Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of papers
 University education for national...
 Agricultural research and production...
 Accelerating production of selected...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Working papers - The Rockefeller Foundation
Title: Strategies for agricultural education in developing countries
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053882/00001
 Material Information
Title: Strategies for agricultural education in developing countries
Series Title: Working papers - The Rockefeller Foundation
Physical Description: ix, 98 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Conference: Agricultural Education Conference, 1975
Publisher: Rockefeller Foundation
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1976
Subject: Agricultural education -- Congresses -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Agricultural Education Conference II.
Funding: Working papers (Rockefeller Foundation)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053882
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000011123
oclc - 03255537
notis - AAB3551
lccn - 74025596

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of papers
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    University education for national development
        Page 1
        Animal sciences curricula
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Soil science curricula
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Plant sciences curricula
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Plant protection curricula
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Agricultural economics curricula
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Farm practice training for college students
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
    Agricultural research and production training for national development
        Page 50
        Agricultural research and food production requirements in developing nations
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Agricultural experiment station development
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
    Accelerating production of selected food commodities in developing nations
        Page 68
        Corn production training
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Livestock production training
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Rice research training
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Conference summaries: Production training
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Conference summaries: Research training
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
        Conference summaries: University training
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text








Agricultural Education Conference II

The Rockefeller Foundation

January 1976

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 74-25596

Printed in the United States of America


Preface............................................................ ix

University Education for National Development

Animal Sciences Curricula................James E. Johnston............. 1

"In most of Asia, production methods are primitive a farmer
might have some backyard poultry, a goat, one or two pigs;
improved practices have yet to filter down to these small

Soil Science Curricula .................Pedro Sanchez................. 8

"The bulk of the thesis research should be conducted under
actual tropical conditions...."

Plant Sciences Curricula................T. Ajibola Taylor............ 18

"We have failed to recognize in our training programs that
our agriculturalists generally don't want to live in rural

Plant Protection Curricula..............William R. Young............25

The scientific work of the future will be done by interdis-
ciplinary groups; "since nature is so complicated we need

Agricultural Economics Curricula.........Leonard F. Miller............32

"Periodically a department needs to devote time and energy
to a thorough examination of all aspects of its...programs."

Farm Practice Training
for College Students...................Dale G. Smeltzer............42

"Relatively few (students) will become actual farmers; most
will find jobs in agricultural institutions supply, trans-
portation, government service. Therefore, they don't need
to know everything about the theory and practice of agricul-


Agricultural Research and Production Training for National Development

Agricultural Research and Food Pro-
duction Requirements in Developing
Nations ...............................Albert H. Moseman.............50

"We can do a program with Rockefeller Foundation backstopping;
how do we get local people to do it equally well? There have
been autonomous operations in Mexico and Colombia for fifteen
years now, and they are less than satisfactory."

Agricultural Experiment
Station Development....................Loyd Johnson..................61

"At present, a farm manager is considered a sub-professional,
in an isolated, dead-end position. No wonder, then, that we
don't get large numbers of qualified young people lining up
for the job!"

Accelerating Production of Selected Food Commodities
in Developing Nations

Corn Production Training................Dale G. Smeltzer..............68

"Why are the training programs not being adopted?"

Livestock Production Training...........C. P. Moore....................72

"There are very few schools of animal husbandry in Latin
America, therefore problems which could be solved with
existing knowledge go uncorrected."

Rice Research Training..................Ben R. Jackson................80

"'Nobody in Thailand is going to breed rice if you don't.'"

Conference Summaries

Production Training..................................... ......... 86

Research Training................................................. 91

University Training............................................... 94



Dr. Francis C. Byrnes
Head, Communication and Research
International Agricultural Development Service

Dr. Robert F. Chandler, Jr.
International Agricultural Development Service

Dr. Clarence C. Gray III
Associate Director, Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Dr. James H. Jensen
Consultant, Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand

Dr. Ben R. Jackson
Plant Breeder
The Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand

Mr. Loyd Johnson
Agricultural Engineer
International Center of Tropical Agriculture

Dr. James E. Johnston
Associate Director, Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Dr. John J. McKelvey, Jr.
Associate Director, Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Dr. Leonard F. Miller
Rockefeller Foundation Representative
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Dr. C. P. Moore
Livestock Training Officer
International Center of Tropical Agriculture

Dr. Albert Moseman
Consultant, Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Ms. Liz Muhlfeld
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Dr. Gil Saguiguit
Deputy Director
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study
and Research in Agriculture

Dr. Pedro Sanchez
Associate Professor, Tropical Soils
North Carolina State University

Dr. Dale G. Smeltzer
The Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand

Dr. T. Ajibola Taylor
Head, Department of Agricultural Biology
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Dr. Sterling Wortman
Vice President
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

Dr. William R. Young
The Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand


The following papers were presented at the conference and
may be obtained by writing to the authors at the addresses here

"Rice Research Training"
Ben R. Jackson
The Rockefeller Foundation
G. P. O. Box 2453
Bangkok, Thailand

"Agricultural Experiment Station Development"
Loyd Johnson
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Apartado Aereo 67-13
Cali, Colombia

"Animal Sciences Curricula"
James E. Johnston
The Rockefeller Foundation
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036

"Agricultural Economics Curricula"
Leonard F. Miller
The Rockefeller Foundation
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

"Livestock Production Training"
C. P. Moore
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Apartado Aereo 67-13
Cali, Colombia

"Agricultural Research and Food Production Requirements
in Developing Nations"
Albert H. Moseman
34 Shadblow Hill
Ridgefield, Connecticut 06977

"Soil Science Curricula"
Pedro Sanchez
Department of Tropical Soils
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

"Farm Practice Training for College Students"
"Corn Production Training"
Dale G. Smeltzer
The Rockefeller Foundation
G. P. 0. Box 2453
Bangkok, Thailand

"Plant Sciences Curricula"
T. Ajibola Taylor
Department of Agricultural Biology
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

"Plant Protection Curricula"
William R. Young
The Rockefeller Foundation
G. P. O. Box 2453
Bangkok, Thailand



In March 1974, a conference on the subject Strategies for

Agricultural Education in Developing Countries, was held at The

Rockefeller Foundation's Bellagio (Italy) Study and Conference

Center. This was followed by a second conference in May 1975,

which built on and extended the earlier discussions.

The material presented and discussed at the 1975 conference

is presented in this publication as a companion volume to the one

covering the 1974 meeting.

Many developing countries are now giving high priority to

agricultural and rural development seeking ways to force the

pace of progress, hoping to move development at speeds with which

few institutions or individuals have had prior experience. Clear-

ly, the agricultural education institutions, with their heavy con-

centrations of talent, must be in the forefront of each nation's

drive for economic and social advance.

Only a start has been made in distilling out strategies of

formal and informal education appropriate for a nation in a hurry.

The two conferences have involved searches for new ways in which

various types of education programs could contribute to these

strategies for national progress.

Sterling Wortman
Vice President
The Rockefeller Foundation


James E. Johnston

Animal science education has expanded rapidly in the devel-

oping world during the past 25 years. Nearly all countries now

have at least one university offering independent degrees in ani-

mal production and veterinary medicine and some of the larger ones

have several. Courses and curricula have generally been developed

as nearly direct copies of the western universities, whose staff

members served as advisers during the development period. This

has had the advantage of making it possible for selected graduates

of these institutions to gain admission to western universities

for postgraduate studies and resulted in a relatively rapid build-

up of well trained local faculties, but it has also tended to

overemphasize western concepts of intensive animal husbandry, in

the minds of faculty and students alike. They tend to look upon

the traditional production systems, practiced in rural areas, as

inefficient and difficult or impossible to improve. These tradi-

tional systems have thus been neglected; most efforts have been

devoted to the creation of western style production units. This

tendency is now being challenged in many countries, however, and

efforts are being made to make university animal science educa-

tion more relevant to the real needs of local people.

Educational systems and standards, once accepted, are very


James E. Johnston

Animal science education has expanded rapidly in the devel-

oping world during the past 25 years. Nearly all countries now

have at least one university offering independent degrees in ani-

mal production and veterinary medicine and some of the larger ones

have several. Courses and curricula have generally been developed

as nearly direct copies of the western universities, whose staff

members served as advisers during the development period. This

has had the advantage of making it possible for selected graduates

of these institutions to gain admission to western universities

for postgraduate studies and resulted in a relatively rapid build-

up of well trained local faculties, but it has also tended to

overemphasize western concepts of intensive animal husbandry, in

the minds of faculty and students alike. They tend to look upon

the traditional production systems, practiced in rural areas, as

inefficient and difficult or impossible to improve. These tradi-

tional systems have thus been neglected; most efforts have been

devoted to the creation of western style production units. This

tendency is now being challenged in many countries, however, and

efforts are being made to make university animal science educa-

tion more relevant to the real needs of local people.

Educational systems and standards, once accepted, are very

difficult to change in any society. Where radical changes to im-

prove educational systems are possible they should be made; in

most cases, though, improvements must come gradually. The key

factor is the creation of a significant body of instructors and

administrators who recognize the need for the development of

courses, curricula, and applied training which meet local needs

rather than some internationally accepted standard. These two

are not necessarily incompatible, but where choices must be made,

local relevance must take priority. With few exceptions, educa-

tional programs should concentrate on producing generalists rath-

er than specialists in one species of animal, or one discipline.

Even at the M.Sc. level overspecialization should be avoided ex-

cept in thesis work; most government and private agencies that

employ such personnel expect versatility.

Development of Skills

The development of skills in handling and management of ani-

mals is a major problem, since nearly all university entrants

come from urban rather than rural environments. Well organized

and administered programs are required if students are to gain

any degree of understanding and skill at animal handling and man-

agement. All available resources, including university flocks

and herds, private production units, and village participation

should be incorporated. It is unrealistic, however, to expect

the university to produce graduates fully prepared to undertake

any and all of the wide range of jobs to which they can be

assigned. Both employing agencies and the universities them-

selves must recognize the need for preservice and in-service

training. This may be either informal or formal, as needs dic-


Educating the Instructor

Another problem with animal science courses is that of fo-

cussing the student's attention on the animals and management

systems found in his own country, rather than in the western

world, where his instructors have often been trained. This prob-

lem can only be solved if the instructor teaching the course has

the requisite knowledge and experience. He cannot gain this sit-

ting in his office or even working on the university farm; rather,

he must get out into the field and get to know the farmers and

their problems. Small farmers, operating subsistence-level,

mixed farms, present the greatest difficulty, since their problems

and the possible solutions differ so much from western theory as

found in textbooks and journals. Practically, the problem of

educating the instructor can only be solved by getting him in-

volved in research that deals with the solution of national pro-

duction problems, and more specifically in rural development,

where he runs head on into the small farmer and his difficulties.

This is, to me, full justification for the Rockefeller Foundation

emphasis on programs which involve universities in commodity (in

this case, livestock) research and rural development.

Focussing on Local Institutions

I have emphasized the role western universities and their

staff members have played in the creation of the present systems

of animal science education in the developing world. Many of the

universities so established are now beginning to mature. Most

of the senior administrative and teaching staff have received

M.Sc. and/or Ph.D. degrees from western institutions; most are

now offering the M.Sc. degree on their own and some are offering

the Ph.D. Nevertheless, the long period of western dependence

has placed a premium on degrees granted by those institutions.

This in spite of the fact that the developing institution is

sometimes able to provide more appropriate training to young

staff members. There will always be a need for an interchange

of students and an exchange of information, but the time has now

arrived for us to be much more critical in the granting of fel-

lowships to western universities. Both the donor agency and the

university in the developing country should determine the type

of training required and the institution best able to provide it;

the prestige value of a western degree will be difficult to over-

come but it can and must be done. Preference should be given to

institutions in developing countries whenever possible and con-

tinuing assistance should be provided to those ready to assume

regional educational roles.

Discussion Summary

Six participants were asked to prepare papers on university

education in the LDC's, the procedure being that at the confer-

ence itself each author would first review his own formal paper,

then respond to questions from his colleagues. Dr. James Jensen

chaired these sessions.

Animal Science Curricula: An Overview

Dr. James Johnston, an animal scientist and agricultural

project leader at Kasetsart University in Thailand, led off. He

described parts of the animal sciences curricula at Kasetsart as

being relatively new, the emphasis before World War II having

been on veterinary medicine, i.e., animal health, rather than on

production. In spite of entrenched interests, a gradual move-

ment toward production has taken place over the past thirty years

(mainly through the efforts of westerners working with the vari-

ous technical assistance agencies) but although this is a step

in the right direction, it has one major flaw. Animal production

efforts, based on western models, have concentrated on large-

scale, commercial operations, and have not been adapted to local

needs. In most of Asia, production methods are primitive a

farmer might have some backyard poultry, a goat, one or two pigs;

improved practices have yet to filter down to these small pro-


A second impediment is the urban background of most students;

the superior city school systems produce graduates who can pass

the entrance exams. "Some of these kids are frightened to death

when they get close to a horse or a cow; they must learn to han-

dle animals under field conditions." To compound this problem,

agriculture students are often in the field by default they had

first applied, but were not accepted, for medicine or law.

The institutions, new as they are, are rigid in certain ways.

A critical problem involves teaching the teachers many of whom

have spent little or no time in rural areas to understand the

production problems of their own country. Thus, RF programs aim-

ed at getting instructors out into the field are highly valuable

and should be continued.


Some obstacles to curriculum reform were mentioned: a prolif-

eration of courses, each one representing a particular professor's

vested interest; political trade-offs on the part of the committees.

Johnston opposes committees as being too little interested in

real reform. Instead, he advocates a strong leader "who can say

1) what do our graduates have to know? and 2) what do our entering

students already know? And then design a program that will take

the student from 2 to 1."

The Kasetsart administration, said Johnston, has worked out

scholarship programs geared to national agricultural development.

Research assistantships for younger faculty and senior

students, to engage in research which involves working with farm-

ers in the field.

Research leadership positions to allow outstanding faculty

members, most of whom work two or more jobs, to spend full time in

teaching and research. "These run for five years; they reward peo-

ple who have already demonstrated competence." After five years

a man's research capability has become apparent and he can gener-

ate his own support. "We haven't had any research leaders who

have failed to continue their research."

Graduate assistantships again, focused on field work; to

encourage young agriculturalists to concentrate on their own coun-

try's particular problems.

Johnston also mentioned a graduate volunteer program for ur-

ban students at Thammasat University who go out into rural areas

for a year. "About 70 percent have remained in the field. It's

very small and highly selective, so it's not typical; but it dem-

onstrates what can be done."

Another way to orient universities toward national problems,

said Dr. Sterling Wortman, is to link them with government commod-

ity programs. Some years ago, Rockefeller Foundation grants sup-

ported a tie-in between Kasetsart University and the National Corn

and Sorghum program. At the University of the Philippines, the

Rockefeller Foundation supported with $400,000 a pilot project

that eventually became the government's Upland Crops Program.


Pedro Sanchez

The Ph.D.-level training of soil scientists can be tailor-

made at temperate-region universities specifically to increase

food production in the tropics; however, a program to accomplish

this successfully requires additional components before, during,

and after the period of graduate study. I have divided these

components into four parts: candidate selection, course work,

thesis research, and re-entry.

In addition to other standard qualifications, selection

criteria must include evidence of a serious personal commitment

toward increasing food production: too little attention is given

to this kind of commitment at present. (Many candidates are ex-

clusively interested in graduate study as a stepping stone toward

promotion and a comfortable administrative position; they should

be weeded out at this stage.)

Course work includes the same requirements as for any other

Ph.D. in soil science, plus additional courses on tropical soils,

crop or animal production, and social sciences. Formal or infor-

mal training in administration is strongly recommended.

Thesis Research

The bulk of the thesis research should be conducted under

actual tropical conditions unless the student has had sufficient

field experience before undertaking graduate work. Conducting a

thesis in the tropics permits the student to do research on a

relevant problem under the physical and administrative constraints

of working in a developing country. (If the student is from such

a developing country, his thesis topic should be related to the

agricultural development of his home country.) The field re-

search sites should be sufficiently well equipped so that quality

research can be carried on, although not necessarily luxurious.

The major professor and/or senior soil scientists on the field

site can supervise research and maintain frequent contact with

the student. If thesis research is linked with the work of an

ongoing research program (such as those of international centers,

national programs, or tropical soils research contracts) addi-

tional advantages are gained by the graduate student as well as

by the sponsoring institutions. Some of these advantages are:

1) the application of basic sciences to the solution of a rele-

vant problem of tropical soil management; and 2) the student's

ability to devote full time to thesis work.

Programs with the above components have been successfully

carried on for years at a few U.S. universities; the total pro-

gram usually takes an additional year beyond the normal period.

A missing component at present is some provision for ameliorating

the re-entry problems of young professionals who have just com-

pleted their Ph.D. These include intellectual isolation and the

lack of operating funds for conducting research. Involving the

ex-student in network activities will help solve the first prob-

lem; a source of seed money for initiating research is suggested

to solve the second.

Discussion Summary

Dr. Pedro Sanchez, whose formal paper was on the training

of tropical soil scientists in temperate-zone institutions,

limited his discussion to the training of Ph.D. candidates be-

cause, he said, it is only at that level that students should

be sent to the United States for training. M.S. candidates

should be educated at home; graduate schools in most developing

countries are adequate through the M.S. level and "any academic

deficiencies will be balanced by the advantage of being able to

do local research."

Again, the stress was on practical training for solving

national problems: "We want to produce a top-level Ph.D. who

will have an impact on his own country."

What's Needed

Conventional U.S. graduate training is sometimes on such a

sophisticated, theoretical level, he said, that it is useless for

solving the problems of small farmers. Or it depends heavily on

technology: "You don't get courses in which you learn to solve

chemical problems without sophisticated electronic equipment.

Although this is needed for determining mineral structure, a

reasonably close approximation can be made by dividing cation ex-

change capacity into the clay content of the subsoil. This tells

you whether you have 1:1 or 2:1 minerals, and it can be done

without complex instrumentation."

Candidates should be chosen for their personal commitment

to the problems of small farmers. "And how can you gauge this?

Only by including in the selection process some people who have

had some contact with the student." Along these lines, he sug-

gested that applicants be personally interviewed.

As regards course work, he recommended applied courses,

focused on the tropics, in addition to the basic core subjects.

"Students think they know local conditions, but tropically orient-

ed courses really broaden their perspective." Also, there is a

real need for training in administration: "The first thing

you're faced with, on the job, is the task of writing project

proposals; getting research money." He mentioned that there had

been some informal seminar discussions about administration at

North Carolina State University, and had found great student in-

terest in that whole area.

The present concept of thesis research is "medieval an

apprenticeship concept." Its purpose should not be, simply, to

give the student experience in the gathering and presentation of

data. Rather, the results of the student's research should make

a real contribution to the solution of a real problem.

Also, it is important that research be done under actual

field conditions. "A student should produce as good a disser-

tation as if he were on campus while, at the same time, coping

with power failures, changes in the ministry, and so on." Sanchez

cited the Cornell/University of the Philippines program as one

that was successful in integrating research with field conditions.

Where Should Thesis Work Be Done?

Sanchez raised the question, "Should a graduate student do

his thesis in his home country?"

If he goes back to his own university, he pointed out, in-

evitably he will be saddled with teaching and research responsi-

bilities and his thesis work will be done in his spare time. "At

North Carolina State we get an ironclad guarantee that the man

will still be on leave status. Otherwise he goes to a neighbor-

ing country or does the research in Raleigh."

Thesis research should be integrated into a larger program -

to provide continuity ("someone else will pick up where the stu-

dent left off") and to give the student the benefit of insight

from others. A student's research will be oriented to a practi-

cal solution if it's part of an ongoing program; usually it will

also be more original and more comprehensive.

In a cooperative CIMMYT/Cornell program, he said, an inter-

disciplinary team is doing a thesis together.

A concentration in tropical soil science, with thesis re-

search in the field, usually takes a year longer than a conven-

tional campus program that is, four instead of three years.

Sanchez suggests that in most cases the student do his field

work after he has finished his course requirements, "because he,

will then have the necessary technical background," although

this should not be a rigid rule.

In closing, Sanchez touched on the intellectual isolation

that is often a problem for young Ph.D.'s when they return to

their home institution and take up familiar teaching, adminis-

trative, and field-work assignments. He suggests a "seed money

provision" in graduate scholarships which would provide money for

research in the first year after the degree, also "personal pro-

fessional contact" through international conferences or sabbati-

cal leave at other universities.


In addition to asking the general question, "Have we trained

too many Ph.D.'s?" Sterling Wortman referred to cases in which

students were sent abroad, after their B.S. degrees, for all

their graduate training, through the doctorate. He suggested

that the M.S.'s "go home, put their training to use, and then re-

qualify for the Ph.D." To which Dr. Jensen replied that it would

be very difficult for a student to get permission to leave his

home country a second time. (Fortunately, the practice of send-

ing students to regional universities for their M.S.'s is becom-

ing more and more common, as these universities improve.)

Wortman also pointed out that the Rockefeller Foundation

"assumes practical field experience" and selects fellowship can-

didates on that basis. In addition, an RF fellow must have a

guaranteed position at his home institution following graduate

work. "He must be part of some international network. We must

have continuing linkages."

As regards funding for the first year of research the

Foundation has sought, instead, to generate local support, said


Thesis Supervision

Dr. Johnston raised the question of the supervision of

thesis work that is carried out thousands of miles from the home

institution. How often can a major professor leave his on-campus

duties to visit a student in the field? Who will pay for his

trip? "The minimum cost of sending a professor from the United

States to Thailand is $3,000." He suggested that staff members

of the international institutes be used as adjunct professors,

and feels that in any case "most people will have to do their

thesis research in the States."

Sanchez answered that professors working in the Cornell/

University of the Philippines program went out to the Philip-

pines once a year, to supervise the work of two or three students,

the cost being borne by the ongoing research project in which

the students were working. And he added, "Only about 20 percent

of my foreign graduate students have any real experience. They

must get it sometime."

The discussion then moved to the whole area of personal

commitment. How can it be assessed? Who should have the most

authority in selecting fellowship candidates on this basis? Does

a Foundation officer's opinion carry too much weight? Dr. Miller

pointed out that although a Foundation officer's decision should

not be too unilateral, it "helps to spread the responsibility";

Dr. Jensen added that in Bangkok the Kasetsart staff "could not,

would not make the final decision; the social structure forbade

it" therefore, the New York officer had to take that responsi-


Dr. Chandler harked back to the earlier discussion. It was

becoming less and less necessary for major professors to make ex-

tensive trips into the field, he said, because nowadays they were

usually familiar enough with tropical field conditions to super-

vise research from a home base. "So many agricultural university

people have been abroad, as compared with twenty years ago. We've

made some progress."

Dr. Moseman added that "Brazil and the United States have a

relationship in tropical soils research that goes back eight or

ten years. Is it still necessary for professors to go out to

Brazil, or is the time for that over?" And he asked, "How suc-

cessful was the AID program in giving U.S. professors experience

in working overseas?" Sanchez argued that some continuing visits

were necessary. "Okay, you've built the relationship. But now

you need to sustain it."

What about adjunct professors, asked Dr. Gray. Has North

Carolina State University tried to identify professors working

in tropical regions? When Dr. Sanchez said that North Carolina

State University had indeed done this, Gray wondered about the

possibilities for formalizing that process. "We need to provide

mechanisms which allow universities in the United States to link

up with developing countries."

Finally, there was the question of postdoctoral fellowships.

Dr. Saguiguit remarked that Ph.D.'s from Indonesia were spending

some time at IRRI, and Dr. Miller said that at Ibadan Ph.D.'s

were not given fellowships unless they had had an additional

three years of practical experience. "These people know what

they've missed; they're more focusedd" Dr. Jensen discussed

the ratio of training time to career time: "The common retire-

ment age in these countries is 60, sometimes 55. If we train for

too long beyond the Ph.D. level we've compressed a career into

fifteen or twenty years." Dr. Sanchez added that such sabbati-

cal or study leaves are costly ("the later it gets the more expen-

sive it gets") but certainly worth the money: "After five or six

years you really need an overhaul."


T. Ajibola Taylor

In the past few decades, universities in developing countries

have undergone a series of dramatic changes. Those countries with

a history of colonialism had universities similar in tradition and

structure to those in the mother countries; in agriculture, these

universities initially produced a core of scientists trained to

provide advisory services only. Although agriculture was recog-

nized as the mainstay of the economy of most developing countries,

little attention was given to the training of agricultural scien-

tists who could bring about increased agricultural productivity,

higher standards of living in short, rapid development and


Curricula Development

By the early 1950's it was clear that adaptations of the

existing curricula were not enough: the entire structure had to

be revised. In the reviews that followed, broad objectives were

defined for training in agriculture for development. These in-


Training in plant, animal, and soil sciences so that the
interaction of these as applied sciences was thoroughly

Emphasis on scientific method so that students would be
able to undertake basic investigations for crop and
animal improvement; and

An orientation of students toward the dissemination of
their knowledge and techniques to lay farmers.

In other words, curricula development and training were to

become largely production and research oriented with research

sharply focused on improved methods of production.

As regards the particular discipline of plant science, the

basic concept is that it emphasizes the environmental interrela-

tionship of plants as they are managed for productivity. The pro-

gram must include a strong soil science element in particular,

such aspects as soil fertility and soil management.

In planning curricula, the balance between general knowledge

and some degree of specialization should be carefully watched;

the mix will be different in different countries. In many devel-

oping countries, a broad based curriculum is appropriate. In

countries such as Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya, however, some spe-

cialization is in order because the problems have been clearly

defined and agricultural development has reached a more sophisti-

cated stage.

Until recently, first degrees in plant science could be earn-

ed in three years. In the last few years, however, many faculties

of agriculture have come to realize that this is too short a period

and they are now switching over to a four-year course.

The basic three-year curriculum is as follows:

First year: Consolidates a student's knowledge of basic sci-

ences and orients it toward agriculture.

Second year: Concentrates on crop production and soil manage-

ment, and includes substantial practical training.

Third year: Introduces various other aspects of plant sciences

in a moderate specialization program.

The curricula cornerstones must be soil science, with plant

breeding and plant protection, the fundamentals of crop management

and improvement. The limitations of this course are the short

duration of training and the inadequacy of practical content. The

University of Ibadan has just proposed the adoption of a four-year

agricultural program with the following curriculum:

First year: Soil science, agricultural biology, general agri-

culture and general ecology.

Second year: A year of residential practical training in a

rural area, with emphasis on the individual development and manage-

ment of small units of farmland.

Third year: Soil science, genetics, crop protection, agricul-

tural mechanization, statistics, field experimentation, etc.

Fourth year: Crop husbandry and production, with reference to

horticultural crops, cereals and legumes, root, fiber, and forage

crops, plant breeding, weed science, crop improvement, and various

aspects of soil management.

In developing countries, the challenge of the future will be

to solve the problem of food. Only broadly based plant science

programs, with strong emphases on integration and practical train-

ing, can provide a basis for meeting that challenge.

Discussion Summary

Taylor discussed the fact that under the colonial system a

cadre of trained people were produced but for advisory purposes

only. The impact of these agriculturalists on local farming prac-

tices was very limited indeed. With independence, however, the

objectives of agricultural training were rethought. Plant sciences

emerged as the concept of the environmental interrelationship of

plants as they are managed for productivity. Scientists were to

look at plants in terms of the soil in which they grow, their gene-

tic basis, insect pests, and so on. We are talking, then, about

the training of a subject-matter specialist.

There is the constant danger of over-specialization. Curricu-

lum should be broadly based. Yet it is becoming increasingly dif-

ficult to do a broad enough program within three years. More and

more universities are switching to a four-year course.

"We must be on guard against an unconscious neglect of pro-

duction practices a situation in which the student becomes know-

ledgeable but remains unsure of his ability to apply that know-



Sterling Wortman remarked on the "role of maximum yield

trials in causing people to rethink their practices" the con-

cept of 1) yield per hectare per day and 2) performance of plants

as members of competitive populations in the field. "It is often

a surprise," said Wortman, "to see workers cutting out, with a

machete, the strongest individual plants." But if these plants

are allowed to grow at the expense of several others, yield per

hectare goes down.

"Scientists are also interested in maximum yield per hectare

per year, and then, as in the case of Richard Bradfield, in maxi-

mum income per hectare per year."

Dr. Johnston asked how faculty members could be encouraged

to become knowledgeable about national problems. "Through joint

activities," replied Taylor. "There must be an active effort on

the part of university leadership to develop a rapport with na-

tional and international programs. After all, this has worked in

the past in the area of individual relationships among disciplines.

"The government," Taylor continued, "sees agricultural re-

search in universities as upgrading knowledge simply. But we

see it as more applied. We must have an impact in the rural areas."

"Farm Year" Program

Taylor then went on to discuss Ibadan's projected "farm year"

for second-year students. "We have failed to recognize in our

training programs," he said, "that our agriculturalists generally

don't want to live in rural areas. We must change this." The

theory is that students are reluctant to go into the rural regions

because they are not trained to be familiar with the problems they

will encounter there, hence feel humiliated, only marginally use-

ful. This can be corrected with adequate field experience. Taylor

described a typical day projected for a second-year student living

out on the rural agricultural development and training center of

the university. "From 7 to 10 a.m., field work, on individual

farms. Then formal teaching say, from 11 to 1. There would be

some free time in the afternoon, then more formal teaching or

practical work but specifically related to what the student

is doing in the field from h to 6."

Taylor also pointed out that "the farm year encompasses an

entire growing period and experience with work on livestock."

A second way in which to work toward a change-over from the

purely academic to a balance that includes applied knowledge,

said Dr. Taylor, is to develop cooperative programs with the in-

ternational institute also located in Ibadan (IITA The Inter-

national Institute of Tropical Agriculture). A committee has

been established to look into possible areas of collaboration -

research, graduate training, and so on. "Scientists in the IITA

program want to concentrate on research. For that reason, they

don't want to be involved directly in teaching. But they are

willing to do limited teaching and some graduate seminars...."

The University Role

Dr. McKelvey asked about the National Universities Commission:

"Has it been helpful in bringing about greater government contact?"

"The old commission," Taylor answered, "was not greatly in-

terested in university development in relation to national develop-

ment. But a new commission has just been named, to look into

universities nationwide, and advise the government on university

development and financing. There are widely differing opinions

on the commission about the ratio between the university's educa-

tional role and its development function."

"What about communication in your curriculum?" asked Dr.

Gray. "We have an extension-education course," said Taylor, "and

also we hope to train students in communication during the farm


"Particularly they must learn how to communicate with farm-

ers. As you know, English is the language in which all courses

are taught. After graduation, the preponderance of our students

will go to the rural areas there will be only about 10 percent

who will go into industry and another 10 percent or less who will

go into research. Ideally our graduates should speak one other

language besides the mother tongue."


William R. Young

A review of the university curricula being offered in ento-

mology and plant pathology at North Carolina State University,

Kasetsart University, and the Indian Agricultural Research Insti-

tute shows that course offerings at all three institutions pro-

vide an adequate exposure to basic knowledge in these disciplines.

Because scientific knowledge has increased at such a fantastic

rate in the twentieth century, however, this basic knowledge has

become increasingly specialized and compartmentalized; conse-

quently, there is a real need for generalists scientists who

can synthesize essential knowledge from the various disciplines

and apply these basics in a coordinated way.


I would argue that a drastic revision of present curricula

would be the wrong way to go about solving this problem. We can-

not neglect the basics. Neither can we afford to interfere with

the international standards that have been set and which enable

scientists from all over the world to understand each other and

work together. I would suggest, instead, that we look for ways

to include intensive training programs, along with traditional

classroom work, at all levels of graduate and undergraduate edu-


At present, practical training in some of the younger, devel-

oping universities is almost nonexistent: students get their ex-

perience on the job, after they leave school. (For some reason,

many of these universities have not understood the value of work-

ing assistantships at the graduate level.) Students must be in-

corporated into the university's research program and laboratory

and local field experience should be mandatory. This is particu-

larly true in work involving insects and pathogens because these

differ in different locations a stem borer in Thailand is not

the same as a stem borer in Iowa.

The RF can be of real assistance here particularly in the

building of capable teaching staff. Anyone who has worked with

students from the developing world knows that in general they are

unable to apply the scientific formulae they have been taught -

in fact-laden courses to memorize.

Finally, there should be better overview courses for non-

entomologists; at present they oversimplify the extreme complexi-

ty of plant protection problems. Workers in other disciplines

need a better understanding of pest-plant relationships and the

cost of control measures. They also need more experience in the

use of pesticides and their possible hazards.


It should be mentioned that birds and rodents, which often

cause severe production and storage losses, have not been ade-

quately dealt with. Their number and variety have not been

sufficient for the development of full-fledged university curri-

cula therefore, at present, avian and rodent classification,

biology, physiology, and control are fragmented parts of zoology

and wildlife management programs. Frequently rodent and bird con-

trol programs fall by default to the entomologist, yet they are

not part of his field and he is usually ill-equipped to handle

them. We might explore the possible role of the Foundation or

the international institutes in promoting the training of a

larger corps of people to develop more effective research pro-

grams on this problem.

Along with an increasing awareness of the disadvantages of

broad-spectrum organic insecticides such as DDT, there has evolved

over the past decade a more comprehensive, ecological approach to

pest control, called "pest management." It represents an attempt

to minimize pest-damage and control costs, and also environmental

damage, by endeavoring to keep harmful pest populations at a low,

economically "manageable" level. This concept implies a thorough

understanding of the economics and technologies of crop produc-

tion and pest control, as well as the ecology of pest populations.

There is undoubtedly a need to modify our present plant-

protection curricula in light of this concept. Changes in em-

phasis should include additional attention to ecology, to the

complicated relationships among various disciplines, and to the

new techniques of data analysis and systems analysis.

International Networks

The Rockefeller Foundation's operating programs put an inter-

disciplinary team to work, to solve sharply focused, high priority

national production problems. These team efforts, apart from their

informal educational value, may be the most effective vehicle for

carrying out successful research and production efforts.

Is this pattern of operation more broadly applicable? I think

that unquestionably it is, and that there are real possibilities

for this kind of effort in the field of plant protection.

While host-plant resistance is the best solution to many plant

protection problems, there are pest and disease problems of inter-

national significance that require greater effort than they now re-

ceive. The RF might consider an international network, in collabo-

ration with national programs and international institutes, to at-

tack such broad-gauge problems as stem rusts of wheat; downy mil-

dews of maize, sorghum, and millets; stem boring Lepidoptera of

cereals; and shoot flies and midges of sorghum and millets.

There is also a need for international collaboration, relat-

ing the projects we are already supporting (the development of bio-

degradable pesticides4 pheromones, insect hormones4 and the biochem-

ical nature of host plant resistance to insects and diseases), more

closely with the application of these methods in tropical agricul-

ture. The coordination of an effort of this type with one of the

cropping-systems projects now being developed at IRRI, IITA, or

ICRISAT would seem to me to be an ideal approach.

Discussion Summary

Dr. Young, who pointed out that his experience was in action

programs rather than universities, argued for strengthening ex-

isting curricula rather than making radical changes. "We need

to have an educational system that allows the most talented to

push back the frontiers of knowledge."

While curricula at certain newer universities needs to be

streamlined (Kasetsart has 37 courses in agricultural entomology

as compared with 19 at North Carolina State) he thought that the

attempts of these universities to cover the whole field repre-

sented "an intermediate step in their development," that "as more

plant protection departments come into being within a country or

region, specific departments can begin to build special compe-

tence in particular aspects of plant protection."

Within the present framework, he made some specific sugges-

tions for improvement:

1. Often the youngest teachers do the introductory courses;
"I am convinced that the best teachers should be handling

2. The scientific work of the future will be done by inter-
disciplinary groups; "since nature is so complicated we
need teams." More thought should be given to specially
designed courses for students who are not majoring in
entomology but in some related discipline.

3. More effective seminars should be run; at present their
intellectual level is too low.

4. While undergraduate courses usually succeed in providing
basic information, there is little or no way for students

to get practical experience. "Students lack the ability
to diagnose under field conditions. Many can't tell a
disease from an insect."

Along the lines of possible additions to present curricula,

Young mentioned the whole field of environmentally oriented pest

control, which he said "now approaches the status of a religion"

and must be integrated with pest control in some sensible way.

He mentioned a 1972 meeting held in St. Louis by the U.S. Office

of Education, at which entomologists, plant pathologists, nema-

tologists, and weed scientists drew up "a most reasonable curric-

ulum for an integrated block of courses at the B.S. level.

"The pest management approach, coupled with work at the in-

ternational centers on cropping systems, seems to be pulling every-

thing together environmental factors, pest populations.....We're

beginning to be able to make predictions."


In the discussion that followed, Dr. Gray pointed out that

if we could cut down on losses due to rodents we would increase

available food supplies enormously. "Why are there such high

losses? Are they a reflection of the adequacy of plant pro-

tection training? Whose responsibility is it to reduce food,

feed and fiber losses due to insects and diseases the agrono-

mist's? the plant protectionist's? This is not necessarily a

curriculum defect what kind of problem is it?"

To which Dr. Byrnes replied that the problem was partly due

to the inability of extension workers to diagnose correctly and

Dr. Wortman said that the basic reason for such high rodent

losses is low yield: "The loss from a 6-ton level might be 2

tons, which is too high to ignore; but the loss from 1.5 tons

yield per hectare would be only about 600 pounds, which is not

worth worrying about in terms of profits." Wortman added, "No

one group or supplier is totally responsible for the efforts

within the particular specialty. In one program the potash

people supported the plant breeders because the more nitrogen

fertilizer they used the more demand there would be for potash."

But Dr. Gray insisted on returning to his original point:

"To what degree is the situation in plant protection (i.e., high

insect and rodent losses) the result of the training of plant

protectionists?" And Dr. Johnston answered, "The B.S. graduate

is not capable of applying knowledge to practical situations."


Leonard F. Miller

The following comments summarize under four points what are,

in my view, the most important considerations in developing a cur-

riculum and training program in agricultural economics. They are

hardly original, and they represent only one individual's experi-

ence, educational philosophy, and personal biases.

Focus on Practicality

At the undergraduate level it is of key importance that a

department's curriculum and course offerings for both its own

majors and for other agricultural students focus on the generally

most useful economic principles, concepts, and tools, and on their

application to the solution of practical problems relating to the

country's agricultural development. Many of today's so-called

"facts" have a high rate of obsolescence; our emphasis must be on

those principles and tools of most lasting value to our students.

Major attention to teaching the discipline should come at the

postgraduate level.

An emphasis on problem-solving and aids to decision-making

is especially important in a department's short courses and sem-

inars designed for the in-service training of public and private


Breadth of Training

Exposure to our curriculum and training should provide stu-

dents with the best possible background for a future which is dy-

namic and uncertain. Students must have the necessary foundation

and, we hope, motivation to continue learning after graduation,

and to be able to adjust to changing employment demands and oppor-

tunities. This means that our undergraduate program should not

be too specialized.

In agricultural economics we generally provide a reasonable

grounding in the biological, physical, and other social sciences,

but we should also be providing sound training in the skills of

communication and mathematics, and an opportunity to develop ap-

preciation for the arts and humanities. Obviously, to provide

this breadth of training we must sacrifice something in the way

of the less essential, highly applied courses in agriculture and

agricultural economics.

High Quality Instruction

A well conceived curriculum is necessary, but by itself is

not sufficient to insure that the students entrusted to us are

receiving a good education. This depends on the ability, train-

ing, experience, and devotion of those teaching the courses. Ex-

cellence in a department's teaching program requires both a wisely

conceived curriculum and high quality instruction. A department

must do all it can to provide the necessary facilities and incen-

tives for teaching staff who excel in the classroom and in the

advising and counseling of students to encourage individuals

with the best qualifications to make the necessary commitment to


Department Review

Occasionally, a department should review its curriculum,

course content, teaching methods, and advisory system. Minor

changes and adjustments are, of course, made from time to time,

but periodically a department needs to devote time and energy to

a thorough examination of all aspects of its in-service, under-

graduate and graduate teaching and training programs in light of

changing conditions within the department and the university, and

feedback from past graduates, employers and the public.

Discussion Summary

Dr. Miller emphasized that there could be no rigid rules for

curricula; courses obviously should depend on specific conditions

within a university they should be "time and place specific."

He felt strongly that teachers in agricultural economics de-

partments have a "service responsibility" to agricultural students

majoring in other areas: "What are the working tools that can

help them to analyze practical problems?" He suggested these

courses for non-majors: economic principles, farm management,

statistics, agricultural marketing, cooperatives and agri-busi-

ness management, agricultural development policies and institu-

tions. "Agricultural economics departments may also be called

upon," he said, "as ours has been at the University of Ibadan,

to offer courses for the faculty in rural sociology and extension

education areas considered especially necessary for equipping

graduates to work effectively in rural Nigeria."

Of course, the department's primary responsibility is to

students majoring in the field. "What do we expect of our B.Sc.

graduates?" Dr. Miller opted for general competence: "We should

not primarily be training B.Sc. level students to go on for grad-

uate work most of them will not." He thought that to increase

the emphasis on practicality, the number of highly applied courses

might be reduced to make room for more general -skills courses,

such as those in communications. He also advocated electives, and

a good advisory system, to help identify and prepare those

students who should go on for advanced study.

Good teaching should be recognized. "We say good teaching

is essential but we don't reward it as we do good research. Good

teachers are often passed over for promotions."


Dr. Wortman asked about the current content of agriculture

in agricultural economics curricula. Miller acknowledged that

this was a problem in some cases not enough attention has been

given to general agriculture or to the biological sciences. He

did not think this applied to Ibadan, however. Dr. Jensen added

that "this is a worry for every discipline in the field the

tension between specialization and broad general knowledge."

Miller then touched upon the British vs. American influence

at Ibadan. Under colonialism, the university had been organized

around the British system: "Not until 1971 did Ibadan adopt the

American course system and in many ways, even then, did not

fully appreciate its implications."

Undergraduate Thesis

There followed a discussion of the undergraduate thesis re-

quirement a holdover from the British tradition which Loyd

Johnson said was "often more of a disaster than a help." Miller

replied that in Nigeria it was an important final-year project:

"Students do the field work, and then analyze and write up the

data. It takes a lot of supervision but it's a tremendous learn-

ing experience if done properly.

"At Ibadan," he said, "everyone who gets a degree does a the-

sis. But there is no recognition by the administration that facul-

ty members must spend time advising students; therefore some the-

ses are inadequately supervised." He added that if the students

are organized carefully they can be of great assistance to re-

search programs "they can make up for a lack of resources to

some degree." To which Dr. Saguiguit remarked that a thesis

should be used as a training device, "not a research result."

And Dr. Moore said that in Latin America the thesis is a "disas-

ter" because the student is left completely on his own.

"The British did instill a high standard of scholarship, of

academic excellence," said Miller. "But we must now learn to put

this knowledge to use to serve society."

On-Farm Training

In order to provide much more practical training, Miller

said, Ibadan has recently acquired a large farm, on which stu-

dents are to spend a full year. Each student will have his own

plot, on which he will plant several crops and perform daily tasks

in livestock production. Some second-year courses will be given

at the farm.

Dr. Wortman was interested in the possibility of using the

new university farm as a "production center" a new kind of insti-

tution which people at the Rockefeller Foundation "would like to

see tried on an experimental basis." These centers, he said,

would be devoted to "applied experimentation" students would

do the actual farm work; would "learn about the individual factors

in production." Core staff would be an agricultural engineer, an

animal husbandman, and crops and soils scientists. "The exten-

sion agent who is simply a purveyor of information is out in the

LDCs," said Wortman. "The agent must be able to out-farm the

farmers." He suggested changing the term "extension agent" to

experimentalistt" to indicate a person who can carry out, on

the farmer's field, the simple experiments that will tell him

what to grow and how to grow it. "You need college graduates for

this. We've been sending boys to do a man's job."

Dr. Johnston mentioned Thailand's Corn and Sorghum Program

as being a device to act as a "cohesive agent" between the Minis-

try of Agriculture and Kasetsart University. "You get 150 people

together discussing corn, and it's impossible to tell who's from

the ministry and who's from the university."

Such programs, he said, should be institutionalized, "that

is, given a legal framework within which to operate, and which

will provide continuing support after the RF pulls out." Dr.

Wortman replied that such a program had been a totally new con-

cept in Thailand. "The understanding was that if it worked it

would be continued." He said that the program's lack of legal

status was a "disadvantage, but we couldn't have gotten it then.

We should have looked at various objectives for Kasetsart," he

went on. "We plunged. We should have put an RF staff member in-

to the Ministry of Agriculture."

"If you think there are problems now," said Dr. Chandler,

"you should have seen the place in 1955."

Curricula Worries

The discussion veered back to curricula. What improvements,

what changes could be made? Miller found it "worrisome" that stu-

dents had time for so few electives and that these few were usu-

ally further agriculture courses. "An elective program usually is

not very good unless you have a good advisory system," he said,

"which Ibadan doesn't have." He would like to see more attention

given to communications skills. "The level of writing is disap-

pointing. Students have had fourteen years of pre-college educa-

tion, but they clearly need additional training in composition

and report writing."

He brought up the subject of postgraduate training. Ibadan,

he said, has a strong program at the M.Sc. level Ibadan Ph.D.s

take one year of advanced course work in the United States. "We

can give a first-class M.Sc., but we think Ph.D.s still need the

year abroad."

Until 1970-71 there were no required courses beyond the B.Sc.

degree. Advanced degrees were awarded upon the presentation of

an acceptable thesis. "The agricultural economists pioneered in

demanding course work now the entire faculty of agriculture re-

quires it."

He strongly advocated curriculum reviews by the department

and a discussion of what is actually being taught the relative

emphasis on the subject matter in each course. "These discussions

should be carefully followed up to insure that courses do not

simply repeat each other, but build into a logical sequence of

principles and tools."

The Development Bomb

Dr. Gray raised a larger subject. "I'd like to ask the

question, how much time do we have? And under what political

system? Is it wise to include in the curricula our ideas of an

open society, our objectives concerning development? Agricul-

tural economics, after all, is carried out within the organiza-

tion of a particular society."

"Frankly," said Dr. Wortman, "I think the agricultural system

we've been following is self-defeating. We've been concentrating

on an elite but 'trickle down' doesn't work. As regards China:

they have put every resource into farm-level development to the

extent of putting all the research scientists into the field.

And they are carrying the people with them. My question is: Can

we come up with a system fast enough to keep this system from

overwhelming us? Hank Gonzalez, the governor of Mexico State,

once said to me, 'Mexico is sitting on a time bomb as at the

turn of the century, when the granaries were full and the bellies

of the people were empty and there was revolution.' If people

see no hope for change and if they know there's no hope because

of mass communications this will bring about the downfall of

the system."

Dr. Jensen: "I wish I could feel that the universities

could deal with this."


Dale G. Smeltzer

Since well over half the people in developing countries farm,

national development means agricultural development. Increased

production requires that present practices change; change is

brought about when decision-makers are made aware of their op-

tions (through research) and are then able to implement them

(through production programs).

The implementation process requires a large number of com-

petent and highly motivated people to teach farmers to apply

new practices on their own fields, and to identify the various

factors limiting production. Agricultural universities in the

LDCs are responsible for training these people. A major problem,

however, is that most of the agricultural students come from ur-

ban backgrounds. They lack a basic understanding of farmers,

familiarity with farm operations, and proficiency in farm skills.


Let us consider some assumptions about these agricultural


Relatively few will become actual farmers; most will find

jobs in agricultural institutions supply, transportation, govern-

ment service. Therefore, they don't need to know everything about

the theory and practice of agriculture, in all disciplines and

about all commodities. A student's future role should be anti-

cipated; he should have an understanding of general concepts plus

skills in a few specialized areas.

Universities need not be the sole source of all education or

training; students should be equipped for continued learning

after graduation. Further, not every student needs to be taught

the same things; programs must be flexible enough to meet the

needs of students with diverse interests. Finally, agricultural

graduates will not be working alone to solve the problems of agri-

culture. Many students majoring in related subjects will want

to take some agricultural courses and these should be made avail-

able to them.

Practical Knowledge

With these assumptions in mind, let us examine some ways in

which students can acquire practical knowledge. There are several

approaches, all of which fall into the category of learning by


1. Laboratory courses, in which the student is taught the
scientific method.

2. Applied courses, such as livestock production, crop
production, or insect control.

3. Field survey courses, in which visits are made to
several units of the agricultural industry for ex-
ample, a marketing cooperative, a food processing
plant, an agricultural warehouse. Instruction in
these courses is given by the people on the job;
preparation and follow-up is handled by the teacher.

All these programs, unfortunately, are expensive. To be

effective, a low teacher-student ratio is necessary; in many cases

a large investment in equipment is also required.

Work-Learn at Davis

For a number of years, the University of California at Davis

offered an agricultural practices course. A half day each week

was devoted to field activities and instruction was given by a

skilled practitioner. However, this was a non-credit course, with

low status in the minds of both teachers and students. The uni-

versity also maintained a placement service, through which students

could find employment on a ranch or farm during summer vacations.

A new work-learn program has recently evolved at Davis, in

which students are helped to find either full- or part-time employ-

ment in an agricultural job, usually for a period of a term, or an

academic year. The goal is to match the job with the student's

interests and capabilities.

It is unfortunate that such work-learn programs are not

easily worked into the curricula of universities in the developing

world: usually the program is too rigid to allow for orderly

progression after the student has withdrawn for some period of

time. But this kind of innovation should be encouraged possibly

a model program of this kind could be supported by the Rockefeller

Foundation Where universities in the LDCs have research respon-

sibilities, student aides should be recruited: this practice

could have a long-range impact on national agricultural development.

At Kasetsart

At Kasetsart, students are required to have 300 hours of

agricultural work experience. Most students meet this require-

ment by participating in programs given at student training farms

operated by the university. In addition, students may volunteer

to spend eight or ten weeks of their summer vacation at Farm

Suwan, a university research and training station which also

serves as the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center.

Students in the Department of Agricultural Economics at

Kasetsart have used a slightly different method. They have served

as interviewers in farm survey research under leadership of faculty

members, assisting also in the tabulation and analysis of data.

At Cal Poly

Agricultural production projects conducted by students rep-

resent another type of training opportunity. California Poly-

technic State University (Cal Poly) has a student projects pro-

gram in which a student might grow a field of grain or a vege-

table crop for example, or carry out some other project in agri-

cultural production under the guidance of a faculty adviser.

Fields and equipment are made available at commercial rates and

credit is provided where necessary. Expendable supplies are the

responsibility of the student, who is allowed to keep any profit

he makes. Losses are absorbed by the university.

This program is expensive in terms of both equipment and

staff time but is a highly valuable learning experience.

Training Trainers

In the developing world, where the need for practical ex-

perience is great, there is a huge demand for qualified trainers

to design and implement work-learn programs. I would submit that

the international institutes, in association with the regional

programs, could train these trainers. The Rockefeller Founda-

tion's Education for Development program might well support such

a project.

Discussion Summary

Dr. Smeltzer pointed out that agricultural development in-

volves choices among options: "the farmer must understand what

his options are, evaluate them, and be able to put them to prac-

tical use."

To be useful, he said, education must include specialized

knowledge as a point of departure from which to bring about

change plus various skills, with which to implement that know-


He then went on to discuss "constraints" on practical labora-

tory teaching; first, its high cost, and second, the attitude

shared by both faculty and students that this method is not "in-

tellectual" enough. This attitude is found everywhere, he pointed

out, not just in the developing world.

In the LDCs, he said, a work-learn program is difficult to

implement because of the rigidity of the curricula and the fact

that in general employers are unwilling to train students. Also

there is the danger that so-called practical training might de-

generate into mere busy work: "cheap labor in Asia is an obsta-

cle to research."


Dr. Wortman asked about the Cal Poly system which emphasizes

practical training, along with course work, for the entire four-

year college period. "How do California Polytechnic graduates

make out, in comparison with Davis graduates?" Smeltzer: "Cal

Poly students are first choice for many types of jobs; Davis stu-

dents are more readily admitted to graduate schools."

Drs. Young and Byrnes both mentioned the demand in the devel-

oping world for scientists with practical training. In Uttar Pra-

desh, India, said Young, graduates from a program similar to Cal

Poly's were "snapped up"; Byrnes described a three-year program of

practical training in Honduras: "CIAT seeks out these graduates

as instructors for production training programs." He said, though,

that sometimes they must spend a year at a graduate school in the

United States.

Dr. McKelvey: "I believe it is basically unsound to build

institutions based on practical work alone."

There was some discussion of ways to combine the Davis (aca-

demic) and Cal Poly (practical) objectives. Dr. Johnston reminded

the group that "practical training is very difficult to handle

with large numbers of students." Dr. Smeltzer suggested "two

flow schemes," one directed toward graduate study and the other

toward production. "In Ethiopia," said Dr. Jackson, "we had

students working a certain number of hours each week; they were

given a choice as to where they wanted to work. The budding

scientists chose research and the others stayed out in the field."

Byrnes: "But these scientists who go on to graduate school

become the professors who don't have production experience."

"It should not be a matter of splitting practical from aca-

demic work," said Dr. Saguiguit. "We need instructors who can

describe principles as they are applied. Students should see the

practice as they hear about the theory."

In a shift of subjects, Dr. Johnston again cautioned against

training "too greatly geared to western, mechanized methods"; and

Dr. Miller, in agreement, mentioned that one of his concerns

about the University of Ibadan's new farm is that it is so large

it will have to be mechanized. "The implication is that we will

and should solve Nigeria's agricultural problems through mechani-

zation. That's a totally wrong impression."



Albert H. Moseman

We have had a generation of experience with cooperative

programs in the agricultural sciences, with a decade or more of

staff involvement, followed by another decade or more of self-

directed effort in countries such as Mexico and Colombia. Mat-

ters of growing concern, as we assess past experiences, are:

1. how to make a program work better;

2. how to insure its persistence and effectiveness when
external support is withdrawn.

Among the major ingredients in an effective agricultural

research and development program are: trained people; an opera-

tional project; a solid organizational base; and a national com-


The components of a program's form are readily identified.

Less tangible are the elements that comprise its conceptual and

intellectual thrust.

The Proper Mix

Staff development and training have received much attention

from the standpoint of academic exposure and the proper mix of

formal and in-service experiences. More consideration should be

given to determining the right combinations of people for a given



Albert H. Moseman

We have had a generation of experience with cooperative

programs in the agricultural sciences, with a decade or more of

staff involvement, followed by another decade or more of self-

directed effort in countries such as Mexico and Colombia. Mat-

ters of growing concern, as we assess past experiences, are:

1. how to make a program work better;

2. how to insure its persistence and effectiveness when
external support is withdrawn.

Among the major ingredients in an effective agricultural

research and development program are: trained people; an opera-

tional project; a solid organizational base; and a national com-


The components of a program's form are readily identified.

Less tangible are the elements that comprise its conceptual and

intellectual thrust.

The Proper Mix

Staff development and training have received much attention

from the standpoint of academic exposure and the proper mix of

formal and in-service experiences. More consideration should be

given to determining the right combinations of people for a given

national project; i.e., the numbers of people in particular dis-

ciplines, and the correct balance of technical support staff and

basic degree and advanced degree persons. The importance of

selecting candidates for advanced degree training with an eye to

their potential and commitment, rather than their personal or

political influence, becomes increasingly evident as more and

more trained nationals are left with the responsibility of manag-

ing ongoing projects.

The multidisciplinary, problem-oriented project is generally

accepted as the most effective operating base. Continuing atten-

tion must be paid, however, to the balance between problem-solving

and basic research support. The "adaptive research" focus is

suited to most developing nations, but there is a need to define

it properly as "the planned and orderly modification of a mate-

rial or practice to suit local conditions, conducted by a team of

persons sufficiently trained in the relevant disciplines to in-

sure proper identification of the specific restraints and in the

procedure to correct them."

Helping Project Leaders

The leaders of national research teams, whether foreign or

national, usually lack high-level experience. Special workshops

should be conducted for the review of common problems found in all

multi-people, multidisciplinary, and multi-institutional efforts.

A national institutional base for agricultural research and

development is generally lacking in developing nations a fact

that is not usually appreciated by technical assistance personnel

from the United States, who have come up through the stable oper-

ational base of the land-grant universities or the U.S. Department

of Agriculture (which are more than a hundred years old) or the

Rockefeller Foundation and USAID programs, both of which have

been operating for more than a quarter of a century. Political

leaders of new nations lack an awareness of the role of science

and technology; in the past, technology was supplied by foreigners

from the governing nations.

Cooperative Projects and Government Bureaucracies

Stronger institutional structures should be built to serve

agriculture in developing nations; so far there has been rather

consistent action to preclude their formation. This results

from the common tendency among donor agencies to set up their

projects outside of, or only loosely allied to, the national

ministries of agriculture or other governmental agencies, in

order to expedite the project to free it from the usual bureau-

cracy. However, this carries over to a continuing lack of insti-

tutional linkage and domestic support when the external assis-

tance is withdrawn. Furthermore, the local personnel who have

participated in the highly autonomous cooperative project, and

who are left with the task of incorporating the activity into

their national organization, are confronted with problems they

never encountered previously. This was the situation in Mexico

and Colombia when Rockefeller Foundation support was phased out

and the cooperating Mexican and Colombian nationals had to carry

on the activities within their respective governmental structures.

The Continuum

The recent trend away from identification of research and

extension as separate functions and toward the concept of agri-

cultural technology as a continuum should help to strengthen

national organizations. National capabilities will be improved

by the systematic development and use of improved technology,

through the sequential steps of research, field station evalua-

tion, farm-field testing, and demonstration/promotion. This

operational continuum could easily be linked to inputs of seed,

fertilizer, and crop protection materials, and to credit sources,

markets, etc.

The conferences on national agricultural research organiza-

tion and management, in New Delhi in March 1971, in Beirut in

December 1973, and in Los Banos in December 1973, have been most

helpful in facilitating exchanges of views on mutual problems.

More such conferences should be held.

Long-term support of agricultural research and development,

on the part of leaders of many developing nations, continues to

be rare. In view of the transiency of top political leadership

it seems essential to foster stronger linkages with civil service

officers working in the upper echelons of government. This should

involve not only the ministry of agriculture but also officials in

finance, rural development, and planning. There should be more

regular communication with decision makers and a greater effort

should be made to call their attention to the progress and re-

sults of the cooperative projects.

Discussion Summary

Before Dr. Moseman began to summarize his paper, Dr. Chandler,

who was chairing the session, asked the group to keep two questions

in mind. "The international centers have been training people

rather thoroughly," he said, "but the national programs haven't

picked up on it. The idea behind the IRRI training program was

that the trainees would go home and train others. This hasn't

worked out. Why?"

And the second, related question "National governments

have been reluctant to launch training programs: why is that and

what can we do about it?"

The Problems of National Programs

Then Dr. Moseman began. He too started with two basic ques-

tions: How do you make a cooperative program work? And how do

you insure that it will persist, after the technical assistance

agency has pulled out? "We can do a program with Rockefeller

Foundation backstopping; how do we get local people to do it

equally well? There have been autonomous operations in Mexico

and Colombia for fifteen years now, and they are less than satis-


What these programs don't have, he said, are a proper insti-

tutional base and continuing government support.

Moseman also made the point that if you encourage a multi-

disciplinary team approach, you must make sure the teams are

properly balanced. "We must help these countries determine what

the staffs of their research teams should be." He mentioned in

passing an overemphasis on the training of Ph.D.s. "We need more

B.S.-level people on research teams."

One factor contributing to the lack of persistence of cooper-

ative programs is the incompetence of many nationals "because the

selection of fellowship candidates is often biased."

For this reason, Moseman argued for continued Rockefeller

Foundation fellowship support, with the Foundation's usual care-

ful attention to the qualifications of candidates, "with circum-

spection, though, because we're outsiders."

Adaptive research, Moseman went on, has different meanings

for different people. "IRRI training," he said, "teaches trainees

the evaluation of critical problems and also systematic, orderly

solutions to them," which is Moseman's definition of adaptive re-


We Need Leaders

"We tend to idealize the multidisciplinary team approach,"

he said, "but often it doesn't work." For one major reason: tra-

ditionally, scientists compete rather than cooperate. Therefore,

the team needs a strong leader "a Wayne Freeman or a Ben Jack-

son" who can provide continuity and train local people, while

at the same time making sure that cooperation and communication

are in fact taking place. "This requires a great deal of experi-

ence experience which most people haven't had in the U.S."

He strongly urged that the Rockefeller Foundation oversee the

training of young, indigenous project leaders. And that agricul-

tural programs not concentrate too heavily on one commodity. "A

strong wheat program like the one in Turkey can -draw off resources

from other projects."


"What should the international centers do about production

training?" asked Dr. Chandler. "IRRI is doing it because no one

else is on the supposition that someday national programs will

take it over."

"A lot of resistance has to be overcome," Dr. Wortman replied.

"There has been a long period of apathy toward basic food crops -

a long history of neglect. Colonial powers concentrated on estate

crops almost exclusively.

"But we have not, as an agricultural community, presented to

national leaders who are not agriculturalists a strategy, a

systems approach, for getting production up."

Four-Point Program

Wortman's strategy has four components, "all of which must

be working effectively or the whole system fails." They are:

high-yielding combinations; competent people who can show farmers

how to get these high yields; inputs; and markets.

Dr. Wortman also felt strongly about "carefully articulated

goals which will not allow for weasel room." How do you state

goals so clearly, so precisely, that you can assign success or

failure? "In the past," said Wortman, "goals were stated in terms

of production. We now need very specific, articulated objectives

about what we want to accomplish for the small farmer. Do we want

to double incomes on 100,000 farms, for example? We have to think,

'What do we want people to lie awake at night worrying about?'"

Making Workable National Programs

Dr. Sanchez was interested in the training of team leaders -

"How are you going to do it?" He himself had been "uneasy" about

the research and extension responsibility he had been given when

he was just out of graduate school: "The IRRI seminars helped me


In his rice project in Peru, he said, there was a clear-cut

goal (self-sufficiency in rice in five years) and a budget "given

to us by the ministry so that we could by-pass the bureaucracy.

"When we left, and local people took over, the style changed -

it became more bureaucratic but the substance was still there.

They've adapted well to the nitrogen shortage, for instance."

Sanchez suggested "starting with an autonomous program and

later folding it into the bureaucracy."

Dr. McKelvey, who was on his way to Zaire, asked the group's

help with what, he said, "I lie awake at night worrying about" -

namely, the situation of the educational system in that country.

"There's great interest in developing food crops and animal pro-

duction there. But the government wants, equally badly, to develop

an educational system and a food production system so it moves

people back and forth. At one point a very effective man was

appointed head of the Faculty of Agriculture. Suddenly, he was

whisked away. But the government must maintain leadership at the

university or nothing will ever happen there."

Zaire, McKelvey said, had developed a system of estate crops

under its colonial government, a system that broke down when out-

side support was withdrawn. For that reason there is no tradi-

tion of local agricultural involvement; it must be created. "An

agricultural education system is fundamental to this."

Internationals vs. Nationals

Dr. Taylor wanted to put on the table the "role of the inter-

national centers and their relation to national programs.

"The fact that competition exists between international and

national programs is not fully conceded," he said. There is some

feeling among nationals that the international centers are "is-

lands of improved resources." Scientists from the developing

world are determined not to be dictated to in terms of their own

programs, but if those scientists are involved in the research

process, "if they do not just get the strategy given to them,"

they will cooperate very effectively.

We must also take the political situation into account,"

said Johnston. "Government people are interested in staying in

power they support what will reinforce their position. Rice

is a major export crop in Thailand; that's why it gets political

recognition, not because it's a major food crop. We must get

results rapidly enough to reinforce politicians if we want to

keep their support."

Miller: "We're doing a good job with the research and

training components of Sterling Wortman's four-point strategy,

but we can do better with the inputs and marketing aspects.

There are areas of business management and public policy where

we here do not have sufficient experience. We need to beef up

our own team in those ways."


Loyd Johnson

At present a farm manager is considered a sub-professional

in an isolated, dead-end position. No wonder, then, that we

don't get large numbers of qualified young people lining up for

the job!

We must make these generalists full partners in the experi-

ment-station operation. Right now they feel that rather than

participating they are being used.

There are some strong historic reasons for this bias against

the generalist: a century ago, the major emphasis was on practi-

cal farming ability; lack of scientific training was a limiting

factor. To correct this, the scientific method was stressed and

eventually overstressed. Scientists now have far too little con-

tact with practical farmers; nor do they wish to be considered

good farmers. Scientific training is highly rewarded; practical

skills are not. Yet now it is the lack of practical skill that

is limiting.


One way to attract and retain competent farm-management

staff is to make their jobs more interesting. I would suggest

combining various functions work on cooperative trials,

demonstration fields, seed production, and so on to make these

positions more attractive to professionals with wide interests.


To bring the young scientist into closer contact with the

farm manager, apprenticeship training programs might be insti-

tuted, for high school seniors or undergraduate college students

who volunteer for training during their vacation periods. Train-

ing should be oriented toward developing scientific generalists

who can collaborate with both scientific specialists and farm

workers. Apprentices would work individually with the best trac-

tor drivers, carpenters, plant propagators, and general laborers

to help them carry out their normal duties; they would be paid

slightly less than the master laborers with whom they work. Un-

der no circumstances would a student be given any authority -

which would upset the relationship with his instructor and destroy

the necessary rapport. Trainees would be given reading assign-

ments and be required to keep records and write reports on the

work they had accomplished. The reports would not be graded at

least, not by experiment station professionals. (The student's

high school or college might wish to use them as a basis for aca-

demic credit, however.)

Discussion Summary

"Why has no one ever been presented to me for specific

training in experiment station development?" Dr. Johnson wanted

to know. "We need young men with engineering background they

never show up. So the man who heads the station has no assis-

tance above the level of field foreman."


Johnson maintained that maximum support plus maximum freedom

is ideal for scientific research but not for production. In-

creases in productivity require that workers be highly goal-ori-

ented, operational. Agricultural trainees should do either re-

search or operations for a specific period but not both at once.

At present the limitations of agricultural training are se-

vere. On the one hand there are the scientific researchers who

don't want to bother with trainees, on the other are the farm

superintendents whose level of training is too elementary to be

of interest to college students. Competent people are available

for training in operations, however, provided there's a process

for insuring equal prestige and career benefits with research.

Learning the Skills

"One idea worth testing would be to apprentice each trainee

to a skilled worker for short periods," he said. "But to do that

we must first overcome the attitude, which prevails at present,

that it's degrading for a student to learn from these people.

So we must explain to each student what his attitude is to be -

by saying, treat the skilled worker as your instructor. 'This is

the way you'll get the best training.' It's best to use the ap-

prenticeship method with an undergraduate, though. A graduate

student would have too much difficulty relating to a laborer."

He added that apprenticeship work is slow and laborious but

would argue that there's value in that. The laboratory approach

speeds up training but it's very expensive and basically unreal.

It is not the same experience as that of day-by-day operations.

In reality the process is slower. Changing the timing of the

learning process also modifies it.


There must be a higher degree of professional cooperation

between the generalist (the operations and production man) and

the specialist (researcher). Some research projects are so in-

adequately tested that you couldn't convince any farm superinten-

dent of their validity yet they're programs that some research

people are trying to initiate on a national scale.

The new production centers, said Johnson, should not over-

stress the research component. "What you need are model farms

that are producing well. The farmer will come and look over the



Several people spoke to the question that Johnson first

raised: Why are there no trainees?

"Those few who do apply for training are hired off," said

Dr. Jensen. "The pay scale is lower for operations. These jobs

need status and salary incentives and to get that you must con-

vince the leaders of country programs...."

Said Dr. Johnston: "The Rockefeller Foundation is one of

the very few agencies that has tried to train experiment station

people but we have not succeeded in institutionalizing that

training. The developing nations have not picked up on it be-

cause there is no traditional place in the hierarchy for an ex-

periment station manager. It's a highly specialized job and that

man needs an institutional home."

Equal Pay

"What should his salary be in relation to the scientists?"

Dr. Chandler asked. "Say, a man with a M.Sc. degree."

"Equal to a biologist's or agronomist's," replied Dr. Jensen.

"The station manager must be considered full staff in order

to defend himself at staff meetings," said Johnson. "His salary

must be competitive with commercial opportunities."

Dr. Taylor thought it was vital that the operations man be

of an equivalent grade with the scientist, "so they can speak

together as equals."

And Dr. Moseman pointed out that there was too little aware-

ness of the problem partly due to too few publications. He

cited Pomeroy (1970) and Harwood (1971) as being two very good

discussions of the subject. "Besides publications," he said,

"there should be periodic workshops for people from the national

research programs."

Experiment Station Pro and Con

Moseman recalled his own experience in Nepal: "AID bought

the equipment and built the buildings, but it didn't prepare the

land so that precise experiments could be made."

"But there is a known bias on experiment stations, even in

the United States," said Clarence Gray. "There are plenty of sta-

tions, even in our own country, where you can't get valid results

or recommendations that any farmer would follow."

"What would happen if we eliminated experiment stations al-

together," asked Dr. McKelvey, "and worked with farmers in the


"You'd lose control of your experiment," answered Jensen.

"It would get merged with the rest of the farmer's crop." And

Chandler maintained that "it is important to be able to go from

the lab to the field and back."

Sanchez complained that the location of experiment stations

was often haphazard, resulting in an atypical soil situation:

"Often it's located in a particular place just because someone

happened to donate the land...." But Jensen argued that finding

the perfect experiment station was just about impossible: "There

is a peanut station in North Carolina that we walked all over the

state to locate, but it's still not ideal." Taylor, on the other

hand, took the view that most experiment stations are too ideal:

"Farmers' fields are a better model," he said, echoing McKelvey,

"and there should be more experiments in them."

Special Training

Again the question of specific training for experiment station

managers was raised. Johnson felt young scientists should go through

several periods of short apprenticeships with skilled workers.

He added: "We need a generalist who understands the special-

ist. He should take basic courses not field work because he'll

get that but courses at the theory level in several disciplines

of engineering and agriculture."

Chandler asked if the international centers could have train-

ing programs for farm managers. "Would they get a response from

the national programs?"

"Trainees would switch to research as soon as they could,"

answered Johnson.

"The quality of any college of agriculture is judged by its

experiment station," said Wortman, "the scope of that station's

research, its relevance to the region; also the quality of the off-

station work how effectively improvements reach the farmer. Deans

and college presidents must be worked with they must be made sharp-

ly aware of the importance of experiment station work."


Dale G. Smeltzer

In the LDCs there is a crying need often understated for

a middle-level group of scientists and technicians who can con-

duct reliable experiments and properly manage laboratories and

fields. At present, reliable results cannot be obtained in many

parts of the developing world because these skilled workers do

not exist in strength.

The universities are concentrating on academic course work,

training students to be generalists. But graduates need experi-

ence and motivation as well as theoretical knowledge. The train-

ing component of the Inter-Asian Corn Program (IACP) is one ap-

proach to solving this problem.

IACP Training

IACP training classes have been conducted in Thailand since

July 1967. A total of 193 trainees from fifteen countries have

participated. Approximately two-thirds had research responsi-

bilities at home, a bit less than one-third were primarily in-

volved in extension, and five were teachers in universities or

technical schools. Trainees were selected by officials in their

national programs, often in consultation with IACP staff and ad-

visers from various donor organizations.


Dale G. Smeltzer

In the LDCs there is a crying need often understated for

a middle-level group of scientists and technicians who can con-

duct reliable experiments and properly manage laboratories and

fields. At present, reliable results cannot be obtained in many

parts of the developing world because these skilled workers do

not exist in strength.

The universities are concentrating on academic course work,

training students to be generalists. But graduates need experi-

ence and motivation as well as theoretical knowledge. The train-

ing component of the Inter-Asian Corn Program (IACP) is one ap-

proach to solving this problem.

IACP Training

IACP training classes have been conducted in Thailand since

July 1967. A total of 193 trainees from fifteen countries have

participated. Approximately two-thirds had research responsi-

bilities at home, a bit less than one-third were primarily in-

volved in extension, and five were teachers in universities or

technical schools. Trainees were selected by officials in their

national programs, often in consultation with IACP staff and ad-

visers from various donor organizations.

The six-month training periods are held at Farm Suwan, about

155 kilometers northeast of Bangkok. Each trainee is expected to

conduct at least one field project preparing a project outline,

reporting results, and interpreting their meaning. A wide range

of projects has been completed variety trials, fertilizer

trials, soil management trials, insect and disease control studies,

mixed cropping experiments, and seed multiplication plots. The

trainees work together; they do all the work except for basic

land preparation.

The field activity occupies well over half the trainee's

time. The rest is given over to lectures on basic crop produc-

tion, soils and fertilizers, irrigation, marketing, and so on.


The trainees should be selected for commitment their own,

and that of their program to the role they will fill back home.

It's usually helpful to have more than one trainee from each

program so that they can learn to work together but not so

many that they form an exclusive nationalist group.


IACP training is commodity-focussed, which has both advan-

tages and disadvantages. One major asset is that the entire

class has a common meeting ground; thus, we can give compre-

hensive coverage to corn production, protection, improvement,

marketing, and utilization. However a major liability it

does often lead to over-simplification, and we are at times

tempted to avoid looking at the real world of diversified Asian


National Programs

Training of local people to perform specific local tasks

should be carried out by the national agricultural programs.

This is not being done. Someone in the national program should

be charged with this responsibility; training staff should be

organized and prepared. Which brings us to another critical

problem there must be trainers. Really effective programs for

training trainers are not now available.

Training Trainers

Trainers who are expected to train village-level workers,

for example in laying down demonstration plots, should be iden-

tified well in advance. Evaluation of teaching aptitude, inter-

est, and general understanding of the job requirements should be


The learn-by-doing concept can apply to trainers. I would

like to see some provision made to identify national trainers

and then have them participate as assistants in training programs

at international institutes or regional centers, where they can

learn training skills. The technical content of demonstrations

should be worked out by research and extension experts within

the national programs, and resource people from these organiza-

tions could help to train trainers. International staff could

help these local staff trainers to identify training needs.

It would then follow that programs to meet these needs could be

effectively organized.

For the next several years, training teams will be as essen-

tial to national programs as the services of agronomists, plant

protectionists, or plant breeders. Development of technology,

without the parallel development of delivery systems, has had

little impact. Staffing patterns for development programs have

an enormous training requirement, which can scarcely be relegated

to a secondary role if we are really committed to coordinated

development programs.


C. P. Moore

The developing countries as a whole have about 70 percent

of the world's livestock resources, yet they produce less than

35 percent of its animal products. While there are many reasons

for this, it is certainly true that considerable technology which

would be useful to ranchers or livestock producers in the LDCs

never reaches them.

Available Technology

A few of the improved practices presently known and in need

of dissemination throughout the developing world are listed.

1. The use of hormones and enzymes as implants or as
feed additives to increase growth rate and feed ef-
ficiency (considered to be one of the greatest ad-
vances in livestock feeding of this century).

2. Crossbreeding for hybrid vigor (natives and exotics).

3. Seasonal breeding to increase reproduction rate, to
facilitate management, and to reduce calf loss.

4. Use of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) to increase the
utilization of cellulose during the dry season, or
in intensive fattening programs.

5. Mineral supplementation (phosphorous) of the breeding
herd to increase conception rate.

6. Vaccines and drugs to control contagious diseases,
parasites, and infections.

7. Artificial insemination heat detection and estrus

synchronization which expedites genetic improvement;
evidenced by their use to increase milk production in
dairy cattle.

8. The use of proper equipment and facilities to increase
efficiency and reduce losses.

9. The use of improved varieties of grasses and legumes
to increase production per land area.

10. Forage preservation to reduce waste in the wet season
and to prevent animal weight loss in the dry season.

We have strong reason, therefore, to strive for more con-

centrated training programs, designed to make the existing tech-

nology available to those who need it most.


At CIAT, the emphasis in the livestock production-specialist

training program (LPSTP) is on management, the soil-plant animal

complex, and communication skills.

The objectives of the course are to reorient professionals

so that they are able to think and function at the commodity level

and also to provide an opportunity for them to learn how to organ-

ize and carry out training courses within their own countries.

The entire program consists of about 15 percent classroom work

and 85 percent field exercises.

Phase One

Students (who are mainly veterinarians) are given a concen-

trated lecture/laboratory course for the first three months of

the twelve month program. In this first phase, more than half

the total number of hours is spent on four subjects: farm

management, ruminant nutrition, communication, and pastures and

forages. It should be pointed out that communication skills

make up 14 percent of the first three months' instruction. The

trainees analyze their own reactions in individual and group ex-

ercises and as a result they begin to better understand them-

selves and each other.

Phase Two

The second, or ranch, phase (which is eight months long)

provides the trainee with an opportunity to put into practice

the theoretical knowledge and ideas that he learned in phase

one in collaboration with a private rancher and under the

supervision of the LPSTP staff. Ranch evaluation, planning,

and program development form a large part of these eight months'


Phase Three

In the third phase (one month) the trainee returns to the

Center to review his training and write a final report, to meet

with instructors in roundtable conversations, and to discuss ways

in which basic concepts of the training program might be applied

and institutionalized in his home country.

Establishing Programs

The establishment of production training programs in Latin

American institutions has not met with the success we first hoped

for; however, three institutions have adopted some variation of

the CIAT program after having sent trainees through the course.

Basic equipment and trained personnel are essential to

starting up an in-country training program. CIAT can help in

the training of these personnel and to some extent in the organ-

ization and supervision of at least the first national training

program. It will be essential for the national institutions)

to support the cost of its own program and make provisions for

its continuation.

CIAT hopes to maintain contact with the country programs

by continually sending updated information to its alumni as well

as any instructional materials that the Center may develop.

CIAT staff members will also make personal visits as time and

resources permit.

Discussion Summaries

The Smeltzer and Moore papers both on training programs -

were discussed jointly. Dr. Smeltzer, who spoke first, remarked

on the importance of having the Inter-Asian Corn Program operating

within the framework of the regional program. "The station vari-

ety trial was done at Farm Suwan, where the regional program is

located. We have no laborers our trainees do all the work."

He raised a question that others echoed: "Why are the

training programs not being adopted?"

Success Story

As a possible answer to that question, he then described a

successful program in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of

Pakistan in which there were over 500 on-farm demonstrations of

the "maize-diamond" type. These plots confirmed the validity of

research results and serve as the basis for promotion of the new

technology for adoption by farmers:

1. There were two CIMMYT specialists on site;

2. The Secretary of Agriculture was convinced, enthusiastic,
and made funds available;

3. Job descriptions were worked out, in which every partic-
ipant was told what he would be doing and the time at
which he would be doing it;

4. There was adequate seed production;

5. A large number of extension workers were recruited and

6. The extensionists were expected to train five other
people at the village level.

The training of extension agents took place in the spring

season, said Dr. Smeltzer, so that they would be ready for the

main campaign, at the time of the monsoons. The program was

brief trainees had only about a week in which to plant but

they came back every two weeks to check on the progress of the

maize crop and in general the instruction was good.

"The inputs were there fertilizer, improved varieties,"

said Dr. Smeltzer. "But I mention them last because it is so

much more important that there be the commitment to make them



Dr. Moore then spoke briefly, focussing on specific problems

of livestock production. "There are very few schools of animal

husbandry in Latin America," he said, "therefore problems which

could be solved with existing knowledge go uncorrected." He re-

marked that good technology is developed by first determining

what the problems are, then by finding solutions, and finally by

teaching farmers how to apply these solutions.

Finally, he mentioned some changes that had taken place at

CIAT over time. In the first livestock training program, he

said, there were eleven students ten veterinarians and one ani-

mal husbandry man. Now the ratio is changing. There are fewer

veterinarians, more trainees with experience in animal science,

farm management. Also, relatively large numbers of trainees are

recruited from a fairly small group of countries. "We used to

have seven or more countries represented, with only two or three

people from each," he said, "but we found that they were making

no impact back home. So now we work with fewer countries and

greater numbers of people."


Dr. Gray led off by repeating Dale Smeltzer's question:

"Why has there not been more training of trainers? Why have

national governments been reluctant to initiate training pro-

grams of their own?"

Dr. Byrnes had a tentative answer. "I think training of

trainers has not caught on," he said, "because.there is no insti-

tutional home for these people when they return to their own

countries. We need to provide in-service training which will

backtrack into the curriculum." Also, he said, we must work with

the Ministry of Agriculture, explaining to them precisely how

training fits into the overall goal of increased production.

And Dr. Smeltzer said he had seen some changes in various

countries as a result of the impact of the Inter-Asian Corn Pro-

gram: "Junior staff are now willing to work out in the field.

In Pakistan, the government is using trainees in meaningful ways."

Moore mentioned that more and more professors were coming

out to visit the training site, and that ICA (Colombia's national

agricultural research and extension service) is "cooperating;

there's good cross-fertilization."

Pedro Sanchez talked about the introduction of IR 8 rice

into Peru: "We used Peace Corps kids because the Peruvian ex-

tension people were uninterested. After about three months the

Peruvians came into the program."

Dr. Johnston asked Moore whether there was any follow-up of

ranchers who had taken on livestock trainees. Dr. Moore said

yes and that they had increased their calf crop from 50 to 70

percent through improved management with essentially no additional

investment or risk.

Dr. Ajibola Taylor brought up "the relationship between re-

search and extension; they are not on good terms." He suggested

organizing "training programs of joint effort. Research scien-

tists don't know field problems."

Also, he said, criteria must be set up for the "assessment

of success: is it impact on production, research reports, or

what? Our goals are not clear."

Sterling Wortman argued that training must be carried on so

that competent people will be in place when the opportunity comes:

"In Mexico in the '50s," he said, "large numbers of people were

trained. And they were not used until an administration came into

power that wanted to use them. But then they were there."


Ben R. Jackson

When I first went to Thailand in 1966 as a Rockefeller Foun-

dation rice breeder, Thailand's Rice Breeding division which

had had great vitality in the 1950's and early 1960's had begun

to decline.

IRRI's new high-yielding variety of that time, IR 8, was

being widely used in neighboring countries but was considered

impalatable by Thais. As there was no acceptable HYV available,

it seemed as if the Green Revolution was passing them by. Also,

the promotion of the division's leading breeder to be director

general of the entire department had left the group without a

full-time leader. At the same time, the rice department's tech-

nical division (soils, entomology, pathology) had begun to ex-

pand, providing expert technical assistance to its staff plus

scholarships for graduate study. It was not hard, therefore, to

see why morale in the Rice Breeding division was low.

The First Year

My first task was to visit all the rice experiment stations

and as many farmers' fields as possible. Also, I talked at length

with people who were well acquainted with rice farmers' problems.

By the end of the year, three main objectives had emerged:

Identifying promising scientists for overseas graduate

training so that these men, upon their return, could insure con-

tinuity within the division and, in turn, train others;

Instilling confidence in the local staff, who had to be sure

that they were indeed capable of doing significant research; and

Accelerating the rice breeding program, to increase the pres-

tige of the division and to insure that persons returning from

study abroad would have a strong local base.

How We Did It

To accomplish these objectives, we did the following:

1. We chose graduate-training candidates very carefully.

In addition to good grades, we asked that they be recommended by

colleagues who knew them well for such qualities as commitment,

leadership, and the ability to do independent research.

2. We held weekly staff discussion groups in order to open

up new lines of communication among staff members and to increase

people's appreciation of each other's work.

3. To accelerate the rice breeding program we identified

major problem areas that could be improved by breeding, chose

personnel to follow through on particular research tasks, improved

breeding techniques, worked to develop local high-yielding vari-

eties, established an ongoing rapport with IRRI, and fostered co-

operative work with scientists in other fields.

In addition I served as thesis adviser for rice breeding

staff who were earning their degrees at Kasetsart University.


Fortunately, one of the researchers in the division had made

a cross between IR 8 and a local long-grain variety which was in

the F-2 generation at the time of my arrival. Within three years

a HYV with the long, translucent grain required by the Thai rice

trade had been developed. This did a great deal to restore the

group's confidence.

IRRI's contributions to the Thai program have been exceed-

ingly valuable. IRRI provided grants for applied training and

graduate study; also, IRRI scientists visited the program peri-

odically and provided new breeding lines.

In turn, the program was able to reciprocate by testing IRRI

material for reaction to Tungro, Gall Midge, and deep-water toler-

ance. This association has resulted in the recent IRRI decision

to extend part of its core program on deep-water rice research

to Thailand a first for any of the institutes.

It was also very helpful to have been allowed by the Rocke-

feller Foundation to spend four months at IRRI prior to beginning

my assignment in Thailand. It enabled me not only to obtain a

working knowledge of the research in progress, but also to become

acquainted with IRRI staff on a first-name basis. Thus, I knew

to whom to address any later requests for assistance.

It soon became apparent that a closer liaison with scien-

tists in other disciplines was necessary if the breeding program

was to reach its full potential. After the release of the first

HYVs, we were able to establish closer cooperation with people in

the Technical division, which resulted in a more complete evalua-

tion of all new breeding material. Also, cooperative work with

Kasetsart University biochemists on protein has resulted in the

identification of some protein-rich local varieties.


Presently the Rice division has twenty persons with M.S.

degrees. Five were trained at IRRI, four at Kasetsart, the re-

mainder in the United States. This compares with five M.S.-level

scientists in the division at the time of my arrival.

There are five researchers in the program with Ph.D.s in

plant breeding. Three were sponsored by the Rockefeller Founda-

tion, two by the Thai government. There were no Ph.D.s in the

division at the beginning of my assignment.

Seven new hybrid rice varieties have been released. For

the most part they are intended for specific areas where major

problems such as Gall Midge, deep water, and heavy disease out-

breaks are likely to occur.

New research projects underway include rainfed lowland rice,

photoperiod-sensitive HYV, higher protein varieties, and high-

yielding types tolerant to deep water and submergence.

Discussion Summary

Jackson remarked that at a recent rice breeding conference,

three scientists from the Rice division made a formal presenta-

tion; they spoke with total confidence. Eight years ago the

situation was completely different. They had no full-time leader-

ship, IR 8 had passed them by, other departments were booming

and they were just sitting there.

"When I arrived there was only one man with an M.S. in breed-

ing; a short time later he was transferred to an outlying station.

We had zero breeders.

"Obviously, then, our first objective was to train people

rather than produce new varieties. We also had to instill confi-

dence in the people in the division, and finally we had to revise

the breeding program.

"After two or three years I was able to identify a few peo-

ple with a real capability for study abroad. They were given

fellowships. To build confidence, we held weekly meetings in

which the staff would report not me. I told them, 'Nobody in

Thailand is going to breed rice if you don't.' To revise the

breeding program we did a number of things: most notably we

strengthened our relationship with IRRI."

Now, eight years later, there are seven new varieties, thirty

first-grade officers (as compared with one in 1966), there is in-

creasing governmental recognition of the division's work, and

morale is high. The Rice division has five Ph.D.s (some with M.S.

candidates of their own) and twenty persons with M.S. degrees.

And there is good cooperation with Kasetsart and good coopera-

tion with the Technical division.


Chandler: "What is the impact of your work on Thailand's

rice production, in terms of both area and yield?"

Jackson: "Dry-season area is up to a half-million hectares

from almost nothing. About 99 percent of the varieties are high


"Wet-season varieties, though, are not going out: less than

5 percent of 7 to 8 million hectares are planted to new varieties.

We didn't breed the types we needed; present varieties have no

reaction to deep water. We are well underway with RD 5, however,

which has intermediate stature and can accommodate greater water

depths than the semi-dwarf varieties."

Loyd Johnson remarked that much of Thailand's increased

yield "coincides with the introduction of irrigation systems.

There is an interdependence, here, with water control and credit."

And Dr. Johnston added that in one deep-water area "fewer

than 10 percent of the farmers have seen an extension man but

they are using the new varieties. They are only planting dry-

season rice, however. They channel the water into canals, and

pump it out to irrigate."


At the end of the conference, participants were divided up

into committees to make specific recommendations on three aspects

of training: production training, research training, and univer-

sity training all to be directed toward national development.

Dr. Moore outlined the steps necessary for the in-depth

teaching of production-oriented courses, which he said parenthet-

ically must be "backed in" to universities.

1. University professors must be trained who will include

production in the university curriculum;

2. National officials must be reached. There must be a de-

tailed plan as to how numbers of people can be trained to trans-

fer technology to the farmer;

3. Broad linkages should be established between the inter-

national centers and government policymakers i.e., seminars

with government officials, college rectors, and so on so that

country programs will be adequately backed up at the technical

level. (Along these lines, Dr. Chandler said that while the in-

ternational centers "can get the ball rolling," national programs

have the responsibility to pick up such programs. "Our training

programs at the international institutes should have had more of

a multiplier effect than they've had.")

Dr. Smeltzer then asked at what stage certain kinds of train-

ing actually affected the acceleration of food production.

He mentioned manpower needs at several levels.

Research: For the development of new technology. This, he

said, should be a university function, the work of B.Sc.s, M.Sc.s,

and "a few" Ph.D.s.

Regional testing: These scientists would be testing, on ex-

periment stations, the technology that comes out of the research

centers, and should be at the B.Sc. level or above. They ought

to receive apprenticeship training at the central research sta-

tion which should have its own formal training program.

On-farm testing: Agriculturalists at the technical school

or certification level are needed here. They should be trained

at a regional center.

Demonstration work and seed multiplication work: Large num-

bers of technicians are needed for both these jobs again at the

technical or certification level.

Those going into demonstration work, seed multiplication,

and on-farm testing should be trained in-country, Smeltzer said,

either at national or regional centers, because of the large num-

bers of people that are needed. He suggested that a training

component be built into the regional centers, "if the country can

afford it."

Johnston: "Would you have a different training program for

each crop?"

Smeltzer: "The farmer is growing mixed crops. At the demon-

stration level, information should be location-specific."

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