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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Vampire bat control methods
 Research activities
 Research utilization
 Publications
 Literature cited






Group Title: Vampire bats: rabies transmission and livestock production in Latin America; annual report
Title: Vampire bats: rabies transmission and livestock production in Latin America; annual report. : Murcielagos vampiros: transmision de rabia y produccion de ganado en America Latina; informe anual.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053917/00002
 Material Information
Title: Vampire bats: rabies transmission and livestock production in Latin America; annual report. : Murcielagos vampiros: transmision de rabia y produccion de ganado en America Latina; informe anual.
Alternate Title: Murcielagos vampiros: transmision de rabia y produccion de ganado en America Latina; informe anual
Annual progress report
Physical Description: v. 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States. Agency for International Development.; Office of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Denver Wildlife Research Center.
Publisher: s.n.
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Zoology, Economic
Wildlife research
Vampire bats
Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053917
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ocm0312

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title 1
        Title 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Vampire bat control methods
        Page 3
    Research activities
        Page 4
        Research activities
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Residue analysis of vampire bats killed with diphenadione
            Page 7
        Effects of vampire bat parasitism on bovine milk production
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Effects of the anticoagulant diphenadine on suckling calves
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
    Research utilization
        Page 18
        El Salvador
            Page 18
        Panama
            Page 18
        Bolivia
            Page 19
        Colombia
            Page 19
        Ecuador
            Page 19
        Belize
            Page 20
        Uruguay
            Page 20
        Nicaragua
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
    Publications
        Page 24
    Literature cited
        Page 25
Full Text




MURCIELAGOS


VAMPIRE BATS:

RABIES TRANSMISSION AND
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
IN LATIN AMERICA


VAMPIROS:

TRANSMISSION DE RABIA
Y PRODUCTION DE


GANADO


EN


AMERICA LATINA


1975 ANNUAL REPORT
INFORMED ANNUAL 1975

A Cooperative Program
of


U.S. AGENCY FOR
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Bureau of Technical Assistance
Office of Agriculture and Fisheries
Washington, D.C.


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF
THE INTERIOR
Fish and Wildlife Service
Division of Population Regulation Research
Denver Wildlife Research Center


MINISTRIES OF
AGRICULTURE
Participating Countries
of
Latin America


\











1975 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT*


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS:


6. Clay
Donald
Roger


Mitchell, R. Daniel
S3. Elias, C. Edmund
W. Bullard, Peter J.
and Richard J. Burns


Thompson,
Shuart,
Savarie


COOPERATING AGENCIES:


Latin America Ministries of Agriculture


United States -


Agency for International Development (AID)
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
Denver Wildlife Research Center (DWRC)
(Work Unit DF-104.3)


*Results Incomplete and Not for Publication, Release, or Use Without
Authority of the Director, Denver Wildlife Research Center.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ABSTRACT 1
INTRODUCTION 2
VAMPIRE /AT CONTROL METHODS 3
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Diphenadione Residue Studies in Milk 4
Residue Analysis of Vampire Bats Killed with
Diphenadione 7
Effects of Vampire Bat Parasitism on Bovine
Milk Production 8
f.'"cltc of the Anticoagulant Diphenadione on
Suckling Calves 12
RESEARCH UTILIZATION
El Salvador 18
Honduras 18
Panar?. 18
Bolivia 19
Colombia 19
Ecuador 19
c;ta Rica 19
Seize 20
!ru uay 20
Ni car:-jua 21

PUBLICATIONS 24
LITERATURE CITED 25


i











ABSTRACT*


A study was conducted to determine if diphenadione residues are
passed in the milk of lactating cows. If cows are given the
recommended 1 mg/kg doses there are no detectable residues.
Whole body residue levels were determined for bats that had died
from diphenadione intoxication. Only 1.17% of the original
diphenadione introduced into the caged colony was recovered In
the carcasses.
The effects of vampire bat parasitism of bovine milk production
was measured. In Ecuador there was no change in milk production
after removal of bat parasitism, but in Nicaragua milk production
increased 16% after control methods were applied.
Following reports of diphenadione intoxication in calves, a study
was conducted to see if it is safe to treat young cattle with
diphenadione. Results show young calves, lacking a fully functional
rumen and primarily dependent on milk for sustenance, are susceptible
to diphenadione poisoning.
Consulting trips were made to El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Bolivia,
Colombia, and Ecuador.
A Nicaraguan veterinarian gave field demonstrations in Costa Rica.
Control programs were initiated in Belize and Uruguay.
Nicaragua's national campaign continues to be a model for the rest
of Latin America. Two year results show biting has been reduced
91.8% on 164,834 cattle.
Eight manuscripts were published or are in press.






* This research was conducted with funds provided to the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service by the Agency for International Development under
the project "Control of Vertebratei Pests: Rats, Bats, and Noxious
Birds," PASA RA(ID) 1-67.


1











INTRODUCTION


Annual bovine losses resulting from vampire bat-transmitted rabies
are estimated at approximately 1,000,000 head in Latin America.
Daily loss of blood, mortality of other livestock, and secondary
infections further aggravate the problem.
The original objective of research under this work unit was to
develop techniques for controlling vampire bats. The project began
in June 1968 and was funded by the Agency for International Develop-
ment (AID) and the Mexican Government under a Participating Agency
Service Agreement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS),
and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Pecuarias (INIP).
Laboratory and field investigations were conducted at the FWS Vampire
Bat Research Station located at the INIP in Mexico City, Mexico.
The station officially closed in December 1973, after species-specific
control methods were developed.
In 1974, AID continued to fund this program with the objective that
Denver Center biologists would help Latin American countries develop
and initiate control campaigns through training and technical
assistance.











VAMPIRE BAT CONTROL METHODS


Methods for reducing vampire bat populations developed by this
project are described in the 1971 and 1972 Annual Reports and in
several scientific journals,
Topically Treating Vampire Bats with Diphenadione
Vampire bats are captured with mist nets that are set around corralled
cattle or at cave entrances. Approximately 1.5 cc of a petroleum jelly-
diphenadione mixture is placed on the dorsal surface of each captured
bat and the bat is released. The bats return to their roost, and
because they live in compact colonies, physically pass the chemical
from one to another. The bats die after ingesting the chemical during
grooming.
Systemically Treating Cattle with Diphenadione
Cattle are injected (intraruminal) with 1.0 milligram of diphenadione
per kilogram of body weight. The drug is absorbed and circulates in
the blood. Any vampire bat that feeds from a properly treated animal,
within 72 hours after treatment, receives a lethal dose of the drug.
Treating all the cattle in a herd gives 90% to 95% reduction in fresh
biting.


3











~~ESI-AEIC ~ ri SIIi'~l


D hen8adione "eWidue Studies in Milk
Introduction

In 1973, we began a two-part study to determine if mammillary trans-
fer of diphenadione occurs in lactating cows. After finding trace
residues at 12, 24, and 48 hours pos,''I2-t !imenl; in the milk of cows
that had been given 2.75 mg/kg doses, the sludy was expanded to
include 1 and 5 mg/kg doses. Prothrombin clotting times for 1, 2.75
and 5 mg/kg dose levels and milk residJes for the 2.75 mg/kg dose
were reported in the 1973 and 1974 Annual Reports. Milk and blood
plasma residue data for the 1 and 5 mg/kg doses are reported here.
Methods
Three lactating cows were given 5 mg/kg and three received 1 mg/kg
doses of diphenadione. Each cow had a suckling calf. Milk and
blood samples were collected from each cow immediately pretreatment,
at 12 hours, and then at 24-hour intervals up to 144 hours posttreat-
ment. Sample aliquots were analyzed by a previously developed glc
method (Figure 1).
Results and Discussion
Small quantities of diphenadione were detected in the 12, 24, and
48 hour milk samples from cows given 5 mg/kg doses. No residues
were detected in the milk from cows dosed at 1 mg/kg (Table 1). The
presence of diphenadione in the milk of cows dosed at 2.75 (1973
Annual Report) and 5 mg/kg but not 1 mg/kg indicates that mammillary
transfer of the drug is dependent on the blood plasma level (Table 2).
Apparently the blood threshold level for mammillary transfer of
detectable quantities into the milk (0.005 ppm) lies between 1.49 and
2.17 ppm (1973 Annual Report). This phenomenon is similar to the dose
dependency reported in the literature for other anticoagulants. The
same dose dependency exists for prothrombin clotting times (1974 Annual
Report).
Residue levels in the milk from cows dosed at 5 mg/kg were only slightly
higher than those given 2.75 mg/kg. As discussed in the 1973 Annual
Report, this means a person would have to drink in excess of 30 gallons
of 12, 24, or 48 hour posttreatment milk from overdosed animals to
obtain the 2.5 mg minimum daily dosage used in human anticoagulant
therapy. If cows are given the recommended 1 mg/kg doses there are
no detectable residues.


4











~~ESI-AEIC ~ ri SIIi'~l


D hen8adione "eWidue Studies in Milk
Introduction

In 1973, we began a two-part study to determine if mammillary trans-
fer of diphenadione occurs in lactating cows. After finding trace
residues at 12, 24, and 48 hours pos,''I2-t !imenl; in the milk of cows
that had been given 2.75 mg/kg doses, the sludy was expanded to
include 1 and 5 mg/kg doses. Prothrombin clotting times for 1, 2.75
and 5 mg/kg dose levels and milk residJes for the 2.75 mg/kg dose
were reported in the 1973 and 1974 Annual Reports. Milk and blood
plasma residue data for the 1 and 5 mg/kg doses are reported here.
Methods
Three lactating cows were given 5 mg/kg and three received 1 mg/kg
doses of diphenadione. Each cow had a suckling calf. Milk and
blood samples were collected from each cow immediately pretreatment,
at 12 hours, and then at 24-hour intervals up to 144 hours posttreat-
ment. Sample aliquots were analyzed by a previously developed glc
method (Figure 1).
Results and Discussion
Small quantities of diphenadione were detected in the 12, 24, and
48 hour milk samples from cows given 5 mg/kg doses. No residues
were detected in the milk from cows dosed at 1 mg/kg (Table 1). The
presence of diphenadione in the milk of cows dosed at 2.75 (1973
Annual Report) and 5 mg/kg but not 1 mg/kg indicates that mammillary
transfer of the drug is dependent on the blood plasma level (Table 2).
Apparently the blood threshold level for mammillary transfer of
detectable quantities into the milk (0.005 ppm) lies between 1.49 and
2.17 ppm (1973 Annual Report). This phenomenon is similar to the dose
dependency reported in the literature for other anticoagulants. The
same dose dependency exists for prothrombin clotting times (1974 Annual
Report).
Residue levels in the milk from cows dosed at 5 mg/kg were only slightly
higher than those given 2.75 mg/kg. As discussed in the 1973 Annual
Report, this means a person would have to drink in excess of 30 gallons
of 12, 24, or 48 hour posttreatment milk from overdosed animals to
obtain the 2.5 mg minimum daily dosage used in human anticoagulant
therapy. If cows are given the recommended 1 mg/kg doses there are
no detectable residues.


4










A1


L
isI


~,*


v v


0


r0


' ~i~


Fig. 1 Roger W. Bullard, AID chemist, is shown determining the presence of diphenadione in
milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

5


-41











Table 1. Diphenadione residues In milk of test cows (ppm).


Hours
posttreatment


ppm found (mean SD)
1 mg/kg 5 mg/kg


0 <0.005 <0.005
12 0.022
24 0.029
48 0.024
72-144 <0.005



Table 2. Diphenadione residues in the blood plasma of test cows (ppm).

Hours ppm found (mean SD)
posttreatment 1 mg/kg 5 mg/kg

0 <0.01 <0.01
12 0.91 4.06
24 1.49 6.66
48 1.20 2.42
72 0.42 0.86
96 <0.01 0.36
120 <0.01 0.06
144 <0.01 0.05


6











Residue Anaysls of Vampire Bats Killed with DIphacinone


Introduction
Capturing vampire bats near cattle, treating them with chlorophacinone
and releasing them to contaminate others, has been over 90% effective
in reducing vampire bat biting on cattle (1). There is, however, no
information on residue levels of diphenadione from vampire bats killed
with the chemical, even though the treatment could pose a possible
hazard to nontarget animals that consume dead or dying bats.
Recently diphenadione was substituted for chlorophacinone as the con-
trol compound because the former appears to be more toxic to vampire
bats thus smaller quantities can be used in control operations.
There is, however, no information on residue levels of diphenadione
from vampire bats killed with the chemical, even though the treat-
ment could pose a possible hazard to nontarget animals that consume
dead or dying bats.
Because there is little information on secondary hazards we conducted
the experiment to answer the following questions:
A. To determine if there are diphenadione residues from vampire
bats, both treated and untreated, killed by the drug.
B. To determine diphenadione residue levels in both treated and
untreated vampire bats, if residues exist.
C. To assess, when possible, the danger to nontarget animals
by comparing possible residue levels from vampire bats to
toxic levels of diphenadione for other animals.
Procedures
Initially, two untreated vampire bats were run through the residue
detection procedure (2) to confirm that they have no residue or test
interference. Then 20 vampire bats were placed in a cage and allowed
3 days to adjust to the new surroundings. The plywood cage is
25"x26"x36" with a roosting dome, (inverted metal basin) 13" in
diameter x 6" deep, at the top. The bats were allowed to feed at will
from plastic bird waterers containing defibrinated bovine blood provided
fresh daily.


7











After the adjustment period, four vampire bats were removed, treated
with 1.5 ml of commercial vampiricide (Motomco Inc., Clark, N.J.), and
returned to the caged colony of 16 untreated vampire bats. This com-
mercial vampiricide contains 15 mg of active ingredient per ml. The
ratio of one treated bat per five bats was chosen because this ratio
is recommended for field use in vampire bat control operations (3).
Each day thereafter for 14 days, all vampire bats that die were col-
lected. Days since treatment, and if the bat was treated or untreated
were noted. Then the bat bodies were tested for levels of diphenadione
according to established procedures for detecting the chemical in
biological materials (2). If any bats survive beyond 14 days, they
will be killed immediately and also tested for chermcal residue. For
each group (treated and untreated) mean, standard deviation, and 95%
confidence limits were establi;;hei.; and a T test was run if deemed
necessary.
Results and Discussion
All 20 bats died within 11 days aiter the carrier bats were introduced
into the caged colony (Figure 2), After the last death, whole body
diphenadione residue determinationn. were made on the 20 carcasses and
are given in Table 3.
Originally, 90 mg of diphenadione was introduced -into the colony. Only
1.053 mg was recovered from the Carcd:.YePs. Apparently the remaining
88.947 mg was passed in the urine or feces prior to death. From
these data it appears there are minor chances of diphenadione intoxi-
cation when nontarget animals conhisIue urc.,s; of bats that have died
from diphenadione.

Effectsiof empire BatPrasitism on Bovine Milk Production
Introduction
The initial study in this series (1974 report) was conducted in the
highlands of Ecuador, with a dairy herd of registered Holstein cows,
under good management and husbandry practices and in a climate ideally
suited for dairying. We found no increase in milk production despite
a dramatic reduction in vampire parasitism. A subsequent study was
carried out this year in Nicaragua. The lower elevation and hotter
climate offer a more stressful environment. The ranch was much smaller
and the resources and facilities available provided for a less than
optimum management and husbandry operation for the herd of nondescript
mixed-breed cows.


8




















Number of Deaths
Per Day


0 -? 2
0- 1


3


4 5 6 7

Days After Treatment


8 9 10 11


Fig. 2 Number of deaths per day after treatment.


9


5-

4-


3-


2

1


I


m











Table 3. Diphenadlone recovery from 20
diphenadione poisoning.


Sex Bat No. Wt. grams


391
396
390
393
394
395
398
541
555
528
397
312
332
559
337
369
462
467
101
279
433
2
Tota


23.4
Carrier 27.8
24.5
25.8
31.5
32.0
Carrier 25.0
28.4
29.0
31.3
27.1
29.0
25.6
33.7
39.9
Carrier 33.3
36.8
Carrier 30.0
35.6
33.3
Control 30.0
Control 32.0
1


2.45
2.95
3.14
2.07
1.46
0.34
0.955
0.63
1.17
.55
.63
1.35
4.7
0.34
3.41
3.03
1.01
1.51
1.65
2.07


bats that died from


Standard error
of the mean


0.13
0.05
.29
.02
.10
0
.02
.02
.19
.05
.02
.1
.05
0
.08
.02
.03
.10
.03
.18


10


Total mg
per bat


.057
.082
.077
.053
.046
.011
.024
.018
.034
.017
.017
.039
.120
.011
.136
.101
.037
.045
.059
.069


053 mg
1.053 mg











34elthods


The procedures fol ojued vterL similar to those used in the Ecuador
study. The systemic (rji:,n ir,.cctli:) method of vampire control
was used. Fresh ?p',.ii'. bite county :.:3r ;:.de lmndie.tnly prior to
treatment and at 30 and 60 days positreat;inL. Milk p-'duction
records were maintained for each animal in the study for 15 days
prior to treatment and for 60 ,%ys hererft-., 1qmod samples were
collected just before tr:atrent and ;..sain on the 30th and 60th day
afterward.
;rul ts ,.ndi Discussion

Vampire parasitism was .:.nain dHa;.itcally ;oeduccrd. Pretreatment
bites averaged 2.09/cow. Thirty days labtr the average was 0.07 bites/
cow (95.65% reduction) and by 60 days after treatment vampire parasitism
had been comolately elimlrit'. The other :;arr ;rs. examined showed
similar responses in 'othi studies, with the 2xcep:ion of milk production.
Hematocrit and hemoglobin both ir.:reased following treatment. These
increases were of sli:htfly rrt.:r i'.-,gnitude in Nir.rua than in Ecuador.
Milk production re;1::i:Jd viir~,l-'lly uvi:h.inge in Ecuador but showed an
appreciable increase of about 16% by the 63Ih day after treatment in
Nicaragua.
Conditions relative to the two study sites, the management and hus-
bandry practices follrow'id and the ;nu-trols themselves ranged from one
extreme to the other. M-;y ,,v' .i.al, sor.. kncwn and some unknown,
contributed to or had an .:,-fect on t:hlse results. On the basis of the
information presen:.ly ,A liablee, we '.-lie:,, that dairy animals which
are healthy, well-cared Fo., a,j under mild clinr!-Ai Lionitions will
not exhibit any ci:.r i cth'ng'- in milk priod-ction or other response as
a result of redl'c.r, v',:;i-'r P-.s-tism., On the other hand, animals
in more typical .roplical C'jindit'ons, which are al,'1ady under stress
from such factors as climate, i.an('qitt.c or Imarginal diet, himoparasite
or other infections, as well a-. blr,~' loss to vampire,, will show
definite r hypothesis is valid it would :-.':'ic: ; that control of vampire bats
would be of significant K.nefit to thoe r.i.che',; and farmers who need
the most help--the -;r:11 c,l !'.:r wit;, n-.w ,i(Als and the least
resources to invest n 1,;their c.r and management.


11











Effects of the Anticoagulant Diphenadione on Suckling Calves


Introduction
Laboratory and field oberv;ation- show that 1 mg/kg doses of
diphenadione present no hazard to adult cattle. However, no labora-
tory data has previously been collected on the effects of diphenadione
administered to young calves at the recommended rate for vampire
control.
Since diphenadione is an anticoagulant with potent antiprothrombin
activity, it is potentially dangerous to all classes of marmals.
Depression of the prothrombin level in the blood may occur under
conditions such as Vitamin K deficiency or as a consequence of the
action of anticoagulant drugs, which act as competitive antagonists
of Vitamin K. Vitamin K is known to be preseni. in the photosynthetic
portion of plants and is synthesized by bacterial action in the mam-
malian intestinal tract. Mature cattle with a fully functional rumen
and on a diet of plant materials probably obtain sufficient amounts
of Vitamin K to preclude any adverse effects from the diphenadione
treatment. On the other hand, young calves, lacking a fully functional
rumen and on a diet of milk, may not receive sufficient amounts of
Vitamin K to counteract the effects of the drug.
The objectives of this experiment were threefold: (1) to obtain
further information on the effects of diphenadione on young calves;
(2) to determine if injections of Vitamin K3 would be of value if the
calves did exhibit higher susceptibility; and (3) to determine what
effect the Vitamin K would have on the toxicity to vampire bats of
blood from the treated animals.
Methods and Procedures
A total of 20 animals conmptis *.Ir tlhrc, groups (1) adults (n = 10),
(2) calf treatment group (n = 5), and (3) calf control group (n = 5)
were each given intraruminal injections of 2 ml/100 kg of Motomco Sus-
pension Vampiracida Difenadione (equivalent to 1 mg/g of diphenadione).
In addition, the five calves of the treanilent group received single
intramuscular injections (1 mg/kg) of Vitamin K, menadionee sodium
bisulfate), and the remaining five calves of i.hi control group received
an intramuscular inj~ictic.r of physiological saline at the same dosage
level. Blood samples were collLc.ted immediak:ly before and at 24-hour
intervals up to 144 hours posttreatment (Figure 3). Prothrombin times
were measured by the Quick method (4) of oruthrtvniMbin time determination.


12









































Fig. 3 Donald J. Elias taking a blood sample
on suckling calves.


for the study on the effects of diphenadione


13











Vampire bats imported from Nicaragua were given a single feeding
of blood from the two calf groups collected 24 hours posttreatment.
Five bats received blood from the diphenadione/Vitamin K calves and
five bats received blood from the diphenadione/saline calves.
Results and Discussion
Mean ( SD) prothrombin clotting times for each cattle group by
respective sampling periods are shown in Table 4.
Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < .05) differences in
prothrombin clotting times for the three possible effects: cattle groups
(F = 6.52; df = 2/170), sampling periods (F = 8.28; df = 6/101), and
the interaction between cattle groups and sampling periods (F = 3.65;
df = 12/101).
Post hoc comparisons of the overall means for the three cattle
groups shwe- that the clotting time of the control calf group was
significantly higher than that of the adults, but that the mean clotting
times of the control calves nor the adults differed from that of the
treatment calf group. This pattern of means confirms that:
(1) diphenadione caused a threefold increase in clotting times for
calves relative to adults, and (2) administration of Vitamin K, to
diphenadione-treated calves caused a general reduction in the
magnitude of this effect.
Separation of means for all animals at the seven sampling periods
indicates that diphenadione generally lengthened clotting time for all
animals, and that this effect was greatest 72-96 hours after treatment.
Each group of cattle displayed a unic._: pattern of prothrombin
responses during the course of the study (Fig. 4). As can be seen,
the administration of Vitamin K3 foreshortened the effects of the
anticoagulant.
Two calves, one from the Vitamin K3 group and one from the control
group, succumbed to anticoagulant poisoning. All the calves but none
of the adults exceeded the limit in prothrombin clotting time increase
which is considered s.f in humans.
Statistical analysis of the 24-hour blood toxicity trial with
vampire bats revealed no significant diffvrvnce in lethality of the
blood from Vitamin K3 and control calves.


14








Table 4. Mean (SD) Prothrombin Clotting Time in Seconds for Cows and Calves at Different Intervals After
Treatment with Diphenadione.


Animal Age and
Treatment Group 0

Adults

Diphenadione 14.1 (0.8)

Calves

Diphenadione +
Vitamin K3 14.8 (1.0)

Diphenadione +
Saline 14.3 (0.5)

Average, All
Animals 14.3 (0.8)


Hours After Treatment Group
24 48 72 96 120 144 Average


16.6 (1.3)



21.7 (4.0)

21.8 (4.4)

19.2 (3.9)


24.4 (3.1)


30.5 (7.1) 21.1 (4.0)


18.1 (2.6)


15.8 (1.7)


20.1 (5.8)


55.4 (29.7) 90.9 (43.2) 77.8 (68.9) 41.0 (19.2) 20.5 (6.0) 46.8 (41.8]

60.8 (21.0) 102.0 (37.2) 132.0 (65.0) 124.2 (115.0) 122.0 (180.4) 82.3 (49.8)

41.3 (24.1) 63.5 (43.2) 62.9 (64.1) 50.3 (69.8) 44.7 (97.4)


~_11111111^---_ 1~----------. CII~-s-----l 11_1 -_1_1^1111111__11111_11111~----~ _~---~__---~11











130 1


* CONTROL(SALINE) CALVES
* TREATMENT(VITAMIN K) CALVES


120- ( ALL TEST ANIMALS

] ADULTS
110.


1 100


90.


.80


70


60.


50,


40


30


20,


10.. [



0 24 48 72 96 120 14


PROTHROMBIN SAMPLING TIME (HOURS)


4


Fig. 4 Mean prothrombin clotting times for test animals by treatment group.









Conclusions


Evidence accumulated to date indicates that (1) young calves,
lacking a fully functional rumen and primarily dependent on milk
for sustenance, are susceptible to diphenadione poisoning; (2) single
intramuscular injections of Vitamin K3 given at the time of treatment
with diphenadione foreshortened prothrombin clotting time recovery
periods, but did not offer complete protection against diphenadione
poisoning in young calves; and (3) blood from calves treated with
diphenadione and Vitamin K3 is equally as toxic to vampires as that
from animals treated only with diphenadione. On the basis of these
conclusions, we recommend that, until a satisfactory antidotal
procedure is developed, the diphenadione rumen injection technique
of vampire bat control not be used on cattle less than 4 months old.


17










Bolivia
Rabies is considered by many to be the number one animal health
problem in Bolivia. An UN/FAO project on animal health in Santa
Cruz, Bolivia, has added ',Janoire bat c:ritr,'l to their program. In
late 1975, this r-oject sent Dr. Melvyn Castillo P. to Mexico
for training at the National University. After the Mexico training,
Dr. Castillo will spend a week in Nicaragua working with personnel
in their vampire bat control program.
Colombia
AID appropriated $25,000 to the Ministry of Agriculture/Colombia
for use in developing regional vampire bat control program. Part
of this money was used in a pilot study near San Juan del Cesar
in northern Colombia. In this pilot study, approximately 2,500
cattle were treated with diphacinone and biting was reduced 75-80%.
Additional regional control programs are scheduled near Villavicenclo.
Colombia's program development has been hampered by difficulties in
obtaining the control compounds. An agreement has been reached
whereby the compounds will be purchased through the facilities of
CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) in Call. This
should enhance development of their program.
Ecuador
Mr. Shuart met with Dr. Cesar Zambrano, Director of World Bank
Coastal Projects in Guayaquil. World Bank has over 500 loans
to livestock farmers in Ecuador. Dr. Zambrano said he would ask
the Ministry of Agriculture to implement a vampire bat control
program in all areas where they have loans and where vampires
are known to be present.
Costa Rica
In February, Dr. Salvador Pichardo, Ministry of Agriculture/
Nicaragua gave desmonstratlant s for Ministry of Agriculture person-
nel in Costa Rica. Four demonstrations were given in different
regions of the country.

RioNegro Cobaino
Cattlemen attending 135
Cattle Pt mi ind 320
Number of fresh bites 396
Cattle treated 250


19










Bolivia
Rabies is considered by many to be the number one animal health
problem in Bolivia. An UN/FAO project on animal health in Santa
Cruz, Bolivia, has added ',Janoire bat c:ritr,'l to their program. In
late 1975, this r-oject sent Dr. Melvyn Castillo P. to Mexico
for training at the National University. After the Mexico training,
Dr. Castillo will spend a week in Nicaragua working with personnel
in their vampire bat control program.
Colombia
AID appropriated $25,000 to the Ministry of Agriculture/Colombia
for use in developing regional vampire bat control program. Part
of this money was used in a pilot study near San Juan del Cesar
in northern Colombia. In this pilot study, approximately 2,500
cattle were treated with diphacinone and biting was reduced 75-80%.
Additional regional control programs are scheduled near Villavicenclo.
Colombia's program development has been hampered by difficulties in
obtaining the control compounds. An agreement has been reached
whereby the compounds will be purchased through the facilities of
CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) in Call. This
should enhance development of their program.
Ecuador
Mr. Shuart met with Dr. Cesar Zambrano, Director of World Bank
Coastal Projects in Guayaquil. World Bank has over 500 loans
to livestock farmers in Ecuador. Dr. Zambrano said he would ask
the Ministry of Agriculture to implement a vampire bat control
program in all areas where they have loans and where vampires
are known to be present.
Costa Rica
In February, Dr. Salvador Pichardo, Ministry of Agriculture/
Nicaragua gave desmonstratlant s for Ministry of Agriculture person-
nel in Costa Rica. Four demonstrations were given in different
regions of the country.

RioNegro Cobaino
Cattlemen attending 135
Cattle Pt mi ind 320
Number of fresh bites 396
Cattle treated 250


19










Bolivia
Rabies is considered by many to be the number one animal health
problem in Bolivia. An UN/FAO project on animal health in Santa
Cruz, Bolivia, has added ',Janoire bat c:ritr,'l to their program. In
late 1975, this r-oject sent Dr. Melvyn Castillo P. to Mexico
for training at the National University. After the Mexico training,
Dr. Castillo will spend a week in Nicaragua working with personnel
in their vampire bat control program.
Colombia
AID appropriated $25,000 to the Ministry of Agriculture/Colombia
for use in developing regional vampire bat control program. Part
of this money was used in a pilot study near San Juan del Cesar
in northern Colombia. In this pilot study, approximately 2,500
cattle were treated with diphacinone and biting was reduced 75-80%.
Additional regional control programs are scheduled near Villavicenclo.
Colombia's program development has been hampered by difficulties in
obtaining the control compounds. An agreement has been reached
whereby the compounds will be purchased through the facilities of
CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) in Call. This
should enhance development of their program.
Ecuador
Mr. Shuart met with Dr. Cesar Zambrano, Director of World Bank
Coastal Projects in Guayaquil. World Bank has over 500 loans
to livestock farmers in Ecuador. Dr. Zambrano said he would ask
the Ministry of Agriculture to implement a vampire bat control
program in all areas where they have loans and where vampires
are known to be present.
Costa Rica
In February, Dr. Salvador Pichardo, Ministry of Agriculture/
Nicaragua gave desmonstratlant s for Ministry of Agriculture person-
nel in Costa Rica. Four demonstrations were given in different
regions of the country.

RioNegro Cobaino
Cattlemen attending 135
Cattle Pt mi ind 320
Number of fresh bites 396
Cattle treated 250


19










RESEARCH UTILIZATION


In October Mr. C. Edmund Shui.rt;, Livestock Consultant, visited
six Latin American countries on behalf of the project. Following are
his observations country by country.
El Salvador
El Salvador's cattle inttutLLry ,u!fers from vampire predation,
but apparently rabies .s only been found in one department
(state) Department of La Paz. These data were collected
by Dr. Fredy Rosales, Chief, Animal Health Division, who is
in charge of all vampire studies.


After Shuart's visit,
small quantity of the
He planned some pilot
is prevalent.


Dr. Rosales purchased 15 mist nets and a
control compound (paste and suspension).
studtic in the department where rabies


Honduras


Most of Mr. Shuart's time was spent in
appears to be few vampire bats in this
only a few horses are reported bitten,
lems are reported near the border with


San Pedro Sula. There
part of Honduras. Locally,
but extensive vampire prob-
El Salvador.


Dr. Luis Alonso Flores 0., Regional Ministry of Agriculture
Veterinarian, plans to amplee areas throughout the country and
determine where vampire problems are most serious, He also plans
to check cattle being trucked to the San Pedro Sula slaughter house.
These cattle come from many parts of the country.
Panama
Dr. Herman H. Alvarado, Director of the Veterinary Diagnostic and
Research Laboratory, is heading the control program in Panama.
They began the year with three control teams working in the
province of Colon, but lack of funding forced them to reduce to
one team.
The cattle in Colon number 19,000. Thus far, veterinarians have
captured and treated bats in an area of the province with 10,000
cattle.


18










RESEARCH UTILIZATION


In October Mr. C. Edmund Shui.rt;, Livestock Consultant, visited
six Latin American countries on behalf of the project. Following are
his observations country by country.
El Salvador
El Salvador's cattle inttutLLry ,u!fers from vampire predation,
but apparently rabies .s only been found in one department
(state) Department of La Paz. These data were collected
by Dr. Fredy Rosales, Chief, Animal Health Division, who is
in charge of all vampire studies.


After Shuart's visit,
small quantity of the
He planned some pilot
is prevalent.


Dr. Rosales purchased 15 mist nets and a
control compound (paste and suspension).
studtic in the department where rabies


Honduras


Most of Mr. Shuart's time was spent in
appears to be few vampire bats in this
only a few horses are reported bitten,
lems are reported near the border with


San Pedro Sula. There
part of Honduras. Locally,
but extensive vampire prob-
El Salvador.


Dr. Luis Alonso Flores 0., Regional Ministry of Agriculture
Veterinarian, plans to amplee areas throughout the country and
determine where vampire problems are most serious, He also plans
to check cattle being trucked to the San Pedro Sula slaughter house.
These cattle come from many parts of the country.
Panama
Dr. Herman H. Alvarado, Director of the Veterinary Diagnostic and
Research Laboratory, is heading the control program in Panama.
They began the year with three control teams working in the
province of Colon, but lack of funding forced them to reduce to
one team.
The cattle in Colon number 19,000. Thus far, veterinarians have
captured and treated bats in an area of the province with 10,000
cattle.


18










RESEARCH UTILIZATION


In October Mr. C. Edmund Shui.rt;, Livestock Consultant, visited
six Latin American countries on behalf of the project. Following are
his observations country by country.
El Salvador
El Salvador's cattle inttutLLry ,u!fers from vampire predation,
but apparently rabies .s only been found in one department
(state) Department of La Paz. These data were collected
by Dr. Fredy Rosales, Chief, Animal Health Division, who is
in charge of all vampire studies.


After Shuart's visit,
small quantity of the
He planned some pilot
is prevalent.


Dr. Rosales purchased 15 mist nets and a
control compound (paste and suspension).
studtic in the department where rabies


Honduras


Most of Mr. Shuart's time was spent in
appears to be few vampire bats in this
only a few horses are reported bitten,
lems are reported near the border with


San Pedro Sula. There
part of Honduras. Locally,
but extensive vampire prob-
El Salvador.


Dr. Luis Alonso Flores 0., Regional Ministry of Agriculture
Veterinarian, plans to amplee areas throughout the country and
determine where vampire problems are most serious, He also plans
to check cattle being trucked to the San Pedro Sula slaughter house.
These cattle come from many parts of the country.
Panama
Dr. Herman H. Alvarado, Director of the Veterinary Diagnostic and
Research Laboratory, is heading the control program in Panama.
They began the year with three control teams working in the
province of Colon, but lack of funding forced them to reduce to
one team.
The cattle in Colon number 19,000. Thus far, veterinarians have
captured and treated bats in an area of the province with 10,000
cattle.


18









Cobano Centro


Cattlemen attending 72
Cattle examined 65
Number of fresh bites 176
Cattle treated 53

Curu JPauera
Cattlemen attending 72
Cattle examined 65
Number of fresh bites 176
Cattle treated 53

Pauera Centro
Cattlemen attending 16
Cattle examined 32
Number of fresh bites 39
Cattle treated 26
One month later Dr. Pichardo reported biting was reduced 90-95%.
Belize
Mr. Timothy J. McCarthy, Biologist and Peace Corps volunteer has
been selected to develop a control program in Belize. Mr. McCarthy's
approach will be based on education, investigation, and control.


Paralytic rabies has not been confio'nwt in UrugF.y even though
they do have vampire bats. In 1911, rbPesi was isolated from
vampire bats in sLuuthfi-;rn Brazil, and is endemic just a few miles
from the Uruguayan Fiorder. ;cawusu of this, a rabies surveillance
program, headed by Dra. E. ,.uintantw, de Lockhart, constantly check
the vampire population for rabies.
In 1975, vampire bat colni;. wce:c loealte in 6 of the 18 depart-
ments in Uruguay. Ninety-nine vampires were collected and analyzed
for rabies. In addition, two cows that died were analyzed for
rabies. Both cows had fresh bites prior to death and manifested
symptoms that are t1pi.:>'l for rabies. All vampires tested and the
two cows were ni~ative for .abileis
Mrs. Lockhart has star-ed a cant-rol campaign in Uruguay.


20









Cobano Centro


Cattlemen attending 72
Cattle examined 65
Number of fresh bites 176
Cattle treated 53

Curu JPauera
Cattlemen attending 72
Cattle examined 65
Number of fresh bites 176
Cattle treated 53

Pauera Centro
Cattlemen attending 16
Cattle examined 32
Number of fresh bites 39
Cattle treated 26
One month later Dr. Pichardo reported biting was reduced 90-95%.
Belize
Mr. Timothy J. McCarthy, Biologist and Peace Corps volunteer has
been selected to develop a control program in Belize. Mr. McCarthy's
approach will be based on education, investigation, and control.


Paralytic rabies has not been confio'nwt in UrugF.y even though
they do have vampire bats. In 1911, rbPesi was isolated from
vampire bats in sLuuthfi-;rn Brazil, and is endemic just a few miles
from the Uruguayan Fiorder. ;cawusu of this, a rabies surveillance
program, headed by Dra. E. ,.uintantw, de Lockhart, constantly check
the vampire population for rabies.
In 1975, vampire bat colni;. wce:c loealte in 6 of the 18 depart-
ments in Uruguay. Ninety-nine vampires were collected and analyzed
for rabies. In addition, two cows that died were analyzed for
rabies. Both cows had fresh bites prior to death and manifested
symptoms that are t1pi.:>'l for rabies. All vampires tested and the
two cows were ni~ative for .abileis
Mrs. Lockhart has star-ed a cant-rol campaign in Uruguay.


20









Nicaragua
The Nicaraguan national campaign against vampire bats has com-
pleted its 2nd year of opeatf~on. The campaign is now completed
in the departments of Granada and Boaco, and has been extended
to 9 of the 17 departments of the country.
Two-year results are given in Table 5.
Nicaragua's campaign has benefitted all livestock owners in the
country. Figure 5 shows cattlemen bringing their animals to San
Juan, Nicaragua for treatment.
The Ministry of Agriculture/Nicaragua plans to host an interna-
tional symposium on vampire bat control. The conference is sched-
uled for late June in Managua.


21










Table 5. Animals Examined, Fresh Bites, Cattle Treated, Vampires
Treated, and the Percent Reduction in Bites in Nicaragua,
1974 and 1975*.


Nicaragua


Animals
Examined
164,834


Fresh
Bites


Cattle
Treated


93,915 102,349


Vampires
Treated
1,488


Percent
Reduction


91.8


* through December 31, 1975.


22



















,. I


A


4


I


'1

ri


~WIWI



J ', i.k










Fig. 5 Small farmers bring their cattle to the center of San Juan, Nicaragua for treatment
with diphenadione.
I;It,




W: r~' r~i' J:T':
'' i i i l ii l O N R I I I I


23


I
Pa


ia3~
-\r f;~










Publications


Bullard, R. W., G. Holguin, and J. E. Peterson.
of chlorophacinone and diphacinone residues
materials. Ag. and Food Chem. 23(1):72-74.


1975. Determination
in biological


Bullard, R. W., R. D. Thompson, and G. Holguin. 1976. Diphenadione
residues in tissues of cattle. Agri. and Food Chem. (in press).


Crespo, Flores, R. and S. Said Fernandez.
dosis de anticoagulante (Difenadiona)
vampires. Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico


1975. Reduccion de la
para el control de los
23:19-22.


Crespo, Flores, R., R. J. Burns, G. C. Mitchell, and S. Said Fernandez.
1975. Observaciones sobre el comportamiento del vampiro comun
(Desmodus rotundus) al alimentarse en condiciones naturales.
Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico 27:(page numbers missing).


Elias, D. J., R. D. Thompson, and P. J. Savarie. 1976.
the anticoagulant diphenadione on suckling calves.
preparation).


Effects of
(In


Mitchell, G. C., R. J. Burns, and A. L. Kolz. 1975. Rastreo del
comportamiento nocturno de los ;rurc!lagos vampiros por
radiotelemetria. Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico 24:47-56.
Shumake, S. A., R. D. Thompson, and C. J. Caudill. 1976. A technique
for visual threshold measurement in vampire bats. (In preparation).
Thompson, R. D., D. J. Elias, and G. C. Mitchell. 1976. Effects of
vampire bat parasitism on milk production of dairy cattle in Ecuador.
(In preparation).


24









Literature Cited


1. Linhart, S.B., R. Flores Crespo, and G. C. Mitchell. 1972.
Control of vampire bats by topical application of an anti-
coagulant, Chlorophacinone. iull. Ofic. Sanit. Panamer.,
6(2):31-38.

2. Mitchell, G. C. and R. J. Burns. 1973. Chemical control of
vampire bats. Denver Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of
Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (Mimeo.) 37pp.
3. Bullard, R. W., G. Holguin, and J. E. Peterson. 1973. Determina-
tion of chlorophacinone and diphacinone in biological materials.
J. Ag. and Food Chem., 23(1):72-74.
4. Monkhouse, Frank C. The coagulation (clotting) of blood. Chapter
12, p. 109-123 in Charles H. Best and Norman B. Taylor, editors,
The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice. Seventh edition.
Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co., 1961,


25




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