Title: Florida plant disease management guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053871/00032
 Material Information
Title: Florida plant disease management guide
Alternate Title: Ornamentals and turf
Fruit and vegetables
General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Plant Pathology
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: The Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Plant Pathology Dept., University of Florida and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension, University of Florida.
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in three volumes: v. 1, General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques; v. 2, Ornamentals and turf; v. 3, Fruit and vegetables.
General Note: Description based on: 1999-2000.
General Note: "SP-52"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053871
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 44549741
lccn - 00229071
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida plant disease control guide

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PDMG-V3-14
UF UNIVERSITY of
UFFLORIDA
IFAS Extension



2006 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Fig

(Ficus carica)1


Ronald D. French-Monar and Pamela D. Roberts2

AERIAL/WEB BLIGHT
(Thanatephorus
cucumeris/Rhizoctonia solani)

Symptoms: Symptoms on leaves initially appear
yellow, or sometimes brownish, and may be
watersoaked. Eventually the upper leaf surface turns
silvery white and the underside is covered with the
brown webbing of the fungus. The leaf will
eventually die but can be held onto the twig by fungal
strands coming from the petiole. Fungal mycelia, or
strands, can cover and kill the twigs and can cover
the fruit causing fruit mummification. Small
brown-to-black reproductive structures, called
sclerotia, can be observed on the fungal strands
covering plant tissue. The sclerotia are very resistant
to unfavorable environmental conditions and allow
for survival of the fungus for long periods on the
plant, in plant debris, or in the soil.

Chemical Controls: There are no EPA-approved
fungicides for use on edible figs in Florida.


ANTHRACNOSE (Glomerella
cingulata/Colletotrichum
gloeosporoides)

Symptoms: Symptoms on leaves appear as
slightly sunken spots surrounded by a dark brown
edge. The center of the spot may appear pink from
the spore masses which are being produced by the
fungus. Frequently, large areas on the leaf turn
brown, dry out along the leaf margins, and eventually
the leaf falls off. Symptoms on fruit also develop as
small, discolored, sunken areas that enlarge and
develop pink spore masses in the middle. The fruit
develop a soft rot and will drop off the tree.

Cultural Controls: Remove fallen fruit and
leaves to reduce surviving inoculum for the next
season.

Chemical Controls: There are no EPA-approved
fungicides for use on edible figs in Florida.


1. This document is PDMG-V3-14, part of the 2006 Plant Disease Management Guide, one of a series of the Department of Plant Pathology, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reviewed: September 2006. Please visit the EDIS
Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Ronald D. French-Monar, Ph.D., research associate, Plant Pathology Department, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center--Immokalee, FL;
Pamela D. Roberts, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center--Immokalee, FL; Florida
Cooperative Exention Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,
sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry
Arrington, Dean






2006 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Fig (Ficus carica) 2


CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT
(Cercospora fici, Cercospora
spp.)

Symptoms: Spots on leaves initially appear
angular with a reddish-brown color. As the leaf spot
enlarges, the center turns tan and is surrounded by a
brown margin with a yellowish halo. The disease
develops most rapidly during the rainy season in
mid-summer. Severe disease pressure can cause leaf
drop.

Cultural Controls: The plant may be pruned to
increase air circulation inside of the foliage. When
watering, avoid getting leaves wet since this favors
disease infection. Fallen, diseased leaves should be
removed to reduce inoculum.

Chemical Controls: There are no EPA-approved
fungicides for use on edible figs in Florida.

FIG MOSAIC VIRUS (unknown virus)

Symptoms: Mottling of the leaves is very
common, and in some varieties, leaves and fruits may
be dwarfed and some leaves may be malformed. On
leaves, mosaic spots will appear yellow and may
cover large areas of the leaf. Mosaic spots on the fruit
may be more subtle in appearance in comparison with
the leaf symptoms. In some cultivars, premature
defoliation and fruit drop can occur.

Cultural Controls: Clean propagation stock
should always be used since this virus is spread by
vegetative cuttings.

Chemical Controls: The virus can be vectored by
the eriophyid mite Aceriafici; thus, controlling or
managing this mite may help reduce incidence of the
disease.

MUSHROOM ROOT ROT (Armillaria
tabescens)

Symptoms: Symptoms of this disorder appear
suddenly; the tree rapidly wilts, dries out, and one or
all trunks may die. The sudden symptoms usually
occur during high temperature periods (summer)
when the tree has the greatest water demand. The
fungus enters the roots and girdles the


water-conducting tissues at the soil line. A quick
diagnostic test is to use a knife to peel back slivers of
bark at the soil line from symptomatic trees. The
presence of a creamy-white layer of fungus below the
bark will confirm mushroom root rot. The mushroom
stage of this pathogen does not reliably appear prior
to tree death.

Cultural Controls: Maintain vigor on affected
trees. All trunks may not die in the same year. Dead
trees must be totally removed (roots and soil). Avoid
replanting as the fungus survives in root debris.

NECTRIELLA STEM GALL
(Nectriella pironii/Kutilakesa
pironiil

Symptoms: Symptoms appear as woody galls of
different sizes on the leaves, twigs, and trunk. This
fungus has a wide host range on woody plants but
appears to be primarily a wound invader on edible fig.
Galls develop at leaf axils, pruning scars, or sites of
mechanical damage to trunks or limbs. Stem cankers
may occur on some cultivars. Both Nectriella
(perfect) and Kutilakesa (imperfect) states can be
found in diseased tissue, which appears corky and
callused.

Cultural Controls: Avoid excessive wounding of
plants. Do not use galled stock for propagation. Prune
out galled tissue at least 4-6 inches below obvious
symptoms. Remove and discard all pruned plant
material.

Chemical Controls: There are no EPA-approved
fungicides for use on edible figs in Florida.

PINK LIMB BLIGHT (Erythricium
salmonicolor = Corticum
salmonicolor)

Symptoms: This fungus attacks the limbs, twigs,
and trunk of the fig plant and produces a pale,
pink-colored mycelium that often completely
encircles the plant part. The foliage on the affected
branch or limb will wilt and die. Eventually, the limb
or twig also will die.






2006 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Fig (Ficus carica) 3

Cultural Controls: Prune infected tissue at first Chemical Controls: Use insecticides for control
appearance. Prune at least 4-6 inches below of ants and secretors of honeydew.
mycelium-covered twigs. Remove and destroy all
pruned material.

RUST (Cerotelium
fici =Physopella fici)

Symptoms: Symptoms initially appear as small,
yellow to yellow-green spots on leaves. The spots
enlarge and develop a brownish tinge with a reddish
border. Small blisters or pustules are then formed on
the undersides of the leaves. The rust spores are
brownish in color and are produced in these pustules.
Heavy infections will cause leaf yellowing and often
cause defoliation of the plant in early to mid summer.
Young leaves are most susceptible to defoliation.

Cultural Controls: Collect and destroy all fallen
infected leaves before the next growing season to
reduce surviving inoculum. The plant may be pruned
to increase air circulation inside foliage. When
watering, avoid getting leaves wet since this favors
disease infection.

Chemical Controls: There are no EPA-approved
fungicides for use on edible figs in Florida.

SOOTY MOLD (Capnodium spp.,
other genera)

Signs/Symptoms: Sooty mold is the common
name for several species of fungi that grow on the
honeydew secretions of insects deposited on leaves
and other plant parts. Scales, aphids, psyllids, and
other insects that secrete honeydew can be
responsible for sooty mold. Fungal mycelium is
melanized (darkened), giving the appearance of soot
covering the plant part. These fungi are ectoparasitic
(growing on the surface) and will not infect plants.
However, sunlight penetration is reduced and can
result in stunted growth or yield reduction.

Cultural Controls: Cultural practices that will
manage insect populations responsible for honeydew
secretions in plant parts should be implemented. Such
practices may include careful pruning of affected
plant parts, control of ants that protect the insects
responsible for honeydew, and high pressure washing
of tissue with water and, if possible, with soap.




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