Citation
Opportunities for adjustments in farming systems

Material Information

Title:
Opportunities for adjustments in farming systems southern Piedmont area, North Carolina
Series Title:
Technical bulletin North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
Creator:
McPherson, W. W. ( Woodrow Wilson )
Pierce, W. H. ( Walter Howard ), 1902-
Greene, R. E. L. ( Robert Edward Lee ), 1910-
Place of Publication:
Raleigh
Publisher:
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1949
Language:
English
Physical Description:
68 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- North Carolina -- 1945- ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Statistics -- North Carolina ( lcsh )
Genre:
statistics ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
In cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture.
Funding:
Technical bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
W.W. McPherson, W.H. Pierce, and R.E.L. Greene.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Full Text
September, 1949 Technica-Biul'etin No. 87
6.' //
Opportunities for Adjustments In Farming Systems
Southern Piedmont Area, North Carolina
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
in cooperation with the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics
UnitcJ States Department of Agriculture




FOREWORD
An analysis of alternative farming systems in an area must be preceded by a careful study of available resources and the present and expected future economic situation. This involves a detailed inventory of present form resources and the way in which they are being used.
Part I of the report is a detailed description of agricultural conditions found in the areo-the amount of resources available on various sizes and types of forms; the variations in existing farming systems; and the extent to which improved practices are being used.
Part 11 of the report deals with the analytical phases of the study. This section i intended to answer some of the questions regarding adjustments. The relative profitableness of enterprises found in the area has been determined and alternative enterprise combinations presented. The effect of adopting improved practices along with adjustments in enterprise combinations is illustrated by complete budget analyses.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This report is the result of a study which was conducted under the joint direction of G. W. Forster, Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, North Carolina State College, and E. L. Longsford, Agricultural Economist, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture. R. J. Saville, Agricultural Economist, formerly with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, acted in on advisory capacity throughout the study.
Invaluable technical materials were contributed by staff members of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Extension Service of North Carolina. Appreciation is expressed to J. F. Reed, R. L. Lovvorn, and E. R. Collins, of the Department of Agronomy. Dr. Reed spent considerable time in connection with the agronomic practices and in reviewing the manuscript. J. A. Arey, dairy specialist, and C. F. Parrish, poultry specialist, contributed materially to the work covering livestock-production practices. D. W. Colvard, Animal Industry Department, and C. B. Ratchford, form management specialist, reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable suggestions. R. L. Anderson, Department of Experimental Statistics, served as consultant in regard to the sampling procedure and statistical techniques of analysis.
Forms used as a basis of this study were mapped and soil samples gathered by H. M. Smith, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, USDA, and W. D. Lee, Soils Specialist, North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service. Soil samples were analyzed by the Soils Testing Laboratory, North Carolina Deportment of Agriculture. Local personnel of the Extension Service and of the Soil Conservation Service, cooperated in doing field work.
Appreciation is expressed to the farmers who contributed their time, and knowledge, and the records of their form businesses.




CONTENTS Page TABLES
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ ................ I ................................ 5 Table Title Page
Purpose of Study ...................................................................................................................... 5
Method and Procedure .......................................................................................................... 5 1 Location and size of sample, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ................ 7
Sampling Procedure ............................................................................................................ 5 2 Number of farmers, tenure, and color, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 .... 13
Source and type of data collected .................................................................................. 7
Method of analysis ............................................................................................................. 8 3 Ages of farmers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ...................................... 14
4 Form resources and value of products sold, Southern Piedmont, North
Part 1. Resources and Present Farm ing System s Carolina, 1945 ...................................................................................................... 16
5 Production and yield, by 5-year periods, six principal crops, Southern Piedmont,
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA .................................................................................................... 8 North Carolina, 1926-1945 .................................................................................. 18
Physical Features ................................................................................................................... 8
Topography and soils ......................................................................................................... 8 6 Proportion of operators' dwellings equipped with specified facilities, by size
Climate and weather ......................................................................................................... 10 of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ...................... 23
Social and Economic Conditions .................................................... ....................................... 12 7 Populatio and labor supply by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont,
Population ........................................................................................................................... 12 North Carolina, 1945 .......................................................................................... 24
Resources ............................................................................................................................. 13
Trends ................................................................................................................................. 14 8 Tenure of form operators by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont,
FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND INCOMES IN 1945 ....... North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 24
.......................................................... 22
Acreage of Land ........................ ........................................................................................... 22 9 Age of form operators, by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont
Power and Equipment ............... ........................................................................................... 22 North Carolina, 1945 .............................................................................................. 25
Buildings ................................................................................................................................. 23 1 10 Education of form operators by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont,
Population and Labor Supply ................................................................................................. 23
North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 25
Tenure, Age, and Education of Form Operators ................................................................. 24
Tenure .................................................................................................................................. 24 11 Land use by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 26
Age of operator ................................................................................................................. 24 1 2 Crops grown by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North
Education ....................................................................... I
...................................................... 25 Carolina, 1945 ...................................................................................................... 27
Enterprise Combinations and Income ...................................................................................... 26
General land use ............................................................................................................... 26 13 Acreage used for cotton by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont,
Crops grown ........................................................................................................................ 26 North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 28
Productive livestock ............................................................................................................ 26
14 Productive livestock and form operator's income by size of form, 217 forms,
I ncome ................................................................................................................................. 28 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ........................................................ 23
PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS AND RATES OF PRODUCTION FOR CROPS AND LIVESTOCK W ITH PRESENT AND IMPROVED PRACTICES .................................................. 29 15 Variation in number of hens by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern P;edmont,
Crops ........................................................................... North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................. 29
............................................................ 2 9
Seed and fertilizer ............................................................................................................. 30 16 Present and improved annual rates of fertilization and seeding, principal crops,
Yields ................................................................................................................................... 30 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ....... .......................................................... 30
Labor and power requirements ......................................................................................... 31
Livestock .................................................................................................................................. 31 17 Average yield per acre, principal crops, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont,
Feed, land, and labor ......................................................................................................... 31 North Carolina ...................................................................................................... 30
Rates of production ............................................................................................................ 33 18 Man labor used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and on forms without
tractors, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 31
19 Power used per acre, principal cropson forms with and without tractors,
Part IL Development of Alternative Farming Systems
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................. 32
SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF FARM ENTERPRISES .................................................... 33 20 Feed, power, and labor requirements, principal livestock enterprises,
Relative Costs and Returns, Principal Enterprises with Present and Improved Practices 35 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................. 32
Crops .... -* ....... 35 21 Rates of production, principal livestock enterprises, with 1945 practices and
Livestock .............................................................................................................................. 37 improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................. 33
PRESENT AND ALTERNATIVE FARM ING SYSTEMS .............................................................. 39 22 Prices received by farmers, principal products sold, Southern Piedmont,
Small Forms ............................................................................................................................ 40 North Carolina, 1945 and average 1935-39 ...................................................... 36
Present and alternative systems of the representative farm .......................................... 40
23 Specified annual direct cash costs per acre, principal crops, with 1945
Variations in land capability ............................................................................................ 45 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmon, North Carolina ............ 36
Medium-Size Forms ................................................................................................................ 45
Present and alternative systems of the representative form ........................................ 45 24 Value of production and specified direct costs per acre, principal crops, with
Variations in land capability ............................................................................................ 50 1945 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .... 37
Large Forms ..................................... ...................................................................................... 50 25 Specified annual direct costs, principal classes of livestock, with 1945
FARM SIZE, PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY, AND INCOMES
..................................................... 56 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ............ 38
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................... 60 1
APPENDIX ........................................................................ 26 Value of production and specified direct costs, principal livestock enterprises,
....................... ................................... 63 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 38
LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................
.................................................. 68 27 Most intensive crop rotations adopted to specified soil conditions, Southern
Piedmont, North Carolina ...................................................................................... 41
28 Organizations of representative small form, 1945 and reorganized system,
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 42




Table Title Page
29 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative small farm, Southern
Piedmont, North Carolina ...................................................................................... 43 O A d ju s tm e n ts
30 Summary of income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative small
form, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........ 45
31 Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, small forms above n
and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...... 46 9
32 Organization of representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized
system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 47 Southern Piedmont Area, North Carolina
33 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative medium-size farm,
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 48 T. V. McPherson, V. H. Pierce, and It. E. L. Greene'
34 Summary of income and expenses based on two price levels, representative
indium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont,
North Carolina ...................................................................................................... 50 IN TR O D U C TIO N
35 Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, medium-size farms As shown in this study, the are reflected in recent trends in
above and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Southern Piedmont is one of the production and in employment of
Carolina .................................................................................................................. 51 m major cotton producing areas o resources. The potential influence
36 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative large farm, North Carolina (Figure 1). The of all these factors needs careful
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................................................................... 52 area of study includes all of type- study so that farmers may direct
37 Organization of representative large farm, 1945 and alternative systems, of-farming area 5B and a portion their resources into more profitSouthern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 53 of area 72 Cotton has long domi- able lines of production.
38 Income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative large farm, nated the farm economy of the
1945 and alternative systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................ 54 area, which in 1945 contained 36 Purpose of Study
per cent of the State's total cotton The purpose of the study was to
Z Proportion of labor living on farms utilized in productive work, representative acreage. The intensity of cotton provide information needed by
farms, 1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...... 57 production varies throughout the farmers and by public agencies
40 Returns per unit of labor on representative farms, 1945 and reorganized area with the greatest concentra- working with farmers, in making
systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 57 tion occurring in the southern tier profitable adjustments in farming.
41 Investment per acre of cropland on representative farms, 1945 and reorganized of counties. More specifically the objective was
systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 58 Important economic and techno- to analyze alternative systems of
42 Relation of land and investment to labor on forms, representative farms, logical changes, which influence ad- farming in view of current eco1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmant, North Carolina ................ 58 jistments in farming systems, have nomic and technological conditions.
occurred during recent years. Of This objective includes (1) an
43 Summary of incomes at 1945 prices, representative farms, 1945 and reorganized particular importance are the op- analysis of the relative efficiency
systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 59 portunities for off-farm or urban of different combinations of re44 Summary of incomes at 1935-39 average prices, representative farms, 1945 employment, changes in relative sources and scales of operation,
and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...................... 60 prices of farm products, and the in both short-run and long-run sitwork of public programs affecting uations, and (2) the presentation
APPENDIX agriculture, of specific alternative farming sysI Production and sale of farm products, representative small farm, 1945 and The technical changes include teams based on individual farms.
the development of hybrid corn
reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ............................... 63 adapted to this area, improvements Method and Procedure
II Farm expenses, representative small farm, 1945 and reorganized system, in pasture and other forage pro- An analysis of the structure of
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 63 auction, and development of mocha- the farm economy is necessary for
III Production and sale of farm products, representative medium-size farm, 1945 nized equipment better adapted to determining opportunities for profand reorganized system, Southern Piedmont North Carolina ............................ 64 the farm economy of the Piedmont. table adjustments. Some useful
IV Form expenses, representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized Effects of some of these factors data were available. But for an
system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 64 V. V. McPherson. Agricultural Econo- accurate description of the assets
mist, Bureau of Agricultural Eeon,,mics. and operations of individual farms V Production and sale of farm products, representative large farm, 1945 and WIt. 'iere. o A agricultural toFriutcua nnreorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................................ 65 omnist, and R. E. L. Greene, formerly further information was needed.
Associate Agricultural Economist, Depart- Sampling Procedure: In view of Vl Farm products used by operator's family, representative large farm, 1945 and sment of Agricultural Economics, North
reorganized system, Southern Piednont, North Carolina ................................ 65 Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. the objective of the study and of
V "The are:a covered in this study comprises
VII Farm expenses, representative large farm, 1945 and reorganized cotton-livestock the nrthcrn section of the cotton-prlue. 5 "Farming system," a term used throughin area of the southeastern Piedmont sub- out this report means the combination of systems, Sou.hern Fiedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 66 region that stretches from the central Part resources and technical practices and enof North Carolina southward through terprise combinations that are integrated
VIII Farm organizations in 1945 compared with alternatives, representative farms, South Carolina, Georgia, and into Alabama. to form the farm business.
Southern Piedmont, North Carolins .......................................................... 67
(5)




the time and funds available, "pur- the initial survey. For this analyposive sampling" was considered sis the 220 farms were stratified
the most effective method. This by soil-association groups, then
method employs selective sampling classified into groups of major
within specified strata. sizes and types, based on predomiThe major soil types were nant systems of farming. This
grouped into associations based on classification resulted in 22 major soils that occur in close geograph- groups. Purposive sampling was
o ic patterns. Neighborhood bound- again used for the selection of one
. aries were super-imposed on soil- farm from each group for special
r. association maps of the area. study.
U Neighborhoods in which little or Source and Type of Data Col. no cotton was grown in 1945 and lected: The basic data for the 220
those in which relatively large farms were obtained by the surZ areas of the minor soil groups oc- vey method for the 1945 cropIZ ".5 curred were eliminated. This re- year.' The record of each farm
duced the area to be sampled to included an inventory of resources;
the cotton-producing neighborhoods acreages of crops; actual and nor- located within six major soil as- mal yields;' production and disposociations. sition of crops; number, produc,Complete neighborhoods were se- tion, and disposal of livestock and
o 0 elected as sampling units. The num- livestock products; and crop and
- ) 0 ber of units allocated to each soil livestock practices. The 22 farms
"4 ) association was approximately pro- selected as representative of the
L. .4 portionate to the total acreage of major groups were studied in con.s 0 4 c the respective group. The entire
)1 4 .C sample included 11 neighborhoods To supplement data collected in this
(study, materials were available from two Sos e oa drfarm-management studies previously con" (Table 1). Farm management ree- urmn et daiareomeo
Sords were obtained from 220 farm- ducted in parts of the area by the North
.0 8 1 c ers and used to ascertain the more Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
P 0 0 in cooperation with the Bureau of AgriculScommon systems of farming and tural Economics. Secondary sources of
dn 0 modal levels of farm resources. data include reports of the U. S. Census,
.c 0 o o a m oo Federal-State Crop Reporting Service,
S O evaluate the influence on-net Weather Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Commerce,
1 o a .10 3 c returns of changes in agronomic and county soil surveys prepared by the
Practices and soil management, it Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agri_x -so: -, 0 t Wpractices adsimnge ntit cultural Engineering, U. S. Department of
M 0 o 0 was necessary to analyze the quali- Agriculture.
: 0 0 U 4 E H Normal Yields, as used in this report,
o 4 I ty of the land resources in more reflect the level of yields under approxiZ 0 H t Z detail than could be obtained from mately average climatic conditions.
S 0 c o a Table 1.-Location and size of sample, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945
.u co a .2 C Neighbor- Total Sample Sub, a 0 0 0 V Soil Association Groups Location hoods of Farms sample
0olI 01 12 0
o H- 00 E- County Number Number Number
1., -.4 P .r 1. Cecil-Yadkin-Lloyd Cleveland 2 41 4
01 .4| -P Iredell 2 40 3
0 se H ( I 4 0 Total (4) (81) (7)
< V r o r H 2. Cecil-Appling-Durham Anson 1 20 2
0 E-T 0 o a Gaston 1 20 2
STotal (2) (40) (4)
H a . 3. Georgeville-Herndon-Aalamancei" I';",ii.. "ia a ..- a.., a 3. Dvdo-ly-ekebr
S. 13 A Orange Union 2 40 3
0 o 1 0 4. Davidson-Lloyd-Mecklenburg
\ .. \. Io oo oo ci
a a 0 > : a .= Catawba 1 21 2
.--* ]" o5. Iredell-Mecklenburg Cabarrus 1 20 3
t8-. ..... L 6. White Store-Creedmoor Anson 1 18 3
Total 7 11 220 22
(6)(7)




siderable detail. Each was mapped conditions frequency distributions
by soil technicians to show soil were used to reveal important vartype, degree of slope and erosion, intions that otherwise might be oband land use capabilities. Soil scured by averages. In arriving at
samples from each farm were col- the more common organizations
lected and analyzed. In addition, and practices and in appraising
records of cropping practices by present farming systems, modal
fields for 1944, 1945, and 1946 were tendencies were given more weight *.
obtained from the farmer, than the arithmetic averages be- .
Method of Analysis: Data were cause of the skewed and multi- *.
analyzed by neighborhoods, by soil- modal distribution. .
association groups, and by size of A budget analysis was used to ..,. .:.'. :.
farm. Sample farms were classi- determine the influence of changes
fled into major groups based on in farming systems on net incomes. .......
production opportunities. Present Generally, the analysis covered two *::.. .
farming systems for each group conditions: (1) changes that would
were evaluated in terms of net be profitable, assuming relatively ." a
farm income, using practices and fixed land and labor and (2) adinput-output rates most common justments that would be profitable, ::.:.
in the area. In describing present assuming all factors variable.
C ~*
PART I. RESOURCES AND
PRESENT FARMING SYSTEMS 1
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Physical Features The soils of the area are pre- ;r P,
Topography and Soils:O There dominately c I a y loams, sandy o0
are considerable differences in the loams, and clays, all having clay or physical features of the area. Ele- clay loam subsoils. Soil types form I / o 0 C t 0 "
vation ranges from 220 feet in the a varied pattern. It is not uncom- 0
southeastern section of Anson mon for small areas or even inCounty to 3978 feet at the summit dividual farms to be composed of
of Sugarloaf Mountain in Ruther- two or three, and often four or O .'
ford County. However, the eleva- more, soil types.
tion is generally between 500 and A map of the soil-association
900 feet. groups is shown in Figure 2.! The .
Fairly level, undulating, and six most important associations
rolling relief characterize 42 per are Cccil-Yadkin-Lloyd, Georgecent of the total area; 36 per cent ville Herndon Alamance-Orange, is strongly rolling to hilly; 17 per Cecil-Appling-Durham,. Davidsoncent is steep; and 5 per cent is very Lloyd-Mecklenburg, Iredell-Meck- J, w r
lenburg, an0ht tr-Ced 0 >'
steep.-' Most of the cultivated land lenburg, and White Store-Creed- '
is found on slopes ranging from 2 mnoor. In addition, many minor
to 10 per cent. Drainage is good groups occur in localized areas and 0 0 "
!iC .- I
except in a few of the first bot- frequently are interspersed within -H )
tomlands that are subject to occa- the major soil associations. sional overflow. The Georgeville Herndon-Ala_________ *.) H 0 0 0
0Qniaiae mance-Orange and Cecil Appling- .,, o ,
Qesuantitative data in this section are Durham associations are moderate- i estimates derived from area soils maps. 0 '
and Soil Conservation Service data. ly susceptible to erosion, the "
SUndulating relief means slopes rising ) ------3 to 7 feet in a hundred: rolling, 7 to 15 For detailed description of each soil, see f-n a 10 s 0 a
feet: hilly, 15 to 25 feet; steep, 25 to 45 County Soil Surveys prepared by the United .n En
feet; and very steep, more than 45 feet States Department of Agriculture, Bureau o ,4 u.
in a hundred. Slopes more than 15 per of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural cent are considered too steep for tilled Engineering, in cooperation with the North crops. Carolina Department of Agriculture.
(8) (9)




others highly susceptible. This, The chances that several con- a. I, onthly precipitation b. Clear days per r.onth 2/
coupled with the rolling topogra- secutive days suited to harvesting P
phy, the frequent downpour of of hay and grain will occur when Inches .ays
rains, and the fact that cotton and needed are of major concern to corn-the principal crops-are in- farmers and to those wh: are intertilled, has led to general sheet vestigating possibilities for adding 9
erosion and considerable gullying new enterprises or changing farm
throughout the area. Parts of fields practices. Normally, the number and, in some cases, entire fields, of clear days that occur in any 6 1945
have been removed from cultiva- one month is highest in October,
tion due to severe erosion. November, and September, respecMoisture penetration of the sub- tively, and lowest in July, June soils is lnoderate with the excep- and August. 2 tion of White Store, Creedmoor, From June N 1
and Orange, where it is slow and week in August, the critical har- J F L, A I. J J A S 0 :4 D J F yA J J A S 0 N4 D
Iredell-Mecklenburg, where it is vesting period for alfalfa, hay and yonth l'onth
very slow. All -retain moisture small grains, the chances of three
well. or more consecutive days of har- c. Days vith 0.01 inch or more of rain d. .ean temperature
On heavy or clay soils, the range vest weather occurring within any
of moisture conditions suitable for one week are two or three out of Days D0~ees
tillage is more limited than for ten. During September, when ansandy soils. The narrowest range nual legume hays are harvested, 45
occurs in the Iredell-Mecklenburg the chances become 40 to 50 per 12
group. These conditions limit suit- cent (Figure 4). During this peable periods of tillage as well as riod, September is the only month opportunities for late fall, winter, in which the probability of seven 40
and early spring grazing of small or more consecutive days cf hargrains. The soil is often too wet vest weather is greater than 20 '3
to allow cattle to range on the per cent. These data indicate that
fields, risks of losing hay due to weather
Crops best adapted generally to damage are much greater during 0 U:
these soils are cotton, corn, small late spring and summer than dur- 1. F 1! A 7.' J A S 0 N D j A I J J A S 0 NJ D
grains, and lespedeza. Sandy loams ing early fall. 1.onth 1on'th
are suitable for sweet potatoes. Probable dates of the last frost Figure 3. Monthly Precipitation and Temperatures, Normal and 1945, Charlotte,
With proper practices, alfalfa and in the spring and the first frost North Carolina.'
clovers are adapted to all of the in the fall are of major importance I Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. Normal is the 1878-1944 average.
soil groups except White Store- in planning farm operations. Al- 2 Number of partly cloudy days is usually high between April and September.
Creedmoor, the m o r e poorly though the average date of the
drained Iredell-Mecklenburg, and last killing frost in the spring is Per cent
the shallower phases of the March 25, frost has occurred as
Georgeville Iferndon Alamance late as April 26. The average (late 3 days days or .ore
or 5ao r
Orange. of the first killing frost in the 40 more days or sore
Climate and Weather: The cli- fall is November 11, but frosts
mate is suited to the production of have occurred as early as October 30
corn, cotton, small grain, lespe- 8 (Figure 5).
deza, hays, lpastures, and] to mantiy The chances are nline in ten that other crops not adapted to the one or more killing frosts will 20
soils. Based on weather data from occur after March 5. Twenty days
the Charlotte Station, normal an- later, March 25, chances of anoth- 10 .
nual rainfall is 46 inches fairly er killing frost are reduced to five
well distributed throughout the in ten or 50 per cent. By April 6,
year (Figure 3). Winter rains us- this figure has fallen to 20 per cent. 51 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1i s 14 1s 16 17
ally are fairly slow and last for In the fall, chances are only two June July Aug. Sept.
several hours or days, whereas in ten that a killing frost will oc- l'.nth and Week
summer rains often occur as thun- cur before October 31, but in eight Figure 4. Percentage Probability of Consecutive Harvest Weather Days' by
dershowers that are downpours. out of ten years 'the first killing Weeks, during Period June 2 to September 28, Charlotte, North Carolina.'
The latter result in considerable frost occurs before November 18. 1 Days with no rain, plus days clear or partly cloudy, with 0.01 inch or trace of rain.
runoff, particularly on the slopes. These data are more useful than 2 Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, records from 1896 to 1945.
(10) (11)




Per cent Populatiot
100. 00
Latest the last F.P '... earliest the first(0)
killing frost has killing frost has 800
80[. occurred in spring 15 ays ree occurred in fall
g0 700
I J -"'- kedIan dates I
40f 21 days grcwng season 0.
25i15 %9138025~ 501 a I 1520 8 1520 25 0 5 I0 15 2025) O
Feb. arch April Date Oct. Nov. De. 400 Ttlpplto
Figure 5. Frost Risk Curves: The Probable Dates of the Last Killing Frost in the Spring and the First Killing Frost in the Fall, Charlotte, North Carolina.'
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather lBureau, Records from 1896 to 1945. 300FamDpato
are figures showing only normal has shown a marked decline from 200 ',
weather. 51 per cent in 1930 to 86 per cent
in 1945 (Figure 7).
Social and Econo:-mc Farm mortgage debt in relation i00
Conditions to assets is shown in Figure 8.
8n addition n o pa kno g e o The m mortgage indebtedness has
n ad iin t a kn w e g of been decreasing gradually since 0 I I I I ._____________________________soils and climate, a knowledge of the peak period following World 1890 1900 1910 1920 1950 1940
recent trends in social and eco- Wa .Hwvr h ai f Iyear
nomic conditions is also essential Wa .Hwvr h ai fFiire opltn:TtlndFrouhnPimntNrhCroi,
to a clear u n d erstan ding of th e m ortg ag e debt to valu e of real j 189 0 64. pl at o : T t l a d F r S u h r i d o t o t a o i agricultural problems of an area, estate on mortgaged farms contin- 0- 945c: .'S ess
Man-land ratio, available capital ued to increase with the decline in
value fost ocurrel instateduin
resources, tenure, age and man- vau f fr el ett uigwere 55 or older. Only 18 per cent data available. In 1945, 27 per cent
agerial aptitude of farm operators, the depression years. Since 1930, were under 35 (Table 3). of the farmers were engaged in
distance to all weather roads and the per cent of all owner and part- This area, like other sections off-farm work. Probably of more
to markets, past experience of owner farms that are mortgaged of the Piedmont, has many pea- importance is the number of memfarmers in handling the alternative has remained fairly constant. pe who live on farms but who bers of the family other than the
enterprises, and off-farm employ- The number of farms has de- spend all or part of their time in operator who were engaged in offmet opportunities all must be creased slightly, and total acreage off-farm work. The exact propor- farm work.
considered in studying means of of improved land has increased. tion of the rural population or theReors:In 94 th avResouces: dna94tthsaer
improving farming systems. The net result has been a smaall number of farmers who depend en- age size of all farms in this area
Population: The total popula- increase in average size of farms. ivased on U. Census definition of a
tion of the Southern Piedmont has Farm Population per 100 acres of tl y pod nn tb ag cltur e f r o liveincreased steadily in the last 50 im proved land declined from 17.5lh od c n t be a er i ed f mfr .
years. Farm population, however, persons in 1930 to 11.4 persons in
has declined since 1935 (Figure 6). 1945. As a result of population Table 2.-Number ot farmers, tenure, and color, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina. 1945'
In 1940, farm population un- shifts, the greatest change has been Color Proportion of all farmers
bered 240,499, or 34 per cent of a reduced labor force living on I TenureWht Nn-he Tol Wie Nnwht Tta
t h e to ta l p o p u la tio n B e t w e e n 1 9 4 0 in d iv id u a l fa r m s r a th e r th ~a n a n W h tPNn w itr calW en N or n t e T oet l and 1945 farm population decreased increase in farm size or a reduc- Prcn e et Prcn
by 57,341 people, a decline of 24 tion in number of farms through Full owner ... 20,540 1,374 21,914 51.4 3.4 54.8
prcnfr abion ntPart owner ..3,059 355 8,414 7.7 .9 8.6
he cen sus of 1 4 it d 3 1f par tiuaraign cn ce to th sM anager .. . 75 3 78 .2 .0 .2
5 15 Tenants.......6,155 2,015 8,170 15.4 5.1 20.5
farmers in the area (Table 2). Of area from the standpoint of farm Share croppers 2,950 3,89 6,339 7.4 8.5 15.9
this number, 55 per cent were a(jsostments is a ig of the farmers.
owners and 9 per cent part own- In 1945, the average age of all Total 32,779 7,136 39,915 82.1 17.9 100.0
ers. The proportion of tenancy farers was 47 years; 35 per cent Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture.
(12) (13)




No. farmers
SI )5Total no. famersc
4_4~
0~~ -d4
41
l be .r-i
) '4
000
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 H zi' I,!
IN00 0 0
Year 00 E.jc -,aI
Figure 7. Tenure Status of Farmers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1890. a
1945.' .2
I Source: U. S. Cents of Agriculture; Managers ranged between 35 and 152, a negligible C
number; all tenants included croppers.
C
a
was 73.2 acres. Approximately 55 stock products, 6.6 per cent. Of the V
per cent, or 40.6 acres, was classed total number of farmers, 68 per as improved land. About a third cent reported income from cotton; C
of the land was in woods (Table 50 per cent, income from poultry;
4). Livestock per farm averaged and 33 per cent, income from dairy H) a.
1.4 head of workstock, 3.7 head of products. Cotton occupied about a "
all cattle, 2.3 hogs, and 46 chick- fifth of the total cropland harvest- V U
ens. ed in 1944. r
Cash income from sales of prod- Trends: The acreage of cotton ,H 00
ucts in 1944 was $1,019 per farm. declined from a peak of 527 thou- ,
Receipts were distributed among sand in 1926 to 200 thousand in t -0
the principal sources as follows: 1945. The number of farmers 4 c
Cotton, 52.3 per cent; other crops, growing cotton declined steadily 15.1 per cent; dairy products, 14.2 from 37,807 in 1930 to 27,159 in per cent; poultry products, 11.8 per 1945. Significant trends occurring 0 '
cent; and other livestock and live- in the area from 1926 to 1945 were: I
0 E0
Table 3.-Ages of formers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 19451 I
Number Percentage Cumulative H Z
Ages in years farmers of total percentage U
34 and less .................... 6,918 17.6 17.6 Ca
35 to 54 ....................18,578 47.4 65.0
55 to 64 ..................... 7,861 C6 20.0 85.0
65 and more ................... 5,877 15.0 100.0 H1 ___,0 w
Total ................... 39,234 100.0 H H
Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture.
(14) (15)




Index
(1) A steadily declining acreage of from a very small acreage to 95 175
cotton, accompanied by higher thousand acres; (7) increase of 20
yields; (2) a considerable increase per cent in number of cows milked in acreage of wheat, with some and increase of 36 per cent in to- 150 _increase in yields; (3) an increase tal milk production; (8) increase ] \ /\/
in acreage and yields of oats; (4) a of 26 per cent in number of chickgradual decline in acreage of corn, ens (inventory on January 1) and 125
and higher yields during 1941-45. 143 per cent increase in total pro(5) Over 100 per cent increase in duction of eggs. (Figure 9, Table yield
acreage of hay with little change 5). 100
in yield; increase in lespedeza for Price relationships for the period
hay from a negligible quantity to 1926 to 1945 of the principal prod- Production
the most important source of hay; ucts sold by farmers are shown
75 ,75
(6) increase in lespedeza for seed in Figure 10. .#
Table 4.-Farm resources and value of products sold, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 5 19451 0 1926 100
Area Average Percentage Acreage 526,713 Acreage
Item total per of
(000) farm2 total 25 prod., bales 297,471
Yield, lb. lint 270
Acres Acres Per cent
Land:
Cropland harvested .................... 1,097 27.5 37.6
Cropland failure .......................10 0.2 0.3 1926 1951 1936 1941
Cropland idle or fallow ............... 230 5.8 7.9 year
Cropland used for pasture ............. 92 2.3 3.1 Figure 9a Cotton, 1926-1945, Souern Piedmont, North Carolina.'
Total cropland .................... 1,429 35.8 48.9 1Source: Crop Reporting Service of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA andn
Woodland pastured .................... 190 4.8 6.5 N. C. Department of Agriculture.
Other land pastured ................... 194 4.8 6.5
Woodland not pastured ................ 945 23.7 32.4 Acres
All other farm land .................. 163 4.1 5.6 (000)
Total land in farms ................ 2,920 73.2 100.0 1200 Total acres of the five crops
Land used for crops ............... 1,107 27.7 37.9 a op
Total woodland ................... 1,135 28.5 38.9
Livestock: Number Number 1050
All cattle and calves ................... 147 3.7 ..... .... ...
Cows and heifers, 2 years and over .... 90 2.3 *
All hogs and pigs .................... 92 2.3 *oat
Sows and gilts ........................ 8 .2 *
Chickens ............................. 1,826 45.7
M ules and colts ....................... 41 1.0 W
Horses and colts .......................16 .4 750
Total workstock .................. 57 1.4 *
Tractors ................................ 8 .2 *
Value of sales: Dollars Dollars
Livestock and products ................ 13,259 332 32.6
Crops ................................ 27,419 687 67.4
Total sales ....................... 40,678 1,019 100.0 450
Inventory values:
Land and buildings .................... 141,529 3,546 80.7
Implements and machinery ............ 13,021 326 7.4 300
Workstock ........................... 9,884 248 5.6
All other livestock .................... 11,052 277 6.3
Total livestock .................... 20,936 525 11.9 15o0K. n
Total values .................... 175,486 4,397 100.0
'U. S. Census of Agriculture. 1945: acreages are for the 1944 crop year; values and livestock numbers are inventory of January 1, 1945. 0
'Total number of farms as reported by U. S. Census of Agriculture was 39.915.
*Data not applicable. 1926 19Y1 196 1941 1945
Year
(16) Figure 9b. Acreage of the Five Principal Crops, 1926-1945.'




Index Workstock as a source of power 1945 19 per cent reported them.
300 declined continuously from 1920 to The total number of tractors more
1945. In 1925, only 6 per cent of than doubled between 1940 and
the farmers reported tractors; in 1945.
270 ,
240 Index
250
210 .
Total production
180 225 /
" Production per bird /
200- /\ -4
P roduction per cow 175 X .0
9/ / e
950 ," Total
Production
Number of cows 35,665 150
60 Total prod.,gal. 12,093,099 1
Prod. per cow, gal. 339 0
" Number
30
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 LOO
Year
Figure 9c. Number of Cows Milked, Production Per Cow and Total Production of Milk, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1890-1945.'
'Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture. 75
Table 5.-Production and yield, by 5 year periods, six principal crops, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1926-19451 1925 100
All 50
Period Cotton Corn Wheat Oats tame Lespedeza Number chickens 1,447,601
(lint) hay seedNubrcikn 1,4 60
o o oo .o o eedo 5Total egg prod., doz. 4,802,663
1.00 1,00 ,000 1100 1000 1,000
bales bu. hu. hu. tons lbs. Prod. per bird, doz. 5.5
Production 2
1926-1930 ..... 265 7,190 1,192 1,631 1082 *
1931-1935 ..... 215 6,370 1,720 1,910 126 *
1936-1940 ..... 201 6,139 2,411 1,927 146 *
1941-1945 ..... 191 6,362 2,697 2,846 218 21,230 0 1
Yield per acre Lbs.S Bu. Bu. Bu. Ton Lbs. 1925 1950 1935 1940 1945
1926-1930 258 19.3 10.8 21.7 .1.0 Year
1931-1935 ..... 286 17.0 11.0 -20.3 1.0 *
1936-1940 ..... 342 17.9 12.5 20.3 1.0 *
1941-1945 ..... 385 21.3 13.8 25.4 1.1 225 Figure 9d. Trend in Numbers of Chickens on Forms, Total Egg Production and
1 Source: Derived from data reported by United States Department of Agriculture and Production Per Bird, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1925.1945.' North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Crop Reporting Service. 'Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture.
2Average of 1929-1930.
3 Net weight of lint.
* Data not available.




Dollars Index
(Yillions) 200
60
180
160 .
45
Cotton
140
12i*Q
50-
100 ** .,k.,
I////I "III1.-- Vilk..
/Other crops *.- 41
80 1..
15 60 .
S >Eggs eat
Cott "n.. i4040,1926=100
20 Cotbon, llnt,lb. 11.9 cents
Wheat, bu. $1.42
0 V/ilk, cwt. $3.65
1938 '39 '40 '41 '42 43 '44 '45 0 Eggs, doz. .32
0 I . I a a 1 I I I
Year 1926 1931 1936 1941
Figure 9e. Volue of Production: Cotton and Other Principal Crops, Southlern Figure 10. Trends in Prices Received by Formers; Wholesale Milk, Eggs, Cotton, Piedmont, North Carolina, 1938-1945.' and Wheat, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1926-1945.'
Source: USDA and NCDA Crop ltepirting Service; other crops includes 11 to 13 of the 'Source: USDA and NCDA Crop Reporting Service. most important crops.
(20) (21)




FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND INCOMES IN 1945 One or more wagons, turning cows) a dairy barn or milking shed
plows, smoothing harrows, cultiva- is common. In the main, farm
Acreage of Land used for crops. Small farms ac tors, middle busters, and plow buildings were in poor to fair
counted for only 24 per cent of the stocks, a combination corn-cotton condition.
In the Piedmont area the farm total cropland in use. planter, fertilizer distributor, mow- Two-thirds of the dwellings on
economy is centered around crops. ing machine, dump rake, and the small farms were equipped with
This means that crop acreage is Power and Equipment usual small tools, were the more electricity, while 94 per cent of the
of major importance. On farms common equipment found on farms. large farms were so equipped
in the sample, acreages used for Workstock was the principal There were some differences ac- (Table 6). A running water syscrop raned rom .5 o 72.'~ source of power on the small and
crops ranged from 6.5 to 722 muc of r b twhrsl o cording to size of farms. A mow- tem was found in less than a third
The distribution of farms, when medium farms, but two-thirds Of ing machine was reported on half of the dwellings on small and medclassified according to acres used the large farms had a tractor in of the small, on three-fourths of ium-size farms, but in 71 per cent
for crops, indicate three rather addition to two or more head of the medium, and on almost all of of the dwellings on large farms.
broad size groups-small, 10 to workstock. Small and medium- the large farms.
44 acres; medium, 45 to 74 acres; size farms were predominantly On farms with tractors, a break- Population and Labor Supply
and large, 75 or more acres (Fig- two-nule units. Sixty-four per ing plow and tandem disk were
ure 11). cent of the small farms and 54 per the principal tractor equipment. On The size of the operator's famiOf the same farms, 47 per cent cent of the medium farms operat- most of the tractor farms, plant- ly was about the same regardless
were small; 30 per cent, medium; ed with two head of workstock ing and cultivating was done with of size of the farm. The number
and 23 per cent, large. Though. each. On the "one-mule" units workstock. On the large farms, of sharecropper families increased
wide extremes in crop acreages there were many cases when an the percentage of tractor farmers as the size of the farm increased
were found among the large farms, additional mule was borrowed or reporting other tractor equipment (Table 7).
two-thirds of them ranged between hired. Tractors on the small and were: planter, 21 per cent; culti- On 79 per cent of the small
75 and 150 acres. Large farms medium-size farms often were vator, 24 per cent; grain drill, 36 farms, labor was furnished almost
accounted for lare f used to do custom work on neigh- per cent; mowing machine, 36 per entirely by the operator and his
boring farms in addition to work family. Occasionally an extra perthe number of farms, but they cent; and combine, 45 per cent.
comprised 48 per cent of the land at home. On the medium-size farms, only son was hired to help harvest hay
Equipment on farms using mules about a third of the farmers with and to pick cotton. Of the 103
10 Beyond this point in the analysis three or horses as power usually con- tractors reported combines. small farms, 22 (usually those with
farms were not included because of their sisted of two-horse implements for the larger. acreages of cotton) emextreme size and organization. These farms
included one with 772 acres used for crops, seed-bed preparation and one-horse Buildings played sharecropper labor. On the
and two with 6.5 and 23.0 acres, respec- equipment for planting and culti- medium-size farms, sharecroppers
tively, where unusual circumstances limited
production to reseeded lespedeza. eating. Many of the farms have only a were found on 29 of the 59 farms
few buildings other than dwellings that grew cotton. On three-fourths
No. of fars for the operator's family, and for of the farms where sharecropper
30 sharecroppers or hired labor fami- labor was used, the operator's fam11.4 Per cent of total nuner o a.s lies. The small farms usually have ily had only one man.
a general barn and one or two About three-fourths of the large
10.4 small structures such as poultry farms employed sharecropper lahouse, corn crib, and smokehouse. bor, ranging from one family for
20 8.2 Medium and large farms usually 25 per cent of the group to six to
7.3 have a general-purpose barn, a eight families for 7 per cent of the
68poultry house, corn crib, smoke- group. On farms where only one
house, granary, and one or two sharecropper family was employed,
10 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 other small buildings for tools, the average acreage of cotton per
storage, and shop work. On farms family, including the operator's
1 3.2 with dairy herds (more than 6 family, was 7.7 acres. The aver2. 2 Table 6.-Proporton of operators' dwellings equipped with specified facilities, by size of
C farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945
Np al .) o -, o ~ -, a, a, v o- 0, ,r a
,C,3 V V) W W it M Percentage of farms reporting
to 0 V r L W Small Medium Large All farms
Acres used for crops Electricity ....................... 67 75 94 76
Radios .......................... 84 94 94 89
Figure 11. Distribution of Numbers of Farms by Acres Used for Crops, 220 Running water ................... 26 29 71 37
Forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945.' Refrigerators.47 50 82 55
Range 6.5 772.0 acres. (2.)
(22) (23)




Table 7.-Population and labor supply by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Table 9.-Aec of form operators, by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 Carolina, 1945
Average per farm Number of operators Proportion of total number
ItemYears of age Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large
Number Number Number Number Number Number Per cent Per cent Per cent
Population on farms:
Number in operator's family ................... 4.3 4.4 4.5 25-29 ........... 2 1 1 2.0 1.5 2.1
Number in sharecropper and hired labor families ..1.3 3.5 11.7 30-34 ........... 7 2 4 6.9 3.1 8.5
35-39 ........... 12 7 3 11.9 10.8 6.4
Total ................................. 5.6 7.9 16.2 40-44 ........... 10 4 3 9.9 6.2 6.4
45-49 ...........10 9 6 9.9 13.8 12.8
Number of sharecropper and hired labor families ... 2 .7 2.1 50-54............8 11 5 7.9 16.9 10.6
55-59 ........... 14 8 5 13.8 12.3 10.6
Males 15 years and over: 60-64 ........... 14 8 7 13.9 12.3 14.9
In operator's family ............................ 1.3 1.6 1.5 65-69 ............ 12 7 8 11.9 10.8 17.0
In sharecropper and hired labor families......... 3 .9 3.0 70-74 ........... 10 5 2 9.9 7.7 4.3
- 75-79 ........... 2 1 2 2.0 1.5 4.3
Total ..................................... 1.6 2.5 4.5 80 and over ...... 2 1 3.1 2.1
Total ....... 101 65 147 100.0 100.0 100.0
age acreage of cotton per family Only a relatively small percent- 2 Age of two operators not reported.
on other farms ranged consistent- age of the farms were mortgaged
ly from 10 to 12 acres, regardless -16 per cent of the sniall farms,
of the number of families or the 18 per cent of those in the med- true if younger members of the affect potential adjustments. In
total acreage of cotton. In con- ium group, and 12 per cent of the family are not looking ahead to terms of formal education, 17 per
trast, the larger dairy farms hired large farms. Production credit was taking over the farm business. In cent of all farm operators had com-,
labor on a monthly basis, used by 19 per cent of the farm- only 34 per cent of the cases was pleted less than four grades in
ers on small units, 29 per cent of there a son 15 years or older on school; 44 per cent, fourth through
Tenure, Age, and Education the medium, and 18 per cent of the the farms. There was a son less seventh grade; 23 per cent, one
group on large farms, than 15 years on an additional year or more of high school but not
of Farm Operators Age of Operators: Only 18 per 18 per cent of the farms. On 35 graduated; and 16 per cent had
Tenure: The farms of this area cent of the farmers were less than per cent, there were one or more completed high school requirements
are predominantly owner-operated 40 years old, and nearly 40 per sons under 15 years. Thus a son (Table 10). About the same prounits. Sixty-nine per cent of all cent were 60 or older. The dis- of the operator was living on,the portion of the operators for each
farmers owned their farms; 13 per tribution of farmers by age groups farm in only 52 per cent of the size-of-the-farm group had corncent were part-owners; and 18 per followed about the same pattern cases. pleated from the fourth to the sevcent were tenants. On the small in all three size groups (Table 9). Education: Education and expe- enth grades. More of the operators
farms, 21 per cent of the opera- The average age of operators on rience, as they influence the man- on the large farms had completed
tors rented all of their land. This small farms was 53, on medium aerial ability of the farmer, high school or had some college
was true for only 8 per cent of farms 54, and on large farms 55
the large farms (Table 8). Of the years. Table 10.-Education of farm operators by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont,
operators on large farms, a larger Age of operator greatly in- North Carolina, 1945
proportion owned some land and fluences opportunities for long- Number of operators Proportion of total operators
rented additional land than was term adjustments because older
true for the other groups. These men hesitate to make changes Years reached Size Group
operators used this method to en- from which they will receive little Small medium Large farms small Medium Large farms
large the size of their businesses, or no benefit. This is especially Per
Number Number Number Number Per cent Per cent Per cent cent
Less than 4th grade. 19. 13 5 37 18 20 9 17
Table 8.-Tenure of form operators by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Lsthan th grade 19 13 5 37 18 244
Carolina, 1945 4th to 7th grade ... 46 29 21 96 45 44
Entered high school
Number of operators Percentage of total operators but did not
Tenure status
Small Medium Large All farms Small Medium Large All farms graduate ........ 26 14 9 49 25 22 19 23
Graduated from
Owner .......... 71 43 36 150 69 66 74 69 high school ......12 8 9 29 12 12 19 13
Part-owner ...... 10 9 9 28 10 14 18 13 College, one year
Renter .......... 22 13 4 39 21 20 8 18 or more ........... 1 5 6 ... 2 10 3
Total ........ 103 65 49 217 100 100 100 100 Total .......... 103 65 49 217 100 100 100 100
(24) (25)




training than was true for either true for either small or medium five cows. On two-thirds of the only 14 per cent of the large farms
the small or medium-size group, farms. These data indicate that large farms the operator received and none of the smaller farms
about half of the land used for income from sale of dairy products. produced Grade A milk.
Enterprise Combinations crops was intertilled-much more On 35 per cent of the large farms In most cases, poultry flocks were
than is consistent with long-term six or more cows were kept. All kept primarily for the production
and Incomes soil conservation in the area. the farms producing Grade A milk of eggs and chicken for home use.
Although the farms varied in No cotton was grown on 16 of had herds of 15 or more cows, but On most farms less than 75 hens
size, land use and enterprise com- the small farms, six of the medium
binations were similar in many re- farms, and five of the large farms
binationseres ifa, a. fie of the efarmrs Table 12.-Crops grown by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 194S
spects. (Table 13). None of the farmers _________________________________General Land Use: General land on the small farms grew more Size of farm
All
use on these farms is given in than 20 acres of cotton. Nine farm- Crop Small Medium Large farms
Table 11. Total cropland aver- ers in the large group grew more
aged 34.5 acres on small farms and than 50 acres of cotton. On farms Average acres per farm
137 acres on large farms. The where no cotton was grown, the Cotton ..... ............... 7.2 13.0 28.2 13.7
proportion of total land devoted farm operators usually did not de- Corn ....................... 7.5 12.3 25.1 12.9
to each major use was similar for pend entirely on their farms as a Wheat ..................... 2.8 6.8 10.0 5.6
each size group. About 47 per cent principal source of income. Us- Oats, grain ................. 2.3 6.0 22.7 8.0
was in cropland; 7 per cent, in open ually they were employed off the Small grain hay ............. 2.5 3.3 8.5 4.1
pasture; 8 per cent, in woods pas- farm or were connected with the Lespedeza hay .............. 5.7 10.1 25.8 11.6
turned; and 38 per cent, in woods operation of other farms in addi- Lespedeza seed .............. 1.5 6.0 16.0 6.1
anel use a Lespedeza cover ............. 4.2 9.5 16.1 9.4
and other uses. On small farms a tion to the unit included in this Al
much larger percentage of the study. Units on which no cotton 1 o c
cropland was idle than on large was grown anl on which the oper- Total crops ............... 38.2 72.9 177.8 80.1
farms. ator depended entirely for his in- Double-cropped ........... 8.2 16.1 47.5 19.4
Crops Grown: Cotton, corn, come were usually highly specialsmall grain, and lespedeza were ized in livestock. A few of the Acreage used for crops .... 30.0 56.8 130.3 60.7
the principal crops grown (Table farmers on large farms operated
12). Cotton was the principal cash Grade A dairies. Others sold poul- Percentage of farms reporting specified items
crop, although frequently small try products and/or unclassified Cotton ..................... 84 91 90 88
quantities of small grain and les- milk. Corn ....................... 95 97 96 96
pedeza seed were sold. The other Productive Livestock: Produc- Wheat ......................47 71 71 59
i Oats, grain .................. 37 71 84 58
crops were primarily for feed, food, tive livestock consisted chiefly of Small grain hay .............. 61 57 59 59
and soil improvement. Cotton oc- dairy cows, chickens, and hogs Ls ar hay ............. 61 7 96 9
Lespedeza hay ............... 85 94 96 95
cupied about 23 per cent of the (Table 14). Only five farmers on Lespedeza seed ............... 28 58 61 45
cropland; corn, 21 per cent; and the small, two on the medium, and Lespedeza cover ............. 59 68 73 65
small grains, about 22 per cent. one on the large farms did not All other crops ..............100 100 100 100
On the large farms with tractors report any dairy cows. One-fourth
a smaller percentage of the crop- of the small farms had more than Total crops ............... 100 100 100 100
land was in corn and a larger per- two cows, whereas one-fourth of Double-cropped ........... 86 100 96 88
centage in small grain than was the medium farms had more than __Acreage used for crops .... 100 100 100 100
Percentage of total acres used for crops
Table 11.-Loand use by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 Cotton .. 24 23 22 23
Average per farm Proportion of total acres .....................24 23 22 23
Average userPrprino toa ac s Corn ....................... 25 22 19 21
Land use Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Wheat ..................... 9 12 8 9
Oats, grain ................. 8 11 17 13
Acres Acres Acres Per cent Per cent Per cent Small grain hay ............. 8 6 7 7
Used for crops .... 30.0 56.8 130.3 40.3 45.3 45.1 Lespedeza hay .............. 19 18 20 19
Idle .............. 4.5 5.3 6.7 6.0 4.2 2.3 Lespedeza seed ........... 5 10 12 10
T Lespedeza cover ............. 14 17 12 16
Total cropland ..34.5 62.1 137.0 46.3 49.5 47.4 All other crops .............. 15 9 19 14
Open pasture. 4.7 7.5 25.6 6.3 6.0 8.9 Total crops ............... 127 128 136 132
Woods pastured ... 6.4 9.1 26.2 8.6 7.3 9.1 Double-cropped 27 28 36 32
Other land ....... 28.9 46.7 100.1 38.8 37.2 34.6 ...........
Total all land ...74.5 125.4 288.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 Acreage used for crops .... 100 100 100 100
(26) (27)




Table 13.-Acreage used for cotton by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Table 1S.-Variation in number of hens by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, Carolina, 1945 North Carolina, 1945
Number of farms Percentage of total number Number of farms Percentage of total farms
Acres in cotton Number of hens
Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large
None ......... 16 6 5 15.5 9.2 10.2 25 or less .......... 18 11 7 17 16 15
1-5 ........... 30 3 3 29.1 4.6 6.1 26-50 .............. 43 27 17 42 42 35
6-10 .......... 28 19 7 27.2 29.2 14.3 51-75 .............. 18 9 4 17 14 8
11-15 ......... 25 21 5 24.3 32.4 10.2 76-100 ............. 9 7 7 9 11 14
16-20 ......... 4 5 4 3.9 7.7 8.2 101-125 ............ 5 2 4 5 3 8
21-25 ......... 5 6 7.7 12.3 126-150 ............ 1 4 2 1 6 4
26-30 ......... 3 2 4.6 4.1 151-175 ............ 2 2 1 2 3 2
31-35 ......... 1 -1 1.5 2.0 176-200 ............ 3 2 3 3 3 6
36-40 ......... 2 1 3.1 2.0 201 or over ........ 4 1 4 4 2 8
41-45 ......... 3 6.1
46-50 ......... 3 6.1 Total .......... 103 65 49 100 100 100
51-55 ......... 1 2.0
56-60 ......... 4 8.2
61 and over .. 4 -8.2 PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS AND RATES OF PRODUCTION
Total ..... 103 65 49 100.0 100.0 100.0 FOR CROPS AND LIVESTOCK WITH PRESENT
AND IMPROVED PRACTICES
were kept and only a few flocks figure represents returns to the Production practices contribute principal crops in the Southern
were of commercial size (Table farm operator and his family for materially to the farmer's degree Piedmont. It should be recognized
15). family labor, management, and in- of success. In this area there are that practices which must be imPork was also produced almost vestment in the farm business. It considerable opportunities for in- proved for more efficient producexclusively for home consumption, is the amount available to pay for creasing crop yields, livestock pro- tion are not limited to fertilizaBrood sows were reported on only family living expenses, debts, and duction rates, and net farm income tion and.seeding rates. Other prac15 per cent of the small farms farm improvements, and to re- through the adoption of improved tices include treatments for disand on 31 per cent of the large place worn-out equipment. Net crop and livestock practices. Ef- ease and insects, better tillage, use
farms. Usually when brood sows cash income as calculated does not fects of improved practices on rates of recommended varieties of seed,
were kept, pigs were sold at wean- include income from other sources of production are discussed in this use of lime and phosphate, and
ing time, except those kept to pro- other than the farm business. In section. crop rotations.
duce pork for the family. 32 per cent of the cases, the oper- "Production requirements" are a In the past, cotton held priority
Income: In 1945, net cash in- ator, or some member of the family relative concept. They depend up- on farmers' fertilizer and its apcome averaged $1,215 for all farms living on the farm, was employed on the quality of resources and the plication to cotton was more nearstudied, and varied from an aver- in off-farm work. Three-fourths of desired level of output. Require- ly in line with the recommended
age of $601 for the small farms those working off the farm were ments for 1945 are based on the practice than was true for other
to $2,320 for the large farms. This employed for six months or more. most common practices followed crops. Only 13 per cent of the
and the modal levels of equipment farmers reported alfalfa in 1945
Table 14.-Productive livestock and form operator's income by size of form, 217 farms, used by farmers with and with- and the practices used varied in
Southern Piedmont. North Carolina. 1945 out tractors. The improved prac- different parts of the area. PasProportion of farm reporting ties are based on available experi- ture improvement was not found a
Item Average per farm specific items mental data and the experiences of predominant practice. Only 18 per
Small Medium Large Small Medium Large farmers and agricultural workers cent of the farmers had limed any
Numbe Ne e Lrgcent in regard to most efficient fertiliza- part of their pastures.
ProductiveNumber Number Number Percent Percent Percent tion, seeding rates, rotations, and Since 1940 lime has been applied
Dairy cows ............ 2.1 3.8 9.5 94 97 98 methods of livestock production. to cropland on about half of the
Brood sows .............2 .3 .4 15 22 31 Cropsfarms, but very little of the cropHogs raised ........... 2.0 2.1 3.1 83 85 84 practices is covered in the supplementary
Hens ................. 68.0 67.8 89.5 100 100 100 Seed and Fertilizer: Table 16 report. PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND
Farm peratr's RODUCTION RATES, PI'RNCIPAL EN.
Farm Operator's Income Dollars Dollars Dollars gives present and improved rates TERPRISES ON COTT TON FARMS,
Summary: of fertilization and seeding for SOUTHERN PIEDMONT, NORTH CAROLINA, by W. W. McPherson, W. H. Pierce,
Cash income ........... 1,241 2,640 6,198 "In this report it is not practicable to anti y. E. L. Greene. For detailed recomCash expenses' ........ 640 1,284 3,878 disc;;ss the complete details on present and mendations see the IANDBOOK FOR
-- -- improved practices for each enterprise. AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, prepared by
Net cash income .... 601 1,356 2,320 Only sufficient materials basic to an under- the North Carolina Agricultural Extension
standing of the analysis to follow are in- Service and published annually, and the
1 Includes cost of share cropper labor, eluded. A detailed description of present publications listed on page 69.
(28) (29)




Table 16.-Present and improved annual rates of fertilization and seeding, principal crops,
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina the principle crops is shown in adjusted for changes in yields only,
Fertilizer applications per acre Seeding rates per acre Tables 18 and 19. These require- and not for potential use of tracments are based on the more com- tor equipment. A small proportion
1945 Improved mon practices followed in 1945. of the farmers are using tractor
Top Top Tractor hours are based on the equipment for planting and cultiPlanting or side Planting or side 1945 Improved operations more commonly per- vating row crops which means a
Crop time dressing time dressing formed by tractors rather than on large reduction in requirement of
conditions under which tractors man and workstock hours. But the
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds were used to the fullest extent, extent to which present equipment
Cotton ....... 600 100 600 125 38 38 O ere tracors ere sate to genrase int
Corn ......... 350 125 400 400 7 10 On farms where tractors were is adapted to general use in this
Wheat ........ 300 100 300 200 90 75 owned, tractor work generally was area could not be ascertained from
Oats ......... 200 100 300 200 80 64 limited to preparation of land. available data. Thus the potenBarley .........* 300 200 96 Tractors also were used for har- tial uses of tractors for more ecoLespedeza .... 0 0 0 0 40 40 vesting small grain and lespedeza nomical employment of resources
1 Based on the equivalent of 6-8-6. on farms where combines were must be left for further study.
Based on the equivalent of 16-0-0. owned. Since less than half the
* Reported by only 15 per cent of the 217 farmers. tractor farmers owned combines, Livestock
the more common practice was to
land had been covered sufficiently. produced with present or improved hire small grains and lespedeza Feed, Land, and Labor: QuanAbout one ton of lime per acre, ap- practices compared favorably with harvested on a custom basis. Disk- titles of feed, land and labor needplied every fifth year, was suggest- other sources of feed. ing land was a more common prac- ed to support units of principal
ed for cropland used for general Labor and Power Requirements:2 tice on farms with tractors than classes of livestock are shown in
rotations of cotton-grain-lespedeza. A summary of the hours of man on non-tractor farms. These dif- Table 20. In 1945, 1.6 acres of
Yields: Opportunity for increas- labor and power used to produce ferences in operations account for cropland, excluding pasture, were
ing yields of grain and hay crops the relatively small variation be- required to produce the homeappears to be greater than for rais- 12 For more detailed information on labor tween hours of labor and work- grown feed for a dairy cow and 4.1
ing the level of cotton yields distribution and power costs, see: Cost and stock used per acre on tractor and acres for 100 hens. With improved
Utilization of Power and Equipment on
(Table 17). Yields of most crops Farms in the Central Piedmont, by R. E. L. non-tractor farms. practices, less cropland is required
can be raised from 25 to 100 per Greene, H. Brooks James, and C. G. Daw- The estimated use under condi- for a unit of livestock even though
son, North Carolina Agricultural Experi- tions of improved seeding, fertili- the rate of feeding per head is incent by improved practices. In meant Station, and the Bureau of Agriculterms of total digestible nutrients, tural Economics, USDA, cooperating (N. C. zation, and rotation practices, com- creased. If improved practices for
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 84); and. Major pared with 1945 circumstances, is crops and livestock were followed,
corn ranks first among the major Farming System, 1939, and Usual Profeed crops. However, combined duction Practices, Lincoln County, North
Carolina, a preliminary report by R. E. L.
yields of small grain-lespedeza hay Greene and W. W. McPherson. Table 18.-Man labor used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and farms without tractors, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina1
Table 17.-Average yield per acre, principal crops, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North With improved agronomic
Carolina' With 1945 practices practices2
Crop
Yield of total Farms with- Farms with Farms with- Farms with
Yield per acre digestible nutrients out tractors tractors out tractors tractors
With Percentage Hours Hours Hours Hours
Crop Unit 1945 improved increase 1945 Improved Cotton.................147 144 151 148
practices over 1945 Cto ......... 4 4 5 4
Corn .................... 41 33 45 37
Cwt. Cwt. W heat ................... 14 7 14 7
Cotton: lint ......... Pound 498 525 5 Oats, grain .............. 12 8 12 8
seed ........ Pound 789 821 5 Oats, hay ............... 21 18 21 18
Corn ............... Bushel 25 50 100 13.3 26.7 Barley ................... 14 7
Wheat .............. Bushel 17 30 76 8.6 15.0 Lespedeza, 1st year:
Oats ............... Bushel 33 60 82 7.6 13.7 Seed ................ 1 1 1 1
Barley ............. Bushel 2 30 2 11.3 Hay ................ 10 10 12 12
Lespedeza hay ......... Ton 1.2 1.5 25 12.3 15.7 Lespedeza, reseeded:
Alfalfa hay ........... Ton 3.0 2 30.2 Seed ................ 1 1 1 1
Silage ................ Ton 2 10.0 2 2 37.4 Hay ................ 9 9 11 11
Lespedeza seed, Alfalfa .................. *.27 27
1st year .......... Pound 261 300 15 Corn silage ..............* 49 41
Lespedeza seed, Permanent pasture ....... 0 0 3 3
reseeded ......... Pound 261 400 53 *
A Hours of labor do not include that which is usually hired on a custom basis.
IActual yield for 1945 and yields estimated upon adoption of improved practcs. 2 Adjusted from 1945 for difference in yields only and not for possible differences in use
Insufficient data available to estimate a yield for 1945. of tractor.
* Item does not apply. Not a common enterprise.
(30) (31)




Table 19.-Power used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and without tractors, Southern 1.2 and 3.7 acres of cropland would tion to feeding and improvement Piedmont, North Carolina be required for one dairy cow and in pasture facilities. For more efWith improved agronomic 100 hens, respectively. ficient performance with improved
With 1945 practices practices' Rates of Production: Livestock practices, the quality of livestock
Farms Farms production can be increased mate- must be raised above present levwithout Farms with without Farms with rially through adoption of more els. In the case of both milk and
Crop tractors tractors2 tractors tractorsefficient practices (Table 21). eggs, production could be increased
Workstock Workstock Tractor Workstock Workstock Tractor These include better breeding, from 50 to 80 per cent over presHours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours housing, and sanitation, in addi- ent rates.
Cotton ............ 43 29 3.7 43 29 3.7
Corn .............. 38 20 3.3 40 22 3.3
Wheat ............. 24 11 3.4 24 11 3.4 Table 21.-Rates of production, principal livestock enterprises, with 1945 practices and
Oats, grain ........ 18 12 3.4 18 12 3.4 improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina'
Oats, hay ......... 24 16 3.4 24 16 3.4
Barley ............* 24 11 3.4 Rates of production
Lespedeza, 1st year: Class of product Unit 1945 Improved Percentage change
Seed ........... 1 1 0 1 1 0 practices practices over 1945
Hay ........... 10 10 0 12 12 0
Lespedeza, reseeded: Dairy:
Seed ........... 1 1 0 1 1 0 Milk per cow .......... Pound 3,952 6,000 52
ttay ........... 10 10 0 12 12 0 Veal per cow .......... Pound 75 100 33
Alfalfa hay .........* 27 27 0 Chickens:
Corn silage .........* 58 40 6.9
Permanent pasture ..0 0 0 2 2 0 Eggspr10hn oe 6 ,0 83
Permanent __pasture__._0_0_0_2_2 _0 lMeat per 100 broilers .Pound 238 *
I Adjusted from 1945 for changes in yields only and not for possible differences in use of
tractors. Hogs:
o Excludes hours for combining small grain andl lespedeza seed, which is usually performed I Pigs per sow....... Number 13 *
on a custom basis. ". . .
Not a common enterprise. Pork per hog raised ... Pound 260 215 -17
R Rates for 1945 based on most common practices rates for improved practices are based n estimated production with improved practices.
Table 20.-Feed, power, and labor requirements, principal livestock enterprises, Southern o Insufficient data, not a common enterprise. Piedmont, North Carolina
Produced with Produced with
1945 practices improved practices PART il. DEVELOPMENT OF
Item Unit Sow
and
Dairy 100 One hog Dairy 100 10 an ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS
cow hens raised cow hens broilers pigs FARM ING
Feed The quantity, quality, and price portant in determining the income
Home-grown: of resources, together with market from a specific farm: (1) selection
Corn ............... Bu. 12 60 16 '17 72 7 2201 conditions are important in plan- of enterprises and quantity proOats ............... Bu. 14 0 0 12 18 3 0 ning adjustments that would in- duced, (2) the degree of efficiency
Wheat .............. Bu. 0 30 0 0 61 6 0 crease net farm incomes. It is in the operation. The effect of imHay ............... Ton 1.5 0 0 2.0 0 0 0 evident from the preceding dis- proved practices on crop yields and
Commercial feed..Cwt. 10 8 2 5 14 3 10 cussion that considerable oppor- livestock production rates has been
Land required: tunities exist for increasing net discussed in the previous section.
farm incomes. The problems involved in selecting
'Total .......... Acre 4.0 4.1 .6 2.7 4.2 .4 8.0 Two factors over which the and combining enterprises are disFor home-grown crops Acre 1.6 4.1 .6 1.2 3.7 .4 4.0 farmer has some control are im- cussed in the following section.
For pasture ......... Acre 2.4 0 0 1.5 .5 0 4.0
Labor and power SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF FARM ENTERPRISES
Man: Total .......... Hour 232 412 44 234 386 29 382
To produce feed. ... Hour 37 122 24 39 96 9 192 For maximum net farm income, family labor and available equipTo tend livestock .Hour 195 290 20 195 290 20 190 farmers should select for their ment.
Workstock: main line of production the enter- Under present conditions within
To produce feed ...... Hour 39 132 23 37 109 11 166 prise that will yield the highest net the Southern Piedmont, land and
returns from resources available, labor are the chief factors to be
REqual pounds of ground wheat or barley may be substituted. Of particular importance is the considered in examining produc3Acreage is adjusted for double-cropping. size of enterprise as limited by tion opportunities. In most cases,
(32) (33)




opportunities for adjusting these plement each other-is of major requires very little or no labor for employ family labor most profittwo factors are limited, especially importance. For example, lespe- about five months of the year. Yet ably.
over short periods of time. deza in the cropping system offers during peak periods eight to ten There are some enterprise fixd
Particularly in cotton-producing several advantages, even though acres takes the labor equivalent costs. For this reason the prot,,m
areas, the main line or lines of direct cash returns per acre are of two men. These extreme varia- has two phases: (1) selectio:i of
agricultural production seldom relatively low. It can be grown- tions lead to periods of consider- enterprises and (2) scale of operafully utilize the farm resources. as a second crop on the same land able underemployment. The limit- tion once the selections are made.
Hence, for maximum net income the with small grain without reducing ing periods for cotton and corn General farm overheLd costs have
farmer must add supplementary yields of small grain. Where land are during cultivation and harvest, little influence on either of these
enterprises. To do this the opera- is unsuited to alfalfa, lespedeza is When there is not enough labor to phases. Enterprise overhead aftor must consider the following the best alternative for hay. Les- harvest both crops simultaneous- fects the first but not the second
factors in addition to apparent pedeza seed may be harvested and ly, the corn harvest usually is de- phase of the problem. In terms
costs and returns: (1) risks of pro- sold and the residue plowed under i layed because cotton is more valu- of costs the second phase of the
duction arising from unfavorable as a source of organic matter and able and more susceptible to dam- problem involves only the direct
weather, and damage from insects nitrogen. It also may be used for age. variable costs of the given enterand diseases, (2) price fluctuations, summer grazing. These alterna- The main problem with small prise. Therefore, emphasis is
(3) conservation of farm resources, tives make lespedeza a flexible crop grain arises with seeding. The placed on relative, not absolute,
(4) labor and power requirements for combining with other enter- harvest period for cotton and corn costs and returns because relative
and seasonal distribution, (5) in- prises. extends so far into the fall that rather than absolute conditions interrelationships of alternative en- Barley might be considered as an it overlaps the period for prepar- fluence opportunities for profitable
terprises, and (6) cost of items alternative to corn for increasing ing land to seed small grain. This adjustments.
when purchased compared with al- the flexibility of the cropping sys- problem becomes more acute when Costs of getting additional outternative uses of resources in the tem. Although barley alone does poor weather conditions interfere, put from a given enterprise varies
case of products grown for family not yield as much feed as corn, put f er en ndteise varie
consumption or for feed for the it is a close-growing crop that Relative Costs and Returns purposes of more general applicarequired workstock. has advantages on the rolling or with Present and purposes aore ge bappdicn
Two or more farm enterprises hilly land of the Piedmont. It can
reduce risks associated with price be tended with the same equipment Practices modal relationships.
declines and production disasters used for wheat and oats and with The influence of a change in the Prices for 1945 were used in the
common to a one-enterprise sys- very little labor. Barley also may farming system on net income canspecified costs and
tern. Although prices change con- be followed by lespedeza, a com- be tested by means of a budget returns under conditions of 1945
tinuously, records show that prices bination which yields approximate- analysis of the complete system, and under improved practices. A
of dairy and poultry products fluc- ly the same amount of total di- though an analysis of individual comparison of 1945 prices with
tuate within narrower ranges and gestible nutrients per acre as corn. enterprises helps. 1935-39 averages is shown in Table
less abruptly than do prices of cot- Livestock enterprises often can This section shows the effects of 22.
ton. Yields also fluctuate from be combined with crop enterprises improved practices on relative Crops: The effects that imyear to year. From 1936 to 1945, to increase farm income through costs and returns for different en- proved practices would have oa
average cotton yields per acre in fuller utilization of available la- terprises. That rates of production specified cash costs are shown in
the Southern Piedmont ranged bor. Even at low hourly returns, can be increased through the use Table 23. These items of expense
from 250 to 449 pounds; corn, from livestock enterprises which utilize of improved practices has been include only direct cash items that
17 to 24 bushels; and wheat, from labor that otherwise would be idle clearly demonstrated by experi- are usually variable in nature.
10 to 16 bushels. Yields from year would increase the total net farm mental work and by results on ac- These costs must be paid during
to year on individual farms prob- income. tual farms. The effects of any pro- the production period. They are
ably varied even more. Once a system is established, the duction increase on net farm most directly affected when the
Many farms have cropland too nature of its fixed assets influences income, however, depend upon how volume of the particular enterprise
steep to be planted in row crops the profitableness of dropping and much cost is increased to get the is expanded or reduced, or when
more often than once in two, three, adding new enterprises and meth- additional production. an enterprise is added to or
or even four years. This means ods of operation. On the individual farm, many dropped from the farm business.
the acreage of cotton and corn Labor and power requirements, items of cost are more or less fixed. Relatively fixed overhead farm exshould be limited accordingly, and especially their seasonal distribu- At least their change in response penses, which normally have little
other enterprises added if the land tion, are a problem. Peak labor to a change in output is so small effect upon the relative profitableis to be used profitably. On many periods for most of the principal that it can be disregarded. ness of alternative enterprises, are
farms, land entirely unsuited for crops in this area occur simultane- On many farms, the operator's not included in this phase of the
cotton might be used profitably to ously. The acreage that a family family comprises all or nearly all analysis. Items of expense are
produce pasture or forest products. can tend is reduced far below what of the farm-labor force. In such based upon production with equipThe way in which enterprises could be operated if labor patterns cases, labor is not a variable cash ment most frequently found on
fit together-supplement or corn- were evenly distributed. Cotton cost. The real problem is how to farms included in the sample.
(34) (35)




Table 22.-Prices received by farmers, principal products sold, Southern Piedmont, North j On farms where a combine is $28 for corn. For most enterprises, Carolina, 1945 and average 1935.391 owned harvesting costs for small net cash returns can be increased
Prices grains and lespedeza seed would 50 to 100 per cent by the use of
Product Unit depend upon the cost of operating improved practices. Cotton shows
Produce UnitAverage
1945 1935-39 the tractor and combine instead of less potential increase than other
custom rates. For purposes of enterprises because present pracDollars Dollars comparison, in each enterprise, tices on this crop are more nearly
Cotton ........................... Lb. 0.225 0.103 seeds are charged as a cash ex- in line with improved practices.
Cottonseed ...................Ton 48.00 26.06 pense. Consequently they are not Livestock: Costs that are afCorn. .......................... Bu. 1.46 .76 deducted from the value of the fected most by changes in liveWheat ........................fBu. 1.65 1.00
Oats ............................ Bu. .90 .51 product although it is customary stock enterprises produced with
Barley .......................... Bu. 1.37 .79 to plant home-grown seed in many 1945 and with improved practices,
Lespedeza seed: cases. For those crops that re- are presented in Table 25. For
Korean ...................... Lb. .081 .042 quire abnormal outlays at inter- purposes of comparison among enKobe ........................ Lb. .132 .068 vals, -such as alfalfa and pastures, terprises, pertinent en t e r pr i s e
All hay .......................Ton 30.12 14.27 the expense represents the annual overhead expenses are included.
Sweet potatoes...................lu. 2.03 .74 average for a five-year period. Therefore, costs per animal unit
Beef ........................ Cwt. 10.50 5.30 For comparison of costs and re- would vary with different scales
Veal ...... ..................Cwt. 13.30 7.16 turns among enterprises the small of operation. This is particularly
Pork........................Cwt. 13.90 8.52 grain-lespedeza combination should true in production of eggs and
Chckns.................Lb. .288 .157
Broilers .....Lb. .22 .181 be considered as a single enter- of Grade A milk, primarily because
Br ilrs .. .. .. .. .. ........ Lb. .322 .181
Eggs........................ Doz. .404 .224 prise. of the relation of size of enterButter .......................Lb. .41 .24 Table 24 shows net returns over prise to efficiency in the use of
Butterfat ...................... Lb. .44 .26 specified items of cost for princi- equipment. Figures shown for
Milk, wholesale grade A ........ Cwt. 4.85 2.73 pal crops with present and im- these two enterprises were based
Milk, retail ...................... Qt. .151 .117 proved practices. Net cash returns on a flock of 250 hens and a herd
Milk, wholesale unclassified ...... Cwt. 2.80 1.58 per acre with improved practices of 20 dairy cows. The equipment
would increase $6 for cotton and could not be used as efficiently on
'Source: Federal-State Crop Reporting Service; prices are those available for District w
and North Carolina prices for all other commodities.
Table 24.-Value of production and specified direct costs per acre, principal crops, with
1945 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
Table 23.-Specified annual direct cash costs per acre, principal crops, with 1945 practices Specified Value Labor Returns
Vau f- direct less and less
and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Crop product cash specified power specified
costs' cash costs costs' costs,
Produced with 1945 practices' Produced with improved practices Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
Crop lHarvest, Harvest, 1945 practices
All Gin, and All Gin, and Cotton ............. 131.00 20.08 110.92 58.48 52.44
fertilizer Seed2 clean Total fertilizer Seed2 clean Total Corn ............... 36.00 8.79 27.21 23.23 3.98
Wheat ............. 28.00 14.00 14.00 10.86 3.14
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Oats ............... 30.00 12.32 17.68 8.62 9.06
Cotton ..... 12.16 1.15 6.77 20.08 12.74 1.50 7.09 21.33 Oaspede3012 7869
Corn...... .61 .18 0 8.9 1.89 1.70 0 1-59Lespedeza seed,
Corn ....... 8.61 .18 0 8.79 15.89 1.70 0 17.59 1st year ......... 21.00 13.95 7.05 .59 6.46
Wheat.......7.22 2.78 4.00 14.00 9.64 3.44 4.00 17.08 Reseeded ......... 21.00 10.57 10.43 .59 9.84
Oats ........ 5.57 2.75 4.00 12.32 9.64 3.26 4.00 16.90 Lespedeza hay ...... 36.00 3.38 32.62 5.92 26.70
Barley ..... 9.64 4.00 4.00 17.64
Lespedeza, 1st year: With improved fertilization and seeding practices
Seed ..... 0 3.38 10.57 13.95 0 3.80 11.62 15.42 Cotton ............. 138.00 21.33 116.67 59.76 56.91
Hay ...... 0 3.38 0 3.38 0 3.80 0 3.80 Corn ............... 73.00 17.59 55.41 25.04 30.37
Reseeded lespedeza: Barley ............. 41.00 17.64 23.36 10.86 12.50
Seed ..... 0 0 10.57 10.57 0 0 16.20 16.20 i Wheat ............. 50.00 17.08 32.92 10.86 22.06
Hay ...... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oats ............... 54.00 16.90 37.10 8.62 28.48
Alfalfa hayS.. 7.77 2.55 0 10.32 Lespedeza seed,
Corn silage .. 15.89 2.05 4.00 21.94 1st year .......... 24.00 15.42 8.58 .59 7.99
Permanent Reseeded ......... 32.00 16.20 15.80 .59 15.21
pasture' .- 4.77'.- 1.24 6.01 Lespedeza hay ...... 45.00 3.80 41.20 7.03 34.17
- Alfalfa hay ........ 90.00 10.32 79.68 15.82 63.86
I Based on most common practices.
SIncludes seed treatment where applicable. Based on 1945 prices and the rates of production shown in Table 17.
3 Includes seedal treatt where appiabl g ad mSee Table 23. Includes annual pro-rati share of establishing and maintaining these enterprises. s Man labor (? $0.3! per hour and workstock Ca $0.269 hour. (See Tables 18 and 19).
* Not a common enterprise or practice. 4 Value o. product less specified cash and labor and power costs.
(36) (37)




Table 25.-Specified annual direct casts, principal classes of livestock, with 1945 practices h orne-grown feed and livestock as Gains f rom marketing f e e d and improved practices, Sauthcrn Piedmant, North Carolina an enterprise.) Therefore, these through livestock would be much
Produced with 1945 Practices Produced with improved practices data show the relative profit in greater under improved practices
Itm Mi hlk, wholesale feeding home-grown feed to live- compared with 1945 conditions. For
IeMik(per cow) Pork stock compared with selling it di- unclassified milk, the gain would
fledi Eggs (pr Eggse Broilers(10 (I sow rect. In 1945 the difference was be $44 per cow instead of $8 as
(ed (100 (prhrdens)ssi (0 (100 and 13
(eco)en) hog) A' fled2 hens) chicks) pigs) only $8 in the case of unclassified under 1945 practices. Apparently
Home-grown I milk when feed was fed to dairy little would be gained in terms of
feed'.........75 137 23 96 96 *222 23 293 cows. This means that the farm- increased value in marketing grain
Pasture (cash) 0 0 0 9 9 3 0 24 er received only $8 in return for through pork in excess of family
Purchased feed 29 31 6 15 15 59 11 27 his additional labor and risk by needs, at 1945 prices.
Dereitin marketing the feed through cows Better practices for crops and
purchase icotatto direct sales. livestock result in a two-way in(livestock) 3 24 10 5 5 20 13 0 ggs compared more favorably crease in the advantage to livebquildin n as a channel for marketing feed, stock. Not only is the return per
(cas)....... 2 2 4 8 6 0in the case of pork, when hogs unit of livestock increased, but
(iceah) s 4... 0 0 92 8 8 2 2 were bought and raised, there was with higher yields of feed crops,
Misce---------------------------------- a loss of $3 when the feed was fed agetrnme fuiso ie
Total ....$113 $194 $39 $146 $137 $317 $55 $346 compare wihdrc aeo ed rae nuberp of uinit ofclie'Baed n hed f 2 ~However, almost all of the pork stok cand beket on eiven aevr
Based on a herdmu of cows, was grown for home use. If the agofln.Iisednthwvr
'nosed on a flock of 250 hens, farmer had bought the meat he ta h ult flvsokms
4Horne-grown feed charged at farm value, would have had to pay retailprcs beirodinrertganmh
Includes breeding fee, feed grinding, salt, and veterinary expenses, prices, bhs aclain a e improvaed in oer o gne meuchs
been made in terms of prices re- when feed is marketed through
a smaller scale. This problem dif- For hens the increase was $1.34 ceived by farmers. livestock rather than sold for cash.
fers somewhat from that of un- per hen.
classified milk. Because of differ- Since, in making these calcu- PRESENT AND ALTERNATIVE FARMING SYSTEMS
ences in equipment requirements, lations, home-grown feed was
this enterprise is more flexible charged at farm value, the speci- Data presented in previous sec- tive organizations, "representathan is production of either Grade fied cost for livestock includes tions indicate that practices, rates tive farms" were developed. These
A milk or eggs, value of home-grown feed, pur- of production, and resources on are actual farms adjusted in view
Returns for various livestock en- chased feed, and other cash costs farms in the Southern Piedmont of modal tendencies in the area.
terprises are shown in Table 26. connected with the enterprise. (An vary widely. Relative to potential These adjustments required only
With improved practices, value of alternative approach that can be levels, farm incomes are low, and minor changes in actual organizaproduct less specified costs per cow made from the given figures would co~nservationi of resources is poor. tions and practices. Soils maps of
for unclassified milk increased $36. be to consider the combination of However, there are significant op- actual farms representative of
portunities for improving present each size were selected and used
Tabe 6.-ale o podutin ad pecfid dret cst, pinipa lvesoc enerrissfarming systems and, consequent- in the appraisal of adjustment opSouter Pdmont, ort arolto n pcfeddrc otpiniaietcketrrss ly, net farm incomes by incorporat- portunities. The basic factor for
Souhen Pedon, Nrt Caolnaing improved practices and adjust- classification in this analysis is
Value Direct Value less ing wisely the present enterprise acreage of cropland, as the other
Enerriesprtofut cspeife seife combinations for more effective factors are generally more flexible
prdc' cot ot utilization of land, labor, and oth- in relation to potential scale of
Dollars Dollars Dollars er resources of production, operation.
1945 practices Farms, representative of the pre- The most profitable farming sysUnclassified milk ........ Per cow 121 113 8 dominate situations, are used to tern depends upon many variables.
Eggs ..................100 hens 309 194 115 illustrate means of raising net One of these is the relative rePork................1 hog raised 36 39 -33 farm incomes consistent with turns as influenced by yields which
Improved practices .proper conservation of farm re- in turn are affected by soil condiUnclassified milk .........Per cow 181 137 44 sources. In the analysis, compari- tions. Another variable is the
Grade-A milk ............Per cow 305 16159 sons are made between organiza- price relationships, which depend
Eggs ...................100 hens 560 317 249 tions as they existed in 1945 in- upon conditions of supply and deBroilers...............100o chicks 76 55 21 eluding present practices, and al- mand for the commodities. But
Pork ................1 sow, 13 pigs 388 346 42 ternative organizations in which the influence of one farmer's proBased on 1945 prices and rates tif production as shown in Table 21. improved practices are incorporat- duction on total supply is nieg2See Table 25 for items included.ed Inteaayiofatra iil.T rfrthapochn
R represents a losso of $3.ed Inteaayiofatra liie.T rfrthapochn
(38) (39)




this study of individual farms was (Table 27). Rotations for individ- Table 27.-Most intensive crop rotations adopted to specified soil conditions, Southern Pied.
to analyze the opportunities in ac- ual farms were modified in accord- month, North Carolina
cordance With 1945 price relation- ance with specific conditions on the Condition of field slope and soil erosion Most intensive adapted rotation
ships (exception was made for a particular farm.
few items whose prices for that Production requirements for al- 0- to 2 per cent slope and no ap- Intertilled crop each year; break
year appeared to be out of line falfa, pastures, and lespedeza are parent erosion land each year
with the most common pattern); influenced more by the soils than
to supplement this with an analy- are tie requirements for cotton 2- to 7 per cent slope and slight Intertilled crop followed by closesis f tis ith anay- he equremntsforto moderate sheet erosion growing crop; break land ech
sis of opportunities for adjustment and grain crops. Kobe variety of year
in the event of price changes; and lespedeza is best adapted to the
to show incomes and expenses in White Store-Creedmoor, Appling, 7- to 10 per cent slope and mod- Intertilled crop followed by closeterms of 19135-39 average prices." Durham, and the sandy loam soils, crate sheet erosion with occa- growing crop with lespedeza, lesIn an area-wide program, the ef- and Korean variety is more suit- sional gullies pedeza permitted to reseed; break
feet of production changes upon able on the clay loam and clay land 2 out of 3 years
price relationships should be care- soils. The White Store-Creedmoor 10- to 14 per cent slope and mod- Intertilled crop followed by closefully considered, soils group, Mecklenburg, that is rate to severe sheet erosion growing crop and lespedeza, lesIn developing cropping systems not well-drained, and the shallower with occasional to frequent gul- pedeza reseeded; close-growing
and other plans for "representa- and more eroded phases of the lies crop and lespedeza, lespedeza retive farms" certain basic principles slate soils, such as Alamance, seeded; break land 3 out of 5
have been followed. Crop rotations Orange, and Herndon, generally years
are recommended (1) for the most are not suited to production of al- 15 per cent or steeper slope, se- Seeded to permanent sod or reeconomical utilization of commer- falfa. Davidson, Lloyd, and Cecil vere sheet erosion with very fre- forested
cial fertilizers; (2) as a factor in soils are best adapted to this crop. quent gullies
preventing erosion and depletion Ladino and White clovers in pasof the soil, in maintaining or in- ture mixtures are not adapted
creasing the organic matter in the generally to White Store-Creed- of woods pastured, and six acres of the cropland; and the cropping
soil, and in improving soil texture; moor and sandy loams of the of woods and other land. The soil plan generally was conducive to a
and (3) as a factor in reducing Cecil-Appling-Durham group. is predominantly Cecil sandy loam rapid rate of erosion. Five acres
losses caused by plant diseases. with several fields containing Cecil of cropland were idle. Farm reA very close relationship was Small Farms" clay loam. Slopes of the fields sources not utilized in the producnoted between degrees of field
slopes and erosion conditions. Present and Alternative Systems range from 2 to 14 per cent and a tion of cotton were not very effec(This relationship was probably of the "Representative Farms." large proportion of the wooded tively used. Yields of feed crops
caused, to a large extent, by the The 1945 organization and a reor- area is much steeper, ranging.be- and livestock production rates were
high degree of similarity in crop- ganization of a representative tween 14 and 25 per cent (Table low compared with potential yields
ping systems.) rn view of this sit- small farm are shown in Table 28. 29). in line with technical and economic
uation soils, as they occurred on The land consists of 56 acres-37 Erosion conditions of the crop- conditions. Only 61 per cent of
the farms mapped, were classified acres of cropland, two acres of land vary from moderate to severe the available family labor was
into five groups as a basis for de- open permanent pasture, 11 acres sheet erosion, accompanied by oc- utilized in direct farm work (Figveloping rotations. The most in- casional gullies. About five acres ure 12). This figure does not intensive crop rotations adopted for Particular requirements of different farm of the woodland pasture is suit- elude labor used in overhead or
plans so long as the adjustment does not able for permanent pasture if it general farm upkeep.
each group were worked out by increase the intensity of cultivation. Cot- is properly developed. Results of Based on 1945 prices, the net
t h e technicians in agronomy" !on and corn or other row crops may be
interchanged. The most important points soil analyses in 1946 indicate that cash income to the operator and
131i935-3t prices: Prices received by to be considered are the frequency rates the PH values of the soil ranged his family amounted to $621; net
farmers-average of crop reporting District legumes; and the frequency of the occur- from 5.2 to 6.0; calcium, from low income was $958 (Table 30). On a 8 for those prices available by district, rence of different types of cover-whether minus to low plus; magnesium, per hour direct-work basis, net
North Carolina average for all others; farm intertilled. close-growing, or sod crops.
privileges-60 per cent of 1945 value; prices These rotations were based upon the as- from medium to high; phosphorus, cash income was 25 cents and net paid were adjusted by index of 1945 prices- sumption that fields would be properly ter- from low to high plus; potassium, income, 39 cents. 69.4 per cent for cash expenses and 90 raced and cultivated in accordance with
per cent for non cash expenses, field contours. This would necessitate va- from medium to very high; organic Annual acreage of intertilled
" In following these rotations one should rious degrees of terrace work, varying from matter, from 0.88 per cent to 1.20 crops that are consistent with conkeep in mind that the sequence of crops terracing complete farm units in some
and. consequently, the intensity of a de- cases to completing the job already started per cent. servation of the soil and that can
sirable rotation are influenced and often on others, or merely to maintaining the In the 1945 system, 82 per cent be grown continuously is limited
limited by the nature of the soil, the pres- terraces on those farms where the entire
ent degree of erosion, the steepness of the unit is completely and properly terraced, of the cash income was derived to about one-third of the cropland,
field slopes, the seasons, and the length Soils should be tested and analyzed every from cotton. Forty-seven per cent or 13 acres. Therefore, the inaxiof the growing periods of the crops. On I or 4 years to determine lime and ferslopes, where the degree of erosion is more tilizer requirements. of the cropland was devoted to row mum cotton acreage would be lirasevere than that described, the intensity of "See Appendix Tables I and II for de- crops; a legune was plowed back ited to eight acres as five acres
the rotation should be reduced accordingly, tailed account of income and expense of
Also, rotations may be adjusted to fit the farming systems presented in this section. into the soil on only 21 per cent would be needed to grow sufficient
(40) (41)




corn for the minimum number of pedeza and the soil would not be Table 29.-Sumnmary of major land use capabilities, representative small form, Southern
livestock required to feed the fami- plowed for onc year. Piedmont, North Carolina
ly and to provide the farm power. In this reorganized plan, cotton
In this plan, the remainder of the acreage is the same as it was in Soil condition
cropland would be devoted to small the 1945 system. Alfalfa has been Per cent Degree of Number of Per cent
grains, followed by lespedeza to he added for hay so that the lespedeza Slope erosionAce'otta
harvested for seed or hay or can be harvested for seed and the Cropland
plowed under for soil improvement, residue plowed under for soil im- 2 to 7 Moderate sheet .................... 8.2 22.3
The steeper and more eroded land provement. The number of hens 2 to 7 Severe sheet...................... 6.5 17.7
would be allowed to reseed to les- has been increased from 40 to 200. 7 to 10 Moderate to severe sheet erosion ... 5.9 16.0
7 to 10 Severe sheet erosion
with occasional gullies ............4.6 12.5
Table 28.-Organizations of representative small farm, 1945 and reorganized system, 10 to 14 Occasional gullies .................11.6 31.5
Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
Item Representative farm Total cropland............................. 36.8 100.0
1945 Reorganized IPermanent pasture
2 to 7 Some alluvial deposit .............. 1.5 21.4
Land and crops: Acres Acres 7 to 10 Occasional gullies.................. .5 7.2
Coto ......................8. 8510 to 14 Occasional gullies.................5.0 71.4
Cor ................................... 7.9 5.0 Total pasture........................ ..... 7.0 100.0
Wheat ................................... 6.1 7.4
Oats.................................... 4.1 2.8 Other land
Barley................................... 0 2.0 2 to 14 Some alluvial deposit............... .7 5.7
Alfalfa.................................. 0 3.1 10 to 14 Occasional gullies................. 11.6 94.3
Lespedeza: seed ............ ............... 0 19.21
hay.......................... 6.7 0 Total other land........................... 12.3 100.0
Garen...............................0 1.0 1 Difference from 1945 use: 5 acres posture developed from land in scattered woods ; use
Gard n ... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... 1.01.0of cropland adjusted to soil conditions.
Total................................. 42.0 49.0 Fe o uha nraei b 188 e noewudices
Double-cropped ............................10.2 12.2 Feied fomuha increase yis ob- $1,898 Ntiom would2 Uizaineas
Used for crops ........................... 31.8 36.8tae frmicesdylspr fom 95to$,7.Ulztonf
Idle ..................................... 5.0 0 acre which are attributed to bet- family labor would increase by 11
-ter seeding and fertilization prac- per cent. Net cash income per
Cropland............................... .36.8 36.8 tices and to a larger acreage of hour of direct family labor would
Open pasture ............................. 2.0 7.0 legumes turned under for soil im- be 61 cents and net income 71 cents.
Woods and other .......................... 17.2 12.2 provemient. These figures are more than douTotl lnd..................Other changes that would be ble what they were under the 1945
Toallad....................56.0 56.0 carried out under this system in- system.
Productive livestock: Number Number elude improvement of the present T he alternative opportunities
Dairy cows............................... 2 2 permanent pasture plus develop- that exist for this farm are limHens .................................... 40 200 ment of an additional five acres ited. If the acreage of cotton is
Hogs raised .............................. 23 from what is now scattered woods; devoted to production of feed it
Worstok......................... construction of a laying house, would he possible to add only 200
Worktoc ........................... 2 brooder house, and grannary; ter- laying hens to the organization.
Labor on farm: racing about 50 per cent of the Under 1945 prices this would reTotal family .............................. 4 4 cropland and pasture and repair- duce the net cash income of the
Mlen full time ........................... 1 1L ing the present terraces on the farm about $340 below that deInvestment: Dollars Dollars other half; and applying lime to a scribed in the reorganized system.
Realestte.....................4438fifth of the cropland each year. The price of cotton would have to
Meachieryte............................... 438513 Under the reorganized plan, it drop about 16 cents, a reduction
M ach ner .. .... ... ... ... .... ... ... 388388
Workstock ...............................41 410 is estimated that total cash income of 30 per cent with prices of eggs
Productive livestock ....................... 212 590 would be increased from $1,339 to remaining at the 1945 level of
-$3,246, of which cotton would con- 40.4 cents a dozen, before egg proTotal investment .............5,448 6,521 tribute less than one third (Table duction could profitably replace
I The relative quantity of the lesipcdeza crop, used for seed. hay, and cover wouldl depend, I 0.Cs am clne ol otno nto hssz.Ml
in part, on the relative Prices, preferences of the farmer, and individual conditions, more than double, with total ex- cows might be added in place of Residue from combined seed left on land. penses inraigfrom $103to cotton. Hwvr diinlps
(42) (43)




Table 30.-Summory of income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative small
0 farm, 1945 and reorganizd systm, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' E 1945 prices 1935-39 prices
0" 1945 Reorganized 1945 Reorganized
X. .......... o ,.C o. ,. r
0 Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
1. Cash receipts .......... 1,239 3,246 664 1,700
2. Family privileges ...... 662 724 .397 434
S:1. Total income 1+2) ..... 2,001 3,970 1,061 2,143
4. Cash expenses ......... 718 1,468 498 1,019
0 5. Noncash expenses ...... :25 4:30 292 387
0 6. Total 'expenses (4+5). .1,043 1,898 790 1,406
$4 07. Net cash income (-~4)2*. .021 1,778 166 681
8. Net income (3-6). ..... 958 2,072 271 728
N "1 Details of production, income and expenses are shown in Appendix Tables I and I.
g- Net cash income to the operator for the family's labor, management, and investment.
2 Net income to the operator for the family's labor and management,
0 C5
3 0" ture would mean a reduction in ties might differ on a farm of
cropland. Under these conditions similar size but with land that
H Cd ,the cotton acreage, if used for pas- would support a crop rotation of
0 ture and feed production, would different intensity. If the nature
.j support only three additional cows. of the land were such that it
21 rA substitution of this kind would would support a system in which
reduce net cash income of the re- 50 per cent of the cropland would
a organized system, under 1 9 4 5 be intertilled each year, without
prices, by $796. This indicates that loss of soil or without causing a cotton prices would have to drop reduction, in yields, the acreage
a -about 67 per cent, or about 7.5 planted to cotton could be increased
6 -cents per pound, with prices of to about 14 acres or to the limit of
milk at the 1945 level, before this available labor, whichever would
-.C change would be profitable. How- be reached first (Table 31). This
a ever, if conditions were such that increase would be made at the
. the pasture could be expanded into expense of second-year lespedeza.
land other than that used for crops, Consequently, the net cash income .. then 7 cows could be added in place with 1945 prices would be about
of the cotton. Under these condi- $500 higher than on the farm.
tions net cash income of the farm where cotton acreage was limited
4- would be reduced about $300; or to 8.5 acres.
......with milk prices remaining at the On steeper or more severely
1945 level this change could be eroded land the net cash income
. +3 made profitably if cotton were to would be reduced. Suppose, for
So drop 25 per cent or more-to 17 example, that only 25 per cent of
: cents per pound or less. If no land the cropland could be planted an0)
H were suited to alfalfa, opportuni- nually to intertilled crops. Cotton
ties for further expanding the would then be limited to about 4
*:. : dairy enterprise would be limited, acres. At 1945 prices, the net cash
E 0 W The hay would have to be harvest- income of the farm would be apto ., ed from the lespedeza crop. This proximately $450, below that pro.o 0 would necessitate a larger acreage duced by the reorganized system
,- H i r V) of second-year lespedeza and a re- with 8.5 acres of cotton.
a c 0 duction in acreage of grain crops.
IV --- '0 Variations in Land Capability: Medium-Size Farms"
$4= a The preceding analysis is based on Present and Alternative Systems
o 0 0 0 0 0 0 c:z a small farm with average land of the "Representative Farm":
C\ C2 Z H H i Z capabilities. Many farms of this
size have land capabilities above In See Appendix Tables III and IV for
detailed accounts of income and expenses of
or below this level. The opportuni- farming systems discussed in this section.
(44) (45)




The 1945 organization and a reor- sheet erosion with occasional gul- lcspedeza that was harvdstcd for labor was utilized in direct farm
ganization of a representative lies. Pasture land is generally hay or seed, or left for soil im- work (Figure 13).
medium-size farm are shown in steeper and more severely eroded, provement. About 46 per cent of Fifty-five per cent of the cash
Table 32. Total land consists of and in its present condition it is the land used for crops was inter- income was from cotton and about
120 acres, 54.5 acres of which were not considered suitable for crop- tilled and 2 acres of cropland were 80 per cent, from crops. The sale
in crops, 9.6 in permanent pasture, land. The soils analyses indicate idle. of milk was the main source of inand 53.9 in woods and farmsteads. PH values ranging between 5.5 and The rotation was not well adapt- come from livestock. The net cash
Predominant soils are Cecil fine 6.7, mostly 5.8 or less; calcium, ed to the land. Resources, other income in 1945 was $1,300 (Table
sandy loam and Cecil clay loam. low minus to medium plus; mag- than those devoted to production 34). This amounted to a return
Of the cropland 30 per cent is on nesium, medium minus to high of cotton, were under utilized, of 39 cents per hour of family
slopes of less than 7 per cent, 57 minus; phosphorus, medium minus Yields of feed crops and rates of labor worked, excluding general
per cent ranges between 7 and 10 to high minus; potassium, low plus production of livestock were below farm overhead jobs.
per cent, and 13 per cent of the to high. Organic matter ranged the most economical rates. Only In view of long-term conservaacreage is steeper than 10 per cent from .70 per cent to 1.36 per cent. 62 per cent of the available family tion of the soil, row crops on this
(Table 33). On all except the more In the 1945 system, 10.3 acres
level cropland, erosion has reached were in cotton, 12.3 in corn, 20.3
the stage described as moderate in small grains, and 30.6 acres in Table 32.-Organization of representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system,
Southern Piedmont, North Caroina
Representative farm
Table 31.-Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, small farms above
and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Item 1945 Reorganized
Item Farms above Farms below Acres Acres
average' average Land and crops:
Acres Acres Cotton ..............................
Corn..................................12.3 10.0
Land and crops: Wheat...................................9 10.7
C otton ................................... 14.0 4.0 W heat ........ ........................... 11.9
C orn ..................................... 5.0 5.0 O ats .................................. 8.4 6.0
W heat ................................. 8.9' 7.4 Alfalfa hay .............................. 0 7.7
Oats...................................2.8 2.8 Lespedeza seed..........................10.2 24.4
Barley .................................... 2.0 2.0 hay ............................ 10.8 2.0
Alfalfa ................................. 3.1 3.1 cover ......................... 9.6 1
Lespedeza seed ............................ 13.7 23.7 Garden and other ........................ 2.3 1.0
Garden .................................... 1.0 1.0 Total ................................... 75.8 72.1
Total ................................... 50.5 49.0 Double-cropped ..........................21.3 16.7
Double-cropped .... ....................... 13.7 12.2 Used for crops .......................... 54.5 55.4
U sed for crops .......................... 36.8 36.8 Idle .................................... 2.0 0
Open pasture ............................ 7.0 7.0 Cropland ......... ..................... 56.5 55.4
W oods and other ..... .................. 12.2 12.2 Open pasture ............................ 9.6 23.0
Total land..........................56.0 56.0 Woods and other ...................... 53.9 41.6
Pr oduc te laestock .. ..m. 5Total land ............................ 120.0 120.0
Productive livestock: Number NumberPrdcielvsokNubrumr
Dairy cows.2 2 Productive livestock: Number Number
H ens ..................................... 200 200 D airy cow s .............................. 4 10
Hogs raised 3 3 Hogs raised ............................... 2 3
H ens .................................... 42 300
Income summary: Dollars Dollars
1945 prices: W orkstock .... ............................. 2 2
Cash income ............................ 3,917 2,752 Labor on farm:
Cash expenses ........................... 1,634 1,445 Total family.............................5
Net cash income ....................2,283 Men full time ............................. 1 1
Cah ncme........................2,001 1,483n07met Dollars Dollars
1935-39 prices: Investment:-DolrDoas
Cash income e ............................ 2,001 1,484 Real estate .......... .... ................ 7,070 8,323
Cash expenses ........................... 1,134 1,003 M achinery ................................ 496 496
W orkstock ................................ 410 410
Net cash income ....................... 867 481 Productive livestock ........................ 378 2,110
I Cropland that would support 50 per cent in intertilled crops annually and maintain soil
fertility and yields. Total investment ........................ 8,354 11,339
2 Cropland that would support 25 per cent in intertilled crops annually and maintain soil
fertility and yields. iResidue from lespedeza seed left on land.
(46) (47)




C
farm should be limited to ap- levels. Alfalfa for hay would be M _____proximately 20 acres annually. A added so that more of the lespe- 20
maximum of 15 acres could be de- deza could be harvested for seed ______voted to cottton and the remaining and the residue left on the land. land would be sufficient to grow The number of cows would be incorn for the number of livestock creased from four to ten and the
needed to provide the family food. number of hens from 42 to 300. .........
With ten acres of pasture available Estimtaed cash receipts for the
and the possibility of developing reorganized system are $5,733, or .. ..-.
an additional 13 acres, the most an increase of 136 per cent over B
profitable use of resources would the actual 1945 business. In this
be made by increasing both poul- reorganized system cotton would a
try and dairy enterprises. This is contribute only about 20 per cent N
also true in view of the fact that of the total cash income, and live- 2
the labor supply is insufficient to stock, about 60 per cent. Cash ..................
handle a larger cotton acreage, expenses would be $2,491. Net 0
Under this reorganized system, cash income would be $3,262 as C
acreage of cotton would not be compared with $1,300 under the
changed. Acreage of corn would 1945 system of farming. Utiliza- N $be reduced slightly and that of tion of family labor would be in- _____ .small grains and lespedeza would creased about 30 per cent as a re- a d
be held at approximately present sult of more efficient distribution Z____---______Table 33.-Summary of major land use capabilities, representative medium-size farm, ct E r-l $ J0
Southern Piedmont, North Caroina >
Soil condition M
Number of Per cent
Per cent Acres' of total a
slope Degree of Erosion ... >
Cropland C
0 to 2 Recent alluvial deposit ............. 4.6 8.3 .
2 to 7 Moderate sheet erosion ............ 10.7 19.3
2 to 7 Severe sheet erosion ............. 1.5 2.7 o
7 to 10 Moderate sheet erosion and
occasional gullies ................ 31.5 56.9
10 to 14 Moderate to severe sheet erosion a.
........... ...... ....,<
and occasional gullies ............ 5.6 10.1
14 to 25 Moderate to severe sheet erosion 0 0 0 t
and occasional gullies .............1.5 2.7 4.o
Total cropland .............................. 55.4 100.0
Pasture
0 to 2 Recent alluvial deposit ............. 3.1 13.5 >
2 to 7 Recent alluvial deposit ............. .5 2.2 ..... ..
2 to 7 Occasional gullies ................. 2.0 8.7
7 to 10 Moderate to severe sheet erosion c 2
and occasional gullies ............ 1.5 6.5
10 to 14 Slight to severe sheet erosion; 0 E
occasional to frequent gullies .... 6.9 30.0 0 03 4Z"
14 to 25 Slight to severe sheet erosion; .b 0
occasional to frequent gullies 9.0 39.1 > Z
.. .r-t -H A.
Total pasture ............................. 23.0 100.0 C
Other land "I 0 I I 0 Q 0
10 to 25 Slight to severe sheet erosion with V o u o V) 0 U.
occasional to frequent gullies 41.6 100.0 V :) C12 C\2 H H
Difference from 1945 use: 1.1 acres cropland changed to pasture; 12.3 acres of brushland and scattered woods developed for pasture.
(48) (49)




of labor requirements (Figure 13). of production were concentrated Table 35.-Aternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, medium-size farms
To accomplish these adjustments, upon cotton or upon dairy and capability, Southrn Piedmont, North Carolina
a 36 per cent increase in capital poultry products. Farm
investment, chiefly: in livestock, With farms of similar size but Item above With No
would be required. A milking shed, on soils unsuited to production of average' cotton cotton
laying house, and brooder house alfalfa, the relative advantages of Acres Acres Acres
would need to be added to the dairy cows would be decreased be- Land and crops:
present buildings. Other improve- cause of the larger acreage that Cotton ....................... 10.3 9.3 0
ments would include terraces, per- would be required to produce hay. i Corn ........................ 14.0 4.0 10.0
manent pasture, and establishment Wheat ....................... 16.4 11.1 11.0
V a rat i dt Large F MOats ......................... 6.0 3.0 6.0
of alfalfa. Fn L aarm1' Barley ....................... 0 4.0 0
The Preceding discussion C a sed On large farms the relative ad- Alfalfa ...................... 7.7 3.0 7.7
Tepeeig dsuion is based0 2.0
or, a farm with land of average vantages of livestock and grains, Lespedeza hay ................ 2.0
capability. Many farms of this extensive type enterprises in com- seed ............... 20.4 41.1 34.7
size are made up of land that is parison with cotton, are greater Garden ...................... 1.0 1.0 1.0
above or below this level of pro- than on farms of the other two Total crops................77.8 76.5 72.4
ductivity. Obviously, production groups. In these cases, available cropn..................5.45 5.4
opportunities would be greater in labor supply is the limiting factor Double-cropped ............... 22.4 21.1 17.0
cases where the land would sup- more frequently than land, par- Cropland nt.pstur.......... 55.4 55.4 55.4
port a more intensive cropping sys- ticularly in the production of cot- Permanent pasture .......... 23.0 7.0 23.0
ten without damage to soil or a ton. On many of the large farms Woods and other ........... 41.6 57.6 41.6
reduction in yields. If acreage of the land would support as much Total farm..............120.0 120.0 120.0
corn and small grains were in- cotton as the available labor force
creased at the expense of second- could tend, even on farms with Livestock: Number Number Number
y ea r lesp ed eza p ro d u ctio n o f feed ste ep er la n d s. T h u s, th e fa r m in g D aiest c o s N u m ber N u be N b
could be stepped up sufficiently to systems discussed here deal prin- *iens ........................ 500 200 300
add 200 hens, or a sow and 13 pigs cipally in terms of the different Hogs raised .................. 3 3 3
if the price received for eggs should alternativesIncome summary: Dollars Dolla Dollars
become less favorable (Table 35). mon size of labor force, and also, 1945 prices:
In cases where cropping systems the opportunities for production Cash income ................ 6,901 4,164 4,640
would need to be less intensive, in with different volumes and sources Cash expenses .............. 2,791 1,944 2,261
order to maintain soil productivity of labor supply.
and yields (about 25 per cent of Land resources of the represent- Net cash income ......... 4,110 2,220 2,379
the cropland in intertilled crops) ative large farm in 1945 included: 1935-39 prices:
it would nmtter little from the '7See Appendix Tables V. vi, and VII Cash income ................ 3,788 2,177 2,586
standpoint of net income under for detailed accounts of income and ex- Cash expenses.............1,937 1,349 1,569
1945 prices, whether the resources trenses for farming systems discussed in this
1945pries, heter he rsouces section.
Net cash income .......... 1,851 828 1,017
Table 34.-Summ.y of income and expenses, based n two pr.. I Cropland that will support 50 per cent in intertilled crops and maintain soil fertility and
tive medium-size form, 1945 and reorganized system, southern Ppice levels, represent yields. tivemedium-sizeform, _945_andreorganizedsystem,_outhernPiedmont, North Carolina' 2 Cropland that will support 25 per cent in intertilled crops and maintain soil fertility and
yields.
Item 1945 prices 1935-39 Prices a Unclassified milk.
1945 Reorganized 1915 Reorganized
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 122 acres of cropland; 23 acres of ditions are generally described as
receipts.......... 2,435 5,753 1,265 3,090 permanent pasture, five of which slight to moderate degrees of
2. Family privileges ...... 674 882 404 529 would be suitable for more inten- sheet erosion (Table 36). Soils
.- sive culture; and 93 acres of woods analysis indicated PH values rang3. Total income (12)..3,109 6,("35 1,669 3,619 and other land, of which nearly all ing between 5.6 and 6.9 (practical4. Cash expenses ......1,135 2,491 788 1,729 would be suitable for permanent ly all cropland and pasture of this
5. Noncash expenses .......494 742 445 I 668 pasture and eventually for crop- particular farm received one ton
6. Total expenses (4+5) 1 --land if properly developed. The or more of lime per acre during the
-4)1,629 3,23: 1,233 2,397 soils are practically all silt loams preceding five years); calcium,
7. Net cash income 1-4:.,0 2,6 7 ,397
8. Net income (3-6)3 ..... 1,480 3,402 436 1,222 of the flerndon-Georgeville and medium minus to high; magnesium,
8. etilsofProductio, income 3s 46 1 2 iAlamance series. The slopes of al- medium minus to high minus;
Details of production, income and expenses are shown in Appendix Tables III and IV. most all the land are between 2 phosphorus, low minus to high
Net cash income to the operator for the family's labor, management and investment, and 7 per cent, and erosion con- minus, mostly high minus; potas(Net income to the operator for the family's labor and management
(50) (51)




sium, extreme variations from low pattern of requirements was a very and livestock products for most or. In this system, about 88 per
to very high (probably influenced influential factor Figure 14). Ex- efficient use of the available labor, cent of the labor-force living on
by heavy cotton fertilization). The elusive of overhead jobs, 63 per coupled with sound land use and the farm would be utilized in tliorganic matter ranged between 1 cent of family labor and only 54 minimum risks from adverse con- rect enterprise work. With 1945
andI 2 per cent, per cent of the cropper labor was ditions that might result from prices, returns to the operator's
The representative organization utilized ia farm work. For the causes beyond control of the farm- family would amount to: Net cash,
in 1945 and alternatives are shown operator's family, net cash income
in Table 37. In 1945, 55 per cent per hour of direct work on eaterofcah ecips er ro te al piss munedto86cetsad Table 37.-Orgonizotion of representative large form, 1945 and alternative systems,
of cotton and cottonseed. Gash re- net income, 71 cents. Adjusted to Seprsehttiv fidmnrmrhCaoln
ceipts include the cropper's share the 1935-39 prices,corsndgsstm
of te crps. ashfarmexpeses returns to the operator's familyAlentv
totle $305 (Tbl 38. f tis would amount to only 23 cents and Item195Cto-otn-iesck
amount, $1,115 was the net cash one cent, respectively. Net cash195 Cto-otn- Lvsck
inoeto tecroppers or csof icmtorperlbbadonlivestock small grains small grains
cropper labor. In addition to this 1945 prices, was 30 cents per hourAceArsArsArs
the cropper usually received use of worked. Land and crops:AceArsArsArs
a dwelling, land for a garden, wood In terms of physical capabilities Cotton .............. 22.0 16.0 36.4 0
for home use, and pasture priv- of land resources, this farm would Corn, grain ..........24.0 19.0 5.0 9.0
ilgsfrhi ietck upr mxmmo 4 ce fCorn, silage ...........0 6.4 0 0
Ine for5 hiso l ive c supor ataimmoh4ecrso Wheat .............. 14.0 30.2 47.6 74.0
Inrg 195fabor eiffencvey onithle cotton or about 30 dairy cows. The Oats................ 27.0 10.6 5.0 5.0
lrge fharmonsmdiffer veynittle cotton-livestock (Table 37) system Alfalfa hay ...........0 17.3 0 8.0
frmta nsmle nt.The combines the production of cotton Lespedeza hay........20.0 0 8.0 0
seed ...26.0 60.3 74.6 109.0
Table 36.-Summary of moior land us aaiiis ersnaielreform, Southern Gadnadother ... 46.0 303.10
Piedmont, North Carolina uecpblterpeettv ag
SolcniinTotal crops........ 163.0 162.8 179.6 206.0
Pe etNumber of Per cent 7.
Pe etacres' of total Double-cropped ...41.0 40.8 52.6 7.
slope Degree of erosion Crpad.....122.0 122.0 127.012.
CrpadOpen pasture ...23.0 48.0 9.0 18.0
0-2 Slight sheet erosion ...................2.4 1.9 *Wosadohr 9. 801209.
2-7 Slight sheet erosion .................4.0 3.2 Total land .......238.0 238.0 238.0 238.0
2-7 Very moderate sheet erosion ............100.9 79.4 Lietc:Nme1ume ubrNme
2-7 Slight sheet erosion and Lvsok ubr Nme ubrNme
occasional gullies ....................5. Dairy cows............4 20 2 10
2-7 Moerteshet roio...........127 0. 1Brood sows ...........0 1 0 0
27 Slight sheet erosion..................2.0 10.6 Hogs raised........... 3 13 3 3
- ~~Hens.................4505 0
Total cropland............................ 127.0 100.0 Pwr
Pasture Workstoc ...........4 3 3 2
0-2 Recent alluvial deposit .................. 8.0 7.9 Tractors ..............1111
2-7 Slight sheet erosion ..................71.8 70.7 Labor:
2-7 Slight sheet erosion andoprtrfalyal- 4444
occasional gullies .................... 9.5 9. Oprtrfmiy1l
7-0 Slgt heteoso adFull time men ... 1 1 11
occalihtsional gullsin .......... 1.8 Cropper labor: all - 6 6 6 0
71 Moderatsheetl erolision.................1.4 1.2 Full time men... 2 2 2 0
7-1 Mo eaes eteoi n .. . . . 041 ours Hours Hours Hlours
Total pasture............................. 101.5 100.0 Seasonal labor.......... 0 490 210 310
Other land Investment: Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
2-7 Slight sheet erosion .................... 3.1 33.0 Real estate.........13,200 15,481 14,000 15,000
7-10 Slight sheet erosion .................... 6.3 67.0 Machinery..........1,330 2,082 2,082 2,082
-Workstock........... 820 615 615 410
Total other land ............................ 9.4 100.0 Productive livestock.. 393 4,623 450 2,450
I'Differences from 194.5 use: 5 acres of pasture could be used for cropland; 83.G acres of ITotal investment .15,743 22,801 17,147 19,942
wood could be developed for pasture and eventually used for cropland if needed.
(52) .1(53)




$1.39 per hour; net income, $1.12 A system in which the livestock
per hour. At the. 1935-39 prices would be omitted and acreage of 0
these figures would drop to 47 cotton would be raised to the n
and 17 cents respectively. At the maximum that could be handled : E
1945 level, the net cash returns with the labor available (cotton- W
to cropper labor would be 35 cents small-grains system) would return per hour worked. This would be a net cash income of $5,196 to the to
higher, even excluding farm priv- operator-$265 higher than the U' .'
ileges furnished by the farmer, cotton-livestock system; but the 0
than the prevailing rates paid to cropper's income would be reduced
wage hands. Due to the fact that $506. This system lacks some of .- 0 o
the family income includes re- the long-run advantages of the
turns to functions of production, cotton-livestock system. Also, this 0 0 s- o 0
other than labor, that are contrib- system would be subject to greatuted by the operator, returns to er risks, although problems of man- ;Li
the cropper are not comparable to agement would be less.
the returns of the operator. Items The possibility of operating a
of expense and income differ in unit of this size with only the la- ci
the two cases. These differences bor of the operator and his family is
account for the greater influence is illustrated by the livestock-small L _F-73o
of the specified price changes on grain system. In this case, the
the operator's income compared livestock enterprises would be lev- o-4 H "
with that of the cropper. eled near the maximum that the 0 H :.
The principal items of addition- family could tend and the remain- Jr.
al investment would include a com- der of the land would be used for /0 r- r .bine, dairy cows, hens, fences, and growing small-grains-lespedeza, a E
terraces. Total investment would combintaion with extremely low
amount to $22,801, an increase of labor requirements, especially when
$7,058 over the 1945 investment, handled with tractor equipment.
Table 38.-Income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative large farm, 1945 and alternative systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
Systems of farming
Item and price level Cotton- Cotton- Livestock- En
1945 livestock small grains small grains '
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 4DL. -44
1945 prices: IQ
1. Cash receipts .............. 5,237 11,596 9,748 9,364 W C 0
2. Family privileges ..........691 794 794 794
3. Total income (1+2)...... 5,928 12,390 10,542 10,158
4. Cash expenses ............3,057 6,665 4,552 3,362 "2
5. Noncash expenses ..........1,074 1,746 1,358 1,254 4
6. Total expenses (4+5)' ...... 4,131 8,411 5,910 4,716 0 C >
7. Net cash income (1-4)2 ...... 2,180 4,931 5,196 6,002 H
8. Net income (3-6)3 .......... 1,797 3,979 4,632 5,442 ? U
1935-39 prices: 0
1. Cash receipts .............. 2,700 6,314 5,142 5,333 d 0 P,
2. Family privileges ...........415 476 .-476 476 X1+
3. Total income 1+2) ....... 3,115 6,790 5,618 5,809 j1r H
4. Cash expenses ............. 2,122 4,626 3,159 2,333 ( 0
5. Noncash expenses .......... 967 1,571 1,222 1,218 0 J a.)
6. Total expenses (4+5)1 ..... 3,089 6,197 4,381 3,551 r I E i e A
7. Net cash income (1-4)2 ...... 578 1,688 1,983 3,000 t- I I
8. N et income e (3 .6)-.......... 26 593 1,237 2,258 M CC C tD LO V to W W 3
'Details of farm expenses shown in Appendix Table VII.
2Net cash income to operator for the family labor. management, and investment. Net income to the operator for the family labor and management.
(54) 1 (55)




Apparently, under this system the tors, hoeing, and harvesting limit Table 39.-Proportion of labor living on farms utilized in productive work, representative
farm operator's income would be the acreage a family can tend, un- forms, 1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
maintained near, or even raised der present production methods, to System and size of farm Percentage of available
above, the systems in which crop- only a few acres. If it proves eco- labor used
per labor would be employed to nomical to perform these tasks 1945:
produce cotton. with tractor equipment, one fami- Small ............................................... 61
Recent developments indicate ly would be able to tend a much Medium size .......................................... 62
that in the future it may become larger acreage. This would raise Large:
feasible to mechanize cotton pro- the relative advantage of cotton Total farm..................................... 57
duction more completely, especial- under current and historical price Family labor .................................... 63
ly on farms of this size."5 Cultiva- relationships, compared with al- Cropper labor ...................................... 54
ternatives on large farms. Under Reorganized systems:
'2 The Use of Mechanical Cotton Har- such conditions, about 34 acres of Small ............................................... 72
testers in North Carolina, By McPherson, cotton could be substituted for an Medium size ......................................93
W. W., and Greene, R. E. L., Progress
Report. Dept. of Agr. Econ. AF-Infor- equal acreage of small grain-les- Large (cotton-livestock)
nation Series No. 13 Agr. Expt. Sta. in pedeza in the livestock-small grain Total farm .....................................88
cooperation with Bur. Agr. Econ. July ........................................
1947. Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton in system. Family labor....................................87
North Carolina, 1947 by Sutherland, J. G., Cropper labor ...................................... 88
and James, H. B., Progress Report, Dept. 20, N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. in cooperation Large (livestock-small grains) .......................95
of Agr. Econ. AR-Information Series No. with Bur. Agr. Econ. Dec. 1948.
FARM SIZE, PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY, AND INCOMES
age who were available during the farms (Table 39). In terms of laIn cases where management is scales of operation that require a cultivating and harvesting seasons, bor returns per unit, there were
not the limiting factor many farms longer period of time. varied directly with labor require- some differences; but these were
of the Southern Piedmont are too In the predominate farming sys- ments, relatively small (Table 40). Acresmall in land area for achieve- tens of 1945, the labor, land, pow- In 1945, there was very little age of cotton per unit of labor was
ment of maximum efficiency in the er, and equipment on large farms difference in labor efficiency, meas- fairly constant throughout the
use of the other resources. How- were used very little more effi- urged by the proportion used, on range of farm sizes.
ever, where management is the ciently than those on smaller the three predominant sizes of Use of power and equipment was
limiting factor, a larger scale of farms. The problems of the most
operation would not increase net effective employment of labor liv- Table 40.-Returns pcr unit of labor on representative forms, 1945 and reorganized
incomes. Instead, employment of ing on farms were aggravated by systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolinal
larger quantities of other re- the extreme fluctuations or peak Per hour of labor Per man equivalent
sources would tend to lower their periods in labor requirements. Price level and used directly of labor available
efficiency level. Also, in many Based on semi-monthly periods size of farm 945 Reorganized 1945 Reorganized
cases, farms provide an occupation production of cotton required about 1945__eorganized_1945_Reorganized
that is secondary to off-farm em- 20 hours an acre during peak pe- Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
ployment for farmers. rinods, but during ten periods of 1945 prices:
In addition to economic prob- the year it required less than one Small ..................... 39 .71 588 1,271
lems involved, physical and insti- hour per acre. The problem was Medium size ............... 44 .68 689 1,575
tutional limitations to farm en- complicated further by the fact Large (with cropper)'
largement must be considered. that critical periods for corn and Family .................. 71 1.12 1,102 2,441
These limitations are due mainly small grains occurred almost sim- Total farm ............ 47 .63 668 1,386
to location and ownership patterns. ultaneously with cotton. Labor re- Large (without cropper)' 1.43 3,400
In cases where adjustments in the quirements for livestock were
combination of land and labor and distributed r e 1 at iv ely evenly 1935-39 prices:
improvements in managerial ca- throughout the year. To a limited Small ..................... 11 .25 166 447
pacities are feasible, a period of extent livestock did not compete Medium size ................ 13 .24 202 566
time generally will be required for with the major crops. Livestock Large (with cropper)3
Family .................01 .17 16 364
accomplishing such changes. In chores on small enterprises were Cropper...............21 .24 284 524
view of these conditions, opportuni- performed before and after the Total farm' .............13 .21 183 464
ties for increasing net incomes on field work. On the other hlan(, Large (without cropper)' .58 1,385
farms with their present acreages larger livestock enterprises would
of land need to be examined in ad- reduce the labor available for field 1 Based on net income.
dition to a study of the opportuni- work. To some extent, tie avail- I Reorganized system is the cotton-livestock organization.
ties for adjustments in the cam- able labor, influenced by members 'Does not include value of cropper's farm privileges; returns to cropper labor are not
comparable to those of operator and family because of the differences in production functions.
bination of productive factors and of the operator's family of school 5Livestock-small-grains organization.
(56) o Not a predominant system in 1945.
(56) (57)




Table 41.-Investment per acre of cropland on representative forms, 194S and reorganized or enterprise combinations, and possibilities of mechanizing the
systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina farm practices, (2) changes in planting, harvesting, hoeing, and
Investment per acre of cropland tpsado id feupet cliaigoeain.Wt rs
Systems and size of Operating types, ando kindsloyen of i ent cutiandhreting e atin Wihopres-,
farm Reai Productive capital'usdan (3 emlyetoin enhndarsigadcopn,
estate livestock Power Equipment Total creased volumes of seasonal labor, and half-row cultivating equipDolarsDolar Dolar Dllas Dllrs ollrsEven with these changes small and ment, opportunity for full utiliza1945 systems: Dolr-olr olr olr olr olr medium size farms do not have tion of labor is limited. However,
Small...................121 6 11 11 149 20 sufficient acreage for maximum ef- if tractor equipment should prove
Medium..................125 7 7 9 148 20 ficiency in the use of other factors, to be economical in the performLarge ................... 108 3 11 6 128 25 Niher the addition of more equip- ance of these tasks, it would tend
ment of the kind currently used, to level the labor peaks and inSmoralnized ......3 16y1s11e77s4 buildings, and other forms of capi- crease considerably the acreage
Smdium..................150 38 17 91 204 45 tal to the present size-type farms that the relatively fixed labor
Lare:nor the increase in size of farm force could handle.
Cotn-arge:..... 2 8 0 1 17 5 alone would solve the economic Employment of wage hands durCot-ivestockllgrans..127 38 10 12 187 55 problems of production in the ing peak labor periods would tend
Livetoc-smll rais ..11 19 8 1 15 26Southern Piedmont. to increase the acreages that the
' Annual cash expenses per acre of cropland. Addition of livestock enterprises, fixed farm labor supply could tend,
due to the relatively even labor but this is not thought to be
distribution, offers considerable op- feasible in the Southern Piedmont.
closely associated with problems acre higher on the large farm portunity for the use of labor pre- Alternative employment opportunisimilar to those involving the use (Table 41). In general, acreage of viously underemployed. However, ties during other periods of the
of farm labor. Quantities sufficient cropland and investment, excluding with the most common practices, year would not absorb such a seato meet peak periods were kept by land, per man equivalent of avail- I quality of livestock, and rates of sonal labor force sufficiently to
the farmer. As a result, there were able labor increased with the size production found in 1945, very lit- provide adequate annual incomes.
considerable periods of idleness, of farm, but the extent of increase tle would be gained, in terms of Finally, these data indicate opThe hours of work per lead of was relatively small (Table 42). income, by the additional employ- portunity for a greater degree of
workstock on the representative Assuming that managerial ca- meat of the available labor. But efficiency, to a limited extent, on
farms amounted to: small farm, pacity is not the limiting factor, with improved practices the addi- small and medium size farms with
550; medium size farm, 782; and the most efficient utilization of la- tional labor required would gain present levels of equipment. On
large farm, 483. On the large farm, bor and other productive resources, a much higher net return from many farms larger acreages would
a tractor was used 356 hours, regardless of size of farm, would thsInepie.b eesayfra praht
Under the 1945 system, invest- require one of the following The greatest opportunity for in- optimum use of family labor, powments per acre of cropland were c ha ng es, or combination of creasing efficiency in cotton pro- er, and equipment. The larger
lowest, except for power, but an- changes, from the 1945 conditions: duction appears to stem from the acreage necessarily would need to
nual cash expenses were $5 per (1) Adjustments in type of farm,
Table 43.-Summory of incomes at 194S prices, representative farms, 1945 and reorganized
Table 42.-Relation of land and investment to labor on farms, representative farms, 1945 systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina INet cash income Net income
Land per worker Investment per worker2 I System and size of farms Pefam erpso Prfrm eresn
Systems and size Total less landPefam erpsn Prfrm erero
of farms Improved Total and operating Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
Crop1land land Total less land capital 19415 systems:
Small .................... 621 155 958 240
Acres Acres Dollars Dollars Dollars Medium..................1,300 260 1,480 296
19-15 systemsLag
Small...............22.6 23.8 3,783 1,513 1,072 L ae ..........32530 ,1 9
.Medium.............26.2 30.6 4,393 1,692 1,166 Optalr................32,295 330 2,92 29
Large'............... 28.0 33.3 4,312 1,743 924Oprtradfml 2,85417949
Reorganized systems: Reorganized systems:
Small...............22.6 26.9 4,901 2,534 1,634 Small........ ............1,778 444 2,072 518
Medium.............25.6 36.3 6,403 3,532 2,379 Lare:m.........,6 5 ,08
Large: Large: ivstck
Cotton-livestock' ..28.0 39.0 6,758 4,074 2,545 Cotonlivestock: ... ,9369 601 0
Livestock-sm. gr. ..77.9 89.0 14,297 7,426 5,363 Opt'.............4,9931 6993 6,041 604
' Includes cropper labor. ILivestock -sm all grain ... .6,002 1,500 5,542 1,386
$Conld anperan pt Includes nct cash returns to cropper labor.
(58) (59




Table 44.-Summary of incomes at 1935-39 average prices, representative farms, 1945 customary costs these less inten- number were more than 60 years and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina sive enterprises are profitable sup- old.
System and size of farms Net cash income Net income plements in a cotton type of farm- Managerial capacity, both presPer farm Per person Per farm Per person ing. ent and potential, is rather inDollars Dollars Dollars Dollars In general these adjustments tangible. It is not known to what
1945 systems: would include: (1) Reduction in the extent this item is the limiting
Small .................... 166 42 271 68 proportion of the cropland planted factor of production. However,
Medium .................. 477 95 436 87 in row crops, (2) increases in the farms operated according to the
Large: proportion of the cropland on reorganized systems would reTotal' ................ 1,352 135 800 80 which a legume would be plowed quire a higher degree of both techOperator and family ..... 578 144 26 6 under annually, (3) increases in nical skill and managerial ability
Reorganized systems: productive employment of avail- than is required by the present
Small .................... 681 170 728 182 able labor, power, and other re- systems.
Medium .................. 1,361 272 1,222 244 sources, and (4) increases in farm Larger capital funds would be
Large: investments, required. In the farm business,
Cotton-livestock: At 1945 prices, even with the expenses of a machine and/or othTotat ................ 3,119 312 2,024 239 changes in farming systems, net er types of durable capital are
Operator and family ..1,688 422 593 148 cash income per person would be handled through long-term depreLivestock-small grain ... 3,000 750 2,258 564 only $444 on small farms and $652 ciation and interest charges, with
I Includes net cash returns to cropper labor. on medium size farms. Where the rate depending upon the exthere is capable management, the pected life of the item. In many
size of farm would need to be cases, this expected life covers
be accompanied by capable man,- business is shown in Tables 43 and equivalent to that of the larger a period of many years. Usually,
agement and by major adjustments 44. The "net cash income" is par- farms to permit adjustments in or- however, farmers are required to
in enterprise combinations, prac- ticularly important in view of ganization and operation t h a t pay cash or to meet installment
tices, and types and kinds of equip- necessary cash expenses for family would be necessary for efficient use payments allocated over a period
ment. Also, these adjustments living and for payment of farm of the most common units of power much shorter than the life of the
would be necessary on the larger debts. The farmer also must con- and family labor on farms. asset. Also, there is need for credfarms which already have suffi- sider "net income," because in the it adapted to the financing of farm
long-run, the income must cover Development of the alternative improvements such as pasture de-'
cient acreage of land. depreciation and interest on equip- systems would meet with several velopment, terracing, and improveA test of efficiency measured in meant and buildings which eventual- obstacles. Dairy and poultry en- ment of livestock herds.'
terms of net income to the farm ly must be replaced. terprises are relatively inflexible The reorganized farming sysbecause of the fixed costs in the teams, if extensively developed,
form of buildings and equipment, would require all-weather farm-toSUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS' Because of the inexperience of market roads and an efficient marfarm operators and farm labor in keting system. Opportunities for
handling commercial livestock en- improving production efficiency by
Considerable opportunity f or support larger numbers of live- terprises and the necessity of gain- mechanizing cotton production c
profitable adjustments in farming stock. ing technical experience, these en- an in ottn r out
systems exists in the cotton pro- On small and medium size farms, tecisand by improving farm layouts
terprises would need to be started a e m j rp a e h t n e u t e
ducing section of the Southern in both present and alternative are major phases that need further
Piedmont. Key adjustments would systems, cotton appears to be the Tis adjustment would require sa in eal allcas
include a greater degree of effi- most profitable enterprise. Poul- This adut n ou equre Finally, the accomplishment of
ciecy n he rouctonof oton orlong-range planning on the part of these changes would require intenciency in the production of cotton try offers the best opportunity for farmers.
and a more effective use of the re- supplementing income from cot- sive and coordinated work by agrimaining farm resources. These ad.. ton since pasture land usually is Age and health of the farm oper- cultural agencies whose jobs are
justments would mean the adop- limited to a few acres. If enough ators must be considered. In many to provide farmers with information of improved or more efficient pasture land is available, dairying cases, several years would be need- tion needed in planning and operenterprise practices and changes compares favorably with poultry. ed to accomplish the recommended ating their farms. Such work must
in the resource organization and On larger units adjustment op- changes and the older men would be directed toward the specific
enterprise combinations. Increased portunities depend upon the labor not share in the advantages to the
yields of feed crops, brought about situation. In cases where labor is extent of younger men who might For treatment of this subject see: In,vtamnt Crcdit tos Imirovc F'arming Sys,by improved practices, would mean scarce relative to land, dairy, poul- expect to gain livelihoods from vems by Donald It. lbach and G. W. Forster.
that present sizes of farms would try, and small grains-lespedeza their farms for a much longer pe- N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station and
'~ ecApendx abe VIIfu deaied offer opportunities for profitably riod of years. The average age of, the Bureau of Agricultural Economicsr cnmSee Appendix Table ViaI for detailed replacing cotton. On farms where farmers in the study was 54 years, 21 Further treatment of this subject by
summary of farm organizations in 1945 the North Carolina Agricultural Expericompared with alternatives. enough labor is available at the and more than a third of the total meat Station is currently in progress.
(60) (61)




problems of individual farmers as mation is to be sound. APPENDIX TABLES
well as the more general problems Benefits of these adjustments Table I.-Production and sale of faonm products, representative small farm, 1945 and rear.
of the area. For practical purposes would serve society as a whole. The ganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina'
it is often necessary to break down general economic and social status *1945 Reorganized
problems into partial analysis, of the rural people of the South-ItmUiFo aeFrsl'
However, the results should be ern Piedmont would be raised but Prem UntProae- Fr ae
proerl inegate an th uti- notattheexpnseofothr sg-duction Quantity Value duction Quantity Value
mate effects appraised if the infor- meats of the economy. Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars
Crops:
Cotton: lint.......... Cwt. 42 42 952 45 45 1.004
seed..........Cwt. 67 63 151 70 70 167
Corn...................Bu. 198 0 0 250 0 0
Wheat.................lBu. 105 40 66 222 54 89
Oats................... Bu. 0 0 0 168 0 0
Barley.................IBu. 0 0 0 60 0 0
1.espedeza seed3... CWt. 0 0 0 65 65 523
Hay: lespedeza...Ton 8 0 0 0 0 0
alfalfa.......... Ton 0 0 0 9 0 0
Oats ..........."Ton 5 0 0 0 0 0
Garden and other ....... 20 20
Total crops .......... xxx 1,189 1,803
Livestock:
Milk..................Cwt. 74 14 39 120 4 167
Veal.................. Cwt. 1 1 10 2 2 27
Pork..................Cwt. 5 0 0 6 0 0
Eggs..................Doz. 300 150 61 2,800 2.680 1,083
Chickens.............. Cwt. 2 1 16 6 5 132
Total livestock ... xxx 126 1,409
Conservation payments: .xxx 24 34
Total cash receipts .xxx 1,339 3.246
1Based on 1945 prices.
2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm. Utilization of the lespedeza crop would depend on relative prices, preference of farmers. and individual conditions.
4408 pounds of butter or equivalent in form of other dairy products.
*Items not applicable.
Table If.-Form expenses, representative small form, 194S and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina'
Value
Item
1945 Reorganized
Dollars Dollars
Cash:
Fertilizer and lime.................................. 249 415
Seeds and plants.....................................60 147
Ginning cotton.......................................45 47
Combining, grain and lespedeza.......................24 304
Feed.................................................82 219
Livestock purchased..................................20 62
Other livestock expense...............................16 35
Auto and hauling.....................................70 70
Equipment repair....................................28 28
Building repair......................................60 75
Taxes................................................27 27
Crop insurance......................................0 22
Building insurance...................................7 17
Hired labor..........................................30 .0
Total cash expenses...............................718 1.468
Noncash:
Depreciation: Total................................. 77 93
Buildings................ .......... ............134 50
Equipment.........................:................43 43
Interest: total......................................248 317
Current operating..................................43 88
Short-term investment.............................50 69
Real estate........................................155 180
Total noncash expenses...........................125 430
Total expenses..................................1,043 1,898
(62) Based on 1945 prices. (3




T a b ld I le o Pr o d u yst e m So u t e r n P i do m o n tr o N t h, C r o n a T a b l e V P ro d u c t i o n a n d s o l e o f f o r m p r o d u c t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l a r g e f o r m 1 9 4 5 a n d
Table II.-Production and sole of farm products, rcpresentatiYo medium-size form, 1945 rognzdsseSuhr idot ot aoia
and reorganized system, So then Piedmont, North Carolina' reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina'
1945 eorgaizedReorganized
1945 Reorganized 1945 cotton-livestock
Item Undt Item Unit For sale2 For sale2
Produc- Produc- Item Unit ProtVa- Production Quantity Value tion Quantity Value tion Quantity Value tion Quantity Value
Crops: Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars
Cotton: lint ......... Cwt. 51 51 1,154 54 54 1,217 Crops:
seed ........ Cwt. 81 77 185 85 85 203 Cotton: lint .........Cwt. 110 110 2,465 84 4 1,890
Corn. ................ Bu. 208 58 85 500 0 0 seed ........ Cwt. 174 165 395 131 131 315
Wheat...............Bu. 204 125 206 321 44 73 Corn: Grain .......... Bu. 600 325 467 950 0 0
Las e.C.... Bu. 277 100 90 360 0 0 silage ......... Ton 0 0 0 64 0 0
Lespedeza seed ........wt. 27 18 Whea Bu. 241 181 299 906 391 645
.... Ton 0 0 0 23 0 0 Oats ................ Bu. 8.t 655 50 636 891
Lespedza ..... Ton 0 0 0 23 0 0 Lespedeza seed ...... Cwt. 68 52 417 200 200 1,623
Garden and other .... xx* 40 4 0 0 Hay: Lespedeza ...... Ton 24 0 0 0 0 0
eot hep xxx 1,0 24 Alfalfa ........ Ton 0 0 0 52 0 0
Total crops xxx ,97 2,204 Total crops ........ xxx 4,633 4,473
Livestock:
Milk..................Cwt. 158 127 357 600 537 1,504 Livestock:
Veal .............. Cwt. 2 2 30 6 4 60 Milk .................Cwt. 158 127 357 1,200 1,137 3,184
Cow ................ Each 0 0 0 6 4 60 Cows............... Each 0 0 0 3 3 246
Cok 5................ 0 0 0 6 0 0 Veal ............... Cwt. 2 2 20 11 10 130
Pork................. Doz. 321 181 73 4,200 4,050 1,636 Pork ................ Cwt. 8 0 0 28 22 305
Chickens ............ Cwt. 2 1 18 10 8 204 Eggs ................ Doz. 413 273 110 7.000 6,850 2,767
Chack estock...... 2 1 78 0 8 4 Chickens ............ Cwt. 2 1 29 16 14 360
Total livestock ..xx 478 3,489 1Toal livestock..xxx* 516 *" 6,992
Conservation payments .xxx 50 C o a tion spayment... *xxx
Toa as0nom x Conservation payments .xxx ** 88 ** 131
Total*a5,23762,435 5,753
Tas h ices. Total cash income XXX 5,237 11,596
2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm. 1 lased on 1945 prices.
* Items not applicable. 2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm.
Items not applicable.
Table IV.-Form expenses, representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina'
Item Value
1945 Reorganized Table VI.-Form products used by the operator's family, representative large form, 1945
Cash Dollars Dollars and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
lime 1945 Reorganized
Fertilizer and l .................................. .3 691 Item
Seeds and plants .......................................15 216 Unit Quantity Value Quantity Value
Ginning cotton ................. .............. 65 57
Feed1239
Livestock purchase ad .esp.dza.... 141 442 Units Dollars Units Dollars
Fed...................120 82 Corn ................................ Bu. 10 15 10 15
Autotek ptchanse 18 107 Wheat ............................... Bu. 24 40 24 40
t.t..r..............~i .......... I "1.....17 5
Auto and hauling ........... 105 105 Garden .............................. ..100 150
Euipiment repair ..0 30 Milk ................................ Cwt. 3t 50 100
Taxes ............ .. ................. ... 70 105 Eggs ............................... Doz. 140 57 120 48
TaeInsgre 48 48 Pork ............................... Cwt. 8 108 6 90
C pias... ................................... 0 27 Veal ............................... Cwt. 0 0 1 13
rih insurance ... 27 Chickens ........................ Cwt. 1 29 2 58
ir la0 g insuadc.................................2 Wo.d .............................. Cord 8 64 8 64
l ...................................... Dwelling ........................... Rent 211; 216
Total cash expenses................... ... ..1,135 2,191 Total vaue ..................... xx 691 xx 794
Depreciation: total ............................... 115 151
lEqinigs ............. 65 101
'.Uimeet .. 50 50
latertt: to~tal3.......................................37 591
Current operating ............................ 68 149
Short-term investment .......................... 64 151
Real estate ..................................... 6247 291
Total noncash expenses ....................... 494 742
Total farm expenses ....................... 1,629 3,233
' Based on 1945 prices.
(64) (65)




Table VIll.-Farm organizations in 1945 compared with alternatives, representative farms,
Table VIl.-Farm expenses, representative large farm, 1945 and reorganized cotton- Southern Piedmont, North Carolina
livestock system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' Percentage change'
Value Large farms2
Items
Item Reorganized Medium Cotton Livestock
1945 cotton-livestock Small size Cotton small small
farm farm Livestock grains grains
Cash: Dollars Dollars
Fertilizer and lime ............................... 750 1,496 centage of cropland used
Seeds and plants ...................... .......... 49 476 Per
Ginning cotton.-....................................117 88 annually for:
Cotton ....................... 0 1 5 11
Combining, grain and lespedeza ................... 164 '0 Intertilled crops .............. 8 -6 --5 6 -3
Other crop expense .............................. 4 3315 Legume plowed under...........31 9 7 16 43
Feed ............................................. 150 830 egume p lwe d u d r
Livestock purchased .............................. 30 84 Percentage of all land used for
Other livestock expense ........................... 24 110 Acreage of cotton ............... 0 0 -27 65
Tractor .......................................... 145 163 ...............
Auto and hauling ................................. 140 280 Labor and power used:
Equipment repair ................................ 79 133 Percentage of available labor used 11 31 31 9 38
Building repair ................................... 195 299 Hours workstock used per head .... -5 10 54 12 54
Taxes ........................................... 70 80 Hours tractor used ................ 0 0 12 0 27
Crop insurance ... .................................. 0 42
Building insurance ............................... 25 50 Amount of investment:
Cropper labor .................................... 960 878 Real estate ....................... 16 18 17 6 14
Hired cropper labor .............................. 155 1,184 Equipment ........................ 0 0 98 98 98
H ired labor ...................................... 0 157 Power ............................ 0 0 15 15 30
Productive livestock ............... 178 458 1,076 14 523
Total cash expenses ........................ :.. 3,057 6,665 Total investment ............... 20 36 45 9 27
Noncash:
Depreciation: total ............................... 302 438 Quantity of production:
____Cotton. lint..........................7 6 -24 74s
Grains, all ....................... 67 53 67 43 119
killings ...................................... 125 178 Grains, for sale ................... 35 -81 -53 65 144
Equipment.................................... .177 260 Hay ............................. 12 100 117 -50 0
Interest: Total .................................... 772 1,308 Pasture capacity ................. 488 282 233 -38 25
M ilk ............................. 62 280 659 24 280
Current operating .............................. 183 400 Eggs .. ........................... 833 1.162 1,595 69 578
Short-term investment ......................... 127 366 Pork 20 20 250 0 0
Real estate .................................... 462 542 ............................
- Proportion of cash income from:
Total noncash expenses.......................1,074 1,746 Cotton ........................... -31 -30 -36 -3 3
All crops .......................... -33 -40 -50 7 -21
Total farm expenses ......I.................. 4,131 8,411 All livestock ..................... 34 41 50 -7 22
I Based on 1945 prices. I Changes from 1945 representative systems.
2 Performed with, own combine. 2 Each in terms of changes from 1945 large cotton farm.
3 Baling hay, harvesting silage, and cleaning lespedeza seed. No cotton grown in this organization; however, should mechanization of cotton production prove to be economical about 34 acres could be substituted for small grain-lespedeza. 4 Egg production, based on the given prices, could be profitably expanded. to this extent on individual farms; but the extent to which the market would absorb this increase, if carried out on an area-wide basis, without important relative price changes has not been determined.
(67)
(66)




LIST OF REFERENCES
County Soil Surveys, Bureau of McPherson, W. W., W. H. Pierce,
Soils USDA, in cooperation with and R. E. L. Greene, Production
the North Carolina Department Practices and Production Rates,
of Agriculture, 1921. Principal Enterprises on Cotton
F a r m s, Southern Piedmont,
Greene, R. E. L., H. Brooks James, North Carolina, North Carolina
and C. G. Dawson, Cost and Util- Agricultural Experiment Station,
ization of Power and Equipment co-operating with the Bureau of
on Farms in the Central Pied- Agricultural Economics, USDA.
mont, North Carolina Agricultur- Progress Report, AE-Informaal Experiment Station and the tion Series No. 19, Department of
Bureau of Agricultural Econom- Agricultural Economics, Novemics, USDA, co-operating, North ber 1948. Processed.
Carolina Experiment Station,
Technical Bulletin No. 84. McPherson, W. W. and R. E. L.
Greene, The Use of Mechanical
Greene, R. E. L., and WV. W. Mc- Cotton Harvesters in North CaroPherson, Major Farming Sys- lina, North Carolina Agriculturtes, 1939, and Usual Production al Experiment Station, in co-opPtwes, L, ndo l outoh eration with Bureau of AgriculPractices, Lincoln County, North ural Economics, USDA, ProgCarolina, North Carolina Agri- ral economUSA Progcultural Experiment Station, co- No. 13, Department of Agriculoperating with the Bureau of Ag- No. Epatment of Agrricultural Economics, prelimi- tural Economics, July 1947. Processed.
nary mimeographed report.
All current publications of the
Handbook for Agricultural Work- North Carolina Agricultural Exers, prepared by the North Caro- tension Service and Experiment
lina Agricultural Extension Serv- Station pertaining to agriculturice and published annually. al production and marketing.
(8
(68) i"




Full Text

PAGE 1

FOREWORD An analysis of alternative farming systems in an area must be preceded by a careful study of available resources and the present and expected future economic situation. This involves a detailed inventory of present form resources and the way in which they are being used. Part I of the report is a detailed description of agricultural conditions found in the areo-the amount of resources available on various sizes and types of forms; the variations in existing farming systems; and the extent to which improved practices are being used. Part 11 of the report deals with the analytical phases of the study. This section i intended to answer some of the questions regarding adjustments. The relative profitableness of enterprises found in the area has been determined and alternative enterprise combinations presented. The effect of adopting improved practices along with adjustments in enterprise combinations is illustrated by complete budget analyses. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report is the result of a study which was conducted under the joint direction of G. W. Forster, Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, North Carolina State College, and E. L. Longsford, Agricultural Economist, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture. R. J. Saville, Agricultural Economist, formerly with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, acted in on advisory capacity throughout the study. Invaluable technical materials were contributed by staff members of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Extension Service of North Carolina. Appreciation is expressed to J. F. Reed, R. L. Lovvorn, and E. R. Collins, of the Department of Agronomy. Dr. Reed spent considerable time in connection with the agronomic practices and in reviewing the manuscript. J. A. Arey, dairy specialist, and C. F. Parrish, poultry specialist, contributed materially to the work covering livestock-production practices. D. W. Colvard, Animal Industry Department, and C. B. Ratchford, form management specialist, reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable suggestions. R. L. Anderson, Department of Experimental Statistics, served as consultant in regard to the sampling procedure and statistical techniques of analysis. Forms used as a basis of this study were mapped and soil samples gathered by H. M. Smith, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, USDA, and W. D. Lee, Soils Specialist, North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service. Soil samples were analyzed by the Soils Testing Laboratory, North Carolina Deportment of Agriculture. Local personnel of the Extension Service and of the Soil Conservation Service, cooperated in doing field work. Appreciation is expressed to the farmers who contributed their time, and knowledge, and the records of their form businesses.



PAGE 1

this study of individual farms was (Table 27). Rotations for individTable 27.-Most intensive crop rotations adopted to specified soil conditions, Southern Pied. to analyze the opportunities in acual farms were modified in accordmonth, North Carolina cordance With 1945 price relationance with specific conditions on the Condition of field slope and soil erosion Most intensive adapted rotation ships (exception was made for a particular farm. few items whose prices for that Production requirements for al0to 2 per cent slope and no apIntertilled crop each year; break year appeared to be out of line falfa, pastures, and lespedeza are parent erosion land each year with the most common pattern); influenced more by the soils than to supplement this with an analyare tie requirements for cotton 2to 7 per cent slope and slight Intertilled crop followed by closesis f tis ith anayhe equremntsforto moderate sheet erosion growing crop; break land ech sis of opportunities for adjustment and grain crops. Kobe variety of year in the event of price changes; and lespedeza is best adapted to the to show incomes and expenses in White Store-Creedmoor, Appling, 7to 10 per cent slope and modIntertilled crop followed by closeterms of 19135-39 average prices." Durham, and the sandy loam soils, crate sheet erosion with occagrowing crop with lespedeza, lesIn an area-wide program, the efand Korean variety is more suitsional gullies pedeza permitted to reseed; break feet of production changes upon able on the clay loam and clay land 2 out of 3 years price relationships should be caresoils. The White Store-Creedmoor 10to 14 per cent slope and modIntertilled crop followed by closefully considered, soils group, Mecklenburg, that is rate to severe sheet erosion growing crop and lespedeza, lesIn developing cropping systems not well-drained, and the shallower with occasional to frequent gulpedeza reseeded; close-growing and other plans for "representaand more eroded phases of the lies crop and lespedeza, lespedeza retive farms" certain basic principles slate soils, such as Alamance, seeded; break land 3 out of 5 have been followed. Crop rotations Orange, and Herndon, generally years are recommended (1) for the most are not suited to production of al15 per cent or steeper slope, seSeeded to permanent sod or reeconomical utilization of commerfalfa. Davidson, Lloyd, and Cecil vere sheet erosion with very freforested cial fertilizers; (2) as a factor in soils are best adapted to this crop. quent gullies preventing erosion and depletion Ladino and White clovers in pasof the soil, in maintaining or inture mixtures are not adapted creasing the organic matter in the generally to White Store-Creedof woods pastured, and six acres of the cropland; and the cropping soil, and in improving soil texture; moor and sandy loams of the of woods and other land. The soil plan generally was conducive to a and (3) as a factor in reducing Cecil-Appling-Durham group. is predominantly Cecil sandy loam rapid rate of erosion. Five acres losses caused by plant diseases. with several fields containing Cecil of cropland were idle. Farm reA very close relationship was Small Farms" clay loam. Slopes of the fields sources not utilized in the producnoted between degrees of field slopes and erosion conditions. Present and Alternative Systems range from 2 to 14 per cent and a tion of cotton were not very effec(This relationship was probably of the "Representative Farms." large proportion of the wooded tively used. Yields of feed crops caused, to a large extent, by the The 1945 organization and a reorarea is much steeper, ranging.beand livestock production rates were high degree of similarity in cropganization of a representative tween 14 and 25 per cent (Table low compared with potential yields ping systems.) rn view of this sitsmall farm are shown in Table 28. 29). in line with technical and economic uation soils, as they occurred on The land consists of 56 acres-37 Erosion conditions of the cropconditions. Only 61 per cent of the farms mapped, were classified acres of cropland, two acres of land vary from moderate to severe the available family labor was into five groups as a basis for deopen permanent pasture, 11 acres sheet erosion, accompanied by ocutilized in direct farm work (Figveloping rotations. The most incasional gullies. About five acres ure 12). This figure does not intensive crop rotations adopted for Particular requirements of different farm of the woodland pasture is suitelude labor used in overhead or plans so long as the adjustment does not able for permanent pasture if it general farm upkeep. each group were worked out by increase the intensity of cultivation. Cotis properly developed. Results of Based on 1945 prices, the net t h e technicians in agronomy" !on and corn or other row crops may be interchanged. The most important points soil analyses in 1946 indicate that cash income to the operator and 131i935-3t prices: Prices received by to be considered are the frequency rates the PH values of the soil ranged his family amounted to $621; net farmers-average of crop reporting District legumes; and the frequency of the occurfrom 5.2 to 6.0; calcium, from low income was $958 (Table 30). On a 8 for those prices available by district, rence of different types of cover-whether minus to low plus; magnesium, per hour direct-work basis, net North Carolina average for all others; farm intertilled. close-growing, or sod crops. privileges-60 per cent of 1945 value; prices These rotations were based upon the asfrom medium to high; phosphorus, cash income was 25 cents and net paid were adjusted by index of 1945 pricessumption that fields would be properly terfrom low to high plus; potassium, income, 39 cents. 69.4 per cent for cash expenses and 90 raced and cultivated in accordance with per cent for non cash expenses, field contours. This would necessitate vafrom medium to very high; organic Annual acreage of intertilled In following these rotations one should rious degrees of terrace work, varying from matter, from 0.88 per cent to 1.20 crops that are consistent with conkeep in mind that the sequence of crops terracing complete farm units in some and. consequently, the intensity of a decases to completing the job already started per cent. servation of the soil and that can sirable rotation are influenced and often on others, or merely to maintaining the In the 1945 system, 82 per cent be grown continuously is limited limited by the nature of the soil, the presterraces on those farms where the entire ent degree of erosion, the steepness of the unit is completely and properly terraced, of the cash income was derived to about one-third of the cropland, field slopes, the seasons, and the length Soils should be tested and analyzed every from cotton. Forty-seven per cent or 13 acres. Therefore, the inaxiof the growing periods of the crops. On I or 4 years to determine lime and ferslopes, where the degree of erosion is more tilizer requirements. of the cropland was devoted to row mum cotton acreage would be lirasevere than that described, the intensity of "See Appendix Tables I and II for decrops; a legune was plowed back ited to eight acres as five acres the rotation should be reduced accordingly, tailed account of income and expense of Also, rotations may be adjusted to fit the farming systems presented in this section. into the soil on only 21 per cent would be needed to grow sufficient (40) (41)



PAGE 1

corn for the minimum number of pedeza and the soil would not be Table 29.-Sumnmary of major land use capabilities, representative small form, Southern livestock required to feed the famiplowed for onc year. Piedmont, North Carolina ly and to provide the farm power. In this reorganized plan, cotton In this plan, the remainder of the acreage is the same as it was in Soil condition cropland would be devoted to small the 1945 system. Alfalfa has been Per cent Degree of Number of Per cent grains, followed by lespedeza to he added for hay so that the lespedeza Slope erosionAce'otta harvested for seed or hay or can be harvested for seed and the Cropland plowed under for soil improvement, residue plowed under for soil im2 to 7 Moderate sheet .................... 8.2 22.3 The steeper and more eroded land provement. The number of hens 2 to 7 Severe sheet...................... 6.5 17.7 would be allowed to reseed to leshas been increased from 40 to 200. 7 to 10 Moderate to severe sheet erosion ... 5.9 16.0 7 to 10 Severe sheet erosion with occasional gullies ............4.6 12.5 Table 28.-Organizations of representative small farm, 1945 and reorganized system, 10 to 14 Occasional gullies .................11.6 31.5 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Item Representative farm Total cropland............................. 36.8 100.0 1945 Reorganized IPermanent pasture 2 to 7 Some alluvial deposit .............. 1.5 21.4 Land and crops: Acres Acres 7 to 10 Occasional gullies.................. .5 7.2 Coto ......................8. 8510 to 14 Occasional gullies.................5.0 71.4 Cor ................................... 7.9 5.0 Total pasture........................ ..... 7.0 100.0 Wheat ................................... 6.1 7.4 Oats.................................... 4.1 2.8 Other land Barley................................... 0 2.0 2 to 14 Some alluvial deposit............... .7 5.7 Alfalfa.................................. 0 3.1 10 to 14 Occasional gullies................. 11.6 94.3 Lespedeza: seed ............ ............... 0 19.21 hay.......................... 6.7 0 Total other land........................... 12.3 100.0 Garen...............................0 1.0 1 Difference from 1945 use: 5 acres posture developed from land in scattered woods ; use Gard n .... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... 1.01.0of cropland adjusted to soil conditions. Total................................. 42.0 49.0 Fe o uha nraei b 188 e noewudices Double-cropped ............................10.2 12.2 Feied fomuha increase yis ob$1,898 Ntiom would2 Uizaineas Used for crops ........................... 31.8 36.8tae frmicesdylspr fom 95to$,7.Ulztonf Idle ..................................... 5.0 0 acre which are attributed to betfamily labor would increase by 11 -ter seeding and fertilization pracper cent. Net cash income per Cropland............................... .36.8 36.8 tices and to a larger acreage of hour of direct family labor would Open pasture ............................. 2.0 7.0 legumes turned under for soil imbe 61 cents and net income 71 cents. Woods and other .......................... 17.2 12.2 provemient. These figures are more than douTotl lnd..................Other changes that would be ble what they were under the 1945 Toallad....................56.0 56.0 carried out under this system insystem. Productive livestock: Number Number elude improvement of the present T he alternative opportunities Dairy cows............................... 2 2 permanent pasture plus developthat exist for this farm are limHens .................................... 40 200 ment of an additional five acres ited. If the acreage of cotton is Hogs raised .............................. 23 from what is now scattered woods; devoted to production of feed it Worstok......................... construction of a laying house, would he possible to add only 200 Worktoc ........................... 2 brooder house, and grannary; terlaying hens to the organization. Labor on farm: racing about 50 per cent of the Under 1945 prices this would reTotal family .............................. 4 4 cropland and pasture and repairduce the net cash income of the Mlen full time ........................... 1 1L ing the present terraces on the farm about $340 below that deInvestment: Dollars Dollars other half; and applying lime to a scribed in the reorganized system. Realestte.....................4438fifth of the cropland each year. The price of cotton would have to Meachieryte............................... 438513 Under the reorganized plan, it drop about 16 cents, a reduction M ach ner .. .... ... ... ... .... ... ... 388388 Workstock ...............................41 410 is estimated that total cash income of 30 per cent with prices of eggs Productive livestock ....................... 212 590 would be increased from $1,339 to remaining at the 1945 level of -$3,246, of which cotton would con40.4 cents a dozen, before egg proTotal investment .............5,448 6,521 tribute less than one third (Table duction could profitably replace I The relative quantity of the lesipcdeza crop, used for seed. hay, and cover wouldl depend, I 0.Cs am clne ol otno nto hssz.Ml in part, on the relative Prices, preferences of the farmer, and individual conditions, more than double, with total excows might be added in place of Residue from combined seed left on land. penses inraigfrom $103to cotton. Hwvr diinlps (42) (43)



PAGE 1

Table 22.-Prices received by farmers, principal products sold, Southern Piedmont, North j On farms where a combine is $28 for corn. For most enterprises, Carolina, 1945 and average 1935.391 owned harvesting costs for small net cash returns can be increased Prices grains and lespedeza seed would 50 to 100 per cent by the use of Product Unit depend upon the cost of operating improved practices. Cotton shows Produce UnitAverage 1945 1935-39 the tractor and combine instead of less potential increase than other custom rates. For purposes of enterprises because present pracDollars Dollars comparison, in each enterprise, tices on this crop are more nearly Cotton ........................... Lb. 0.225 0.103 seeds are charged as a cash exin line with improved practices. Cottonseed ....................Ton 48.00 26.06 pense. Consequently they are not Livestock: Costs that are afCorn. .......................... Bu. 1.46 .76 deducted from the value of the fected most by changes in liveWheat ........................fBu. 1.65 1.00 Oats ............................ Bu. .90 .51 product although it is customary stock enterprises produced with Barley .......................... Bu. 1.37 .79 to plant home-grown seed in many 1945 and with improved practices, Lespedeza seed: cases. For those crops that reare presented in Table 25. For Korean ...................... Lb. .081 .042 quire abnormal outlays at interpurposes of comparison among enKobe ........................ Lb. .132 .068 vals, -such as alfalfa and pastures, terprises, pertinent en t e r pr i s e All hay .......................Ton 30.12 14.27 the expense represents the annual overhead expenses are included. Sweet potatoes...................lu. 2.03 .74 average for a five-year period. Therefore, costs per animal unit Beef ........................ Cwt. 10.50 5.30 For comparison of costs and rewould vary with different scales Veal ...... ..................Cwt. 13.30 7.16 turns among enterprises the small of operation. This is particularly Pork........................Cwt. 13.90 8.52 grain-lespedeza combination should true in production of eggs and Chckns.................Lb. .288 .157 Broilers .....Lb. .22 .181 be considered as a single enterof Grade A milk, primarily because Br ilrs .. .. .. .. .. ......... Lb. .322 .181 Eggs........................ Doz. .404 .224 prise. of the relation of size of enterButter .......................Lb. .41 .24 Table 24 shows net returns over prise to efficiency in the use of Butterfat ...................... Lb. .44 .26 specified items of cost for princiequipment. Figures shown for Milk, wholesale grade A ........ Cwt. 4.85 2.73 pal crops with present and imthese two enterprises were based Milk, retail ...................... Qt. .151 .117 proved practices. Net cash returns on a flock of 250 hens and a herd Milk, wholesale unclassified ...... Cwt. 2.80 1.58 per acre with improved practices of 20 dairy cows. The equipment would increase $6 for cotton and could not be used as efficiently on 'Source: Federal-State Crop Reporting Service; prices are those available for District w and North Carolina prices for all other commodities. Table 24.-Value of production and specified direct costs per acre, principal crops, with 1945 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Table 23.-Specified annual direct cash costs per acre, principal crops, with 1945 practices Specified Value Labor Returns Vau fdirect less and less and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Crop product cash specified power specified costs' cash costs costs' costs, Produced with 1945 practices' Produced with improved practices Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Crop lHarvest, Harvest, 1945 practices All Gin, and All Gin, and Cotton ............. 131.00 20.08 110.92 58.48 52.44 fertilizer Seed2 clean Total fertilizer Seed2 clean Total Corn ............... 36.00 8.79 27.21 23.23 3.98 Wheat ............. 28.00 14.00 14.00 10.86 3.14 Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Oats ............... 30.00 12.32 17.68 8.62 9.06 Cotton ..... 12.16 1.15 6.77 20.08 12.74 1.50 7.09 21.33 Oaspede3012 7869 Corn...... .61 .18 0 8.9 1.89 1.70 0 1-59Lespedeza seed, Corn ....... 8.61 .18 0 8.79 15.89 1.70 0 17.59 1st year ......... 21.00 13.95 7.05 .59 6.46 Wheat.......7.22 2.78 4.00 14.00 9.64 3.44 4.00 17.08 Reseeded ......... 21.00 10.57 10.43 .59 9.84 Oats ........ 5.57 2.75 4.00 12.32 9.64 3.26 4.00 16.90 Lespedeza hay ...... 36.00 3.38 32.62 5.92 26.70 Barley ..... * * 9.64 4.00 4.00 17.64 Lespedeza, 1st year: With improved fertilization and seeding practices Seed ..... 0 3.38 10.57 13.95 0 3.80 11.62 15.42 Cotton ............. 138.00 21.33 116.67 59.76 56.91 Hay ...... 0 3.38 0 3.38 0 3.80 0 3.80 Corn ............... 73.00 17.59 55.41 25.04 30.37 Reseeded lespedeza: Barley ............. 41.00 17.64 23.36 10.86 12.50 Seed ..... 0 0 10.57 10.57 0 0 16.20 16.20 i Wheat ............. 50.00 17.08 32.92 10.86 22.06 Hay ...... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oats ............... 54.00 16.90 37.10 8.62 28.48 Alfalfa hayS.. * * 7.77 2.55 0 10.32 Lespedeza seed, Corn silage .. * 15.89 2.05 4.00 21.94 1st year .......... 24.00 15.42 8.58 .59 7.99 Permanent Reseeded ......... 32.00 16.20 15.80 .59 15.21 pasture' .* * 4.77'.1.24 6.01 Lespedeza hay ...... 45.00 3.80 41.20 7.03 34.17 -Alfalfa hay ........ 90.00 10.32 79.68 15.82 63.86 I Based on most common practices. SIncludes seed treatment where applicable. Based on 1945 prices and the rates of production shown in Table 17. 3 Includes seedal treatt where appiabl g ad mSee Table 23. Includes annual pro-rati share of establishing and maintaining these enterprises. s Man labor (? $0.3! per hour and workstock Ca $0.269 hour. (See Tables 18 and 19). Not a common enterprise or practice. 4 Value o. product less specified cash and labor and power costs. (36) (37)



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The 1945 organization and a reorsheet erosion with occasional gullcspedeza that was harvdstcd for labor was utilized in direct farm ganization of a representative lies. Pasture land is generally hay or seed, or left for soil imwork (Figure 13). medium-size farm are shown in steeper and more severely eroded, provement. About 46 per cent of Fifty-five per cent of the cash Table 32. Total land consists of and in its present condition it is the land used for crops was interincome was from cotton and about 120 acres, 54.5 acres of which were not considered suitable for croptilled and 2 acres of cropland were 80 per cent, from crops. The sale in crops, 9.6 in permanent pasture, land. The soils analyses indicate idle. of milk was the main source of inand 53.9 in woods and farmsteads. PH values ranging between 5.5 and The rotation was not well adaptcome from livestock. The net cash Predominant soils are Cecil fine 6.7, mostly 5.8 or less; calcium, ed to the land. Resources, other income in 1945 was $1,300 (Table sandy loam and Cecil clay loam. low minus to medium plus; magthan those devoted to production 34). This amounted to a return Of the cropland 30 per cent is on nesium, medium minus to high of cotton, were under utilized, of 39 cents per hour of family slopes of less than 7 per cent, 57 minus; phosphorus, medium minus Yields of feed crops and rates of labor worked, excluding general per cent ranges between 7 and 10 to high minus; potassium, low plus production of livestock were below farm overhead jobs. per cent, and 13 per cent of the to high. Organic matter ranged the most economical rates. Only In view of long-term conservaacreage is steeper than 10 per cent from .70 per cent to 1.36 per cent. 62 per cent of the available family tion of the soil, row crops on this (Table 33). On all except the more In the 1945 system, 10.3 acres level cropland, erosion has reached were in cotton, 12.3 in corn, 20.3 the stage described as moderate in small grains, and 30.6 acres in Table 32.-Organization of representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Caroina Representative farm Table 31.-Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, small farms above and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Item 1945 Reorganized Item Farms above Farms below Acres Acres average' average Land and crops: Acres Acres Cotton .............................. Corn..................................12.3 10.0 Land and crops: Wheat...................................9 10.7 C otton ................................... 14.0 4.0 W heat ........ ........................... 11.9 C orn ..................................... 5.0 5.0 O ats ................................... 8.4 6.0 W heat ................................. 8.9' 7.4 Alfalfa hay .............................. 0 7.7 Oats...................................2.8 2.8 Lespedeza seed..........................10.2 24.4 Barley .................................... 2.0 2.0 hay ............................ 10.8 2.0 Alfalfa ................................. 3.1 3.1 cover ......................... 9.6 1 Lespedeza seed ............................ 13.7 23.7 Garden and other ........................ 2.3 1.0 Garden .................................... 1.0 1.0 Total ................................... 75.8 72.1 Total ................................... 50.5 49.0 Double-cropped ..........................21.3 16.7 Double-cropped .... ....................... 13.7 12.2 Used for crops .......................... 54.5 55.4 U sed for crops .......................... 36.8 36.8 Idle .................................... 2.0 0 Open pasture ............................ 7.0 7.0 Cropland ......... ..................... 56.5 55.4 W oods and other ..... .................. 12.2 12.2 Open pasture ............................ 9.6 23.0 Total land..........................56.0 56.0 Woods and other ...................... 53.9 41.6 Pr oduc te laestock .. ..m. 5Total land ............................ 120.0 120.0 Productive livestock: Number NumberPrdcielvsokNubrumr Dairy cows.2 2 Productive livestock: Number Number H ens ..................................... 200 200 D airy cow s .............................. 4 10 Hogs raised 3 3 Hogs raised ............................... 2 3 H ens .................................... 42 300 Income summary: Dollars Dollars 1945 prices: W orkstock .... ............................. 2 2 Cash income ............................ 3,917 2,752 Labor on farm: Cash expenses ........................... 1,634 1,445 Total family.............................5 Net cash income ....................2,283 Men full time ............................. 1 1 Cah ncme........................2,001 1,483n07met Dollars Dollars 1935-39 prices: Investment:-DolrDoas Cash income e ............................ 2,001 1,484 Real estate .......... .... ................ 7,070 8,323 Cash expenses ........................... 1,134 1,003 M achinery ................................ 496 496 W orkstock ................................ 410 410 Net cash income ....................... 867 481 Productive livestock ........................ 378 2,110 I Cropland that would support 50 per cent in intertilled crops annually and maintain soil fertility and yields. Total investment ........................ 8,354 11,339 2 Cropland that would support 25 per cent in intertilled crops annually and maintain soil fertility and yields. iResidue from lespedeza seed left on land. (46) (47)



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FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND INCOMES IN 1945 One or more wagons, turning cows) a dairy barn or milking shed plows, smoothing harrows, cultivais common. In the main, farm Acreage of Land used for crops. Small farms ac tors, middle busters, and plow buildings were in poor to fair counted for only 24 per cent of the stocks, a combination corn-cotton condition. In the Piedmont area the farm total cropland in use. planter, fertilizer distributor, mowTwo-thirds of the dwellings on economy is centered around crops. ing machine, dump rake, and the small farms were equipped with This means that crop acreage is Power and Equipment usual small tools, were the more electricity, while 94 per cent of the of major importance. On farms common equipment found on farms. large farms were so equipped in the sample, acreages used for Workstock was the principal There were some differences ac(Table 6). A running water syscrop raned rom .5 o 72.'~ source of power on the small and crops ranged from 6.5 to 722 muc of r b twhrsl o cording to size of farms. A mowtem was found in less than a third The distribution of farms, when medium farms, but two-thirds Of ing machine was reported on half of the dwellings on small and medclassified according to acres used the large farms had a tractor in of the small, on three-fourths of ium-size farms, but in 71 per cent for crops, indicate three rather addition to two or more head of the medium, and on almost all of of the dwellings on large farms. broad size groups-small, 10 to workstock. Small and mediumthe large farms. 44 acres; medium, 45 to 74 acres; size farms were predominantly On farms with tractors, a breakPopulation and Labor Supply and large, 75 or more acres (Figtwo-nule units. Sixty-four per ing plow and tandem disk were ure 11). cent of the small farms and 54 per the principal tractor equipment. On The size of the operator's famiOf the same farms, 47 per cent cent of the medium farms operatmost of the tractor farms, plantly was about the same regardless were small; 30 per cent, medium; ed with two head of workstock ing and cultivating was done with of size of the farm. The number and 23 per cent, large. Though. each. On the "one-mule" units workstock. On the large farms, of sharecropper families increased wide extremes in crop acreages there were many cases when an the percentage of tractor farmers as the size of the farm increased were found among the large farms, additional mule was borrowed or reporting other tractor equipment (Table 7). two-thirds of them ranged between hired. Tractors on the small and were: planter, 21 per cent; cultiOn 79 per cent of the small 75 and 150 acres. Large farms medium-size farms often were vator, 24 per cent; grain drill, 36 farms, labor was furnished almost accounted for lare f used to do custom work on neighper cent; mowing machine, 36 per entirely by the operator and his boring farms in addition to work family. Occasionally an extra perthe number of farms, but they cent; and combine, 45 per cent. comprised 48 per cent of the land at home. On the medium-size farms, only son was hired to help harvest hay Equipment on farms using mules about a third of the farmers with and to pick cotton. Of the 103 10 Beyond this point in the analysis three or horses as power usually contractors reported combines. small farms, 22 (usually those with farms were not included because of their sisted of two-horse implements for the larger. acreages of cotton) emextreme size and organization. These farms included one with 772 acres used for crops, seed-bed preparation and one-horse Buildings played sharecropper labor. On the and two with 6.5 and 23.0 acres, respecequipment for planting and cultimedium-size farms, sharecroppers tively, where unusual circumstances limited production to reseeded lespedeza. eating. Many of the farms have only a were found on 29 of the 59 farms few buildings other than dwellings that grew cotton. On three-fourths No. of fars for the operator's family, and for of the farms where sharecropper 30 sharecroppers or hired labor familabor was used, the operator's fam11.4 Per cent of total nuner o a.s lies. The small farms usually have ily had only one man. a general barn and one or two About three-fourths of the large 10.4 small structures such as poultry farms employed sharecropper lahouse, corn crib, and smokehouse. bor, ranging from one family for 20 8.2 Medium and large farms usually 25 per cent of the group to six to 7.3 have a general-purpose barn, a eight families for 7 per cent of the 68poultry house, corn crib, smokegroup. On farms where only one house, granary, and one or two sharecropper family was employed, 10 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 other small buildings for tools, the average acreage of cotton per storage, and shop work. On farms family, including the operator's 1 3.2 with dairy herds (more than 6 family, was 7.7 acres. The aver2. 2 Table 6.-Proporton of operators' dwellings equipped with specified facilities, by size of C farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 Np al .) o -, o ~ -, a, a, v o0, ,r a ,C,3 V V) W W it M Percentage of farms reporting to 0 V r L W Small Medium Large All farms Acres used for crops Electricity ....................... 67 75 94 76 Radios .......................... 84 94 94 89 Figure 11. Distribution of Numbers of Farms by Acres Used for Crops, 220 Running water ................... 26 29 71 37 Forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945.' Refrigerators.47 50 82 55 Range 6.5 -772.0 acres. (2.) (22) (23)



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No. farmers SI • )5Total no. famersc 4_4~ 0~~ -d4 41 l be .r-i ) '4 000 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 H zi' I,! IN00 0 0 Year 00 E.jc -,aI Figure 7. Tenure Status of Farmers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1890. a 1945.' .2 I Source: U. S. Cents of Agriculture; Managers ranged between 35 and 152, a negligible C number; all tenants included croppers. C a was 73.2 acres. Approximately 55 stock products, 6.6 per cent. Of the V per cent, or 40.6 acres, was classed total number of farmers, 68 per as improved land. About a third cent reported income from cotton; C of the land was in woods (Table 50 per cent, income from poultry; 4). Livestock per farm averaged and 33 per cent, income from dairy H) a. 1.4 head of workstock, 3.7 head of products. Cotton occupied about a all cattle, 2.3 hogs, and 46 chickfifth of the total cropland harvestV U ens. ed in 1944. r Cash income from sales of prodTrends: The acreage of cotton ,H 00 ucts in 1944 was $1,019 per farm. declined from a peak of 527 thou, Receipts were distributed among sand in 1926 to 200 thousand in t -0 the principal sources as follows: 1945. The number of farmers 4 c Cotton, 52.3 per cent; other crops, growing cotton declined steadily 15.1 per cent; dairy products, 14.2 from 37,807 in 1930 to 27,159 in per cent; poultry products, 11.8 per 1945. Significant trends occurring 0 cent; and other livestock and livein the area from 1926 to 1945 were: I 0 E0 Table 3.-Ages of formers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 19451 I Number Percentage Cumulative H Z Ages in years farmers of total percentage U 34 and less .................... 6,918 17.6 17.6 Ca 35 to 54 ....................18,578 47.4 65.0 55 to 64 ..................... 7,861 C6 20.0 85.0 • 65 and more ................... 5,877 15.0 100.0 H1 ___,0 w Total ................... 39,234 100.0 H H Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture. (14) (15)



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opportunities for adjusting these plement each other-is of major requires very little or no labor for employ family labor most profittwo factors are limited, especially importance. For example, lespeabout five months of the year. Yet ably. over short periods of time. deza in the cropping system offers during peak periods eight to ten There are some enterprise fixd Particularly in cotton-producing several advantages, even though acres takes the labor equivalent costs. For this reason the prot,,m areas, the main line or lines of direct cash returns per acre are of two men. These extreme variahas two phases: (1) selectio:i of agricultural production seldom relatively low. It can be growntions lead to periods of considerenterprises and (2) scale of operafully utilize the farm resources. as a second crop on the same land able underemployment. The limittion once the selections are made. Hence, for maximum net income the with small grain without reducing ing periods for cotton and corn General farm overheLd costs have farmer must add supplementary yields of small grain. Where land are during cultivation and harvest, little influence on either of these enterprises. To do this the operais unsuited to alfalfa, lespedeza is When there is not enough labor to phases. Enterprise overhead aftor must consider the following the best alternative for hay. Lesharvest both crops simultaneousfects the first but not the second factors in addition to apparent pedeza seed may be harvested and ly, the corn harvest usually is dephase of the problem. In terms costs and returns: (1) risks of prosold and the residue plowed under i layed because cotton is more valuof costs the second phase of the duction arising from unfavorable as a source of organic matter and able and more susceptible to damproblem involves only the direct weather, and damage from insects nitrogen. It also may be used for age. variable costs of the given enterand diseases, (2) price fluctuations, summer grazing. These alternaThe main problem with small prise. Therefore, emphasis is (3) conservation of farm resources, tives make lespedeza a flexible crop grain arises with seeding. The placed on relative, not absolute, (4) labor and power requirements for combining with other enterharvest period for cotton and corn costs and returns because relative and seasonal distribution, (5) inprises. extends so far into the fall that rather than absolute conditions interrelationships of alternative enBarley might be considered as an it overlaps the period for preparfluence opportunities for profitable terprises, and (6) cost of items alternative to corn for increasing ing land to seed small grain. This adjustments. when purchased compared with althe flexibility of the cropping sysproblem becomes more acute when Costs of getting additional outternative uses of resources in the tem. Although barley alone does poor weather conditions interfere, put from a given enterprise varies case of products grown for family not yield as much feed as corn, put f er en ndteise varie consumption or for feed for the it is a close-growing crop that Relative Costs and Returns purposes of more general applicarequired workstock. has advantages on the rolling or with Present and purposes aore ge bappdicn Two or more farm enterprises hilly land of the Piedmont. It can reduce risks associated with price be tended with the same equipment Practices modal relationships. declines and production disasters used for wheat and oats and with The influence of a change in the Prices for 1945 were used in the common to a one-enterprise sysvery little labor. Barley also may farming system on net income canspecified costs and tern. Although prices change conbe followed by lespedeza, a combe tested by means of a budget returns under conditions of 1945 tinuously, records show that prices bination which yields approximateanalysis of the complete system, and under improved practices. A of dairy and poultry products flucly the same amount of total dithough an analysis of individual comparison of 1945 prices with tuate within narrower ranges and gestible nutrients per acre as corn. enterprises helps. 1935-39 averages is shown in Table less abruptly than do prices of cotLivestock enterprises often can This section shows the effects of 22. ton. Yields also fluctuate from be combined with crop enterprises improved practices on relative Crops: The effects that imyear to year. From 1936 to 1945, to increase farm income through costs and returns for different enproved practices would have oa average cotton yields per acre in fuller utilization of available laterprises. That rates of production specified cash costs are shown in the Southern Piedmont ranged bor. Even at low hourly returns, can be increased through the use Table 23. These items of expense from 250 to 449 pounds; corn, from livestock enterprises which utilize of improved practices has been include only direct cash items that 17 to 24 bushels; and wheat, from labor that otherwise would be idle clearly demonstrated by experiare usually variable in nature. 10 to 16 bushels. Yields from year would increase the total net farm mental work and by results on acThese costs must be paid during to year on individual farms probincome. tual farms. The effects of any prothe production period. They are ably varied even more. Once a system is established, the duction increase on net farm most directly affected when the Many farms have cropland too nature of its fixed assets influences income, however, depend upon how volume of the particular enterprise steep to be planted in row crops the profitableness of dropping and much cost is increased to get the is expanded or reduced, or when more often than once in two, three, adding new enterprises and methadditional production. an enterprise is added to or or even four years. This means ods of operation. On the individual farm, many dropped from the farm business. the acreage of cotton and corn Labor and power requirements, items of cost are more or less fixed. Relatively fixed overhead farm exshould be limited accordingly, and especially their seasonal distribuAt least their change in response penses, which normally have little other enterprises added if the land tion, are a problem. Peak labor to a change in output is so small effect upon the relative profitableis to be used profitably. On many periods for most of the principal that it can be disregarded. ness of alternative enterprises, are farms, land entirely unsuited for crops in this area occur simultaneOn many farms, the operator's not included in this phase of the cotton might be used profitably to ously. The acreage that a family family comprises all or nearly all analysis. Items of expense are produce pasture or forest products. can tend is reduced far below what of the farm-labor force. In such based upon production with equipThe way in which enterprises could be operated if labor patterns cases, labor is not a variable cash ment most frequently found on fit together-supplement or cornwere evenly distributed. Cotton cost. The real problem is how to farms included in the sample. (34) (35)



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T a b ld I le o Pr o d u yst e m So u t e r n P i do m o n tr o N t h, C r o n a T a b l e V .-P ro d u c t i o n a n d s o l e o f f o r m p r o d u c t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l a r g e f o r m 1 9 4 5 a n d Table II.-Production and sole of farm products, rcpresentatiYo medium-size form, 1945 rognzdsseSuhr idot ot aoia and reorganized system, So then Piedmont, North Carolina' reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' 1945 eorgaizedReorganized 1945 Reorganized 1945 cotton-livestock Item Undt Item Unit For sale2 For sale2 ProducProducItem Unit ProtVaProduction Quantity Value tion Quantity Value tion Quantity Value tion Quantity Value Crops: Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Cotton: lint ......... Cwt. 51 51 1,154 54 54 1,217 Crops: seed ........ Cwt. 81 77 185 85 85 203 Cotton: lint .........Cwt. 110 110 2,465 84 4 1,890 Corn. ................ Bu. 208 58 85 500 0 0 seed ........ Cwt. 174 165 395 131 131 315 Wheat...............Bu. 204 125 206 321 44 73 Corn: Grain .......... Bu. 600 325 467 950 0 0 Las e.C.... Bu. 277 100 90 360 0 0 silage ......... Ton 0 0 0 64 0 0 Lespedeza seed ........wt. 27 18 Whea Bu. 241 181 299 906 391 645 .... Ton 0 0 0 23 0 0 Oats ................ Bu. 8.t 655 50 636 891 Lespedza ..... Ton 0 0 0 23 0 0 Lespedeza seed ...... Cwt. 68 52 417 200 200 1,623 Garden and other .... xx* 40 4 0 0 Hay: Lespedeza ...... Ton 24 0 0 0 0 0 eot hep .xxx 1,0 24 Alfalfa ........ Ton 0 0 0 52 0 0 Total crops .xxx * ,97 * 2,204 Total crops ........ xxx * 4,633 * 4,473 Livestock: Milk..................Cwt. 158 127 357 600 537 1,504 Livestock: Veal .............. Cwt. 2 2 30 6 4 60 Milk .................Cwt. 158 127 357 1,200 1,137 3,184 Cow ................ Each 0 0 0 6 4 60 Cows............... Each 0 0 0 3 3 246 Cok 5................ .0 0 0 6 0 0 Veal ............... Cwt. 2 2 20 11 10 130 Pork................. Doz. 321 181 73 4,200 4,050 1,636 Pork ................ Cwt. 8 0 0 28 22 305 Chickens ............ Cwt. 2 1 18 10 8 204 Eggs ................ Doz. 413 273 110 7.000 6,850 2,767 Chack estock...... 2 1 78 0 8 4 Chickens ............ Cwt. 2 1 29 16 14 360 Total livestock ..xx * 478 * 3,489 1Toal livestock..xxx* 516 *" 6,992 Conservation payments ..xxx 50 C o a tion spayment... *xxx Toa as0nom x Conservation payments ..xxx ** 88 ** 131 Total*a5,23762,435 5,753 Tas h ices. Total cash income .XXX 5,237 11,596 2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm. 1 lased on 1945 prices. Items not applicable. 2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm. Items not applicable. Table IV.-Form expenses, representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' Item Value 1945 Reorganized Table VI.-Form products used by the operator's family, representative large form, 1945 Cash Dollars Dollars and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina lime 1945 Reorganized Fertilizer and l .................................. .3 691 Item Seeds and plants .......................................15 216 Unit Quantity Value Quantity Value Ginning cotton ................. .............. 65 57 Feed1239 Livestock purchase ad .esp.dza.... 141 442 Units Dollars Units Dollars Fed...................120 82 Corn ................................ Bu. 10 15 10 15 Autotek ptchanse 18 107 Wheat ............................... Bu. 24 40 24 40 t.t..r..............~i .......... I "1.....17 5 Auto and hauling ............. 105 105 Garden .............................. -..100 -150 Euipiment repair ..0 30 Milk ................................ Cwt. 3t 50 100 Taxes ............ .. ................. ... 70 105 Eggs ............................... Doz. 140 57 120 48 TaeInsgre 48 48 Pork ............................... Cwt. 8 108 6 90 C pias... ................................... 0 27 Veal ............................... Cwt. 0 0 1 13 rih insurance ... 27 Chickens ........................ Cwt. 1 29 2 58 ir la0 g insuadc.................................2 Wo.d .............................. Cord 8 64 8 64 l ...................................... Dwelling ........................... Rent -211; -216 Total cash expenses................... ... ..1,135 2,191 Total vaue ..................... xx 691 xx 794 Depreciation: total ............................... 115 151 lEqinigs ............. 65 101 '.Uimeet ... .50 50 latertt: to~tal3.......................................37 591 Current operating ............................ .68 149 Short-term investment .......................... 64 151 Real estate ..................................... 6247 291 Total noncash expenses ....................... 494 742 Total farm expenses ....................... 1,629 3,233 Based on 1945 prices. (64) (65)



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C farm should be limited to aplevels. Alfalfa for hay would be M ______ proximately 20 acres annually. A added so that more of the lespe20 maximum of 15 acres could be dedeza could be harvested for seed _______ voted to cottton and the remaining and the residue left on the land. land would be sufficient to grow The number of cows would be incorn for the number of livestock creased from four to ten and the needed to provide the family food. number of hens from 42 to 300. ......... With ten acres of pasture available Estimtaed cash receipts for the and the possibility of developing reorganized system are $5,733, or .. ..-. an additional 13 acres, the most an increase of 136 per cent over B profitable use of resources would the actual 1945 business. In this be made by increasing both poulreorganized system cotton would a try and dairy enterprises. This is contribute only about 20 per cent N also true in view of the fact that of the total cash income, and live2 the labor supply is insufficient to stock, about 60 per cent. Cash .................. handle a larger cotton acreage, expenses would be $2,491. Net 0 Under this reorganized system, cash income would be $3,262 as ..C acreage of cotton would not be compared with $1,300 under the changed. Acreage of corn would 1945 system of farming. UtilizaN $_ be reduced slightly and that of tion of family labor would be in_____ ._ small grains and lespedeza would creased about 30 per cent as a rea d be held at approximately present sult of more efficient distribution Z____---_______ Table 33.-Summary of major land use capabilities, representative medium-size farm, ct E r-l $ J0 Southern Piedmont, North Caroina > Soil condition M Number of Per cent Per cent Acres' of total a slope Degree of Erosion ... > Cropland C 0 to 2 Recent alluvial deposit ............. 4.6 8.3 2 to 7 Moderate sheet erosion ............ 10.7 19.3 2 to 7 Severe sheet erosion ............. 1.5 2.7 o 7 to 10 Moderate sheet erosion and occasional gullies ................ 31.5 56.9 10 to 14 Moderate to severe sheet erosion a. ........... ....... ....,< and occasional gullies ............ 5.6 10.1 14 to 25 Moderate to severe sheet erosion 0 0 0 t and occasional gullies .............1.5 2.7 4.o Total cropland .............................. 55.4 100.0 Pasture 0 to 2 Recent alluvial deposit ............. 3.1 13.5 > 2 to 7 Recent alluvial deposit ............. .5 2.2 ...... .. 2 to 7 Occasional gullies ................. 2.0 8.7 7 to 10 Moderate to severe sheet erosion c 2 and occasional gullies ............ 1.5 6.5 10 to 14 Slight to severe sheet erosion; 0 E occasional to frequent gullies .... 6.9 30.0 0 03 4Z" 14 to 25 Slight to severe sheet erosion; .b 0 occasional to frequent gullies .9.0 39.1 > Z .. .r-t -H A. Total pasture ............................. 23.0 100.0 C Other land "I 0 I I 0 Q 0 10 to 25 Slight to severe sheet erosion with V o u o V) 0 U. occasional to frequent gullies 41.6 100.0 V :) C12 C\2 H H Difference from 1945 use: 1.1 acres cropland changed to pasture; 12.3 acres of brushland and scattered woods developed for pasture. (48) (49)



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training than was true for either true for either small or medium five cows. On two-thirds of the only 14 per cent of the large farms the small or medium-size group, farms. These data indicate that large farms the operator received and none of the smaller farms about half of the land used for income from sale of dairy products. produced Grade A milk. Enterprise Combinations crops was intertilled-much more On 35 per cent of the large farms In most cases, poultry flocks were than is consistent with long-term six or more cows were kept. All kept primarily for the production and Incomes soil conservation in the area. the farms producing Grade A milk of eggs and chicken for home use. Although the farms varied in No cotton was grown on 16 of had herds of 15 or more cows, but On most farms less than 75 hens size, land use and enterprise comthe small farms, six of the medium binations were similar in many refarms, and five of the large farms binationseres ifa, a. fie of the efarmrs Table 12.-Crops grown by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 194S spects. (Table 13). None of the farmers __________________________________ General Land Use: General land on the small farms grew more Size of farm All use on these farms is given in than 20 acres of cotton. Nine farmCrop Small Medium Large farms Table 11. Total cropland averers in the large group grew more aged 34.5 acres on small farms and than 50 acres of cotton. On farms Average acres per farm 137 acres on large farms. The where no cotton was grown, the Cotton ..... ............... 7.2 13.0 28.2 13.7 proportion of total land devoted farm operators usually did not deCorn ....................... 7.5 12.3 25.1 12.9 to each major use was similar for pend entirely on their farms as a Wheat ..................... 2.8 6.8 10.0 5.6 each size group. About 47 per cent principal source of income. UsOats, grain ................. 2.3 6.0 22.7 8.0 was in cropland; 7 per cent, in open ually they were employed off the Small grain hay ............. 2.5 3.3 8.5 4.1 pasture; 8 per cent, in woods pasfarm or were connected with the Lespedeza hay .............. 5.7 10.1 25.8 11.6 turned; and 38 per cent, in woods operation of other farms in addiLespedeza seed .............. 1.5 6.0 16.0 6.1 anel use a Lespedeza cover ............. 4.2 9.5 16.1 9.4 and other uses. On small farms a tion to the unit included in this Al much larger percentage of the study. Units on which no cotton 1 o c cropland was idle than on large was grown anl on which the operTotal crops ............... 38.2 72.9 177.8 80.1 farms. ator depended entirely for his in, Double-cropped ........... 8.2 16.1 47.5 19.4 Crops Grown: Cotton, corn, come were usually highly specialsmall grain, and lespedeza were ized in livestock. A few of the Acreage used for crops .... 30.0 56.8 130.3 60.7 the principal crops grown (Table farmers on large farms operated 12). Cotton was the principal cash Grade A dairies. Others sold poulPercentage of farms reporting specified items crop, although frequently small try products and/or unclassified Cotton ..................... 84 91 90 88 quantities of small grain and lesmilk. Corn ....................... 95 97 96 96 pedeza seed were sold. The other Productive Livestock: ProducWheat ......................47 71 71 59 i Oats, grain .................. 37 71 84 58 crops were primarily for feed, food, tive livestock consisted chiefly of Small grain hay .............. 61 57 59 59 and soil improvement. Cotton ocdairy cows, chickens, and hogs Ls ar hay ............. 61 7 96 9 Lespedeza hay ............... 85 94 96 95 cupied about 23 per cent of the (Table 14). Only five farmers on Lespedeza seed ............... 28 58 61 45 cropland; corn, 21 per cent; and the small, two on the medium, and Lespedeza cover ............. 59 68 73 65 small grains, about 22 per cent. one on the large farms did not All other crops ..............100 100 100 100 On the large farms with tractors report any dairy cows. One-fourth a smaller percentage of the cropof the small farms had more than Total crops ............... 100 100 100 100 land was in corn and a larger pertwo cows, whereas one-fourth of Double-cropped ........... 86 100 96 88 centage in small grain than was the medium farms had more than __Acreage used for crops .... 100 100 100 100 Percentage of total acres used for crops Table 11.-Loand use by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 Cotton .. 24 23 22 23 Average per farm Proportion of total acres .....................24 23 22 23 Average userPrprino toa ac s Corn ....................... 25 22 19 21 Land use Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Wheat ..................... 9 12 8 9 Oats, grain ................. 8 11 17 13 Acres Acres Acres Per cent Per cent Per cent Small grain hay ............. 8 6 7 7 Used for crops .... 30.0 56.8 130.3 40.3 45.3 45.1 Lespedeza hay .............. 19 18 20 19 Idle .............. 4.5 5.3 6.7 6.0 4.2 2.3 Lespedeza seed ........... .5 10 12 10 T Lespedeza cover ............. 14 17 12 16 Total cropland ..34.5 62.1 137.0 46.3 49.5 47.4 All other crops .............. 15 9 19 14 Open pasture. 4.7 7.5 25.6 6.3 6.0 8.9 Total crops ............... 127 128 136 132 Woods pastured ... 6.4 9.1 26.2 8.6 7.3 9.1 Double-cropped 27 28 36 32 Other land ....... 28.9 46.7 100.1 38.8 37.2 34.6 ........... Total all land ...74.5 125.4 288.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 Acreage used for crops .... 100 100 100 100 (26) (27)



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Per cent Populatiot 100. 00 Latest the last F.P '... earliest the first(0) killing frost has ." killing frost has 800 80[. occurred in spring 15 ays ree occurred in fall g0 700 I J -"'kedIan dates I 40f 21 days grcwng season 0. 25i15 %9138025~ 501 a I 1520 8 1520 25 0 5 I0 15 2025) O Feb. arch April Date Oct. Nov. De. 400 Ttlpplto Figure 5. Frost Risk Curves: The Probable Dates of the Last Killing Frost in the Spring and the First Killing Frost in the Fall, Charlotte, North Carolina.' Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather lBureau, Records from 1896 to 1945. 300FamDpato are figures showing only normal has shown a marked decline from 200 ', weather. 51 per cent in 1930 to 86 per cent in 1945 (Figure 7). Social and Econo:-mc Farm mortgage debt in relation i00 Conditions to assets is shown in Figure 8. 8n addition n o pa kno g e o The m mortgage indebtedness has n ad iin t a kn w e g of been decreasing gradually since 0 I I I I .______________________________ soils and climate, a knowledge of the peak period following World 1890 1900 1910 1920 1950 1940 recent trends in social and ecoWa .Hwvr h ai f Iyear nomic conditions is also essential Wa .Hwvr h ai fFiire .opltn:TtlndFrouhnPimntNrhCroi, to a clear u n d erstan ding of th e m ortg ag e debt to valu e of real j 189 0 .64. pl at o : T t l a d F r S u h r i d o t o t a o i agricultural problems of an area, estate on mortgaged farms contin0945c: .'S ess Man-land ratio, available capital ued to increase with the decline in value fost ocurrel instateduin resources, tenure, age and manvau f fr el ett uigwere 55 or older. Only 18 per cent data available. In 1945, 27 per cent agerial aptitude of farm operators, the depression years. Since 1930, were under 35 (Table 3). of the farmers were engaged in distance to all weather roads and the per cent of all owner and partThis area, like other sections off-farm work. Probably of more to markets, past experience of owner farms that are mortgaged of the Piedmont, has many peaimportance is the number of memfarmers in handling the alternative has remained fairly constant. pe who live on farms but who bers of the family other than the enterprises, and off-farm employThe number of farms has despend all or part of their time in operator who were engaged in offmet opportunities all must be creased slightly, and total acreage off-farm work. The exact proporfarm work. considered in studying means of of improved land has increased. tion of the rural population or theReors:In 94 th avResouces: dna94tthsaer improving farming systems. The net result has been a smaall number of farmers who depend enage size of all farms in this area Population: The total populaincrease in average size of farms. ivased on U. .Census definition of a tion of the Southern Piedmont has Farm Population per 100 acres of tl y pod nn tb ag cltur e f r o liveincreased steadily in the last 50 im proved land declined from 17.5lh od c n t be a er i ed f mfr years. Farm population, however, persons in 1930 to 11.4 persons in has declined since 1935 (Figure 6). 1945. As a result of population Table 2.-Number ot farmers, tenure, and color, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina. 1945' In 1940, farm population unshifts, the greatest change has been Color Proportion of all farmers bered 240,499, or 34 per cent of a reduced labor force living on I TenureWht Nn-he Tol Wie Nnwht Tta t h e to ta l p o p u la tio n .B e t w e e n 1 9 4 0 in d iv id u a l fa r m s r a th e r th ~a n a n W h tPNn w itr calW en N or n t e T oet l and 1945 farm population decreased increase in farm size or a reducPrcn e et Prcn by 57,341 people, a decline of 24 tion in number of farms through Full owner .... 20,540 1,374 21,914 51.4 3.4 54.8 prcnfr abion ntPart owner ..3,059 355 8,414 7.7 .9 8.6 he cen sus of 1 4 it d 3 1f par tiuaraign cn ce to th sM anager .. ..75 3 78 .2 .0 .2 5 15 Tenants.......6,155 2,015 8,170 15.4 5.1 20.5 farmers in the area (Table 2). Of area from the standpoint of farm Share croppers .2,950 3,89 6,339 7.4 8.5 15.9 this number, 55 per cent were a(jsostments is a ig of the farmers. owners and 9 per cent part ownIn 1945, the average age of all Total 32,779 7,136 39,915 82.1 17.9 100.0 ers. The proportion of tenancy farers was 47 years; 35 per cent Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture. (12) (13)



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Index (1) A steadily declining acreage of from a very small acreage to 95 175 cotton, accompanied by higher thousand acres; (7) increase of 20 yields; (2) a considerable increase per cent in number of cows milked in acreage of wheat, with some and increase of 36 per cent in to150 .__ increase in yields; (3) an increase tal milk production; (8) increase ] \ /\/ in acreage and yields of oats; (4) a of 26 per cent in number of chickgradual decline in acreage of corn, ens (inventory on January 1) and 125 and higher yields during 1941-45. 143 per cent increase in total pro(5) Over 100 per cent increase in duction of eggs. (Figure 9, Table yield acreage of hay with little change 5). 100 in yield; increase in lespedeza for Price relationships for the period hay from a negligible quantity to 1926 to 1945 of the principal prodProduction the most important source of hay; ucts sold by farmers are shown 75 ,75 (6) increase in lespedeza for seed in Figure 10. .# Table 4.-Farm resources and value of products sold, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 5 19451 0 1926 100 Area Average Percentage Acreage 526,713 Acreage Item total per of (000) farm2 total 25 prod., bales 297,471 Yield, lb. lint 270 Acres Acres Per cent Land: Cropland harvested .................... 1,097 27.5 37.6 Cropland failure .......................10 0.2 0.3 1926 1951 1936 1941 Cropland idle or fallow ............... 230 5.8 7.9 year Cropland used for pasture ............. 92 2.3 3.1 Figure 9a Cotton, 1926-1945, Souern Piedmont, North Carolina.' Total cropland .................... 1,429 35.8 48.9 1Source: Crop Reporting Service of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA andn Woodland pastured .................... 190 4.8 6.5 N. C. Department of Agriculture. Other land pastured ................... 194 4.8 6.5 Woodland not pastured ................ 945 23.7 32.4 Acres All other farm land .................. 163 4.1 5.6 (000) Total land in farms ................ 2,920 73.2 100.0 1200 Total acres of the five crops Land used for crops ............... 1,107 27.7 37.9 a op Total woodland ................... 1,135 28.5 38.9 Livestock: Number Number 1050 All cattle and calves ................... 147 3.7 ..... ...... ... Cows and heifers, 2 years and over .... 90 2.3 All hogs and pigs .................... 92 2.3 *oat Sows and gilts ........................ 8 .2 Chickens ............................. 1,826 45.7 M ules and colts ....................... 41 1.0 W Horses and colts .......................16 .4 750 Total workstock .................. 57 1.4 Tractors ................................ 8 .2 Value of sales: Dollars Dollars Livestock and products ................ 13,259 332 32.6 Crops ................................ 27,419 687 67.4 Total sales ....................... 40,678 1,019 100.0 450 Inventory values: Land and buildings .................... 141,529 3,546 80.7 Implements and machinery ............ 13,021 326 7.4 300 Workstock ........................... 9,884 248 5.6 All other livestock .................... 11,052 277 6.3 Total livestock .................... 20,936 525 11.9 15o0K. n Total values .................... 175,486 4,397 100.0 'U. S. Census of Agriculture. 1945: acreages are for the 1944 crop year; values and livestock numbers are inventory of January 1, 1945. 0 'Total number of farms as reported by U. S. Census of Agriculture was 39.915. *Data not applicable. 1926 19Y1 196 1941 1945 Year (16) Figure 9b. Acreage of the Five Principal Crops, 1926-1945.'



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Index Workstock as a source of power 1945 19 per cent reported them. 300 declined continuously from 1920 to The total number of tractors more 1945. In 1925, only 6 per cent of than doubled between 1940 and the farmers reported tractors; in 1945. 270 240 .Index 250 210 Total production 180 .225 / Production per bird / 200/\ -4 P roduction per cow 175 X .0 •9/ / e 950 ," Total Production Number of cows 35,665 150 60 Total prod.,gal. 12,093,099 1 Prod. per cow, gal. 339 0 • Number 30 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 LOO Year Figure 9c. Number of Cows Milked, Production Per Cow and Total Production of Milk, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1890-1945.' 'Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture. 75 Table 5.-Production and yield, by 5 year periods, six principal crops, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1926-19451 1925 100 All 50 Period Cotton Corn Wheat Oats tame Lespedeza Number chickens 1,447,601 (lint) hay seedNubrcikn 1,4 60 o o oo .o o eedo 5Total egg prod., doz. 4,802,663 1.00 1,00 ,000 1100 1000 1,000 bales bu. hu. hu. tons lbs. Prod. per bird, doz. 5.5 Production 2 1926-1930 ..... 265 7,190 1,192 1,631 1082 1931-1935 ..... 215 6,370 1,720 1,910 126 1936-1940 ..... 201 6,139 2,411 1,927 146 1941-1945 ..... 191 6,362 2,697 2,846 218 21,230 0 1 Yield per acre Lbs.S Bu. Bu. Bu. Ton Lbs. 1925 1950 1935 1940 1945 1926-1930 .258 19.3 10.8 21.7 .1.0 Year 1931-1935 ..... 286 17.0 11.0 -20.3 1.0 1936-1940 ..... 342 17.9 12.5 20.3 1.0 1941-1945 ..... 385 21.3 13.8 25.4 1.1 225 Figure 9d. Trend in Numbers of Chickens on Forms, Total Egg Production and 1 Source: Derived from data reported by United States Department of Agriculture and Production Per Bird, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1925.1945.' North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Crop Reporting Service. 'Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture. 2Average of 1929-1930. 3 Net weight of lint. Data not available.



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CONTENTS Page TABLES INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ ................ I ................................ 5 Table Title Page Purpose of Study ...................................................................................................................... 5 Method and Procedure .......................................................................................................... 5 1 Location and size of sample, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ................ 7 Sampling Procedure ............................................................................................................ 5 2 Number of farmers, tenure, and color, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 .... 13 Source and type of data collected .................................................................................. 7 Method of analysis ............................................................................................................. 8 3 Ages of farmers, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ...................................... 14 4 Form resources and value of products sold, Southern Piedmont, North Part 1. Resources and Present Farm ing System s Carolina, 1945 ...................................................................................................... 16 5 Production and yield, by 5-year periods, six principal crops, Southern Piedmont, DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA .................................................................................................... 8 North Carolina, 1926-1945 .................................................................................. 18 Physical Features ................................................................................................................... 8 Topography and soils ......................................................................................................... 8 6 Proportion of operators' dwellings equipped with specified facilities, by size Climate and weather ......................................................................................................... 10 of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ...................... 23 Social and Economic Conditions .................................................... ....................................... 12 7 Populatio and labor supply by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, Population ........................................................................................................................... 12 North Carolina, 1945 .......................................................................................... 24 Resources ............................................................................................................................. 13 Trends ................................................................................................................................. 14 8 Tenure of form operators by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND INCOMES IN 1945 ....... North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 24 .......................................................... 22 Acreage of Land ........................ ........................................................................................... 22 9 Age of form operators, by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont Power and Equipment ............... ........................................................................................... 22 North Carolina, 1945 .............................................................................................. 25 Buildings ................................................................................................................................. 23 1 10 Education of form operators by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, Population and Labor Supply ................................................................................................. 23 North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 25 Tenure, Age, and Education of Form Operators ................................................................. 24 Tenure .................................................................................................................................. 24 11 Land use by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 26 Age of operator ................................................................................................................. 24 1 2 Crops grown by size of form, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Education ....................................................................... I ...................................................... 25 Carolina, 1945 ...................................................................................................... 27 Enterprise Combinations and Income ...................................................................................... 26 General land use ............................................................................................................... 26 13 Acreage used for cotton by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, Crops grown ........................................................................................................................ 26 North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................ 28 Productive livestock ............................................................................................................ 26 14 Productive livestock and form operator's income by size of form, 217 forms, I ncome ................................................................................................................................. 28 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 ........................................................ 23 PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS AND RATES OF PRODUCTION FOR CROPS AND LIVESTOCK W ITH PRESENT AND IMPROVED PRACTICES .................................................. 29 15 Variation in number of hens by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern P;edmont, Crops ........................................................................... North Carolina, 1945 ............................................................................................. 29 ............................................................ 2 9 Seed and fertilizer ............................................................................................................. 30 16 Present and improved annual rates of fertilization and seeding, principal crops, Yields ................................................................................................................................... 30 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ....... .......................................................... 30 Labor and power requirements ......................................................................................... 31 Livestock .................................................................................................................................. 31 17 Average yield per acre, principal crops, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, Feed, land, and labor ......................................................................................................... 31 North Carolina ...................................................................................................... 30 Rates of production ............................................................................................................ 33 18 Man labor used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and on forms without tractors, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 31 19 Power used per acre, principal cropson forms with and without tractors, Part IL Development of Alternative Farming Systems Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................. 32 SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF FARM ENTERPRISES .................................................... 33 20 Feed, power, and labor requirements, principal livestock enterprises, Relative Costs and Returns, Principal Enterprises with Present and Improved Practices 35 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................. 32 Crops .... -* ....... 35 21 Rates of production, principal livestock enterprises, with 1945 practices and Livestock .............................................................................................................................. 37 improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................. 33 PRESENT AND ALTERNATIVE FARM ING SYSTEMS .............................................................. 39 22 Prices received by farmers, principal products sold, Southern Piedmont, Small Forms ............................................................................................................................ 40 North Carolina, 1945 and average 1935-39 ...................................................... 36 Present and alternative systems of the representative farm .......................................... 40 23 Specified annual direct cash costs per acre, principal crops, with 1945 Variations in land capability ............................................................................................ 45 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmon, North Carolina ............ 36 Medium-Size Forms ................................................................................................................ 45 Present and alternative systems of the representative form ........................................ 45 24 Value of production and specified direct costs per acre, principal crops, with Variations in land capability ............................................................................................ 50 1945 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .... 37 Large Forms ..................................... ...................................................................................... 50 25 Specified annual direct costs, principal classes of livestock, with 1945 FARM SIZE, PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY, AND INCOMES ..................................................... 56 practices and improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ............ 38 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................... 60 1 APPENDIX ........................................................................ 26 Value of production and specified direct costs, principal livestock enterprises, ....................... ................................... 63 Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 38 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................ .................................................. 68 27 Most intensive crop rotations adopted to specified soil conditions, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...................................................................................... 41 28 Organizations of representative small form, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 42



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of labor requirements (Figure 13). of production were concentrated Table 35.-Aternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, medium-size farms To accomplish these adjustments, upon cotton or upon dairy and capability, Southrn Piedmont, North Carolina a 36 per cent increase in capital poultry products. Farm investment, chiefly: in livestock, With farms of similar size but Item above With No would be required. A milking shed, on soils unsuited to production of average' cotton cotton laying house, and brooder house alfalfa, the relative advantages of Acres Acres Acres would need to be added to the dairy cows would be decreased beLand and crops: present buildings. Other improvecause of the larger acreage that Cotton ....................... 10.3 9.3 0 ments would include terraces, perwould be required to produce hay. i Corn ........................ 14.0 4.0 10.0 manent pasture, and establishment Wheat ....................... 16.4 11.1 11.0 V a rat i dt Large F MOats ......................... 6.0 3.0 6.0 of alfalfa. Fn L aarm1' Barley ....................... 0 4.0 0 The Preceding discussion C a sed On large farms the relative adAlfalfa ...................... 7.7 3.0 7.7 Tepeeig dsuion is based0 2.0 or, a farm with land of average vantages of livestock and grains, Lespedeza hay ................ 2.0 capability. Many farms of this extensive type enterprises in comseed ............... 20.4 41.1 34.7 size are made up of land that is parison with cotton, are greater Garden ...................... 1.0 1.0 1.0 above or below this level of prothan on farms of the other two Total crops................77.8 76.5 72.4 ductivity. Obviously, production groups. In these cases, available cropn..................5.45 5.4 opportunities would be greater in labor supply is the limiting factor Double-cropped ............... 22.4 21.1 17.0 cases where the land would supmore frequently than land, parCropland nt.pstur.......... 55.4 55.4 55.4 port a more intensive cropping systicularly in the production of cotPermanent pasture .......... 23.0 7.0 23.0 ten without damage to soil or a ton. On many of the large farms Woods and other ........... 41.6 57.6 41.6 reduction in yields. If acreage of the land would support as much Total farm..............120.0 120.0 120.0 corn and small grains were incotton as the available labor force creased at the expense of secondcould tend, even on farms with Livestock: Number Number Number y ea r lesp ed eza p ro d u ctio n o f feed ste ep er la n d s. T h u s, th e fa r m in g D aiest c o s N u m ber N u be N b could be stepped up sufficiently to systems discussed here deal prin*iens ........................ 500 200 300 add 200 hens, or a sow and 13 pigs cipally in terms of the different Hogs raised .................. 3 3 3 if the price received for eggs should alternativesIncome summary: Dollars Dolla Dollars become less favorable (Table 35). mon size of labor force, and also, 1945 prices: In cases where cropping systems the opportunities for production Cash income ................ 6,901 4,164 4,640 would need to be less intensive, in with different volumes and sources Cash expenses .............. 2,791 1,944 2,261 order to maintain soil productivity of labor supply. and yields (about 25 per cent of Land resources of the representNet cash income ......... 4,110 2,220 2,379 the cropland in intertilled crops) ative large farm in 1945 included: 1935-39 prices: it would nmtter little from the '7See Appendix Tables V. vi, and VII Cash income ................ 3,788 2,177 2,586 standpoint of net income under for detailed accounts of income and exCash expenses.............1,937 1,349 1,569 1945 prices, whether the resources trenses for farming systems discussed in this 1945pries, heter he rsouces section. Net cash income .......... 1,851 828 1,017 Table 34.-Summ.y of income and expenses, based n two pr.. I Cropland that will support 50 per cent in intertilled crops and maintain soil fertility and tive medium-size form, 1945 and reorganized system, southern Ppice levels, represent yields. tivemedium-sizeform, _945_andreorganizedsystem,_outhernPiedmont, North Carolina' 2 Cropland that will support 25 per cent in intertilled crops and maintain soil fertility and yields. Item 1945 prices 1935-39 Prices a Unclassified milk. 1945 Reorganized 1915 Reorganized Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 122 acres of cropland; 23 acres of ditions are generally described as receipts.......... 2,435 5,753 1,265 3,090 permanent pasture, five of which slight to moderate degrees of 2. Family privileges ...... 674 882 404 529 would be suitable for more intensheet erosion (Table 36). Soils .-sive culture; and 93 acres of woods analysis indicated PH values rang3. Total income (12)..3,109 6,("35 -1,669 3,619 and other land, of which nearly all ing between 5.6 and 6.9 (practical4. Cash expenses ......1,135 2,491 788 1,729 would be suitable for permanent ly all cropland and pasture of this 5. Noncash expenses .......494 742 445 I 668 pasture and eventually for cropparticular farm received one ton 6. Total expenses (4+5) 1 ---land if properly developed. The or more of lime per acre during the -4)1,629 3,23: 1,233 2,397 soils are practically all silt loams preceding five years); calcium, 7. Net cash income 1-4:.,0 2,6 7 ,397 8. Net income (3-6)3 ..... 1,480 3,402 436 1,222 of the flerndon-Georgeville and medium minus to high; magnesium, 8. etilsofProductio, income 3s 46 1 2 iAlamance series. The slopes of almedium minus to high minus; Details of production, income and expenses are shown in Appendix Tables III and IV. most all the land are between 2 phosphorus, low minus to high Net cash income to the operator for the family's labor, management and investment, and 7 per cent, and erosion conminus, mostly high minus; potas(Net income to the operator for the family's labor and management (50) (51)



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Table 30.-Summory of income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative small 0 farm, 1945 and reorganizd systm, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' E 1945 prices 1935-39 prices 0" 1945 Reorganized 1945 Reorganized X. .......... o ,.C o. .,. r 0 Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 1. Cash receipts .......... 1,239 3,246 664 1,700 2. Family privileges ...... 662 724 .397 434 S:1. Total income 1+2) ..... 2,001 3,970 1,061 2,143 4. Cash expenses ......... 718 1,468 498 1,019 0 5. Noncash expenses ...... :25 4:30 292 387 0 6. Total 'expenses (4+5). .1,043 1,898 790 1,406 $4 07. Net cash income (-~4)2*. .021 1,778 166 681 8. Net income (3-6). ..... 958 2,072 271 728 N "1 Details of production, income and expenses are shown in Appendix Tables I and I. gNet cash income to the operator for the family's labor, management, and investment. 2 Net income to the operator for the family's labor and management, 0 C5 3 0" ture would mean a reduction in ties might differ on a farm of cropland. Under these conditions similar size but with land that H Cd ,the cotton acreage, if used for paswould support a crop rotation of 0 ture and feed production, would different intensity. If the nature .j support only three additional cows. of the land were such that it 21 rA substitution of this kind would would support a system in which reduce net cash income of the re50 per cent of the cropland would a organized system, under 1 9 4 5 be intertilled each year, without prices, by $796. This indicates that loss of soil or without causing a cotton prices would have to drop reduction, in yields, the acreage a -about 67 per cent, or about 7.5 planted to cotton could be increased 6 -cents per pound, with prices of to about 14 acres or to the limit of milk at the 1945 level, before this available labor, whichever would -.C change would be profitable. Howbe reached first (Table 31). This a ever, if conditions were such that increase would be made at the .the pasture could be expanded into expense of second-year lespedeza. land other than that used for crops, Consequently, the net cash income .. then 7 cows could be added in place with 1945 prices would be about of the cotton. Under these condi$500 higher than on the farm. tions net cash income of the farm where cotton acreage was limited 4would be reduced about $300; or to 8.5 acres. ......with milk prices remaining at the On steeper or more severely 1945 level this change could be eroded land the net cash income ..+3 made profitably if cotton were to would be reduced. Suppose, for So drop 25 per cent or more-to 17 example, that only 25 per cent of : cents per pound or less. If no land the cropland could be planted an0) H were suited to alfalfa, opportuninually to intertilled crops. Cotton ties for further expanding the would then be limited to about 4 *:. : dairy enterprise would be limited, acres. At 1945 prices, the net cash E 0 W The hay would have to be harvestincome of the farm would be apto ., .ed from the lespedeza crop. This proximately $450, below that pro.o 0 would necessitate a larger acreage duced by the reorganized system ,H i r V) of second-year lespedeza and a rewith 8.5 acres of cotton. a c 0 duction in acreage of grain crops. IV --'0 Variations in Land Capability: Medium-Size Farms" $4= a The preceding analysis is based on Present and Alternative Systems o 0 0 0 0 0 0 c:z a small farm with average land of the "Representative Farm": C\ C2 Z H H i Z capabilities. Many farms of this size have land capabilities above In See Appendix Tables III and IV for detailed accounts of income and expenses of or below this level. The opportunifarming systems discussed in this section. (44) (45)



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Table 41.-Investment per acre of cropland on representative forms, 194S and reorganized or enterprise combinations, and possibilities of mechanizing the systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina farm practices, (2) changes in planting, harvesting, hoeing, and Investment per acre of cropland tpsado id feupet cliaigoeain.Wt rs Systems and size of Operating types, ando kindsloyen of i ent cutiandhreting e atin Wihopres-, farm Reai Productive capital'usdan (3 emlyetoin enhndarsigadcopn, estate livestock Power Equipment Total creased volumes of seasonal labor, and half-row cultivating equipDolarsDolar Dolar Dllas Dllrs ollrsEven with these changes small and ment, opportunity for full utiliza1945 systems: Dolr-olr olr olr olr olr medium size farms do not have tion of labor is limited. However, Small...................121 6 11 11 149 20 sufficient acreage for maximum efif tractor equipment should prove Medium..................125 7 7 9 148 20 ficiency in the use of other factors, to be economical in the performLarge ................... 108 3 11 6 128 25 Niher the addition of more equipance of these tasks, it would tend ment of the kind currently used, to level the labor peaks and inSmoralnized ......3 16y1s11e77s4 buildings, and other forms of capicrease considerably the acreage Smdium..................150 38 17 91 204 45 tal to the present size-type farms that the relatively fixed labor Lare:nor the increase in size of farm force could handle. Cotn-arge:..... 2 8 0 1 17 5 alone would solve the economic Employment of wage hands durCot-ivestockllgrans..127 38 10 12 187 55 problems of production in the ing peak labor periods would tend Livetoc-smll rais ..11 19 8 1 15 26Southern Piedmont. to increase the acreages that the Annual cash expenses per acre of cropland. Addition of livestock enterprises, fixed farm labor supply could tend, due to the relatively even labor but this is not thought to be distribution, offers considerable opfeasible in the Southern Piedmont. closely associated with problems acre higher on the large farm portunity for the use of labor preAlternative employment opportunisimilar to those involving the use (Table 41). In general, acreage of viously underemployed. However, ties during other periods of the of farm labor. Quantities sufficient cropland and investment, excluding with the most common practices, year would not absorb such a seato meet peak periods were kept by land, per man equivalent of availI quality of livestock, and rates of sonal labor force sufficiently to the farmer. As a result, there were able labor increased with the size production found in 1945, very litprovide adequate annual incomes. considerable periods of idleness, of farm, but the extent of increase tle would be gained, in terms of Finally, these data indicate opThe hours of work per lead of was relatively small (Table 42). income, by the additional employportunity for a greater degree of workstock on the representative Assuming that managerial cameat of the available labor. But efficiency, to a limited extent, on farms amounted to: small farm, pacity is not the limiting factor, with improved practices the addismall and medium size farms with 550; medium size farm, 782; and the most efficient utilization of lational labor required would gain present levels of equipment. On large farm, 483. On the large farm, bor and other productive resources, a much higher net return from many farms larger acreages would a tractor was used 356 hours, regardless of size of farm, would thsInepie.b eesayfra praht Under the 1945 system, investrequire one of the following The greatest opportunity for inoptimum use of family labor, powments per acre of cropland were c ha ng es, or combination of creasing efficiency in cotton proer, and equipment. The larger lowest, except for power, but anchanges, from the 1945 conditions: duction appears to stem from the acreage necessarily would need to nual cash expenses were $5 per (1) Adjustments in type of farm, Table 43.-Summory of incomes at 194S prices, representative farms, 1945 and reorganized Table 42.-Relation of land and investment to labor on farms, representative farms, 1945 systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina INet cash income Net income Land per worker Investment per worker2 I System and size of farms Pefam erpso Prfrm eresn Systems and size Total less landPefam erpsn Prfrm erero of farms Improved Total and operating Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Crop1land land Total less land capital 19415 systems: Small .................... 621 155 958 240 Acres Acres Dollars Dollars Dollars Medium..................1,300 260 1,480 296 19-15 systemsLag Small...............22.6 23.8 3,783 1,513 1,072 L ae ..........32530 ,1 9 .Medium.............26.2 30.6 4,393 1,692 1,166 Optalr................32,295 330 2,92 29 Large'............... 28.0 33.3 4,312 1,743 924Oprtradfml 2,85417949 Reorganized systems: Reorganized systems: Small...............22.6 26.9 4,901 2,534 1,634 Small........ ............1,778 444 2,072 518 Medium.............25.6 36.3 6,403 3,532 2,379 Lare:m.........,6 5 ,08 Large: Large: ivstck Cotton-livestock' ..28.0 39.0 6,758 4,074 2,545 Cotonlivestock: ... ,9369 601 0 Livestock-sm. gr. ..77.9 89.0 14,297 7,426 5,363 Opt'.............4,9931 6993 6,041 604 Includes cropper labor. ILivestock -sm all grain ... .6,002 1,500 5,542 1,386 $Conld anperan pt .Includes nct cash returns to cropper labor. (58) (59



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Table 25.-Specified annual direct casts, principal classes of livestock, with 1945 practices h orne-grown feed and livestock as Gains f rom marketing f e e d and improved practices, Sauthcrn Piedmant, North Carolina an enterprise.) Therefore, these through livestock would be much Produced with 1945 Practices Produced with improved practices data show the relative profit in greater under improved practices Itm Mi hlk, wholesale feeding home-grown feed to livecompared with 1945 conditions. For IeMik(per cow) Pork stock compared with selling it diunclassified milk, the gain would fledi Eggs (pr Eggse Broilers(10 (I sow rect. In 1945 the difference was be $44 per cow instead of $8 as (ed (100 (prhrdens)ssi (0 (100 and 13 (eco)en) hog) A' fled2 hens) chicks) pigs) only $8 in the case of unclassified under 1945 practices. Apparently Home-grown I milk when feed was fed to dairy little would be gained in terms of feed'.........75 137 23 96 96 *222 23 293 cows. This means that the farmincreased value in marketing grain Pasture (cash) 0 0 0 9 9 3 0 24 er received only $8 in return for through pork in excess of family Purchased feed 29 31 6 15 15 59 11 27 his additional labor and risk by needs, at 1945 prices. Dereitin marketing the feed through cows Better practices for crops and purchase icotatto direct sales. livestock result in a two-way in(livestock) .3 24 10 5 5 20 13 0 ggs compared more favorably crease in the advantage to livebquildin n as a channel for marketing feed, stock. Not only is the return per (cas)....... 2 2 4 8 6 0in the case of pork, when hogs unit of livestock increased, but (iceah) s 4... 0 0 92 8 8 2 2 were bought and raised, there was with higher yields of feed crops, Misce---------------------------------a loss of $3 when the feed was fed agetrnme fuiso ie Total ....$113 $194 $39 $146 $137 $317 $55 $346 compare wihdrc aeo ed rae nuberp of uinit ofclie'Baed n hed f 2 ~However, almost all of the pork stok cand beket on eiven aevr Based on a herdmu of cows, was grown for home use. If the agofln.Iisednthwvr 'nosed on a flock of 250 hens, farmer had bought the meat he ta h ult flvsokms 4Horne-grown feed charged at farm value, would have had to pay retailprcs beirodinrertganmh Includes breeding fee, feed grinding, salt, and veterinary expenses, prices, bhs aclain a e improvaed in oer o gne meuchs been made in terms of prices rewhen feed is marketed through a smaller scale. This problem difFor hens the increase was $1.34 ceived by farmers. livestock rather than sold for cash. fers somewhat from that of unper hen. classified milk. Because of differSince, in making these calcuPRESENT AND ALTERNATIVE FARMING SYSTEMS ences in equipment requirements, lations, home-grown feed was this enterprise is more flexible charged at farm value, the speciData presented in previous sective organizations, "representathan is production of either Grade fied cost for livestock includes tions indicate that practices, rates tive farms" were developed. These A milk or eggs, value of home-grown feed, purof production, and resources on are actual farms adjusted in view Returns for various livestock enchased feed, and other cash costs farms in the Southern Piedmont of modal tendencies in the area. terprises are shown in Table 26. connected with the enterprise. (An vary widely. Relative to potential These adjustments required only With improved practices, value of alternative approach that can be levels, farm incomes are low, and minor changes in actual organizaproduct less specified costs per cow made from the given figures would co~nservationi of resources is poor. tions and practices. Soils maps of for unclassified milk increased $36. be to consider the combination of However, there are significant opactual farms representative of portunities for improving present each size were selected and used Tabe 6.-ale o podutin ad pecfid dret cst, pinipa lvesoc enerrissfarming systems and, consequentin the appraisal of adjustment opSouter Pdmont, ort arolto n pcfeddrc otpiniaietcketrrss ly, net farm incomes by incorporatportunities. The basic factor for Souhen Pedon, Nrt Caolnaing improved practices and adjustclassification in this analysis is Value Direct Value less ing wisely the present enterprise acreage of cropland, as the other Enerriesprtofut cspeife seife combinations for more effective factors are generally more flexible prdc' cot ot utilization of land, labor, and othin relation to potential scale of Dollars Dollars Dollars er resources of production, operation. 1945 practices Farms, representative of the preThe most profitable farming sysUnclassified milk ........ Per cow 121 113 8 dominate situations, are used to tern depends upon many variables. Eggs ..................100 hens 309 194 115 illustrate means of raising net One of these is the relative rePork................1 hog raised 36 39 -33 farm incomes consistent with turns as influenced by yields which Improved practices .proper conservation of farm rein turn are affected by soil condiUnclassified milk .........Per cow 181 137 44 sources. In the analysis, comparitions. Another variable is the Grade-A milk ............Per cow 305 16159 sons are made between organizaprice relationships, which depend Eggs ...................100 hens 560 317 249 tions as they existed in 1945 inupon conditions of supply and deBroilers...............100o chicks 76 55 21 eluding present practices, and almand for the commodities. But Pork ................1 sow, 13 pigs 388 346 42 ternative organizations in which the influence of one farmer's proBased on 1945 prices and rates tif production as shown in Table 21. improved practices are incorporatduction on total supply is nieg2See Table 25 for items included.ed Inteaayiofatra iil.T rfrthapochn R represents a losso of $3.ed Inteaayiofatra liie.T rfrthapochn (38) (39)



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problems of individual farmers as mation is to be sound. APPENDIX TABLES well as the more general problems Benefits of these adjustments Table I.-Production and sale of faonm products, representative small farm, 1945 and rear. of the area. For practical purposes would serve society as a whole. The ganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' it is often necessary to break down general economic and social status *1945 Reorganized problems into partial analysis, of the rural people of the South-ItmUiFo aeFrsl' However, the results should be ern Piedmont would be raised but Prem UntProaeFr ae proerl inegate an th utinotattheexpnseofothr sg-duction Quantity Value duction Quantity Value mate effects appraised if the informeats of the economy. Units Units Dollars Units Units Dollars Crops: Cotton: lint.......... Cwt. 42 42 952 45 45 1.004 seed..........Cwt. 67 63 151 70 70 167 Corn...................Bu. 198 0 0 250 0 0 Wheat.................lBu. 105 40 66 222 54 89 Oats................... Bu. 0 0 0 168 0 0 Barley.................IBu. 0 0 0 60 0 0 1.espedeza seed3... CWt. 0 0 0 65 65 523 Hay: lespedeza...Ton 8 0 0 0 0 0 alfalfa.......... Ton 0 0 0 9 0 0 Oats ..........."Ton 5 0 0 0 0 0 Garden and other ....... 20 20 Total crops .......... xxx * 1,189 1,803 Livestock: Milk..................Cwt. 74 14 39 120 4 167 Veal.................. Cwt. 1 1 10 2 2 27 Pork..................Cwt. 5 0 0 6 0 0 Eggs..................Doz. 300 150 61 2,800 2.680 1,083 Chickens.............. Cwt. 2 1 16 6 5 132 Total livestock ... xxx 126 * 1,409 Conservation payments: .xxx * 24 34 Total cash receipts ..xxx * 1,339 * 3.246 1Based on 1945 prices. 2 Quantity not sold was consumed on the farm. Utilization of the lespedeza crop would depend on relative prices, preference of farmers. and individual conditions. 4408 pounds of butter or equivalent in form of other dairy products. *Items not applicable. Table If.-Form expenses, representative small form, 194S and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' Value Item 1945 Reorganized Dollars Dollars Cash: Fertilizer and lime.................................. 249 415 Seeds and plants.....................................60 147 Ginning cotton.......................................45 47 Combining, grain and lespedeza.......................24 304 Feed.................................................82 219 Livestock purchased..................................20 62 Other livestock expense...............................16 35 Auto and hauling.....................................70 70 Equipment repair....................................28 28 Building repair......................................60 75 Taxes................................................27 27 Crop insurance......................................0 22 Building insurance...................................7 17 Hired labor..........................................30 .0 Total cash expenses...............................718 1.468 Noncash: Depreciation: Total................................. 77 93 Buildings................ .......... ............134 50 Equipment.........................:................43 43 Interest: total......................................248 317 Current operating..................................43 88 Short-term investment.............................50 69 Real estate........................................155 180 Total noncash expenses...........................125 430 Total expenses..................................1,043 1,898 (62) Based on 1945 prices. (3



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others highly susceptible. This, The chances that several cona. I, onthly precipitation b. Clear days per r.onth 2/ coupled with the rolling topograsecutive days suited to harvesting P phy, the frequent downpour of of hay and grain will occur when Inches .ays rains, and the fact that cotton and needed are of major concern to corn-the principal crops-are infarmers and to those wh: are intertilled, has led to general sheet vestigating possibilities for adding 9 erosion and considerable gullying new enterprises or changing farm throughout the area. Parts of fields practices. Normally, the number and, in some cases, entire fields, of clear days that occur in any 6 1945 have been removed from cultivaone month is highest in October, tion due to severe erosion. November, and September, respecMoisture penetration of the subtively, and lowest in July, June soils is lnoderate with the excepand August. 2 tion of White Store, Creedmoor, From June N 1 and Orange, where it is slow and week in August, the critical harJ F L, A I. J J A S 0 :4 D J F yA J J A S 0 N4 D Iredell-Mecklenburg, where it is vesting period for alfalfa, hay and yonth l'onth very slow. All -retain moisture small grains, the chances of three well. or more consecutive days of harc. Days vith 0.01 inch or more of rain d. .ean temperature On heavy or clay soils, the range vest weather occurring within any of moisture conditions suitable for one week are two or three out of Days D0~ees tillage is more limited than for ten. During September, when ansandy soils. The narrowest range nual legume hays are harvested, 45 occurs in the Iredell-Mecklenburg the chances become 40 to 50 per 12 group. These conditions limit suitcent (Figure 4). During this peable periods of tillage as well as riod, September is the only month opportunities for late fall, winter, in which the probability of seven 40 and early spring grazing of small or more consecutive days cf hargrains. The soil is often too wet vest weather is greater than 20 '3 to allow cattle to range on the per cent. These data indicate that fields, risks of losing hay due to weather Crops best adapted generally to damage are much greater during 0 U: these soils are cotton, corn, small late spring and summer than dur1. F 1! A 7.' J A S 0 N D j A I J J A S 0 NJ D grains, and lespedeza. Sandy loams ing early fall. 1.onth 1on'th are suitable for sweet potatoes. Probable dates of the last frost Figure 3. Monthly Precipitation and Temperatures, Normal and 1945, Charlotte, With proper practices, alfalfa and in the spring and the first frost North Carolina.' clovers are adapted to all of the in the fall are of major importance I Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. Normal is the 1878-1944 average. soil groups except White Storein planning farm operations. Al2 Number of partly cloudy days is usually high between April and September. Creedmoor, the m o r e poorly though the average date of the drained Iredell-Mecklenburg, and last killing frost in the spring is Per cent the shallower phases of the March 25, frost has occurred as Georgeville -Iferndon -Alamance -late as April 26. The average (late 3 days days or .ore or 5ao r Orange. of the first killing frost in the 40 more days or sore Climate and Weather: The clifall is November 11, but frosts mate is suited to the production of have occurred as early as October 30 corn, cotton, small grain, lespe8 (Figure 5). deza, hays, lpastures, and] to mantiy The chances are nline in ten that other crops not adapted to the one or more killing frosts will 20 soils. Based on weather data from occur after March 5. Twenty days the Charlotte Station, normal anlater, March 25, chances of anoth10 nual rainfall is 46 inches fairly er killing frost are reduced to five well distributed throughout the in ten or 50 per cent. By April 6, year (Figure 3). Winter rains usthis figure has fallen to 20 per cent. 51 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1i s 14 1s 16 17 ally are fairly slow and last for In the fall, chances are only two June July Aug. Sept. several hours or days, whereas in ten that a killing frost will ocl'.nth and Week summer rains often occur as thuncur before October 31, but in eight Figure 4. Percentage Probability of Consecutive Harvest Weather Days' by dershowers that are downpours. out of ten years 'the first killing Weeks, during Period June 2 to September 28, Charlotte, North Carolina.' The latter result in considerable frost occurs before November 18. 1 Days with no rain, plus days clear or partly cloudy, with 0.01 inch or trace of rain. runoff, particularly on the slopes. These data are more useful than 2 Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, records from 1896 to 1945. (10) (11)



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the time and funds available, "purthe initial survey. For this analyposive sampling" was considered sis the 220 farms were stratified the most effective method. This by soil-association groups, then method employs selective sampling classified into groups of major within specified strata. sizes and types, based on predomiThe major soil types were nant systems of farming. This grouped into associations based on -classification resulted in 22 major soils that occur in close geographgroups. Purposive sampling was o ic patterns. Neighborhood boundagain used for the selection of one .aries were super-imposed on soilfarm from each group for special r. association maps of the area. study. U Neighborhoods in which little or Source and Type of Data Col.no cotton was grown in 1945 and lected: The basic data for the 220 those in which relatively large farms were obtained by the surZ areas of the minor soil groups ocvey method for the 1945 cropIZ ".5 curred were eliminated. This reyear.' The record of each farm duced the area to be sampled to included an inventory of resources; the cotton-producing neighborhoods acreages of crops; actual and nor-located within six major soil asmal yields;' production and disposociations. sition of crops; number, produc,Complete neighborhoods were setion, and disposal of livestock and o 0 elected as sampling units. The numlivestock products; and crop and -) 0 ber of units allocated to each soil livestock practices. The 22 farms "4 ) association was approximately proselected as representative of the L. .4 .-portionate to the total acreage of major groups were studied in con.s 0 4 c the respective group. The entire )1 4 .C sample included 11 neighborhoods To supplement data collected in this (study, materials were available from two Sos e oa drfarm-management studies previously con" (Table 1). Farm management reeurmn et daiareomeo Sords were obtained from 220 farmducted in parts of the area by the North .0 .8 1 c ers and used to ascertain the more Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station • P 0 0 in cooperation with the Bureau of AgriculScommon systems of farming and tural Economics. Secondary sources of dn .0 modal levels of farm resources. data include reports of the U. S. Census, .c 0 o o a m oo .Federal-State Crop Reporting Service, S O evaluate the influence on-net Weather Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1 o a .10 3 c returns of changes in agronomic and county soil surveys prepared by the Practices and soil management, it Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agri_x -so: -, 0 t -Wpractices adsimnge ntit cultural Engineering, U. S. Department of M 0 o 0 -was necessary to analyze the qualiAgriculture. : 0 0 U 4 E H Normal Yields, as used in this report, o 4 I ty of the land resources in more reflect the level of yields under approxiZ 0 H t Z detail than could be obtained from mately average climatic conditions. S 0 c o a Table 1.-Location and size of sample, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 .u co a .2 C NeighborTotal Sample Sub, a 0 0 0 V Soil Association Groups Location hoods of Farms sample 0olI 01 12 0 o H00 ECounty Number Number Number 1., -.4 P .r 1. Cecil-Yadkin-Lloyd Cleveland 2 41 4 01 .4| -P Iredell 2 40 3 0 se H ( I 4 0 Total (4) (81) (7) < V r o r H 2. Cecil-Appling-Durham Anson 1 20 2 0 E-T 0 o a Gaston 1 20 2 STotal (2) (40) (4) H a ..3. Georgeville-Herndon-Aalamancei" I';",ii.. "ia a ....a.., a .3. Dvdo-ly-ekebr S. .13 A Orange Union 2 40 3 0 o 1 0 4. Davidson-Lloyd-Mecklenburg \ .. \. Io oo oo ci a a 0 > : a .= Catawba 1 21 2 .--* ]" o5. Iredell-Mecklenburg Cabarrus 1 20 3 t8-. ..... L 6. White Store-Creedmoor Anson 1 18 3 Total 7 11 220 22 (6)(7)



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Table 44.-Summary of incomes at 1935-39 average prices, representative farms, 1945 customary costs these less intennumber were more than 60 years and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina sive enterprises are profitable supold. System and size of farms Net cash income Net income plements in a cotton type of farmManagerial capacity, both presPer farm Per person Per farm Per person ing. ent and potential, is rather inDollars Dollars Dollars Dollars In general these adjustments tangible. It is not known to what 1945 systems: would include: (1) Reduction in the extent this item is the limiting Small .................... 166 42 271 68 proportion of the cropland planted factor of production. However, Medium .................. 477 95 436 87 in row crops, (2) increases in the farms operated according to the Large: proportion of the cropland on reorganized systems would reTotal' ................ 1,352 135 800 80 which a legume would be plowed quire a higher degree of both techOperator and family ..... 578 144 26 6 under annually, (3) increases in nical skill and managerial ability Reorganized systems: productive employment of availthan is required by the present Small .................... 681 170 728 182 able labor, power, and other resystems. Medium .................. 1,361 272 1,222 244 sources, and (4) increases in farm Larger capital funds would be Large: investments, required. In the farm business, Cotton-livestock: At 1945 prices, even with the expenses of a machine and/or othTotat ................ 3,119 312 2,024 239 changes in farming systems, net er types of durable capital are Operator and family ..1,688 422 593 148 cash income per person would be handled through long-term depreLivestock-small grain ... 3,000 750 2,258 564 only $444 on small farms and $652 ciation and interest charges, with I Includes net cash returns to cropper labor. on medium size farms. Where the rate depending upon the exthere is capable management, the pected life of the item. In many size of farm would need to be cases, this expected life covers be accompanied by capable man,business is shown in Tables 43 and equivalent to that of the larger a period of many years. Usually, agement and by major adjustments 44. The "net cash income" is parfarms to permit adjustments in orhowever, farmers are required to in enterprise combinations, practicularly important in view of ganization and operation t h a t pay cash or to meet installment tices, and types and kinds of equipnecessary cash expenses for family would be necessary for efficient use payments allocated over a period ment. Also, these adjustments living and for payment of farm of the most common units of power much shorter than the life of the would be necessary on the larger debts. The farmer also must conand family labor on farms. asset. Also, there is need for credfarms which already have suffisider "net income," because in the it adapted to the financing of farm long-run, the income must cover Development of the alternative improvements such as pasture de-' cient acreage of land. depreciation and interest on equipsystems would meet with several velopment, terracing, and improveA test of efficiency measured in meant and buildings which eventualobstacles. Dairy and poultry enment of livestock herds.' terms of net income to the farm ly must be replaced. terprises are relatively inflexible The reorganized farming sysbecause of the fixed costs in the teams, if extensively developed, form of buildings and equipment, would require all-weather farm-toSUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS' Because of the inexperience of market roads and an efficient marfarm operators and farm labor in keting system. Opportunities for handling commercial livestock enimproving production efficiency by Considerable opportunity f or support larger numbers of liveterprises and the necessity of gainmechanizing cotton production c profitable adjustments in farming stock. ing technical experience, these enan in ottn r out systems exists in the cotton proOn small and medium size farms, tecisand by improving farm layouts terprises would need to be started a e m j rp a e h t n e u t e ducing section of the Southern in both present and alternative are major phases that need further Piedmont. Key adjustments would systems, cotton appears to be the Tis adjustment would require sa in eal allcas include a greater degree of effimost profitable enterprise. PoulThis adut n ou equre Finally, the accomplishment of ciecy n he rouctonof oton orlong-range planning on the part of these changes would require intenciency in the production of cotton try offers the best opportunity for farmers. and a more effective use of the resupplementing income from cotsive and coordinated work by agrimaining farm resources. These ad.. ton since pasture land usually is Age and health of the farm opercultural agencies whose jobs are justments would mean the adoplimited to a few acres. If enough ators must be considered. In many to provide farmers with information of improved or more efficient pasture land is available, dairying cases, several years would be needtion needed in planning and operenterprise practices and changes compares favorably with poultry. ed to accomplish the recommended ating their farms. Such work must in the resource organization and On larger units adjustment opchanges and the older men would be directed toward the specific enterprise combinations. Increased portunities depend upon the labor not share in the advantages to the yields of feed crops, brought about situation. In cases where labor is extent of younger men who might For treatment of this subject see: In,vtamnt Crcdit tos Imirovc F'arming Sys,by improved practices, would mean scarce relative to land, dairy, poulexpect to gain livelihoods from vems by Donald It. lbach and G. W. Forster. that present sizes of farms would try, and small grains-lespedeza their farms for a much longer peN. C. Agricultural Experiment Station and '~ ecApendx abe VIIfu deaied offer opportunities for profitably riod of years. The average age of, the Bureau of Agricultural Economicsr cnmSee Appendix Table ViaI for detailed replacing cotton. On farms where farmers in the study was 54 years, 21 Further treatment of this subject by summary of farm organizations in 1945 the North Carolina Agricultural Expericompared with alternatives. enough labor is available at the and more than a third of the total meat Station is currently in progress. (60) (61)



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Table 13.-Acreage used for cotton by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Table 1S.-Variation in number of hens by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, Carolina, 1945 North Carolina, 1945 Number of farms Percentage of total number Number of farms Percentage of total farms Acres in cotton Number of hens Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large None ......... 16 6 5 15.5 9.2 10.2 25 or less .......... 18 11 7 17 16 15 1-5 ........... 30 3 3 29.1 4.6 6.1 26-50 .............. 43 27 17 42 42 35 6-10 .......... 28 19 7 27.2 29.2 14.3 51-75 .............. 18 9 4 17 14 8 11-15 ......... 25 21 5 24.3 32.4 10.2 76-100 ............. 9 7 7 9 11 14 16-20 ......... 4 5 4 3.9 7.7 8.2 101-125 ............ 5 2 4 5 3 8 21-25 ......... 5 6 7.7 12.3 126-150 ............ 1 4 2 1 6 4 26-30 ......... 3 2 4.6 4.1 151-175 ............ 2 2 1 2 3 2 31-35 ......... 1 -1 1.5 2.0 176-200 ............ 3 2 3 3 3 6 36-40 ......... 2 1 3.1 2.0 201 or over ........ 4 1 4 4 2 8 41-45 ......... 3 6.1 -46-50 ......... 3 6.1 Total .......... 103 65 49 100 100 100 51-55 ......... 1 2.0 56-60 ......... 4 8.2 61 and over .. 4 -8.2 PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS AND RATES OF PRODUCTION Total ..... 103 65 49 100.0 100.0 100.0 FOR CROPS AND LIVESTOCK WITH PRESENT AND IMPROVED PRACTICES were kept and only a few flocks figure represents returns to the Production practices contribute principal crops in the Southern were of commercial size (Table farm operator and his family for materially to the farmer's degree Piedmont. It should be recognized 15). family labor, management, and inof success. In this area there are that practices which must be imPork was also produced almost vestment in the farm business. It considerable opportunities for inproved for more efficient producexclusively for home consumption, is the amount available to pay for creasing crop yields, livestock protion are not limited to fertilizaBrood sows were reported on only family living expenses, debts, and duction rates, and net farm income tion and.seeding rates. Other prac15 per cent of the small farms farm improvements, and to rethrough the adoption of improved tices include treatments for disand on 31 per cent of the large place worn-out equipment. Net crop and livestock practices. Efease and insects, better tillage, use farms. Usually when brood sows cash income as calculated does not fects of improved practices on rates of recommended varieties of seed, were kept, pigs were sold at weaninclude income from other sources of production are discussed in this use of lime and phosphate, and ing time, except those kept to proother than the farm business. In section. crop rotations. duce pork for the family. 32 per cent of the cases, the oper"Production requirements" are a In the past, cotton held priority Income: In 1945, net cash inator, or some member of the family relative concept. They depend upon farmers' fertilizer and its apcome averaged $1,215 for all farms living on the farm, was employed on the quality of resources and the plication to cotton was more nearstudied, and varied from an averin off-farm work. Three-fourths of desired level of output. Requirely in line with the recommended age of $601 for the small farms those working off the farm were ments for 1945 are based on the practice than was true for other to $2,320 for the large farms. This employed for six months or more. most common practices followed crops. Only 13 per cent of the and the modal levels of equipment farmers reported alfalfa in 1945 Table 14.-Productive livestock and form operator's income by size of form, 217 farms, used by farmers with and withand the practices used varied in Southern Piedmont. North Carolina. 1945 out tractors. The improved pracdifferent parts of the area. PasProportion of farm reporting ties are based on available experiture improvement was not found a Item Average per farm specific items mental data and the experiences of predominant practice. Only 18 per Small Medium Large Small Medium Large farmers and agricultural workers cent of the farmers had limed any Numbe Ne e Lrgcent in regard to most efficient fertilizapart of their pastures. ProductiveNumber Number Number Percent Percent Percent tion, seeding rates, rotations, and Since 1940 lime has been applied Dairy cows ............ 2.1 3.8 9.5 94 97 98 methods of livestock production. to cropland on about half of the Brood sows .............2 .3 .4 15 22 31 Cropsfarms, but very little of the cropHogs raised ........... 2.0 2.1 3.1 83 85 84 practices is covered in the supplementary Hens ................. 68.0 67.8 89.5 100 100 100 Seed and Fertilizer: Table 16 report. PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND Farm peratr's RODUCTION RATES, PI'RNCIPAL EN. Farm Operator's Income Dollars Dollars Dollars gives present and improved rates TERPRISES ON COTT TON FARMS, Summary: of fertilization and seeding for SOUTHERN PIEDMONT, NORTH CAROLINA, by W. W. McPherson, W. H. Pierce, Cash income ........... 1,241 2,640 6,198 "In this report it is not practicable to anti y. E. L. Greene. For detailed recomCash expenses' ........ 640 1,284 3,878 disc;;ss the complete details on present and mendations see the IANDBOOK FOR ---improved practices for each enterprise. AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, prepared by Net cash income .... 601 1,356 2,320 Only sufficient materials basic to an underthe North Carolina Agricultural Extension standing of the analysis to follow are inService and published annually, and the 1 Includes cost of share cropper labor, eluded. A detailed description of present publications listed on page 69. (28) (29)



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Table 16.-Present and improved annual rates of fertilization and seeding, principal crops, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina the principle crops is shown in adjusted for changes in yields only, Fertilizer applications per acre Seeding rates per acre Tables 18 and 19. These requireand not for potential use of tracments are based on the more comtor equipment. A small proportion 1945 Improved mon practices followed in 1945. of the farmers are using tractor Top Top Tractor hours are based on the equipment for planting and cultiPlanting or side Planting or side 1945 Improved operations more commonly pervating row crops which means a Crop time dressing time dressing formed by tractors rather than on large reduction in requirement of conditions under which tractors man and workstock hours. But the Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds were used to the fullest extent, extent to which present equipment Cotton ....... 600 100 600 125 38 38 O ere tracors ere sate to genrase int Corn ......... 350 125 400 400 7 10 On farms where tractors were is adapted to general use in this Wheat ........ 300 100 300 200 90 75 owned, tractor work generally was area could not be ascertained from Oats ......... 200 100 300 200 80 64 limited to preparation of land. available data. Thus the potenBarley .........* 300 200 96 Tractors also were used for hartial uses of tractors for more ecoLespedeza .... 0 0 0 0 40 40 vesting small grain and lespedeza nomical employment of resources 1 Based on the equivalent of 6-8-6. on farms where combines were must be left for further study. Based on the equivalent of 16-0-0. owned. Since less than half the Reported by only 15 per cent of the 217 farmers. tractor farmers owned combines, Livestock the more common practice was to land had been covered sufficiently. produced with present or improved hire small grains and lespedeza Feed, Land, and Labor: QuanAbout one ton of lime per acre, appractices compared favorably with harvested on a custom basis. Disktitles of feed, land and labor needplied every fifth year, was suggestother sources of feed. ing land was a more common praced to support units of principal ed for cropland used for general Labor and Power Requirements:2 tice on farms with tractors than classes of livestock are shown in rotations of cotton-grain-lespedeza. A summary of the hours of man on non-tractor farms. These difTable 20. In 1945, 1.6 acres of Yields: Opportunity for increaslabor and power used to produce ferences in operations account for cropland, excluding pasture, were ing yields of grain and hay crops the relatively small variation berequired to produce the homeappears to be greater than for rais12 For more detailed information on labor tween hours of labor and workgrown feed for a dairy cow and 4.1 ing the level of cotton yields distribution and power costs, see: Cost and stock used per acre on tractor and acres for 100 hens. With improved Utilization of Power and Equipment on (Table 17). Yields of most crops Farms in the Central Piedmont, by R. E. L. non-tractor farms. practices, less cropland is required can be raised from 25 to 100 per Greene, H. Brooks James, and C. G. DawThe estimated use under condifor a unit of livestock even though son, North Carolina Agricultural Experitions of improved seeding, fertilithe rate of feeding per head is incent by improved practices. In meant Station, and the Bureau of Agriculterms of total digestible nutrients, tural Economics, USDA, cooperating (N. C. zation, and rotation practices, comcreased. If improved practices for Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 84); and. Major pared with 1945 circumstances, is crops and livestock were followed, corn ranks first among the major Farming System, 1939, and Usual Profeed crops. However, combined duction Practices, Lincoln County, North Carolina, a preliminary report by R. E. L. yields of small grain-lespedeza hay Greene and W. W. McPherson. Table 18.-Man labor used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and farms without tractors, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina1 Table 17.-Average yield per acre, principal crops, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North With improved agronomic Carolina' With 1945 practices practices2 Crop Yield of total Farms withFarms with Farms withFarms with Yield per acre digestible nutrients out tractors tractors out tractors tractors With Percentage Hours Hours Hours Hours Crop Unit 1945 improved increase 1945 Improved Cotton.................147 144 151 148 practices over 1945 Cto ......... 4 4 5 4 Corn .................... 41 33 45 37 Cwt. Cwt. W heat ................... 14 7 14 7 Cotton: lint ......... Pound 498 525 5 * Oats, grain .............. 12 8 12 8 seed ........ Pound 789 821 5 * Oats, hay ............... 21 18 21 18 Corn ............... Bushel 25 50 100 13.3 26.7 Barley ................... 14 7 Wheat .............. Bushel 17 30 76 8.6 15.0 Lespedeza, 1st year: Oats ............... Bushel 33 60 82 7.6 13.7 Seed ................ 1 1 1 1 Barley ............. Bushel 2 30 -2 11.3 Hay ................ 10 10 12 12 Lespedeza hay ......... Ton 1.2 1.5 25 12.3 15.7 Lespedeza, reseeded: Alfalfa hay ........... Ton -3.0 -2 30.2 Seed ................ 1 1 1 1 Silage ................ Ton 2 10.0 2 2 37.4 Hay ................ 9 9 11 11 Lespedeza seed, Alfalfa .................. *.27 27 1st year .......... Pound 261 300 15 Corn silage ..............* 49 41 Lespedeza seed, Permanent pasture ....... 0 0 3 3 reseeded ......... Pound 261 400 53 A Hours of labor do not include that which is usually hired on a custom basis. IActual yield for 1945 and yields estimated upon adoption of improved practcs. 2 Adjusted from 1945 for difference in yields only and not for possible differences in use Insufficient data available to estimate a yield for 1945. of tractor. Item does not apply. Not a common enterprise. (30) (31)



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LIST OF REFERENCES County Soil Surveys, Bureau of McPherson, W. W., W. H. Pierce, Soils USDA, in cooperation with and R. E. L. Greene, Production the North Carolina Department Practices and Production Rates, of Agriculture, 1921. Principal Enterprises on Cotton F a r m s, Southern Piedmont, Greene, R. E. L., H. Brooks James, North Carolina, North Carolina and C. G. Dawson, Cost and UtilAgricultural Experiment Station, ization of Power and Equipment co-operating with the Bureau of on Farms in the Central PiedAgricultural Economics, USDA. mont, North Carolina AgriculturProgress Report, AE-Informaal Experiment Station and the tion Series No. 19, Department of Bureau of Agricultural EconomAgricultural Economics, Novemics, USDA, co-operating, North ber 1948. Processed. Carolina Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin No. 84. McPherson, W. W. and R. E. L. Greene, The Use of Mechanical Greene, R. E. L., and WV. W. McCotton Harvesters in North CaroPherson, Major Farming Syslina, North Carolina Agriculturtes, 1939, and Usual Production al Experiment Station, in co-opPtwes, L, ndo l outoh eration with Bureau of AgriculPractices, Lincoln County, North ural Economics, USDA, ProgCarolina, North Carolina Agriral economUSA Progcultural Experiment Station, coNo. 13, Department of Agriculoperating with the Bureau of AgNo. Epatment of Agrricultural Economics, prelimitural Economics, July 1947. Processed. nary mimeographed report. All current publications of the Handbook for Agricultural WorkNorth Carolina Agricultural Exers, prepared by the North Carotension Service and Experiment lina Agricultural Extension ServStation pertaining to agriculturice and published annually. al production and marketing. (8 (68) i"



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September, 1949 Technica-Biul'etin No. 87 6.' // Opportunities for Adjustments In Farming Systems Southern Piedmont Area, North Carolina North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics UnitcJ States Department of Agriculture



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Apparently, under this system the tors, hoeing, and harvesting limit Table 39.-Proportion of labor living on farms utilized in productive work, representative farm operator's income would be the acreage a family can tend, unforms, 1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina maintained near, or even raised der present production methods, to System and size of farm Percentage of available above, the systems in which croponly a few acres. If it proves ecolabor used per labor would be employed to nomical to perform these tasks 1945: produce cotton. with tractor equipment, one famiSmall ............................................... 61 Recent developments indicate ly would be able to tend a much Medium size .......................................... 62 that in the future it may become larger acreage. This would raise Large: feasible to mechanize cotton prothe relative advantage of cotton Total farm..................................... 57 duction more completely, especialunder current and historical price Family labor .................................... 63 ly on farms of this size."5 Cultivarelationships, compared with alCropper labor ...................................... 54 ternatives on large farms. Under Reorganized systems: '2 The Use of Mechanical Cotton Harsuch conditions, about 34 acres of Small ............................................... 72 testers in North Carolina, By McPherson, cotton could be substituted for an Medium size ......................................93 W. W., and Greene, R. E. L., Progress Report. Dept. of Agr. Econ. AF-Inforequal acreage of small grain-lesLarge (cotton-livestock) nation Series No. 13 Agr. Expt. Sta. in pedeza in the livestock-small grain Total farm .....................................88 cooperation with Bur. Agr. Econ. July ........................................ 1947. Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton in system. Family labor....................................87 North Carolina, 1947 by Sutherland, J. G., Cropper labor ...................................... 88 and James, H. B., Progress Report, Dept. 20, N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. in cooperation Large (livestock-small grains) .......................95 of Agr. Econ. AR-Information Series No. with Bur. Agr. Econ. Dec. 1948. FARM SIZE, PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY, AND INCOMES age who were available during the farms (Table 39). In terms of laIn cases where management is scales of operation that require a cultivating and harvesting seasons, bor returns per unit, there were not the limiting factor many farms longer period of time. varied directly with labor requiresome differences; but these were of the Southern Piedmont are too In the predominate farming sysments, relatively small (Table 40). Acresmall in land area for achievetens of 1945, the labor, land, powIn 1945, there was very little age of cotton per unit of labor was ment of maximum efficiency in the er, and equipment on large farms difference in labor efficiency, measfairly constant throughout the use of the other resources. Howwere used very little more effiurged by the proportion used, on range of farm sizes. ever, where management is the ciently than those on smaller the three predominant sizes of Use of power and equipment was limiting factor, a larger scale of farms. The problems of the most operation would not increase net effective employment of labor livTable 40.-Returns pcr unit of labor on representative forms, 1945 and reorganized incomes. Instead, employment of ing on farms were aggravated by systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolinal larger quantities of other rethe extreme fluctuations or peak Per hour of labor Per man equivalent sources would tend to lower their periods in labor requirements. Price level and used directly of labor available efficiency level. Also, in many Based on semi-monthly periods size of farm 945 Reorganized 1945 Reorganized cases, farms provide an occupation production of cotton required about 1945__eorganized_1945_Reorganized that is secondary to off-farm em20 hours an acre during peak peDollars Dollars Dollars Dollars ployment for farmers. rinods, but during ten periods of 1945 prices: In addition to economic probthe year it required less than one Small ..................... 39 .71 588 1,271 lems involved, physical and instihour per acre. The problem was Medium size ............... 44 .68 689 1,575 tutional limitations to farm encomplicated further by the fact Large (with cropper)' largement must be considered. that critical periods for corn and Family .................. 71 1.12 1,102 2,441 These limitations are due mainly small grains occurred almost simTotal farm ............ 47 .63 668 1,386 to location and ownership patterns. ultaneously with cotton. Labor reLarge (without cropper)' 1.43 3,400 In cases where adjustments in the quirements for livestock were combination of land and labor and distributed r e 1 at iv ely evenly 1935-39 prices: improvements in managerial cathroughout the year. To a limited Small ..................... 11 .25 166 447 pacities are feasible, a period of extent livestock did not compete Medium size ................ 13 .24 202 566 time generally will be required for with the major crops. Livestock Large (with cropper)3 Family .................01 .17 16 364 accomplishing such changes. In chores on small enterprises were Cropper...............21 .24 284 524 view of these conditions, opportuniperformed before and after the Total farm' .............13 .21 183 464 ties for increasing net incomes on field work. On the other hlan(, Large (without cropper)' .58 1,385 farms with their present acreages larger livestock enterprises would of land need to be examined in adreduce the labor available for field 1 Based on net income. dition to a study of the opportuniwork. To some extent, tie availI Reorganized system is the cotton-livestock organization. ties for adjustments in the camable labor, influenced by members 'Does not include value of cropper's farm privileges; returns to cropper labor are not comparable to those of operator and family because of the differences in production functions. bination of productive factors and of the operator's family of school 5Livestock-small-grains organization. (56)• o Not a predominant system in 1945. (56) (57)



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Dollars Index (Yillions) 200 60 180 160 45 Cotton 140 12i*Q 50100 .** .,k., I////I "III1.-' Vilk.. /Other crops *.41 80 1.. 15 60 S >Eggs eat Cott "n.. i4040,1926=100 20 Cotbon, llnt,lb. 11.9 cents Wheat, bu. $1.42 0 V/ilk, cwt. $3.65 1938 '39 '40 '41 '42 43 '44 '45 0 Eggs, doz. .32 0 -I ..I ., a a 1 I I .! I Year 1926 1931 1936 1941 Figure 9e. Volue of Production: Cotton and Other Principal Crops, Southlern Figure 10. Trends in Prices Received by Formers; Wholesale Milk, Eggs, Cotton, Piedmont, North Carolina, 1938-1945.' and Wheat, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1926-1945.' Source: USDA and NCDA Crop ltepirting Service; other crops includes 11 to 13 of the 'Source: USDA and NCDA Crop Reporting Service. most important crops. (20) (21)



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Table 19.-Power used per acre, principal crops, on farms with and without tractors, Southern 1.2 and 3.7 acres of cropland would tion to feeding and improvement Piedmont, North Carolina be required for one dairy cow and in pasture facilities. For more efWith improved agronomic 100 hens, respectively. ficient performance with improved With 1945 practices practices' Rates of Production: Livestock practices, the quality of livestock Farms .Farms production can be increased matemust be raised above present levwithout Farms with without Farms with rially through adoption of more els. In the case of both milk and Crop tractors tractors2 tractors tractorsefficient practices (Table 21). eggs, production could be increased Workstock Workstock Tractor Workstock Workstock Tractor These include better breeding, from 50 to 80 per cent over presHours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours housing, and sanitation, in addient rates. Cotton ............ 43 29 3.7 43 29 3.7 Corn .............. 38 20 3.3 40 22 3.3 Wheat ............. 24 11 3.4 24 11 3.4 Table 21.-Rates of production, principal livestock enterprises, with 1945 practices and Oats, grain ........ 18 12 3.4 18 12 3.4 improved practices, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' Oats, hay ......... 24 16 3.4 24 16 3.4 Barley ............* * 24 11 3.4 Rates of production Lespedeza, 1st year: Class of product Unit 1945 Improved Percentage change Seed ........... 1 1 0 1 1 0 practices practices over 1945 Hay ........... 10 10 0 12 12 0 Lespedeza, reseeded: Dairy: Seed ........... 1 1 0 1 1 0 Milk per cow .......... Pound 3,952 6,000 52 ttay ........... 10 10 0 12 12 0 Veal per cow .......... Pound 75 100 33 Alfalfa hay .........* * 27 27 0 Chickens: Corn silage .........* * 58 40 6.9 Permanent pasture ..0 0 0 2 2 0 Eggspr10hn .oe 6 ,0 83 Permanent __pasture__._0_0_0_2_2 _0 lMeat per 100 broilers ..Pound 238 I Adjusted from 1945 for changes in yields only and not for possible differences in use of tractors. Hogs: o Excludes hours for combining small grain andl lespedeza seed, which is usually performed I Pigs per sow....... Number 13 on a custom basis. ". ... Not a common enterprise. Pork per hog raised ... Pound 260 215 -17 R Rates for 1945 based on most common practices rates for improved practices are based n estimated production with improved practices. Table 20.-Feed, power, and labor requirements, principal livestock enterprises, Southern o Insufficient data, not a common enterprise. Piedmont, North Carolina Produced with Produced with 1945 practices improved practices PART il. DEVELOPMENT OF Item Unit Sow and Dairy 100 One hog Dairy 100 10 an ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS cow hens raised cow hens broilers pigs FARM ING Feed The quantity, quality, and price portant in determining the income Home-grown: of resources, together with market from a specific farm: (1) selection Corn ............... Bu. 12 60 16 '17 72 7 2201 conditions are important in planof enterprises and quantity proOats ............... Bu. 14 0 0 12 18 3 0 ning adjustments that would induced, (2) the degree of efficiency Wheat .............. Bu. 0 30 0 0 61 6 0 crease net farm incomes. It is in the operation. The effect of imHay ............... Ton 1.5 0 0 2.0 0 0 0 evident from the preceding disproved practices on crop yields and Commercial feed..Cwt. 10 8 2 5 14 3 10 cussion that considerable opporlivestock production rates has been Land required: tunities exist for increasing net discussed in the previous section. farm incomes. The problems involved in selecting 'Total .......... Acre 4.0 4.1 .6 2.7 4.2 .4 8.0 Two factors over which the and combining enterprises are disFor home-grown crops Acre 1.6 4.1 .6 1.2 3.7 .4 4.0 farmer has some control are imcussed in the following section. For pasture ......... Acre 2.4 0 0 1.5 .5 0 4.0 Labor and power SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF FARM ENTERPRISES Man: Total .......... Hour 232 412 44 234 386 29 382 To produce feed. ... Hour 37 122 24 39 96 9 192 For maximum net farm income, family labor and available equipTo tend livestock ..Hour 195 290 20 195 290 20 190 farmers should select for their ment. Workstock: main line of production the enterUnder present conditions within To produce feed ...... Hour 39 132 23 37 109 11 166 prise that will yield the highest net the Southern Piedmont, land and returns from resources available, labor are the chief factors to be REqual pounds of ground wheat or barley may be substituted. Of particular importance is the considered in examining produc3Acreage is adjusted for double-cropping. size of enterprise as limited by tion opportunities. In most cases, (32) (33)



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$1.39 per hour; net income, $1.12 A system in which the livestock per hour. At the. 1935-39 prices would be omitted and acreage of 0 these figures would drop to 47 cotton would be raised to the n and 17 cents respectively. At the maximum that could be handled : E 1945 level, the net cash returns with the labor available (cottonW to cropper labor would be 35 cents small-grains system) would return per hour worked. This would be a net cash income of $5,196 to the to higher, even excluding farm privoperator-$265 higher than the U' .' ileges furnished by the farmer, cotton-livestock system; but the 0 than the prevailing rates paid to cropper's income would be reduced wage hands. Due to the fact that $506. This system lacks some of .0 o the family income includes rethe long-run advantages of the turns to functions of production, cotton-livestock system. Also, this 0 0 so 0 other than labor, that are contribsystem would be subject to greatuted by the operator, returns to er risks, although problems of man;Li the cropper are not comparable to agement would be less. the returns of the operator. Items The possibility of operating a of expense and income differ in unit of this size with only the laci the two cases. These differences bor of the operator and his family .is account for the greater influence is illustrated by the livestock-small L _F-73o of the specified price changes on grain system. In this case, the the operator's income compared livestock enterprises would be levo-4 H with that of the cropper. eled near the maximum that the 0 H :. The principal items of additionfamily could tend and the remainJr. al investment would include a comder of the land would be used for /0 rr -.bine, dairy cows, hens, fences, and growing small-grains-lespedeza, a E terraces. Total investment would combintaion with extremely low amount to $22,801, an increase of labor requirements, especially when $7,058 over the 1945 investment, handled with tractor equipment. Table 38.-Income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative large farm, 1945 and alternative systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina Systems of farming Item and price level CottonCottonLivestockEn 1945 livestock small grains small grains Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 4DL. -44 1945 prices: IQ 1. Cash receipts .............. 5,237 11,596 9,748 9,364 W C 0 2. Family privileges ..........691 794 794 794 3. Total income (1+2)...... 5,928 12,390 10,542 10,158 4. Cash expenses ............3,057 6,665 4,552 3,362 "2 5. Noncash expenses ..........1,074 1,746 1,358 1,254 4 6. Total expenses (4+5)' ...... 4,131 8,411 5,910 4,716 0 C > 7. Net cash income (1-4)2 ...... 2,180 4,931 5,196 6,002 H 8. Net income (3-6)3 .......... 1,797 3,979 4,632 5,442 ? U 1935-39 prices: 0 1. Cash receipts .............. 2,700 6,314 5,142 5,333 d 0 P, 2. Family privileges ...........415 476 .-476 476 X1+ 3. Total income 1+2) ....... 3,115 6,790 5,618 5,809 j1r .H 4. Cash expenses ............. 2,122 4,626 3,159 2,333 ( 0 5. Noncash expenses .......... 967 1,571 1,222 1,218 0 .J a.) 6. Total expenses (4+5)1 ..... 3,089 6,197 4,381 3,551 r I E i e A 7. Net cash income (1-4)2 ...... 578 1,688 1,983 3,000 tI I 8. N et income e (3 .6)-.......... 26 593 1,237 2,258 M CC C tD LO V to W W 3 'Details of farm expenses shown in Appendix Table VII. 2Net cash income to operator for the family labor. management, and investment. Net income to the operator for the family labor and management. (54) 1 (55)



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siderable detail. Each was mapped conditions frequency distributions by soil technicians to show soil were used to reveal important vartype, degree of slope and erosion, intions that otherwise might be oband land use capabilities. Soil scured by averages. In arriving at samples from each farm were colthe more common organizations lected and analyzed. In addition, and practices and in appraising records of cropping practices by present farming systems, modal fields for 1944, 1945, and 1946 were tendencies were given more weight *. obtained from the farmer, than the arithmetic averages be* .. Method of Analysis: Data were cause of the skewed and multi*. analyzed by neighborhoods, by soilmodal distribution. association groups, and by size of A budget analysis was used to ..,. .:.'. :. farm. Sample farms were classidetermine the influence of changes fled into major groups based on in farming systems on net incomes. ....... production opportunities. Present Generally, the analysis covered two *::.. farming systems for each group conditions: (1) changes that would were evaluated in terms of net be profitable, assuming relatively ." a farm income, using practices and fixed land and labor and (2) adinput-output rates most common justments that would be profitable, ::.:. in the area. In describing present assuming all factors variable. C ~* PART I. RESOURCES AND PRESENT FARMING SYSTEMS 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA Physical Features The soils of the area are pre;r P, Topography and Soils:O There dominately c I a y loams, sandy o0 are considerable differences in the loams, and clays, all having clay or physical features of the area. Eleclay loam subsoils. Soil types form I / o 0 C t 0 " vation ranges from 220 feet in the a varied pattern. It is not uncom0 southeastern section of Anson mon for small areas or even inCounty to 3978 feet at the summit dividual farms to be composed of of Sugarloaf Mountain in Ruthertwo or three, and often four or O .' ford County. However, the elevamore, soil types. tion is generally between 500 and A map of the soil-association 900 feet. groups is shown in Figure 2.! The Fairly level, undulating, and six most important associations rolling relief characterize 42 per are Cccil-Yadkin-Lloyd, Georgecent of the total area; 36 per cent ville -Herndon -Alamance-Orange, is strongly rolling to hilly; 17 per Cecil-Appling-Durham,. Davidsoncent is steep; and 5 per cent is very Lloyd-Mecklenburg, .Iredell-MeckJ, w r lenburg, an0ht tr-Ced .0 >' steep.-' Most of the cultivated land lenburg, and White Store-Creed' is found on slopes ranging from 2 mnoor. In addition, many minor to 10 per cent. Drainage is good groups occur in localized areas and 0 -0 !iC .I except in a few of the first botfrequently are interspersed within -H ) tomlands that are subject to occathe major soil associations. sional overflow. The Georgeville -Herndon-Ala_________ *.) H 0 0 .0 0Qniaiae mance-Orange and Cecil Appling.,, .o Qesuantitative data in this section are Durham associations are moderatei estimates derived from area soils maps. 0 and Soil Conservation Service data. ly susceptible to erosion, the SUndulating relief means slopes rising ) ------3 to 7 feet in a hundred: rolling, 7 to 15 For detailed description of each soil, see f-n a 10 s 0 a feet: hilly, 15 to 25 feet; steep, 25 to 45 County Soil Surveys prepared by the United .n En feet; and very steep, more than 45 feet States Department of Agriculture, Bureau o ,4 u. in a hundred. Slopes more than 15 per of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural cent are considered too steep for tilled Engineering, in cooperation with the North crops. Carolina Department of Agriculture. (8) (9)



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Table 7.-Population and labor supply by size of farm, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Table 9.-Aec of form operators, by size of farm, 217 forms, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina, 1945 Carolina, 1945 Average per farm Number of operators Proportion of total number ItemYears of age Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Number Number Number Number Number Number Per cent Per cent Per cent Population on farms: Number in operator's family ................... 4.3 4.4 4.5 25-29 ........... 2 1 1 2.0 1.5 2.1 Number in sharecropper and hired labor families ..1.3 3.5 11.7 30-34 ........... 7 2 4 6.9 3.1 8.5 35-39 ........... 12 7 3 11.9 10.8 6.4 Total ................................. 5.6 7.9 16.2 40-44 ........... 10 4 3 9.9 6.2 6.4 45-49 ...........10 9 6 9.9 13.8 12.8 Number of sharecropper and hired labor families ... 2 .7 2.1 50-54............8 11 5 7.9 16.9 10.6 55-59 ........... 14 8 5 13.8 12.3 10.6 Males 15 years and over: 60-64 ........... 14 8 7 13.9 12.3 14.9 In operator's family ............................ 1.3 1.6 1.5 65-69 ............ 12 7 8 11.9 10.8 17.0 In sharecropper and hired labor families......... 3 .9 3.0 70-74 ........... 10 5 2 9.9 7.7 4.3 --75-79 ........... 2 1 2 2.0 1.5 4.3 Total ..................................... 1.6 2.5 4.5 80 and over ...... 2 1 3.1 2.1 Total ....... 101 65 147 100.0 100.0 100.0 age acreage of cotton per family Only a relatively small percent2 Age of two operators not reported. on other farms ranged consistentage of the farms were mortgaged ly from 10 to 12 acres, regardless -16 per cent of the sniall farms, of the number of families or the 18 per cent of those in the medtrue if younger members of the affect potential adjustments. In total acreage of cotton. In conium group, and 12 per cent of the family are not looking ahead to terms of formal education, 17 per trast, the larger dairy farms hired large farms. Production credit was taking over the farm business. In cent of all farm operators had com-, labor on a monthly basis, used by 19 per cent of the farmonly 34 per cent of the cases was pleted less than four grades in ers on small units, 29 per cent of there a son 15 years or older on school; 44 per cent, fourth through Tenure, Age, and Education the medium, and 18 per cent of the the farms. There was a son less seventh grade; 23 per cent, one group on large farms, than 15 years on an additional year or more of high school but not of Farm Operators Age of Operators: Only 18 per 18 per cent of the farms. On 35 graduated; and 16 per cent had Tenure: The farms of this area cent of the farmers were less than per cent, there were one or more completed high school requirements are predominantly owner-operated 40 years old, and nearly 40 per sons under 15 years. Thus a son (Table 10). About the same prounits. Sixty-nine per cent of all cent were 60 or older. The disof the operator was living on,the portion of the operators for each farmers owned their farms; 13 per tribution of farmers by age groups farm in only 52 per cent of the size-of-the-farm group had corncent were part-owners; and 18 per followed about the same pattern cases. pleated from the fourth to the sevcent were tenants. On the small in all three size groups (Table 9). Education: Education and expeenth grades. More of the operators farms, 21 per cent of the operaThe average age of operators on rience, as they influence the manon the large farms had completed tors rented all of their land. This small farms was 53, on medium aerial ability of the farmer, high school or had some college was true for only 8 per cent of farms 54, and on large farms 55 the large farms (Table 8). Of the years. Table 10.-Education of farm operators by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, operators on large farms, a larger Age of operator greatly inNorth Carolina, 1945 proportion owned some land and fluences opportunities for longNumber of operators Proportion of total operators rented additional land than was term adjustments because older true for the other groups. These men hesitate to make changes Years reached Size Group operators used this method to enfrom which they will receive little Small medium Large farms small Medium Large farms large the size of their businesses, or no benefit. This is especially Per Number Number Number Number Per cent Per cent Per cent cent Less than 4th grade. 19. 13 5 37 18 20 9 17 Table 8.-Tenure of form operators by size of form, 217 farms, Southern Piedmont, North Lsthan th grade 19 13 5 37 18 244 Carolina, 1945 4th to 7th grade ... 46 29 21 96 45 44 Entered high school Number of operators Percentage of total operators but did not Tenure status Small Medium Large All farms Small Medium Large All farms graduate ........ 26 14 9 49 25 22 19 23 Graduated from Owner .......... 71 43 36 150 69 66 74 69 high school ......12 8 9 29 12 12 19 13 Part-owner ...... 10 9 9 28 10 14 18 13 College, one year Renter .......... 22 13 4 39 21 20 8 18 or more ........... 1 5 6 ... 2 10 3 Total ........ 103 65 49 217 100 100 100 100 Total .......... 103 65 49 217 100 100 100 100 (24) (25)



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Table Title Page 29 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative small farm, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...................................................................................... 43 O A d ju s tm e n ts 30 Summary of income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative small form, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........ 45 31 Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, small forms above n and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...... 46 9 32 Organization of representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 47 Southern Piedmont Area, North Carolina 33 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative medium-size farm, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 48 T. V. McPherson, V. H. Pierce, and It. E. L. Greene' 34 Summary of income and expenses based on two price levels, representative indium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...................................................................................................... 50 IN TR O D U C TIO N 35 Alternative enterprise combinations and resulting incomes, medium-size farms As shown in this study, the are reflected in recent trends in above and below average in land capability, Southern Piedmont, North Southern Piedmont is one of the production and in employment of Carolina .................................................................................................................. 51 m major cotton producing areas o resources. The potential influence 36 Summary of major land use capabilities, representative large farm, North Carolina (Figure 1). The of all these factors needs careful Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................................................................... 52 area of study includes all of typestudy so that farmers may direct 37 Organization of representative large farm, 1945 and alternative systems, of-farming area 5B and a portion their resources into more profitSouthern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 53 of area 72 Cotton has long domiable lines of production. 38 Income and expenses, based on two price levels, representative large farm, nated the farm economy of the 1945 and alternative systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................ 54 area, which in 1945 contained 36 Purpose of Study per cent of the State's total cotton The purpose of the study was to Z Proportion of labor living on farms utilized in productive work, representative acreage. The intensity of cotton provide information needed by farms, 1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...... 57 production varies throughout the farmers and by public agencies 40 Returns per unit of labor on representative farms, 1945 and reorganized area with the greatest concentraworking with farmers, in making systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 57 tion occurring in the southern tier profitable adjustments in farming. 41 Investment per acre of cropland on representative farms, 1945 and reorganized of counties. More specifically the objective was systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 58 Important economic and technoto analyze alternative systems of 42 Relation of land and investment to labor on forms, representative farms, logical changes, which influence adfarming in view of current eco1945 and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmant, North Carolina ................ 58 jistments in farming systems, have nomic and technological conditions. occurred during recent years. Of This objective includes (1) an 43 Summary of incomes at 1945 prices, representative farms, 1945 and reorganized particular importance are the opanalysis of the relative efficiency systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................... 59 portunities for off-farm or urban of different combinations of re44 Summary of incomes at 1935-39 average prices, representative farms, 1945 employment, changes in relative sources and scales of operation, and reorganized systems, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ...................... 60 prices of farm products, and the in both short-run and long-run sitwork of public programs affecting uations, and (2) the presentation APPENDIX agriculture, of specific alternative farming sysI Production and sale of farm products, representative small farm, 1945 and The technical changes include teams based on individual farms. the development of hybrid corn reorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ............................... 63 adapted to this area, improvements Method and Procedure II Farm expenses, representative small farm, 1945 and reorganized system, in pasture and other forage proAn analysis of the structure of Southern Piedmont, North Carolina .................................................................... 63 auction, and development of mochathe farm economy is necessary for III Production and sale of farm products, representative medium-size farm, 1945 nized equipment better adapted to determining opportunities for profand reorganized system, Southern Piedmont North Carolina ............................ 64 the farm economy of the Piedmont. table adjustments. Some useful IV Form expenses, representative medium-size farm, 1945 and reorganized Effects of some of these factors data were available. But for an system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 64 V. V. McPherson. Agricultural Econoaccurate description of the assets mist, Bureau of Agricultural Eeon,,mics. and operations of individual farms V Production and sale of farm products, representative large farm, 1945 and WIt. 'iere. o A agricultural toFriutcua nnreorganized system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina ................................ 65 omnist, and R. E. L. Greene, formerly further information was needed. Associate Agricultural Economist, DepartSampling Procedure: In view of Vl Farm products used by operator's family, representative large farm, 1945 and sment of Agricultural Economics, North reorganized system, Southern Piednont, North Carolina ................................ 65 Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. the objective of the study and of V "The are:a covered in this study comprises VII Farm expenses, representative large farm, 1945 and reorganized cotton-livestock the nrthcrn section of the cotton-prlue. 5 "Farming system," a term used throughin area of the southeastern Piedmont subout this report means the combination of systems, Sou.hern Fiedmont, North Carolina ........................................................ 66 region that stretches from the central Part resources and technical practices and enof North Carolina southward through terprise combinations that are integrated VIII Farm organizations in 1945 compared with alternatives, representative farms, South Carolina, Georgia, and into Alabama. to form the farm business. Southern Piedmont, North Carolins .......................................................... 67 (5)



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sium, extreme variations from low pattern of requirements was a very and livestock products for most or. In this system, about 88 per to very high (probably influenced influential factor Figure 14). Exefficient use of the available labor, cent of the labor-force living on by heavy cotton fertilization). The elusive of overhead jobs, 63 per coupled with sound land use and the farm would be utilized in tliorganic matter ranged between 1 cent of family labor and only 54 minimum risks from adverse conrect enterprise work. With 1945 andI 2 per cent, per cent of the cropper labor was ditions that might result from prices, returns to the operator's The representative organization utilized ia farm work. For the causes beyond control of the farmfamily would amount to: Net cash, in 1945 and alternatives are shown operator's family, net cash income in Table 37. In 1945, 55 per cent per hour of direct work on eaterofcah ecips er ro te al piss munedto86cetsad Table 37.-Orgonizotion of representative large form, 1945 and alternative systems, of cotton and cottonseed. Gash renet income, 71 cents. Adjusted to Seprsehttiv fidmnrmrhCaoln ceipts include the cropper's share the 1935-39 prices,corsndgsstm of te crps. ashfarmexpeses returns to the operator's familyAlentv totle $305 (Tbl 38. f tis would amount to only 23 cents and Item195Cto-otn-iesck amount, $1,115 was the net cash one cent, respectively. Net cash195 Cto-otnLvsck inoeto tecroppers or csof icmtorperlbbadonlivestock small grains small grains cropper labor. In addition to this 1945 prices, was 30 cents per hourAceArsArsArs the cropper usually received use of worked. Land and crops:AceArsArsArs a dwelling, land for a garden, wood In terms of physical capabilities Cotton .............. 22.0 16.0 36.4 0 for home use, and pasture privof land resources, this farm would Corn, grain ..........24.0 19.0 5.0 9.0 ilgsfrhi ietck upr mxmmo 4 ce fCorn, silage ...........0 6.4 0 0 Ine for5 hiso l ive c supor ataimmoh4ecrso Wheat .............. 14.0 30.2 47.6 74.0 Inrg 195fabor eiffencvey onithle cotton or about 30 dairy cows. The Oats................ 27.0 10.6 5.0 5.0 lrge fharmonsmdiffer veynittle cotton-livestock (Table 37) system Alfalfa hay ...........0 17.3 0 8.0 frmta nsmle nt.The combines the production of cotton Lespedeza hay........20.0 0 8.0 0 seed ...26.0 60.3 74.6 109.0 Table 36.-Summary of moior land us aaiiis ersnaielreform, Southern Gadnadother ... .46.0 303.10 Piedmont, North Carolina uecpblterpeettv ag SolcniinTotal crops........ 163.0 162.8 179.6 206.0 Pe etNumber of Per cent 7. Pe etacres' of total Double-cropped ...41.0 40.8 52.6 7. slope Degree of erosion Crpad.....122.0 122.0 127.012. CrpadOpen pasture ...23.0 48.0 9.0 18.0 0-2 Slight sheet erosion ...................2.4 1.9 *Wosadohr 9. 801209. 2-7 Slight sheet erosion .................4.0 3.2 Total land .......238.0 238.0 238.0 238.0 2-7 Very moderate sheet erosion ............100.9 79.4 Lietc:Nme1ume ubrNme 2-7 Slight sheet erosion and Lvsok ubr Nme ubrNme occasional gullies ....................5. .Dairy cows............4 20 2 10 2-7 Moerteshet roio...........127 0. 1Brood sows ...........0 1 0 0 27 Slight sheet erosion..................2.0 10.6 Hogs raised........... 3 13 3 3 -~~Hens.................4505 0 Total cropland............................ 127.0 100.0 Pwr Pasture Workstoc ............4 3 3 2 0-2 Recent alluvial deposit .................. 8.0 7.9 Tractors ..............1111 2-7 Slight sheet erosion ..................71.8 70.7 Labor: 2-7 Slight sheet erosion andoprtrfalyal4444 occasional gullies .................... 9.5 9. Oprtrfmiy1l 7-0 Slgt heteoso adFull time men ... 1 1 11 occalihtsional gullsin .......... 1.8 Cropper labor: all --6 6 6 0 71 Moderatsheetl erolision.................1.4 1.2 Full time men... 2 2 2 0 7-1 Mo eaes eteoi n ... ......041 .ours Hours Hours Hlours Total pasture............................. 101.5 100.0 Seasonal labor.......... 0 490 210 310 Other land Investment: Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 2-7 Slight sheet erosion .................... 3.1 33.0 Real estate.........13,200 15,481 14,000 15,000 7-10 Slight sheet erosion .................... 6.3 67.0 Machinery..........1,330 2,082 2,082 2,082 -Workstock........... 820 615 615 410 Total other land ............................ 9.4 100.0 Productive livestock.. 393 4,623 450 2,450 I'Differences from 194.5 use: 5 acres of pasture could be used for cropland; 83.G acres of ITotal investment ..15,743 22,801 17,147 19,942 wood could be developed for pasture and eventually used for cropland if needed. (52) .1(53)



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Table VIll.-Farm organizations in 1945 compared with alternatives, representative farms, Table VIl.-Farm expenses, representative large farm, 1945 and reorganized cottonSouthern Piedmont, North Carolina livestock system, Southern Piedmont, North Carolina' Percentage change' Value Large farms2 Items Item Reorganized Medium Cotton Livestock 1945 cotton-livestock Small size Cotton small small farm farm Livestock grains grains Cash: Dollars Dollars Fertilizer and lime ............................... 750 1,496 centage of cropland used Seeds and plants ...................... .......... 49 476 Per Ginning cotton.-.•...................................117 88 annually for: Cotton ....................... 0 1 -5 11 Combining, grain and lespedeza ................... 164 '0 Intertilled crops .............. -8 -6 --5 -6 -3 Other crop expense .............................. 4 3315 Legume plowed under...........31 9 7 16 43 Feed ............................................. 150 830 egume p lwe d u d r Livestock purchased .............................. 30 84 Percentage of all land used for Other livestock expense ........................... 24 110 Acreage of cotton ............... 0 0 -27 65 Tractor .......................................... 145 163 ............... Auto and hauling ................................. 140 280 Labor and power used: Equipment repair ................................ 79 133 Percentage of available labor used 11 31 31 9 38 Building repair ................................... 195 299 Hours workstock used per head .... -5 10 54 12 54 Taxes ............................................ 70 80 Hours tractor used ................ 0 0 12 0 27 Crop insurance ... .................................. 0 42 Building insurance ............................... 25 50 Amount of investment: Cropper labor .................................... 960 878 Real estate ....................... 16 18 17 6 14 Hired cropper labor .............................. 155 1,184 Equipment ........................ 0 0 98 98 98 H ired labor ...................................... 0 157 Power ............................ 0 0 -15 15 -30 Productive livestock ............... 178 458 1,076 14 523 Total cash expenses ........................ :.. 3,057 6,665 Total investment ............... 20 36 45 9 27 Noncash: Depreciation: total ............................... 302 438 Quantity of production: ____Cotton. lint..........................7 6 -24 74s Grains, all ....................... 67 53 67 43 119 killings ...................................... 125 178 Grains, for sale ................... 35 -81 -53 65 144 Equipment.................................... .177 260 Hay ............................. 12 100 117 -50 0 Interest: Total .................................... 772 1,308 Pasture capacity ................. 488 282 233 -38 25 M ilk ............................. 62 280 659 -24 280 Current operating .............................. 183 400 Eggs .. ........................... 833 1.162 1,595 69 578 Short-term investment ......................... 127 366 Pork 20 20 250 0 0 Real estate .................................... 462 542 ............................ -Proportion of cash income from: Total noncash expenses.......................1,074 1,746 Cotton ........................... -31 -30 -36 -3 3 All crops .......................... -33 -40 -50 7 -21 Total farm expenses ......I.................. 4,131 8,411 All livestock ..................... 34 41 50 -7 22 I Based on 1945 prices. I Changes from 1945 representative systems. 2 Performed with, own combine. 2 Each in terms of changes from 1945 large cotton farm. 3 Baling hay, harvesting silage, and cleaning lespedeza seed. No cotton grown in this organization; however, should mechanization of cotton production prove to be economical about 34 acres could be substituted for small grain-lespedeza. 4 Egg production, based on the given prices, could be profitably expanded. to this extent on individual farms; but the extent to which the market would absorb this increase, if carried out on an area-wide basis, without important relative price changes has not been determined. (67) (66)