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 Table 1






Title: Florida plant disease management guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053871/00028
 Material Information
Title: Florida plant disease management guide
Alternate Title: Ornamentals and turf
Fruit and vegetables
General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Plant Pathology
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: The Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Plant Pathology Dept., University of Florida and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension, University of Florida.
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in three volumes: v. 1, General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques; v. 2, Ornamentals and turf; v. 3, Fruit and vegetables.
General Note: Description based on: 1999-2000.
General Note: "SP-52"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053871
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 44549741
lccn - 00229071
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Preceded by: Florida plant disease control guide

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Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Basic information about some viruses found in Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Table 1
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text





UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA


IFAS EXTENSION


Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and

Vegetable Crops in Florida 1


Tom Kucharek, Dan Purcifull, and Ernest Hiebert2

Viral diseases of plants occur commonly in
Florida. Some viral diseases have impacted on crop
production by reducing yield or quality while other
viral diseases in Florida have not had notable effects
in this regard. However, potential exists for future
epidemics caused by those quiescent or "silent"
viruses. The purpose of this publication is to present
information about viruses that have occurred
naturally in Florida in agronomic and vegetable
crops. It is possible that viral diseases not presented
herein have occurred in Florida. Virus listings (see
Table 1 ) within this publication are based upon
published reports, or communications with other
scientists, and on our unpublished data.

No attempt is made herein to list complete host
ranges of the viral diseases found in Florida. Host
range studies done by artificial inoculation in the
greenhouse have been numerous and useful but such
tests are not necessarily representative of natural
infections or epidemics. For example, tobacco
mosaic virus is infective in hundreds of plant species
but this virus has been of consequence in only a few
crop species in Florida. Also, watermelon mosaic
virus 2 has an extensive host range, but none of the


noncucurbitaceous experimental host species have
been related to the epidemics in squash or
watermelons grown in Florida. On the other hand,
epidemics of papaya ringspot virus Type W
(formerly named watermelon mosaic virus 1) have
been traced to nearby cucurbitaceous weeds such as
balsam apple and creeping cucumber.

The ultimate purpose of attaining a diagnosis, it
seems to us, is to provide a foundation for selection
of possible control tactics. For example, lettuce
mosaic virus is controlled by not planting seed lots
that have been identified to contain lettuce mosaic
virus. However, even with an accurate diagnosis of
some viral diseases, control is not possible because
the diagnosis is too late or control measures are not
available. Again, let us compare the situation
between papaya ringspot virus type W and
watermelon mosaic virus 2. Papaya ringspot virus
type W predominates in south to central Florida
where creeping cucumber and balsam apple flourish
as weeds. Eliminating these two weeds around the
field with the cucurbit crop will aid significantly in
controlling this viral disease. Watermelon mosaic
virus 2, on the other hand, becomes destructive in


1. This document is PP/PPP7, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida. Revised September 1996. Reviewed April 2003. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Tom Kucharek, professor, extension plant pathologist; Dan Purcifull, professor; and Ernest Hiebert, professor; Department of Plant Pathology,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The use of trade names in this
publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named, and does not signify that
they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,
sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry
Arrington, Dean


PP/PPP7







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some years and it can not be controlled because the
primary source of the virus has not been identified.
The reader should realize that although not all viral
diseases are controllable at the present time, some
viral diseases in Florida have been controlled or
eliminated from an area with resistant varieties, seed
indexing, vector control, sanitation practices or other
cultural manipulations.

Basic Information about Some
Viruses Found in Florida

Controls are not available for some viruses but
for other viruses effective controls are available.
Control begins with the proper identification of the
virus. Specific control tactics begin prior to
planting or transplanting for most viruses. Once a
plant is infected, rescue or therapeutic treatments
are not available except for roguing. Use controls
specific for the viruses listed below if controls are
available.

ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS (AMV): This
virus is probably present in most if not all alfalfa
plantings. Symptoms are usually not evident. Studies
vary as to the amount of damage this virus causes in
alfalfa. AMV infects plants in over 50 plant families.
It is primarily transmitted via seed and aphids but it
can be spread via plant sap. Practical controls for this
virus are not available.

BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS
(BYDV) : Prior to 1990, BYDV occurred
occasionally in wheat and oats in Florida. Epidemics
occurred in the panhandle in 1949, 1956, and 1959.
Beginning in 1991, BYDV has occurred in wheat and
oats for five consecutive years. In 1994 a severe
epidemic occurred. Many grass species are
susceptible to BYDV. Spread of BYDV is by aphids.
It has not been transmitted via seed or mechanically
with plant sap. The use of resistant varieties is the
best control. Later planting in the fall and insecticidal
sprays aid in reducing this disease.

BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS (BCMV
): This virus has been detected in breeding pedigrees
of bean in Florida but not in commercial plantings, at
least in the past 20-25 years or so. BCMV is
transmitted primarily by seed and aphids.
Transmission via plant sap can also occur. The host


range for BCMV is primarily in legumes and
different studies vary as to the susceptibility of
various legume species. Like many viruses, strains of
BCMV exist and varieties differ in regard to
susceptibility and symptom expression. The only
known occurrences of BCMV in Florida were in
beans, soybeans and Siratro. An effective seed
indexing program by seed producers and distributors
has so far offset potential problems from this virus.
BCMV was recently diagnosed in soybean in Santa
Rosa county.

BIDENS MOTTLE VIRUS (BiMoV) : This
virus is spread primarily by aphids but is sap
transmissible. BiMoV has been found in lettuce,
escarole, endive, and lupine in Florida. In addition,
hairy beggarticks ( Bidens pilosa ) and Virginia
pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum) are major
source-weeds for BiMoV. Cressleafgroundsel (
Senecio glabellus ) has been found to carry BiMoV.
BiMoV is widespread in Florida and has been found
in plant species from five plant families. Control of
BiMoV is by eliminating hairy beggarticks and
Virginia pepperweed within or near production fields.

BLACKEYE COWPEA MOSAIC VIRUS
(BICMV) : This virus occurs commonly in Florida
when seed are planted that have not been indexed to
be free of B1CMV. Seed produced in Oklahoma,
Wyoming, Texas and other areas in the western USA
are more likely to be free of this virus compared to
seed produced in the southeastern USA. This virus
has caused total ruination of plantings of Vigna spp.
in Florida. B1CMV is transmitted primarily by seed
and aphids but it is sap transmissible. Although
B1CMV can infect plants in seven plant families, it is
primarily a problem in Florida in southern peas,
cowpeas and other Vigna spp. The only control is to
use seed that has been indexed free of B1CMV.

CELERY MOSAIC VIRUS (CeMV): This
virus was once called western celery mosaic virus. It
is not seed-bore and is limited to plants in the celery
family (Umbelliferae). Mockbishopweed (
Ptilimorium capillaceum ) and wild cherry (Apium
leptophyllum ) are possible sources of CeMV but
celery is a more likely source. Aphids are considered
the main vector for CeMV but leafminers have been
shown to transmit CeMV. Celery plantings should be


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isolated to the extent possible and growers should
observe a celery-free planting period each and every
year.

CORKY RINGSPOT (TOBACCO RATTLE
VIRUS, TRV) : This disease occurs in the northeast
potato growing area in Florida. It is the most
important viral disease in potato in Florida. Other
viruses occur from time to time in potato in Florida,
but they have not been of significant consequence. In
the field, TRV is transmitted by a dozen species of
stubby root nematodes. Little is known about how
these nematodes acquire the virus or how this disease
becomes established in fields. Seed pieces have been
shown to carry the virus but transmission of the virus
from these seed pieces to nematodes has not been
proven. This disease tends to recur in the same areas
of a field from year to year. Spread within or between
fields may occur via soil adhering to equipment but
even this aspect of spread has not been proven.
Spread within a field from an infested area may be
slow or does not occur. Symptoms occur in the tubers
but not the vines. In the field, the best diagnostic
technique is to look for arcs or rings on the surface or
within the tuber. For some varieties (e.g. Atlantic)
the arcs or rings may be diffuse and not clear-cut.
Other symptoms include specks on the tuber surface,
tuber malformation, and tuber cracking. Because this
virus has a wide host range, resistant varieties and the
use of certain soil-applied nematicides (primarily
Temik) are the primary controls. Multiple sprays of
Vydate (insecticide-nematicide) have been somewhat
effective. At this time the varieties Superior and
Pungo are the most resistant. This viral disease has
not been a problem in other crops in Florida.

CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV): Prior
to 1970, CMV was identified fairly often, particularly
in south Florida. Since 1970, CMV became a
problem of lesser importance until 1995 & 1996 when
CMV became severe in tobacco and peppers (hot) in
Alachua County. Interestingly, large patches of
Commelina spp. were present in some fields in
Alachua County. CMV had been associated with
Commelina spp. previously. Commelina spp.
includes day flower and wandering jew. Celery,
cucumber, squash, cantaloupe, tomatoes, and
sometimes pepper had been the crops primarily
infected with CMV. Lilies previously grown in


Highlands County are susceptible to CMV. However,
CMV has a wide host range including 40 or more
plant families. In Florida, plants within 10 plant
families have been identified with CMV. Apparently,
infected propagation stock of gladiolus are brought
into Florida commonly but secondary spread to other
gladiolus or other crops in Florida appears to be low.
CMV is reported to be worldwide in distribution.
Strains of CMV have been reported to be seed-borne
in some species, including cowpea. Within the field,
CMV is transmitted by aphids primarily, but
mechanical transmission with plant sap can occur.
Symptoms are variable including mild mosaic to
severe plant deformation and stunting. This virus has
many strains including the "southern celery mosaic
virus."

DASHEEN MOSAIC VIRUS (DsMV): This
virus is recognized as a problem in the production of
quality ornamental foliage plants in the Araceae
family (Caladium, Aglaonema, Dieffenbachia, etc).
However, malanga and taro are two aroid plants that
are quickly increasing in acreage in southern Florida
because of the growing Hispanic population. Both of
these crops are susceptible and have been infected
with DsMV in Florida. DsMV is transmitted
primarily by aphids and clonal propagation but not by
seed. It is also transmissible by plant sap. For taro
and malanga no controls are available at this time. In
the ornamental foliage plant industry, sanitation,
insect control and tissue culture are used to control
DsMV.

LETTUCE MOSAIC VIRUS (LMV): This
virus caused severe losses to lettuce during the early
1970's. Since the establishment of the mandatory
state seed indexing program for freedom from LMV,
this viral disease has become a very sporadic problem
in Florida. It has occurred in the Belle Glades area in
1995 and 1996. LMV is spread primarily by infected
seed and aphids, but it can be transmitted
mechanically from contaminated sap. Although LMV
has been found in plant species from 10 plant
families, weed sources have not maintained LMV to
the level necessary to initiate epidemics.
Lambsquarters ( Chenopodium album ) has been
found to be naturally infected with LMV in Florida.


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MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS (also see
under SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS): Maize
dwarf mosaic virus strain A is a distinct virus and
infects Johnson grass. Maize dwarf mosaic virus
strain B is a strain of sugarcane mosaic virus and does
not infect Johnson grass. Like other strains of
sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus is
spread by aphids. It has been found in Alachua, Dade
and Levy Counties in corn. Johnson grass has been
naturally infected in Alachua and Levy Counties.
Control includes the use of resistant varieties, if
available, and the elimination of Johnson grass in the
vicinity of corn plantings.

PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS TYPE W
(PRSV-W, WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS 1,
WMV 1) :

Although PRSV-W is sap transmissible, it is
spread primarily by aphids from infected
cucurbitaceous weeds and crops. However,
leafminers also can transmit PRSV-W. This is not a
seed borne virus. Control can be achieved by
eliminating volunteer cucurbit crops and cucurbit
weeds near the crop. Creeping cucumber and balsam
apple are two major weed hosts for PRSV-W. When
planting cucurbits, separate them from other plantings
of cucurbits to the extent possible. Keep this point in
mind when you are planning for successive plantings.
This virus predominates in south and central Florida
but is found in North Florida later in the primary
watermelon season and during the summer and fall.

PEANUT MOTTLE VIRUS (PeMoV):
Although this virus can be detected in many peanut
plantings in Florida, with or without symptoms, its
effects on yield and quality of the crop is unknown. It
has also been detected in soybeans with and without
symptoms. Mosaic symptoms and black specks on
Cassia spp. have been associated with PeMoV in
Florida. Beans are another host. PeMoV is
transmissible via peanut seed and aphids primarily
but it is also sap transmissible. No control measures
are being used.

PEANUT STRIPE VIRUS (PStV): This virus
was detected in breeding pedigrees of peanuts in
Florida in 1983. It has rarely been detected in
commercial plantings up to this point in time in
Florida. It is transmitted via seed and aphids


primarily but it is sap transmissible. It was introduced
into the United States via peanut pedigrees that were
introduced from Asia for use in breeding programs.
The presence of this virus in the United States
exemplifies how easily new, unnecessary problems
become established into different geographical areas.
It is conjecturable as to the amount, if any, of damage
that was caused by this strain of PStV. Certainly, the
mere presence of this virus in breeding stocks had
caused considerable disagreement among researchers
and disruption of various peanut research and
Extension programs. For a few years efforts were
made to release seed from the Florida Foundation
Seed Producers Inc. that were free of this virus via a
seed indexing program. However by the early 1990's,
that program was discontinued.

PEPPER MOTTLE VIRUS (PepMoV): In
Florida, this virus was first described from Palm
Beach County in the early 1970's. It has also been
found in Collier County. It has not been found in
North Florida. At one time it was thought to be a
strain of

potato virus Y. Along with Potato virus Y and
tobacco etch virus, PepMoV caused significant
damage to peppers grown in Palm Beach County.
Pepper is the main host but tomato and Datura
meteloides are also susceptible. The latter host is a
reservoir for PepMoV in Arizona. Although PepMoV
is sap transmissible, aphids are the main vectors for
spread. PepMoV has not been detected in seed. The
primary controls for PepMoV include the use of
resistant varieties (e.g. DelRay Bell), the use of
disease free transplants, and spraying with JMS Stylet
Oil. In some situations, adjusting the planting date to
avoid primary aphid flights has proven worthwhile
but has sometimes interfered with critical market
periods.

POTATO VIRUS X (PVX): It is often assumed
that most seed piece stocks of potato and their
resulting plants are infected with PVX. In Florida,
the extent of contamination of seed pieces and plants
is not known. Symptoms of PVX are not always
expressed. Symptoms of PVX are most likely to be
expressed during cooler temperatures or when the
plant is also infected with other viruses. PVX plus
PVY are reported to cause rugose mosaic symptoms.


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Potato virus X is highly contagious via plant sap
transmission and is transmitted via seed pieces.
Grasshoppers and one soil fungus have transmitted
PVX. Because PVX is easily sap transmitted, many
methods of transmitting this virus can occur during
tuber handling stages. Cutting knives are known to be
one mechanical type of transmission. Potato is the
principal host for PVX but tobacco and tomato are
reported to be susceptible. Yield losses from this
virus have been reported but in Florida such
information is not known. Control is not always
deemed necessary for this virus, but regardless, the
grower should attempt to purchase seed stocks that
are certified free of most if not all viruses.

POTATO VIRUS Y (PVY): This virus is
spread primarily by aphids but mechanical
transmission is possible. Several solanaceous weeds
and crops are commonly infected in Florida. Peppers,
tobacco and tomato are the crops most commonly
infected in Florida. This is not a seed-borne virus but
could be transmitted via clonal propagation in crops
such as potatoes. Roguing weeds such as black
nightshade, groundcherry, and jimsonweed and
destroying old crop debris and volunteers in and near
fields, greenhouses and plant beds will reduce sites
that perpetuate this virus. Use disease free transplants.
Spraying correctly with JMS Stylet Oil will reduce
spread of PVY and certain other aphid transmitted
viruses in peppers and tomatoes. Some pepper
varieties have some resistance to certain strains.
Adjusting planting dates to avoid major aphid flights
has been somewhat worthwhile in some situations but
has interfered with critical market periods.

PSEUDO-CURLY TOP VIRUS (See
TOMATO PSEUDO-CURLY TOP VIRUS)

SOIL-BORNE WHEAT MOSAIC VIRUS
(SBWMV): This has been the most important viral
disease in wheat in Florida since it was first found in
1970 in Escambia County. Later it has been found in
Okaloosa, Madison and Santa Rosa Counties.
Although this virus can be spread by sap transmission
from plant to plant, the most common mechanism of
spread is by movement of soil that contains the fungal
vector, Polymyxa graminis. Mosaic symptoms
appear in leaves from three to four weeks after
planting up through April in Florida. Triticale, rye and


barley are susceptible, but only wheat has been
infected in commercial situations in Florida. The best
control is the use of resistant varieties. Soil clinging
to farm equipment should be removed prior to
moving the equipment from infested to noninfested
fields. In Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, this
viral disease is so widespread, the cleaning technique
may no longer be useful for this virus. Later planting
dates with adaptable varieties reduce symptom
expression to some extent but yields will still be
reduced by this disease. All factors that contribute to
stress of the crop should be reduced to the extent
possible when susceptible varieties are planted.

SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS (SbMV): This
virus occurs in soybeans in Florida but it is not a
widespread problem. However, SbMV has caused
significant plant and yield losses elsewhere. When
plants are infected with SbMV and certain other
viruses (eg peanut mottle), strong symptoms of
rugosity, mosaic and stunting occur; this has been
seen on occasion in Florida. SbMV is transmitted
primarily by seed and aphids but it is sap
transmissible. Although many legume species are
susceptible to SbMV by artificial inoculations,
soybeans are the only field-grown crop of concern at
the present time. No controls are available for SbMV
in Florida.

SQUASH MOSAIC VIRUS (SMV): This
virus is uncommon in Florida. The occurrence of
SMV in commercial cucurbits in Florida has been
documented only in cantaloupe. It is common for
growers to refer to any mosaic symptoms in squash to
be "squash mosaic". Watermelon mosaic virus 2,
Papaya ringspot virus type W, and Zucchini yellow
mosaic virus are the most commonly occurring
viruses in squash or other cucurbits in Florida. The
distinction of these viruses is important because SMV
is seedborne. Also, SMV is transmitted via certain
beetles and grasshoppers whereas watermelon mosaic
virus 2, Papaya ringpot virus type W and Zucchini
yellow mosaic virus are transmitted primarily by
aphids. SMV infects plants in the cucurbit (gourd)
family. Control for SMV at this time is not warranted
in Florida.

SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS (SCMV):
SCMV occurs in Florida in sugarcane but has not


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caused significant damage. Varieties (clones) are
inoculated with various strains of SCMV prior to
release to determine what degree of resistance is
available. It is a major part of varietal development so
that SCMV does not become a severe problem in
Florida as it has in other states. SCMV is spread
primarily by aphids and infected seed pieces but it is
sap transmissible. The host range of this virus is
limited to certain grass crops including corn, St.
Augustine grass and sorghum. Like many viruses,
SCMV consists of strains, each with their own
etiological manifestations. Maize dwarf mosaic virus
strain B (see above) is included among SCMV
strains but maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A is a
different virus.

TOBACCO ETCH VIRUS (TEV) : Spread is
primarily by aphids but mechanical transmission is
possible. Several solanaceous weeds and crops are
commonly infected in Florida. Peppers, tobacco, and
tomato are the crops most commonly infected. Black
nightshade and groundcherry are weeds that often are
infected with TEV. This is not a seed-bore virus.
Roguing weeds such as nightshade and jimsonweed
and destroying old crop debris and volunteers in and
near fields, greenhouses, and plant beds will reduce
sites that perpetuate this virus. Use disease free
transplants. Spraying correctly with JMS Stylet Oil
will reduce spread of TEV and certain other aphid
borne viruses in tomato and pepper. Adjusting
planting dates to avoid major aphid flights has been
worthwhile in some situations but has interfered with
critical market periods.

TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS (TMV): TMV
is spread primarily by sap transmission and it is
highly contagious. Because of its highly contagious
nature, down-the-row spread occurs often in tobacco.
Sources include infected transplants, nearby crop
plants or weeds, particularly solanaceous weeds such
as black nightshade, ground cherry, etc. It is typically
not seed-bore but could be transmitted via clonal
propagation. Its host range is extensive in broadleaf
(non grass) plants. Control is primarily by sanitation
such as roguing of infected plants, reduction of
volunteers and suckers by adequate plow down of
previous crops, avoidance of contact with infected
plants, and dipping hands in milk or hydrated
phosphate detergent before handling plants. When


purchasing tomato varieties, determine from
company sources what varieties have resistance. Such
resistance is to certain strains, not all. TMV is
primarily a problem in tobacco in Florida and some
ornamental crops. Also, some scientists who work
with peppers in the greenhouse in Florida and
elsewhere have noted that a strain of TMV occurs in
pepper stock used in breeding studies. Destruction of
plant beds when transplanting is complete and
destruction of stalks and roots after harvest is vital.
This virus has a tendency to buildup over the years on
farms if stalk and root destruction after harvests is
inadequate.

TOMATO MOSAIC VIRUS (ToMV): Some
have considered ToMV to be a strain of tobacco
mosaic virus, but these two viruses are distinct even
though they are related. Information about tobacco
mosaic virus is applicable to tomato mosaic virus.
ToMV is occasionally a problem in tomatoes.

TOMATO MOTTLE VIRUS (TMoV) : This
virus was first found in southwest Florida in 1989. It
is one of the many geminiviruses that exist. Tomato
pseudo-curly top virus, bean golden mosaic virus, and
cabbage leaf curl, listed herein, are geminiviruses.
Tomato mottle virus, like many of the geminiviruses,
is spread by whiteflies. Tomato mottle virus is
closely related to sida golden mosaic virus. Tropical
soda apple has been naturally infected with TMoV in
Florida. Along with damage from whitefly feeding,
TMoV has caused severe damage to yields and fruit
quality in tomatoes, particularly in southern Florida.

TOMATO PSEUDO-CURLY TOP VIRUS
(TPCTV): This virus has occurred usually at low
levels in tomatoes for many years, possibly since the
mid 1940's. However, the incidence has been as high
as 50% in one field. It is spread by treehoppers.
Because the symptoms include highly deformed
plants, it raises instant concern by growers. It is most
likely found in South Florida production fields during
the fall crop. Roguing is the main control. Black
nightshade has been infected frequently with TPCTV
as well as other viruses. Control of this solanaceous
weed is important when producing solanaceous crops
such as tomato, tobacco, and pepper.


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TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS
(TSWV): This virus was found in Florida in
tomatoes and peanuts in 1986. Some believe that
TSWV was present in Florida earlier in gladiolus
imported from other states. Since 1986, TSWV has
spread from the panhandle of Florida to the southern
tip of the peninsula. Also, it has been found in
Florida in tomato, tobacco, pepper, watermelon,
impatiens, gloxinia, and other ornamentals.
Suspected occurrences in Florida include african
violet, dieffenbachia, coffee senna, and Mexican tea.
Spread of TSWV is primarily by thrips and recently,
populations of thrips have increased tremendously in
Florida. Mechanical spread from plant sap is
possible. This virus has an enormous host range (34
plant families). Control of TSWV is not easy.
Insecticidal sprays for thrips may offer some control.
However, insecticidal sprays have increased the
incidence of TSWV in peanuts. Roguing has been
done but the benefits of such are not known although
it seems reasonable that roguing would reduce
secondary spread from within the field. Ornamental
greenhouse production sites that contain TSWV are
sometimes identified as being sources of TSWV for
field-grown crops. Establishing high density stands
of peanuts reduces incidence of TSWV. Some
varieties of peanut have moderate resistance to
TSWV. In Florida, earlier planted peanuts tend to
have higher incidences of TSWV compared to those
planted later.

TOMATO YELLOWS VIRUS (ToYV): This
virus was first found in Florida in 1978. It is spread
by aphids and apparently is not mechanically
transmissible. ToYV has occurred erratically since
1978. Use of JMS Stylet Oil sprays has reduced
spread of this viral disease. Insecticidal sprays may
also offer control of this aphid-bome virus but not
most of the aphid-bome viruses in Florida. Although
tomato has been the main host for this virus, potato,
black nightshade, ground cherry (Physalisfloridana
) and jimsonweed ( Datura stramonium ) have been
infected with ToYV.

TURNIP MOSAIC VIRUS (TuMV): This
virus has not been of much consequence in Florida
but does exist commonly on cruciferous weeds in
some parts if the state. TuMV is transmitted primarily
by aphids but it is sap transmissible. It is not known


to be seed transmitted. TuMV infects plants in over
20 plant families. Controls for TuMV are not
available.

WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS 1: (See
PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS TYPE W)

WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS 2 (WMV
2): This has become the most widespread virus in
squash and watermelons in central and north Florida.
Although WMV 2 is sap transmissible, it is spread
primarily by aphids. Leaf miners have been shown to
transmit this virus. WMV 2 has a wide host range
including legumes but the sources) plants for this
virus in the field have not been determined. WMV 2
has not been demonstrated to be seed-borne.
Recently, varieties of squash with resistance to WMV
2 have become available. Fall plantings or late spring
plantings are more likely to incur more damage than
early spring plantings. However, entire early spring
plantings have incurred serious damage from WMV
2.

ZUCCHINI YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
(ZYMV) : This virus was found in Florida in 1981.
By 1983 ZYMV became severe in some cucurbit
fields from Dade to Hamilton Counties, but since
then, the incidence of ZYMV has been sporadic.
Although ZYMV can produce symptoms similar to
PRSV-W or WMV 2, it has a tendency to produce
severe leaf and fruit distortions. ZYMV is spread
primarily by aphids but it is mechanically transmitted
by plant sap. Conflicting reports exist about the seed
transmissibility of ZYMV in squash. Recently,
varieties of squash with resistance to ZYMV have
become available.


Viruses That Have Occurred Naturallv in Aaronornic and


Vegetable CroosS in Florida







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 8


Table 1.


Table 1. Naturally Occurring Viruses Found in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida.

Agronomic/ Vegetable Crop Naturally occurring virus

AIZOACEAE (CARPET-WEED FAMILY)

New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia expansa) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

AMARYLLIDACEAE (AMARYLLIS FAMILY)

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) None

Garlic (Allium sativum) Unknown virus(s)

Leeks (Allium porrum) None

Onion (Allium cepa) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Shallots (Allium ascalonicum) None

ARACEAE (ARUM FAMILY-AROIDS)

Malanga (Xanthosoma caracu) Dasheen mosaic virus

Taro or Dasheen (Colocasia esculenta) Dasheen mosaic virus

ARALIACEAE ARALIAA OR GINSENG FAMILY)

Ginseng (Panax spp.) None

BORAGINACEAE (BORAGE FAMILY)

Borage (Borago officinalis) None

Comfrey (Symphytium spp.) None

BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE, MUSTARD OR CABBAGE FAMILY)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) None

Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) None



Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) Cabbage leaf curl virus

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) None

Chinese cabbage types None

Collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) Turnip mosaic virus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 9


Table 1.


Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) None

Kohlrabi (Brassica caulorapa) None

Mustard greens (Brassicajuncea) Turnip mosaic virus

Radish (Raphanus sativus) None

Rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica) None

Turnip (Brassica rapa) Turnip mosaic virus

Water cress (Nasturtium officinale) None

CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOTT FAMILY)

Beets (Beta vulgaris) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time

Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

COMPOSITAE (SUNFLOWER OR DAISY FAMILY)

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) None

Endive (Cichorium endivia) Bidens mottle virus

Lettuce mosaic virus

Escarole necrosis (Tobacco streak virus)

Escarole (Cichorium endivia) Bidens mottle virus

Lettuce mosaic virus

Escarole necrosis (Tobacco streak virus)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Bidens mottle virus

Big vein virus

Cucumber mosaic virus (only on Cos types)

Lettuce mosaic virus

Sonchus yellow net virus

Spring yellows virus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 10


Table 1.


Escarole necrosis (Tobacco streak virus)

Salsify (Trapopogon porrifolius) None

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) None

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) None

CONVOLVULACEAE (MORNING-GLORY FAMILY)

Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Sweet potato feathery mottle virus

Sweet potato internal Cork virus

CRUCIFERAE (See BRASSICACEAE)

Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) Cucumber mosaic virus

Squash mosaic virus

Papaya ringspot virus type W

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Cucumber mosaic virus

Papaya ringspot virus type W

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Squash & Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) Cucumber mosaic virus

Papaya ringspot virus type W

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Ivy Gourd (Coccinea grandis) Papaya ringspot virus type W

Unnamed potexvirus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 11


Table 1.


Trichosanthes (Trichosanthes dioica) Unnamed potexvirus

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Papaya ringspot virus type W

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Unnamed Potyvirus

EUPHORBIACEAE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) None

Chaya (Cnidoscolus acontifolius) Cassava common mosaic

FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE, PEA OR PULSE FAMILY)

Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis) Blackeye cowpea mosaic or related virus

Peanut mottle virus

Peanut stripe virus

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Alfalfa mosaic virus

Beans, green (Phaseolus vulgaris) Bean common mosaic virus

Bean golden mosaic virus

Bean yellow mosaic virus

Red Node (tobacco streak virus)

Beans, lima (Phaseolus lunatus) Cucumber mosaic virus

Beans, butter (Phaseolus lunatus) None

Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus Watermelon

mosaic virus 2

Lupine (Lupinus spp.) Bean yellow mosaic virus

Bidens mottle virus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 12


Table 1.


Cucumber mosaic virus

Peanut mottle (blue lupine)

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Macroptilium (Macroptilium lathyroides) Bean golden mosaic virus

Peas, English (Pisum sativum) Watermelon mosaic virus 2

Peas, southern (Vigna unguiculata) Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus

Cucumber mosaic virus

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Peanut mottle virus

Peanut stripe virus

Peanut stunt virus

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Red clover (Trifolium pratense) White clover mosaic virus

Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)

Also, See Macroptilium above. Bean common mosaic virus (or a related strain)

Soybean (Glycine max) Peanut mottle virus

Peanut stripe virus

Soybean mosaic virus

Bean common mosaic virus

Sweet clovers (Meliotus alba & M. indica) Bean yellow mosaic virus

White clover (Trifolium repens) Clover yellow vein virus

Peanut stunt virus

White clover mosaic virus

GRAMINEAE (GRASS FAMILY, See POACEAE)

LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY)

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) None







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 13


Table 1.


Catnip (Nepeta cateria) None

Horehound (Marrubium vulgar) None

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) None

Majoram (Origanum spp.) None

Mints (Mentha spp.) None

Oregano (Origanum vulgare) None

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) None

Sage (Salvia officinalis) None

Savory (Satureja spp.) None

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) None

LEGUMINOSAE (See FABACEAE)

LILIACEAE (LILY FAMILY)

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) None

MALVACEAE (MALLOW OR HIBISCUS FAMILY)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) None

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) None

PEDALIACEAE (PEDALIUM FAMILY)

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Unknown virus

POACEAE

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) None

Corn (Zea mays) Corn stunt (spiroplasma)

Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Maize mosaic virus

Maize rayado fino virus

Maize stripe virus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 14


Table 1.


Sugarcane mosaic virus

(Maize dwarf mosaic virus)

Oats (Avena sativa) Barley yellow dwarf virus (Red leaf)

Oat mosaic virus

(Oat soilborne mosaic virus)

Rice (Oryza sativa) Hoja Blanca

Rye (Secale cereale) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Sugarcane mosaic virus

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) None

Various pasture, forage and biomass grasses None

Triticale (X Triticosecale) Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Barley yellow dwarf virus

Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus

POLYGONACEAE (BUCKWHEAT OR KNOTWEED FAMILY)

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) None

SOLANACEAE (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Husk tomato (Physalis pruinosa None

Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Black pod (Tobacco mosaic virus + tobacco etch virus)

Cucumber mosaic virus

Potato virus

Pepper mottle virus

Tobacco etch virus

Tobacco mosaic virus

Tobacco rattle virus (Aster ringspot)







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 15


Table 1.


Tomato spotted wilt virus

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Potato virus X

Potato virus Y

Potato leaf roll virus (net necrosis, tuber blotch)

Rugose mosaic virus (Potato virus X and potato virus Y or Potato
virus Y alone)

Yellow dwarf virus

Tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens or C. annuum) None



Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Cucumber mosaic virus

Potato virus X

Potato virus Y

Tobacco etch virus

Tobacco mosaic virus

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) Tomato mottle virus

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cucumber mosaic virus

Potato virus Y

Pseudo curly top virus

Tobacco etch virus

Tobacco mosaic virus

Tomato double virus streak, (tobacco mosaic virus + potato virus X)



Tomato fruit mottle, (tobacco mosaic virus + potato virus Y)

Tomato mosaic virus

Tomato mottle virus

Tomato spotted wilt virus







Viruses That Have Occurred Naturally in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops in Florida 16


Table 1.


Tomato yellows virus

UMBELLIFERAE (PARSLEY FAMILY)

Anise (Pimpinella anisum) None

Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) Cucumber mosaic virus (one time)

Celeriac (Apium graveoleus var. rapaceum) None

Celery (Apium graveolens var dulce) Celery mosaic virus

Cucumber mosaic virus

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) None

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) None

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) None

Dill (Anethum graveolens) None

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) None

Lovage (Levisticum officinale) None

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Celery mosaic virus?

Cucumber mosaic virus

Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) None

ZINGIBERACEAE (GINGER FAMILY)

Cardamom (Elettaria spp.) None

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) None




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