• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Index of tables
 Purpose of the commission
 Preamble and objectives
 Introduction
 The agricultural sector in...
 Present status of agricultural...
 Needs for agricultural technological...
 A National Center for Agricultural...
 The organization of "Centa"
 Cost, financing and justificat...
 Conclusion
 I. Brief history of agricultural...
 II. Organization and summary of...
 III. Brief history of agricultural...
 IV. Personnel Buildup Schedule...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Proposal for the creation of a National Center of Agricultural Technology
Title: A Proposal for the creation of a National Center of Agricultural Technology
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053909/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Proposal for the creation of a National Center of Agricultural Technology
Physical Description: x, 155 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: El Salvador -- Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a
CENTA Commission
Publisher: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a
Place of Publication: San Salvador
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- El Salvador   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by the CENTA Commission appointed by the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a.
General Note: At head of title: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053909
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10596598

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Acknowledgement
        ii
        iii
    Table of Contents
        iv
        v
        vi
    Index of tables
        vii
        viii
    Purpose of the commission
        xi
    Preamble and objectives
        x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The agricultural sector in El Salvador
        Page 13
        The importance of the agricultural sector in overall development
            Page 13
        Agricultural output falters- effect on overall economy
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Cause of agricultural production slow-down
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
    Present status of agricultural technology in El Salvador-problems
        Page 19
        Agricultural research
            Page 19
            Public support for agricultural research
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Problems
                Page 21
                Page 22
            Present research shortcomings
                Page 23
                Page 24
                Page 25
        Agricultural extension
            Page 26
            Problems
                Page 27
                Page 28
        Agricultural extension
            Page 29
            National school of agriculture, "Roberto Quinonez"
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
            The faculty of Agronomic Science at the University of El Salvador
                Page 32
                Page 33
    Needs for agricultural technological development in El Salvador
        Page 34
        Agricultural research needs
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Areas for additional research
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
            Research and diversification
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
            Personnel needs for an expanded research program
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
        Agricultural extension needs
            Page 60
        Agricultural educational needs for training agricultural technologists
            Page 60
            The National School of Agriculture "Roberto Quiñones"
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
            The faculty of agronomic science, The University of El Salvador
                Page 64
            Graduate training program
                Page 65
    A National Center for Agricultural Technology in El Salvador
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    The organization of "Centa"
        Page 70
        Location
            Page 70
        Manpower and personnel
            Page 71
            Training agricultural technologies for the growing agricultural sector
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
            Staffing the center
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
            Personnel management
                Page 79
        Physical facilities-"One Time" capital investments
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Administration
            Page 107
            Nature of the institute - objectives
                Page 107
            Subject matter departments
                Page 108
            The board of trustees
                Page 109
                Page 110
                Page 111
                Page 112
    Cost, financing and justification
        Page 113
        Cost of the center
            Page 113
        Financing the center
            Page 114
        Feasibility and justification
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Conclusion
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    I. Brief history of agricultural research in El Salvador
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    II. Organization and summary of achievements of agricultural research in El Salvador
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    III. Brief history of agricultural extension in El Salvador
        Page 135
        Page 136
    IV. Personnel Buildup Schedules
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Back Cover
        Page 156
Full Text


MINISTERIO DE AGRICULTURE Y GANADERIA




A

PROPOSAL

FOR THE CREATION OF

A

NATIONAL CENTER
OF

AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY


Prepared by the Commision
appointed by the
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia


San Salvador, july 1970.







ii -


LETTER OF. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TO THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK


The Commission named by you on June 26, 1969, to study the means for coordi
nating and increasing the technical and economic resources for the efficient de-
velopment of agricultural research, education and extension in our country, has
the pleasure of presenting to you this report of its work with conclusions and
recommendations that it considers necessary to achieve the goals implied in
your charge to the Commission.

It has been the aim of the Commission to develop a plan and a program for
an institution which will embody a complete system, not piecemeal units. The
institution will have many facets which can stand alone, but together they will
constitute a coordinated and integrated system for the development and promul-
gation of advanced agricultural technology in El Salvador.

The Commission members appointed by you were the following: Ing. Francisco
Lino Osegueda J., former Director of the National School of Agriculture and
present Sub-secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Ing. Joas
Roberto Castillo Paredes, dairy farmer and agricultural leader; Ing. Armando
Alas L6pez, Subdirector of agricultural research; Agr. Jose Perez Guerra,
Subdirector of agricultural extension; Mr. Claud L. Horn, technical advisor on
agricultural research to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; and Dr.
George W. Westcott, technical advisor on agricultural planning and development
to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. Later named .to the Commission
were Dr. Carlos F. Burgos, Subdirector of the National School of Agriculture
and Ing. Ren6 Portillo Velasco, Head of the Department of Agricultural
Extension.

Many meetings were held by the Commission, at times including al- of the
members, on other occasions as subcommissions, to discuss all of the different
aspects of this report. Special advisors were called to meet with the
Commission. These included representatives of private foundations; University
personnel to discuss mutual problems pertaining to technical agricultural
education; administrative and personnel experts; technical advisors representing
particular phases of agricultural technology especially for livestock research
and education; experts on methodology for agricultural research, extension, and
agricultural education; and Mr. Carlos E. Molestina, Communication Specialist
from IICA.

The Commission wishes to thank the Minister for his confidence and support.
The Commission also wishes to express its gratitude to Mr. Claud L. Horn, now
retired, not only for his technical counsel but for his vision, enthusiasm and
confidence in the future for Salvadoran Agriculture. Special acknowledgement
is given to Dr. George W. Westcott for his foresight and work, and for all
his effort and experience that made possible the elaboration and conclusion
of this report.








- iii-


The Commission thanks all of the persons who in one way or another contrib-
uted to the preparation of this report.

We hope that our proposals and recommendations will strike the imaginations
of Salvadoran leaders and result in the unleashing of their greatest energies
to create the National Center for Agricultural Technology. We believe that
this is the key which will unlock the great potentials for agricultural growth
and the further overall development of El Salvador.






CENTA Commission.


June, 1970.


*- -. t








- iv -


TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

Title Page i

Letter of Acknowledgement to the Minister of Agriculture
and Livestock ii

Table of Contents iv

Purpose of the Commission ix

Preamble Objectives x

I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1

II. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN EL SALVADOR 13

A. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN
OVERALL DEVELOPMENT 13

B. AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT FALTERS EFFECT ON OVERALL ECONOMY 14

C. CAUSE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SLOW-DOWN 16

III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN
EL SALVADOR PROBLEMS 19

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 19

1. Public Support for Agricultural Research 19

2. Problems 21

3. Present Research Shortcomings 23

B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 26

1. Problems 27

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 29

1. National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quif6nez" 29

2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science at the University of
El Salvador. 32

IV. NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN
EL SALVADOR 34

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH NEEDS 35

1. Areas for Additional Research 38











2. Research and Diversification

3. Personnel Needs for an Expanded Research Program

B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NEEDS

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR TRAINING
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGISTS

1. The National School of Agriculture "Roberto Quif6nez"

2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science, The University of
El Salvador

3. Graduate Training Program

V. A NATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR

VI. THE ORGANIZATION OF "CENTA"

A. LOCATION

B. MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL

1. Training Agricultural Technologists for the Growing
Agricultural Sector

2. Staffing the Center

3. Personnel Management

C. PHYSICAL FACILITIES "ONE TIME" CAPITAL INVESTMENTS

D. ADMINISTRATION

1. Nature of the Institution Objectives

2. Subject Matter Departments

3. The Board of Trustees

VII. COST, FINANCING AND JUSTIFICATION

A. COST OF THE CENTER

B. FINANCING THE CENTER

C. FEASIBILITY AND JUSTIFICATION


PAGE

47

51

60


60

61


64

65

66

70

70

71


71

76

79

80

107

107

108

109

113

113

114

115


- v -









- vi -


PAGE

VIII. CONCLUSIONS 123


APPENDIX I

Brief History of Agricultural Research in El Salvador 126

APPENDIX II

Organization and Summary of Achievements of Agricultural
Research in El Salvador 132

APPENDIX III

Brief History of Aricultural Extension in El Salvador 135

APPENDIX IV

Personnel Buildup Schedules

TABLE 14 CENTA Staff 137

TABLE 15 Research Staff 139

TABLE 16 Extension Staff 142

TABLE 17 ENA Staff 148

TABLE 18 Recapitulation 151









- vii -


INDUX OF TABLES PAGE

TABLE 1

ENA Student Enrollemnt Projections 62

TABLE 2

ENA Faculty Projections 63

TABLE 3

Schedule for Programming Perito Agricola Level Personnel 73

TABLE 4

Schedule for Programming Home Economics Perito Level Personnel 74

TABLE 5

Schedule for Programming Bachelor Level Personnel 75

TABLE 6

Schedule for Programming Masters and Doctorate Level Personnel 77

TABLE 7

Schedule for Programming Graduate Scholarships 78

TABLE 8

Scheduled Salary Rates within Grades 81

TABLE 9

Classification and Compensation Plans 82

TABLE 10

Comparable Classifications and Compensations 86

TABLE 11

Proposed Build-up for Personnel and Salary Costs 119

TABLE 12

Recapitulation of Annual Totals for Personnel and other Costs 120

TABLE 13

Recapitulation of Costs, Fund Sources, Agricultural Income and
Income Cost Ratios 121








- viii -


PAGE


TABLE 14

Personnel Build-up Schedule for

TABLE 15

Personnel Build-up Schedule for

TABLE 16

Personnel Build-up Schedule for

TABLE 17

Personnel Build-up Schedule for

TABLE 18

Personnel Build-up Schedule A


CENTA Staff



Research Staff



Extension Staff



ENA Staff


Recapitulation


142








ix -

PURPOSE-OF-THE COMMISS-ION

In the words of Minister Alvarez, the purpose of this Commission is "aunar

e incrementar esfuerzos tecnicos y recursos econ6micos para el eficiente desa-

rrollo de las labores de Investigaci6n, Educaci6n y Extensi6n Agrlcola".

It may be said that the ultimate purpose of the Commission is to recommend

the means needed to provide the technical agricultural knowledge necessary to

facilitate the full development of El Salvador's optimum potential for agri-

cultural productivity,--in the interest.of agricultural output, human welfare,

and National Glory.

Immediate Purposes

To serve as a Policy Commission to:

1. Review and update the two proposals entitled "Anteproyecto de Creaci6n del

Centro Nacional de Tecnificaci6n Agricola", October 1968, and "La Educaci6n,

Investigaci6n y Extensi6n Agricola y el Desarrollo Agricola Salvadoreno",

May 1969.

Among other things this may include a systematic review discussion of such

obvious and immediate problems as personnel and salaries, transportation,

financial support, et cetera.

2. Consider and recommend the means for implementing these reports. For example,

should the GOES invite institutions such as the World Bank, BID, AID, the

United Nations (FAO), OECD, Foundations, or a consortium of these to sponsor

a panel of experienced top-level agricultural scientists, educators and

administrators to consider (1) the adequacy and feasibility of the program

as outlined in these reports and (2) if advisable assist the Salvadorans in

preparing a 20-year overall integrated National Program for Agricultural

Education, Research and Education for El Salvador and (3) the means for

financing the establishment of such an expanded program of agricultural

technology in El Salvador.











PREAMBLE AND OBJECTIVES

El Salvador must move ahead. Its lands are capable of producing at least

seven times more than they produce today. Thirty years hence El Salvador's

lands, with increasing technology, will be capable of producing 15 times more

than they produce today. It's 3,000,000 people are intelligent and ambitious.

They will increase three times to 9,000,000 in the next 30 years. It is

possible for 9,000,000 Salvadorans to be efficient and enjoy levels of living

many times higher than today with El Salvador's present natural resources if

they improve their efficiency enough to increase agricultural output five times

in the next 30 years.

To make this possible, the immediate objective of this proposal is to create

a National Center for Agricultural Technology in El Salvador of sufficient

magnitude to provide trained personnel and furnish new research facts to support

an annual agricultural growth rate of at least 5 to 6 per cent which will

quintuple agricultural output during the next 30 years.

This Center will integrate and coordinate all of the activities of agriculture

al education, research, and extension to be carried on by the Government of El

Salvador under a single administrative organization in the interest of optimum

efficiency in the use of human and financial resources,--to the end that the

nutrition, income and level of rural living will be improved to the utmost,--

and that this will, in turn, improve the general welfare of all Salvadoran

people.


- X -











I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY


The Situation Today

Agriculture has played the primary role in the development of most of the

world's kore economically advanced countries. It has provided manpower, capital,

and raw materials for overall development.

Today, agriculture is, by far, the predominant factor in the growth and de

velopment of El Salvador. Agricultural production directly accounts for the

activities of 60% of the Salvadoran people, the use of 75% of the nation's-land

and 45% of its reproducible manmade capital. Seventy-five percent of El

Salvador's exports and 30% of its income (PFB) is derived directly from agri-

cultural output.

Agribusiness activities support agricultural production by providing in-

puts, the services for transporting, storing, processing and distributing the

outputs, and include the institutional means for providing technological edu-

cation-and research and farm credit. These, when added to the income derived

directly from agricultural production, double the income attributable .to and

dependent on agricultural output. Thus, about 60% of El Salvador's PTB goes up

or down with the volume of farm production not only because of the change in

"value added" due to the change in volume of production and distribution of

farm products but because of the multiplier or dimunition effects that these

changes have on the entire economy.

But impressive as agriculture is today, it is only producing 15% as much as

could be produced on its land and with its people if by some miracle, all present

known agricultural technology could be adapted and applied to El Salvador's agri-

cultural resources.

Each year agricultural output at today's prices could be worth seven times

the value of today's production or 4,340 million colones instead-ofLtoday-'f 620








- 2-


million colones (1969). The ingredient needed to make this transformation is

more investment in the agricultural sector and the basic investment need is for

education, research and extension.

Technical knowledge is the miracle ingredient that is now lacking. We may

have all the ingredients for agricultural development, namely: I~althy ~and

literate rural people, good land and water, enough capital facilities, sufficient

agricultural production factors such as improved seed, fertilizers, pesticides

and equipment, the credit necessary to purchase these factors, ample marketing

facilities, and sufficient economic incentives, but if we don't have the

necessary technical knowledge (know-how) then all of the other above-mentioned

ingredients are lost.

To develop the technical knowledge to provide this miracle,ingredient,

countries which have achieved a higher level of economic development such as,

for example, Germany, England, Japan and the United States,--are investing

around 7.0% of their gross agricultural income in agricultural education, re-

search and extension. El Salvador is investing only six tenths of one per

cent (0.6%) of its gross agricultural income in the development of its agri-

cultural technology. This is about 1/12th as much as in the more developed

countries and is wholly inadequate to maintain even present levels of agricultur-

al production largely because of the encroachments of sub-tropical insects and

diseases which are not understood because of the lack of research.

Agricultural output in El Salvador reached its peak in 1964. During the

next four years it stagnated at levels 6 to 12% below 1964. Preliminary

estimates for 1969 indicate that production was the same as the 1964 high. This

slowdown has been caused by an accumulation of crop and livestock production

problems (mostly insects and diseases) that come with intensification of agri-

cultural production and for which there are, at present, few or no answers due

to inadequate technical education, research and extension.








- 3-


Salvadoran population is expanding at 3.6 to 3.9% per year and will triple

during the next 30 years in spite of general adoption of family planning*. Per

capital income hopefully should increase 2.5% per year. With these growth rates

the domestic demand for food products will increase fivefold during the next

30 years. Unless agricultural output can be quintupled during this critical

period there will be huge increases in food imports that will drain the

country's foreign exchange earnings and its ability to buy goods needed for

economic development and there will be a drastic increase in unemployment and

underemployment.

The Commission Proposal

Fortunately, with an adequate high-grade technological education and re-

search program as proposed herein, agriculture could soon achieve a growth rate

of 5 to 6% per year. This would enable El Salvador to triple its agricultural

output in twenty years and quintuple it in 30 years. It would stimulate rather

than hamper economic growth. It would triple the employment needed to satisfy

the increased needs for agriculture and agribusiness**.



* Even if family planning is generally adopted during the next 10 years, this
will not reduce the Salvadorean population growth rate below the present
3.6 to 3.9% rate during the next 20 to 30 years because half of the present
population is under 15 years of age and there will be more females of child
bearing age per 1,000 people during the next 20 to 30 years. Even though
they may bear fewer children per 1,000 females of child bearing age than at
present, the higher number of child bearing females will offset the former.
General adoption of family planning will help the present 3.6 to 3.9% growth
rate from going even higher during the next 20 to 30 years and it will defi-
nitely slow down the growth rate in the second and third future generations
from what it otherwise would be.

** These are conservative projections because they are based on present techni
calknowledge which is now doubling every 15 years. El Salvador's potential
for agricultural production 30 years hence will be twice what it is today,
if it has the technical institutions to adapt this rapidly increasing tech-
nology to El Salvador's environment.








4 -
-4-

Under this proposal El Salvador's annual investment in agricultural techno-

logical research and education will be increased approximately 8.5 times present

levels as rapidly as possible over the next 10 years. This minimum program will

be sufficient to stimulate resumption of El Salvador's agricultural growth rate

from its present state of stagnation to 5.7% per year.

Actually, with Salvadoran agricultural output expanding at 5.7% per year,

this proposed program will constitute an annual investment in agricultural tech

nology over the next five to fifteen years, which will be only approximately

2.5% per year of El Salvador's expanding gross agricultural output. Thus, the

cost of agricultural education, research and extension in El Salvador as a

percent of gross agricultural income will still be only about one third of that

now being invested in the more developed countries of Western Europe and in

Japan and the United States. But it is believed that this will be adequate since

much of the scientific information and research methodology developed in the

temperate zones of the World can be transferred to El Salvador for application

through applied research which must be done under local Salvadoran conditions.

Such a program has successfully demonstrated in several developing countries,

that agricultural growth can be speeded up to 5 or 6% per year, or even more.

But 2.5% of the gross agricultural income is the minimum that will achieve this

miracle.

The total accumulated cost of this program over the next 20 years will be

less than 3% of the total accumulated increase in gross agricultural income

over this 20-year period. In other words, the benefit-cost ratio resulting from

this miracle will be more than 30 to 1 during the first 20 years of the Center's

operation.

Administrative Organization

The Commission recommends that the present administration and programs of

the Direcci6n General de Investigacionec y Extensi6n Agricola, the Instituto







5 -

Salvidoreno de Investigaciones del Cafe, and the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura

"Roberto Quifl6nez" (ENA) be integrated into a National Center for Agricultural

Technology to be located on and in the vicinity of the present site of the

National Agricultural School in San Andres. The Commission recommends that

this Center be created as an Official Autonomous Institution to be governed by

an appointed Board of Trustees who in turn will appoint a. Director General to

administer the affairs of the Center.

The Commission suggests that the Faculty of Agronomic Science of El Salvador

University be broadened in its disciplines and related to the National Center

for Agricultural Technology through a Cooperative Agreement such as is used

between the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Land-Grant

Universities.

Under the Director General of the Center will be the Director of the

National School of Agriculture, the Director of the Coffee Research Institute,

the Director of Agricultural Research, and the Director of Agricultural Extension.

On the Director General's Staff will be (1) two Administrators, (a) the

Administrative Officer and (b) the Manpower and Personnel Officer, and (2) five

chiefs of service functions, which include (a) the Chief of the Library, (b)

the Chief of Information, (3) the Chief of Evaluati6n and Training, (4) the

Chief of Rural Community Devalopment, and (5) the Chief of Foreign Liaison.

In the interest of efficiency and conservation of manpower and money it is

proposed that there will be cooperation, coordination, and integration in so

far as practical by grouping into six subject matter departments the personnel

of the three functions,--training and teaching of agricultural technicians,

research, and the extension of agricultural knowledge to the agricultural public.

Administration will be integrated in a feasible manner. The Library and the

Department of Information will serve all three functions.

Research

El Salvador now has one research technician for every 5,000 farmers.

* See page 108







- 6-


Because of lack of support as reflected in the form of low salaries and few

scholarships only about 1/3 of the present research technicians have had or

completed undergraduate training and only two have had graduate training. Thus,

not only is the amount of money allocated to research in El Salvador woefully

inadequate but it is being used inefficiently for the personnel whose work is

spread too thinly over too many projects.

El Salvador has never allocated any resources to do research in such areas

as livestock, cotton, forestry, pisciculture, the use of irrigation water, the

utilization and processing of farm production and the prevention of storage

losses.

The standard recommended by El Comitd Interamericano de Desarrollo Agricola

(CIDA) is one research worker for every 800 farmers or over six times the

present staff.

The Commission recommends 115 research units which will cover the research

needs in practically all areas of agricultural technology. Each research unit

will consist of (1) a unit head, a research scientist with doctoral level train-

ing and experience, (2) an associate with masters level training and experience

and (3) an assistant with bachelor level training. This will provide approxi-

mately one research technician for every 800 farmers as recommended by CIDA.

In addition many research units will have one research apprentice, who will be

a University student spending his fifth year doing a research problem in ful-

fillment of his Bachelor of Science degree requirements. If satisfactory he

will then be eligible to be employed in the Center as a research scientist

assistant. Each research unit will also include a research helper and a bi-

lingual secretary.

Extension

The present Agricultural Extension Servicerorganized in 1949, consists of

51 field offices, 100 agricultural extension field agents and 40 home agents.








7 -

The Extension Service is beset with the same problems as research-inadequate

budgetary support which spells low salaries, little or no funds for profession-

al improvement, lack of transportation facilities and teaching and demonstration

materials.

At present only 15 field offices have transportation facilities. With

transportation, an agricultural extension field agent can contact 100 to 125

farmers per year intensively enough to affect improvement in production ef-

ficiency. Without transportation the number of contacts are considerably less.

If the optimistic figure of 100 contacts per year per field agent is used, then

it can be assumed that the 100 field agents are contacting 10,000 farmers per

year. This is 4% of all farmers in El Salvador (estimated at 250,000 as of

1970). This means that it would take 25 years for all of El Salvador's farmers

to be effectively assisted by an Extension Agent.

The Extension Service now has one agricultural extension field agent for

each 2,500 farmers. In order to have an Extension Service that will be avail-

able to all farmers in El Salvador and have sufficient impact to induce a 5.7%

agricultural output growth rate,the Commission recommends that the Extension

Service be expanded to 125 field offices,each with a director and three auxilia-

ry agricultural agents (one trained in animal husbandry), a 4-C agent and a

home agent and that all personnel be provided with suitable and adequate transport

station. This will be one agricultural extension field agent for each 400

farmers, or 6 times the present staff. This will meet the standard set by FAO

and by CIDA.

Agricultural Education

Training Agricultural Technologists

In order to provide the trained manpower for the expansion of agricultural

research and extension,as outlined in this report the Commission has determined

that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the

teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the Faculty of








-8-

Agriculture and the Department of Biological Sciences of the University of El

Salvador according to the following recommendations:

The National School of Agriculture will increase its admission of men from

80 to 220 per year. This will increase the number of 3-year perito agricola

agronomos from 61 to 178 each year. A fourth year program for 35 men from the

third year graduates will be established. This will require increased physical

facilities for 630 men students as compared with the present 250 and an expanded

faculty sufficient to maintain the 15 to 1 ratio. A department of home economics

will be established which will accept 75 woman each year and graduate 62 annually

under a 3-year training program.

The University will expand its enrollment in the Faculty of Agriculture

and the Department of Biological Sciences sufficiently to graduate 100 bachelors

by the 6th year of the Center Program. This will taper back to 60 bachelors

after the 10th year which will be enough to maintain the Center program and

the expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agri-business.

The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study scholar-

ships in foreign universities. This plan will support two-year masters scholar-

ships for 35 students beginning the second year of the Center Program and

expanding to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to 30 to 35

students by the ninth year. It will support three year doctoral programs for

14 students beginning the fourth year of the Center Program and building up to

55 student beginning the ninth year and tapering back to 15 by the llth year.

These projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program

(masters and doctorates).

Staffing the Center

The Commission believes that El Salvador is fortunate to have good building

blocks that will serve as a strong foundation for the Center. All of the

Institutions which are to be amalgamated into the Center and those which will

be associated more or less formally through agreements have gained valuable








9 -

experience in administration during the past 8 to 25 years. The Center will be

able to start with a group of 275 people now engaged in teaching, research and

extension. With competitive salary scales the Center will be able to attract

its share of well-trained, experienced, and competent leaders from other public

agencies, agribusiness and finance to administer the expanding Center,

The National School of Agriculture and the University of El Salvador assure

the Commission that with a firm demand for agricultural technologists such as

offered by the Center, they can expand their faculties and facilities so that

they can, without sacrificing scholarships,be graduating 100 bachelors within

five years and 175 peritos agricolas within four years. This will support the

graduate training program as outlined above.

With this training program and assuming a 10% turnover in Center personnel

it will be possible to complete the staffing of the Research Service according

to the following schedule: research helpers, four years; assistant research

scientists (bachelors), four years; associate research scientists (Masters),

nine years; research scientist unit heads (doctorates), 12 years; and depart-

ment heads, 5 years.

The staffing for the Extension Service will be completed as follows:

extension home agents, eight years; extension 4-C Agents, six years; extension

agricultural agents, nine years; extension field office directors, seven years;

and extension administrators and specialists, three years. The Extension

Service expansion to 125 field offices will be completed in seven years.

The Commission has prepared a personnP' 3chedulc providing for 16 grades

of employment with 10 step raises in each grade. They have established a

schedule of approximately 60 positions within the Center and have prepared job

descriptions for all positions.

The Commission's scheduled program for the Center buildup includes plans

for top-level foreign technical advisors 'which will increase to approximately








-10-

65 during the second year and then taper off to zero by the end of the twelfth

year. These will be provided on a grant basis by various foreign governments,

multilateral agencies such as FAO of the United Nations, regional agencies and

private foundations. Three will be assigned to the Center during its beginning

years for administration, training and evaluation, and library management,

Others will be assigned to ENA and the Extension Service, but the largest number

will advise and assist the research units in getting much needed research under

way quickly. Each advisor will necessarily have to provide leadership for two

research units. They will be replaced as rapidly as competent, doctorate level

scientists can be trained or otherwise obtained to fill the research unit

headships.

Physical Facilities.

The Commission has planned a program for the expansion of the necessary

physical facilities. This includes the acquisition of-almost'1200 hectares of

land at San Andres, Santa Cruz Porrillo, Izalco and Chalatenango for crops and

livestock research at a cost of approximately 2,640,000. They have carefully

reviewed the needs for physical facilities which include an administration

Center for all administrators, enlarged facilities for ENA, a library for

30,000 books, an information building to house the various needs such as printing,

visual aids, graphic arts, photography and archives, six buildings for research

which will house offices and laboratory facilities for coffee, plant science,

chemistry and soils, animal science, social science, and agricultural engineer-

ing, and laboratory and teaching facilities such as greenleouse, animal

buildings, and food processing laboratories. It is estimated that these physical

facilities will cost approximately C7,000,000. It is expected that the

acquisition of the land and the construction of the physical facilities will be

spread over the first five years of the Center's life. In other words, the

physical plant will be complete in 5 years and the staff in 10 years.








-11-


Financing the Center

At the end of the initial 10-year period it is estimated that the annual

budget for salaries will be approximately (18,000,000. One third of the cost of

salaries (q6,000,000) will be added for the various expenses that will be incurr

ed to support the work of the Center personnel. Scholarships to support the

program of the Center will cost annually up to q2,500,000 by the seventh year.

They will taper off to -1,140,000 annually after the tenth year.

The number of schemes that can be devised for funding the Center are infi-

nite. The Commission has presented a proposal in this report to illustrate one

possible plan for the financial support of the Center. Assuming that the total

budget for the GOES increases 6% per year and that the annual appropriation for

investment in agricultural technological development (the Center) is increased

from the present 1.48% of the GOES budget to 5.00% (three tenths of one percent

(0,3%) per year), by the end of the 16th year, the GOES support will have

increased from 13,700,000 to approximately t32,000,000 annually. At that point

the annual budget for the Center will be approximately '32,000,000. Thus, the

Center will then be currently self sustaining by the GOES.

Meanwhile, it will be necessary to borrow approximately 4100,000,000 which

will be paid off over the following 30 years at 3% interest. This will add

05,000,000 to the Center's annual budget and is included in the W32,000,000

budget quoted in the above paragraph.

In Conclusion

The GOES has increased its annual appropriations in recent years for

public school education from M18,000,000 to over 780,000,000. This is very

commendable, but El Salvador's educated youth 10 or 20 years hence must have

an opportunity to put its increased potential for productive work to good use.

The only possibility for absorbing all of El Salvador's increasing population

into useful employment during the next 10 to 30 years is through a vigorous,








-12-


growing agricultural industry.

It is not a question of whether the country can afford this proposed

program of education, research and extension. El Salvador cannot afford not

to do it. If a vein of gold worth 3,720 million colones were discovered in the

Salvadoran country-side, there would be a stampede to make the necessary invest

ment to mine it. The potential for Salvadoran agriculture is aa great as a

3,720 million colones gold mine not only to be mined once but every year. The

gold mine would provide increased employment and income and improved welfare

for only a few thousand people for a few years. A highly developed agriculture

will permanently provide increased employment and income and improved welfare

for millions of Salvadorans.

El Salvador's agricultural resources are now a sleeping giant. The pro-

gram proposed herein is the miracle key to unlock the door so that this giant

can be awakened, emerge, and make possible the transformation of El Salvador

into a fully developed economy and a productive nation of healthy and prosper-

ous people.








13 -

II. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN EL SALVADOR

A. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN OVERALL DEVELOPMENT.

At this stage of Salvadoran development, the agricultural sector is the

dominant factor contributing to overall economic growth. It accounts for the

activities and welfare of 60% of the country's people, the utilization of

75% of the Nation's land area, 40 to 45% of the country's reproducible

capital, 75% of its exports (foreign exchange earnings), and 30% of El

Salvador's income as measured by its PTB*. In other words, El Salvador is

dependent upon agriculture for the use of 75% of its land and water resources

(which otherwise would go unused) and agriculture provides, at present, the

only opportunity for gainful employment, and thus economic and social

betterment, for 60% of El Salvador's people.

Agribusiness activities support the agricultural sector by providing

(1) supplies (inputs) for farm production, (2) services for transporting,

storing, processing, and distributing farm outputs (marketing), and (3)

institutional activities such as credit, research and education. These, when

added to the "value added" income directly derived from agricultural pro-

duction, double the income attributable to agricultural output. Thus, about

60% of El Salvador's PTB goes up or down with the volume of farm production

not only because of the change in "value added' due to the change in volume

of production and distribution of farm products but because of the multiplier

or dimunition effects that these changes have on the entire economy.

Obviously, the future growth and development of agribusiness activities

will depend directly upon the growth of agricultural output c:. the country's


*PTB is equivalent to United States GDP.








13 -

II. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN EL SALVADOR

A. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN OVERALL DEVELOPMENT.

At this stage of Salvadoran development, the agricultural sector is the

dominant factor contributing to overall economic growth. It accounts for the

activities and welfare of 60% of the country's people, the utilization of

75% of the Nation's land area, 40 to 45% of the country's reproducible

capital, 75% of its exports (foreign exchange earnings), and 30% of El

Salvador's income as measured by its PTB*. In other words, El Salvador is

dependent upon agriculture for the use of 75% of its land and water resources

(which otherwise would go unused) and agriculture provides, at present, the

only opportunity for gainful employment, and thus economic and social

betterment, for 60% of El Salvador's people.

Agribusiness activities support the agricultural sector by providing

(1) supplies (inputs) for farm production, (2) services for transporting,

storing, processing, and distributing farm outputs (marketing), and (3)

institutional activities such as credit, research and education. These, when

added to the "value added" income directly derived from agricultural pro-

duction, double the income attributable to agricultural output. Thus, about

60% of El Salvador's PTB goes up or down with the volume of farm production

not only because of the change in "value added' due to the change in volume

of production and distribution of farm products but because of the multiplier

or dimunition effects that these changes have on the entire economy.

Obviously, the future growth and development of agribusiness activities

will depend directly upon the growth of agricultural output c:. the country's


*PTB is equivalent to United States GDP.









14 -

farms. Thus, the rate of growth of agricultural output at this stage

determines, more than any other factor, the rate of overall country-wide

development. If agricultural output increases rapidly it increases income

accordingly, thus stimulating overall growth. If output increases slowly

the agricultural sector becomes a drag on country-wide development.

The importance of agricultural development to the economic growth of

many countries in Latin America has been underrated and investment has been

inadequate. It has not been fully understood that agriculture is not only

the principal source of food for a rapidly expanding and urbanizing population,

but that, in addition, it is a critical source of raw materials for industry

itself, an important source for the earning of additional foreign exchange,

and a potential mass market for the products of industry.

Salvadoran agriculture has provided some raw materials for industry and

exports to earn much needed foreign exchange for industrial development.

These invaluable contributions of agriculture have helped industrial growth

tremendously. Indeed, agriculture has been the very foundation on which the

entire Salvadoran economy has been built.

Finally, mature industrialization requires much wider markets than the

small higher-income minority can provide, which i only enough to sustain

the first phase of import substitution of agricultural production goods and

consumer goods. A developed productive agriculture is needed by urban

industry not merely to supply food and raw materials and foreign exchange

earnings -- it is also needed as a mass market for industrial products, if

industrial momentum is to be sustained and move on from its import substi-

tution phase to maturity.

B. AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT FALTERS -- EFFECT O61 OVERALL CONVOYY

Agricultural output (physical) in El Salvador from 1955 through 1964

increased at an average rate of 5.0% per year, but for 1965 and 1966 it








15 -

faltered and, in fact, dropped 11.2% and 9.1% respectively, below the 1964

high. Preliminary estimates for 1969 indicate that total agricultural pro-

duction was the same as the 1964 high.

In terms of PTB, agriculture's contribution in 1969 is estimated to be

only 0620,000,000 instead of the 0791,000,000* that it might have been had

the 5% growth rate continued through 1969. This decline in the agricultural

growth rate equally affected the agri-business sector and thus directly denied

the PTB of 4348,000,000 not to mention the multiplier effects this would have

had on the total economy.

This slowdown in agricultural output is (1) increasing food imports and

reducing agricultural exports, thus, aggravating balance-of-payments problems,

(2) reducing sources of income for governmental activities and (3) complicating

the country's ability to support investment programs necessary for continued

growth and development.

Thus, if the 5% growth rate for agriculture and agribusiness had

continued the PTB for 1969 might have been 02,724,000,000 or almost 15%

higher than the 02,382,000,000 now estimated. Furthermore, this slow-up

caused a reduction in exports in 1968 of approximately 80 million colones

under what they would have been had the 5% increase in agricultural pro-

duction been maintained. Meanwhile, also, food imports have increased by 25

million colones over what they might have been if agricultural output had

continued to increase.

Using a crude approximation, the foreign exchange lost through a drop

in exports and spent for increased imports could support a 15 to 20%

increase in total investment in the economy over what it otherwise is at

present. This condition of stagnation is alarming. If it continues El


*Assuming 1969 prices = 100








- 16 -


Salvador's economic situation will progressively worsen and a crisis will be

unavoidable.

C. CAUSE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SLOW-DOWN

This leads to the grave question, Can agricultural growth be revived?. To

answer this we must ask, "What has caused the decline"? and make a diagnosis

of the ills which have led to the present condition.

The drop and stagnation in total agricultural production during the past

five years was due largely to a drastic decline in cotton production. A large

reduction in bean production preceded the cotton drop. Other crops such as

bananas suffered declines. For each of these, insects, disease and variety

problems arose for which there were no answers due to inadequate Salvadoran

research. Reduced production of crops causing this slowdown has been largely

offset by an increased area of rice production and increased corn yields due

to the introduction of hybrid varieties. Had it not been for the fortunate

development of one or two promising corn hybrids by research during the previ-

ous 10-year period, total agricultural production during the past 5 years would

have suffered a dropoff rather than just stagnation.

Unfortunately El Salvador was not prepared through research to meet the

problems which have impeded the production of cotton, beans, melons and various

kinds of vegetable and fruits.

Nor is El Salvador adequately preparing for future insect and diseases

problems that can overtake rice production, if it becomes more concentrated,

--or other crops such as sugar, corn, or coffee. Now is the time to be develop-

ing varieties that are immune to insects and diseases threatening these crops

in other areas of the world, in order to be prepared for continued production,

if they should reach El Salvador. To not be prepared would mean food or

balance-of-payments problems too terrible to even contemplate for El Salvador.








- 17 -


El Salvador's efforts in creating and enlarging institutions to hasten

agricultural development have been note worthy. Land settlement programs (ICR)

have been enhanced; a credit agency (ABC) was set up; agencies for promoting

livestock (MEGA and MEPO) and conservation and irrigation (META) through

technical assistance and credit were created; an active agency to promote new

business enterprise with emphasis on agribusiness (INSAFI) was organized; and

extension education and research have been modestly expanded, but the total

investment effort of these institutions has been grossly inadequate when

compared with the investment needs of the agricultural sector.

The present stagnation in agricultural output is primarily due to inadequate

technical assistance for research, extension, and higher technical agricultur-

al education. It was lack of research knowhow that has caused the dramatic

decline in the production of the above-mentioned crops. Sufficient technical

assistance would provide the fundamental underpinning for increasing agriculture

al productivity which is basic to agricultural development.

To single out one of the many essentials for agricultural development can be

dangerously fallacious. But we may have all of the ingredients for agricultur-

al development, namely: healthy and literate rural people, good land and water,

sufficient agricultural production factors such as seed, fertilizers, pesti-

cidesetc., the credit necessary to purchase these factors, ample markets and

marketing facilities, and adequate economic incentives, (for example, prices)--

we may have all of these, but if we do not have the necessary technical

knowledge knowhoww) when and where it is needed, then all of the other essential

ingredients are lost.








18 -


This statement considers (1) the present education-research-extension complex

in El Salvador, (2) why it is critically important, (3) the future needs for

education, research, and extension in the light of the objectives of agricultur-

al development in El Salvador and (4) a proposal for the creation of a National

Center for Agricultural Technology to meet these needs.








- 19 -


III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR-PROBLEMS

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Agricultural research in El Salvador was begun on farm crops in the early

1940's1. While it has paid off handsomely in several cases (for example coffee

2
and corn breeding and sugar cane variety selection ) and the present small

staff is to be commended, support from the beginning has been grossly inadequate.

As a result research has had to be spread thinly and scattered over a multitude

of unrelated but pressing agricultural problems. Research in El Salvador has

been typified by uncoordinated and unstable administration, inadequate funding

and by projects inadequate in scope, undermanned, and often discontinued before

they produce lasting results. In other words, research programs have lacked

continuity, organization and long-range planning.

1. Public Support for Agricultural Research

At present, El Salvador is investing annually approximately 1,400,000 co-

lones in agricultural research. This is 0.2% of the gross income of the agri-

cultural sector (2620,000,000 in 1969). Practically all of this research, with

negligible exceptions, is done by the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones

Agron6micas and the Instituto Salvadorefo de Investigaciones del Cafe. Coffee

accounts for approximately 30% of the gross income of the agricultural sector

and research expenditures by the Coffee Institute (which was started in 1955)

accounts for 30% of the above stated total research budget. Thus, coffee

research expenditures represent also approximately only 0.2% of the gross income

to Salvadoran coffee growers. But coffee research has been concerned with only



1. For a more detailed but brief history of Agricultural Research in El Salvador
see Appendix I

2. For a more adequate statement on the organization and achievements of
Agricultural Research in El Salvador see Appendix II.








- 19 -


III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR-PROBLEMS

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Agricultural research in El Salvador was begun on farm crops in the early

1940's1. While it has paid off handsomely in several cases (for example coffee

2
and corn breeding and sugar cane variety selection ) and the present small

staff is to be commended, support from the beginning has been grossly inadequate.

As a result research has had to be spread thinly and scattered over a multitude

of unrelated but pressing agricultural problems. Research in El Salvador has

been typified by uncoordinated and unstable administration, inadequate funding

and by projects inadequate in scope, undermanned, and often discontinued before

they produce lasting results. In other words, research programs have lacked

continuity, organization and long-range planning.

1. Public Support for Agricultural Research

At present, El Salvador is investing annually approximately 1,400,000 co-

lones in agricultural research. This is 0.2% of the gross income of the agri-

cultural sector (2620,000,000 in 1969). Practically all of this research, with

negligible exceptions, is done by the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones

Agron6micas and the Instituto Salvadorefo de Investigaciones del Cafe. Coffee

accounts for approximately 30% of the gross income of the agricultural sector

and research expenditures by the Coffee Institute (which was started in 1955)

accounts for 30% of the above stated total research budget. Thus, coffee

research expenditures represent also approximately only 0.2% of the gross income

to Salvadoran coffee growers. But coffee research has been concerned with only



1. For a more detailed but brief history of Agricultural Research in El Salvador
see Appendix I

2. For a more adequate statement on the organization and achievements of
Agricultural Research in El Salvador see Appendix II.








- 19 -


III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR-PROBLEMS

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Agricultural research in El Salvador was begun on farm crops in the early

1940's1. While it has paid off handsomely in several cases (for example coffee

2
and corn breeding and sugar cane variety selection ) and the present small

staff is to be commended, support from the beginning has been grossly inadequate.

As a result research has had to be spread thinly and scattered over a multitude

of unrelated but pressing agricultural problems. Research in El Salvador has

been typified by uncoordinated and unstable administration, inadequate funding

and by projects inadequate in scope, undermanned, and often discontinued before

they produce lasting results. In other words, research programs have lacked

continuity, organization and long-range planning.

1. Public Support for Agricultural Research

At present, El Salvador is investing annually approximately 1,400,000 co-

lones in agricultural research. This is 0.2% of the gross income of the agri-

cultural sector (2620,000,000 in 1969). Practically all of this research, with

negligible exceptions, is done by the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones

Agron6micas and the Instituto Salvadorefo de Investigaciones del Cafe. Coffee

accounts for approximately 30% of the gross income of the agricultural sector

and research expenditures by the Coffee Institute (which was started in 1955)

accounts for 30% of the above stated total research budget. Thus, coffee

research expenditures represent also approximately only 0.2% of the gross income

to Salvadoran coffee growers. But coffee research has been concerned with only



1. For a more detailed but brief history of Agricultural Research in El Salvador
see Appendix I

2. For a more adequate statement on the organization and achievements of
Agricultural Research in El Salvador see Appendix II.









- 20 -


one crop while the agronomic research has had to be spread over 30 or more

crops as well as maintaining research vigilance for new crops which may have

possibilities for being introduced into El Salvador.

While coffee research has been more adequate and effective than research

with other crops inasmuch as plant breeding, soil management, insect control,

disease control, and cultural and management practices research could be

concentrated on one crop, there are unfilled research needs even within the

coffee crop enterprise.

Total research expenditures in the United States (public and private) are

now over 25 billion dollars per year or about 3.4% of gross national product.

(Of this over 16 billion dollars is contributed through the Federal Government.)

This is quite in line with research investment in the more developed countries.

Research is closely related to innovation and development. It has been paying

off in such countries as West Germany and Japan.

Research expenditures vary from one industrial sector to another in the

United States depending on the nature of the product. For example, the paper

industry, one of the lowest, allocates 1% of its gross sales to research; the

drug industry, one of the higher, allocates 5%. The total annual cost of agri-

cultural research in the United States in 1965 was 1.219 billion dollars or

3.1% of the agricultural sector's gross income. This is typical of the more

developed countries of the world.

The total annual agricultural research investment of 1.4 million colones

in El Salvador amounts to approximately C0.93 per hectare of land in farms

while the United States invests the equivalent of (7.50 or more than eight

times the Salvadoran investment per hectare. On the basis of research expend

tures as a percent of gross agricultural income (3.0 to 3.5% in the more deve-

loped countries and 0.2% for El Salvador) the more developed countries are

spending 15 times more per unit of gross income than El Salvador.








- 21 -


2. Problems

The necessity for speeding up agricultural research in El Salvador is self-

evident but this need (see next chapter) is not reflected by adequate budgetary

support. In fact quite the opposite situation prevails. Budgets for research

are grossly inadequate and inflexible to meet, even the short run needs.

Budgetary inadequacies create the following problems:

(1) Inadequate (low) salaries

(2) Lack of adequate scholarship programs

(3) Lack of other incentives to retain personnel (for example, health pro-
grams, retirement programs, etc.).

These shortcomings lead to:

(a) Recruitment of less qualified personnel

(b) High turnover of personnel

(4) Lack of transportation

(5) Difficulties in obtaining sufficient equipment and materials when and
where needed.

Inadequate Salaries. There has been no increase in salaries during the past

10 years. Meanwhile, however, salaries have been raised in other governmental

agencies and by private enterprise for personnel of comparable training and

skills.

Inadequate Scholarship Programs. There is no definite program for training

personnel. Post-graduate scholarships are rarely granted. Grants for in-service

training are sporadic and usually limited to short courses of six months or less.

Furthermore there is no provision for recognizing graduate training with higher

salaries, hence those who have received training will leave for better positions

with higher salaries commensurate with their higher training. Thus, scholarship

programs are inadequate and there is no built-in recognition for those who do

achieve more training. Support and incentives are both lacking.

Lack of Transportation. The lack of vehicles creates an alarming situation.








- 22 -


It causes delay in the conduct of field work and sometimes discontinuation of

some research projects. This results in inefficiency that is expressed in

losses of human time and public funds already expanded.

Difficulties in Obtaining Sufficient Equipment and Materials. This causes

delay in the conduct of field experiments which must be conducted on a rigid

time schedule dictated by seasonal behavior. Experiments often fail to get

started or have to be abandoned because of lack of equipment and materials at

the right time and the right place. This means loss of human time and public

funds already expanded.

Lack of Other Incentives. There is a lack of fringe benefits such as re-

tirement and health programs. There is no provision for progressive annual

step increases in salary to recognize workers for meritorious service and

their dedication to agricultural research.

Because of low salaries and lack of incentives such as inadequate scholar-

ship programs, lack of fringe benefits and salary increases in recognition of

meritorious service, it is difficult if not impossible to hire properly qualified

personnel and if personnel does acquire additional training and experience and

does meritorious work they are soon attracted to other public agencies or

private enterprise.

Too Many Projects per Research Worker. Not only is the amount of money allo-

cated to research in El Salvador woefully inadequate, but it is being used

inefficiently. Personnel must spread their efforts so thinly over so many

projects that they are unable to concentrate sufficiently on any single problem.

Some section heads and senior staff members have to work on as many as 20 to

30 projects concurrently.

The personnel are ill prepared with regard to training and experience.

At present, only 12 out of a total payroll of 35 research technicians in Investi

gaciones Agron6micas (34.3%) have education near the equivalent of a Bachelor








23 -

degree. Only 6 out of a total payroll of 15 in the Instituto Salvadoreflo de

Investigaciones del Cafe (40.0%) have education near the equivalent of a

Bachelor degree. Only one has had graduate school training leading to graduate

degrees. Worldwide, it is assumed that it is necessary that scientific re-

searchers obtain their training in the scientific disciplines, research

methodologies, research experience, and the stimulation of their imaginations

to lead them into the realms of the unknown, at the graduate school level.

This is not a criticism of the staff of the Direcci6n General de Investi-

gaci6n y Extensi6n Agricola. That few have had or completed undergraduate

training and only one has had graduate school training indicates the lack of

support given to research. The provision for scholarships for graduate school

training is almost nil. As stated above, salaries are low hence the turnover

of personnel is very high. Reasonable incentives are lacking and morale is

low. During the last 10 years all of those with advanced training have been

attracted away from publicly supported agricultural research. Thus, given

this situation, the number of personnel and the amount of money spent on agri-

cultural research does not give the quantity and quality of results that should

be expected even though only 0.2% of agriculture's gross income is being plowed

back into agricultural research in El Salvador today.

3. Present Research-Shortcomings.

El Salvador now has one research technician for every 5,000 farmers. The

standard recommended by El Comitd Interamericano de Desarrollo Agricola (CIDA)

is one research technician for every 800 farmers or over six times the present

staff.

Not only is research insufficiently and thinly spread among crops, but

many crops which offer possibilities for diversification are totally unresearch-

ed. Cotton, an important "life-blood" crop for El Salvador has never until

recently been supported with public research. Livestock (beef and milk cattle)








24 -

offer a tremendous opportunity to utilize at high productivity levels, almost

a third of El Salvador's land area through forages. This resource is now

largely unutilized at productivity levels approaching zero. Animal research in

El Salvador (such as breeding, feeding, and disease control) has never been

supported publicly or otherwise. Research on forages has been minimal. Forage

utilization research has been nil.

About one third of El Salvador's lands the highest and roughest--are

suitable only for forestry and its related functions such as recreation, beauty

fiction, flood control and conservation of soil and water. At present these

lands are adding very little to the economy of the country. In fact, they are

contributing negatively through soil erosion and the sedimentation of its rivers

and reservoirs. Had the scientific development of these 665,000 hectares been

started 50 years ago they could be adding q250,000,000.to El Salvador's present

gross national product or an increase of more than 10%. They could be providing

productive employment for 50,000 or more workers than are employed today. This

would improve El Salvador's balance of payments problem by a similar amount,

say 0250,000,000 colones by increasing exports and reducing imports of wood

products. But this development must be preceded by forestry research and

little or none has been done to date.

El Salvador has the water resources and farm units to support several

times its present 1,400 farm ponds whose output of fresh water fish is very low.

With a progressive farm pond research and promulgation program, the nation could

benefit from improved incomes and diets.

The utilization and propagation of salt water fish and other marine pro-

ducts are only fractionally realized, but in this instance, again, development

must be preceded by research which, at present, is almost totally non-existent

Twenty percent of El Salvador's land in farms (over 300,000 hectares) is

potentially irrigable and plans are under-way-to realize-this potential resource,








25 -

but up to now no research has been done on the utilization and application of

irrigation water to crops under El Salvador conditions. Irrigation with lack

of knowhow leads to failure and loss of tremendous capital investment as

demonstrated time and again throughout the world.

Almost no research has been done in the areas of the utilization and pro-

cessing of agricultural products. Very little has been done on the marketing

of farm products. Very little if any research has been done in recent years on

farm management and farm policy problems. In the agricultural sector important

decisions have to be made daily with very little analytical and background data

on which to base these decisions.

At present, losses from insects in the production and storage of such food

crops as corn, rice, beans and sorghum reduce the amount available for con*

sumption by 40 to 60%. In other words, if insect damage could be controlled

the amount of these crops available for ultimate consumption could be twice

what it is today. Research on insect control is grossly inadequate. Present

losses due to vieed- reduce Yields from 10 to 30%. El Salvador has had practi-

cally no research on weed control technology.

Research on the control of potential insects and diseases, that could wipe

out the production of important Salvadoran crops, is virtually non-existent.

For instance, coffee rust,hemileia vastatrix, has wiped out the Arabia coffees

in Ceylon and East Africa. It is now found in Brazil. Rust resistant varieties

should be developed and propagated as insurance, should coffee rust reach El

Salvador. The same can be said for sugar cane. Research should prepare this

industry against being eliminated should smut come to El Salvador. Even El

Salvador's basic food crop, corn, is vulnerable to stunt disease. Four stunt

viruses are known to be in El Salvador now. One farmer last year lost 300 man-

zanas of corn duiito stunt disease. At present there is no research in El

Salvador working to develop resistant hybrids to control this disease which








26 -

threatens and could virtually eliminate corn production in El Salvador.

Without casting unfavorable aspersions on the agricultural research work

of the past and present (in fact quite the opposite is intended), and in the

light of the total perspective of future research needs in El Salvador, it

should be said that what has been done in the past has been grossly deficient -

in other words, less than minimal.

B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

Agricultural Extension was organized in 1949 in response to the need for

extending the knowledge being uncovered by agricultural research which was
1
begun in 1943 The Service grew slowly to 38 technicians during its first

seven years. Then it maintained a plateau of approximately 50 technicians from

1957 through 1963. Between 1964 and the present the organization has expanded

to 140 technicians (100 Agricultural Extension field Agents and 40 Home Eco-

nomic field Agents) and 61 field offices. Most (90%) of the agricultural ex-

tension field agents are graduates of the National Agricultural School in

vocational agriculture.

The accomplishments of the El Salvador Extension Service have been very

commendable considering the small staff and their limitations. For instance,

during the 3 years 1965-1968, over 14,000 demonstrations were conducted under

the massive demonstration program demonstrating the use of improved varieties,

fertilizers, pesticides and improved cultural techniques. Over three fifths

of these were corn demonstrations. Also included in the program were bean,

rice, grain sorghum and banana demonstrations. In 1968, the Agricultural

Extension Service organized and worked through over 320 boys and girls clubs

with over 8,000 members conducting over 10,000 projects.

These are impressive figures and speak well for the work of limited

1. For a mdre detailed but brief history of Agricultural Exteasion in El
Salvador see Appendix III.








27 -

Extension personnel working under various handicaps as discussed below. But

when viewed in terms of the whole task which must be done if Salvadoran agri-

cultural growth is to be realized, then present efforts and accomplishments

become minuscule.

1. Problmsnn.

Salaries Salaries are relatively low-- only 400 colones per month--the

lowest within the dependencies of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock.

Consequently turnover is very high,-more than 50% per year. Only 30% stay in

the Service more than two years and only 3% have been in the Service 5 years

or more. As soon as Extension employees are trained they are hired by private

industry and by other public organizations or dependencies. In this turnover

of personnel, the Ministry is losing a large investment in time, money, and

the disruption of existing Extension programs. This is critical. Extension

administrators contend that if salaries were raised to 600 colones per month,

the problem would be solved. Instead of losing personnel, the service would

attract personnel. Turnover would be reduced to less than 20%. Higher salary

scales are used in estimating costs for suggested expanded programs outlined in

Chapters IV, V and VI.

Specialists Presently, there is a lack of specialists to advise the

corps of field agents. In reality, experts are needed that can communicate the

results of research to the field agents so that they, in simpler language, can

transmit this knowledge to farmers. At the same time the specialists need to

detect the problems in the field and transmit them back to the investigators.

The specialists provide the link between the investigators and the field.

Scholarships There is no definite program for the training of Extension

personnel. Thus, this is another reason why the Extension Service is unable

to attract and hold well qualified personnel.








28 -

Transportation Another problem faced by present Extension personnel is

the lack of transportation. At present there are only 16 vehicles for 100

extension field .agents. Without mobility, a field worker's efficiency, in

terms of number of farmers reached, is reduced by more than 50%.

Equipment and Materials The Extension agents in the field offices do not

have sufficient and proper equipment and materials for carrying out their pro-

grams through individual contacts, meetings and demonstrations.

Competition between Agencies within MAG Other Agencies within MAG have

programs of an extension nature to promote their various projects. Because

these other agencies have better salaries, more adequate transportation and

other amenities, the morale of Extension personnel is thereby weakened and

because of duplication, resources are squandered. All programs relating to

agricultural technology will be integrated in the interest of efficiency

within CENTA.

Even with more adequate salaries and a more stable staff and with suf-

ficient transportation,the present Extension organization would be totally

inadequate to bring about massive transformation of technology within the

agricultural sector. With transportation, an agricultural field Extension

Agent can contact 100 to 125 farmers per year intensively enough to affect im-

provement in production efficiency. Without transportation the number of

contacts are considerably less. If we use the optimistic figure of 100

contacts per year per field agent, then we can assume that 100 field agents

are contacting 10,000 farmers per year. This is 4% of all of the farmers in

El Salvador (estimated at 250,000 as of 1970). This means that it would take

more than 25 years for all of El Salvador's farmers to be effectively assisted

by an Extension agent.

The Extension Service now has one agricultural extension field agent for

each 2,500 farmers. The standard set by CIDA is one Extension field agent








- 29 -


for each 400 farmers, or more than 6 times the present staff.

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

1. National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quifl6nez"

The National School of Agriculture was founded August 28, 1956 under the

Minister of Agriculture and Livestock. The Director of the School is appointed

by the Minister of Agriculture. It is located in the Valley of San Andres, at

475 mts. above the sea level, in a land area of 115 has. on the west side of

the Panamerican Highway, 33 kilometers from San Salvador and 32 from Santa Ana,

the two largest and most important cities of El Salvador.

The School confers the degree of Perito Agricola (Agricultural Expert)

after three years of satisfactory theoretical and practical training.

Admittance requirements have been raised since the School was founded and now

students must be high-school graduates in order to be admitted. Thus, the

three-year course of study is at present of junior college level.

The School now admits approximately 110 students annually. Allowing for

a 10% attrition each year this will provide for the graduating of about 90

Peritos Agricolas each year. With this program the School's enrollment is

around 250 students.

Students are required to spend their mornings doing field and laboratory

work from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Classes are held in the afternoons from

l:~:" p.m. to 5:00 p.m.

The three-year program of studies is divided into nine academic trimesters

of 15-1/2 weeks each. This leaves one month for vacation. Forty-seven subjects

are required and these are grouped into six departments: basic science, agri-

cultural mathematics, agricultural economics, horticulture, agronomy, and

zootechnia. The Faculty now consists of six department heads, 15 assistant

professors and 9 instructors.








- 29 -


for each 400 farmers, or more than 6 times the present staff.

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

1. National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quifl6nez"

The National School of Agriculture was founded August 28, 1956 under the

Minister of Agriculture and Livestock. The Director of the School is appointed

by the Minister of Agriculture. It is located in the Valley of San Andres, at

475 mts. above the sea level, in a land area of 115 has. on the west side of

the Panamerican Highway, 33 kilometers from San Salvador and 32 from Santa Ana,

the two largest and most important cities of El Salvador.

The School confers the degree of Perito Agricola (Agricultural Expert)

after three years of satisfactory theoretical and practical training.

Admittance requirements have been raised since the School was founded and now

students must be high-school graduates in order to be admitted. Thus, the

three-year course of study is at present of junior college level.

The School now admits approximately 110 students annually. Allowing for

a 10% attrition each year this will provide for the graduating of about 90

Peritos Agricolas each year. With this program the School's enrollment is

around 250 students.

Students are required to spend their mornings doing field and laboratory

work from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Classes are held in the afternoons from

l:~:" p.m. to 5:00 p.m.

The three-year program of studies is divided into nine academic trimesters

of 15-1/2 weeks each. This leaves one month for vacation. Forty-seven subjects

are required and these are grouped into six departments: basic science, agri-

cultural mathematics, agricultural economics, horticulture, agronomy, and

zootechnia. The Faculty now consists of six department heads, 15 assistant

professors and 9 instructors.








- 30 -


The School has graduated 558 since its founding. These are mostly

Salvadoreans. The school admits 10 students from other Central American coun-

tries for each class. About 80% of these graduates now work for the government

in such institutions as the Extension Service, Administraci6n de Bienestar

Campesino, the Instituto de Colonizaci6n Rural, and others. The others are

employed by farmers and private agri-businesses or are self-employed.

Arrangements have been made whereby graduates from the upper 25% of their

respective classes may be accepted at the University of Florida and other U.

S. Universities where in two years they can obtain a B.S. Degree. The

National School of Agriculture of Mexico (Chapingo) also gives the equivalent

of one to two years of credit.

The School's present buildings while inadequate, are modern and form a

good nucleus for future expansion. Present facilities are:

a. Four-student dormitories (for approximately 235 students)

b. One classroom building with six classrooms, two laboratory rooms and

small library

c. One administration building

d. One clinic-hospital for medical and dental care

e. An Auditorium-dining'hall for 550 persons

f. Kitchen and laundry building

g. One small farm shop for student instruction

i. One small food processing plant

j. One building for 6 single staff members

k. Eight professor's houses

1. Three instructor's houses

m. Several farm buildings"and a-warehouse.








- 31 -


a. Problems.

Since its establishment, the School has had a succession of problems which

have limited its growth and programs. These problems include:

1. Low Salaries for Faculty. Instructors receive C300 per month. Pro-

fessor salaries vary from 0,500 to Z700 per month and department heads receive

(800 per month. The School does not have enough housing facilities for all

faculty members. In fact, the majority of the Faculty must commute to the

School daily. This involves heavy transportation expenses. Faculty members

receive food products in kind amounting to approximately (70 per month.

Faculty members work from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. to

5:00 p.m. on Mondays through Fridays and 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.

They alternate on Sundays. Thus remuneration is relatively low especially

when the long week is considered.

2. Inadequate Library Facilities. There are at present less than 1,000

books in the library. For the 250 students and 40 staff members this is less

than 4 books per person.

3. Inadequate farm laboratory facilities. This includes machinery and

agricultural implements of all kinds, and basic service equipment, especially

for transportation.

4. Lack of barns and sheds for protecting harvested crops, animals, and

farm equipment.

5. Lack of adequate Laboratories for student class use.

6. Insufficient land at the school and in other zones of the country.

More land is needed to provide food for the student body and to give adequate

training to the students under differing conditions in the various zones of

the country.

7. The annual budget not only provide inadequate support for Faculty








- 32 -


salaries, but inadequate funds for the farm operations, teaching supplies, and

general maintenance of the buildings and grounds.

8. There are almost no facilities for recreation for the students and

staff at the School. Being a boarding school it is indispensable that the

institution be provided with adequate-social faculties, a cafeteria, swimming

pool, and gymnasium to ease the tensions. of confinement and studies.

9. There is a general lack of incentives for the Staff of the School.

Low salaries have already been mentioned. But there is also only limited oppor

tunity for self improvement such as scholarships for graduate work, attendance

at seminars, and vacation programs. Fringe benefits such as health insurance

gadprovision for retirement annuities are non-existant.

10. The bureaucratic systems for purchasing and issuing documents is slow

and cumbersome. The need for the quick action in obtaining supplies and

repairs is obvious. Slowness causes serious delays in the school'sprogram.

Smooth operation of the school's farm laboratories and the class rooms requires

rapid action in the obtaining of repairs and supplies.

2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science at The University of El Salvador.

In 1948, the School of Agronomic Engineering was established in the

University of El Salvador. It was attached to the Faculty of Engineering and

Architecture until the Faculty of Agronomic Science was established in August

1964. The program of instruction has been enlarged gradually and at present

there are 28 professors in six departments of which twenty-one are full time.

In 1968, nine students were graduated. Presently 27 students are majoring

in the Faculty of Agronomic Science. The Faculty is located in San Salvador

on the campus of the University of El Salvador in its own building, which was

completed in 1969. This Faculty does not have an organized experimental field.

The authorities of the Agronomic Science Faculty consider that, for the








- 33 -


Faculty to fulfill adequately the functions for which it was created, they need

a field station nearby with their own equipment and educational facilities

where they can conduct research and demonstrate educational practices. They

are desirous of better coordination with the Ministry of Agriculture and

Livestock as well as the other agricultural institutions of the country.

Due to the lack of facilities for education and research, many of the

egresados of the Faculty have difficulty in completing their theses and as a

consequence they are delayed in receiving their Ingeniero Agr6nomo degrees.

This results in a very high ratio between teachers and graduates and the edu-

cational cost per graduate is very high.

Summarizing, -these two institutions have a total of 65 professionals

dedicated to teaching and training students in preparation for careers as

future agricultural technicians and leaders. This is one teacher for every

3,850 farmers in the country. The standard recommended by El Comitd Inter-

Americano de Desarrollo Agricola (CIDA) is one teacher for every 2,000 farmers

or almost twice the number engaged in teaching at present.








34 -

IV. NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EL SALVADOR

Salvadoran population, now over 3,000,000, is expanding at 3.6 to 3.9%

per year and will double in 20 years and triple to over 9,000,000 during the

next 30 years. Per capital incomes will increase 2.5% per year and thus the

total demand for food will increase between 5 and 6% per year or three times

in the next 20 years and 5 times in the next 30 years.

All land in El Salvador is used, more or less. Thus, there are no "new

lands" on which to expand agricultural production. But the presently used

lands are producing only about 15% of what could be produced if all known agri

cultural technology could be adapted and applied to El Salvador's agricultural

resources through adaptive research and education. Hence, scientific knowledge,

developed by research, offers the solution for better utilization of El

Salvador's presently used land resources. .This includes a body of scientific

knowledge about the behavior of the various soil types and their associated

climates, water, plant life, insects and diseases, and the economic environ-

ment which affects the organization and management of the individual farm

units and the related marketing procedures and facilities. Such knowledge will

give increased yields, that is, increased output per unit of land.

To meet the demands of its increasing population with increasing incomes

El Salvador's agricultural output must expand 5 to 6% per year. To achieve

this rate of growth the country's investment in agricultural technological

knowhow--research, extension and education--must be increased 7 or 8 fold as

rapidly as possible in order to resolve the multiple problems that presently

hold back agricultural growth in El Salvador.

This commission herein outlines the needs for a 7 to 8 fold expansion of

investment in agricultural technology which will, in turn, have sufficient

impact to support an agricultural growth rate of 5 to 6%. This, in turn, will








- 35 -


stimulate the overall development of El Salvador. The benefits from this

investment in terms of monetary returns will be more than 25 times the addition-

al cost.

A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH NEEDS

Agricultural research is needed in El Salvador to develop improved varie-

ties and strains of plants and animals which will (1) be resistant to insects

and diseases, and (2) respond more efficiently to fertilizers and feeds. This

will result in more outputs per unit of land or per animal.

Because of the lack of entomological and pathological research there have

been few solutions discovered for the control of insects and diseases which

are allowed to exist unhampered. Thus, potential output is limited. To solve

these problems it is necessary through research to discover the biological

cycles of insects and the mechanisms by which they transmit pathogenic organisms

from plant to plant or animal to animal. It is necessary to understand, through

research, those physiological mechanisms used by plants in order that new

resistant varieties and strains can be-developed.

Insects, including many species unknown in the temperate zones of the

world, are more prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics. They can be con-

trolled but it is first necessary to develop an understanding of the insect

complex as it exists in El Salvador. Then Salvadoran scientists can begin to

develop low-cost controls.

The same is true for plant diseases, many of which do not even exist in

other parts of the world. In fact, according to Frederick L. Wellman of North

Carolina State University (U.S.) there are three to four times more known plant

diseases in the tropic and sub-tropic zones than in the temperate zones. For

example: known diseases for citruses are 248 to 50 in favor of the temperate

zones; tomatoes, 278 to 32; rice, 500 to 54; beans, 253 to 52; potatoes, 175









- 36 -


to 91; and maize, 125 to 85. But plant diseases can be controlled in the sub-

tropics if sufficient well-designed research is applied locally. This research

cannot be done in other parts of the world.

Tropical and sub-tropical soils behave very differently than temperate

zone soils and require a more intricate kind of management, which is possible

if it is based on adequate locally applied research. Most of the research

done on soils, insects and plant and animal diseases in the temperate regions

cannot be transferred directly to El Salvador. In fact,rsoils, insects, and

diseases in the San Miguel area may be quite different than those in the

Chalatenango area; hence applied research on soils management, insects and

plant diseases must be done locally at different locations even in a country

as small as El Salvador.

It is necessary to integrate the work of the various disciplines as they

apply to the production efficiency of any single agricultural product such as,

for example, cotton, coffee, maiz, beans, or dairy products. And it is-necespary

to coordinate the work of each discipline as it applies to and among various

plants and animals, since problems are often interrelated as between various

kinds of crops.

Research teams must be organized representing the various disciplines

pertinent to the problem. For example, if the problem is low bean yields, then

varieties must be developed that have inherent tendencies to higher yields, are

resistant to diseases, are not susceptible to insect pests, and have high

response to fertilizer. Thus, this problem requires the integrated attention

of plant geneticists, fertilizer and soils specialists, entomologists and plant

pathologists. If the bean yield problem is broadened-to ind&ide optimizing-total

output and the use of capital and labor, then other cultural practises are

involved and agronomists, and management and marketing specialists must be

included on the team.








- 37 -


The above emphasis on increasing yields, that is, output per unit of land,

is necessary because of the limited amount of available agricultural land in

El Salvador and a growing partially under-employed population which will double

in the next 20 years and triple in the next 30 years. Since there is no more

land' to farm, the only alternative is to produce more of present crops per

unit of land or shift to more productive crops. This calls for more research,--

research on climatic behavior, soils and soils management, soils and water

management, the development of new higher yielding disease resistant varieties

of crops now grown in El Salvador, the development of new crops not commonly

grown in El Salvador, the development of more efficient fertilizers for plants

and feeds for animals, cultural practices, management, and marketing, including

storage, processing and distribution. And it calls for more research on ways

of reducing losses during the different stages of production and marketing.

The research program must be planned to be consistent with overall

country-wide policies as well as with the overall agricultural policies of the

country. The research program must be tuned to the problems of the individual

farmer as well as the farming industry as a whole. The research program must

be directed to solve these problems. It must be planned to allow reasonable

time to secure firm results that can be used with confidence. And finally the

results must be promulgated promptly to the farming public and the knowledge

put to work without loss of time. (See next Section on Extension Needs.)

El Salvador must develop a coordinated expanded National Agricultural

Education and Research Program on a crash basis but of course, realistic from

the standpoint of available trained manpower. And furthermore, this must be

planned on a long time endlessly continuing basis because in this fast-changing

world new techniques are developed rapidly and competitively. For instance,

El Salvador has.developed some promising hybrid corn varieties but unfortunately









- 38 -


the research program has necessarily now been relaxed and new diseases have

shown up recently on the varieties that have been developed. This situation

should not be permitted, otherwise El Salvador will again soon be out of the

competitive race in corn production.

In summary, it may be said that increased research will provide technical

knowhow for increasing crop yields, for improving the efficiency of transforming

feeds to livestock products, for reducing losses during the different stages of

production, storing, processing and distribution of farm products. This all

adds up to greater efficiency throughout the entire agricultural sector of

the economy.

1. Areas for Additional Research.

More specifically, agricultural research support must be increased to meet

the following dire needs:

a. Broaden present agronomic research to make it more effective in in-

creasing efficiency in the production of present crops with emphasis on the

traditional food crops. Develop an understanding of the insect-plant disease

complex now threatening the entire cropping program, especially on the Coastal

Plains. This should be a crash program.

Broaden agronomic research to include crops which may have potential

possibilities as future enterprises for diversification. The technical basg

for productivity must be tested for each potential crop. Scientists must

demonstrate through yield trials whether they can achieve high yields according

to world standards.

Several fruit and vegetable crops such as citruses, melons and okra

offer possibilities for diversification but must first be researched to provide

disease resistant.strains adapted to El Salvador. Oil crops such as soybeans

and peanuts should be researched vigorously. It is almost certain that new








39 -

crops, even though they may seem to be problem-free in the beginning will de-

velop insect-plant disease problems as production becomes more concentrated.

This has been true of practically every new crop introduced into El Salvador.

b. Strengthen coffee production research and add coffee utilization

research in order to increase efficiency of the coffee enterprise. Coffee

yields could be increased fivefold. The national goal should be to increase

the national research. .Increased coffee production efficiency is consistent

with the world coffee situation and operation under the World Coffee Agreement.

If the.Agreement is to be successful in the long run, quotas must be

sufficiently flexible to encourage the world's coffee needs to be produced

where efficiency is highest.

El Salvador's goal must be to maintain or increase present production,

working within current world marketing needs, on less land. Higher yields

will "liberate" part of the present coffee land to other uses such as fruit

or forage production, thus gaining higher utilization of El Salvador's scarce

and expensive land resources.

El Salvador's ability to retain present quotas or obtain larger quotas

in the future will depend on its ability to increase efficiency and compete

with the world in coffee production. This rationale points up the need for

emphasis on coffee management research.

c. Establish a strong unit on cotton research to work on (1) the

development of new varieties that are more adaptable to El Salvador with

respect to yield, quality of fiber, disease and insect resistance, plant

structure that facilitates weed control, pesticide application, and harvesting,

and (2) the development of an understanding of the insect-plant disease-weed

complex and their interrelationships in order to control costs, minimize

losses and maximize profits.








40 -

This should be a crash program. Once this complex including natural

predators is understood, it may be possible that some rather simple controls

can be introduced to change the entire picture of cotton production with respect

to costs and competition. Such a program should begin to have significantly

favorable effects on the industry within 3 to 5 years.

d. Establish a responsible first class research unit for livestock

production. Approximately one third of El Salvador's land area is suitable

only for pasture and forage production. With present known technology

applied, through research, to El Salvador's vast pasture and forage lands

this could be a major income producing resource for the country by converting

the pasture and forage from these lands to meat and milk products by ruminants

such as cattle and goats.

At present, under traditional practices, these lands are being utilized

at approximately 3% of their potential. With the use of modern technology,

developed through research, the production from these lands could contribute

01,850,000,000 to the country's PTB. This is more than three times the value

of all agricultural production today in El Salvador and more than 30 times

the value of the present annual production of meat and milk from cattle and

goats.

With modern technology, pasture -forage- livestock products

production becomes an intensive high-value type of enterprise which makes

this use for land competitive with other high-value uses such as for coffee

and fruits. It would also absorb much labor which is a vital consideration

in El Salvador.

El Salvador has not supported livestock research in the past, hence,

livestock production (excluding poultry) has progressed very little.

Traditional husbandry and marketing still prevails.








41 -

These considerations can only lead to the conclusion that an intensive

pasture-forage-livestock industry can and must be developed, based on sci-

entific knowledge obtained from a broad well-conceived research program.

Through genetic research, cattle strains must be developed that are

adapted to El Salvador, to achieve high yields of meat and milk. This requires

research on animal health in order to control long-time existing diseases that

presently limit output. Research is needed on the physiology of reproduction

in order that the number of calves per cow can be raised to a satisfactory

level under the El Salvador environment. The future program must include

feeding and nutrition and general management.

This work should be closely integrated with a strong forage crop unit

in agronomic research to investigate the forage crop-cattle complex for

optimum production per unit of suitable land. This research program must

include an evaluation of pasture species, cultural methods such as sowing

densities, height and frequency of cutting, grazing frequency, response to

fertilizer, response to supplementary irrigation, rotation patterns, and

nutritional values for conversion to livestock products.

Intensification of forage crop production and feeding in El Salvador

must occur simultaneously with improved methods of management and health

protection for the ruminant animals which harvest the forage and convert it

to food for humans.

Ruminants can be a particularly valuable asset for El Salvador because

they can efficiently convert the potentially abundant forage feedstuffs into

human foods. These feedstuffs can be produced on the lands that cannot be

utilized for the production of other crops.

The future demand for animal products for domestic and foreign needs

will increase from 6 to 10% annually during the next 20 years.








42 -

Special attention must be given to research in the growing of other

animal species such as goats and rabbits that are efficient converters of

forages to animal products.

Even though the poultry industry has achieved a high degree of

technification, thanks to the efforts of private enterprise, there is need

for research, especially in management and marketing. New kinds of feeds are

continually being developed and price relationships between feeds are always

changing. Hence, rations must be continually recalculated to achieve high

outputs per hen at low costs. Marketing conditions in the various alter-

native outlets are always changing, hence continuing research is essential

if efficient marketing is to be realized.

Physical and biological research should also be conducted on other

related enterprises such as swine and bees to provide a basis for determining

the economics of their role as supplementary or complementary enterprises

contributing to diversification.

Bee culture in El Salvador has a promising potential if it is thoroughly

and scientifically researched. Bee culture is adaptable to the small

campesino as well as the large sized farmers. It provides a basic food that

can be used by the campesino family as well as a source of cash income from

well-established markets.

e. Inaugurate a forestry research program. This must include research

on reforestation needs and practices as related to soil and water conservation,

flood control, wildlife propagation, recreation, the future demands for

forest products and the overall social and economic effects of forests on the

growth and development of the country. This calls for integrated research

programs that requires the team approach. Forest research teams must include

forest tree culturists, soils specialists, entomologists, pathologists, wood








- 43 -


technologists, wildlife specialists, and specialists in management and

marketing.

An enlightened forestry program for El Salvador is a matter of first order.

A well conceived forestry program conserves soil and water, preserves the

natural beauty of the landscape, prevents floods and the loss of soil, provides

an economic livelihood (employment and income) for many people and helps the

overall economy of the country by reducing the need for imports and providing

more exports. (See page 24 for a statement on the economic and social pot

tentials for forest development in El Salvador.)

f. Establish a strong unit to research the application of irrigation water

to specific crops with respect to timing, amounts, and methods in order (1) to

minimize insects and diseases and optimize yields, and (2) to determine

chemical effects on soils.

The land resources of El Salvador are limited and the rainy season is

confined to a six months period. Hence irrigation not only offers an oppor-

tunity for raising crops during the dry season but also reducing drought

risks during the rainy season by making supplemental water available for use

at critical moments during the life cycle of the plants.

Irrigation is not simply a matter of conducting water to the field.

Successful irrigation requires a knowledge of relationships between soil,

plants, and water. Thus research is required to determine such things as the

water requirements for the different crops, the frequency and time of appli-

cation, soil characteristics and their capacityto retain water, losses by

evaporation and transpiration, and production functions showing the relation

ships between varying amounts of water and fertilizer and yields.

Little or no research in this field has been done in Central America.

Research is necessary if reasonable returns from the large investments in








- 44 -


irrigation facilities are to be realized and damage to our soils is to be

avoided. It is crucial that Salvadoran agriculturists understand that properly

managed application of water is not only a problem of optimization, but that

poorly managed water use can actually ruin good farm land.

g. Establish research in pisciculture. It is an established fact that

fish provides a complete human food, including proteins which are lacking in

the typical Salvadoran diet. The potentials for producing fresh water fish in

ponds and lakes in El Salvador are almost without limit. However, research is

necessary to realize these possibilities for both sea and fresh water products.

Fishing research must include (1) the study of sea fish culture and the

commercial utilization of sea fish and (2) the development of knowhow for the

establishment of farm ponds which will provide another farm product that will

contribute to the objective of diversification.

h. Maintain an expanded high grade research unit for the marketing and

distribution of agricultural products. A Department of Marketing has been

established recently in the Direcci6n General de Economia Agricola y Planificaci6n

of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. An expanded marketing research

program should be built, using the present Department as the foundation for an

enlarged and adequate marketing research program.

If agricultural output is to be increased from 3 to 5 times, then marketing

facilities will necessarily undergo an increase of 6 to 10 times. Today,

marketing is very inefficient with more than 50% of many perishables and 10

to.20% of the basic non-pariLhable grain ~and cereals being lost during the

process of marketing. Research essential for present and future decision

making must include studies of storage, transportation, market price behavior

and margins, market reporting and dissemination of price and volume information,

and market facilities including processing facilities with emphasis on meats








- 45 -


and fresh fruits and vegetables for domestic consumption and for export when

economically justified.

The work of the marketing research technicians may, in some instances,

involve the team approach based on commodities or functions. For example, a

research team on corn,or, say, cereal grains might conceivably include agri-

cultural production scientists, a farm management specialist, a utilization

specialist, and marketing researchers representing expertise on domestic

markets, regional markets (CACM), and world markets. Other teams of appropri

ate research experts might conceivably be created to study functional marketing

problems such as, for example, storage facilities for cereals or terminal

market facilities and management.

i. Organize a strong unit for farm management and price policy research.

This should include studies which (1) develop physical production functions of

input-output relationships at varying levels of technology and efficiency and

(2) costs and returns analyses for various farm enterprises and for various

types of farm operating units. Such basic information will enable decision

-makers to determine price incentives for inputs and outputs to assure a

reasonable rate of development of the agricultural sector. This unit would

necessarily have to cooperate and integrate its work closely with the work of

the physical and biological scientists.

J..A utilization and processing research section should be established to

work closely with the researchers in the production field and with those interest-

ed who may become potential processors of farm products. Much of this

section's work would involve compiling research information from other parts

of the world and keeping abreast of the latest techniques which may possibly

be applied in El Salvador.

k. Establish a research unit in human nutrition, housing and consumption








- 46 -


management (consumer economics). This entire proposal for the development of

El Salvador's agricultural sector through the application of technology stands

on improved human efficiency,-physical and mental. Good health, physical and

mental, depends on improved nutrition and housing. Improved human productivity

depends on improved health and the desire for higher living standards. And

the entire area of human and home improvement must be based on a foundation

of continuing research and education.

Concluding this Section on additional research needs, it is necessary to

bear in mind that for the agricultural development of the country, research

projects must give results that have practical meaning. They must be planned

to solve specific production problems. The proposed research must be "applied"

or "oriented" bearing in mind (1) the present and future importance of the

problem and (2) the possibilities for its solution.

When the problem to be resolved has been determined, the research project

must provide for an integrated approach representing all related disciplines.

It must continue for a sufficient time to assure reliable results and the

researchers should plan to remain with the project as long as useful results

are forthcoming.

Once the research needs and guidelines are established, it is essential

to analyze exhaustively the priorities that must be given to the different

programs according to a well defined policy of agricultural development for

the entire country.

It is the farmer who must benefit immediately from the results of research.

He must receive the information 'aap'v "-1 4n -" =sy way to understand. It

is the Agricultural Extension Service that must provide the link between the

researcher and the farmer,-quickly and simply. (See page60 for a discussion

of Extension Needs).








- 47 -


Finally, the agricultural development that will result from agricultural

research will improve the general welfare of all Salvadoran people. If the

country wants to increase its food output and raise its levels of living

accordingly, the public must understand the nature of agricultural technology

and how it finally contributes to the general welfare. It must understand

the numbers and kinds of teachers, researchers, extension specialists and other

experts in the various scientific fields that will be needed to bring about

this technification of the agricultural sector. It is fundamental and

necessary that political leaders and government officials understand the

need for agricultural research as a'pre-requisite for agricultural growth

and how it contributes to agricultural development and the general welfare.

Being aware that agricultural research must be enlarged and better oriented,

programs must be established that are indispensable for the integrated develop-

ment of the country with priorities that this development itself will demand.

2. Research and Diversification.

Diversification of agriculture means different things to different people.

Generally speaking, in El Salvador, the diversification concept cannot be

confined to coffee land alone. It embodies the modernization and development

of the entire agricultural sector.

Overall country-wide diversification is one of the manifestations that

comes with economic growth and development. It is an integral part and a

result of the development process. This is also true when considering only

the agricultural sector. Obviously, it is the agricultural along with all

the either sectors that adds up to increasing country-wide diversification in

the production of goods and services.

In El Salvador commercial agricultural production, as in most tropical

and subtropical countries, has tended to be concentrated on one or only a








- 48 -


few crops and these were exported for foreign exchange. For many decades El

Salvador had a basically one-crop economy--coffee. Then it diversified by

adding cotton-and sugar cane to its commercial agricultural production

pattern. The pattern of commercial crops came to be what it is today through

the forces of comparative advantage as determined by world markets and based

on available technical knowledge and customs. On the other hand, the pattern

of domestically consumed food crops produced largely under a subsistence

rather than a market economy environment has been largely determined by the

food needs of the subsistence farm families producing according to their tra

ditional needs and customs rather than by modern technical knowledge.

Through the acquisition and application of new exogenous knowledge and

indigenous research and experience, other crops, particularly food crops for

domestic consumption, can be increased and commercialized and new crops will

be introduced into the cropping pattern. The adoption of improved cultural

practices and techniques, under a system where the shifting or reallocation

of agricultural resources is reasonably free and flexible, will result in a

pattern of agricultural output that is more diversified than past patterns

which were more or less limited by an environment we now refer to as

"traditional".

Furthermore, El Salvador's future agriculture will be more diversified

because its natural resources are highly diversified with various combinations

of soil types, topography, elevation, temperatures, moisture conditions, and

underground water availability. If these natural resources are fully utilized

through the employment of the various modern means of production, then the

output will not only beolarger, it will inevitably be more diversified. Hence

more and different products will be available (1) for domestic consumption,

(2) for export, and (3) for industrial processing. Consequently exports will








- 49 -


be augmented and the need for imports lessened. Also, this means that automati-

cally rural labor will be more fully and diversely employed.

Assuming that the latest knowledge is available to all the owners of agri-

cultural resources and that the legal structure encourages rather than impedes

flexibility in the use and ownership of agricultural resources, then resources

will be shifted from the less advantageous to the more advantageous uses to

the point where there is equal advantage from each use. Within agriculture

there will be a continual striving toward equilibrium (never ultimately

achieved) in the allocation of agricultural resources to the point where there

is equal advantage for all crops produced in the country. As agriculture

becomes more sophisticated, as agricultural techniques are improved through

research, as communication becomes more efficient, and as the investment neces-

sary to expedite the adoption of the most efficient techniques is made availa

ble, agricultural production will inevitably increase and the output pattern

resulting from near equilibrium will be more diversified.

As a larger number of different agricultural products are produced

(diversified) present major crops such as coffee and cotton will become less

important relatively, but not necessarily absolutely. In fact, it is quite

probable that the production of coffee in absolute amounts may increase, if

not subjected to institutional production limitations. Production will

increase on the land more naturally suitable to higher yields and quality

while the more marginal lands, due to natural limitations, will be shifted

to other crops depending on;how rapidly new techniques are developed and

adopted among the various alternatives.

In the foregoing remarks it will be noted that research is mentioned

several times. It should be stressed here and now that future diversification

(development) of agriculture in El Salvador primarily depends on a greatly








- 50 -


expanded research program to study alternative agricultural enterprises. These

alternatives include a broad spectrum of 50 or more agricultural products

including grains, livestock and livestock products, edible oils, fruits, nuts,

vegetables, and fiber crops. The research needed for each product includes:

the development of varieties or breeds adapted to El Salvador soils, climate,

and insect and disease complexes; methods and practices of planting and

cultivating; fertilizers and insecticide requirements; labor requirements and

utilization efficiency, organization and management for production and

harvesting; conservation, storage and processing needs; packaging systems

and methods; means and costs of transportation; distribution channels; fixed

and working capital requirements; licensing, regulations,inspection, and grade

standards; specifications for potential export markets, et cetera.

If this researched information is currently and systematically available,

then farmers and agribusiness entrepreneurs will be encouraged to invest in

new agricultural enterprises. Lack of such information is the principal

reason why prospective entrepreneurs are at present discouraged from..investing

new capital in new agricultural enterprises. On the other hand a strong

expanded research program will encourage investment in new enterprises not

only because of already existing researched information upon which to build

new enterprises, but because there exists a strong ongoing research program

that is available and ready to research problems as they are sure to emerge.

In other words, a strong ongoing research program is the best insurance that

can be devised for investment capital in El Salvador for new diversified agri-

cultural products.

The order and priorities of research projects must be established to

encourage and promote a more diversified output of agricultural products.

Research will bring forth new crops which will result in more intensive use








- 51 -


of the land and require more labor. Agricultural research will provide a

wider field of raw materials for agro-industry which will, in turn, produce a

wider range of products and by-products for domestic manufacture and export.

Agricultural research will result in greater diversification from the farm

level to the national level. It will increase individual incomes and

strengthen the nation's trade balance and thus the entire economy of El

Salvador.

3. Personnel Needs for an Expanded Research Program.

To fulfill the needs for a broadened national agricultural research pro-

gram which will have enough impact to sustain a 5 to $% growth rate and

triple El Salvador's agricultural output in 20 years, it is recommended that

the present research program be expanded as rapidly as is feasibly possible.

The Commission recommends that the research work be organized on the

basis of chairs or units. Each unit will consist of (1) a chairman or unit

head--a research scientist with doctoral level training and/or its equivalent

in experience, (2) an associate research scientist with master's degree level

training or its equivalent in experience, (3) an assistant research scientist

with a bachelor's degree training, (4) a research apprentice who has completed

four years toward his bachelors degree and will complete the 5th year re-

quirements for his degree during a one-year apprenticeship, (5) a research

helper with a perito-agricola level training, and (6) a bilingual secretary.

All of the professional positions, especially the top three must be filled

with aggressive imaginative personnel who are desirous and capable of going

to the top of the professional ladder. The unit head must be capable of

exerting leadership in his field and have a curiosity and imagination which

will lead him into the scientific unknowns that will solve the problems and

increase the efficiency of Salvadoran agriculture and thus give it a position
of competitive leadership in world trade.









- 52 -


Science is universal. It is especially essential that the Salvadoran

Center for Agricultural Technology have instantaneous and continuous access

to and communication with the rest of the world since research methodology

and much already-discovered scientific knowledge is available and must be

transferred to El Salvador on a continuing basis as a foundation for the applied

research that can only be done here.

The Commission's proposal includes a staff of professional translators and

interpreters for the Center, but it is also necessary that each research unit

have a bilingual secretary who can communicate in a foreign language.

The organization needed for a unified and integrated National Agricultural

Research Program for El Salvador is outlined as follows:

The Commission recommends that 115 research units be established and staffed

as quickly as possible. These 115 units will cover the research needs in

practically all areas of agricultural technology as it applies to El Salvador.

This will provide approximately one research technician for every 800 farmers

as recommended by CIDA.

It is recommended that the Research work be administered by a Director

and Sub-Director aided by a biometrician technical advisor who would have the

rank of a Department Head.








- 53 -


The following six Departments are recommended, each to be administered by

a Department Head*:

1. Plant Science Fiber crops, sugar cane, cereals, beans, oil crops,

vegetables, fruits and nuts, and silviculture. This Department will

include sections for plant pathology and entomology.

2. Animal Science Ruminants (cattle for meat and milk), pigs, poultry,

and small animals (goats and rabbits).

3. Farm Management and Marketing

4. Chemistry and Soils

5. Agricultural Engineering (including irrigation engineering).

6. Home Economics




Research Units Required for the Recommended Expanded National

Agricultural Research Program

NON-FOOD CROPS Research Units

Coffee

Continue present program and add four units in
Management and Utilization 11

Cotton

2 Agronomist Units Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
3 Entomologist Units (one on mechanics of control)
1 Plant Pathologist Unit 7

Kenaf, Henequen and Ramie

1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Utilization Unit-Processing and Marketing
1/2 Entomologist Unit ) To be combined with
1/2 Plant Pathology Unit) Forages and Pastures 3



* It may be that followup studies by the Commission of this report will suggest
a larger breakdown of subject matter departments to be integrated with the
existing Departments of the National School of Agriculture. (See page 29).









- 54 -


CEREALS Research Units

Corn and Grain Sorghum

3 Agronomist Units-Variety Development and Cultural
Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Chemist Unit (To back up agronomists and soils specialists) 7

Rice

1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural
Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Utilization Unit 5

ROOT CROPS

Yuca, Potetoes and Sweet Potatoes

1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development, Cultural Technology,
Soils Fertility and Water Use
1 Utilization Unit 2

BEANS and other leguminous crops, used primarily for foods

1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit 4

OIL CROPS Soybeans, Peanuts, Sesame, Sunflower, Castor Beans and others

2 Agronomist Units-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Chemistry and Utilization Unit 6

SUGAR CANE

1 Agronomist Unit
1 Processing and U~ilization Unit-For panela, syrups and other
sugar products. 2








- 55 -


HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS Research Units

Vegetables

3 Vegetable Specialist Units-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Marketing Specialist Unit 7

Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits and Nuts

1 Citrus Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Mango Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Banana Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
2 Specialist Units for other crops such as nuts, avocados,
pineapple, papaya, guayaba, etc.
2 Entomologist Units
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Processing, Utilization and Marketing Unit 10

Flowers and Ornamentals

1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Marketing Specialist Unit 2

FORERTRI

1 Forestry Specialist Unit
1 Forest Products Utilization Unit 2

WEED CONTROL








- 56 -


ANIMAL SCIENCE R^darch Units

Forages and Pastures Ruminant Animal Production
(Cattle and Goat)

3 Breeding Improvement Units & Genetic Improvement and
Selection for Meat and Milk; Performance Recording;
Sire and Cow Identification and Evaluation; Genealogy
Records.

2 Reproduction and Lactation Physiology Units Cow
Reproduction Efficiency; Artificial Insemination
Research; Causes of Delayed Breeding; Sire Breeding
Efficiency; Breeding Management; Lactation and Repro-
duction Endocrinology; and Environmental Factors
affecting Reproduction and Lactation.

4 Forage and Feed Production and Utilization Units-Forage
Breeding; Cultural Practices; Irrigation; Species
Evaluation; Nutrient Management; Animal Management on
Pastures and Ranges; Forage Conservation; Hay and Silage,
Making; and Forage Feeding Management. (These include 1/2
of Entomologist Unit and 1/2 of a Plant Pathologist Unit
to be combined with Kenaf and Henequen).

2 Ruminant Nutrition and Feed Evaluation Units Composition
and Nutritional Evaluation of Forages and Feed-stuffs;
Nutritional Requirements for Growth, Milk and Meat Pro-
duction; Mineral Requirements, Deficiencies and Excesses;
Vitamin Requirements; and Effect of Production Factors on
Composition of Animal Products.

2 Livestock Firm and Herd Management Units Farm Organization
in Relation to Herds; Herd and Cow Management; Milling Manage
ment; Calf Raising Management; Sanitation; Water Supplies;
Herd Health; On-farm Production of Cheese and Butter; and
Structure and Handling of Equipment. 13

Swine Production

1 Breeding Improvement and Physiology Unit Genetic Improvement;
Performance Recording; Breeding Efficiency; Artificial insemi-
nation;

1 Nutrition and Management Unit Nutritive Requirements and
Deficiencies; Baby Pig Nutrition and Management; Feed
Mobilization, Rationing, and Evaluation; and Housing and
Management. 2








- 57 -


Poultry, Rabbits, and Other Small Animals Research Units

1 Breeding Improvement and Physiology Unit- Genetic
Improvement and Selection for Improved Egg, Meat
or Fur Production; Performance Recording; and
Physiology of Growth, Production and Reproduction

1 Nutrition and Management Unit.- Nutritional re-
quirements and Defici&ncies; Feed Mobilization,
Rationing, and Evaldation; Housing and Management;
and tare of Products on Farm. 2

Animal Diseases and Parasites

1 Animal Disease Research Unit
1 Animal Parasite Research Unit 2

Apicultural Production

1 Unit on Production, Maintenance and Management of Bees 1

Fish Culture

1 Unit on Fresh Water Fish, Environment, Development and
Management
1 Unit on Marine Products 2

Wildlife


1 Wildlife Management Unit








- 58 -


IRRIGATION Research Units

1 Irrigation Systems Unit-Underground, surface and overhead
1 Salinity Problems Unit 2

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

1 Land Stabilization Unit Erosion Control
1 Farm Structures Unit
1 Farm Machinery and Equipment Unit
1 Farm Labor Efficiency Unit Labor Simplification,
Low cost equipment, Hand Tools
1 Farm Storage Unit Crop Drying, Refrigeration 5

SOCIAL SCIENCE

Farm Management and Rural Sociology

1 Management Unit
1 Irrigation Economics Unit.
1 Farm Credit Unit
1 Rural Sociology Unit 4

Marketing

3 Domestic Marketing Units
1 Regional Marketing Unit
1 IWorld Marketing Unit 5

Cooperatives

1 Cooperative Organization and Management Unit 1

HOME ECONOMICS

1 Foods and Nutrition Unit
1 Management and Equipment Unit
1 Textile and Clothing Unit
1 Housing and Sanitation Unit 4

ECOLOGY

El Salvador's population will triple during the next 30 years and
agricultural production can and must be quintupled during this period.
But to preserve and improve El Salvador's environment, we must study
all agricultural techniques in the light of their effect on our sur-
roundings. They must not only contribute to increased productivity
but maintain and improve the natural biological balances which will
benefit rather than destroy El Salvador's natural environment with
which it is richly endowed.

1 Ecology Unit
114









- 59 -


Research Personnel Needs by Disciplines


Doctorate Master's Bachelor Perito
Disciplines Level Level" Level Level

Agronomists 15 15 15 15
Oleiculturists 3 3 3 3
Pomologists (for fruits & Nuts) 6 6 6 6
Soils & Water 9 9 9 9
Chemists 1 1 1 1
Plant Pathologists 9 9 9 9
Entomologists 11 11 11 11
Utilization, Processing & Marketing 10 10 10 10
Coffee Specialists 3 3 3 3
Forestry 1 1 1 1
Forest Products 1 1 1 1
Weed Control 1 1 1 1
Animal Breeding & Improvement 5 5 5 5
Animal Reproduction Physiology 2 2 2 2
Forage and Feed Production & Use 3 3 3 3
Animal Nutrition & Feed Use 4 4 4 4
Dairy Records and Management 1 1 1 1
Beef Farm Management 1 1 1 1
Animal Diseases 1 1 1 1
Animal Parasites 1 1 1 1
Poultry and Small Animal's 1 1 1 1
Apiculture 1 1 1 1
Fish Culture 1 1 1 1
Wildlife 1 1 1 1
Irrigation 2 2 2 2
Agricultural Engineering 5 5 5 5
Farm Management 5 5 5 5
Marketing 5 5 5 5
Cooperatives 1 1 1 1
Home Economics
Food & Nutrition 1 1 1 1
Management & Equipment 1 1 1 1
Textile and Equipment 1 1 1 1
Housing and Sanitation 1 1 1 1


113 113 113


Totals









- 60 -


B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NEEDS

At present there are approximately 4,000 farmers on the average for each

of the 63 Extension field offices. The Commission recommends that the number

of Extension field offices be increased to 125. Then practically every farmer

in the country will be within reasonable reach of an Extension field office

and an agent.

The Commission recommends that each field office be staffed with a director

and three auxiliary agricultural agents (one trained in animal science), a

4-C agent and a home agent. Thus, there will be one agricultural field agent

for each 400 farmers or six times the present staff. This will meet the

standards set by FAO and by CIDA*.

With proven modern extension techniques which employ the use of local

leaders, meetings and mass media and with adequate transportation, this proposed

organization will provide effective Extension contacts with every farmer every

year. Modern extension teaching methods will make it possible for every

farmer to have continuous information on the latest developments in agricultur-

al technology.

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR TRAINING TECHNOLOGISTS

In order to provide the trained manpower for the required expansion of

agricultural research and extension as outlined above, the Commission has deter

mined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the



* The United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has set the
maximum number of farms at 500 per agricultural extension field agent as a
minimum standard if agricultural efficiency and development is to be in-
creased at the necessary growth rate of 5 to 6% per year. The United States
has a ratio of approximately 500 farms to one extension field agent. Some
countries, notably Japan have even lower ratios. CIDA has set the maximum
number of farms at 400 per agricultural agent in Central America.
This "minimum standard" takes into consideration the availability of techni
cal assistance which is given by credit agencies and by private services
which sell farm supplies (improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, et cetera).









- 60 -


B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NEEDS

At present there are approximately 4,000 farmers on the average for each

of the 63 Extension field offices. The Commission recommends that the number

of Extension field offices be increased to 125. Then practically every farmer

in the country will be within reasonable reach of an Extension field office

and an agent.

The Commission recommends that each field office be staffed with a director

and three auxiliary agricultural agents (one trained in animal science), a

4-C agent and a home agent. Thus, there will be one agricultural field agent

for each 400 farmers or six times the present staff. This will meet the

standards set by FAO and by CIDA*.

With proven modern extension techniques which employ the use of local

leaders, meetings and mass media and with adequate transportation, this proposed

organization will provide effective Extension contacts with every farmer every

year. Modern extension teaching methods will make it possible for every

farmer to have continuous information on the latest developments in agricultur-

al technology.

C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR TRAINING TECHNOLOGISTS

In order to provide the trained manpower for the required expansion of

agricultural research and extension as outlined above, the Commission has deter

mined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the



* The United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has set the
maximum number of farms at 500 per agricultural extension field agent as a
minimum standard if agricultural efficiency and development is to be in-
creased at the necessary growth rate of 5 to 6% per year. The United States
has a ratio of approximately 500 farms to one extension field agent. Some
countries, notably Japan have even lower ratios. CIDA has set the maximum
number of farms at 400 per agricultural agent in Central America.
This "minimum standard" takes into consideration the availability of techni
cal assistance which is given by credit agencies and by private services
which sell farm supplies (improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, et cetera).









- 61 -


teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the University of

El Salvador. The Commission believes that these programs are realistic in

terms of available faculty and in terms of qualified students. Furthermore,

it believes that the timing of the expansion of physical facilities and

manpower, as well as the involved costs, are soundly feasible.

1. The National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quin6nez"

The Commission recommends that the National School of Agriculture increase

its admission of men students from 110 to 220 per year. This can be done

without reducing the quality of students. At present the School is only able

to accept one qualified applicant in four. With increasing high school

graduates in El Salvador the number of qualified applicants will continue to

grow.

This increase in admissions will augment the yearly number of graduating

Peritos Agricolas from the present 50 to 90 to approximately 180. In order

to meet the future demands of farmers, agribusiness and the Extension Service

for students having additional preparation in specialized fields, the

Commission recommends that the School establish a fourth year program for 35

men from each year's class of 180 Peritos Agricolas.

In order to meet the demands of the purveyors of food, clothing, and

housing and especially the institutions conducting research and extension in

these fields, the Commission recommends that the School establish a Department-

of Home Economics which will accept 75 women each year and graduate 60 annually

under a three-year training program.

This proposed program of expansion will require an enlarged faculty

sufficient to maintain a 15 to 1 ratio between students and professors including

department heads. This will necessitate an expansion of the faculty from the

present 38 to approximately 100. The accompanying tables 1 and 2 show












- 62 -


CO CM
) o l)
110 %0


C o00
-4- -4


*
n u co





a) *r- 0 CO CO It I-4
>4 p. CM o P r cn C
6O Cq r-4 r-l -





0o r- I -
a

C C 0
HO U C o










0 ri 1 in CO c
$4w C4 o- D CR C 4






N 0 u H



< *
oo




W M



*
0
to
(UU





0











C*ri CM ci O
&o I cM


$- 1-4 w- -4
C C Co Cu




c S 4J
-' CM4 m -It


C Ci
0 0
=


I-
COl


Li
CO


co
t3 41
( 0

w 0
04
a

0 0

>


0 co
U C
4J (4
CO
,0
( *

*r4 0)
Uo
*r-. 0)



4-C
C
SU


E CU



-a
m 44

4O
C>


3 a


0
E-I


Ir











- 63 -


4.1 0
o.




4 0
~.,C-
ca







4.0

0
aU

















0 c
C l
M W


S0)


0 '





P4 C
u r4



C m







CO
0 co4
CT Q

SQ 0

U *r4






u

co 0
*0
O <


6 M


0
t Fae



0) M
to *0


r4 Iin 0
1-4 1-4


Cm 0 -
o u <

















C I pl url cD l CM
Ii 1- Ii" .cj
0 0 N 4








N *












"4
w 3n N i N 4









0 *


w )











O ON
t ) r*4
CM M Ch






t MU

oo
< I v e r

g-I CO
u


ca




0 t

C, o-


V1
4.1
0
1








64 -

projected needs for students and faculty as outlined above. The projected

needs for facilities will be considered in Chapter VI.

2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science The University of El Salvador

In discussions between the CENTA Commission and representatives of the

Faculty of Agriculture and the Institute of Biological Science of the University

it has been agreed that the Faculty and the Institute can increase its Bachelor

graduates from 30 during the second year of CENTA to approximately 100 by the

sixth year. This would satisfy the demands for Bachelor degree trained

personnel by the Center and by other public institutions and private

agribusiness enterprises.

This projected program would then taper down after the tenth year to

whatever number of bachelors would be sufficient to maintain the Center program

and the expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agribusiness.

It has been estimated that 60 graduates may be enough to satisfy the demand at

that time. This, however, is probably a conservative figure since by then

growth of agricultural output should have sufficient momentum to demand

related services in geometrically increasing numbers.

The University Bachelor Degree candidates must spend a fifth year on a

special problem in order to fulfill their requirements for a degree. It is

recommended that those Bachelor candidates who may be interested in and suited

for a career with CENTA, be employed by CENTA during their fifth year as

research apprentices during which time they will complete a research study in

fulfillment of their Bachelor of Science degree requirements. If satisfactory

they will then be eligible to be employed in the Center as research scientist

assistants. If these relationships continue to be satisfactory they will be

eligible for scholarships for graduate training, which eventually,as they gain








- 65 -


further training and experience, could lead to the top in the Center organ-

ization.

The future needs of the University to meet this projection for more

graduates has been taken into consideration in the projected budget as pro-

posed in Chapter VII.

3. Graduate Training Program

The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study

scholarships in foreign universities. This plan will support two-year Masters

scholarships for 35 graduate students beginning the second year of the Center

Program and expand to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to

30 to 35 students by the ninth year.

The Center will support three-year Doctoral scholarships for 14 students

beginning the third and fourth years of the Center Program building up to 55

students by the eighth year and tapering back to 15 by the tenth year. These

projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program (masters

and doctorates). A table of graduate scholarship projections will be found

in Chapter VI.








- 66 -


V. A NATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR

The Commission has reviewed and studied the agricultural sector and its

role and importance in the overall economic development of El Salvador and

concluded that it is the most important consideration at this juncture in El

Salvador's development. It has noted the recent slowdown in agricultural

growth and its present state of stagnation and its dragging effect on the

entire economy. It has concluded that unless an annual growth rate of 5% or

more can be restored, the future development of El Salvador is indeed dark.

It has studied the causes of this condition of stagnation and concluded

that it is basically the result of inadequate technical know-how to cope with

the diseases and insects of crops and livestock, the problems of adaptation

of plant and animal life to the Salvadoran environment, and the behavior and

actions of the tropical soils peculiar to El Salvador.

The Commission has noted that in those countries which have experienced

a break-through in agricultural technology, approximately 7 percent of their

annual gross income from agriculture was reinvested in agricultural research

and education. It has been determined that El Salvador is investing less than

.6 of one percent of its agricultural income in agricultural research and

education.

It has asked itself: "If it takes an annual reinvestment of 7 percent of

their gross agriculture income in those countries which have experienced agri-

cultural technological breakthroughs,why should we expect tropical countries

such as El Salvador to do it with only 1/12th as much expenditure for agri-

cultural research and education?".

It has concluded, that if our agriculture is to regain a healthy growth

rate and stimulate the country's economy, El Salvador must increase its annual

investment in research and education several times over present levels, not








- 67 -


12 times but 8 to 10 times, since some research knowledge from other parts of

the world can be adapted to El Salvador.

The Commission has studied El Salvador's needs for technically trained

manpower and finances to carry on the necessary expanded program of agriculture

al.education. It has studied the availability of technically trained manpower

and finances. It has concluded that, while both are critically scarce, both

can be mobilized and in the case of the latter, El Salvador cannot afford not to

make the investment. It will pay off handsomely as it has elsewhere in the

world.

The Commission has studied the problems which presently beset agriculture

al research and education in El Salvador. It has concluded that the public

does not realize the importance and the critical need for this work in our

country; hence its support, manifested in budgetary inadequacies, is totally

insufficient to meet El Salvador's needs. This dire situation has expressed

itself in low salaries, lack of incentives such as scholarship programs,

health benefits and retirement programs. This, in turn, has led to less

qualified personnel with high rates of turnover. It has led to grossly inade-

quate transportation facilities and difficulties in obtaining sufficient

equipment and materials when and where needed.

The Commission has noted that there are several public agencies within

and without the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock that have programs of

an extension nature to promote their various projects. Because some agencies

have better salaries, more adequate transportation and other amenities than

others, morale is weakened and because of duplication, resources are squandered.

There is lack of communication and coordination between agencies responsible

for developing and spreading agricultural technology.

These observations have led the Commission to what it considers an








- 68 -


obvious and logical conclusion. The Commission recommends that the adminis"

tration of all programs pertaining to the creation'of agricultural technological

knowhow (research) and the promulgation and divulgation of agricultural technical

knowledge (extension) and the training of agricultural scientists at the college

or above college level, be integrated into a National Center for Agricultural

Technology.

More specifically, the Commission recommends that the present adminis-

tration and programs of the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones y Extension

Agricola,-the Instituto Salvadorefo de Investigaciones del Cafe, and the

Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, "Roberto Quin6nez"(ENA) be integrated into

the National Center for Agricultural Technology. The Commission recommends

that the Center be located on and in the vicinity of the present site of ENA

in San Andres, and furthermore, that this Center be created as an Official

Autonomous Institution to be governed by an appointed Board of Trustees who in

turn will appoint an Executive Director to administer the affairs of the

Center.

The Commission suggests that the Faculty of Agronomic Science of El

Salvador University be broadened in its disciplines and related to the National

Center for Agricultural Technology through a Cooperative Agreement such as is

used between the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Land

Grant Universities.

Under the Director General of the Center will be the Director of the

National School of Agriculture, the Director of the Coffee Research Institute,

the Director of Agricultural Research and the Director of Agricultural Extension.

On the Director General's staff will be (1) two administrators, (a) the

Administrative Officer and (b) the Manpower and Personnel Officer, and (2)

five heads of service functions, which include (a) the Librarian, (b) the









- 69 -


Chief of the Information Service, (c) the Chief of Evaluation and Training,

(d) the Chief of Rural Community Development, and (e) the Chief of Foreign

Liaison.

Thus, cooperation and coordination will be achieved between the National

School, the Coffee Research Institute, the Research Division and the Extension

Divisionwith the Director General serving as the chairman of the Joint Board

of Directors. All research and extension activities within the country will

be integrated into the Center, thus coordination and the elimination of costly

duplication will be accomplished.

There will be greater efficiency and conservation in the use of manpower

and money since all functions will be serviced by one administrative unit, by

one Information Service, and by one Library. There will be cooperation,

coordination, and integration in so far as practical among the personnel of

the three functions,-training and teaching of agricultural technicians, research,

and the extension of knowledge to the agricultural public. All teaching,

research and extension programs will be closely coordinated. Where practical,

individuals may combine, say, teaching and research, research and extension

or teaching and extension. All of the functions will be coordinated and their

activities combined as much as is feasibly possible when working with the agri-

cultural and the general public.

The following Chapters will describe in more detail the organization,

operation, financing, and justification for the proposed Center.








- 70 -


VI. THE ORGANIZATION OF "CENTA"

A. LOCATION

Because of the natural characteristics and existing man-made facilities

of the area the Commission recommends that the National Center for Technology

be located in San Andres on and in the vicinity of the present site of the

National School of Agriculture.

The natural characteristics are favorable for a Center. The site is

surrounded by 15,000 hectares of land which is largely adaptable to agricultur-

al use. The soils are of sandy loam texture, fertile and slightly acid. Most

of the area is irrigable with available water from local rivers and underground

sources. The Valley has an elevation average of 470 meters above sea level

with higher elevations in the surrounding hills and volcanos. The temperature

averages, annually, 23C. degrees and the precipitation averages approximately

1,800 mm. per year.

The area is well provided with infrastructure for power, communication

and transportation. It is located on the Pan American 4-lane super highway

30 kilometers from San Salvador, 21 from Santa Tecla and 32 kilometers from

Santa Ana.

The Center will be adjacent to the San Andres Experimental Field Station.

The National Normal School, "Alberto Masferrer" which provides facilities for

teacher training, is located in the vicinity of San Andres.

Nearby the Center will be found the Ruins of San Andres or Tecp6n. Thus,

the area will be an archeological center of increasingly important cultural

value to El Salvador. Plans are underway for developing in the area a Zoo by

the Ministry of Education and a Botanical Garden by the Ministry of Agriculture

and Livestock.

Presently, the Experimental Field Station embraces 271 hectares of land








- 70 -


VI. THE ORGANIZATION OF "CENTA"

A. LOCATION

Because of the natural characteristics and existing man-made facilities

of the area the Commission recommends that the National Center for Technology

be located in San Andres on and in the vicinity of the present site of the

National School of Agriculture.

The natural characteristics are favorable for a Center. The site is

surrounded by 15,000 hectares of land which is largely adaptable to agricultur-

al use. The soils are of sandy loam texture, fertile and slightly acid. Most

of the area is irrigable with available water from local rivers and underground

sources. The Valley has an elevation average of 470 meters above sea level

with higher elevations in the surrounding hills and volcanos. The temperature

averages, annually, 23C. degrees and the precipitation averages approximately

1,800 mm. per year.

The area is well provided with infrastructure for power, communication

and transportation. It is located on the Pan American 4-lane super highway

30 kilometers from San Salvador, 21 from Santa Tecla and 32 kilometers from

Santa Ana.

The Center will be adjacent to the San Andres Experimental Field Station.

The National Normal School, "Alberto Masferrer" which provides facilities for

teacher training, is located in the vicinity of San Andres.

Nearby the Center will be found the Ruins of San Andres or Tecp6n. Thus,

the area will be an archeological center of increasingly important cultural

value to El Salvador. Plans are underway for developing in the area a Zoo by

the Ministry of Education and a Botanical Garden by the Ministry of Agriculture

and Livestock.

Presently, the Experimental Field Station embraces 271 hectares of land








- 71 -


and offices and storage facilities. The National School of Agriculture includes

115 hectares of land and school administrative offices, student dormitories,

living quarters for personnel, class room facilities, dining room and auditorium,

and field installations. Including land, buildings, and equipment the present

investment in these two institutions exceeds 5,000,000.

Presently, the Government of El Salvador, through the Ministry of

Agriculture and Livestock is pursuing a program for the technological develop-

ment of the adjacent Zapotitan Valley. This includes construction of drainage,

irrigation and road facilities. The Rural Colonization Institute is working

on the division and distribution of lands and the development of rural

communities. The community of Sitio del Nino has been serving as a pilot

community for several years. Thus, the area has many projects and programs

involving socio-economic-rural reforms and technical assistance which is

providing experience for the development of the entire country.

To add diversity to this area there are industrial developments along the

Pan American Highway, Sitio del Nifo, Apopa and La Cuchilla.

It is because of all of these factors, in a spacious developing area with

diversified interests including research, education, and cultural activities,

that the Commission recommends the San Andres area as the location for El

Salvador's future National Center for Agricultural Technology.

B. MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL

1. Training Agricultural Technologists for the Growing Agricultural Sector

The Commission believes that El Salvador is fortunate to have good building

blocks that will serve as a strong foundation for the Center. All of the

Institutions which are to be amalgamated into the Center and those which will

be associated more or less formally through agreements have gained valuable

experience in administration during the past 8 to 25 years. The Center will be








- 71 -


and offices and storage facilities. The National School of Agriculture includes

115 hectares of land and school administrative offices, student dormitories,

living quarters for personnel, class room facilities, dining room and auditorium,

and field installations. Including land, buildings, and equipment the present

investment in these two institutions exceeds 5,000,000.

Presently, the Government of El Salvador, through the Ministry of

Agriculture and Livestock is pursuing a program for the technological develop-

ment of the adjacent Zapotitan Valley. This includes construction of drainage,

irrigation and road facilities. The Rural Colonization Institute is working

on the division and distribution of lands and the development of rural

communities. The community of Sitio del Nino has been serving as a pilot

community for several years. Thus, the area has many projects and programs

involving socio-economic-rural reforms and technical assistance which is

providing experience for the development of the entire country.

To add diversity to this area there are industrial developments along the

Pan American Highway, Sitio del Nifo, Apopa and La Cuchilla.

It is because of all of these factors, in a spacious developing area with

diversified interests including research, education, and cultural activities,

that the Commission recommends the San Andres area as the location for El

Salvador's future National Center for Agricultural Technology.

B. MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL

1. Training Agricultural Technologists for the Growing Agricultural Sector

The Commission believes that El Salvador is fortunate to have good building

blocks that will serve as a strong foundation for the Center. All of the

Institutions which are to be amalgamated into the Center and those which will

be associated more or less formally through agreements have gained valuable

experience in administration during the past 8 to 25 years. The Center will be








- 72 -


able to start with a group of 275 people now engaged in teaching, research and

extension. With competitive salary scales the Center will be able to attract

its share of well-trained, experienced, and competent leaders from other public

agencies, agribusiness, and banking to administer the expanding Center.

In order to provide the trained manpower for the expansion of agricultur-

al research and extension as outlined in this report the Commission has

determined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding

the teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the University

of El Salvador. These institutions have assured the Commission that, with a

firm demand for agricultural technologists such as will be offered by the

Center, they will expand their faculties and facilities so that they can,

without sacrificing scholarship, be graduating 180 peritos agrlcolas within

four years and 100 bachelors within five years.

The National School of Agriculture will increase its admission of men

from 110 to 220 per year. This will increase the number of 3-year peritos

agricolas from the present 50 to 90 to 178 each year. (See Table 3). This

will require an expanded faculty sufficient to maintain the 15 to 1 ratio. A

department of home economics is to be established which will accept 75 women

each year and graduate 62 annually under a 3-year training program. (See

Table 4).

The University will expand its enrollment in the Faculty of Agriculture

and the Institute of Biological Sciences sufficiently to graduate 100 bachelors by

the 6th,year of the Center program. This will taper back to 60 bachelors after

the 10th year which will be adequate to maintain the Center program and the

expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agri-business. (See

Table 5).

The Commission recommends that the National School of Agriculture








- 73 -


TABLE 3


SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING PERITO A.C1i2'. LEVEL PERSONNEL


SSUPPLY DEMAND
Other Ext. Ext Res-
YEAR ENA Foreign Domestic Total Becas Agric. 4-C earch Others Total

Present ___ __ 18 57
-2
1 53 4 4 61 33 t28 61
__ 44
-4 -6
2 68 7 7 82 45 413 +24 82
53 75
-5 -0 -7
3 99 4 3 106 45 t-5 -22 +33 106
53 22 101
-6 -2 -10
4 178 178 55 +37 *40 -+24 22 178
74 60 115
-7 -12
5 178 178 55 58 4 45 +12 8 178
125 99 115
-12 -10 -12
6 178 178 55 +69 +24 +12 18 178
1832 115 115
-18 -12 -12
7 178 178 55 + 86 + 22 -12 3 178
250 125 115
-25 -12 -12
8 178 178 55 + 95 +12 +12 4 178
320 125 115
-32 -13 -12
9 178 178 55 +87 +13 "412 11 178
375 125 115
-3 --12 -12
10 178 178 55 4-38 12 +12 61 178
375 125 115
-38 -12 12
11 178 178 55 -+38 +12 +12 61 178
S375 125 115








- 74 -


TABLE 4


SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING HOME ECONOMICS PERITO LEVEL PERSONNEL


SUPPLY DEMAND_
'Escuela For Ext. Ext. For-
YEAR ENA Maestras eign Other Total Agts. Suprv. eign Other Becas Total

Present _____ 30 4
-6 -1
1 18 18 416 12 18
40 5
*8 -0
2 24 24 423 41 24
55 6
-11 -1
3 27 27 426 41 27
70 6
-14 -0
4 62 62 429 42 3 18 10 62
85 8
-17 -1
5 62 62 427 42 3 20 10 62
95 9
-19 -1
6 62 62 429 44 3 16 10 62
105 12
-21 -2
7 62 62 431 42 3 16 10 62
115 12
-23 -1
8 62 62 433 41 3 15 .10 62
125 12__
-25 -2
9 62 62 425 42 3 22 10 62
125 12
-25 -1
10 62 62 425 41 3 23 10 62
_____ ___125 12 ____









- 75 -


TABLE 5

SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING BACHELOR LEVEL PERSONNEL.

YEAR SUPPLY _DEMAND
UUni. Univ. ENAIFor- Res- Ext. I Ext.
Agric. Nat. eign Others Total ecrch Heads Super Special- Becas Othersi Total
Sci. __ visors ists


PRE-
SENT


50


50


I-5 -1 -0o
-l0
1 23 419 42 42
S_ 64 5 4
-5 -0 -1
2 30 22 30 82 130 12 41 44 35
75 70 6 7
-7 -7 -1 -1
3 35 20 35 17 107 433 417 43 44 50
101 80 8 10
-10 -8 -0 -1
4 40 30 35 22 124 423 48 41 60
115 95 16 10
-11 -10 -2 -1
5 50 40 35 125 411 420 410 41 75
115 105 24 10
-11 -10 -4 -1
6 50 50 35 135 411 410 412 41 85
____ 115 115 32 10
-11 -12 -3 -1
7 50 50 35 417 422 43 41 95
S______115 125 32 10
-11 -12 -3 -1
8 50 50 35 135 I11 412 43 41 38
___ __ 115 125 32 10
-11 -13 -3 -1
9 40 40 35 115 411 413 43 41 33
____ 115 125 32 10
-11 -12 -3 -1
10 35 35 35 105 411 412 43 41 33
__ 115 125 32 10
-11T -1I -1


30


411i 413


33


11


8


6


3


13


61


45


34


82


135


135


115


105


95


1 1,__- -- 3-- 3-- 95


I









- 76 -


establish a fourth year program to train 35 students from each year's class of

Peritos Agricolas to study in specialized fields in order to meet the demands of

farmers, agribusiness, and the Extension Service for graduates with additional

training. It is emphasized that these graduates are not to be confused with

Bachelor degree graduates of the University. They will be trained particularly

to serve eventually as heads of the extension field offices.

The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study scholar-

ships in foreign universities. This program will support two-year master

scholarships for 35 students beginning the second year of the Center program

and expanding to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to 30 to

35 students by the ninth year. It will support three-year doctoral programs

for 14 students beginning the fourth year of the Center program and build up

to 55 students by the 9th year and taper back to 15 by the eleventh year.

These projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program C

(masters and doctorates). See tables 6 and 7 for schedules for programming

graduate scholars and their absorption into the Research Service of the Center.

As will be noted in Table 6 a 10% turnover is programmed for research associates

and unit heads. It is assumed that those who leave the research service will

move into other Center positions or into other public agencies or agribusiness

where graduate trained personnel are needed. This 10% movement will satisfy

the non-Center needs for trained master's and doctorates in El Salvador for the

foreseeable future.

2. Staffing the Center.

With the training program as outlined above and assuming a 10% turnover in

Center personnel it will be possible to complete the staffing of the Research

Service according to the following schedule- reearcL helpers, four years;

assistant research scientists (bachelors), four years; associate research








- 77 -


TABLE 6


SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING MASTERS AND DOCTORATE LEVEL PERSONNEL
(Based on 10% annual turnover)


MASTER'S LEVEL DOCTORATE LEVEL

( Research Research Department
AEAR Available Associates Available Enit Heads Heads

PRESENT 5

1


2


3 14 414
_____ 19
-2
4 20 120
.37_
-4
5 24 424 12 44 48
57 4 9__
-6 -0 -1
6 30 430 16 415 41
81 19 9
-8 -2 -1
7 30 430 20 419 41
103 36 9
-10 -4 -1
8 22 422 24 423 41
115 55.5 9
-11 -5 -1
9 11 411 30 429 41
115 ___79 9
-11 -8 -1
10 11 11 43 142 41
115 113 9
-11 -11 -1
11 11 411 14 414 41
115 115 9
-11 -11 -1
12 11 411 12 411 41
115 115 9








78 -


TABLE 7


SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS

(Based on 20% Dropout for each Program -- Masters and Doctorates)


Bachelor to Masters available Masters to Doctorates availa
YEAR Master for CENTA Doctorate ble for CENTA




2 35


3 50


4 60\ 28 14 14


5 75\ 40 20 20


6 85 48 24 24 12 12


7 95 60 30 30\ \16 16


8 38\ 68 30 38\ \20 20


9 33 76 22 54\ \24 24


10 33\ \30 11 19\ \30 30


11 33 \26 11 15 \ 43 43


12 33 \26 11 15 14 14


13 26 11 15 \ 12 12


14 \_15 \12 12


15 ___12 12








- 79 -


scientists (masters) eight years; research scientist unit heads (doctorates),

10 to 12 years; and department heads, 5 years (See Appendix Tables 14, 15, 16

and 17). Appendix Table 18 shows the schedule for the buildup and the

recapitulation for the entire Center Staff.

The staffing for the Extension Service will be completed as follows:

extension home agents, eight years; extension 4-C Agents, six years; extension

agricultural agents, nine years; extension field office directors, seven

years; and extension administrators and specialists, three years. The

Extension Service expansion to 125 field offices will be completed in seven

years.

The Commission's scheduled program for the Center buildup includes plans

for top-level foreign technical advisors which will increase to approximately

55 during the second year and then taper off to zero by the end of the tenth

year. These will be provided on a grant basis by various foreign governments,

multilateral agencies such as FAO of the United Nations, regional agencies

and private foundations. Three will be assigned to the Center during its

beginning year for administration, training and evaluation, and library

management. Others will be assigned to ENA and the Extension Service, but the

largest number will advise and assist the research units in getting much needed

research under way quickly. Each advisor will necessarily have to provide

leadership for two research units. They will be replaced as rapidly as competent,

doctorate level scientists can be trained or otherwise obtained to fill the

research unit headships.

3. Personnel Management.

The Commission has prepared a systematic salary schedule which embodies

16 grades and 10 steps in each grade.(seo Table 8. Schedule of Grades, and

Salary Steps.). It has classified all Center personnel into 67 positions








- 80 -


(CENTA administration, 23 (which includes clerical); research, 11; extension,

24; and ENA, 9). See Table 9 for Classifications and Compensation Plans and

Table 10 for Comparable Classifications and Compensation. Each position is

assigned to one of the 16 grades. It will be noted that the positions assigned

to each grade are comparable with regard to required training and experience

and the responsibilities that are associated with each position.

The Commission has prepared job descriptions for each of the 67 positions

included in their personnel schedule. These descriptions specify minimum

qualifications and an outline of duties to be performed. They will provide

the basis for annual performance ratings for each member of the Center staff.

The Commission's salary schedule is ccr-paititive and comparable to the

schedule recently adopted by the University of El Salvador. It is competitive

and comparable with present salaries paid by private enterprise, including

banking and agribusiness. It is flexible and provides incentives for annual

salary increases which will be based on performance and meritorious service.

This proposal does not provide for fringe benefits such as health or re-

tirement, but it does provide for the in-service training necessary for a

meritorious employee of CENTA to move by promotions from the lower grades to

top positions in CENTA. The Commission believes that this proposal with its

competitive salary schedule, and the opportunity for in-service training and

promotions will provide the basis for a stable staff with high morale. It

believes however that this proposal presents the minimum that is necessary to

build and maintain a staff of sufficient caliber to research the agricultural

technological unknowns and promulgate this information constantly and instanta-

neously to all farmers in El Salvador intensively enough to support a 5 to 6%

growth rate for Salvadoran agricultural output.

C. PHYSICAL FACILITIES --"ONE TIME" CAPITAL INVESTMENTS.

The Commission recommends (1) that the Experiment Station Sub-station at











- 81 -


N co


0 rO

-Ii


;-4 co

NO
rn-,
P1 C)


000000


N N M


- -- __- -- __ ---- ,-- __ -^ ____ ___ _ -___ ___ _

M OO NO 0c4 M %- CJo044" -o' CO,

4 -0 m -4 m i- - " l N N N m cl"-0



S., O4ll 11OON Crl 1 0 n
N m 10 ol r- -.t c N -0 1 r- ( ) C0 CN 4.t
o M t .oMia\ %o o o- M M 0 r4o coi --) cn Hrco)zl r ilm < mo %D c o4 5 cin4
C4 ( !t Le) i co ON r, i-itM C4-1 r-4 Lf) m LA F No CN C14L NO a
il r4 t 4 1 C>1 C*4


r-( nr>


S- M -N NM o
Ln o. cO 0m o
-4<


00
CM0
NO
r-4


LocO N-4CN.4LM 00'oooNnoLA iOC.ceocTcoop.coooooo
NO CO %.0 o l-t Molcto 0 00o N InO O L 0 m co m mcoO O 70 0 010 C 0
yo N 0 .t r,-..i-c 0r- o rl. ^oo '0 m 'm(O 0n Ol ..t coN. coi mco % 0 o 0140 n I.

-4 r-l r4 l -4 rl r4 N h N C1N N






M -tn M- %q CqLf ) r'4 L-Cir % O On r r- rce o o Ia, co l CO io C CO .o No C<-4 .tCo -o
4 m 0 -It C LA '. .o0 co -10 co 4 4 M n'.. ,Lo D mi .0- 0 -4 0- 01o o CO %,o "4
4 0 C0 0 r4 r I- n r-4- M r-4O M c- n CN r NNi



l-4 r- rIl -4 i-l N N t LAOOOo'o4C'.oNcM.o-oIco14'.oo oLCooooooo
n4 CiLemNOL'N0 e4N% 4 't rni.rNIN .no oemiCOo o '. m yN4tco.CMo


Cn 0l No -4 V1Lo n -, t %. \orr- M CO ocIa 0' O CO r4 LA 'c 0 lMA 0co L -4 't oo Doi0
CMN Lm LA 0 P.- CO Q0 1 C-4 -4 ln r-4 co r MN OIN N- -I




I -I -
rll r-l i-l li i rcl CM CM CM n
o r 4 0 --00 .-4 0 ON Co N0 -t r-4 a 0 o 0 0 000l 0C.00




cM^ co 4l ONinMi%.D inc--0o ON m0ro "0 r. Ln 0 %,o cq %D "Icn %.o 14 co rm t t cHo co %D o q 0 0
SM I 0 CO C rl r Cl "0 II M M f- ..m -
I c a 1- r-M r- I-4 N N M M L AN

LC.-N A NN N.,M


O0 ON I LA0 mLo m 0 r-N0 co
o r \o -It% t0 r co \


rcol r~
N


--I-----------1I-'-.-l---I.--..~i-,-
ri r?.-1 r4- 1 r- 1- r I r-4r- r' rl r,"l rrl -4-1 -4 ,-4 -l r-l 4l 4 r r r 4l T- 4 4% v- -4
to 4a^ mo r.a, co C ca C a co r .C a n< c wXd 4 (a"n Xa& d a4 o
4 4 3 3 4.1 :j :3 : Z -W ju :3 -W !I -W 4-J -W -
MOc OO c o c O coco c o c o c o o 0o00
i ... 8 ,
i:c 3


I !-4
i


PA


I


~--I I


I









1 ----------~------- 'I-
















C/-l cn m cm a: : ; ; n c=
3
>C:







4-
c








C'))
o am
*r-1
*-r

(0



a 4a.4-
0
*r4


=3 .,l 4.

m-m -Hn > a
< 4D C 3 ) U a0
SII f -:r CD = CD CD
*H11 *-I4 C U) VS C) (44 .






C- C-- -.1 C- t0 C C .- -.- Q) '.,--I
H-I C 1 *--1 TO a-> I
'- 0 U -O ") L a 0 C C
C C= C -H *" r C- Li I CT
a a cn 0 a a a a *H
C- *- LC I- C


C- C> co CD V 0 0 1C- O Ca CD m D = "-


--- H~ 1 H-a -4 r- an a' --4 an T .
C>-m o \m -I' -I m C -* m C:) = CD C: CD O L)













ONj Ue% 't" SON i-I \0t \AD o r-4 i-t mD %.o \ CD^ O1-4 t \ D CD CD C= C:D --i-
) -st an Os r-. C"s C"s UN ic' a CC^ 05 U's OtN C(s' ON LUN CSI 0\ CSJ Os. ON4 CDC
4i cs Cs' --I- \0 C'- C-- c-' c'- -Zt- c'- *4-: c-- c'- c-i s-i _c- m-i m-1 0-I c-o 0-0 U0\
H-l H- H-t H-I H- CsJ H-1 H- CS CSJ CMJ CSJ iC CM


0s' i(', 0N CCs 'a 'a CM^ CMI ON 'a CMJ CJ CMJ an H- 0 CM an an an an an a
-~n- r- t- "-I \ cj CJ c-~i-i \0 Csj so ON n CN. o7N ON ON oN\ o CMN C-
CD CYN ~\ Co-- -I- --- C-o -:t- Cz- C x- an H- ca an an an a r D




cli m n ", -N rNC~jC-i m LC C ci _t cz
1.0 \0 \0 coo c
-H H- H-- H- CM H- H i- CJ --I Cj C O- CM OCJ


C'- 'am ON aN _: H- 't an H- C_' C=-- C- a CT- Can an an a Ca CD C
Cs' 'm 'a0 Ca-: an Ca ON ON ra Ca DN 0, 0, 'aO 'a ON 7 0 '0 'o 00 'o U's -
Cj Cn -d.- LoN a- a- 'a 'aS -4 Cs' m 'a an H a co an can cao an -d
H- H-1 CSJ H- H- C') C-4 CA J CM C"J


.-- a~- a'- c- 'a 'a Cs's csN ca~ so -d- Cs' cs' an -~d s'' an an an an an an
c- (C LrU cU c- an ca a- ca- irs ca CD c- a\ CD a- c's C=', c=> c D r CD Cn
C\n -.r 'a '.0 1.0 SO 'a \0 'a a 00 aD CD ca Ca aaa -o












_________________r-4 r~__ __ __ 1-1-CS r- r-.qS -1JC-4CSJ -SJ O
Lfl\ ~ ~ H H-r H-N H- HV\ DC s\0 =C)t- CM HDL- c- c- c- C CM C=Mc
Cr: a 'a -D Cr csj N cON > --I ON oN c ON C" s oN o\ OO ON \ O O Cm a a
c t %- 0 -o 'a a- r- \0 ~- -t -)- -tn co CM -CD oo co an an an an aC

H- H- H- H- H- H- H- H- H- H H H CM



C: o LCICVIN CYIN m CD CD u l M CD CD CD C
Csj r^ ma u- so sot so so o=o o^\ so scco cu i~-is o\ cr o- cr o^ c^c










CanD O\ N CO CD H an n O CD an C 3\ CD C D N a-- O ON ON ON ONCD Ca
Csi C5' c"N\ irs i-rs i-rs cMics CM \ ("N U-s CM i c') -a a C M csj -t- -41- ~ -41- ~-~ cM an
)Ics r*~ -3 Lr\ so soo so -d- r-* o so so os i-t sDo os os cr\ os r^ so










Cm CDN U\ O)- 'a\ ('N 'a 'D N H- 0 a ON3 ON( co ON Oc CD 'aD

U- an c Fsj ON
H- H- H- H- H- H- - CM CMm


an CSJ i D a. an an D OON rsaa- ON ON a s ON an n an an a C
HI- CM H- CM (N Cs' s~N iS U H-i CO\ an \ U \0 u'S u's 'a SO '\ 'O S 'O an
*CMJ C'S -c ir S S Cs CN 5'. 'S SJ a CC N CO an CO 00 Ca O ca a C
r- r- r~t r-*lo ,r- r~< u, i-~~mo \o o t r~l jr- __ i~~ r-t f~~ r- CJCS















cJ m~ c\ L~ 10 u r-4 H 1) co ~ s ~- -s c c
rl ~l \ .H -D C) 0 c- -1 -1 .14 W \ o c o\o\~\
LCS < tr\ -\ L\ O H H H- C CH- C- CM CM
-( UN is SQ 'a an an D 'a a an an a- a- an a- a- at a- ani a
an H-I an r-4 If-I H- Cs's ("N an H-l 'a C^s' ( C^s's c C s's0 Cs's 0- Cs's (5's Cs' (N CSO'
SI cM 3 S S -' i' 'a 'a i ir \' CS i' LUN CO an ir\ aO 00 an an an CM UN
H- H- H- H- H- H- H- H- H- C'J CMSC



ca an S n n an an n C' an rUN 04 an H- H- an H CMu
CM CN 0 CD C' U' D C'a 'a its U's ("N 'a CM i -t -1 an a -N an an an ana CM u-,
s 0 ~ LLO SO 1- \ LH- \ L \ CH H \ CH CO H CO 0 CM CM
c~ ci co~ w C-) co cu .14 r-i ca m U- M CSJ L-C 3Cm












a) C) C, L +- L- C 3 co m C -,-I C) -1 -Z -tI O
'4-

C-,
*r-

Li

a- S- e
's- *Hi L' a a,
-I- '+- -a l
s- 0a C a -tC~

-C 4- 1 +3 -I' '- s c CL
4 4H -4 r., a- 0 0 0 co C- r m
S-r C *u > In c 1
C) 4 C 0I L () a a5 LH w
U) C+- C C 'H3 -c 'I- = nwH al C< o CU
I 0 Ca -' Li o ca t =i at L+ -
U) 0) 0 0 0C 'iH li aO Hr- C: -s C
a C o i o -0 H -a H- Li (0 o 5')
> > C H- U) *H C/) LL) 0 > E5
'H'ss i Li Li H- H L 'H C C*H-
H-t cMj ("N -r- it's -H o rC t 0 o ad a a c-)
a 3 o o -0 0 0 c M'H'H S J 1
>5 >5 >5 >. > S S r rl 'H 'H H rHl 0 +O c O S 0 0S
Li L. LI Li Li + ---H -+H r3 0 -Li -4 'H- C aO a-s 'H 0 =3 H-
m ra rj a a u) ) co a a-Hi 3 W a .H c5 H r CaCL ) c/)c
#l. 4-'- 4 .4 t 'H 'H EE S Li S S L 'H( 04-H
O 0000 CC 0 i Si OH- i. L. 05 a r CH OH- CO
L. Lt i. Li Lt -r'H a. o -0 o o o 0 'I- 'H Li 'H E 5 H- .i-
O a O O O E E C a S- *C *rH 4H H 0 (00C40 a L 0 Li o
O D cJ o O ao 0 a a: -a a L U) *H Li O 'H 3 L1 Li
c') Co C/) C,' CO 4 H- E Lu C) H- H- Q a I C H O an


H- c" cn -:- U'


CJ CM
Li\ r-q -i


H-4 C CM cs'\ cM C'\ c'm C1'% m' Cs' ir\ 'a
Cs' its 1-4 H- H- H- OSN 1 H- H -4 H -4 --l -4


CT>
* Qa


x
as





o
a,






-o
0


4-'-

0
Li)


0
cl a
ac -I-
*i
> .

0-

* C
'CO 03








au a)
cr
a -.0

a Ca

oto
0
a -H












-4 *rD
>5 0
ma




13
r- -



H 0>









a)a
0

- >

H-
aCD
ac

H-1
'5) 0
a a
C:
a 4

'H 05
Li



-o



H-I 0
a
at
U) S



a< a

TO 'H





+












C)
0
0
C
0


CD7CD

a)
r--


lLjU GO ^ O.-.t (N ^- -, ^ 0

~0 ci





0))
Go > 03




+0
0


+4 0 -4-'
U)






(W *i-4 -eG 0:
C -4-' Q- 0
*0- 0 0)
*.-I 0 0
-r W




















Co -0 ,-D ON- G C=
CZ) CYN C4 (N (( 'O N (o N C", L (NJ (N
-) '.0 Q- cGON : C3 C- a a 'N
m -- C--- CD -Z
,y M



















S- D C -1 o -4 CNI ON O3
a,,
cli I l\


















CC)o G -4) (C- t-C (N N c- Go) GD (NJ
oo '10 CN CGo Go CNj' ON O, (a\ 'In Go
Go Lc-\ CN.- GoON 0,-4 \(N 0 Go) (NJ --I-
-J c C


^(( (N ON Go -" '- (N* (( (( Go' 11 ^ ^









I-
ON Go '0-4- ( J (( N Go g O ON N o Go
C.r l -L O.0 C Go (N 0 ON








t-- Cci c'0 cD
C5 L 0 t \O Oo CDJ C-l c-l C- z3c l-l

Q)F- I- -- s CJ O
-c -- I +
I'D y c i C\ t















Go c0 E








< -) cc >,-4 -
G3 U- Go ON (, -I4 -M l






GoLJ- c((N "-, "-\ C.CN( CT) CNJ (N -0- (J
-Zf- UN'0 c(- Go ,- (C1 ON C4 (N L
1.
aal a ~ 13m3 ~ O~


















FI-LC Ol__ ___ _________ I-o C-I s ~
co 0 CE





.4' G5 CD OQ -0-UL 0 L-. C'0 G-o IVN G Go -
4.-. J- (NJ (N cI M4- CN Co ON Go (N ON ~0
|0- CD (N- G( o (IN t 0
-r U-1 1-4 .- .-O CDJ (NJ U01 C
3w



CT



























-4 -4 ) r-D
0. *t) 0--- -- ---(---------------. ------ ___
'=> ~ E ro*)l !




























I 0D M 00

-~a G-1 '0 1- C- Go N G (aJ 0 1-4
O 00


-rr
-- -- ___












H u 1 3 ~N
-tn \^o r- o r^[ co a -J- L2 cs LP1\























C q i r ( c o L r1 4i a




-i -H .,-q r-f z 0







L-^0 0., G o 3
i U C/3 C\J CM L- 0 0
----- -- -- -----Io

































L- L- CD 2
m co Va &- 9 CD


0)) a)
coo































0r )) a ) Q)
8:2 0 0 C= C= C C 0) = ra0t 0" r-:
G Go GoI- Go Go Go Go G Go Go Go
0- 0^ + 4-a) 5 S m F
a =^= =^c c^^. a a



ai a) 0 m, tu c

iil i I

<_I CT\ .. .-i Li-- c i f-i i- n-
0 0
(UC G




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs