• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Trainer's guide
 Anatomy of on-farm trials:...
 Practicum 1: Interpretation of...
 Practicum 2: On-farm trial work...
 Practicum 3: Interpretation of...
 Practicum 4: Modified stability...
 Back Cover






Group Title: FSSP training materials series - Farming Systems Support Project - 603
Title: Anatomy of on-farm trials
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053910/00001
 Material Information
Title: Anatomy of on-farm trials a case study from Paraguay
Series Title: FSSP training materials series
Physical Description: 69 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poey, Federico, 1933-
Ozaeta, Mario
Walecka, Lisette.
Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Farming Systems Support Project
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1986?]
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- On-farm -- Paraguay   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- On-farm -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Frederico Poey ; with the collaboration of Mario Ozaeta ... et al. ; coordinating editor, Lisette Walecka.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053910
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 14048776

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Trainer's guide
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Anatomy of on-farm trials: Narrative
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Practicum 1: Interpretation of sondeo results
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Practicum 1: Paraguay's alternative
            Page 29
            Page 30
    Practicum 2: On-farm trial work plan
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Practicum 2: Paraguay's alternative
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Practicum 3: Interpretation of on-farm trials
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Practicum 3: Paraguay's alternative
            Page 51
            Page 52
    Practicum 4: Modified stability analysis and risk evaluation
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Practicum 4: Paraguay's alternative
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text













ANATOMY OF ON-FARM TRIALS:

A CASE STUDY FROM PARAGUAY


Prepared by Federico Poey
with the collaboration of
Mario Ozaeta, Peter Hildebrand, Dan Gait, and Ramiro Ortiz

Coordinating Editor, Lisette Walecka


FSSP Training Materials Series #603






















ANATOMY OF ON-FARM TRIALS:

A CASE STUDY FROM PARAGUAY











Prepared for
FARMING SYSTEMS SUPPORT PROJECT














Prepared by Federico Poey
with the collaboration of
Mario Ozaeta, Peter Hildebrand, Dan Gait, and Ramiro Ortiz

Coordinating Editor, Lisette Walecka


FSSP Training Materials Series #603












TABLE OF CONTENTS



Introduction ......................................................... ..... 1

Trainer's Guide ....................................................... 3

Anatomy of On-Farm Trials: Narrative .......................................9

Practicum 1: Interpretation of Sondeo Results............... ...........19
Practicum 1: Paraguay's alternative .................................29

Practicun 2: On-Farm Trial Wbrk Plan .......................... ..........33
Practicum 2: Paraguay's alternative .................................36

Practicum 3: Interpretation of On-Farm Trials ..........................41
Practicum 3: Paraguay's alternative ................................51

Practicun 4: Modified Stability Analysis and Risk Evaluation............55
Practicum 4: Paraguay's alternative ..................................63












List of Tables


Table 3.1


Table 3 .2


Table 3.3

Table 3.4


Table 3.5


Table 3.6


Table 3.7


Table 3.8


Table 3.9


Table 3.10


Table 4 .1


Table 4.2

Table 4.3


Table 4.4


Analysis of variance for timing and doses of complete
fertilization in three farms .................................41

Yields of garlic obtained at three doses of complete
fertilizer ................................................... 42

Marginal cost analysis of the fertilizer trials in garlic....43

Comparison of benefit-cost ratio for variable produce
prices at different levels of fertilizer....................43

Identification of weeds and control rate of two
herbicides on garlic grown on two farms.....................44

Analysis of variance for garlic yield (ANOVA) for two
herbicides at three dosis in two farms......................44

Negative effect of herbicides observed in garlic at Bobi
Pucu ........................................ ................45

Analysis of variance for 7 varieties of strawberries on
4 farms .................................................... 45

Yield and fruit characteristics of 7 varieties of
strawberry on 4 farms ........................................ 46

Variety x environment response for 7 strawberry varieties
tested in 4 farms ... ...................... .................50

Analysis of variance for four varieties and two planting
distances in 24 locations ...................................56

Yields of four maize varieties in 24 locations ...............58

Yield and agronomic characteristics of four maize
varieties in 24 locations ..................................59

Characteristics of 24 locations where maize variety
trials were conducted ............ ............ ................60












List of Figures


Figure 0 .1


Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure


0.2

0.3

0.4

1.1

3.1


Figure 3.2


Figure 3 .3


Figure 3.4


Figure 4 .1

Figure 4.2


Figure 4.3


Figure 4.4


Figure 4.5


Figure 4.6


Relative location of Proyecto de Tecnologia para Pequenos
Agriculores (PTPA) ........................................... 13

Organization Chart of Paraguay's Ministry of Agriculture.....14

Organization Chart of SEAG ..................................15

PTPA Internal Organization ................................... 16

Map showing the survey area ................................. 20

Regression line and correlation coefficient for three
fertilizer levels of 12-12-17-2 in garlic....................42

Regression lines for three varieties of strawberries
through 16 environments ......................................47

Confidence intervals of yields of varieties Tufts and
Campinas through 16 environments.............................48

Confidence intervals for yields of strawberry varieties
Campinas and Monte Alegre on 4 environments.................. 49

Distribution of analized maize trials ........................57

Regression analysis of yields vs. environment indexes
for four varieties in 24 locations .......................... 65

Confidence intervals for yield of varieties Criollo and
Suwan 8027 from 24 locations................................. 66

Confidence intervals for yield of varieties Crioll and
Poblacion 66 from 24 locations ..............................67

Confidence intervals for yield of varieties Criollo and
Guarani V-311 from 24 locations..............................68

Regression lines for yield vs. environment indexes of each
location for two row planting distances in 24 locations......69













IN1McoCTION


This case study and the related exercises have been prepared to
complement training materials on the design and analysis of on-farm trials
within the general context of the Farming Systems approach. The case study
is based on the experience of the USAID funded "Proyecto de Tecnologia para
Pequenos Agricultores" -PTPA- in Paraguay during 1984-85.

The case study consists of two major sections: (1) a narrative
description of the institutional setting and sequence of events, and (2) a
four part practicum for hands-on use by sub-groups of training
participants. These practical exercises allow participants to define and
plan trials, interpret their results, and compare them to the rationale
applied in the actual Paraguay experience.

The FSSP offers this case study because it allows maximum hands-on
experience to trainers in moving from diagnosis to trial design, not
because the case is a perfect example of the FSR/E approach. World-wide
experience in FSR/E has demonstrated that there are no perfect examples of
the FSR/E approach to trial design. However, the FSSP includes this in the
belief that trainers prefer a participatory workshop in trial design to one
of repetative lectures and limited question-answer sessions. Finally, the
FSSP encourages any and all trainers and/or practitioners of FSR/E to
submit additional cases for use in trial design. The FSSP wishes to expand
the use of cases such as this one based on the Paraguayan experience to
include current examples of on-farm trial design from both Africa and Asia,
while not excluding additional examples from Latin America.

The case study is designed to serve as a training document. In no way
should the case study be interpreted as being a critique of, or a
recommendation to, the PTPA in its handling of on-farm trials under their
farming systems approach. The authors recognize the leadership of PTPA in
on-farm adaptive research, and are sincerely appreciative and thankful to
PTPA for allowing the FSSP to use its valuable data. Also, the case study
narrative setting is fictional and does not pretend to reflect reality.

The FSSP is very interested in any comments or suggestions that you may
have regarding this case study as a training tool. We also encourage you
to inform us of other case studies which you feel may be useful as training
materials. Please send your conments to:

University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
International Programs
Farming Systems Support Project
3028 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA





Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 1











TRAINER'S GUIDE


This case study is presented in five parts to facilitate its use as a
training tool. The first part is the narrative which provides the setting
and background information for the practical exercises that follow in the
practice. The remaining four sections are practical exercises based on
actual data and directed toward specific objectives. The Paraguay FSR/E
design or decision experience is not intended as the best or ideal
alternative, but rather are intended to be used as a learning tool.

A summary description of the sections of the case study follows:

SECTION OBJECTIVES) ACTIVITY

Narrative To provide background information Reading and
and general setting directed
discussion

Practicum I Define research priorities Directed
Suggest research alternatives discussion

Practicum II Design workplan for on-farm trials Snall workgroups
Plenary
presentation

Interpret results and
Practicumr III Make recommendations for next stage Small workgroups
field activities Plenary
presentation

Practicum IV Use modified stability analysis Individual
and distribution of confidence exercises
intervals as tools of analysis Plenary
discussion



There are as many.ways to use a case study in training as there are
trainers to use them. The following is an example of how the FSSP used
this case study. It is not the only way to use this tool. We encourage
trainers to use all or part of the case study as it fits with their
course/workshop objectives.


This case study was used as the basis of a one-week On-Farm
Experimental Design and Analysis workshop delivered by the FSSP
1985. The following process for using the case study was found
effective:


in July,
to be very


1. Hand out the narrative and practicun I (Sondeo) before the day of
initiating the exercise. In general, try to hand out the background

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 3










reading for practicums 2, 3, and 4 the day before it will be used. Be
sure that the participants have ample time to review the reading. On
the first presentation the over-all methodology of the full exercise
should be explained to the group. Subdivide the participants in small
groups (no more than 6 persons in a group) to have them discuss the
case with no effort to reach conclusions but just to allow participants
to share each other's ideas. Allow 45 minutes for this discussion.
The whole group should then be re-assembled and the instructor should
facilitate the discussion of the participants' perceptions of the case
and the Sondeo results.

2. Explain the objectives and instructions for the small working groups.
Be sure to illustrate how you want the small groups to present their
material in the plenary sessions. This step makes the presentations
more effective and relevant.

3. Have the small groups present their work in the plenary session.

4. Only after the above steps have been completed for each practicum, hand
out "Paraguay's Alternative" (each practicum has a clearly marked
section illustrating the results of the Paraguay team's activities).
Allow time for the participants to review and discuss these
alternatives in the plenary session. This should serve to acquaint the
participants with the Paraguayan setting, limitations and objectives.
The Paraguay alternative should not be accepted as the best, but only
as a discussion reference.

This part of the practicum is very important and sufficient time should
be allowed for it. It is a time to tie points together and process
learning that has occurred during the practical activities. It should
not be skipped.


The case study provides participatory activities which offer the
participants an opportunity to practice the skills being taught in the
workshop. The summary of the week's activities outlined below give an idea
of how the case study was used.

The overall workshop objectives were to enable the participants to:

1. Understand the value of on-farm research and its use in technology
development and dissemination.

2. Design, analyze and interpret on-farm trials.

DAY 1 objectives:

1. Establish a camnon ground to the FSR/E approach.
2. Understand the relationship between the sondeo and on-farm trials.

ACTIVITY TOPIC TIME

Lecture Introduction to FSR/E 105 min


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 4








Family Farms as Systems


Panel FSR/E Methodologies in On-Farm Trails 105 min

Practicum Paraguay Case Study: Narrative and 90 min
Practicum 1: Sondeo Interpretation.


Day 2 objectives:

1. Interpret sondeos and design on-farm trials.
2. Distinguish between the purpose and nature of researcher-managed
and farmer-managed trials.
3. Select treatments, treatment arrangements, and experimental and
field designs for on-farm trials.

ACTIVITY TOPIC TIME

Lecture Design and Analysis of researcher-managed 90 min
trials

Lecture Design and Analysis of farmer-managed trials,
Modified Stability Analysis and risk 105 min
evaluation

Practicum Practicum 2: On-farm trial work plan
Group Work 105 min
Plenary Presentation 45 min
Paraguay Alternative 45 min


DAY 3 objectives:

1. Interpret the results of on-farm trials from these points of view:
(a) biophysical factors, (b) intrahousehold considerations, (c)
other socio-economic criteria, (d) institutional and (e) other
infrastuructural considerations.

ACTIVITY TOPIC TIME

Panel Institutional and management issues
related to on-farm research 110 min

Lecture Socio-economic evaluation criteria for
on-farm trials. 45 min

Lecture Intrahousehold issues in on-farm research 45 min

Practicun Practicum 3: Interpretation of on-farm trials
Group work 105 min
Plenary Presentation 60 min
Paraguay Alternative 45 min

DAY 4 objectives:

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 5


75 min


Lecture










1. Analyze and interpret on-farm trial data using modified stability
analysis and distribution of confidence intervals for risk
evaluation.
2. Make calculations using the modified stability analysis.
3. Evaluate risk using the distribution of confidence intervals.
4. Define recommendation domains.
5. Understand the effect of numbers of locations and range of
environments on research results.

ACTIVITY TOPIC TIME

Practicum Practicum 4: Modified stability analysis
and risk evaluation of 4 maize varieties

Individual work full day
Paraguay's alternative 30 min


DAY 5 objectives:

1. Use the results of a set of on-farm trials to plan additional
on-farm trials.
2. Formulate and make recommendations for the following year's on-farm
and on-station activities.

ACTIVITY TOPIC TIME

small group Further socio-econcmic interpretation, 110 min
follow-up recommendations for further
on-farm trials.

presentation Plenary session


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


























ANATOMY OF ON-FARM TRIALS

NARRATIVE















ANATOMY OF ON-FARM TRIALS:
A CASE SIUDY FROM PARAGUAY



Paraguay honors its military heroes of historic wars by assigning their
names to political divisions and cities. General Artigas is the name of
the district where the Regional Rural Development Center--RRDC-is located;
the nearby experiment station is in the city of Capitan Miranda and the
headquarters for the FSR/E team is in Coronel Bogado. An old two-story
wooden house combines office and living quarters for the six-person team of
specialists that carry on adaptive research in that region.

In the once spacious living roan, now crowded with tables, chairs,
blackboards, charts and wall maps, Marta Redondo was presenting the
socioeconomic findings of the survey conducted only a week ago. At 5:00 pm
the audience seemed tired but attentive. Particularly attentive was Ing.
Marco Cuadro who is the regional coordinator and also a true admirer of
Marta. Among other things, he admires her passion for statistical
interpretation of all events, whether professional or social. Also present
were the other members of the team that included two agronomists (one
acting as economist), a veterinarian, a home economist, the senior
specialists of cotton, cereals and horticulture of the Extension
Department, one maize breeder from the Capitan Miranda experiment station
and the national coordinator of the Technology Project for Small Farmers
(PTPA). The purpose of the meeting was to program the adaptive research
activities for the coming year. In many ways this was a historic meeting,
because never before had the Extension Department been involved in
research.

The task was pressing. Today they had to finish discussion of the
problems identified in the Sondeo (rapid reconnaissance survey) and to
define the research priorities, considering farmer participation, human and
physical resources available, selection of alternatives to test, and other
related aspects.

Marco amiably interrupted his admired and respected colleague: "Let's
remember that the national priority of the Ministry of Agriculture in
research is to favor crops that produce and save foreign exchange such as
tobacco, cotton, or wheat, and that very little is done at Capitan Miranda
in research for the staple food crops. Also, don't forget the relative
importance of the researchable crop in the three defined recommendation
domains."

Marta went on to summarize some numerical data that she felt were
important. She began by describing the 31 interviewed farm households
contacted during the sondeo. Of these, 45% were classified as
owner-operators. In addition, 48% of the farms were between 10 and 20

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 9









hectares in size, while 38% were smaller than 10 has. Turning to crops,
cotton was grown on all farms and 19% of the farmers also planted garlic
and strawberries as cash crops. Cassava was grown on 64% of farms, while
cowpeas, rice and tobacco were grown on only a handful of farms.

By the time the meeting adjourned, the sun was resting on the rolling
landscape. Marco, Marta, and all the others were also ready to rest after
the long, busy day's work. Tomorrow they had another long day ahead of
them in which to program the experimental and field designs, select
treatments, and determine numbers of trials for adaptive research in
strawberries, garlic and maize.

On their way to their favorite restaurant-bar, Marco and Marta
reviewed the day's activities and how the professionalism, personal
commitment and purpose of the PTPA personnel had changed in such a short
time. The current implementation of the farming systems approach in PTPA
was contrasted with the previous "top-down" approach where the farmers'
problems were defined at Asuncion. At that time, the selection of research
alternatives was influenced more by the latest national Ph.D. thesis work
or by same expatriate consultant's experience that had no relevance
whatsoever to the local farmers' real problems. Now, they agreed, their
work and training really made sense. They disagreed, however, about how
much an extension organization should get involved in research. To many,
this whole question of involvement of extension in research appeared to be
a political issue at the decision-makers' level in Asuncion that had taken
nearly three years to resolve. Meanwhile, the project had stumbled along
with new jeeps, little field work and a lack of clear leadership.

The solution to the dilemma came with the acceptance of the concept of
"adaptive research", and with the arrival of Dr. Dardon, a farming systems
specialist with 5 years of field experience in the well-known Institute of
Science and Agricultural Technology--ICTA--of Guatemala. His explanation
of the farming systems approach including adaptive research methodology,
was simple and logical, so most people, frcm central decision-makers to
field practitioners, understood it. He received support from key persons
and institutions, including the donor agency, USAID, and Extension
Department leadership. What was happening now at Coronel Bogado was also
happening at the other 5 Regional Centers, a clear expression of support.

The recently completed Coronel Bogado Sondeo was the first real,
practical activity of the new approach. Now the group was eager to get the
work plan defined and established. In a few months, they expected to
discuss and interpret the outcome of this unique experience in Paraguay of
doing adaptive research with farmers on their farms.

At the end of the session, they had more questions than answers: What
experimental design would be most appropriate? .... Wat plot size?....What
shape should it be?... .How many replications? .... How many trials?....Who
would work where? ... .Who would work with whom? Marta had read about
different kinds of check plots. Should they include a practice different
than the farmers' practice? What about row spacing and planting distances?
Should blocking issues be considered? How should the group handle
non-experimental variables? How would the trial information be recorded,
and by wham? What information should be recorded, and how often? How many

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 10








observations should be taken on a given variable? There were so many more
questions that Marco was overwhelmed, and began to doubt whether the team
could answer them adequately. On the other hand, Marta was excited and
ready for the challenge of the next morning. There was not much of the
night left for anything else but rest....

Seven months later, the same team was meeting in the same place.
Marta and Marco were sharing a "terere"(cold mate drink) during the break
of the regional meeting for the presentation of results of the first year
of activities in the RRDC of Coronel Bogado. A lot had happened since the
planning meeting. A total of 25 farm trials on cotton, garlic,
strawberries, soybeans and maize had been planted, harvested, and
statistically analyzed. This was consistent with the work load of the
other 5 RRDC's, in which a total of 166 on-farm trials had been conducted.

In implementing the trials, the FSR/E team shared work, frustrations
and hopes with the farmers. Marta and Marco agreed that they had learned a
great deal from the famers, not only in their cultural and personal
interactions with farm household members, but also in the more technical
aspects of how to manage, control and interpret the experimental variables.
They disagreed about the intensity of the data collection effort, which
included surveys and farm records that Marta wanted to implement more the
next year.

It was very hot, and following the local tradition, Marta and Marco
were alternatively sharing terere, through a "bombilla" (a kind of straw
made of silver with a gold tip) that filters the liquid from a "poro", or
cup, made from a dry gourd-like fruit. Marta brought all the terere
paraphernalia, including the thermos with ice water, to the old living room
and maneuvered to place everything in a comfortable position on the small
table that she was sharing with Marco. By then, Marco had organized the
field books and corresponding analyses of variance of the strawberry
varieties and garlic (both fertilizer and herbicide) trials that were to be
discussed in the next session.

The introductory presentation on how to interpret on-farm trial
results given by Dr. Dardon was very enlightening for Marta, who had
previously considered the statistical differences among treatments as the
sole method of interpretating trial results. Now, they were being told
that the ANOVA is only a first step. Other considerations, such as
relative coefficient of variation, level of significance, number of
replications within and among locations, yield stability parameters and
confidence intervals were discussed along with numerical analytical
techniques of agronomic data analysis. Then the group discussed economic
interpretations: marginal analysis, benefit/cost ratios, labor scarcity,
and possible price differentials in agricultural inputs and marketable
produce.

An example presented by Dr. Dardon including some economic information
dramatically illustrated the fallacy of making reccrmendations based only
on the agronomic superiority of treatments. What was considered before by
Marta as a dry, only periphereally related matter, now became a most useful
and necessary tool.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 11









A whole two-hour session was dedicated to subjective considerations of
the farmers' understanding of the trials on their farms, and farmer
perceptions in evaluating results by farmers' standards. The household
interaction with trial objectives and the specific farm responsibilities of
the women, men, and children, all had influenced the trial design and the
interpretation of the results. A measure of the eventual acceptance of the
alternative solutions seemed to Marco to be the most difficult evaluation
concept to handle.

Upon interpreting trial results, the team was told to consider what to
do next in each case. Marta now understood that the farming systems
approach integrates not only disciplines, but also stages of activities,
and that the "usefulness" of results substituted for the simplistic notion
of "good" and "bad" results. Marco smiled with satisfaction at Marta's
newest findings. He wondered, however, about the upcoming task: in the
strawberry variety trials, all effects showed significant differences,
while in the garlic fertilizer levels and timing trial only levels were
significantly different. Furthermore, in the garlic herbicide trial, no
statistical significant differences were detected for any of the sources of
variation. What did this all really mean?

The subject of stability and risk occupied a full day of the results
meeting. Dr. Dardon went into methodological details by calculating the
environmental indices, regression, confidence intervals, etc. Using
modified stability analysis for a maize example over 8 locations, he
explained the interpretation of the regression coefficients, the R-square
and standard deviation values, and the relative risks among varieties.

Now it was Marco who was impressed with the amount of valuable
information that can be derived from the modified stability analysis
methodology. Before, Marco only considered the mean across locations and
the interaction with locations as decision criteria for making
recommendations. The concept of the environmental index as a numerical
measurement that includes agronomic and management factors as well,
immediately opened his mind to the possibility of the concept in other
kinds of research. Marco quickly accepted Marta's suggestion to leave the
group and lunch alone in their favorite place. They had something personal
to celebrate.

Suddenly, the romantic atmosphere of their favorite place was
disturbed when Marco and Marta's colleagues came in carrying a large cake
with a merengue inscription that read "25 LOVING YEARS" and handed Marta a
message signed by Marcos. As she read the note, she could no longer
contain her excitement. She embraced Marco, her tears of emotion sprinkling
Marco's graying mustache. Everyone clapped and celebrated while Dr. Dardon
reached for the note and read it aloud "Happy anniversary-- 25 years of
positive interaction, tested stability and proven acceptability!!"








Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 12















REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY


Cnel Bogado


Encarnacion


Figure 0.1 Relative location of Proyecto de Tecnologia para Pequenos
Agricultores (PTPA).




Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 13
















ORGANIZATION CHART OF PARAGUAY'S MINISTRY


OF AGRICULTURE


Figure 0.2 Organization Chart of Paraguay's Ministry of Agriculture.





Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 14














ORGANIZATION
CHART OF SEAG


Figure 0.3 Organization Chart of SEAG.





Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 15





















PTPA INTERNAL ORGANIZATION


MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE


Units


SMALL FARM BENEFICIARIES


Figure 0.4 PTPA Internal Organization.






Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 16


























PRACTICUM 1

INTERPRETATION OF SONDEO RESULTS









PRACTICUM 1. INTERPRETATION OF SONDEB RESULTS


Objective:
After completing this practicum you will be able to use a sondeo report
to define general research priorities and make suggestions on research
alternatives.

Instructions:
1. Read the information in the following Sondeo report.

2. Be prepared to discuss the information available and list problems
identified.

3. Be prepared to make suggestions on possible research alternatives to
address problems identified related to garlic and strawberries.


SONDEO REPORT
PROYECIO DE TECNOLOGIA PARA PEQUENOS AGRICULTORES (PTPA)

INFORMATION ON SITE: Regional Rural Development Center CORONEL BOGADO

1. Location of Area:
General Artigas District, Department of Itapua, Republic of Paraguay, 350
Km South of Asuncion, where the following subdivisions companiess) were
surveyed: Bobi Pucu, Yukyarai, Syryryca and Ypayere.

2. General Description:
2.1 Topography: Undulating terrain dominates the area with a few medium
size hills. The altitude of the surveyed subdivision ranges from 116
to 180 m above sea level with a mean altitude of 150m.

2.2 Climate: The annual mean temperature is 24 C, reaching a maximum of
40 C in December and January and a minimum between 5 C and 10 C in
June-July. Frost and hail are common in September-October.
Predominant winds are from the NE and the mean annual precipitation
is 1,775 mm.

2.3 Accessibility: The region is accessible by road and rail. The road,
when dry, is adequate for medium weight vehicles but officially
closes after heavy rains. The region is connected by rail to
Asuncion and Encarnacion. 9see figure 1.1)

2.4 Soils: Uplands are mainly red soils with sandy-clay and clayey-sand
textures. Less evident are sandy and gravelly soils. There is good
internal and surface drainage with a tendency for the surface to dry
up.

2.5 Land tenure: Owner-operators 45%; squatters 3%; collective farms
26%; and others (owner-operators and various combinations of
renting), 26%.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 19












MAP OF THE SONDEO AREA


San Pedro
del
Parana


Bobi PucI
I

--------I


General
Artigas


Syryryka/
/


Yurikal


/ Ypayare


\ /


District
r---,
Sondeo Area

Railroad

Dirt road


Figure 1 .1


Map showing the survey area.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


Coronel
Bogado








2.6 Farm size:
size of percent of
farm total farms

From 1 to 5 ha 16%
From 5.1 to 10 ha 23%
Frao 10.1 to 20 ha 48%
From 20.1 to more 13%

2.7 Soil fertility: The entire area is of medium fertility, depending on
length and intensity of use.

3. Type of activity:

3.1 Crops: 94% of the area is cultivated. Dominant crops are cotton,
cassava, garlic and strawberries (note: the information on
strawberries comes from another region of Paraguay and has been added
for didactic purposes). Tobacco, rice, maize and cowpeas are less
important crops.

3.2 Livestock: 6% of the area. Cattle, donkeys, horses, hogs, poultry,
and sheep predominate.

3.3 Graphical representation of farming systems: The following summary
was obtained from 31 surveyed families. Cotton was the predominate
crop on 100% the of farms, followed by cassava, garlic and
strawberries. Based on the obviously different cash crops planted,
the area was divided into three preliminary recommendation domains:
A: cotton garlic strawberries 19%
B: cotton cassava 65%
C: cotton, 16%

Other agronomic and socio-economic parameters appear to be relatively
similar.

4. Crops and production systems:

4.1 Monoculture: 90% of the interviewed farmers produce sole crops of
cotton, cassava, garlic, and strawberries.

4.2 Associated crops: 10% of interviewed farmers grow crops in
association. Example: cassava/maize; cotton/maize.


INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY: GARLIC, STRAWBERRIES, AND MAIZE

1. GARLIC: Garlic is grown exclusively as a cash crop in plots ranging in
size from 0.25 to 1 ha. There are some cases in which farmers with
greater resources grow up to 5 ha.

1.1 Soil preparation: Two plowings by oxen and one harrowing by oxen
are normally done before planting time. Some farmers use tractors
for all three activities. The first plowing in January-February;

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 21









the second plowing and the harrowing in March-April.


1.2 Planting: Mostly in March-April. Planting is done totally by hand
with a spacing of 0.10 to 0.15 m between plants and 0.50 m between
rows.

1.3 Variety and seed type: Three varieties are grown by farmers in the
region: Paraguay, Mineiro and Napuri. Paraguay and Mineiro are the
most popular varieties because of their ability to survive under
field conditions and because of the disease resistance of the first
variety and consumer preference for the second variety.

1.4 Fertilization: Farmers, although not generally fertilizing their
land at present, express interest in doing so because the soil which
they use is "worn out" (20-30 years of continuous cropping). The
only fertilizer formula commonly available is 12-12-17-2.

1.5 Crop rotation: Continuous cropping of garlic is not commonly
practiced, probably because garlic demands too many plant nutrients
from the soil. The general sequence is as follows: Year 1: garlic
followed by maize and cassava; Year 2: cotton followed by garlic or
fallow.

1.6 Weed control: Weeds are mainly controlled with hoe and oxen, and
home-made cultivator. There are normally 5 hoeings performed: three
hand hoeings and two with a cultivator. Because of a severe
shortage of labor at this time, same farmers that cultivate more
than one hectare use the selective weedkiller Tribunil. It,
however, cannot be found easily in the market place. Farmers are
generally unacquainted with proper doses and methods of calibration
of herbicides.

Observation: Farmers are interested in using herbicides for weed control
primarily of Nana camby (Ephorbia heterophylla) and macky-chi
(Oxalis spp).

1.7 Disease and insect control. Farmers normally dust three times with
Malatox 100 and Azodrin 60 for thrips and aphid control.

Dosis: 30 cc/tank (6 tanks per ha; or 180 cc/ha), and for fungus
disease control some farmers apply Dithane M45 at 200 g/ha three
times; Antracol 200 g/ha, adding the juice of cactus leaves as an
adherent. Farmers also use foliar fertilizer at 50 cc/ tank (6
tanks per ha, or 300 cc/ha).

Observation: In same plots root rot has appeared which farmers call
"bacteriosis". It seems to affect plants damaged by the manual weed
control practice and principally attacks the varieties Napuri and
Mineiro. Most farmers attempt to control insects (thrips and
aphids) with a low dose of insecticide. Some farmers obtain
ineffective disease control due to a lack of knowledge about control
methods and/or unavailability of products in the market.

1.8 Harvest: Generally done by hand after harrowing.

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 22








1.9 Post harvest: Drying, braiding for selling and bunching for storage
are completed after harvest.

1.10 Yield/ha: Varies from 5000 to 7000 kilos fresh and 2000 to 3000
kilos dry. This weight difference is due to moisture and losses due
to rot.

1.11 Marketing: Most farmers market their garlic at their farms or in
the Asuncion market. A small number of farmers, on their own,
export their crop directly to Brazil. Farmers complain about unfair
competition which is a result of Argentines dumping garlic on the
Paraguayan market at certain times.

2. STRAWBERRIES: There are between 4000 to 9000 cultivated plants per farmer.
The area grown (25 to 50 strip beds), including borders and alleys, adds up to
an average area of 0.25 ha.


2.1 Soil preparation: One or two plowings are used to prepare the strip
beds that measure 1 to 1.10 m wide and 20 m long. Organic matter is
applied on the whole strip or in rows where the stolons will be
planted.

2.2 Planting: The planting distance is 25 to 30 an between plants and
rows, with 3 to 4 rows per strip bed. Planting date is April-May.

2.3 Varieties: Three varieties are presently: Campinhas, Monte Alegre
and Florida 90. Campinhas, the most popular variety, is the most
susceptible to fungus diseases such as Micos phaerella and
Rhizoctonia spp. The other two varieties lack uniformity at
maturity, increasing harvest costs. Planting material is produced
by each farmer, but there is a notorious lack of varietal purity.

2.4 Fertilization: Two applications of 12-12-17-2 are usual. The first
is done 15 days after transplanting, applying 6-15 g per plant. The
second application is carried out in the same way, applying 6-15 g
per plant at the beginning of harvest, which lasts for two to three
months.

2.5 Weed control: Done with small hoes or by hand.


2.6 Insect and disease control: Applications of a systemic insecticide
mixed with fungicide are made every 8 days. Insecticide is used for
the control of thrips and fungicide is used to prevent Micos
phaerella and rhizoctonia spp. Oral and dermal contact insecticides
are applied during and after the fruiting stage for the control of
worms in addition to use of an acaricide to control mites.

2.7 Irrigation: After transplanting, irrigation is done manually with
watering cans twice a day until the plantlets are fully established.
The frequency of irrigation is reduced afterwards as the rainy
season begins.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 23










2.8 Harvest: Done when 3/4 of fruits are mature, from July to November,
with a 200-250 g production per plant. At the end of harvest,
coconut leaves are placed over bamboo frames to provide shading to
promote stolon growth for multiplication purposes.

2.9 Price of product: 200-450 guaranies per kilo.

Observation: No mulching to preserve moisture, reduce weed growth and
prevent direct contact of fruits with the soil was found in the
survey, although by-products for mulching were available.


3. MAIZE: Maize is a traditional crop planted by all farmers for human and
animal consumption. It is grown in plots of 0.25 to 2 ha.

3.1 Soil preparation: One plowing and one harrowing, with oxen,
immediately followed by planting. Generally done from June to
September.

3.2 Planting: The planting system is in hills using a hand jab planter
(rulito), planting 4-5 seeds per hill. Planting density varies as
follows:
a) In monoculture: in rows 1 1.2 m apart and 0.5 to 1 m between
hills; more commonly 1 X 1 m to facilitate cross cultivation.

b) In association (where "o"= cassava, "x"= maize, and "u" cotton):
7 rows of cassava and 1 row of maize -

oooooooxooooooo
oooooo0xooooooo
oooooooxooooooo
oooooooxoooooo0
oooooooxooooooo
oooooooxooooooo
oooooooxooooooo

2 rows of cassava and 1 row of maize interplanted between every
two hills of cassava -

ooooo
ooxoo
ooooo
ooooo
ooxoo
0000ooooo

4 rows of cotton and 1 row of maize -

uuuuxuuuu
uuuuxuuuu
uuuuxuuuu
uuuuxuuuu
uuuuxuuuu
uuuuxuuuu

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 24








5 rows of cotton and 1 row of maize among hills of cotton -


uuuuuuuuuuu
uuuuuxuuuuu
uuuuuuuuuuu
uuuuuxuuuuu
uuuuuuuuuuu
uuuuuxuuuuu

In the cassava-maize association, maize is planted earlier and in
the cotton-maize association the two crops are planted
simultaneously. Occasionally maize is planted simultaneously with
late varieties of cassava. In all associations maize is planted at
1.5 2 m hills, leaving 2-3 plants per hill. Maize is not
fertilized because it is not considered as a cash crop and because
of the high cost of fertilizer.

3.3 Variety: Five varieties are grown: "Tupi pyta" (yellow flint),
"Tupi moroti" (yellow dent), "Chipa" (floury), "Venezuela 1"
(yellow flint), and "Tupi Loco" (whiteflint). All local varieties
are very late-maturing, and labor demands during harvest coincide
with other labor demands in the cotton harvest. "Tupi pyta" and
"Tupi moroti", the more caomon local varieties, are used for animal
feed and human consumption. The "Chipa" variety is planted early,
in June-July, and it is consumed exclusively by humans. The
"Venezuela 1" variety is planted later and is used for animals only.
Farmers, however, say that it is too hard for animals. "Tupi
Locro" is used for human consumption on a lesser scale.

3 .4 Weed control: Two weedings with cultivators are done between rows
complemented with 2 or 3 handhoe weedings around plants (varies
according to the associated crop).

3.5 Insect control: Generally not done, however, those farmers who do
practice insect control use Dipterex (250 g/ha) for fall armyworm
(Spodoptera sp). In the maize-cassava association, insect control
is done simultaneously in the two crops.

3.6 Harvest: Harvest is carried out manually between May and June due
to the lack of labor availability earlier. The lack of labor is a
function of high labor needs for cotton harvest, planting garlic and
manufacturing starch.

3.7 Post harvest: Maize is commonly stored in the husk. If it is
shelled it is stored in bags often using 10 envelopes of pepper per
bag as a treatment against storage loss.

3.8 Yield: The yield varies between 1000 and 2000 kg/ha. However, it
is difficult to estimate average yield because much is harvested for
fresh use.

Observations: Low plant populations are cannon. Varietal mixtures of
seeds occur because different varieties are planted close together
and cross pollinate. Part of the scarcity of labor is due to the

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document. 25










periodic migration of children to urban centers for education.


Corment: Details on cotton, cassava, cowpea, tobacco, rice and animal
production, and details of social aspects were not translated fran the
original Spanish Sondeo for the case study exercise


INFORMATION ON SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE COMMUNITY


1. Schooling The situation is difficult because of a) long distance
from homes, b) lack of financial resources, and c) lack of full
scholastic programs (all levels) in rural regions. In order to
continue schooling, children must go out of the region to distant
cities in other Departments. This results in a serious constraint
fulfilling the labor demand at harvest time.

2. Family Size The 31 interviewed families had a total of 175
persons which averages 5 persons per family.

3. Household Houses with wooden walls and tile and straw roofs
predominate. Some are made of adobe and have dirt floors.

a) Bedrooms Generally adequate distribution depending on the
family size. Usually have good ventilation and illumination.

b) Kitchen Most housewives cook on the dirt floor.

c) Latrines Most households lack adequate latrines. Family
members are not aware of the consequences of the lack of
sanitation on their health.

d) Wells Most wells are built with protective walls to avoid
collapse. Depth varies from 15 to 18 meters.

4. Feeding and Nutrition The following agricultural products are
consumed by the household: cowpea, maize, cassave and rice. Peanuts
are consumed in lower volumes.

Most households don't have vegetable gardens and seem to ignore the
nutritional value of horticultural crops. However, consumption of
animal protein from their home grown fowl, swine and cattle is
cocmon.

It seems evident that there is a need for nutritional education
assistance in addition to the limited "clubs" established by the
extension service.

5. Health Only in grave cases do household members look for
professional assistance. Most of the time they use traditional
methods.

6. Decision Responsibility Usually the man and wife jointly decide on
the issues of buying and selling, children' education, household

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 26








improvements, etc.


7. Inputs Availability of farm inputs such as seeds, insecticides and
fertilizers is scarce, erratic and expensive. This may account for
the improper use of those inputs on many occasions. Plot rotation
within the farm permits same soil improvement and priority
selections of better plots for higher income crops.

8. Labor Shortage of labor is a strong constraint and limits the area
under cultivation (see 1. Schooling, above).

9. Market Excluding cotton, crops are subject to erratic trends often
determined by the neighboring countries' (Argentina and Brazil)
cropping shortfalls or surpluses.

10. Credit Is limited to larger farmers and cones with a high interest
cost. Intermediaries also offer some credit by contracting for
farmer's produce at discounted price levels.





































Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 27














CONCLUSIONS FROM THE SONDEO REPORT


1. Garlic is grown by farmers who cultivated 19% of the area.

2. Cotton is produced by all farmers.

3. Cassava production is canon for the manufacture of starch in same
areas.

4. Cash crops include cotton, cassava, garlic and strawberries. Rice and
tobacco are less important cash crops.

5. The main subsistence crops are cassava and maize in all areas.

6. Use of chemical and organic fertilizer is not caomon.

7. There are no official credit institutions. The only source of credit
is provided by chemical input retailers and comes with a very high
rate of interest.

8. Most farmers have been in the area for more than 30 years.

9. All livestock are of local breeds.

10. Animal health practices are deficient.

11. There is a high dependence on oxen for traction.

12. Horses are used for transportation.

13. Young people leave to continue studies elsewhere, causing labor
scarcity.

















Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 28








Practicum I: Paraguay's Alternative


GENERAL PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED IN THE SONDEO REPORT:

1. Soil fertility
2. Lack of credit sources
3. Lack of farmers' associations
4. Household sanitation: intestinal parasites, cooking on the ground, lack
of hygiene in the home.
5. Shortage of home gardens.
6. Commodity Problems, specified as follows:

6 .1 Cotton
-inefficient use of chemical products
-insect damage
-low plant density

6.2 Cassava
-soil preparation
-inadequate plant population
-lack of early varieties and low yields
-Harvest timing for starch manufacture.

6.3 Garlic
-shortage of labor and the high cost of weeding
-low natural soil fertility

6.4 Tobacco
-lack of new varieties
-lack of adequate drying facilities

6.5 Maize


High fertility soils:
-low plant population
-labor scarcity at cultivation due to competition for
labor to weed cotton
-late maize harvest because of competition front cotton
harvest and garlic planting
-storage losses
-lowered market value of maize for export because a
mixture of different varieties are sold


Low fertility soils: In addition to the above problems, add:
-soil preparation difficult because of hardpan.

6.6 Cow pea
-soil preparation
-low yielding varieties
-Grain conservation.

6.7 Rice

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 29









-Lack of new varieties


6.8 Crop association
-Determining improved associations
-timing of associations

6.9 Strawberry
-the most popular variety--Campinas--is the most
susceptible to the fungal diseases Micos phaerella
and Rhizoctonia spp.
-the other available varieties are not uniform at
harvest
-shortage of water for irrigation

7. Livestock:

7.1 Cattle
-deficient handling
-selection of improved breeding stock
-sanitation
-low reproduction rates
-low fertility

7.2 Minor livestock
-selection of improved breeding stock
-food deficiency
-inadequate infrastructure
-lack of protein in fowl and swine diets
-deficient sanitation


























Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 30



























PRACTICUM 2

ON-FARM TRIAL WORK PLAN










PRACTICUM 2. ON-FARM TRIAL WORK PLAN


Objective: After completing this practicum you will be able to design a
workplan for on-farm trials.

Instructions:
1. In groups prepare a workplan, including statistical and field
design details for one of the research problems identified.

2. Use the form given below to assist your group in planning for your
on-farm trials. Smae classifications given on the form may be
meaningless in your situation. Ignore them. Others may need
amplification or modification. Please feel free to alter them, and
to add categories as needed.

3. Be prepared to present your work plan in the plenary session.

4. Following the presentation of your design, you will be given a copy
of the actual workplans prepared in Paraguay. You will be asked to
discuss you work in relation to Paraguay's alternative.


ON-FARM TRIAL WORK PLAN



TRIAL NAME


NUMBER OF TRIALS


RESPONSIBILITY


LOCATION


OBJECTIVES)


JUSTIFICATION


DESCRIPTION OF TRIAL

TREATMENTS
CHECKS)
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
PLANTING DATE
DURATION
FUTURE ACTIONS

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 33










OBSERVATIONS


INPUTS

SEEDS
FERTILIZERS
INSECTICIDES
FUNGICIDES
STAKES
STRING
OTHER


AGRONOMIC PRACTICES


PLOWING
HARROWING
PLANTING
CULTIVATION
HARVESTING
OTHER


DESCRIPTION OF FIELD DESIGN

PLOT AREA
SEPARATION BETWEEN PLOTS
WIDTH AND LENGTH
EXPERIMENTAL UNIT AREA
NUMBER OF ROWS PER PLOT
BLOCK AREA
NUMBER OF BLOCKS PER RANGE
NUMBER OF RANGES
SEPARATION BETWEEN BLOCKS
WIDTH OF ALLEYS
TOTAL TRIAL AREA
NUMBER OF ROWS PER BLOCK
NUMBER OF PLANTS PER ROW
DISTANCE BETWEEN ROWS
DISTANCE BETWEEN PLANTS
NUMBER OF SEEDS PER HILL
AMOUNT OF SEED IF BROADCAST
NUMBER OF PLANTS PER HILL
NUMBER OF REPETITIONS
NUMBER OF BLOCKS
TOTAL NUMBER OF TREATMENTS


DIAGRAM OF TRIAL LOCATION




Paraguay Case StuAdy
Training Docunent








DIAGRAM OF TRIAL


CALENDAR OF SEASONAL ACTIVITIES





FIELD RECORDS


1. DATA COLLECTION (TYPES OF MONITORING TO OCCUR)

BEFORE PLANTING
VEGETATIVE CYCLE
FLOWERING CYCLE
HARVEST
POST-HARVEST


2. QUALITATIVE INFORMATION

AGRONOMIC

FARMER' S PERCEPTION


3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFORMATION

PRODUCTION COSTS:

INPUTS
LABOR: FAMILY AND/OR HIRED

SELLING, FREIGHT PRICE












Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 35








Practicum 2: Paraguay's Alternative


The following information describes the work plan as defined in the
actual PTPA experience. You should compare your workplans to the Paraguay
alternative indicated here and be prepared to discuss both in plenary session.


A. FERTILIZER EXPLORATORY TRIAL IN GARLIC


TREATMENTS: Doses = 200 kg/ha 12-12-17-2
300 kg/ha 12-12-17-2
400 kg/ha 12-12-17-2
Timing = 30-60-90 days after germination
30-90 days after germination
30-90-120 days after germination
LOCATIONS: GENERAL ARTIGAS
BOBI PUCU
PICADA PYTE


CHECK: NO FERTILIZER

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:


Randomized complete blocks in a split
arrangement, with three replications
on three farms
Main plot: dosis
Sub plot: timing


PLANTING DATE: April 28, 1984


FIELD DESIGN:
Experimental main plot area = 9 m2
Experimental split plot area = 3 m
Net area split plot = 1.5 m
Between rows = 0.50 m
Between plants = 0.15 m
Population density = 135,000 pl/ha
Variety = Mineiro


B. HERBICIDE EXPLORATORY TRIALS IN GARLIC


TREATMENTS:
HERBICIDES:


Basagran
Gesagar


EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:



Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


Dosis
1 2 3
2 1/ha 3 1/ha 4 1
1 kg/ha 2 kg/ha 3 k


/ha
g/ha


Randomized complete blocks in a split
plot arrangement with 3 replications
on three farms.









Main plot: herbicide
Sub plot: dosis


FIELD DESIGN:


Experimental main plot area:
Experimental split plot area:
TOTAL NET AREA = 270 m2


9 m2
3m


Row spacing: 0.50 m
Distance between plants: 0.15 m
Population density: 135,000 pl/ha
Variety: Mineiro


LOCATIONS: GRAL ARTIGAS
BOBI PUCU
PICADA PYTA

DATA COLLECTED: (1) Identification of weeds
(2) WFed control rate: percentage of killed weeds.

Observations: There is a severe labor shortage in the region during the
garlic growing season.

The herbicides used are post emergent and are the only two products
available locally.


C. VARIETY EXPLORATORY TRIAL IN STRAWBERRY

Treatments
Varieties: Tufts
Monte Alegre
Florida 90
Campinas
Aptos
Aiko
Douglas

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Randomized complete blocks, with 4 replications
and 7 treatments on 4 farms.

FIELD DESIGN: 21 plants per treatment.
Total trial area = 64.70 m
Planting date: 17 May 1984
Check variety: Campinas

LOCATIONS: 4









Paraguay Case Study 38
Training Docunent



























PRACTICUM 3

INTERPRETATION OF ON-FARM TRIALS










PRACrTICU 3: INTERPRETATION OF ON-FARM TRIALS


Objective:
After completing this practicum you will be able to use trial results
and other socio-economic variables to make recommendations for the next
stage of field activities.

Instructions:

1. Study the results of the exploratory trials given below.

2. In your small groups analyze data, draw conclusions, and design the
next set of trials.

3. Be prepared to present your findings in the plenary session.



RESULTS OF EXPLORATORY TRIALS

A. FERTILIZER IN GARLIC Observations: The fertilizer formula utilized
12-12-17-2 is the only fertilizer normally available in the region.
Soils dedicated to garlic are generally infertile as a consequence
of many years of continuous plantings.

1. Agronomic Analysis

TABLE 3.1 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for timing and doses of a complete
fertilizer in three farms.

Source of Variation DF MS

Blocks 2 3.48 NS
Locations 2 16.33 NS
Error(a) 4 7.36
Timing 2 0.7 NS
Loc. x Timing 4 0.98 NS
Error(b) 12 0.42
Dosis 2 8.42 **
Dosis x loc 4 2.63 NS
Dosis x Timing 4 0.33 NS
Loc. x Timing x
dosis 8 0.92 NS
Error (c) 36 1.44

TOTAL 80


CV: 20% Sx#- = 0.23




Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 41











TABLE 3.2 Yields of garlic
fertilizer.


Dosis
kg/ha
400
300
200
0


Yield
of
garlic
(T/ha)


Yield
ton/ha
6.44
6.05
5.34
3,14


obtained at three doses of complete


Tukey test 1%

a
ab
b
c


12-12-7-2 fertilizer
(kg/ha)






Fig. 3.1 Regression line and correlation coefficient for three
fertilizer levels of 12-12-17-2 in garlic. General Artigas.




Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 42


% over
control
205
193
170
100









2. Socioeconomic Analysis


TABLE 3.3 Marginal cost analysis of the fertilizer trials in garlic.


Dosis
kg/ha
400
300
200
0


Variable
Cost**
118,700
92,700
66,700


Marginal
Net Benefit
9,295
38,255
132,400


Marginal
Variable
Cost
26,000
26,000
66,700


* Net price of 181 Guaranies/kg after deduction of
handling and braiding.
** Fertilizer price is 260 Guaranies/kg. This cost
14,700 Guaranies for application, in addition to
fertilizer cost.


Marginal
Rate of Return
36
147
199


costs of harvest,

also includes
the variable


TABLE 3.4
prices at


Canparison of benefit-cost ratio
different levels of fertilizer.


for variable produce


80
fertilizer
kg/ha

0 0.55
200 0.7(
300 0.79
400 0.7E











Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


i


Guaranies / kg of garlic
100 120 140 160 180


0.69
0.96
0.99
0.97


0.82
1.15
1.19
1.17


0.97
1.33
1.39
1.36


1.10
1.53
1.58
1.55


1.24
1.72
1.78
1.75


Net
Benefit
464,120
454,825
416,570
284,170


200


1.38
1.91
1.98
1.94












B. Herbicide exploratory trials in garlic.
1. Agronoaic Analysis

TABLE 3.5 Identification of weeds and control rate of two
herbicides on garlic grown on two farms, Gral Artigas.

WEEDS EFFECTIVENESS OF HERBICIDE, % WEEDS KILLED
Gesagar (kg/ha) Basagran (1/ha)
Scientific Ccanon 1 2 3 2 3 4
name name


Oxalis spp.
Euphorbia
heterophylia
Ipomea nil
Cenchrus
echinatus
Malvastrum
corcmandelianum
Sonchus oleraceus
Cynodon dactilon
Soliva
pterosperma
Parietaria
debilis
Coniza
bonariensis
Canmelina
diffusa


Amaranthus
viiridis
Talinun
paniculatum
Bidens pilosa


Maky chi 100.0 99.8 97.9


Nana camby
Campanilla

Cadillo

Typycha hu
Cerraja
Capi i pe-i


100.0 100.0 78.4
100.0 100.0

88.7 84.7 84.2


93.9
72.5
80.0


60.6
100.0
100.0


28.9
100.0
-


Abrojo -

A a piky 100.0 85.8 100.0


Mbuy
Sta.Lucia
azul


Ca a ruru
Verdolaga
guazu
Capi i una


100.0 100.0 100.0


100.0 90.0


90.0


0.0 40.0 30.0

100.0 100.0 -
0.0 0.0 0.0


98.4 97.3


99.5


78.6 84.5 88.6
60.0 60.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0


82.9
94.2
-


78.1
20.0


85.2
94.5


98.7 -

100.0 0.0 0.0

100.0 100.0 -

90.0 90.0 90.0


0.0 0.0 0.0

33.4 90.0 100.0
80.2 18.6 55.2


Reference: 0 = had no control.
= weed not encountered in plot.


TABLE 3.6 Analysis of variance for
at three dosis in two farms.


garlic yield (ANOVA) for two herbicides


Rource of variation


Picada Pvta


Syryryca


Blocks NS NS
Herbicides NS NS
Dosis NS NS
Dosis x herbicide NS NS
% C.V. Gesagar 25 33
% C.V. Basagran 22 14


NS: Non significant


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


44











TABLE 3.7 Negative effect of herbicides observed in garlic at Bobi Pucu.


Basagran

2 It/ha
3 It/ha
4 It/ha


HERBICIDES


Gesagar

1 kg/ha
2 kg/ha
3 kg/ha


Gesagar D1 96.6%
D2 97.6%

D3 99.3%


plants with burned leave
plants with burned leave
plants completely burned
plants with burned leave
plant completely burned.


tips.
tips and 1.3%

tips and 10.6%


Basagran D1 -

D2 -

D3 -


99.9% of plants with partial damage and 2.6%
of plants completely burned
100% of plants with partial damage and 80.6% of plants
completely burned.
100% of plants with partial damage and 95.3% of plants
completely burned.


Observations:
1) when herbicides did not control weeds a manual cultivation followed
10-15 days after the application.
2) because of drought, the first application did not show any effect,
and so a second application was made 10 days after the first.
3) Visual appearances of burned leaves and plants influence farmers.

C. VARIETY EXPLORATORY TRIALS IN STRAWBERRY- Yield: fruit weight in grams
Quality grading: % 1st and 2nd Losses; % rot and bird damage
Observations: First quality fruit are those that weigh 6 grams or
more. Second quality fruit weight less than 6 grams. Bird damage
is related to length of peduncle, short peduncle being more
resistant; however long peduncle makes hand harvest easier.

1. Agronomic Analysis

TABLE 3.8 Analysis of variance for 7 varieties of strawberries on 4 farms.


Source of
Variation


Significance


Farms


Block (farms)

Variety

V x L
VxL

Error
C.V.= 28%; Sx=0.082


Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent


2.385

0.331

2.320

0.589


61 0.108


Dosis

Dosis 1
Dosis 2
Dosis 3


(DI)
(D2)
(D3)


~-~---~--









TABLE 3.9 Yield and fruit characteristics of 7 varieties of strawberry
on 4 farms.


Yield of Tukey % fruit


Marketable 1%


Variety


Tufts
M Alegre
Florida 90
Campinas
Aptos
Aiko
Douglas


fruit
T/ha
9.153
7.884
6.921
6.630
4.376
4.148
4.058


yield
compared
w/Campinas
138
113
104
100
66
63
61


Fruit % marketable Loss % to:
weight fruit Rot Bird
(g) 1st 2nd


7.6
5.1
5.7
6.5
6.0
6.7
7.4


2.0
1.5
1.9
4.0
2.0
3.5
3.0


Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent












TUFTS


MONTE ALEGRE




CAMPINAS


- Tufts r = 0.81
-.-- Monte Alegre r = 0.70
---- Campinas r = 0.68















/ /
-"-*
/ /
^ / /


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(Metric Tons/Ha)
ENVIRONMENTAL INDEX (e)


UNFAVORABLE
ENVIRONMENTS


FAVORABLE
ENVIRONMENTS


FIGURE 3.2 Regression lines for three varieties of strarr-r-ies through
16 environments.





Paraguay Case Study
Training -Document 47


9


8


7





= 4 7

I- 4


3
-) r








2


1


-(































x= 6.63
S- = 0.52
x


---Campinas

Tufts


x= 9.15
S = 1.11

I I
I I

I
I I
I I
I i*

I






S\



I ,


I I 1 I I I I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


YIELD, Metric Tons/Ha














FIGURE 3.3 Confidence intervals of yields of varieties Tufts and Campinas
through 16 environments.





Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 48


50
-


J 40
c4

S 30


z
02
u, 20
LL.
z
0
S 10-
o 10



























x= 6.63
S-= 0.52
x


50 -*-*-* Campinas
Monte Alegre


40


30-


20


0 1 2 3 4


5 6 7


YIELD Metric Tons/Ha














FIGURE 3.4 Confidence intervals for yields of strawberry v-- .- s
Campinas and Monte Alegre on 4 environments.





Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 49


= 7.89
Sy = 0.84

I j
I

I


\


8 9 10


S./ I
I_____, I I | \ !












TABLE 3.10 Variety x environment response for 7 strawberry varieties
tested in 4 farms. Paraguay 1984.



Farmer Location Tufts M.A. F.90 Camp. Apt. Douglas Aiko

Arguello Canadita A AB BC C C C C


Leguizamon Canadita


BC A


BC ABC


Garcete Thompson A A A A


Godoy


C BC AB

B AB AB


Thompson A AB AB B B B


Note: No significant difference exists among varieties with same letter.




Farmers' observations:
(1) 3 out of 4 farmers that planted the trial considered Tufts as the
best variety considering the following characteristics:


Size of fruit
Long and visible peduncle or easy harvest
Fruit resistance to handling
Tolerance to drought
Resistance to diseases, insects and spider mites.
Good potential for mulching


(2) Before the trial data had been interpreted, farmers started to
reproduce the Tufts variety on their own.



















Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 50









Paraguay's Alternative: Practicun 3


Instructions:
1. Study the following conclusions made by the Paraguay PTPA team.

2. Discuss.

A. FERTILIZER TRIALS IN GARLIC:

1. CV = 20% indicates reliability in the information.

2. The time of application does not make a difference. That is,
fertilizer can be applied 60, 90 or 120 days after planting,
depending on labor availability.

3. Levels of fertilizer is the only factor in which significant
differences were detected. The application of 400 kg/ha of
fertilizer has the largest yield (205% of yield for no application)
but the application of 200 kg/ha had the best marginal rate of
return, (199%). Mhen the price of the product varies, this same
rate (200 kg/ha) still remains close to the rates with the higher
benefit/cost ratios (300 and 400 kg/ha).

4. Regression analysis shows an average increase in yield of 8 kg of
garlic for each kg of fertilizer applied.


B. HERBICIDE TRIALS IN GARLIC:

1. The herbicides evaluated did not effectively control all the weeds
present in the trials. These two post-emergence herbicides are not
adequate alternative for weed control in garlic.

2. Any herbicide with post-emergence mode of action will face the
problem of labor availability for the recommended time of
application.


C. VARIETY TRIALS IN STRAWBERRY:

1. Variety Tufts was significantly better in marketable fruit yield,
38% over Campinas. This increase over the check variety amounts to
2.523 T/ha.

2. The yield performance of the varieties varied through the different
locations. This shows a strong interaction between cultivars and
environment.

3. Soil variability in each location was evident, and this was
confirmed by the highly significant effect for blocks within farms
in the ANOVA.

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 51









4. Monte Alegre was the second best variety in yield performance (7.89
T/ha), but with no significant difference over Florida 90 (6.92
T/ha) and Campinas (6.6 T/ha).

5. Varieties Aptos, Aiko, and Douglas had the lowest yield
performance, but still had same agronomic characteristics that
farmers liked (fruit size, ease of harvest, drought resistance,
fruit resistance to handling).

6. Tufts and Douglas had the highest percentage of total fruit for
first harvest (69 and 64%, respectively). Monte Alegre and Florida
90 (63 and 51%) had the best percentages for total fruit in second
harvest.

7. Tufts had the lowest fruit loss percentage (12%) and Florida 90 had
the highest (21%). Campinas had the highest fruit loss to birds
(4%) and the short peduncle variety, Monte Alegre, was the least
affected (1.5%) .

8. Campinas showed more stability across environmental differences,
but Tufts and Monte Alegre had better yields (especially in
favorable environments). Tufts would respond well to technological
changes in management and to moderately unfavorable environments.

9. The risk involved in recommending Tufts as the best variety,
compared to the more stable variety (Campinas), is a low 15%.





























Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 52

























PRACTICUM 4

MODIFIED STABILITY ANALYSIS AND RISK EVALUATION









PRACTICM 4: MODIFIED STABILITY ANALYSIS AND RISK EVALUATION OF
4 MAIZE VARIETIES

Objectives:
After completing this practicum you will be able to:

1. Understand and be able to analyze and interpret on-farm trial
data using modified stability analysis and distribution of
confidence intervals for risk evaluation.

2. Understand the concept of a research domain and be able to
re-define recommendation domains.

3. Understand the effect of number of locations (farms) and range
of environment on research results.

Instructions:

1. Using the maize yield data provided, you will perform the
calculations and construct the graphs for modified stability
analysis and distribution of confidence intervals.

2. In small groups you will interpret the analyses.

3. Be prepared to discuss the results in a plenary session.

4. You will be asked to discuss your results relative to the
conclusions made by the Paraguay PTPA team. A copy of Paraguay's
alternative will be given to you by your instructor.

Time required: One day.



TRIAL CHARACTERISTICS


Location:

31 farms in 6 administrative subdivisions in Paraguay. Twenty four
locations produced numerical data which are identified in Fig. 1.

Varieties:

Poblacion 66
Suwan 8027
Guarani V-311
Criollo (farmer's local variety)

Planting distances:

1. Farmers' practices: 3-4 plants per hill in rows
1.0 to 1.2 m apart.

Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 55









2. Two plants per hill every 0.50 m in same row width as that used by
farmers.

Experimental design:

Randomized complete blocks with 2 replications.

Observations: This trial is the second stage of varietal screening which
began with CIMMYT collaboration two years earlier when 24 varieties were
screened at 6 locations. The three improved varieties in this trial were
chosen on the basis of modified stability analysis from those data. The
fourth, Criollo, is the variety used by each farmer. Poblacion 66 is a
researchers preferred variety because of a better balance of
protein.(Opaque-2)

Originally, in this trial, 31 farms were included. Of these trials,
six were lost in one region due to bird damage and one was discarded
because of a high CV. The 24 analized trials are located on figure 1 and
their characteristics are shown in Table 4.


RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

An analysis of variance was performed on the original data and is
shown in the following table.


TABLE 4.1 Analysis of variance for four varieties
distances in 24 locations. Paraguay, 1984.

Source of variation d.f. MS
Blocks/locations 24 0.895 **
Variety (V) 3 6.966 **
Distance (D) 1 7.738 **
Location (L) 23 19.643 **
VxD 3 0.275 NS
VxL 69 0.554 **
DxL 23 0.520 **
VXDxL 69 0.183 NS
Error 168 0.216
TOTAL 383
CV= 15.7%
-* Significant at 1%
NS Non significant


and two planting


Because the distance x variety interaction was not
significant, the yields reported were for pooled distances.
These are shown in Table 2.








Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 56















1 '
o-14 '


16 /
*13 /
*15 ---/


I


% r








10
129 *11
/ \


*3 \ ) 24
S1 23"
2 o
/ 2,.
L ,- ,' 21 22 ,
II '


5 e 6 "- u
- 8'
8\\


5. 7O.
5 --


- -i


/


*18

*17


19 *


DEPARTA'-ElfO DE COCEPCICN
1. YBY YAU
2. HORQUETA
3. LORETO
4. CONCEPCION.

DEPARTJ-NI4O DE CORJDLLERA

5. ]SLA PUCU
6. EUSEBIO AYALA
7. SANTA ELENA
8. VALENZUELA

DEPARTrMeTO DE PARAGUARI

9. YBYCUI
10. SAPUCAI

DEPART/flNTO DE GJAIRA


11. ITURBE
. 12. GRAL. EUGENIO A.. GARAY

DEPARTfN-lTO0 DE CMZAPA

13. MACIEL
.CAAZAPA
15. YUTY

DEPARTVENffO DE MIS10NES

16. S.JUAN BAUT!STA (2 BENSYOS)
17. STA. ROSA (2 ENSAYOS)

DEPARTMENT ITAPU4

18. CNEL. BOGAiW (2 ENSAYOS)
19. GRAL. ARTIGAS (2 ENSAYOS)

DEPtARTPMENTO FEEBU2CU


20. SAN JUAN
21. 1. U-BU (3 ENSAYOS)
22. HUMAITA
23. GENERAL D1AZ


Figure 4.1


Distribution of Analized Maize Trials, Paraguay, 1984


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


*-


' ,










Table 4.2


Yields of four maize varieties in 24 locations in Paraguay,
1984


Pereira
Cue


Tacuary


Sapucal Caacupe


Suwan 8027 5.360 3.098 4.794 3.012
Guar. V-311 4.342 2.670 3.031 2.253
Poblacion 66 4.583 2.582 3.744 2.363
Criollo 3.597 3.182 2.766 2.345
Environment (e) 4.471 2.883 3.584 2.493

San Juan Ibanez Ycua San
Rojas Sati Solano

Suwan 8027 2.357 1.334 2.551 2.090
Guar. V-311 1.993 1.383 2.103 1.733
Poblacion 66 1.807 1.306 2.589 1.895
Criollo 1.641 1.660 1 914 1.728
Environment (e) 1.950 1.421 2.289 1.862

Valenzuela Isla Piribebuy Eusebio
Pucu Ayala

Suwan 8027 2.877 2.516 1.904 2.701
Guar. V-311 1.601 2.383 1.714 2.259
Poblacion 66 2.558 2.696 1.602 2.467
Criollo 2.299 2.261 1.595 2.243
Environment (e) 2.334 2.464 1.704 2.418

Horqueta Yby-Yau Concepcion Loreto

Suwan 8027 4.939 5.246 4.799 4.215
Guar. V-311 4.931 5.538 4.128 2.738
Poblacion 66 4.011 4.781 4.472 2.871
Criollo 4.467 4.410 4.247 2.580
Environment (e) 4.587 4.994 4.412 3.101

Ypayere Syryryca Nacional


Suwan 8027
Guar. V-311
Poblacion 66
Criollo
Environment (e)


3.184
2.672
3.341
3.443
3.160


4.682
4.503
4.238
4.684
4.527


3.462
2.646
3.262
2.153
2.881


Yuty Maciel Caazapa Iturbe E.A. ar3ay


Suwan 8027
Guar. V-311
Poblacion 66
Criollo
Environment


3.735
3.682
3.194
2.790
(e) 3.350


2.421
2.192
1.556
1.690
1.965


4.960
5.514
3.708
4.136
4.580


2.125
1.549
1.778
1.600
1.763


1 .,,


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document









TABLE 4.3 Yield and agronomic characteristics of four maize
varieties in 24 locations. Paraguay, 1984. The variety
average yields and selected agronomic characteristics
are shown.


Characteristic


Suwan 8027


VARIETY
Guarani V-311 Poblacion 66


Yield, ton/ha

% of local
variety

Tukey 1%

Days to flower

Height, cm, of:
Plant
Ear

Lodging by type:
Root
Stem

% Ears
With tips exposed
Rotten

Ears per plant


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


Criollo


2.882


2.718


100


3.346


123

a

70


152
70


4
4


1.08


2.895


107

b

82


221
137


13
11


1.09


147
60


218
121


0.99


0.97










Table 4.4 Characteristics of 24 locations where maize variety
trials were conducted, Paraguay, 1984.

YBYCUI
Pereira Cue Tacuary Sapucai Caacupe


Years in use
Soil type/color

Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation


# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility

Other
Livestock
Male role
Female role
Land tenure


20
Sandy Clay
Reddish
Rolling
10-20
Basic*


5-7


Oxen
5-10
Good


50
Clayey sand
Dark brown
Level
5-10
Basic


5-7


Oxen
5-10
Good


10-20
Loamy clay
Black
Steep
5
Basic
+ alfalfa
(No fert)
5

Oxen
10-15
Poor


50
Clayey sand
Dark brown
Level
5-10
Basic


5-7

Oxen
5-10
Good


Minifundio


Years in use
Soil type/color

Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation
# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility

Other
Livestock
Male role
Female role
Land tenure


San Juan

>50
Clayey sand
Light brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic
3-4

Oxen
4-15
Good


Important
Livestock
Crops


MISIONES
Ibanez Rojas

>50
Clayey sand
Lite brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic
3-4

Oxen
4-15
Good


Important
Livestock
Crops


Yacua Sati

>50
Clayey sand
Light brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic
3-4

Oxen
4-15
Poor


Important
Livestock
Crops


San Solano

>50
Clayey sand
Lite brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic
3-4

Oxen
4-15
Good


Important
Livestock
Crops


*Maize, Cassava, cowpea, with cotton as cash crop.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 60


i









Valenzuela


CORDILLERA


Isla Pucu


Piribebuv Eusebio Avala


Years in use
Soil type/color


Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation


# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility

Other
Livestock
Male role
Female role
Land tenue


>50
Sandy clay

Red
Steep
3-9
Basic +
vegetables
(fert)
5

Oxen
10-15
Good





Minifundio


>50
Sandy clay

Red
Steep
3-9
Basic +
vegetables
(fert)
5

Oxen
10-15
Good





Minifundio


>50
Sand-loam-
clay
Light brown
Steep
3-9
Basic +
vegetables
(fert)
5

Oxen
10-15
Good





Minifundio


>50
Clayey sand

Dark brown
Steep
3-9
Basic +
vegetables
(fert)
5

Oxen
10-15
Good





Minifundio


CONCEPCION


Yby-Yau Concepcion


Years in use
Soil type/color

Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation




# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility


20
Sandy clay
Dark red
Rolling
3-15
Basic +
Castor bean
(no fert)


7-10

Oxen
10-15
Poor


20
Sandy clay
Dark red
Rolling
3-15
Basic +
Castor bean
(no fert)


7-10

Oxen
10-15
Poor


20
Sandy clay
Dark red
Rolling
3-15
Basic +
Castor bean
(no fert)


7-10

Oxen
10-15
Poor


50
Clayey sand
Lite brown
Rolling
3-15
Basic +
vegetables +
(fert)
Castor beans
(no fert)
7-10

Oxen
10-15
Poor


Other
Livestock
Male role
Female role
Land tenure






Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


Horqueta


Loreto












Years in use
Soil type/color

Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation


# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility
Other
Livestock
Male role
Female role
Ethnic origin


CNEL. BOGADO
Ypayere Syryryca
20-30 20-30
Sandy clay Sandy clay
Red Red
Rolling Rolling
10-20 10-20
Basic + Basic +
garlic garlic
(no fert) (no fert)
7-10 7-10


Horses
6-10
Poor




Extraction
Northern-
European.


Horses
6-10
Poor




Extraction
Northern-
European


-----


Yury


GARAY


CAAZAPA
MACIEL


Years in use
Soil type/color

Slope
Farm size (ha)
Crop rotation


Pasture
# yrs in fallow
Source of
traction
Size of family
Accessibility


Other
Livestock
Male role


Female role


30
Sandy clay
Red
Rolling
10-15
Basic


4-5


80-100
Clayey sand
Brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic +
sugar


5-10

Oxen
5-10
Good


Oxen
10
Poor


Some


Crops
No sugar
cane


Young migrate
out for educ.
Older people
farm.


20
Sandy clay
Red
Level
30-40
Basic +
vegetables
(fert)


4-5

Oxen
10
Poor


Important


Sugar cane


crops


Sugar cane
area


80-100
Clayey sand
Brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic +
sugar


5-10

Oxen
5-10
Good


Sugar cane


crops


No sugar Sugar cane
cane area


80-100
Clayey sand
Brown
Rolling
5-10
Basic
sugar


5-10

Oxen
5-10
Good


Sugar cane

crops

Sugar cane
area


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


CAAZAPA


ITURBE


E A.


Nacional
40
Sandy Clay
Dark Brown
Level
5-10
Basic


5-7

Oxen
10-15
Good




(No garlic)


------- ----- --








Practicum 4: Paraguay's Alternative


Instructions:
1. Study the following information on the results of the trials
carried out by the Paraguayan team.

2. Discuss these results.

1. Fig.4.2 presents the regression analysis for yields of the four
varieties Suwan 8027, Guarani V-311, Pobl. 66 and Criollo across 24
locations. Since no significant difference was observed in the
interaction of varieties x densities (Table 1, MS= 0.275 NS), yield
values were pooled.

Figs. 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 provide confidence intervals for varieties
Criollo and Suwan 8027, Criollo and Pobl. 66 and Criollo and Guarani
V-311.

2. Variety Suwan 8027 averaged 3.346 ton/ha across 24 locations. This
represents a 23% higher yield than the Criollo varieties. The Tukey
means comparison confirms the superiority of Suwan 8027 over the other
three varieties. Suwan 8027 shows less risk of low yields than either
Poblacion 66 or Guarani V-311. The probability that Suwan 8027 will
produce at least a yield similar to the highest yields of Criollo is
only 4%; the same probability for varieties Poblacion 66 and Guarani
V-311 is over 50%.

3. Poblacion 66 and Suwan 8027 are respectively 16 and 11 days earlier to
flower than the criollo varieties and are from 71 to 66 cm lower in
plant height. Lodging in Guarani V-311 and Criollo averaged 24% and
25%, respectively, while lodging in Poblacion 66 and Suwan 8027 was
only 10% and 8%, respectively.

4. Fig. 4.6 presents the regression analysis for two row planting
distances (50 an and farmers' practice) across 24 locations. At lower
environments the farmers distance produced equal or more than the 50
an distance, while the opposite occurred under better environments.
Overall, the yield of the 50 cm distance treatment was 10% greater
(3.102 ton/ha)than farmer spacing. The introduced treatment also
created conflicts with the farmer's traditional practices and cannot be
recatnmended.

5. Recommendations.

5.1 To increase seed of Suwan 8027.

5.2 To validate Suwan 8027 in farmers' fields at no less than 10
locations in each Regional Center using plots of 2000 to 3000 2.

5.3 To continue evaluation of new experimental varieties in farmer's
fields, comparing tested materials in collaboration with the
Maize Program.


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 63










5.4 To explore cropping systems alternatives with Suwan 8027 and
other association or relay activities as, for example, with
soybean and cassava.

5.5 To encourage the maize Program to begin population improvement in
Suwan 8027.

5.6 To change the Suwan 8027 name to something that means something to
farmers for example, KARAPE PYTA.















































Paraguay Case Study
Training. Dcument 64











Suwan 8027 B = 1.077
2 = 0.94


Guarani V-311 B 1.112
r2 = 0.93


Pobl. 66 B =0.913
2 = 0.93


- *- Criollo B = 0.987
r2 =0.91 /


//*
S////

/ /.







//


/


/

/ ii


Ton/Ha


Figure 4.2 Regression analysis of yields (ton/Ha)
(x ton/ha of each location) for four varieties in
1984.



Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 65


vs. environment indexes
24 locations in Paraguay,


5 -+


2 +


1 4
























Xu= 2.717
Criollo I
SX= 0.115 I
v I I

I I
40I
X = 3.346 I I
Suwan 8027
(SX 0.133
I I

30I

I_









10 I I
20 j

20--








I I \
5 --/I



1 2 3 4
TON/Ha.
1 I
















Figure 4.3 Confidence intervals for yield (ton/ha) of varieties Criollo
and Suwan 8027 from 24 locations in Paraguay, 1984.
*



Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 66

























X = 2.717
40 Criollo
SX = 0.115 I



I
30 -
SX2 = 2.882
S-- Poblaci6n 66
2 SX = 0.116


20 I
I I
I I



10

I I I
5t */ I \



1 2 3 4
TON/Ha.





Figure 4.4 Confidence intervals for yield (ton/ha) of varieties Criollo
and Poblacion 66 from 24 locations in Paraguay, 1984.




Paraguay Case Study
Training Docunent 67















I I

X = 2.717
Criollo S 0.11
S^= 0.115 / I
50 I
I I

I I

X = 2.895 I
S Guarani V 311 I
40
40 *SX=,0.139
I I




30 1




I I


/ I

1 2



TON/Ha.










Figure 4.5 Confidence intervals for yield (ton/ha) of varieties Criollo
and Guarani V-311 from 24 locations in Paraguay, 1984.




Paraguay Case Study
Training Document 68
















4 +


/


- Distancia 50 cm. B = 1.065
r2= 0.98

Distancia del Agricultor B = 0.935
r2= 0.97


2/


2

Environment Index, Ton/Ha


Figure 4.6 Regression lines
ton/ha) of each location for
Paraguay, 1984.


for yield (ton/ha) vs. environment indexes (x
two row planting distances in 24 locations in


Paraguay Case Study
Training Document


L






























































Farming Systems Support Project


International Programs
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Office of Agriculture and
Office of Multisectoral Development
Bureau for Science and Technology
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523




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