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 SPDN: regional network for crop...
 Disease categories
 Crop biosecurity
 County extension faculty and first...
 Contacts in the souther region...
 List of important new and emerging...






Title: Florida plant disease management guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053871/00003
 Material Information
Title: Florida plant disease management guide
Alternate Title: Ornamentals and turf
Fruit and vegetables
General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Plant Pathology
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: The Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Plant Pathology Dept., University of Florida and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension, University of Florida.
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in three volumes: v. 1, General plant pathology, field crops and pasture grasses, fungicides, adjuvants and application techniques; v. 2, Ornamentals and turf; v. 3, Fruit and vegetables.
General Note: Description based on: 1999-2000.
General Note: "SP-52"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053871
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 44549741
lccn - 00229071
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida plant disease control guide

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Table of Contents
    SPDN: regional network for crop biosecurity
        Page 1
    Disease categories
        Page 2
    Crop biosecurity
        Page 2
    County extension faculty and first detectors
        Page 3
    Contacts in the souther region and U.S. for university plant diagnostic clinics
        Page 4
    List of important new and emerging diseases in Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text




PP195
U UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
IFAS Extension



New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and

Crop Biosecurity 1


Tim Momol, Carrie Harmon, Jim Marois, Pam Roberts and Bob McGovern 2


Figure 1. Southern Plant Diagnostic Network (SPDN)
"Educate to detect"

SPDN: Regional Network for Crop
Biosecurity

UF/IFAS received a major USDA grant award in
2002-2007 to help protect agriculture as part of the
USDA Homeland Security iniative by quickly
detecting and accurately diagnosing and identifying
new introductions of pathogens, insects, nematodes,
and weeds.

Five land grant universities (Univeristy of
California at Davis, Comell University, University of
Florida, Kansas State University, and Michigan State


University) in the United States have been designated
as the coordinating institutions for their Plant
Diagnostic Regions for the U.S. National Plant
Diagnostic Network. The Southern Plant Diagnostic
Network (SPDN) (http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edu) at the
University of Florida (UF) coordinated by IFAS and
established this network with 11 other southern states
and two U.S. territories (Alabama, Arkansas,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North
Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee,
Texas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia -see Figure 1).
This network's main objective is to improve regional
capabilities for rapid and accurate identification and
diagnoses to safeguard against newly introduced and
re-emerging pests and pathogens, genetically
modified pathogens, pesticide-resistant pathogens,
and natural changes in endemic organisms.

The mission of SPDN as a regional network is to
promote the health and security of plants by
intercepting and preventing plant diseases and pests
that could threaten U.S. agriculture. In response to
national concerns for bioterrorist activities that can
affect our crop and food supply, the Diagnostic


1. This document is Fact Sheet PP195, one of the Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida. Published April 2003. Revised February 2007. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.This publication is
also a series of the Southern Plant Diagnostic Network (SPDN).
2. Tim Momol, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy; Carrie Harmon, assistant in, Plant
Pathology Department; Jim Marois, professor, Plant Pathology Department, North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy; Pam D. Roberts,
assistant professor, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center (SWREC), Immokalee; Bob McGovern, professor, Plant Pathology Department;
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,
sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry
Arrington, Dean






New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 2


Networks are accomplishing their missions by
working with partners throughout the U.S. to (i)
enhance diagnostic capabilities and establish a secure,
regional network for the detection and diagnosis of
plant health problems, and better track the health of
crops and/or the spread of pests, (ii) extend and
support sound public policies, implement rapid and
accurate diagnoses, and (iii) provide leadership and
training.

New plant diseases caused by fungal, bacterial
and viral pathogens have appeared at an alarming rate
in Florida in the last two decades (Harmon, C. L.,
Harmon, P. F., and Momol, M. T. 2006. Florida: A
Sentinel State for New and Emerging Plant
Pathogens. Pytopathology 96:546). Plant
pathologists have described those findings in
scientific journals, and the media has shown great
interest in this issue. Citrus diseases such as canker
and greening in Florida, for example, have been a
highly visible disease problems discussed, sometimes
daily, in the popular media. Legitimate concerns on
citrus canker raised by citrus growers in Florida
received immediate attention by all state and federal
agricultural organizations. The eradication efforts of
FDACS in collaboration with scientists from
UF/IFAS and USDA, have been aimed at limiting and
recovering from serious disease and pest
introductions.

In light of national concerns for crop biosecurity,
new, emerging and threatening plant diseases have
received more attention from all interested parties.
Geographically, the state of Florida is uniquely at risk
for the introduction of new pathogens and pests of
plants and animals, and the climate is highly
conducive to maintaining disease-inducing organisms
year-round. Due to its location, heavy visitor traffic
and climate, Florida has experienced at least 4-5 new
plant diseases per year. UF/IFAS Plant Disease
Clinics and plant pathologists in Florida actively
assist the agricultural industry in Florida and the US
by rapid and accurate detection, diagnosis, and
development of management recommendations for
these new diseases.


Disease Categories

The American Phytopathological Society (APS)
is taking a leadership role in the US to increase
awareness of crop biosecurity issues. In an APSnet
feature article, Damsteegt (1999) described five
pathogen categories. We are suggesting a similar
approach:

1. New Disease. Disease described on a new host
within last five years in a new geographic area.

2. Emerging Disease. Disease incidence has
increased within the last 10-15 years.

3. Re-emerging Disease. Previously known disease
in an area, but gaining importance due to
pesticide resistance, vector shift, changes in
cultivars or culture, or natural changes in
endemic pathogens, and other reasons.

4. Threatening Disease. Disease not reported or
very limited in distribution in a new geographic
area.

5. hii ,, '1p i.,, i/ug Disease. Known for a longer
period in an area but still causing out breaks.

Lists of new and emerging diseases in Florida
(Table 1) and elsewhere have been developed. See
these Web sites :

1. NCSU site:
http://craven.ces.ncsu.edu/files/library/25/
hortnews506.pdf

2. Damsteegt (1999) APS site:
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/NewViruses/
Top.html

3. Madden (2001) APS site:
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/exotic/

Crop Biosecurity

Literature on crop biosecurity and biological
warfare (BW) related to plant pathogens is limited.
An APSnet feature article by Schaad et al. (1999)
summarized the subject and presented references.
Schaad et al. (1999) mentioned the difficulties of
determining precise causes for the emergence of new
diseases, and added "the remote possibility that






New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 2


Networks are accomplishing their missions by
working with partners throughout the U.S. to (i)
enhance diagnostic capabilities and establish a secure,
regional network for the detection and diagnosis of
plant health problems, and better track the health of
crops and/or the spread of pests, (ii) extend and
support sound public policies, implement rapid and
accurate diagnoses, and (iii) provide leadership and
training.

New plant diseases caused by fungal, bacterial
and viral pathogens have appeared at an alarming rate
in Florida in the last two decades (Harmon, C. L.,
Harmon, P. F., and Momol, M. T. 2006. Florida: A
Sentinel State for New and Emerging Plant
Pathogens. Pytopathology 96:546). Plant
pathologists have described those findings in
scientific journals, and the media has shown great
interest in this issue. Citrus diseases such as canker
and greening in Florida, for example, have been a
highly visible disease problems discussed, sometimes
daily, in the popular media. Legitimate concerns on
citrus canker raised by citrus growers in Florida
received immediate attention by all state and federal
agricultural organizations. The eradication efforts of
FDACS in collaboration with scientists from
UF/IFAS and USDA, have been aimed at limiting and
recovering from serious disease and pest
introductions.

In light of national concerns for crop biosecurity,
new, emerging and threatening plant diseases have
received more attention from all interested parties.
Geographically, the state of Florida is uniquely at risk
for the introduction of new pathogens and pests of
plants and animals, and the climate is highly
conducive to maintaining disease-inducing organisms
year-round. Due to its location, heavy visitor traffic
and climate, Florida has experienced at least 4-5 new
plant diseases per year. UF/IFAS Plant Disease
Clinics and plant pathologists in Florida actively
assist the agricultural industry in Florida and the US
by rapid and accurate detection, diagnosis, and
development of management recommendations for
these new diseases.


Disease Categories

The American Phytopathological Society (APS)
is taking a leadership role in the US to increase
awareness of crop biosecurity issues. In an APSnet
feature article, Damsteegt (1999) described five
pathogen categories. We are suggesting a similar
approach:

1. New Disease. Disease described on a new host
within last five years in a new geographic area.

2. Emerging Disease. Disease incidence has
increased within the last 10-15 years.

3. Re-emerging Disease. Previously known disease
in an area, but gaining importance due to
pesticide resistance, vector shift, changes in
cultivars or culture, or natural changes in
endemic pathogens, and other reasons.

4. Threatening Disease. Disease not reported or
very limited in distribution in a new geographic
area.

5. hii ,, '1p i.,, i/ug Disease. Known for a longer
period in an area but still causing out breaks.

Lists of new and emerging diseases in Florida
(Table 1) and elsewhere have been developed. See
these Web sites :

1. NCSU site:
http://craven.ces.ncsu.edu/files/library/25/
hortnews506.pdf

2. Damsteegt (1999) APS site:
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/NewViruses/
Top.html

3. Madden (2001) APS site:
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/exotic/

Crop Biosecurity

Literature on crop biosecurity and biological
warfare (BW) related to plant pathogens is limited.
An APSnet feature article by Schaad et al. (1999)
summarized the subject and presented references.
Schaad et al. (1999) mentioned the difficulties of
determining precise causes for the emergence of new
diseases, and added "the remote possibility that






New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 3


some new diseases could have occurred as a result of
deliberate introduction."

For further information please visit these web
pages:
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/NewViruses/
Top.html
http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/BioSecurity/
Top.html

Plant pathologists and personnel in plant disease
clinics, county extension offices and private sector
are the first line of defense against new diseases. In
the state of Florida the four official plant disease
clinics, many plant pathologists at several RECs, and
67 county extension offices are networked against a
potential threat from introduced plant pathogens.
FPDN (http://fpdn.ifas.ufl.edu/index.htm),
UF/IFAS's Web-based Distance Diagnostic and
Identification System (DDIS http://ddis.ifas.ufl.edu
) and PDIS (http://www.pdis.org/) are playing an
important role in the accomplishment of this goal.
Improvement in the infrastructure of plant disease
clinics and the DDIS capabilities of county extension
offices is essential for defense against new diseases.

Scientists at UF/IFAS, USDA, and FDACS are
providing research support for discoveries, rapid
detection, and identification of plant pathogens. For a
more secure future of Florida's crop and food supply,
research in epidemiology, molecular biology, and in
all disciplines of plant pathology needs further
enhancement. Whether BW-related or not, this
investment is still needed to maintain the
competitiveness of Florida's agricultural sector.
Specific areas that need further research are the
following:

molecular detection methods, PCR, realtime
PCR

epidemiology and management of new and
exotic plant diseases

molecular fingerprinting techniques

development of disease resistant genotypes
through classical breeding and genetic
engineering


enhanced distance diagnostics, machine vision,
and electronic nose technologies

County Extension Faculty (First
Detector Educators) and First
Detectors backbone of the FPDN

If you encounter an unfamiliar disease symptom
on any plant, immediately send samples to the closest
plant disease clinic or plant pathologist. You may
also take digital images of the symptoms and send
them to multiple plant pathology specialists through
DDIS. Diagnostic fees may not be charged for
samples associated with crop biosecurity and new
diseases in Florida. Prepare newsletter and media
articles on the subject of crop biosecurity to increase
awareness among your clientele and Florida citizens.
For further information, or in an emergency situation,
contact one of the plant disease clinics and offices
listed below.

Gainesville: Florida Extension Plant Disease
Clinic. P.O. Box 110830, U.F., Bldg. 78, Mowry Rd.,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0830.
Note: For overnight mail or package delivery service
(UPS, Fedex, etc.) be sure to include the physical
street address: "UF, Bldg. 78, Mowry Rd." Phone:
(352) 392-1795 or Suncom 622-1795, FAX: (352)
392-3438, E-mail: pdc@ufl.edu

Quincy: Florida Extension Plant Diagnostic
Clinic-Quincy. North Florida REC,155 Research
Road, Quincy, FL 32351. Phone: (850)-875-7140 or
Suncom 294-7140, FAX (850) 875-7148, E-mail:
tmomol@ufl.edu

Immokalee: Florida Extension Plant Disease
Clinic-Immokalee. Southwest Florida REC, 2686 SR
29 North, Immokalee, FL 34142, Phone: (239)
658-3432 or Suncom 975-3400, FAX (941)
658-3469, E-mail: pdr@ufl.edu

Homestead: Florida Extension Plant Disease
Clinic-Homestead. Tropical REC, 18905 S.W. 280th
St., Homestead, FL 33031-3314. Phone: (305)
246-6340 or Suncom 478-6340, FAX (305)
246-7003, E-mail: ajp@ufl.edu

Wimauma: Florida Extension Plant Disease
Clinic-Wimauma. Gulf Coast REC, 14625 CR 672,






New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 4


Wimauma, FL 33598. Phone: (813) 634-0000 or
Suncom 514-6890, FAX (813) 634-0001, E-mail:
nperes@ufl.edu

SPDN Director: Bob McGovern, Plant
Pathology, 1453 Fifield Hall, P.O. Box 110680,
Gainesville FL 32611-0680. Phone (352) 392-3631
ext 213 or Suncom 622-3631 ext 213, FAX (352)
392-7348, E-mail: rjm@ufl.edu

Contacts in the Southern Region and
U.S. for University Plant Diagnostic
Clinics

American Phytopathological Society Web site:
http://www.apsnet.org/directories/
univ diagnosticians.asp







New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 5


Table 1. List of important new and emerging diseases in Florida. This is a dynamic list and subject to change in t


Disease Pathoaen Maior Hosts Internet Source
Bacterial Fruit Acidovorax avenae Watermelon http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/pathology/fruit-blotch.html
Blotch subsp. citrulli

Citrus Canker Xanthomonas Citrus spp. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/canker/pdf/cankerflorida.pdf
axonopodis pv. citri

Daylily Rust Puccinia Daylily http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/pathology/daylily-rust.html
hemerocallidis
Tomato Yellow TYLCV (new Tomato Ornamentals http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/NFREC1
leaf curl strains or New http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/pathology/pathcirc/pp366.pdf
(TYLC) Begomoviruses)

Tomato spotted TSWV (new Tomato Peanut http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/takextpub/FactSheets/circ0914.pdf
wilt (TSW) strains) New Tobacco Potato http://thrips.ifas.ufl.edul
Tospoviruses Pepper http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/tospovirus/

Impatiens INSV Ornamentals http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/tospovirus/
necrotic spot
(INS)
Bacterial Wilt Ralstonia Tomato Potato http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/takextpub/FactSheets/circ1207.pdf
solanacearum Tobacco http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP103
especially race 3 Geranium
Ornamentals

Karnal Bunt Tilletia indica Wheat http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ep/kb/

Bacterial streak http:// Onion http://www.plant.uga.edu/faculty/gitaitis.htm
& bulb rot of www.apsnet.org/
onion, sourskin online/common/
of onion, names/onion.asp
slippery skin of
onion, Pantoea
blight of onion,
and Erwinia and
Pseudomonas
soft rots of
onion.

Chrysanthemum Puccinia horiana Chrysanthemum http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edul
White rust Top_Exotic_Pathogensof_Concern_SPDN.pdf

Citrus Citrus variegation Citrus http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr223.htm#Nomenclature
variegation ilarvirus (CVC)
Citrus Liberobacterspp. Citrus http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edul
Greening Top_Exotic_Pathogensof_Concern_SPDN.pdf

Pierce's Xylella fastidiosa Grape, ornamentals, http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/xylella/
Disease and more


Potato Cyst Globodera pallida Potato family, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/content/2006/06/
Nematode including tomato, pcnematode.shtml
eggplant, and some http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/potato/pcn.html
weeds

Plum Pox Plum pox virus Stone fruits http://sharka.cas.psu.edu/
(PPV) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ep/plumpox/index.html







New, Emerging, and Threatening Plant Diseases and Crop Biosecurity 6


Table 1. List of important new and emerging diseases in Florida. This is a dynamic list and subject to change in t




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