong and Vice Minister Xaing Nan.
The teaching curricula as now structured do not allow mruch opportunity for inclusion of courses pertaining to the principles of environmental control, ventilation system design, building design, materials handling mechanization and product quality control. The undergraduate curricula now in evidence are quite specialized towards agricultural mechanization (mainly crop production machinery). In some cases there were separate specialized curricula for the agricultural tractor and machinery manufacturing processes.
Such specialized curricula at the undergraduate level leave little opportunity for including any academic training in such fields as livestock and poultry housing, soil and water conservation or feed handling and processing. Further more it seems undesirable to introduce a completely separate specialized curriculum in each of these areas as the need arises.
There would seem to be an increasingly imperative justification for the develo~rnnt and introduction of a more generalized four year undergraduate curriculum in the broad agricutlural engineering field. There could be sone flexibility for a student to specialize in one of the main areas but all students would be provided a basic background for the whole undergraduate field. Also the basic agricultural engineering curriculum should include sane basic agricultural courses on soils, crops, animals and biological products. Agricultural engineers must know the agricultural application of engineering to agriculture or they will nave no advantage over mechanical, industrial or strucutral engineering graduates. Students that then want to specialize further in one of the main areas could go into a master' s level graduate program where in depth training would be more appropriate.
The Beijing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization has introduced,
ameung other specialties, a graduate program in optimization of confined poultry. The problem seems to be that of where do qualified students cane f ran for entrance to such a program.

Graduates from agricultural machinery undergraduate programs going into the livestock housing program would necessarily have to be taught at the graduate
level some quite elementary principles of environment, psychrometrics and heat transfer, as well as more about biological materials, and animal behavior and physiology.
An extensive study of the possibility of introducing broader agricultural engineering type curricula into appropriate colleges and institutes wouldd seem to be highly desirable. This might be an opportune tine to make such changes as the various teaching institutions are being reorganized following the "cultural revolution".
Live hog being taken to slaughterhouse Pork halves being taken to market from in basket. slaughterhouse in Shanghai.
Disciplined bicycle riders in broad State operated vegetable market in
street in Beijing (Peking). Harbin.

Mark D. Shaw
Associate Professor
Department of Agricultural Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania
I keep remembering what we used to say when I was in China 30 years ago. "Foreigners who spent a week in China went home and wrote a book all about China. Those who stayed a month limited their publications to a brief magazine article, and those who stayed for a year or more knew better than to write anything."
I also remember a comment made by a British friend who
visited China in the 1950's. I had said that I would like to have an impartial report on China because I suspected everything I read as being propaganda, either for or against the government of the People's Republic. He replied that the consensus of his group was to believe everything one heard or read, but to recognize that the conflicting reports were of specific instances, and it was not possible to make any simple generalizations which would give a complete and accurate picture of what it's like in China. Perhaps this is another way of saying that all'generalizations, including this one, are wrong.
In any case, I trust that the impressions which were gained on the trip, and which are being passed along to other agricultural engineers will contribute to greater knowledge and understanding, even though they are based on a very brief and limited experience.
I had worked in China with the Friends Ambulance Unit, later the Friends Service Unit from June 1946 until June 1950. From June 1946 until September 1949 I worked at three locations in Henan Province near the Yellow River. Two of the projects were rehabilitation of hospitals which had been severely damaged during the war with Japan. The third was a village rehabilitation project in the town of Zhong Mou which had been largely washed away when the Yellow River was diverted south by the Nationalist Chinese army in 1938, and further destroyed in the fighting. The project included a medical clinic which grew into a 40-bed hospital with extensive out-patient facilities and

mobile medical teams, a textile cooperative, brick kiln, peanut oil press, foundry, machine shop, well drilling teams and a school.
The area was occupied by a Communist army group for a few
days in December 1947, again for a couple of weeks in July 1948, and was permanently liberated in October 1948. My wife and I left the mainland in September 1949 to set up a liaison office in Hong Kong to facilitate communication between the Unit in China and the home offices in Philadelphia and London. Work in Henan and in western China came to a close in 1951 when the last of the personnel had to return home and it was impossible to obtain entry visas for replacements. Many of the activities were taken over by the Communist government and hopefully made a small contribution to the overall development of the town and the surrounding area.
China in the 1940's was in the throes of trying to recover from more than a hundred years of foreign intervention, from the breakdown of government and society which started with the decline of the Manchu Dynasty and continued through the establishment of the Republic by Sun Yat Sen in 1911, the war with Japan, and the civil war which ended with the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China on October 1, 1949. It is no wonder that agriculture, industry, education, and other social institutions were is a shambles.
The achievements of the Communist Party in China over the past 30 years are truly awe inspiring. The pride in the accomplishments of the country which I felt among all of the Chinese people with whom we came in contact is more than justified. But there was little inclination to rest on their laurels. There is a senseof challenge and urgency in facing new and continuing problems, and a sense of personal commitment to achieving solutions. I remember the same the U.S. in 1942 in the early days of our involvement in the war.
Some of the things which impressed visitors in the old China were poverty, beggars, disease, and flies. We saw almost none of these now. It is hard to remember that until 1945 western powers claimed extraterritoriality and controlled large sectors of Shanghaiand other cities, that until 1949 the inflation rate was 1,000% a year, until it went higher. There is no inflation in China today. And, although our primary interest was agriculture and agriculture related industry, one could not but be aware that education, medical and other services are available today at I levels that were almost unthinkable 30 years ago. Also, although I knew to expect it, it was amazing to be able to leave cameras, and other valuables in unlocked train compartments and hotel rooms with no fear that they would disappear.
Another impression of differences was the roads which were dirt tracks across the fields, and are now paved in the country

as well in the towns and cities. As I remember it trees were a rarity in China. Today they are abundant, providing shade along roads and city streets, acting as windbreaks on the north China plains, controlling erosion on hillsides, and, under controlled cutting, providing a supply of fuel.
one of the disappointments of the trip was that we did not hear any political speeches., I say disappointment because I wanted to learn what the social and political emphases are today. All of the people we met were more interested in talking about agricultural machinery and agriculture in general. This is in direct contrast to the experience of visitors to China a few years ago. A Penn State delegation visited China in 1974 when the campaign a gainst the teachings of Confucius was at its height, and each stop on the tour brought a speech which was a repetition of current government policy.
In 1979 the situation seemed relaxed. There seemed little compulsion to talk to foreigners, nor was there any reluctance to do so. People on the street seemed to have a friendly and mildly curious attitude toward us. The courtesy and friendliness of our official contacts could not have been better.
I do not believe that there is any widespread hunger in
China today. Everyone seemed to have an adequate supply of the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. There are few luxuries and housing is crowded, but the overall effect of the privations that do exist seemed to be not personal resentment, but rather a sense of personal dedication to working to improve the conditions for everyone.
In the past 30 years Chinese agriculture has changed from patterns which were hundreds of years old to rapidly changing patterns of crops and practices. Chinese industry has grown from a few limited efforts in textiles, mining and whatever else would yield a high profit for investors to a broad based industry providing almost~ all of the needs of the country. Today there is a concerted effort to use available resources to develop new industries which will best meet the needs of the country.
Agricultural land in China had traditionally been broken up
into small plots, often a fraction of an acre in size, even though an individual farmer might share-crop or even own a larger area. Today the commune system permits fields to be sized according to crop needs, soil conditions, water supply, topography and other natural factors or mechanization needs. We saw many fields in the north that were 50 hectares or more in size.
one of the surprises to me was the area devoted to corn production for food. Corn has replaced a lot of the sorghum and millet, giving higher production in areas where irrigation water has become available. Irrigation has become widespread, and can now be developed on a regional basis rather than for individual farms or fields.

Three weeks is too short a time to reach any reliable conclusions about mechanization in China. China's climate and cropping seasons are similar to the U.S. and at least as varied. It would have been interesting to be in China in the-spring to see tractors and other tillage equipment in the fields. It would have been nice to be there during the harvest to see combines and other harvesting equipment and methods. We were told that 90% of the land in the northern part of the country is plowed with tractors. Rototillers are used extensively in the rice areas in the south.
Most of the 4-wheel and 2-wheel walking tractors that we saw outside of the factories where they were being manufactured were being used on the road to pull trailers moving people and a variety of agricultural and other goods. Crawlers were reported to be used extensively in agriculture. I am still uncertain whether soil conditions are sufficiently different than in the U.S. to require crawlers, whether their tillage and other farm operations are done at a slower speed and higher draft, or whether it is largely a matter of custom and habit which has grown up in recent years.
It would have been interesting to have had time to learn more about how grain is stored in what appeared to be mud and straw bins, and what methods and used to control spoilage and other losses.
My seminar topic and area of special interest related to energy.use, and the integration of machines, animals and human labor in agricultural production. China is certainly aware of energy requirements and constraints in agriculture, but from a quite different perspective than ours. I was not aware of much concern about supplies of diesel fuel, but rather a great interest in increasing agricultural mechanization which will mean greater fuel use. Since China's present level of mechanization is low, a large percentage increase in fuel use should not become a serious problem for some time.
There seemed to be only a few animals used in agriculture, at least compared to India where bullocks and water buffalo provide the major source of power. With about 80% of the population involved in agriculture, a large amount of human energy is and must be used.
While we did not see as much farm operation as we would have liked because of the season of the year, I was impressed with the variety of energy inputs in other areas. In Beijing we saw men and women with brooms cleaning the streets. We also saw small and large mechanical street sweepers. On almost any street or country road one saw trucks, tractors with trailers, horse carts, and hand carts moving materials. We saw cars, bicycles, busses, and tractors with trailers moving passengers. on rivers and canals we saw ocean vessels, diesel tugs pulling barges, sampans propelled with poles or oars and junks with sails. I got the

Diesel driven generator operated on 10-row paddy transplanter.
Welcome sign at one of factories Corn and soybeans interplanted.

impression that when there is a job to do, it was done with whatever was available without any rigid preconceptions of whether this was a job to be done with a machine, an animal or humanpower.
One of the major energy inputs to American agriculture is for fertilizer manufacture, mainly nitrogen. China's use of chemical fertilizer has risen dramatically, but China, unlike the U.S., does utilize about all of the available manure, both animal and human. These recycled plant nutrients reduce the fossil fuel energy needed for comparable soil fertility levels. Fertilizer production is being expanded, but I expect that chemical fertilizer will continue to supplement rather than replace organic materials.
We saw one biogas facility that was using municipal sewage to produce gas for a modified diesel engine driving a 75 kW generator supplying power to the municipal power line. We also saw several 400 to 1000 kW hydro-electric installations which had been developed locally using largely local resources to supply power to meet local needs.
We saw corn interplanted with soybeans in various row
arrangements, and were told that experiments showed higher yield from both crops thaft when they were grown separately. Since returning from China I have read of a Pennsylvania farmer who is interplanting corn and soybeans. I think that there is much that we can learn from China in the area of soil fertility and plant nutrients.
Agriculture in China, as in any country, must be viewed as one part of the total picture which includes questions of population, resources and social organization. China seems to be doing a better job than the U.S. of controlling unemployment by dividing the work among the available people. This may result in more people being employed to do a given job than are really needed. I wondered how different this is from our societies. While there are those of us who are overworked and underpaid, there are those of you who are underworked and overpaid. I think that there is a difference in the Chinese attitude about this problem. China seems to espouse the policy that unemployment is a societal problem which society must solve, while we tend to see it an an individual problem which the individual must solve. Perhaps the difference can be illustrated by two statements:
Society must not suffer because of the individual The individual must not suffer because of society.
One hears repeatedly that the ideal of Chinese society is to serve the people. Our prevailing ideal seems more toward the achievement of personal success. It would be just as inaccurate to say that no-one in China is motivated by personal ambition as it would be to say that no-one in our countries is altruisticly motivated to serve humanity. I feel that we can learn from China in exchangining ideas on social as well as technical issues.

China is not a free society as we use the term. The individual in China is not free to live wherever he or she wishes, to travel at will or to change jobs. But for most there is greater freedom thati the Chinese have ever had before. There is freedom from hunger and disease, freedom from foreign domination, and freedom to participate in the development of China within the framework of the communist social and political system. Without doubt a Chinese who tried to overthrow the present regime to establish a western democracy would suffer at least as severe a fate as a U.S. citizen who tried to overthrow our present system to establish a regime along Chinese communist lines.
It is said that only he who does nothing makes no mistakes. China in recent years seems to have acted on the premise that to do nothing is the biggest mistake of all. There have been mistakes. A number of passing references and informal comments on the cultural revolution and the gang of four indicated that many now feel the cultural revolution was a mistake, but in spite of everything the accomplishments far outweigh the setbacks. while a year or two ago visitors to China heard the gang of four being blamed for China's problems, the present attitude seemed to be a constructive one of seeking ways to proceed from here without dwelling on the past.
Attitudes in China as elsewhere in the world have ranged
from acceptance to wholehearted rejection of western technology. Today, China is travelling a middle road, seeking to learn from the west, but seeking a uniquely Chinese solution, as it should be.
Current Chinese policy continues to emphasize self reliance and self sufficiency at all levels from the country as a whole to the province, county and commune, brigade and production team. Local groups are urged to use local resources to solve local problems, and are doing it with marked success. Can we learn something here that will benefit our own society?
our schedule was busy, and we saw and learned more than we had hoped, but one of the frustrations was being unable to make as many helpful and constructive responses as we would have wished to the frequently repeated request, "Please give us your comments and suggestions." We were there for too short a time to gain the knowledge and experience of local conditions to make many specific suggestions.
I trust that in coming years there will be many more opportunities for exchange between members of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, opportunities to learn from each other and to enable us all to deal more effectively with our common problem of providing adequate food and the other necessities of life for everyone.

Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Plants in
People's Republic of China .... ...........pgs. 38-42
Charles E. McKeon
Tillage Machinery and Cultural Practices ......... ..pgs. 43-48
Howard G. Thompson
Grain Production, Harvesting and Handling
Mechanization in the People's Republic of China pgs. 49-58
Lawrence H. Skromme

C. E. McKeon
Executive Engineer
Ford Tractor Operations
Troy, Michigan
Fifteen members of an ASAE delegation visited the People's Republic of China between August 18 and September 8, 1979, and had an opportunity to tour the facilities and visit with the staff of several manufacturing plants, universities, research institutions, communes, and a state farm. Each member of our delegation agreed to study and observe subjects that paralleled his own area of experience and interest, and to prepare a short report on conclusions and observations. This report is limited to my observations while touring the nine manufacturing plants on our itinerary.
Our tour started in the Northeast province of China, at Harbin and Jiamusi, where we visited a grain drill factory, disc harrow factory, and self-propelled combine and thresher factory. At Changchun, we visited an agricultural tractor factory, and in Peking, an engine factory that manufactured a k-cylinder diesel tractor engine and a small 4-cylinder gasoline engine. At Luoyang, we visited the largest tractor factory in China. This factory manufactured a 75 HP crawler tractor. In Shanghai, we visited a tractor factory and a rototiller factory, and at Canton, a combine and plow factory.
During this 21-day tour, we also visited three universities,' three
agricultural machinery research institutes, four communes, a state farm, an industrial exhibition, and many other points of interest along our travel route.
While each of the plants we visited generally manufactured products specifically for the Province (State) in which it was located, the plants all had many features and operating characteristics that were common to all.

Rear wheels manufactured on a rim Tractor assembly line at Feng-Chou
rolling machine, built at the Changchun Tractor Factory, Shanghai, China.
Tractor Manufacturing Works, Changchun, China.
First production of self-propelled Forging plow shears in the Guangdong
combines designed and built at the Tractor Drawn Farm Equipment Factory
Jiamusi Combine Harvester Factory, at Guangdong (Canton), China.
Jiamusi, China.

Factories, to the maximum extent possible, were self-sufficient and independent of outside suppliers, making all types of parts and components for their product. Each factory had its own foundry to pour castings. Some of the foundries were moderately mechanized with sand slingers and cope-and drag vibrators and organized for systematic flow of material, from making the molds, pouring, and shaking out of castings. The majority of the foundries lacked mechanization and processed all molding operations by hand. The working conditions were dark and dusty. Based on observations, at casting shake out, it appeared that the casting quality was not as good as it could be, and many had to be repaired or scrapped. From general observation, it appeared that all the castings had liberal material allowance on machined surfaces. Most managers of plants and foundries commented on the fact that their foundry practices and equipment were out of date. They recognized that greater foundry technology and more mechanized equipment would result in greater yield of sound casting and reduced machining time.
One of the implement plants expected to start building a new foundry within a year, while the tractor plant in Luoyang was installing new and modern equipment for a computer controlled electric arc furnace and automatic molding and pouring equipment. The new equipment for the foundry was manufactured in China and is expected to be operational in 1980. Based on the equipment being installed, it is evident that China has the necessary advanced foundry technology. However, it will be difficult to advance and develop foundry technology throughout China unless specialty foundries are established to supply several manufacturing operations and plants in place of the small foundries at each plant. The specialty approach will necessitate deviation from previous practices of plant self-sufficiency.
Each of the nine manufacturing operations also have forging capabilities. In some cases, the equipment appeared under-utilized. Each of the manufacturing operations made parts such as gear blanks, spindles, shafts, etc. Some forging were made with sequential forging dies while others were forged to a "gauged" size. Some of the forging shops also lacked adequate lighting and appeared to have only an earth floor, while others had sufficient lighting, acceptable floors, and well-maintained machinery.
All the plants also had stamping capabilities. The grain drill plant stamped the disc opener manifold and spot welded together the half section. From strip stock, they also formed the spiral wound seed tubes and stamped ,and heat-treated their disc openers. The disc harrow factory made its own discs from rolled sheet stock. Discs were produced with a sequential system in which the discs were stamped, sharpened on a lathe, manually placed on a furnace conveyor where they were heated and hot-formed on a two-man press. They were then hand-inserted into a heat-treat furnace and automatically quenched. The product engineers commented that their discs did not seem to hold a cutting edge and wear well.
All the manufacturing plants we visited had gear cutting capabilities. The tractor and engine plants appeared to have adequate quantity and quality of common gear cutting equipment. The rototiller plant seemed to have more gear cutting equipment than could be justified by the complexity and volume of the product. Much of the equipment appeared to be over-staffed. The

material flow and assembly were accomplished in an assembly line order, although there were no mechanically moving assembly lines.
In all the plants, particularly with stand-alone machine operations, a high percentage of the operators were girls who had graduated from high school in the last few years and were on a three-year apprentice program. Since they were apprentices, it was assumed that in most cases when more than one operator was at a machine, one was an experienced operator and one an apprentice and helper. At all plants there appeared to be an excess of machine capability. It was explained that some of the machines were idle because the plant had met its production quota for the month, or the product had been discontinued, or as in one instance, there was not sufficient electrical power to permit running all machines simultaneously and that machines were split between two shifts.
Many of the plants had made some of their own production machines, and some were also making parts for production machines concurrent with manufacturing the product. The tractor plant at Changchun had made its own rear wheel rim equipment. The tractors were equipped with llx28 tires and, therefore, only one rim size was required. It is likely, however, that other sizes in tire diameter and width could be made with minor modifications to the rolling dies.
There was very little evidence of employe safety measures in any of the plants. Presses could be operated with one hand while the other hand inserted and removed stock. Some gear and chain drives were unguarded, no specific aisleways evident, and lighting was generally poor. In foundries and forge shops, some workers were wearing sandals.
The outstanding characteristic of many of the plants was the capability of these plants to operate the large varieties of functions on a relatively small production base; however, their independence from suppliers outside their immediate area tended to permit an operation in isolation and allowed the plant to become satisfied with its own design, processes and management approach.
There appeared to be an increasing concern for "quality" in the product. There was no obvious indication of quality control, although some plants had instituted a statistical approach and were obtaining evidence of improved quality.
In plants where assembly lines were established, they appeared well
organized and systemized, and assembly quality did not appear to be the major problem.
It is expected that greater use of gauges, fixtures and increased plant lighting would be a major contributor to achieving quality in.many of the machining operations. Some of the operations were also approaching quality and reliability with new design. We observed a new self-propelled combine that appeared comparable to American small sized combines. The machines were being assembled on a line where they are orderly and progressively built up. The impression one received was that each assembler was capable and making a concerted effort to do the job right.

Many of the present plants are diversified, with products that are very different in their production requirements and field usage. For example, one plant manufactured tractor-mounted combines and large "sod buster" type plows for crawler tractors. Future plans for this plant are to eliminate plow production and specialize in combines. It would seem that this action alone will raise the quality level.
Observations from our various research institutes and university visits during this tour provided evidence that current U.S. manufacturing technology is also available in the People's Republic of China. The nucleus of the technology, however, is very limited and isolated, and for that reason is not now available at the manufacturing plant level.
In most of the plants we visited, the facilities, production processes, and the production management and control appeared to be similar to U.S. conditions and practices during the 1940's. However, because the nucleus of the technology is available, and China is pursuing technical exchange in the world markets, it is likely that the gap will be closed vary rapidly.
Ilk i"A
Excellent machine tools are used in 7,
farm equipment factories.
Professor Zhang (right) explains disk harrow blade design to Howard Thompson (left). Observers are interpreter Mr. Soong and plant chief engineer.
Some fairly labor-intensive factory
operations are in evidence.

Howard G. Thompson
Manager Tillage Engineering
Looking at a corn field with its long rows and dark green color just outside Harbin in Northern Manchuria, you might think that you were anywhere in the U.S. corn belt. There is great similarity in the way this corn grows. The means of tilling the land, planting, cultivating and harvesting, however, is quite different. The heavy plowing in this area is done with a wide variety of power. Horses, small two-wheel tractors with one bottom plow, four-wheel tractors with some mounted plows and in many cases crawler tractors with mounted plows or large drawn plows. Many of these drawn plows with an operator riding the plow for proper depth control.
There is another great difference here. As you are travelling along it is not only corn that you see, but a wide variety of crops. These include soy beans, sorghum, millet, potatoes, hemp, sunflowers, wheat, tobacco and vegetables such as cabbage, beans, lettuce, onions, eggplant and others which I could not identify.
While much of the heavy plowing is done with tractors, the cultivating of the row crops appeared to be mainly done with oxen, horses and by the people with hand tools. The fields in this area are quite large, but several crops may be grown in the same field and in some cases the bean rows will change to corn part way across the field. This is a practice that will have to be altered if the crops are to be planted, cultivated and harvested mechanically by large machines. Some fields were continuous corn and possibly the farmers are already in the process of planning for mechanization.
Some of the row crops in this area indicated the need of good row crop cultivators since grass and weeds were present between the rows.
Farther north near Jiamusi, there was a much greater percentage of wheat, This was in some cases being harvested by combines, both pulltype and self propelled. Some of the grain had been cut and shocked in the fields to be hauled in and threshed later.

The wheat in this area was drilled by end wheel drills. The row spacing was 75mm which was accomplished by having seed dispensing units spaced at 150mm on the grain drill and using a splitter on the boot of the opener. The narrow row spacing was used to'help control weeds during early grain growth.
Grain drills are manufactured at a plant in Harbin. The drill is a rugged appearing machine with attached fertilizer box. It is driven by two large steel end wheels. The plant makes its own castings and disc blades for the openers as well as fabricating parts and assembling the machine. Team assembly work is used on the high volume opener components.
Drawn non-wheel type tandem and offset disc harrows are built in a plant at Jiamusi. They build between 6000 and 8000 disc harrows per year at this plant. These are about three meters wide with 50mm blades. The bearings are an eight piece wooden bearing type fitted to a machined bearing spool. This plant also has a foundry that pours it's own castings and manufactures spherical disc blades. These are the type of disc harrows that were used in North America as the transition was made from horse drawn implements to tractor drawn beginning in the late 1930's.
There seems to be a complete absence of tine type tillage equipment in any of the areas we have visited at this time. Some of the soils would appear to be of the type that the use of a field cultivator could allow the crops to be planted earlier during a wet spring.
The soil in the Harbin and Jiamusi areas which I have seen is mainly a loam type. It appears to work up fairly easily. The rain fall is not always enough to grow a full crop, therefore, some fields are irrigated and other are in the process of being prepared for irrigation.
On a visit to the Friendship Farm, about three hours drive out of Jiamusi, modern John Deere machinery was observed working in the field. This was the first year of use for these machines and will be used as a test area for the possible use of this type of equipment in other areas. Since this area is short of moisture, reversible plows were being used in the large level fields to maintain the desired contour for irrigation. The wheat straw was being removed by stack wagons for
such uses as animal feed and winter bedding.
The fields viewed along the railroad between Jiamusi and Beijing were being farmed mostly by animal power. Teams of oxens, small horses, combination teams of mules and oxen were observed pulling plows and small soil working tools. During this portion of the trip, I observed only one crawler type tractor working in the field. This tractor was pulling a four bottom deep furrow plow with a riding operator.

Grain drill from Harbin. Dong Fang Hong 28 tractors.
Cut out disk and reversible plow. Moldboard plow and planter.

There were many two-wheel and four-wheel tractors observed in use to transport products. Some were hauling produce from the fields, but most were in use on the roads moving all types of farm produce and building materials.
The land in this area had corn, soybeans, millet, sorghum, sesame, peanuts, a variety of vegetable crops and as the warmer low areas were reached, rice became very prominent. Where wind erosion had been evident in these parts, lines of trees were planted in the flat areas to prevent wind damage. Large fields were evident in these areas and mainly corn, millet, soybeans, potatoes and sorghum was grown. Some of the corn and beans had been planted with a six row planter. Many fields had four rows of corn and two rows of beans which would not be easily harvested with large mechanized equipment.
At Chagchun the Dang Fang Hong 28, four-wheel tractors are built. This is a two cylinder 28 horsepower diesel tractor. It is a rugged functional tractor with three point linkage for mounted tillage tools using gage wheels for depth control. This tractor had adjustable wheel tread for use with row crop equipment.
One of the interesting tillage implements at Jilin University of Technology was a machine that lifted corn roots from the soil. This was designed to lift the roots and move them into a windrow. The windrow could then be collected enabling the complete utilization of the corn plant.
The land along the railroad between Chagchun and Beijing shows evidence of excessive erosion damage but a tremendous amount of work had been carried out to correct this problem and make the land productive. Since most of this work is done by shovel and hand carts, it is difficult to appreciate the effort required by the local farm workers. In the edge of the hills, the land is terraced and then farmed. This soil is a loes type of soil that will erode very easily when excess water is available. This is evident by the small deep ditches in the recently constructed track bed of the railroad.
The farmers around Beijing were using many two-wheel and four-wheel tractors for transporting produce along the roads. We were told that these tractors were used in the fields for tillage operations when needed.
Two crops a year are raised on many of the farms in this area. The main crops grown are wheat and rice. They also raise corn, cotton, peanuts, and soybeans as field crops. A lot of personal care was being given to fields of vegetables and small garden plots.

The land between Biejing and Luoyang is similar to the wind blown bluffs you see along the Missouri River. Where possible it is farmed, and in some areas small terraces have been cut in the steep side hills to retain the trees that have been planted. In the wide valleys quite large fields of corn were growing. Fields for other crops were being plowed and tilled by teams of oxen and horses.
The main factory for making crawler tractors in China is located at Luoyang. They build one 75 horsepower tractor, a crawler model, which is used mostly for agricultural. It has an auxiliary hydraulic system and may be equipped with three point linkage for use with fully mounted tillage equipment.
We have seen this tractor in use in the fields with both pull-type and fully mounted plows. At the Guangdong Implement Plant, an axial plow rice combine was mounted on one of these crawler tractors. This plant is scheduled to produce 22000 crawler tractors this year.
The Luoyang Plant also manufacturers a 40 horsepower four-wheel tractor. This tractor has three-point linkage and hydraulic draft control. It was very similar in appearance to tractors of this type built in Europe and the United States.
The Institute of Tractor Research at Luoyang were working as a special paddy field tractor. This was a low horsepower three-wheel tractor with a boat shaped body that would help support the vehicle weight in the soft paddy fields. It had a small linkage on the back for mounting implements.
The Shanghai Tractor Plant builds 35 horsepower four-wheel tractors mainly for use in the paddy fields. These utilize the mounted plows, planters and cut out disc harrows which were seen at Beijing, at the Shanghai Farm Machinery Research Institute and Guangdong Farm Implement Factory.
Where possible in South China, three crops of rice a year are grown. This requires a minimum of lost time between each crop. The Shanghai Farm Machinery Plant produces a rice transplanter and the Guangdong Research Institute demonstrated a rice plant lifter and a rice transplanter to the delegation. These types of tools will greatly reduce the amount of human labor normally required to transplant the young rice plants. It will also reduce the time necessary to plant the rice allowing a greater number of growing days for the plants to develop.

The development of tillage and planting tools that will fully utilize the working capacity of the 40 horsepower rating tractors would have a wide range of application. The proper training of managers and operators in the efficient use of these combinations is very necessary to obtain the maximum return on machinery, land and time investment.
. 0 I
Buffalo plowing. Modern tractor plowing.

Lawrence H. Skromme
Consulting Agricultural Engineer
2150 Landis Valley Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
The strongest personal impact during our China visit was to see with my own eyes the teeming millions and extreme density of their populationwith each person appearing well fed, well clothed, healthy and content. When considering that China feeds and clothes over one-fifth of the world's population with less than 7% of our globe's total cultivated land area (less than 1/8 hectare per capita), we can only marvel at the high level of her food and fiber production.
While we also learned that the Chinese diet is extremely varied, grain is the major food source. Not yet quite self-sufficient in grain production, China's annual grain output is tremendous.
Two other striking impressions of China were, first, how far China has progressed in some phases of modernization and second, how very far she has yet to go in other aspects. For example, trains and planes in China appeared to be operating quite effectively and efficiently, running on time and the tracks were in better condition than our Amtrak. But the bulk of China's grain production operations that we saw relied largely on human and animal power and much of their crops were produced by what we would consider to be hand-gardening methods.
other surprising observations were the vast acreage of corn we saw
growing in Northern China and how far north they are successfully growing rice. From the planes, our long train rides, and bus trips traveling between and around the cities of Beijing, Harbin, Jiamusi and Changchun we kept on seeing huge corn fields that often appeared to stretch away almost endlessly. Not only the vast fields of good corn, but also much of the terrain, the soil and climate were strikingly similar to our northern corn belt and adjacent Great Plains areas.

And as we went north out of the Inland city of Jiamusi on our bus trip to the large Friendship State Farm, I was amazed to see heavy crops of rice growing at a latitude of 470 north--which also passes through our States of Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Northern Wisconsin, Michigan's Upper Peninsula and the northern edge of Maine I This rice was being grown by communes of Korean immigrant farmers that were specialists in growing rice in northern climates and we noted a number of small experimental plots with neat white identification markers.
The overall progress, current status, and plans for agricultural mechanization in the People's Republic of China may best be presented by quoting verbatim from the text of a briefing document given us on this subject as f ollow:.
*A Briefing on the Situation of
Farm Mechanization of China
"l. Reviewing the course of the mechanization:
"In China, great attention has been devoted to farm mechanization all along. The road that we have followed is to achieve the farm collectivization first and the mechanization second.
"in the early years following the liberation, large quantities of hand
tools such as hoes, -spades, picks and uickles were made to replenish the shortage of farm implements, and animal drawn implements were produced and popularized to meet the urgent needs of recovering and developing our agriculture. New type animal drawn implements such as water wheel, walking plows, cultivators, etc., were designed and developed after liberation.
"In 1955 the movement to agricultural collectivization reached a high tide. Chairman Mao pointed out that we should carry out a revolution in technology. The farm machinery industries of our own country had been set up in a large-. scale. Numbers of factories for manufacturing tractors, engines, combines, tractor drawn or mounted implements were constructed. The central research institute of agricultural machinery and then local Institutes had been set up one after nother. The pace toward mechanization had been quickened steadily.
*Comparing 1965 with 1956, the number of tractors in use had increased by
7 times and the power in irrigation and drainage 22 times approximately. Several important inventions such as the rice-transplanter were accomplished by the specialists and the farmer inventors in a common effort.
"The first and second National Conference on Agricultural Mechanization were held separately in 1966 and 1971, the Conferences implemented the principles of carrying out farm mechanization mainly by provinces, autonomous regions and municipal authorities. The initiative of both central and local authorities has been brought into play.
"China today has more than 1900 factories making farm machines. In 1978 the total output of tractors reached ll3,500 units, walking tractors 320,500 units and engines 274,000 Hp. Also in 1978 the total number of tractors in use were 467,000, walking tractors 1,370,000 and power units for irrigation and drainage 65,580,000 Hp.

"China, which formerly did not have its own farm machinery industry, will by 1980 possess 80 million Hp. of power units for irrigation and drainage and more than 2 million large, medium, and small sized tractors. On the average each hectare of cultivated land will have more than one Hp., and each hectare will use 600 Kg of fertilizer and 600 KWH of electricity.
"China's agricultural mechanization is still developing and Will inevitably encounter some new conditions and problems. They are mainly?
h1l. There are too many models of farm machinery with components and
spare parts not interchangeable which causes great difficulties in manufacture, operation and maintenance. Quite a few factories are 'large and complete' or 'small and complete' and make practically everything from components and spare parts to whole machines. As
a result the output is small, the quality poor and cost high.
"2. Many factories are not quite clear about what types of machinery
they should be producing to meet the needs of the market.
"l3. In some of the development of the diversified economy and enterprises
run at the commune or brigade level has been slow. On account of
their limited financial resources they cannot afford some of the farm
machinery they need.
"4.~ Although a great deal of machinery has been shipped to the countryside
the necessary training of skilled workers, maintenance and management
of farm machinery failed to keep pace. The result is that farm
machinery has not been fully utilized. Some communes and brigades
have not attained the goal of increasing production and income.
"2. Characteristics of Chinese Agricultural Mechanization
"In China how to bring about farm mechanization--that is, what to mechanize first and what to mechanize later, and how to increase production and income more rapidly--is a problem that has been discussed frequently and is going to be solved step by step. In order to solve this problem, we must proceed from the local condition.
"Compared with other third world countries China has many similarities. But China is a socialist country where public ownership in the economy is dominant. It is also a country with a small amount of cultivated land relative to population, a weak economic foundation and a vast territory. This is the point from which China must bring about farm mechanization and is the foundation for formulating our policy. China has a large population with 80% of it engaged In agriculture, and the land per capita is only a little more than
0.1 hectare. In order to get each hectare to produce the equivalent of several hectares, we must pay great attention to intensive cultivation and to develop effective farm machinery. It won't do to blindly seek only a high degree of mechanization which emphasizes only higher productivity. of course
this does not mean due emphasis on increasing labor productivity is neglected. on the contrary, if mechanization is achieved, labor productivity will inevitably rise.

"What will happen to the treat deal of rural labor released as a result of mechanization? Our principle is to deal with the population problem at its sources. This means developing the rural enterprises of the commune and brigade--creating a 'diversified economy'. In our view, this Is a way to produce more wealth for the society as a whole and will help to narrow the difference between town and countryside. mental and manual labor, and between industry and agriculture. Ninety percent of the communes: and 70% of the production brigades are now running their own industrial enterprises.
"However, even if we succeed in increasing agricultural output to the level of some of the communes and brigades in Jiangsu province--the grain production reaches 15 tons per hectare--we still will be unable to meet the needs of the people and industry. Therefore, farm mechanization must also expand outward to our grasslands, seas, and mountainous areas. On our territory of 9,600,000 Km there are more than 300 million hectares of grassland. About 30% of China is mountainous or hilly. China also has more than 18,000 Km of coastline. Therefore, there are broad prospects for expanding our country's agriculture. For example, the United States has 130 million cattle on more than 200 million hectares of grassland; whereas our more than 300 m ill ion hectares of grassland have been left mostly undeveloped. However. we have not paid enough attention to these aspects in the former days. Today, great efforts are being made to promote the development of these areas.
"Owing to China's weak economic foundation, in the course of agricultural mechanization we must persist in the principle of 'walking on two legs', which includes using both indigenous and foreign methods and simultaneously developing large, medium and small sized models models, and carrying out mechanization together with semi-mechanization.
"In order to speed up the pace of mechanization, China will follow a way of selecting the better machines and technologies from advanced countries combined with modifying them to suit the local conditions and creating new types of machines. So we shall introduce advanced technology from abroad, learn the advanced experience from other countries, and expand cooperation with friendly countries.
"China has vast territory. Apparently, we cannot bring about mechanization in different places with the same method. For instance, it would be appropriate for the plains in North China to adopt large-sized tillage equipment; for the rice field to use the powered tiller and transplanters; for the dryland to adopt sprinklers and equipment for drilling wells; for the grasslands to develop the haymaking and different kinds of animal husbandry equipment. A~s for areas o~f plenty water resources in South China, it is more suitable to set up small hydro-electric plants.
"As a whole, irrigation and drainage equipment, processing machines for agricultural and sideline products and farm transporting equipment are needed nationwide.
"3. Prospects for the future:
"To modernize our industry, agriculture, science and technology, and
national defence, it is extremely important to make drastic changes in use of manual labor, which includes reducing the work force of several hundred million

people now engaged in the production of food grain. To achieve farm mechanization comprehensively is essential to realizing farm modernization.
"At the present time, we are carrying out the the farm machinery industry and in the whole area of farm mechanization,
"Through readjustments, the farm machinery industry will be rapidly switched over to large-scale modernized production. We are now making readjustments in accordance with the principles of unified planning, respect for diversity, management at different levels and rational distribution. Our footing is the existing enterprises, which means we must make readjustments of the nearly 2,000 old factories, fully utilize the existing base, and adhere to the principle of selecting and developing the best ones. Those enterprises that prove to be capable of producing what the market needs with good quality, low cost, mid big profit should be ensured of production at full capacity. In making readjustments, the large-sized tractors and their attachments, haymaking equipment and grain dryers urgently needed in part of China should be developed; management and service work relating to farm mechanization should be improved. Besides, the agricultural engineering education is another key point in making readjustment as it is important to raising the scientific researchers ability to meet the needs of developing necessary machines.
"In working toward our objectives we must carefully take into account the
"l. Farm mechanization must be combined with regionalization. In
accordance with the principles of 'taking grain an the key link and ensuring an all-round development, suiting measures to local conditions, and reasonable centralization,' we must draw up a good program for the development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, and good regional plans for the production of food, grain, and industrial crops so as to gradually go in for specialized agricultural production. Agricultural districts will be divided and types of farm machines chosen in accordance with each region's plan for agricultural development.
"2. Farm mechanization must be combined with the reform of agronomy.
Farm machinery should be adapted to the requirement of agronomy, while agronomy should also be made to suit the operation of machinery. Only In this way can we fully raise the efficiency of farm machinery. improve labor productivity, and increase production and income.
"3. Farm mechanization must be coordinated with the development of a diversified economy and commune or brigade-ran industry. Manpower saved by mechanization should be transferred to engage in a diversified economy in the locality.
04. Farm mechanization must be combined with the building up of bases for marketable grain and industrial crops. Investment in farm machinery should be allocated in a concentrated way. In the next few years it will be mainly spent on building up production bases for marketable grain and industrial crops, animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries as well as nonstaple food production bases on the outskirts of big cities. We must bring about mechanization area by area in such a way as to enable some regions to become prosperous earlier than others.n (end of quotation)

The statistics presented above on the farm mechanization activities in China indicate impressive progress and everything I saw there supported and corroborated the figures we were given and everything we were told. We visited several tractor factories and two combine plants and it was fairly easy to estimate annual output of each by timing the output for a short period at the end of an assembly line. In each instance these estimates checked closely with production figures given. on several other occasions we inadvertently had opportunities to check items of information previously given and in every instance the data or information checked with the later observations.
The many thousands of four wheel and crawler tractors China has produced did not provide a very dense tractor population in the farm areas we visited. In the north, horses and mules were by far the most evident power sources for grain production, while in the south we saw mostly water buffaloes and humans powering the limited field operations observed during the late portion of the growing season. In the north I saw only one crawler and two four-wheel tractors operating in the field and in the south about three or four two-wheel tractors or power tillers. For transport, trucks that appeared to be used Army units were seen everywhere, with hauling in the northern areas supplemented by many two and three-horse team In all sections of China, a multitude of their small diesel two-wheel tractors coupled integrally with twowheel trailers were very widely used for all types of hauling.
We visited two factories making grain drills9 of the same basic design in two different sizes. The implement factories wre saw were characterized by having a large number of relatively small departments, each usually housed in separate shop buildings. Machine tools appeared to be in ample supply, not only in the factories but also in the commune's and state farm's maintenance and repair shops. The grain drills were of conventional fluted feed design with large steel wheels such as prevalent in America when I was a youth.
The most significant grain planting developments observed were the
mechanical rice seedling pullers and transplanters developed in southern China. Early models of these transplanters had been manufactured for several years but apparently had not been fully satisfactory--at least I saw a number at a machinery repair station that appeared in dire need of rebuilding.
At the Guangdong Research Institute near Canton two of the latest design rice transplanters were demonstrated to us. With a driver and two operators, one unit very successfully planted rice seedlings that had been pulled with another special machine developed for this purpose. The other unit likewise performed well in transplanting seedlings that had been lifted "en masse" out of the special flats in which they had been grown. We also saw paddies of very uniform and vigorous rice stands that had been transplanted with these machines about a month earlier.
These machines transplant rice several times as fast as could be done by hand with the same number of people. However, in addition to this substantial saving of labor, other important advantages are the more uniform stand secured, the time saving in getting a paddy replanted in multiple cropping areas and most importantly, the substitution of easy "sit-down" labor for the extremely arduous "stoop" labor of hand pulling and transplanting rice seedlings in the mud. Since only a small diesel engine of about 6 hp is used to power one of these machines, fuel requirements are minimal.

Grain drill produced at factory near Rice seedling puller at Guangdong
Harbin. Research Institute.
4 4r
Rice transplanter at Guangdong Research Stacking grain bundles in North China. Institute.
Self-propelled combine produced at fac- Very early combines at Friendship
tory near Jiamusi. State Farm.

We had earlier visited a relatively smail factory operated by Shanghai County that was just finishing a production run of the earlier model "Shanghai #1" transplanters. They were preparing to start production of the new improved f2-Z model which I presume would incorporate the improvements developed at Guangdong. Again, I was surprised at the extensive array of machine tools in this small plant, even Including precision gear cutting machines. This plant also made parts for two wheel tractors and did major overhaul and repair work on them. During the busy season they would send repair teams to the field as well as keeping a staff at the plant to handle emergency breakdowns.
This small factory had 614 employees and began producing transplanters in 1973, having produced a total of 9378 units by the end of 1978. In the standardized final design 2-Z model they had collaborated with three other factories and the research institute. They indicated that in the future the new model will be produced in seven different factories In Southern China.
We were told by the plant manager that this machine could transplant one hectare of rice in seven hours with Its crew of three people. In comparison, he said it takes about 150 person-hours per hectare to transplant by hand. The new model will sell for about 2000 Yuan (approx. $1,666 U.S.). The final performance claim made for the transplanting machine was that it would increase the yield by 10 to 20% because of the more uniform stand secured.
We also visited two plants manufacturing threshers and grain combine harvesters.* The first was in Northern China at Jiaiausi where the production reported was 1000 threshing machines and 500 self-propelled combines. We did not see the threshers which were reported to have a threshing and separating width of 3f10 cm. (44 inches).
The design of their combine was perhaps more modern by our standards
than any farm machine we saw manufactured in China. It had a 90 cm. (360) wide header and weighed 5400 kg. empty. It was a relatively now model, having been in production three years with over 1000 produced. Their plan for 1980 is to produce between 700 and 800 combines. This plant was extremely well equipped and the general appearance of the combine was quite good. one special feature was that the concave bars wre made like narrow rasp bars, indicating that some of their grain varieties might be fairly difficult to thresh out of the heads.
Near Canton, we visited another plant that made two models of tractor
mounted combines, as well as several other tractor drawn implements. The design of these combines appeared to be entirely of Chinese origin and incorporated several features that differed widely from the combines we saw made at Jiamusi.
The plant, however, was not nearly as modern as most of the others we observed and this was also .the case with their manufacturing methods. Tooling was also quite limited, but they did have a few modern special gear cutting machines.* In this plant they also made a very heavy brush plow, indicating that China is still breaking up virgin lands for more grain production.
Similar to our experience with the many four-wheel and crawler tractors produced, we did not see a single large threshing machine or a self-propelled combine in use during our extensive China travels, some of which was during the harvest season in some areas. Apparently thee new machines are just swallowed up in the vastness of China's wet-central and northern areasv where the large fields are found.

Professor Zeng De Chao with cylinder type type thresher at Xin Qiao Peoples Commune. Typical wood fanning mill for grain cleaning.
Electric fan for winnowing grain. Dr. Wayne Kroutil helping sweep up
rice being dried on outdoor floor. (Heavy rain arrived 15 minutes later).

What we did see were hundreds of threshing floors near the farm
commune buildings as we traveled by train and bus. Dr. Wayne Krouti 1 and I took off in a taxi one noon and visited one of these installations on a small commune farm near Hangchow and we were shown another on the large farm of the Xin Qiao People's Commune in Sangjiang County. In each case the rice was threshed with a simple electric-powered cylinder thresher having a feed
opening near the drive end. On the large commune unit a coarse screen below the lower forward third of the cylinder provided some grain separation. This feature was not present on the smaller thresher which merely discharged the mixture of threshed grain and straw through another opening in the large end of the slightly conical cylinder housing. Further separation was done by hand and cleaning was assisted by wooden fanning mills that contained a fan only but no cleaning sieves. The presence of large flat winnowing baskets indicated that much hand winnowing was also done, assisted on the latter farm by a large, portable electric fan on about a four-foot high stand. The only mechanical threshers we saw standing on any of these many threshing floors were these
-simple cylinder units.
In Northern China we saw many tall, pointed stacks of grain bundles and on one occasion saw bundles being hauled in from the fields. on the very large Friendship State Farm (one-half million acres total area) that we visited in the far northern area of China, they had recently acquired a complete multiple unit set of the most modern large grain production and harvesting machines from the USA (John Deere). Comprehensive time and cost records were being kept by the brigade operating these machines to guide China in future mechanization activities.
However, when we visited the headquarters area of this farm, the grain harvesting machines we saw were only a couple of earlier model combines of the size we saw made at Jiamusi, plus three very old pull-type combines very similar to the earliest combines first made in the far west of the United States over a half century ago. Amazingly, these machines were still in operating condition and each of them appeared to have been used within the past few weeks during their wheat harvest.
All of this indicates that China does indeed have a long way to go to appropriately mechanize her grain production. However, on this trip we also
learned that the Chinese are a very hard working, capable, intelligent, dedicated and pragmatic people. They are effectively organized under an efficient system that I would term as "collective enterprise" and which has enabled them to make remarkable progress in the past quarter century. They are also doing a good job of educating all their young people and I am confident that they will successfully continue to make excellent progress in their efforts and
plans to mechanize and reduce labor requirements for their future grain production.

Research Institutions and Facilities . . . ..... pgs. 60-67
John E. Dixon
Research Institutes pgs. 68-74
James H. Taylor
Chinese Irrigation Systems and Techniques . . pgs. 75-81
Wayne F. Kroutil
The State of Agricultural Engineering Systems
Modeling and Analysis in China . . . . pgs. 82-84
Walter K. Bilanski

Agr icultural Engineering Department University of Idaho
Moscow, Idaho
The principal thrust of agricultural mechanization research in the People's Republic of China is organized and operated through the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery Sciences (CAAMS) has been established to carry out much of this function. -The main tasks of the Academy are: (1) assist in drawing up the agricultural machinery research program, (2) conduct agricultural machinery research and development, (3) test agricultural machinery materials, components and whole units, (4) conduct manufacturing technology research and development for agricultural machinery, (5) formulate national and Ministry standards for agricultural machinery, and 6) gather and exchange research information involving agricultural machinery.
The.Academy, which is located in Peking, is made up of two institutes, The Farm Implement Research Institute and the Materials and Technology Research Institute, and the following nine divisions:
(1) Livestock and Poultry Equipment Research, (2) Irrigation and Drainage Equipment Research, (3) Hydraulic Technique Research, (4) Power Unit Testing, (5) Strength Research, (6) Measuring Technique and Instrumentation Research, (7) Farm Machinery Information Research,
(8) Experimental Shop, and (9) Farm Machinery Experiment Station. In addition to the Academy, the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery also operates a Tractor Research Institute at Luoyang. Although this Institute is currently independent of the Academy, there is talk of attaching it to the Academy as a third Research Institute. In addition to other research functions the Tractor Research Institute tests tractors and has recently constructed a test facility similar to that at Nebraska. This facility was not yet operational when visited by the ASAE team.
Agricultural Mechanization research is also conducted at the provincial level. Almost every province has an agricultural

mechanization research Institute. Some "municipalities" (autonimous city districts) also have them. Research is also conducted by factories and communes to meet their specific needs.
Research efforts directed toward agricultural engineering of a
non-mechanization nature are administered through the Ministry of Agriculture. The Ministry of Agriculture would administer research involving animal housing, waste management, crop irrigation, drainage, food engineering, food and feed storage, etc. If mechanization equipment is involved, however, it is administered by the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery; for example, feed conveying equipment, pumping equipment, food and feed milling equipment. The Ministry of Agriculture has an Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in Peking. There is nothing at the province level. Academy status is being considered for the Institute.
Another approach to Agricultural Mechanization research is carried on by teaching institutions. These institutions provide three channels of research results: regular university students, post graduate students, and faculty research groups. Almost all regular university students are required to prepare a thesis. These theses provide analytical and developmental research results. More sophisticated research results are provided by post graduate students who must complete two years of post graduate course work before being admitted to a two year research and thesis program. The faculty are divided into teaching and research groups within each department. For example, at Jilin University of Technology, the Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, has an Agricultural machinery group, a tillage machinery group, a tractor group, a machine design group and a Mechanical drawing group. The professors in the group may be assigned different portions of their time for teaching and research. An approximate average proportion is 80% teaching and 20% research. Individually this varies. Some are assigned 100% teaching and others 100% research. One of the professors accompanying the ASAE team had been assigned 80% research and 20% teaching.
Research for the teaching faculty is selected from planning lists provided by the central government. Similar lists are also provided by the provincial government. A research program conducted by the University from one of the lists is financed by the governmental unit listing that program. Although the research program lists are prepared by the governmental units, the unviersity research groups can suggest research programs for the lists. Some examples of faculty conducted research project titles are: Development and testing of a series of pump models for sprinkler irrigation, Dynamics of soilmachine systems, Technology of nodular cast iron crankshafts, Minimum tillage machine development, and Experimental greenhouse and apparatus for rice seedlings suitable for the power transplanter.

Research Institution Visits
The ASAE team visited five research institutions and three teaching institutions. On some days the team was divided into two groups with each group making a different visit. The five research institutions were: (1) The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery Sciences in Peking, (2) The Tractor Research Institute at Luoang, (3) The Shanghai Research Institute of Farm Machinery, (4) The Shanghai Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engines, and (5) Guangdong Research Institute at Canton. The three teaching institutions were:
(1) The Jilin University of Technology at Changchun. (2) Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College and (3) The South China Agricultural College at Canton. All of these institutions except the Luoyang Tractor Research Institute and the Shanghai Internal Combustion Institute will be discussed here.
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery Sciences
The Academy, which is also headquarters for the Chinese Society of Agricultural-Machinery, has facilities for each of the institutes and divisions mentioned above. The ASAE team visited the pump testing, seeding, threshing, hydraulic (power), engine testing, materials testing, and strength testing laboratories. Each of the laboratory buildings were the same design and about 12 meters wide and 36 meters long. Almost all of the laboratories listed had an individual building for their work. Some of the equipment observed by the team is listed below. Additional pieces of equipment were no doubt available but were not observed because of the time limitation. (Less than three hours was available for each institutional visit).
Laboratory Observed Equipment
Pump testing 3 pump testing tanks and stands, submersible, turbines, power and torque measuring
70 meter head testing tank
cavitation study equipment
Seeding sand table for testing graindrill
Threshing straw catching conveyor for measuring
threshed grain losses
Hydraulic (power) hydraulic vibration testing equipment
pump speed testing equipment
power steering testing equipment
Engine testing dynamometer with control room
transducers and indicators for engine on test

Materials testing equipment for testing wear of
tillage parts
Strength testing force application frames with
stain measurment
fatigue testing equipment
a testing unit capable of applying and measuring six different forces
Shanghai Institute of Agricultural Machinery
The ShanghaiInstitute is an example of a municipality sponsored research institution. The institute was established in,1959. It currently employs 270 people of which 90 are technical personnel. The only research facility observed was a machine shop., This shop was set up similar to manufacturing plant machine shops the team had seen earlier. The Institute had a large show room area where machines they had developed were displayed. Some of the machines the team observed were: several 6 and 7 bottom tractor mounted plows, a furrow opener, a rice transplanter, a-rice seedling plant puller, a power operated tea picker, a hand operated tea picker, a dredge pump (for dredging irrigation canals and farm ponds) and several implements for use with the commonly used power tillers. We were also told the Institute had developed a combine, a swather. and poultry mechanization equipment including feeding equipment, watering devices, and manure scrapers.
Guangdong Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery
The Guangdong Research Institute is an example of a provincial sponsored institute. The Institute employs 200 people of which 17 are engineers, 104 University graduates and 125 technicians. Most of their research is directed to paddy field equipment development and rice drying. They have also done work with sugar cane equipment, forage equipment, and rice processing. Research equipment observed by the team included: a tractor and instrument van fitted with instruments for draft, traction and speed measurements, gear drive durability test unit (e.g. power tiller gear box), spark ignition testing unit, a dynamic balancing machine, three dynamometers with range of 20 to 400 horsepower, sound measuring equipment, oil and fuel pump testing equipment, and fuel consumption measuring equipment.
The institute displayed and demonstrated some of the equipment
they had developed. They had available eight or more field plots for testing their equipment. The paddy plots were about 30 meters by 100 meters (similar in area to many paddy fields). Equipment demonstrated at these plots included a rice nursery plant-puller, a rice plant transplanter using bare rooted plants, a rice-plant transplanter using nonbare rooted plants, and a direct seeding paddy planter. Other equipment demonstrated or displayed included: a half.-track drive for a tractor, a tractor fitted with crawler tracks and conventional rubber tired wheels, and three different designs of paddy threshing machines.

Jilin University of Technology
Jilin University of Technology was founded in 1955 by pooling
several departments of three other universities. The University has graduated about 14,000 students of which 1300 were night school graduates. The enrollment capacity is 4700 with 3700 currently enrolled. The campus covers 660,000 square meters with 180,000 square meters of floor space. There are 24 laboratories including physics, chemistry, electronics, precision measurement, agricultural machinery,tractor, internal combustion engine, metal cutting, etc. The University also operates a combine factory. Before graduation, each student is expected to spend three months working in the factory or elsewhere for
practical experience.
Much of the equipment and many of the laboratories were dedicated to teaching. Some were suitable for research and teaching activities. The ASAE team visited the following laboratories: tractor testing, field equipment testing, tillage equipment, instrumentation, planting equipment, internal combustion engine testing-and sound measuring. Equipment found in these laboratories included: several 4-wheel, 2wheel and crawler-type tractors, numerous cut-away models of machinery, soil shear measuring equipment, a tractor fitted with draft, speed, and traction measuring instruments, a soil bin with power car speeds ranging from 0-13 kph (a second bin is under construction), a machine for applying forces to and measuring stresses upon plows (designed and built by students and faculty), a grease board test stand to test planter performance, several test stands for testing durability of chain drives, 15 dynamometer type test stands, sound measuring equipment, and fuel consumption measuring equipment.
Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College
The college was established in 1960. Construction was completed in 1964, but the college was closed in 1966 due to the cultural revolution. The college has four departments: Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Tractor Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, and Electric Motor Engineering. The enrollment is about 1500.
Most of the laboratories visited by the team were dedicated to teaching applications. They included the metalography, specimen preparation, microphotography, spectrographic, precise measurement, finish evaluation, material mechanics, photo elasticity, computer, agricultural machinery, automobile, internal combustion engine, fuel injection system, dynamometer, and sprinkler irrigation laboratory. Some of the equipment observed in- these laboratories included microscopes, ground flat surface and micrometers, a shadowgraph, a gear size evaluator, compression testing machines, a photo elasticity unit, a computer, combines and threshers,.various tillage equipment, 2-wheel and 4-wheel tractors, a test bed for implement evaluation. (A rice seedling transplanter was demonstrated), an optical instrument to trace the pattern of a moldboard plow, tillage draft measuring equipment with magnetic tape recorder, full scale automotive dynamometer, a 100 kilowatt engine dynamometer, and a sprinkler irrigation testing yard about 30 meters square.

South China Agricultural College
The college is very close to the Guangdong Research Institute. Both institutions indicated this promotes extensive cooperation between the two institutions. The cooperation was apparent.
The college was formed by combining faculty from three local
universities including some from an adjacent province. The college has eight departments: Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Agriculture, Silvaculture and Forestry, Soils, Plant Protection, Entomology, and Plant Pathology. The enrollment is about 2000 students including 400 agricultural engineering students and 65 graduate students. There are about 700 faculty in the college with 320 involved with instruction. The remainder are assisting staff.
The only laboratories observed by the team were two mechanical rice seedling factory laboratories and field plot laboratories. At each of these laboratories the staff demonstrated paddy mechanization equipment. The seedling factories produced nursery paddy plants in 10 to 12 days. One factory laboratory was completely mechanized and planted, watered, disease and insect treated, and fertilized rice plants grown on soil-less concrete slabs about one meter wide. The factory had two double rows of slabs eight slabs high. At harvest the matt of rice plants was cut to the appropriate size for a mechanized rice transplanter. The second factory operation involved machine assisted hand labor. This system was said to be more practical for present day commune use.
Equipment demonstrated in the field plots included a "boat tractor" plowing a paddy field and a mechanical rice seedling transplanter.
Three computers were observed by team members; one at the Academy in Peking, one at Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College,.and one at the Shanghai Industrial Exhibition. The first two were in use. All three were basically the same design and manufactured in China. The central processing unit had a capacity of about 32 K. Input to the computer was possible by paper tape, typewriter, CRT, and magnetic tape. Cards were not an input method. Magnetic tape units were seen but no disk storage was observed. Output could be obtained through the input devices or a line printer. The language was BASIC.
Concluding Comments
This team member is in no position to draw conclusions due to the short time interval of the visits and tour. A few impressions may be in order, however. Building space for research seemed adequate as did availability of equipment to carry out a specific task. Much of the research equipment was manufactured in China with imports from Sweden, Germany and the U. S. among others. More equipment was imported from

Russia and Japan than other countries. The use and availability of
computers is quite limited. Computer technology is in its infancy.
This is true for the manufacture of hardware and for software application. All institutions visited were interested in computers and want to be involved as the technology developed.
The gear drive durability test unit at A professor at Jilin University of the Guangdong Research Institute of Technology explains the operation of a
Agricultural Machinery testing the gear chain drive test stand to members of the drive of a power tiller. ASAE team.
Howard Thompson watches a Shanghai A CAAMS Agricultural Engineer discusses
Institute of Agricultural Machinery details of one of the planter metering staff member demonstrate a hand oper- wheels that has been tested on their ated tea picker developed by their sand table with Dr. Zoerb.

A precision seeder under test on a A professor at Zhenjiang Agricultural
grease board at Jilin University of College demonstrates the gear size
Technology, evaluator to ASAE President Al Best.
The boat tractor developed by South Computer facilities at Zhenjiang
China Agricultural College plowing a College.
paddy field during a demonstration for the ASAE team.

James H. Taylor, PE
Research Leader Traction
National Tillage Machinery Laboratory USDA, SEA-AR
Auburn, Alabama
The current approach to life in the People's Republic of China appears to be geared to modernization with emphasis on agriculture. Material incentives are being offered, and production has moved out front as a goal of the current leadership.
National Organization of Research
The author was unable to obtain any kind of organizational chart of the research institutes. All educational and research activities appear to be in an era of rapid change at this time. The following outline was constructed from many personal conversations.
We were guests of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. This Society works closely with one ministry of the government and the following remarks generally deal only with that ministry.
The Ministry of Agricultural Machinery (one of several food production related ministries under Vice-Premier Wang Ren Zhong) appears to have three distinctly different types of research facilities: (A) The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery Sciences (CAAMS), located in Beijing; (B) The National Research Institutes (for tractors, located in Luoyang--for internal combustion engines, located in Shanghai--possibly other national institutes); and (C) Provincial Research Institutes in most of the 30 provinces or autonomous areas. We were told that the Ministry of Agriculture and probably several other ministries have similar research organizations.
The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery (CAAMS):
The CAAMS is a comprehensive scientific research organization for agricultural machinery. They assist in the planning of the State program of scientific research; they do research and development plus testing of the parts, assemblies and complete machines. They do research on manufacturing technology and on

materials. They formulate industry and national standards for agricultural machinery. They search the literature, maintain a library, and publish three nationwide periodicals.
The CAAMS has 950 employees; about half of these are
engineers or technicians. They are located on a 28-hectare campus. They are presently organized into eleven institutes or subdivisions to carry out their work: (1) Farm Implement Research Institute; (2) Material and Technology Research Institute; (3) Livestock and Poultry Equipment Research Division; (4) Irrigation and Drainage Equipment Research Division; (5) Hydraulic Technique Research Division; (6) Power Unit Testing Division; (7) Strength Research Division; (8) Measuring Technique and Instrumentation Research Division; (9) Farm Machinery Information Research Division; (10) Experimental Shop; and (11) Farm Machinery Experiment Station.
The National Research Institutes:
The National Research Institute for Tractors is located in Luoyang. It was started in 1968, and, as the name implies, is responsible for research on tractors for all parts of China. They have a soil bin and test track. They have 600 people, including 300 engineers and technicians. The work is in three divisions: (1) Testing; (2) Development of tractors; and (3) Development of engines. They do some development work here, but some engineering work is left for the factories to do.
There are many tractor factories in the provinces and
most provinces produce tractors, especially small tractors, only for their province. Transportation and commerce between provinces is limited. This increases the need for and importance of a national research institute for tractors.
The National Research Institute for Internal Combustion Engines is located in Shanghai. This Institute was begun in 1958. They have 700 people, including 310 technicians and engineers. They have a library of some 2600 volumes plus 52 periodicals, and they have an acoustical lab. They have three task groups or divisions: (1) Collection of information on foreign developments; (2) Technical exchange with foreign countries; and
(3) Service to their customers (the factories). They appear to have concentrated their efforts on small- to medium-size, highspeed diesel engines.
The Provincial Research Institutes:
Each province (or municipal area) has a research institute for agricultural machinery. They concentrate on machinery for the specific conditions of their province. They can obtain general assistance and guidance from the CAAMS and they usually do research on machinery not covered by a national institute.

We visited two of these institutes: The Shanghai
Municipal Research Institute for Agricultural Machinery, and The Guangdong Provincial Research Institute for Agricultural Machinery.
The Shanghai Municipal Research Institute for
Agricultural Machinery was set up in 1959. They have 270 workers including 90 technicians and engineers. They are divided into four departments and a factory. They told us they were doing research on rice equipment--transplanters and seedling pullers; tillage equipment--plows, rotary tillers, and furrow openers; harvesting equipment--combines, swathers, hand and power tea harvesters; and equipment for poultry production.
The tour of their facilities consisted primarily of a display room of what appeared to be production models of the above equipment. There was evidence of many years of past research in the equipment on display.
The Guangdong Provincial Research Institute for
Agricultural Machinery is in South China. The capitol of this province is Guangzhou, better known in the West as Canton. We were briefed by the director, Mr. Yue, and greeted in English by Professor David Hoh, who attended Iowa State College in 1945.
This Institute was built in 1958 and grew to a staff of 300 members with several labs and shops plus farms for equipment testing. In 1968 it was destroyed by the Gang of Four; the land was taken away and the faculty scattered to the countryside. In 1971 they began to recover land and are now about 1/3 of their past size. They have 200 staff members, including 20 engineers and one agronomist, and appear to be rapidly rebuilding a fine research institute.
They emphasize rice equipment here--transplanting, harvesting, and drying. Recently they have started work for sugar cane--land preparation, weed control, and harvesting. A little work has begun on forage processing equipment and on feed mills, etc., for livestock production.
They showed prototype and production models of the rice equipment. They demonstrated in their paddys a seedling puller, a transplanter for the pulled seedlings, a transplanter for block-grown seedlings, and a direct seeding machine for rice.
They have investigated several ideas for traction and
flotation in rice paddys. They have some polders in the province with no hard pans that are a great challenge for the traction researchers. We were shown some of their prototypes for the soft soil: Rubber tracks, steel tracks, half tracks, rubber tires, steel tires, combinations of tires and tracks, and a boat tractor.

One of their combines is mounted on a 75 hp crawler
tractor which is manufactured in the province. The State farms use this, but the Institute has also designed a 2-wheel and a 4-. wheel small combine which is used on some communes. In this province, 60-70% of the rice is still cut with a sickle and harvested with a foot-pedalled thresher.
The Institute works closely with the South China Agricultural College (SCAC) which is under the Ministry of Agriculture, but located only one mile away. They are cooperating on rice transplanting, and SCAC is experimenting with methods of growing seedlings for ease of handling by transplanters. This cooperation plus the presence of an agronomist on the staff of the Institute was very encouraging.
Other Areas of Research
There were two other places in addition to the above
where we found research in progress on agricultural machinery and practices: The agricultural machinery colleges and the State farms or large communes.
Agricultural Machinery Colleges:
This category includes colleges or universities under the direction of the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery. We visited two of these.
Jilian University of Technology in Changchun was founded in 1955, has 3200 students in 6 departments with 18 specialties. There are seven universities with Agricultural Engineering Departments, and Jilian has the largest department with 500 students. They have a variety of research in progress here including tillage, soil mechanics, and terramechanics. They have soil bins which are equipped and used for research purposes.
Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College was constructed in 1960-64. It was just getting started when destroyed by the Cultural Revolution. It was only restarted in 1977 and has much work to do to get back in business. However, they are working hard and, in addition to their teaching program, they are getting some research facilities prepared. They have started a computer laboratory here and they also have soil bin facilities. They operate a factory in conjunction with their teaching program. The students must work for some time in the factory.
Research on Communes and State Farms:
At the Yu Yuan Tan People's Commune near Beijing, they told us they received help from the universities and research institutes but they also do research. Many of the communes have

several graduate engineers plus other agricultural scientists on their staff. This commune has excellent greenhouse facilities and they are doing research on developing better varieties of food crops.
At the Xin Qiao People's Commune in Sangjiang, southwest of Shanghai, they have a pig strain breeding station. Every brigade on this commune has a pig farm and they sell lots of pork to the Shanghai market.
The State farms are much larger than the communes and, backed by government funds, they can undertake projects of much wider scope. State farms are normally set up where capital investment is required for a few years before returns can be expected.
On Hainan Island in southeast China, a rubber plantation has been established. It was organized as a State farm because of the high initial investment and the period of time required before any income could be expected.
In Heilongjiang Province in northeast China, we visited the huge Friendship Farm. They have over 200,000 hectares. including 90,000 hectares of farmland. The population of the farm is 120,000. They operate a paper mill, a wine factory, and other industries.
This farm was reclaimed from marshlands and is now very productive. One brigade here is equipped with one million dollars worth of the very latest farm equipment produced by a United States manufacturer.
This is part of a national plan of very practical
research in farm production systems. They will determine the suitability of the United States farm machinery for Chinese conditions in this area. They will modify and adapt the equipment for their own needs.
The only institute or college we visited not under the ministry of Agricultural Machinery was the South China Agricultural College. It was under the Ministr y of Agriculture. Also, all teaching colleges or universities are under the dual supervision of their sponsoring ministry plus the Ministry of Education. In addition, any research work at institutes or colleges comes under the further supervision of the Commission of Science and Technology, which is equivalent to a ministry.

The PRC leadership and scientists seem to be working
hard toward building an effective research program. The organization appears adequate; the people are well trained in most cases, and the motivation is high.
The philosophy of the PRC is to use anything already
developed by other countries, evaluating and modifying it to meet the specific needs of the country. They will spend their time developing machinery they cannot find elsewhere.
The separation of agricultural engineering from the
biological sciences is cause for concern in both teaching colleges and research institutes. However, the cooperation we saw between the Agricultural Machinery Research Institute and the Agricultural College in Guangdong Province is ample proof that cooperation can produce effective results.
The PRC is committed to mechanization of agriculture.
It plans to use the released farm labor to produce consumer goods in factories located on the communes and in rural areas. If national priorities remain stable, the PRC will probably be undergoing rapid change in the next two decades.
Delegation was welcomed by beautiful Soil bin at National Academy of Agricolor chalk signs at most factories cultural Machinery, Beijing. and institutions. At left is Jim
Taylor; at right is Walt Bilanski.

Soil bin work at Zhenjiang Agricultural New model of rice transplanter at Machinery College (T-7/S-9) factory near Shanghai (T-8/S-12)
Rice seedling puller at Guangdon Agri- Transplanting rice at South China cultural Institute (T-9/S-25) Agricultural College (T-9/S-56)

Dr. W. F. Kroutil
Agricultural Engineering Department
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE
For many centeries, China has been irrigating agricultural land to feed
its people. Their problems with irrigation agriculture have been generally the same as for people in all other parts of the world except they have many rivers that flood regularly. With all of their problems, they successfully irrigate the most land 44,000,000 hectares which is 2 times what India irrigates and about 4 times the acreage irrigated in the United States. There is much irrigated land and a diversity of techniques in China. Unfortunately, there is not enough co-ordination at the present time between water resource developers, irrigation engineers, agronomists and soil physicists, and the farmer to make the most effective use of water in agricultural production.
The major factors making extensive irrigation possible are the rivers, soil, climate, terrain and people.
Geography for Irrigation
China has a large number of rivers. More than 1,500 of them have drainage basins of over 1,000 square kilometers each. Most of the rivers have outlets to the sea and so belong to the exterior river system; others empty into the inland lakes or disappear inland.
China's rivers empty into the Pacific, the Indian Ocean, or the Artic Ocean. The major rivers The Yangtze, the Yellow, the Heilung, the Pearl, and Haiho flow from west to east and empty into the Pacific.
China's exterior river system is divided into two groups along a line
formed by the Chinling Mountains and the Huai River. The rivers to the north of this line have a heavy summer flow and quite small flows in winter. They freeze over in winter, some for long periods, and so stop navigation. Most of these rivers carry large amounts of silt. Consequently, the lower courses often fill up, some to such an extent that the channels rise above the level of the surrounding land. They also undergo frequent shifts of course which cause flooding.

Rivers south the Chinling-Huai divide carry a relatively constant heavy volume of water regardless of seasonal changes. They never freeze, and are navigable all year round. Because the areas they drain are rich in vegetation, these rivers carry little sediment.
To complement China's natural river system, the Chinese working people
have dug many canals. The Grand Canal dug in ancient times stretches more than 1,700 kilometers southwards from Peking to Hangchow. Other examples are the network of canals in the Yangtze Delta; the Red Flag Canal (in Linhsien County, Honan Province) and the many other irrigation canals built and drainage canals dug since 1949, which provide additional outlets for the Huai and Haiho river system.
The country's water resources are being utilized and they have built more than 70,000 reservoirs of different sizes with a combined storage capacity of 300,000 million cubic meters. Two-thirds of the farm land prone to waterlogging have been dealt with, half the saline-alkali land improved, and onefifth of the hillside fields terraced. With nearly half the cultivated acreage put under irrigation, China's present irrigated acreage has tripled since 1950.
China has a climate dominated by the monsoonal winds rising out of the
differences in the heat-absorbing capacity of the continent and the ocean. Its complex topography and the vast extent of its territory add to the variety of climatic types and makes its climate conducive to the development of agriculture.
Climatic Patterns
In winter, the north is ice-bound and covered with snow. January means the temperature is below zero centigrade, while in the northernmost part of Heilungkiang Province it drops as'low as -300 C. In the south, mainly because of the relatively low latitudes and the fact that the cold air from the northwest gradually becomes warmer as it moves southwards and that the mountain ranges running in an east-west direction obstruct the cold air to a certain extent, the central and southern parts of Kwangtung and Kwangsi and southeastern Fukien have an average winter temperature above 100 C. Luxuriant vegetation thrives all year round both in the plains and the mountains. Palm trees grow in abundance on Hainan Island and the South China Seas islands as well as in the costal areas of Kwangtung and Kwangsi where the average temperature reaches 150 C. or more.
In summer, due to the southerly winds and longer hours of sunshine, the north-south difference in temperature is less and the temperature for the country as a whole is relatively high. For instance, in the south the July mean temperature is about 280 C., while in a large part of Heilungjiang Province in the north it also exceeds 200 C.
The annual rainfall in northwest China is the lowest in the country, while in the deserts there is no rain the year round. Farmland there is irrigated mainly by rain water, melting snow from the massive mountains,, and subterranean water.

The annual rainfall increases gradually from the northwest towards the east, the south and the southeast. The northeast has an annual precipitation between 400 and 1,000 mm. In the Yellow River valley it ranges from 600 to 800 mm. South of the Yangtze and on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau it is about 1,000 mm. In many places along the southeastern coast, it exceeds 2,000 mm.
Resources from Varied Climate
China's continental climate makes for hot summers over the greater part
of the country, and is suitable for long season, high-yield crops such as grain and cotton.
When water is provided, the high temperature and abundant sunlight of
China's dry northwestern regions produce abundant plant growth. These factors contribute to the excellent yields and good quality of their grain and cotton. With high sugar content, their fruits, such as Skiniang's melons from Hani and seedless graps from Turfan are famous for their taste.
China's varied climate gives it a wealth of plant life. Its climate
enables it to grow not only cotton, soyabeans, peanuts, rapeseed, sugar beet and sugar cane, but also tropical industrial crops like rubber, coffee, cacao, sisal, black pepper and oil palms, to satisfy a wide range of needs.
Meteorology in China has made marked progress and a nationwide meteorological network has taken shape. In consists of the Central Meteorological Observatory in Peking, and weather observatories and stations at the provinces and counties as well as the numerous weather observation posts and teams in the rural areas. By 1977, more than 2,500 weather observatories and stations and 16,000 weather observation posts had been set up in the country. Figure 1 is typical of the local posts and obtains radiation, rainfall, temperature and humidity data.
Weather research is being carried out at many levels: by the Chinese Academy of Science, the Central Meteorological Bureau, and by the Province Weather Bureaus.
China's varied patterns of climate, rock formation, topography and vegetation have produced many kinds of soil. Travelling from the southeast towards the northwest one passes through regions of forest soils (including red earth and brown forest soil), forest-steppe soils (including black earth and cinnamon soil), steppe soils (including chernozem and chesnut soils), desert soils, semi-desert soil, and so on.
Saline-alkali soil. This problem soil is found extensively in low-lying areas such as the coastal plains, and the plains, basins and valleys of arid and semi-arid inland regions. Because the goundwater table is high and there is great evaporation of surface water, soluble salts are deposited in the topsoil, making the land unsuitable for growing crops. With soil amelioration, however, such land can be high-yield fields.

Soil Amelioration and Utilization
Programs for investigation and control centering around water and soil conservation have been developed to prevent the serious erosion of the cinnamon and chestnut soils in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. Now, with 12 million mu (2,000,000 acres) of fields terraced and 30 million mu planted to trees and grass, water loss and soil erosion in the area drained by the Yellow River and elsewhere are being gradually brought under control.
Work on reclaiming saline-alkali soil has made progress in recent years through control of water. On the plains of the Yellow, Huai and Haiho rivers, which account for over 70 percent of the total saline-alkali soil area, the digging of new canals and the dredging and widening of old river courses have raised the capacity for drainage and flood release. The groundwater table has been lowered and, coupled with the building of "raised fields" (Figure 2) and
"strip fields", the acreage of saline-alkali fields has been gradually cut down. Half the saline-alkali land that existed before 1970 in the more seriously affected Hopei, Shantung and Anhwei provinces has been ameliorated.
Land has been brought under cultivation by launching water conservancy projects and planting windbreaks and shelter belts.
Until 1970, the major part of the irrigation water was lifted by man or animal powered machinery. Traditional water raising machines include the well sweep, Papernoster pump, the Archimedes screw, the Noria, and buckets. The
Chinese have used a 555 "Liberation" water wheel whereby 1 man lifted about 2 liters/sec. Along the Yangtze River, in the early 60's, one third of the manpower was used for pedaling water wheels. A combination water wheel (drive) and low speed turbine pump was developed in the 60's. In the mid 60's electrically powered pumps were beginning to be utilized. At the same time, many electrical generating plants were being installed so there was a surplus. Large electric pumps capable of moving 6 and 7 tons of water per second were developed. Presently, a large range of electric pumps is available to meet any pumping requirements.
Irrigation development and high crop yields are goals in China. Forty five percent of the total cultivated land or 44 million hectares are irrigated.
Irrigation and irrigation systems are very visible. One statistic that we received is that irrigation is now 98% mechanized. The more accurate description is that irrigation pumping is 98% mechanized. The distribution systems are essentially all open ditc h. Many fields are flood irrigated. Vegetables are often grown on small islands perhaps 5 feet wide (Figure 2). A pressure sprinkler head is manufactured in Shanghai (Figure 3) and solid set systems are using these nozzles. We observed tea and vegetable fields being sprinkled.
Field center pivot and lateral move systems were observed. These are increasing in numbers. Presently, they are being purchased from the United States manufacturers.
Water well drilling rigs were noticed in most parts of China (Figure 4). Inquiry was made as to the adequacy of equipment and methods and they seem to be satisfactory. The author observed one well drilling crew for about 1/2

FIG. 1 Typical weather observation FIG. 2 "Raised fields" are used for
post of which 16,000 have been set- sohiTamelioration. Vegetables are
up in the country. grown on small islands perhaps five
feet wide.
FIG. 3 A pressure sprinkler head manu- FIG. 4 Water well drilling rigs were factured in Shanghai. seen in most parts of China.

hour. They had a rotary rig and were doing a good job. Some Chinese drillers should be invited here to learn some of our techniques which may be helpful.
The only new well casing seen was plastic (Figure 5). The well screen was also plastic with about 3/4" holes. No one knew about steel well pipe but I am sure some is being used.
Much of the land does have a high water table so many wells are less than 20 feet deep. Lift heads from wells are generally low so a pumping system as shown in Figure 6 is typical. Most are driven by an electric motor. Pumping is usually into an open ditch. Many ditches are lined as shown in Figure 7. Corn is a big crop. Water may be conveyed long distance so above ground water conveyances are often seen (Figure 3). The water is applied in many different ways. The basin irrigation shown in Figure 9 is common for large and small fields or plots.
Work with wet soils or irrigated fields presents special problems regarding traction and flotation. Many high flotation tractors such as the boat tractor (Figure 10) are seen and being used more.
The Chinese government is to be complimented on the development of research and testing facilities for theimprovement of irrigation in production agriculture.
1. Expand available farm information.
In the United States the major sources of farm information are:
Extension and University 33%
Farm Magazines 24%
Supplies 16%
Information on purchasing supplies comes from:
Suppliers 44%
Farm Magazines 19%
Neighbors 11%
China's systems of communes and state farms with facilities and procedures
for technical training are an ideal means of disseminating information.
Product information also needs to be more widely disseminated.
2. 1 would recommend much closer working relationships between academic departments in extension type programs. For example, to improve irrigation information, the water resource developers, irrigation engineers and crop production people need to have a complete program to be of maximum benefit to
the farmer.
3. Continue and expand research regarding water supply and distribution, salinity control, water conservation, irrigation scheduling, weather, and crop
varietal responses to irrigation in production agriculture.
4. Solicit help from other countries where extensive research has been done in
area 3 above.

FIG. 5 Water well casings and well FIG. 6 Pumping systems used in irriscreens were made from plastic with bgatfohW Most are driven by an electric about 3/4-in. holes. motor.
FIG. 7 Many ditches are lined as FIG. 8 Water conveyances above ground
shown. Corn is 'a big crop. are numerous.
FIG. 9 Basin irrigation is common for la-rge or small fields or plots.

W. K. Bilanski
School of Engineering,
University of Guelph,
Guelph, Ontario, Canada
The Chinese hosts requested that two members of the delegation. present seminars on the topic of systems analysis in agricultural engineering: specifically, "Agricultural Systems Engineering -Modelling" by Dr. J. Dixon and "Agricultural Systems Engineering Systems Analysis" by W.K. Bilanski. The former dealt with the theoretical aspects; the latter dealt with applied linear programming and included actual examples. These seminars were attended by about 70 engineers from various parts of China.
It was evident not only during the seminars but from the
questions posed both before and after the presentations that a deep and profound interest in the area of linear programming and systems analysis exists in China; however, this area appears currently to exist in a very embryonic stage in China -- comparable to the mid-50's in North America. For example, systems analysis is just beginning to be included in academic programs. During the reign of the "gang of four" professors from universities and research centers were reallocated to other tasks (e.g. tractor drivers, rice planters) and are just beginning to be reassembled now. Furthermore, there was a dearth of technical literature coming from the Western World.
After the "Convention of Science" in the spring of 1978,
Professor L. Chen, the Beijing College of Agricultural Mechanization, Beijing, China, was entrusted to organize a group to introduce Systems Engineering to China. He has assembled a series of papers relative to the fundamental theory of Systems Engineering and their application to agriculture and agricultural engineering in China. This collection is currently in press and should be available in China soon. Professor Chen indicated that he is the only professor studying Agricultural Systems Engineering in China. He became interested in this area after reading "Systems Engineering in Agriculture -- A Symposium Introduction" in ASAE Transactions, 1967; however, he could not work publicly in this area until the downfall of the "gang of four". Systems analysis research projects currently underway at the Beijing Institute of Agricultural Mechanics include optimization of confined poultry, stress analysis of the joints of agricultural machinery (mechanical and mathematical models and computer programs for their stress solutions) and planning agricultural mechanization for a typical region in China (optimization of farm machinery and power units). At the time our delegation visited, the only Chinese paper available dealing with agricultural systems analysis was "'One Method of Determining the Optimum Crop Production Machinery

Plant for a People's Commune" by Tao Ding-lai, Hwa Kwo-chu and Du Yi-qui. This concerned constructing a load diagram of production operations (including human and animal well as mechanical power) employing linear programming, and then establishing a mathematical model. The computer solution will yield the optimum plant in terms of models of tractors and implements and their quantities.
Not only is 'software' (programming) lacking, the 'hardware' (computers) is also scarce in the facilities for agricultural and agricultural engineering research. Since their interest is great, if they receive the funds to procure the necessary 'hardware', this area of technology will be comparable to any in the world within the next decade. Because of the difference in agricultural enterprises, this type of technology could have a greater impact in China than it has had in North America. Most of the decisions in agricultural enterprises in North America are made by the individual operating that farm. In all of China, there are over 50,000 communes and 2,000 state farms, each involving from 20,000 to 150,000 people. For each of these collective enterprises, the main decisions are made centrally. Hence, the assistance to decision making that could be provided by systems analysis would be invaluable.
Each commune is broken into brigades, which can consist of as few as 25 workers (as found on a large state farm) to several hundred workers. The 25 worker brigade was specifically set up to operate $1 million worth of machinery purchased from a large North American agricultural machinery manufacturer. There is considerable interest by the Chinese agricultural workers to see the economics of having a large machinery investment for a small number of workers as opposed to a small machinery investment for a large number of workers. The decisions that must be made in China at the state-farm (or commune) level are similar to those made on the average North American
farm. Namely, how much replacement of human labor by machinery is economically justified? Indeed, the socio-political aspects, especially concerning the dislocation of labor, is more acute in China than in North America (as pointed out by Vice-premier Wong in his address to the delegates). However, factors such as these can be weighted into the overall program.
Generally speaking, each commune makes its own decisions regarding what would be most economically viable for its own situation as each is involved not only in the production of food but also in the manufacture of those smaller items (e.g. furniture, small implements, hand tools) needed by the commune. As we were informed by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery Sciences "There are too many models of farm machinery with components and spare parts not interchangeable, which causes great difficulty in manufacture, operation and maintenance. Quite a few factories are 'large and
complete' or '-small and complete' and make practically everything from components and spare parts to whole machines. As a result, the output is small, quality poor, and cost high. Many factories are not quite clear about what types of machinery they should be producing to meet the needs of the market." A systems analysis could be of great assistance in decision making regarding which factories should make what, standardizing parts and sizes, relative economics making various items and/or component parts on site and buying them from other communes, etc.

To achieve the goal of mechanizing agriculture in China, a systems analysis can aid in determining what to mechanize first and what to mechanize later, and how to increase production and income more rapidly. The data required for this decision making under Chinese conditions can be obtained readily as one would be dealing with a large, discrete but finite number of communes. Such statistics as the cost of human labor, allocation of labor, life of a given machine (e.g. tractor), the cost of machine operation per hour, repair costs, scale of agricultural enterprise (number hectares per crop), scale of other enterprises (manufacturing, etc.) could be kept within each commune or state farm, or assembled in a central data-bank.
In all likelihood, the universities and research centers are
going to be responsible for the implementation of agricultural systems modeling and analysis; but to be most effective it should be done with the cooperation of the communes and state farms and on the basis of a team effort comprised of an agriculturalist, an agricultural engineer, and an economist.

A Glimpse of Culture ......... ........... pgs. 86-89
Jane Janney
Agricultural Engineering Education
in the People's Republic of China ....... pgs. 90-94
John B. Liljedahl
Management and Implementation of
Agricultural Engineering Research
in Universities and Research Institutes . . pgs. 95-98
Houston Luttrell
Education Administration, Admission,
Specialization, Graduate Placement ......... pgs. 99-101
Gerald C. Zoerb

Jane Janney
Engineering Consultant to
Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corp.
Glendora, California
From the moment we arrived in Peking and were whisked to our Friendship Hotel, it was obvious that this was a very.organized event I was about to participate in. Even though the hour was late, our plane was greeted by a group of smiling individuals that made sure we were properly welcomed.
our days were kept very full starting early in the morning and continuing until 9:00 or 10:00 p.m. at night. The variety of events allowed us to capture a bit of many parts of Chinese life. Our evening activities included many grand and glorious events among them a banquet featuring twenty-six courses. We also visited the Peking Opera and had the opportunity to enjoy the Chinese acrobats. Other diversions that our hosts prepared for us were sightseeing, visiting the Great Wall of China, the Ming Tombs, and the Summer Palace. The guidebooks are all correct. There is no way to express the feeling one gets when standing on the Great Wall of China.
The first full day in China we visited the Imperial Palace in Peking, and not only saw one of the most beautiful sights in Peking; but it was our first opportunity to see the people.' It was one of our few opportunities to see the people during the day when not at work. Sunday is a free day for most people in Peking, so there were lots of sightseers at the Palace. The buildings were gorgeous and each was a tribute to the artistry of the Chinese people. Built in 1406 to 1420, these buildings have seen many changes in China, but stand to show the permanence of a strong culture.
Most of the people we saw in China were working, and working very hard. Hard work in China is rewarded "to each according to his work" as we heard stated in the slogan of one of the communes we visited. (The original Chinese slogan was, "From each accord86

ing to his ability to each according to his need"). So the Chinese people work long and hard eight hour days, but six day weeks and no vacations as we khow them. Vacations are not given; however there is a "bonUs" of two free weeks a year to visit with family but only for singles and for married people assigned to work in different cities. A not uncommon situation. Young couples are encouraged to wait until they are in their middle twenties before marrying in Chiha.
Maternity leave is granted to working women who are pregnant. Fifty-six days are allowed for normal pregnancies, and seventytwo if complications occur. The children of workers are cared for in kindergartens and nurseries provided at the work sites. This was true in all the factories and communes we visited. Children can be placed in the nurseries at the age of three months. They may remain but only for the duration of the workday (cost 14 yuan per month), but also for a week at a time (cost 17 yuan per month) returning home for the weekend, boarding school style. We did see, however, outside the work place a great many older people (presumably grandparents) caring for small children. The issue of children and population in China is truly an explosive one. The Chinese government is encouraging couples to have only one child because China's population has almost doubled from 540 million in 1949. But the monumental task of regulating the reproductive habits of almost one billion people is meeting with some resistance. The government's efforts for "mobilization for family planning" clashes with Chinese tradition based on a rural economy where sons have always been needed to till the fields. "More sons, more bliss" the Chinese saying goes, and couples who have daughters keep trying for sons. There are various economic rewards being given to various couples for having only one child.
The issue of women generally in Chinese society was emphasized to us by party officials. Women are important in China, they said, and pointed out that there were many women in universities and technical positions. Our observations showed about a 25% female employee population in the factories and about a 50% enrollment in the universities we visited. That this is different than the situation in the United States is evidenced by the large number of pictures that our group took of female lathe operators during our visit to China.
Culturally we saw evidence everywhere of what we in our culture might label "the woman's touch". For example, attention to detail was evident everywhere. Every table we dined at was arranged with an eye to color and design as well as taste. Many of our dishes were artistically arranged to imitate a peacock, a flower basket, or an arrangement of flowers. Our train car had a green plant in each compartment on laced clothed tables. We were handed a damp washcloth for hands and face at every welcoming

point. Our guest or hotel room had hot water and tea at all times. These are but a few examples of the manymany details that were attended to during our 3-1/2 week stay in China.
During part of our visit we gave seminars to 300 agricultural engineers-and others working in agricultural fields. We conducted six concurrent sessions for two mornings in the Great Hall of the People. Modern marble monument to the industry of the Chinese people it was constructed in a mere ten months. Inside exquisite leather seats and-red carpeting furnished meeting rooms. The Great Hall of the People symbolizes the unity of almost onebillion Chinese people.
Also located near the Great Hall of the People on'Tien Amin Square was the mausoleum where Mao is lying in state. Outside the building there were masses of people waiting four abreast in line to get in and to take a very short 20 minute walk through the room where this great man lay. There was a huge show of respect as there was not a single word or utterance made during the entire time that masses of people are moving through the room where Mao was.
In our travels by train through the countryside we watched hectares and hectares of cropland whiz past. We observed that triple cropping is very prevalent especially in the south which has a climate similar to that of the southern regions of the United States. But even in a country of a billion people labor shortages can occurs there is a great rush to get the crop harvested and the next crop in the ground. Most of this labor is by hand with plows powered by water buffalo. Mechanization at this point is very important to China, but it must be appropriate mechanization. The key work is "appropriate". The government does not wish to put large numbers of people out of work, but none-the-less needs to mechanize at just the right rate to insure that the people are fed. Starvation is no longer the problem it was before the 1950s but its memory still looms large.
Related to agriculture, a real problem being encountered by the Chinese is the fact that China's young people do not wish to stay on the farm. This has caused major cities to experience housing difficulties while the young people themselves are faced with the dilemma of alternate work exacerbated by the Cultural Revolution that greatly affected the educational situation in China. For ten years (1966-1976) universities were closed and professors and lecturers were sent to the rural areas to work. This created a large void for young people. Today university enrollments are limited by available facilities and staff. only one-tenth of the qualified students were able to attend university this year. This ten year gap results in a mixed population of students in the universities. Most of them are 17 to 18 years old, but they can run as old as 24 years of age.

Everywhere we went we were greeted with a great friendliness. Many of the areas of the country that we visited had not had many visitors from the west and so we were a great curiosity. But there was such an open frankness that one realized that the Chinese people merely wanted to learn about us as much as we wanted to learn about them.
The Chinese have a saying, "If you visit China for a week, you will write a book; for three weeks, you will write an article; for a year, you will not write anything because you will then begin to understand the complexity of China." Using this formula our 3-1/2 weeks stay qualifies me for this article, but also points out the great difficulty of assessing another culture. China has made great strides and is embarking on ambitious programs in several areas to modernize. My earnest hope is that China keeps that wonderful sense of culture and tradition that makes her so unique.
Bicycles are used to haul all kinds of This bicycle park indicates the main materials means of transportation
ASAE President Al Best is greeted by Human labor is still in evidence a host of one of the communes
Charles McKeon is in the background

John B. Liljedahl
Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Purdue University
University level education in China was seriously
interrupted and set back during the Cultural Revolution which in China is more often referred to as the reign of the Gang of Four. During this period, which lasted roughly from about 1966 to 1976, most of the universities and research institutes were partly or completely closed and the faculty and students were forced into "paddy-field indoctrination".
The 10-year period of disruption also resulted in considerable deterioration of the physical facilities of the institutes and universities. The buildings and laboratories that we saw appeared to be adequate.
About 25 percent of the faculty have advanced degrees from the U.S. about 30 plus years ago and from the USSR more recently.
They are most anxious to increase the technical level of their faculty. They are asking for visiting professors from the U* S. and Canada to assist them on short-term assignments. They indicated a preference for professors on sabbatical leave.
Seven schools or universities in China teach agricultural machinery under the administration of the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery. Since Agricultural Mechanization is one of their four modernization goals, it has a ministerial level of importance. The ASAE delegation visited the Department of Agricultural Machinery at Jilin University in Chang Chun. Jilin University is the largest unit teaching agricultural machinery in China. We also visited

agricultural machinery institutes or colleges at Beijing* (Peking), and at Guangzhou (Canton).
We learned that there is no degree presently given. The
students simply complete the required amount of study and then leave the university or institute., Our group felt (and we had agreement from most of the university teachers that we met) that this should be changed and the eligible students should be awarded a formal degree.
They do not call their profession "Agricultural
Engineering" as we do. Consequently, some of the areas such as Soil and Water Engineering, Food Engineering, Farm Structures, or Forest Engineering are not taught. The Agricultural Machinery departments that we visited all had a reasonable amount of research going on in conjunction with their teaching. At Jilin University they also had 38 graduate students all involved in research.
At Jilin University 500 students were majoring in
Agricultural Machinery while 250 had a major in Tractors.. Although Jilin University is under the direction of the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery it also has a Department of Automotive Engineering, a Department of Industrial Machinery, a Department of Electronic Engineering, a Department of Mechanical Engineering and a Department of Science. We were told that about 25% of their students at Jilin University were women. The curriculum in Agricultural Machinery was a reasonably good one. Our only question was a shortage of courses dealing with the subject of design. The students were required to spend three months before graduation in a machine shop and in a manufacturing facility which the university owned.
One of the problem areas as far as agricultural machinery is concerned is that by far the largest number of students come from the cities. This is of course, because they have a better high school education and therefore they are more successful in taking examinations for entrance to the university. Entrance to all of the universities in China including the farm machinery departments or colleges is by examination. The examination takes 3 days and eliminates 90% of the students trying to get into the universities.
*latest Romanization of Peking

Jilin University had a total of 3,200 students in all of the various curricula.
The Beijing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization is
somewhat smaller and was founded in 1952 but otherwise is organized somewhat like Jilin University. We did find that even though seven agricultural machinery departments in China were under the Agricultural Machinery Minister they did have some autonomy and differed somewhat amongst themselves. The Beijing Institute included a department of Agricultural Mechanization, a department of Design and Manufacture of Farm Machinery, a department of Hydraulic Engineering of Farm Land, a department of Rural Electrification and a department of Basic Courses which are science courses. The Beijing Institute and the Jilin University were not associated with agricultural universities or colleges so unfortunately they taught their own Agricultural courses such as Agronomy and Animal Husbandry.
We thought it would be better if they could somehow become associated with an agricultural college so that the agricultural courses would be more likely to be taught by experts in their field. At the Beijing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization the students were only required to take one course in Agriculture called Fundamentals of Agricultural Science. Considering that almost all of the students studying agricultural machinery came from the city it would appear that several courses in agriculture should be taken rather than the one course. However, students at Beijing were required to take 33 weeks of practice and design which included working in the college shop, overhauling machinery, a machine design course and a thesis problem.
At the South China Agricultural College at Guangzhou (Canton) we visited the Agricultural Machinery Department. At that school they had a curriculum which they called Agricultural Mechanization. This is four years of study. -They also have five years of study called Design of Machinery.
We examined some of the textbooks used at Beijing
Institute of Agricultural Mechanization. Three of the textbooks dealt with the subject of farm machinery repair and maintenance. Such courses would not normally be taught to Agricultural Engineering students in the United States. Under the circumstances in China it appears that this is a logical type of course for their students to take. I examined in more detail and with the aid of a translator two books dealing with the farm machinery. These had been written by the faculty at the Beijing Institute. They

appeared to be more on the operation of farm machines rather than their design. The series of four books on tractors and automobiles had been written by the faculty at Nanking Agricultural College, the Agricultural Mechanization Division, and published by Agricultural Press. The series of books on tractors had been written in 1960 while the two books on machinery and the three books on machinery repair had been written in 1961. Two of the four books on tractors and automobiles were of an operational nature while two were on theory. one of them being a good book on theory of engines and a second one was a good book on the theory of tractor and automobile stability, traction and so on. We were told that the cultural revolution had interrupted theik attempts to bring the books up-to-date but that this was now in the process. An interesting observation is that the textbooks had no authors listed. We suggested that since it's unlikely that the author received any financial reward for writing the books that the least that could be done would be to include their names as authors of the books.
We were told that the employment of the Agricultural
Machinery majors was primarily with the farm equipment and tractor factories and with a research institute. None of the students
graduating from such curricula had gone to work on any of the farms.
Summary. It appears that the quality of students studying Agricultural Machinery in China is excellent since they are selected from the top 10% of the students taking College Entrance Exams. Unfortunately, most the students come from cities and have had little agricultural background. It would appear that their curricula could be strengthened by the addition of more agricultural experience either by taking more agricultural courses during their college career or having some on-farm experience. The curriculum also seemed to be short of design courses. The depth of engineering analysis courses appeared to be very adequate.
R it AA f
4 J
Tool and Die Shop at Harbin Disc Harrow 75 hp crawler made at Luoyang. 22,000 Factory. made in 1978.

Noise measurement laboratory (semi- John Deere 2-way plow not been used.
anachoic chamber) at the Internal Combustion Engine Research Institute, Shanghai.
ASAE President Al Best on 35 hp New experimental 65 hp developed at
tractor made at Feng Shou Tractor Feng Shou Tractor Factory, Shanghai.
Factory, Shanghai. 8500 of this
model are made each year.
Rice storage bins on Xin Qiao Valmont irrigation system being
commune near Shanghai. assembled.

Houston Luttrell
Agricultural Engineering Department University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
The ASAE delegation to China visited six university and research institutes. Those that were visited were the Jilin Industry University at Jilin, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences at Peking, the Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery College, the Shanghai Research Institute of Farm Machinery, the Shanghai Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engines, the Guangdong Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, and the South China Agricultural College near Canton.
According to reports to the delegation, there are seven schools that teach Agricultural Engineering in an agricultural mechanization sense in the whole country of China the largest being the one at Jilin. The enrollment at the Jilin institution is 3200 students with 500 of them in the agricultural machinery field. In addition to the agricultural machinery field, they have 17 other specialty departments which include such things as tractors, automotive, general transportation, foundry forging, welding, building management, math, physics, etc.
The universities tend to have a large number of teachers
relative to the number of students. For example, at Jilin there are 865 teachers for 3200 students, This should offer a staffstudent ratio such that students can get close supervision for doing research work that is done at these institutions.
Basically, they have a four-year school system. The first three years is basic the last year is one that gets into design work with a thesis being required. At this point students get an exposure to research work.

As visits were made to the communes and the state farm, it was learned that each of these has their own research program in a sense, and they do have some ties to the universities and research institutes. It seems that there is a flow of information between the communes, state farms and the universities to exchange information with regard to research that each of them do. We were not able to determine just how extensive this transfer of information was. The universities and research institute that were visited had numerous laboratory facilities. They seemed to have a lot of research equipment, but there seemed to be much more work to be done to organize all of these facilities into a research effort that they are capable of doing.
Upon examining their curriculum, they seemed to have a training program that would train personnel to do a lot of basic research, but they do not have a graduate program that would carry a person on to an in-depth program as-we do in the United States. It seems that to do the kind of research China needs to have in the future a stronger graduate level program needs to be set up at the universities. Although their curriculum would be considered a solid curriculum, it appears that it could be strengthened considerably in certain areas which would support training of students to do graduate level work in a better manner than what they can do with the curriculum they have.
It was pointed out that the results of research efforts
at the universities and institutes is used in developing designs of equipment that are manufactured in factories. Visits to factories revealed that the design for their equipment was not done by engineers associated directly with the factory but was a combination-of efforts by a factory representative, university and other government representatives that deal with design. This, of course, indicates that research done at the universities does have a way of being channeled into the design of their equipment.
If China wants to develop to the extent they indicated to the delegation in the area of research, there are a number of things which need to be looked at for an aggressive development program. One primary thing that should be considered is to increase the number of universities and research institutes in the country that will educate the people that are eligible for higher education. These universities should be established with a definite research program related closely to their teaching program. In addition to their agricultural mechanization type of educational program which they have in most of their universities, they should develop a professional program similar to our professional Agricultural Engineering degree.

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