• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Development and adoption of...
 Impact of cropping systems research...
 Transfer of technology
 Conclusion
 Reference






Group Title: The impact of cropping systems research in Indonesia : a case study
Title: The impact of cropping systems research in Indonesia
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053912/00001
 Material Information
Title: The impact of cropping systems research in Indonesia a case study
Physical Description: 30 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Siwi, B. H
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan (Indonesia)
International Development Research Centre (Canada)
United States -- Agency for International Development
International Rice Research Institute
Publisher: Central Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC) :
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
Place of Publication: S.l.
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Cropping systems -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 28-30).
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by B.H. Siwi ... et al..
General Note: "The research work described in this report was carried out by scientists from the Central Research Institute for Food Crops of the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, with assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)."--Acknowledgement.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053912
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26749744

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Target area selection
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Research methodology
            Page 5
    Development and adoption of technology
        Page 6
        Indramayu
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Lampung -- partially irrigated area
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Lampung -- dryland areas
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
    Impact of cropping systems research at the national level
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Transfer of technology
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Conclusion
        Page 27
    Reference
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text
o/.02-









A Case Study
The Impact of
Cropping Systems Research

in Indonesia
















Central Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC), Indonesia
International Development Research Centre(IDRC), Canada


















A Case Study
The Impact of
Cropping Systems Research


_ in Indonesia


Prepared by:

B.H. Siwi
Inu G. Ismail
Imtias Basa
A. Syarifuddin K.
M. Sultoni Arifin
Aman Djauhari
Mahyuddin Syam
Paul Mundy
Jerry L. Mclntosh






Central Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC), Indonesia
International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada
1986


I







ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The research work described in this report was carried out
by scientists from the Central Research Institute for Food
Crops of the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, with assistance
from the US Agency for International Development (USAID),
the International -Development Research Centre (IDRC), and
the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).







INTRODUCTION


Indonesia was the world's largest importer of rice for sev-
eral years before reaching self-sufficiency in this staple food
in 1982. By 1984, rice output had risen to 25.8 million tons
of milled grain, and Indonesia was not only able to feed its
160 million people, but was also able to seek export markets.
The production of other food crops has also increased markedly,
although there have been.fluctuations caused mainly by adverse
weather. National corn output, for instance, more than doubled
from 2.29 million tons in 1969 to 5.36 million tons in 1984;
soybean production rose from 0.39 to 0.52 million tons, peanut
from 0.27 to 0.74, mungbean from 0.04 to 0.19, and cassava
from 10.92 to 14.21 million tons in the same period.

Many factors have contributed to this remarkable achieve-
ment. These factors include government policies, effective
extension, and most importantly, the willingness of farmers to
adopt the technology developed through agricultural research.

There is still much potential for expanding the area of land
for cultivation of food'crops. Out of Indonesia's total land
area of 192 million hectares, only 16 million ha are being used
for food crops production, of which 7 million are wetland
suitable for rice cultivation. It is estimated that 3 million ha
of wet and dryland can be brought into cultivation by the year
2000.

Another way of further increasing national food production
and raising farmers' incomes is by increasing the number of
crops grown each year on land already in use. The cropping
intensity of both wet and dryland could be increased signifi-
cantly. More than 50% of the wetland area is still planted to
only one rice crop per year. In the dryland areas, most farm-
ers grow only corn, dryland rice and cassava in mixed cropping
patterns during the rainy season, but do not make efficient use
of soil water and rainfall during the drier times of the year.

Cropping systems research has shown that two or more
crops can be grown in rainfed wetland areas where there is
partial and full irrigation. Research has also sh6wn that better
crop management can double the productivity of dryland areas.







CROPPING SYSTEMS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA


In 1970, the Central Research Institute for Food Crops
(CRIFC) of the Ministry of Agriculture began studying cropping
systems. This research aimed to find ways of growing crops
on poor and under-used lands, and to develop more intensive
and productive cropping patterns. In the early stages the re-
search was carried out on experiment stations. But the scien-
tists soon realized that if they conducted their tests in the
farmers' fields, they could get more useful information and
rapid feedback. In 1973, they began systematic research to
intensify crop production in Indramayu (West Java), and to
improve and stabilize crop production in drylandd areas in Lam-
pung (southern Sumatra). In 1975, the International Develop-
ment Research Centre (IDRC) provided support through the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to expand this re-
search into farmers' fields over a wider area. In 1976, the
Indonesian Directorate General for Transmigration gave funds
to extend the studies to several areas being settled by "trans-
migrants" from Java. Since then, with support from other
agencies, cropping systems research has been carried out in
about 40 different areas throughout the country, coordinated
by CRIFC. The research program in each area depends on the
local conditions and needs, and the program changes over time
as these alter.


Target Area Selection

The "target area" is the area where farmers can apply the
research findings to improve their farming methods. Selecting
the target area for cropping systems research is crucial because
the direction of the research and the results obtained depend
on the area chosen. The cropping systems scientists used four
main criteria in selecting their target areas:

1. The target areas should be critical in terms of food short-
ages and governmental designation.
2. They should be large areas with similar soils and climate.
3. Previous experience should show that intensifying the crop-
ping patterns was feasible.
4. Markets and infrastructure should be available.
The scientists selected Indramayu and Central Lampung as the
first areas for cropping systems research (Figure 1).






























Klangen
TANJUNGKARANG -. lsringlw

3 5--
Figure 1. Locations of original Cropping Systems Research sites
in Indramayu and Central Lampung, Indonesia.







Indramayu lies on the north coast of West Java. about 200
km east of Jakarta. The land is flat, and lies about 20 m
above sea level. It is typical of many wetland rice areas in
Indonesia, with a pronounced dry season but 6 months with over
200 mm of rain. It was divided into four categories based on
the availability of irrigation water during the year:

Category I : Area with irrigation water for 10 months
each year
Category II : With irrigation for 7 months
Category III :With irrigation for 5 months
Category IV : Rainfed (non-irrigated) wetland

In Categories I and II, most farmers planted two crops of
the rice variety Pelita I-1. This is a high-yielding variety, but
matures late, in about 140 days. In the land Categories III and
IV, most farmers grew only one rice crop per year.

In Central Lampung, the scientists selected two target areas:
a partially irrigated area, and a dryland area. The first of
these was rice-producing wetland similar in many respects to
Category III in Indramayu. The site chosen in this area was in
the village of Nambahdadi. Although the soil here was less
fertile than in Indramayu, the rainfall exceeded 200 mm/month
for at least 9 months per year. Farmers in Nambahdadi grew
only one rice crop each year, even though their neighbors in
dryland areas nearby grew food crops all year round.

The scientists also chose a dryland target area in Central
Lampung. The site included the villages of Bandar Agung and
Komering Putih. When the research began, this area was
covered with alang-alang (Imperata cvlindrica) grass. About 25
million hectares of this kind of land in Indonesia are thought to
be suitable for agricultural production. Most of these lands
are in the islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and
their soils tend to be acid and infertile. They have often been
used to settle transmigrants who have moved from the crowded
islands of Java and Bali. Farmers in this area traditionally
planted a combination of corn mixed with dryland rice and
cassava. All these crops were planted together at the begin-
ning of the rainy season.







Research Methodology


The cropping systems research and development activities
were carried out at selected sites within the three target
areas. These activities fell into five distinct phases.

1. First, a preliminary study was made of land, water, and
agro-economic conditions in the target area. The re-
searchers could use this information to choose a site for
their on-farm research.
2. At the research site, detailed studies were made of econo-
mic and biological factors influencing the local farming
system. Examples of such studies are tests of high-yielding
crop varieties grown under local conditions, experiments on
the ideal fertilizer dosages needed for each crop, the devel-
opment of guidelines for pest and disease control, and
studies on the economic profitability of various crops and
management levels.
3. Using the results of these component studies, the researchers
designed and tested various cropping systems. They com-
pared the traditional cropping pattern used by local farmers
with a number of new patterns requiring different amounts
of labor and cash inputs. Groups of farmers cooperated
with the researchers in testing these cropping patterns in
their own fields.
4. When the most promising of these cropping patterns had
been determined, it was followed over a larger area of land
to make sure that it was "visible" to local farmers and
extension workers. This "pre-production testing" was also
used to further evaluate the new technology, and to find
any weaknesses in the new -pattern or in the local infra-
structure.
5. The final phase of the process was the implementation of
the new cropping system through production programs. The
extension services and the local and national governments
spread the improved patterns to farmers through demons-
tration plots, recommendations and training, and supported
this by providing credit and subsidized inputs through crop
production programs. By these means, the new cropping
systems have spread throughout the original target areas,
and to other regions with similar soils and climate through-
out Indonesia.







DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY

Indramayu

When the research began, the most common cropping pattern
used by farmers in the irrigated areas in Indramayu was a
double cropping of Pelita rice (Figure 2). Farmers would plant
the first crop at the beginning of the rainy season, and then a
second crop towards its end. In the partially irrigated areas,
however, water from irrigation or rainfall was not available for
long enough to allow the grain of this second rice crop to fill
properly. This meant that drought often caused this crop to
produce low yields, or even no harvest at all. Many farmers
therefore planted only one rice crop each year.
After three years of trials, the researchers developed prom-
ising cropping patterns for land in each irrigation category.
They found various ways of planting and harvesting each rice
crop earlier, thereby minimizing the risk of water shortage
during the second crop. Three of these methods were the
gogorancah and walik jerami management techniques, and the
planting of rice varieties that matured earlier (in 120 instead
of 140 days), such as IR26 and IR28. Gogorancah means that
instead of waiting for the rains before they transplant their
rice seedlings, farmers plant rice seeds directly into the un-
puddled soil, and allow the plants to grow before flooding the
fields when enough water is available. Using this technique for
the first rice crop can save up to 1 month compared with
traditional transplanted rice.

The time between the harvest of the first crop and the
planting of the next can be shortened by walik jerami -- mini-
mizing the tillage for the secorid crop. In walik jerami, the
farmers cut the stubble of the first rice down to the ground
level, and then spread it on the field. They then plant the
second-crop rice seedlings without tilling the soil. Compared
to the traditional method of full tillage, walik jerami can
reduce turn-around time between crops by as much as 7-15
days.
Both gogorancah and walik jerami were techniques already
used by farmers in Indonesia. The researchers adapted and
refined these techniques to suit' the needs of the target areas,
and encouraged local farmers to adopt them when conditions
were favorable.







DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY

Indramayu

When the research began, the most common cropping pattern
used by farmers in the irrigated areas in Indramayu was a
double cropping of Pelita rice (Figure 2). Farmers would plant
the first crop at the beginning of the rainy season, and then a
second crop towards its end. In the partially irrigated areas,
however, water from irrigation or rainfall was not available for
long enough to allow the grain of this second rice crop to fill
properly. This meant that drought often caused this crop to
produce low yields, or even no harvest at all. Many farmers
therefore planted only one rice crop each year.
After three years of trials, the researchers developed prom-
ising cropping patterns for land in each irrigation category.
They found various ways of planting and harvesting each rice
crop earlier, thereby minimizing the risk of water shortage
during the second crop. Three of these methods were the
gogorancah and walik jerami management techniques, and the
planting of rice varieties that matured earlier (in 120 instead
of 140 days), such as IR26 and IR28. Gogorancah means that
instead of waiting for the rains before they transplant their
rice seedlings, farmers plant rice seeds directly into the un-
puddled soil, and allow the plants to grow before flooding the
fields when enough water is available. Using this technique for
the first rice crop can save up to 1 month compared with
traditional transplanted rice.

The time between the harvest of the first crop and the
planting of the next can be shortened by walik jerami -- mini-
mizing the tillage for the secorid crop. In walik jerami, the
farmers cut the stubble of the first rice down to the ground
level, and then spread it on the field. They then plant the
second-crop rice seedlings without tilling the soil. Compared
to the traditional method of full tillage, walik jerami can
reduce turn-around time between crops by as much as 7-15
days.
Both gogorancah and walik jerami were techniques already
used by farmers in Indonesia. The researchers adapted and
refined these techniques to suit' the needs of the target areas,
and encouraged local farmers to adopt them when conditions
were favorable.











Rainfall(mm)


300


200


100


VI i
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep.
Source: Progress Report CRIA, 1978.

Figure 2. Working calendar of farmers' cropping patterns.
Indramayu, West Java, 1973.


Irrigation

/ Wetland rice 10 months


SWetland rice \ Wetlarice icte /7 7 months

/ Wetland rice. -/ / Fallow. Rainfed only


/Wetland rice


Ranfl rm







Shortening the period needed for the two rice crops meant
that there was still enough soil moisture left to plant a third
crop after the second rice harvest (Figure 3). This third crop
could be a drought-tolerant legume; the researchers found at
least three alternative crops that farmers could choose from:
soybean, mungbean, or cowpea. Of these, mungbean requires
the least time (60-65 compared to 80-90 days for soybean and
cowpea), but cowpea is the most drought tolerant.

The researchers also introduced other improved management
techniques, including early-maturing varieties, adequate ferti-
lizer dosages and application methods, and pest and disease
control techniques.

Table 1 gives an example of how the new technology has
affected the crop yields and farmers' incomes in the Category
III (5 months' irrigation) area of Indramayu. In 1976/77, the
introduced, three-crop pattern gave higher yields and profits
than the traditional double crop of rice. The two rice crops
in the introduced pattern yielded a total of 9.4 t/ha, 3.5 t/ha
more than the traditional pattern. Farmers who used the
introduced pattern doubled the yield from their second rice
crop, from 2.3 to 4.6 t/ha, because of the lower losses due to
drought. Together with 0.5 t/ha of mungbean, this meant that
farmers' profits were 33% higher if they used the pattern
developed by the researchers.

In 1983/84, higher yields meant the introduced pattern was
even more profitable. Farmers still planting just two. rice
crops without using the improved methods obtained only
Rp 376 000 profit per hectare, compared to nearly Rp 600 000
for the introduced pattern.

In 1978, the improved techniques were tested at the pre-
production stage over a wider area and involving more farmer
cooperators and extension workers. The results were encour-
aging, and the techniques were spread to neighboring areas
through production programs and the extension services.

Farmers in the target area have gradually intensified their
cropping patterns. This process has been aided by the advent
of new, earlier maturing rice varieties, and recent improvements
to the local irrigation facilities by the Public Works Depart-
ment. In 1975, before the cropping systems research had
produced results, only 21o of the partially irrigated area was
planted to two crops of rice a year, and no land was triple-


























01 L'
Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep
Source: Progress Report CRIA, 1978.

Figure 3. Working calendar of pre-production cropping patterns.
Indramayu, West Java, 1977-78.







Table 1. Comparison of yields and net returns for traditional and
introduced cropping patterns in a partially irrigated area,
Indramayu, West Java, 1976/77 and 1983/84*.

1976/77 1983/84
Traditional Introduced Traditional Introduced
pattern pattern pattern pattern
------------- yield (t/ha) ------------
Rice (first crop) 3.6 4.8 3.6 4.9
Rice (second crop) 2.3 4.6 2.9 4.7
Mungbean 0.5 0.8

Net return 358.0 477.0 376.5 598.5
(x Rp 1000)
Traditional farmers' pattern =
wetland rice wetland rice
Pattern introduced by researchers =
Gogorancah rice walk jerami rice mungbean
*Based on 1985 prices; $US 1 = Rp 1100




cropped (Figure 4). By 1984, 46% of the area was double-
cropped, and an additional 18% was planted to three crops
(rice-rice-nonrice). The area planted to a single rice crop
fell from 64% to only 27%.

These changes have resulted in more land being cropped in
the dry season. Between 1975 and 1983, the total area of rice
harvested rose from 183 000 ha to 195 000 ha. All of this
increase can be attributed to a greater second (dry season)
rice crop area, which rose from 66 000 ha in 1975 to 79 000 ha
in 1983. The larger area cropped and the increased yields
obtained meant that the total rice production in 1985 was
double that of 1975 (Figure 5).

The area planted using the gogorancah system, has fluctu-
ated around 5000 to 10 000 ha, with -variation between years
caused by the weather. Gogorancah is ideal when irrigation
water is not available and the wet season rains start slowly,
since it allows farmers to plant their rice without having to
wait for enough rain to flood the fields. If the rainy season






Others Others
4% 4%

Rice-other
crops 1191 Rice-rice-
other crops Rice-fallow
S\\Rice-fallow
Rice 1% 27%
Rice-rice other crops
Rice-fallow 64% .Rc-
Rice-rice
46%



1975 1984
(before cropping (after cropping
systems research) systems research)

Figure 4. Cropping pattern changes in partially irrigated
areas in Indramayu, West Java, 1975-1984.


comes early or if irrigation water is available, however, it is
better to grow normal, transplanted rice. There are two main
problems in gogorancah rice: it is difficult to prepare the soil
when it is still dry, and controlling weeds may be a problem.
In Indramayu, the recent improvements in the irrigation facili-
ties mean that water is now available for a longer time each
year. With earlier maturing varieties of rice, and the shorter
turn-around time between the crops made possible by walik
jerami or the use of tractors, many farmers no longer have to
rely on gogorancah to fit in two rice drops.

The adoption rate of legumes as the third crop has been
rather slow. The area of peanut and soybean decreased some-
what between 1975 and 1983, while that of mungbean rose
(Table 2). There were fluctuations in the harvested area during
this period, mainly because of weather conditions, government
programs, and the availability of seed. Farmers seem to prefer
low risks, and therefore grow mungbean rather than soybean or
peanut, since it needs less seed, is easy to grow, matures
early, is less susceptible to pests, and has a stable price. The
farmers' choice of rice varieties may also influence the area







of legumes planted: they often grow the rice variety Cisadane,
even though it takes about 25 days more to mature, because
of its better taste and price compared to IR36 or IR38. If
they double-crop this variety, not much time is left to grow
a third, legume crop.


1975 '76 '77 '78 '79 '80 '81 '82 '83

Figure 5. Area harvested and production of rice in Indramayu-
Indonesia, 1975-1983.







Table 2. Harvested area of legumes planted after rice in Indra-
mayu, 1975 83 ..

YearHarvested area (ha)
Year Peanut Soybean Mungbean All legumes


1975 1304 1700 250 3254
1976 1001 .641 391 2032
1977 1036 820 123 2979

1978 1166 1882 1393 4441
1979 788 1885 745 3418
1980 1254 635 1041 2930

1981 897 1259 5231 7387
1982 589 597 4138 5324
1983 788 912 4505 6205
Source: Laporan'Tahunan 1983/84, Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten
Indramayu (Annual Report, Indramayu Agricultural Ser-
vice, 1983/84)



Lampung -- Partially Irrigated Area

The first attempts 'to improve the cropping patterns in the
partially irrigated area of Lampung consisted of introducing
earlier maturing rice varieties, reducing turn-around time for
the second rice crop, and growing non-rice crops during the'
dry season. Research during the years 1975-77 showed that
two crops of rice followed by a legume cowpeaa) performed
well in this area. This was confirmed by a pre-production
trial covering 2.5 ha in 1977-78 (Table 3). In this trial, the
farmers' traditional pattern of one rice crop yielded 3.74 t/ha.
The introduced cropping 'pattern produced 8.43 t/ha of rice
from two crops. In addition, a third crop of cowpea produced
0.68 t/ha of grain. In 1983/84, farmers who had adopted the
new pattern and methods produced more than twice as much
total grain yield as those who used the traditional pattern.
Their net income was also more than double.






Table 3. Comparison of yields and net returns of traditional and
introduced cropping patterns in a partially irrigated
area, Lampung, Sumatra 1976/77 and 1983/84*

1976/77 1983/84
Traditional Introduced Traditional Introduced
pattern pattern pattern -pattern

------------ yield (t/ha) ------------------
Rice (first crop) 3.7 5.6 3.9 3.6
Rice (second crop) 2.9 3.5
Cowpea 0.7 0.7


Net return 204. 3 609.0 231. 2 518.5
(x Rp = 1000)


Traditional farmers' pattern =
single crop of wetland rice

Pattern Introduced by researchers =
gogorancah rice wetland rice cowpea

Based on 1985 prices; $US 1 Rp 1100
Based on 1985 prices; $US 1 = Rp 1100


These research findings, spread through the extension ser-
vices and coupled with improvements in the local infrastructure,
have brought about major changes in the cropping patterns
used in Central Lampung. In 1975, before the implementation
of cropping systems research in this area, only 27% of farmers
grew two rice crops a year, using traditional techniques
(Figure 6). A study in 1982 found that 41% of the farmers
now planted two rice crops -- a gogorancah crop followed by
a transplanted crop with minimum-tillage. Another 30% planted
three crops: gogorancah, transplanted rice, and a non-rice
crop. The proportion of farmers growing only one rice crop
per year fell from over 30% to only 4%.








Wetland rice
fallow
Wetland rice
14%
S-- wetland rice

Others 1% -Wetland rice
10 other crops
Wetland rice 14%
Others 25% fallow Xogorancah or
30% wetland rice
wetland rice '
Dryland rice other crops
other crops Wetland rice 30% Gogorancah rice
14%e^ wetland rice wetland rice
27% 41%

Wetland rice
- other crops
4%
Figure 6. Cropping pattern changes in partially irrigated areas
in Central Lampung, 1975-1982.







As a consequence of this intensification, the production of
rice in Central Lampung increased from 222 600 tons in 1975
to 378 200 tons in 1983 (Figure 7). Tables 4 and 5 show that
yields from all three crops, and earned net returns over three
times larger than those of farmers who continued practicing
the traditional system.

Most farmers who adopted the new methods did so spon-
taneously, influenced by the success of their neighbors who
cooperated with the research team in testing the new patterns.


1975 1983

Figure 7. Rice production in the partially irrigated
areas, Central Lampung, 1975 and 1983.


Dry seao
129 840 t







This may be seen from the experience in the project village
of Nambahdadi. Starting with only 0.1 ha demonstration plot
in 1976-77, the gogorancah area spread to 262 ha in 1980-81.
With the help of an Opsus (Special Operation) program, the
area of gogorancah increased to 640 ha in Nambahdadi and
5500 ha in the Way Seputih irrigation scheme in .1981-82. The
total area in gogorancah reached a peak in 1982-83 with a
total of 72 000 ha in the province of Lampung.

In the partially irrigated areas in Central Lampung, there
are no plans to improve the irrigation supply, as has happened
in Indramayu. This means that growing the first rice crop as
gogorancah is still a useful way of planting two crops of rice
a year. However, the lack of seeds and the small size of the
local market may still discourage many farmers from planting
legumes as a third crop in the cropping pattern.



Table 4. Multiple cropping index and crop yields obtained by
farmers who adopted or did not adopt improved cropping
patterns. Way Seputih Irrigation Scheme, Lampung,
1981/82.

Type of Multiple Crop yield (t/ha)
farmer cropping
index First rice Second rice Cowpea
Fully adopting 251 3.3 3.9 0.7
new pattern 189 3.3 3.5 -
Adopting part of 189 3.3 3.5
new pattern
Not adopting 162 3. 9
new pattern

The multiple cropping index measures how intensively the
land is cropped throughout the year. The higher the Index,
the more intensive the cropping pattern.
These farmers planted two rice crops per year using the.
gogorancah technique for the first crop, but did not plant
a third, non-rice crop.
Source: A Djauhari et al.







Table 5. Average costs and returns of farmers who adopted or did
not adopt improved cropping patterns. Way Seputih Irri-
gation Scheme, Lampung, 1981/82.

Type of Gross Cost of Cost of Net
Farmer return labor materials return
------------- 000 Rp -----------------
Fully adopting 977.1 347.1 105.1 524.9
new pattern
Adopting part of 791.7 303.0 97.9 390.8
new pattern
Not adopting 360.8 156.0 39.6 165.2
new pattern

These farmers planted two rice crops per year using the
gogorancah technique for the first crop, but did not plant a
third, nonrice crop.
$US 1 = Rp 1100 (1985)
Source: A Djauhari et al.






Lampung -- Dryland Areas

Most of the rainfed dryland areas of Lampung have red-
yellow podzolic soils. These soils had previously been thought
unsuitable for food crops production because they are acid,
infertile, and very porous. On slopes, these soils can easily be
eroded. However, the cropping systems research has shown
that with moderate amounts of fertilizer, and with judicious
soil and crop management, these soils have considerable poten-
tial for crop production and stable farming systems. With
appropriate crop management and using modern varieties, the
productivity of food crops can be increased tremendously. This
is true not only in Central Lampung but also in other areas
such as in North Lampung and in South Sumatra province
(Table 6). It must be remembered, however, that supporting
infrastructure such as good roads, the availability of agricultural
inputs (fertilizers, seeds and insecticides) and markets are pre-
conditions for the agricultural development of these lands.







Table 6. Comparison of yields, net returns, and rice equivalents
of traditional and introduced cropping patterns in dryland
areas in Lampung, 1976/77 *

Central Lampung North Lampung
Traditional Introduced Traditional Introduced
pattern pattern pattern pattern
-------- yield (t/ha) ---------------
Corn 0.8 2.0 0.9 2.6
Dryland rice 2.0 1.7 1.9 3.7
Cassava 21.1 9.8 19.9
Peanut 0.8 1.7 0.6
Ricebean 0.3 0.3

Net return 110.9 216.6 125.8 409.7
(x Rp 1000)
Equivalent yield
of unhusked rice 4.3 18.2 8.2 18.9
(t/ha)

Traditional farmers' patterns =
Corn + dryland rice, followed by peanut (Central Lampung),
or Corn + dryland rice / cassava (North Lampung)
Pattern introduced by researchers =
Corn + dryland rice / cassava, relay cropped.with peanut,
followed by ricebean.
* Based on 1985 prices; $US 1 = 1100



Preliminary research proved that by returning the residue
from each crop to the soil, and with appropriate fertilization
and liming (dosage, timing and application rates), the produc-
tivity of the soil can be maintained. Once the production
potential of these areas had been shown, the scientists con-
ducted systematic research to determine the most appropriate
cropping patterns. They'designed various cropping patterns and
improved soil and crop management, practices that enabled
these soils to be used all year round. One of the cropping
systems they tested included five dryland crops -- corn, dry-
land rice, cassava, peanut, and either ricebean or cowpea,







grown in a rotation involving relay-and inter-cropping that
ensured the soil surface was continuously covered by vegetation
to prevent erosion. This five-crop-per-year system produced
from two to four times more food calories than the farmers'
traditional pattern. Over a five-year test period at Banjarjaya
in Central Lampung, for instance, it produced food calories
equivalent to as much as 18.4 tons per hectare of rough rice
per year, compared to 4.8 tons from the traditional pattern.

Application of the research findings in the dryland areas in
Lampung has had a great impact on both regional and national
crop production. In 1975, 103 700 ha of dryland rice and 28600
ha of corn were harvested in Lampung. In 1984, these areas
had increased to 150 200 for rice and 97 000 ha for corn. The
impact on total output was even more marked: the production
of rice in 1984 was more than double that of 1975, while corn
production had risen by more than 300% (Figure 3).


1975 76 77 78 79 30 81 82 83 34

Figure 8. Area harvested and production of dryland rice
and corn, Lampung- Indonesia, 1975-84.







The production of other dryland 6rops also increased. Cas-
sava production, for instance, increased from 644 700 tons in
1977, to 1469 000 tons in 1984; peanut output rose from 4900
to 13 700 tons, and soybean from 35 100 to 40 000 tons over
the same period.

A study of Way Abung, North Lampung, in 1982 showed
that substantial changes have taken place in the local farming
system. In 1976, before the implementation of cropping
systems research, 55% of the dryland area in Way Abung was
planted to less than three crops per year. In 1982, 59% of the
area was planted to three crops and 20% of the area to more
than three crops per year (Figure 9). This technology has
spread throughout the major dryland-rice producing areas in
Indonesia.


1976
(before cropping
systems research)


1982
(after cropping
systems research)


Figure 9.. Cropping pattern changes in rainfed dryland areas,
Way Abung, North Lampung, 1976-1982.







IMPACT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL

It is unrealistic to measure the impact of the cropping sys-
tems research simply by recording the increases in crop produc-
tion and farmers' incomes in a certain area. This is because
many interrelated factors have contributed to these increases,
including improved crop varieties, irrigation, extension, market-
ing, credit, and government policies.

At the national level, however, cropping systems research
has had an impressive effect -- both directly and indirectly --
on government policy, agricultural production programs, national
crop output, and on research itself.

Cropping systems research has contributed to the formulation
of national policy and to the planning of national crop produc-
tion programs. In 1980, the national "Bimas" (Mass Guidance)
intensification program formulated recommendations for cropping
systems for different land types. These recommendations
covered land irrigated for 5 and 7 months, rainfed land, tidal
swamps, and dryland areas. The Bimas program now provides'
farmers with credit and inputs for year-round cropping patterns
in dryland and rainfed wetland areas. Experience has shown
that crop production programs that provide credit and inputs
are vital if large numbers of farmers are to adopt the research
results.

During 1980-82, the government carried out a number of
"Opsus" (Special Operations) to intensify crop production in
certain areas. Among these were:

Tekad Makmur to implement the gogorancah followed by
a non-rice crop pattern in West Nusatenggara; this opera-
tion changed the province from being a food importer
into an exporter.
Merah Megapah to implement the gogorancah -- wetland
rice non-rice pattern in Lampung.
Subur Makmur to implement the gogorancah non-rice
pattern in West Java.

Gemah Ripah to implement the dryland cropping pattern;
this changed the Gunung Kidul area of Central Java/Yog-
yakarta from a food-deficient into self-sufficient area.







Several other regional programs have been based on the
cropping systems research results, or on a similar type of
approach. The soybean area in Aceh province, for instance,
increased from less than 10 000 ha in 1981 to more than
500 000 ha in 1985. This increase was mainly because many
farmers now grow soybean after their wetland rice harvest.
The same thing has happened, perhaps to a lesser extent, in
Jatiluhur (West Java), and in Central Java, East Java, South
Sulawesi and West Nusatenggara.

The success of these production programs has shown that a
cropping system developed in one target area can be success-
fully transferred to another area with similar soils and climate,
with only minor modifications. "Fine tuning" of the cropping
system will, of course, be necessary to cope with variations in
local conditions. The ideal cropping system will also change
as the local infrastructure develops, new markets emerge, or
prices alter.

In terms of national agricultural production, the double crop-
ping of rice in Indonesia has increased markedly within the
last seven years. In areas where the research results have been
adopted, the yields of the second crop have also risen. Both
these trends have pushed national rice production up. The
national production of other food crops has also increased,
especially in the last three years. This can partly be attrib-
uted to the cropping systems research program, which showed
that higher production was possible through more intensive
cropping systems and improved agricultural practices. All of
this progress has brought about an improvement in farmers'
incomes, and has reduced the national expenditure for importing
rice and other crops.

In terms of research, scientists have accepted the systems
approach as the most appropriate way of increasing crop pro-
duction and farmers' welfare without disturbing the environ-
ment. The cropping systems research approach has been
broadened and further developed into "farming systems" re-
search. In this type of research, scientists consider the whole
farm system, including food and non-food crops, animals and
fisheries, the farm environment and the farm-family's non-farm
activities. The pioneering work on cropping systems has pro-
duced a ready-made, flexible food-crops component for this
work. Researchers are now seeking ways of using perennials
and animals more efficiently in the farming system: perennial







crops such as rubber, fruit trees and coconuts can provide the
farmer with more cash for little extra work, while animals
such as goats or cattle can provide meat, be sold for extra
income, or be used for plowing.

The cropping systems research developed a general approach
and many of the on-farm research techniques that are proving
invaluable as the farming systems research progresses. Scien-
tists are now using the farming systems approach to solve
problems in several land types in Indonesia, including upper river
watersheds and tidal swamps. The Agency for Agricultural
Research and Development of the Ministry of Agriculture has
formed an interdisciplinary farming systems working group to do
this work.

The direction and aims of commodity- and discipline-oriented
agricultural research have shifted as a result of the cropping
systems experience. Scientists working in these types of re-
search can now see problems better from the point of view of
the complete cropping system, rather than in isolation. This is
true in the case of varietal improvement and in studies of
fertilizer efficiency, aluminum toxicity and shade tolerance.

The cropping systems program has also strengthened the
links among the organizations involved in agricultural develop-
ment, such as research, extension, transmigration, public works,
communication and administration, and among politicians and
decision makers.




TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

The cropping systems research consisted of five phases, from
the selection and study of the target area and research site,
through the design and testing of the cropping patterns, to the
transfer of the new technology to the farmers. The cropping
systems working group had anticipated the important role that
various agencies and key personnel had to play in the program.
Consequently, these agencies were made aware of the program
and became involved in it at an early stage. The involvement
of local government officials from the first phase onwards
proved to be very useful in identifying problems and predicting
the consequences of the technology to the farmers in the
region. The participation of the different agencies was im-







portant to ensure the success of the program: experience has
shown that the failure of technology implementation is often
due to lack of support from local and national government
bodies.

Most of the responsibility and workload in the first phases
of the research process fell on the cropping systems researchers.
Farmers usually became involved in the research process in the
second phase, when economic and biological components were
studied. They became more involved in the third phase, when
the cropping patterns were designed and tested. Then, in the
fourth and fifth phases, during the pre-production testing and
implementation activities, most of the workload fell on the
farmers, on extension personnel, and on local and national
government staff.

Several methods were used to inform all those involved in
the program -- researchers, extension, farmers, government
officials, etc. -- of the progress made and the results achieved.
Such communication is important not only to transfer the re-
search findings to those who need them, but also to maintain
and improve cooperation among those involved in the research
itself. Regular meetings, workshops and field days were held,
personnel were given special training, and a number of publica-
tions were produced. However, informal contacts were most
useful; at the research site, these contacts worked smoothly
because farmers, researchers and extension workers all saw the
need to work together.
Various meetings, including regular scientific workshops and
seminars, were held to report on the progress made in the
research. These meetings also gave the opportunity for
members of the Cropping Systems Working Group and personnel
from different agencies working in the program to improve
their understanding and thus work closer together.
Field days were held to inform farmers of the new techno-
logy. These field days could be held in several locations be-
cause key personnel from the local government and extension
were closely involved in the program. During these sessions,
various aspects of the new technology were discussed, such as
the research methods used, and the implementation and conse-
quences of the improved cropping systems. Field days can be
held during the verification trials, but were more appropriate
during the pre-production or pilot production phase when the
other government agencies were actively involved in the field
work.







Over the last decade, the Indonesian cropping systems pro-
gram has developed skilled personnel through formal training,
both in Indonesia and abroad. Five special in-country cropping-
systems training courses have been given to extension subject-
matter specialists. This training was organized by the Central
Research Institute for Food Crops (CRIFC) and the national
Agricultural Extension Project. The instructors were CRIFC re-
searchers; most had receiving cropping systems training at IRRI.
A large number of extension subject-matter specialists have
also followed cropping systems courses at IRRI (Table 7). A
number of other research staff have followed specialized crop-
ping systems training at IRRI in fields such as entomology,
economics and plant breeing. This training has been very ef-
fective in broadening the trainees perception of cropping sys-
tems research and development. It has also contributed to the
closer cooperation and working relationship between research
and extension -- an important aspect of technology transfer.

Special training courses were held for field extension work-
ers at the cropping systems research sites. These courses im-
proved their knowledge of cropping systems technology and
their ability to instruct farmers how to use the new methods.

Publications are a very important means of communication,
not only among scientists, but also to inform others who are
interested in research and development. Most of the publica-
tions on cropping systems have appeared in the form of sym-
posium proceedings. These books are invaluable sources of
information on the cropping systems research findings and the
development process.



Table 7. Numbers of staff from Indonesian research and extension
agencies attending cropping systems training at IRRI,
1974-85.

Trainees from
Year
Research Extension Total

1974 1979 36 48 84
1980 1985 13 7 20

Total 49 55 104







CONCLUSIONS


Cropping systems research has made major contributions to
agricultural development in Indonesia's partially irrigated and
rainfed dryland areas. This research has found ways of using
under-utilized lands, and of cropping existing productive agricul-
tural land more intensively and productively. In the partially
irrigated areas in both Indramayu and Lampung, research has
shown that double cropping of rice is feasible by introducing
the gogorancah (direct seeded) system, reducing turn-around
time, planting early maturing rice varieties, and improving crop
management. In the rainfed dryland areas, the research has
shown that if they are managed properly, soils previously
thought unsuitable for permanent cultivation of annual food
crops can be cropped continuously without becoming infertile.
In these areas, intensive cropping systems involving five or more
crops per year enable farmers to be self-sufficient in food
crops, and can guarantee them a reasonable livelihood. In the
long run, a more stable and sustainable agriculture will depend
on a mixed farming system involving animals and perennial
crops as well as food crops.

Farmers both in the immediate target areas and in regions
with similar soils and climate have widely adopted the intensi-
fied cropping methods developed through the research. The
findings have supported the intensification of cropping in Indo-
nesia's partially irrigated wetlands, and the expansion of dry-
land agriculture outside Java in areas settled by transmigrants.
The total food production in these areas has thus greatly in-
creased as a result of the research, enabling farmers to improve
their livelihood, and helping Indonesia to feed its growing popu-
lation.

A number of lessons can be learned from the cropping
systems experience in Indonesia. First, it has shown the im-
portance of on-farm research in developing new cropping tech-
niques that farmers can and will accept. Experiment farms
run by research institutes can provide "ideal" conditions under
which various components of a new set of farming methods
can be developed and tested. But only research in farmers'
fields can fully test the new methods, show their weaknesses,
and point out what problems remain to be solved.

A second lesson is the importance of involving farmers,
extension workers, and government officials from the beginning
of the research and development process. They provide valuable







in-sights into problems and possible solutions at the research
stage, and their cooperation is essential later if the research
results are to reach a large number of farmers over a wide
area.

Third, the Indonesian cropping systems program has shown
the importance of government production programs in encour-
aging large numbers of farmers to accept the new techniques.
These production programs combine extension and training for
farmers with the provision of credits and subsidized inputs to
enable them to take advantage of the improved cropping sys-
tems.

Finally, experience has demonstrated that the research re-
sults can be transferred from the original target area to other
areas with similar climate, soils, and socio-economic conditions.
The cropping patterns developed can be used -- with modifica-
tions to suit local conditions -- in wide areas of Indonesia.
This means that the original investment made in cropping sys-
tems research has paid off by raising farmers' welfare and
increasing food production throughout the country.








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