• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abbreviations used in this...
 Summary and recommendations
 Introduction and objectives
 Agriculture in Zaire
 Potential fertilizer resources
 Ports, transportation and distribution...
 Fertilizer imports into Zaire,...
 Population and food requiremen...
 Agronomic-economic aspects of production...
 Summary of fertilizer need...
 Increasing fertilizer use
 Reference
 TVA fertilizer team scope...
 Data tables
 Processes for imported and indigenous...
 Soil fertility project - Kasai-shaba...






Group Title: National Fertilizer Development Center bulletin Y-101
Title: Supplying fertilizers for Zaire's agricultural development
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053837/00001
 Material Information
Title: Supplying fertilizers for Zaire's agricultural development
Series Title: Bulletin - National Fertilizer Development Center Y-101
Physical Description: 83 p. : ill. maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: National Fertilizer Development Center (U.S.)
United States -- Agency for International Development
Publisher: Tennessee Valley Authority, National Fertilizer Development Center
Place of Publication: Muscle Shoals Ala
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Fertilizers -- Congo (Democratic Republic)   ( lcsh )
Agriculture and state -- Congo (Democratic Republic)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "AFR(TV)18-75."
General Note: Prepared for the Agency for International Development by R. B. Diamond ... et al..
General Note: Issued Nov. 1975.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053837
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001193884
oclc - 02403234
notis - AFU4110
lccn - 76601790

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    List of Tables
        Page 2
    List of Figures
        Page 3
    Abbreviations used in this report
        Page 4
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 5
        Agricultural policy changes to increase fertilizer use
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Meeting fertilizer needs
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Summary of recommendations
            Page 10
            Page 11
    Introduction and objectives
        Page 12
    Agriculture in Zaire
        Page 13
        Administrative divisions of Zaire
            Page 13
        Geography and topography
            Page 13
        Climate and vegetation
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Soils
            Page 15
        Cropping systems
            Page 16
        Land ownership tenure
            Page 16
        Present agricultural policy and outlook
            Page 17
    Potential fertilizer resources
        Page 18
        Organic material
            Page 18
        Phosphate and potash
            Page 18
        Sulfur and sulfuric acid
            Page 19
        Petroleum, natural gas, and coal
            Page 19
        Electricity
            Page 19
    Ports, transportation and distribution system
        Page 20
        Description of ports
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Alternate import-export routes
            Page 25
        GOZ internal transportation system
            Page 25
        Roads and truck
            Page 25
        Present distribution and marketing system
            Page 26
            Page 27
    Fertilizer imports into Zaire, 1963-73, and world supply outlook through 1980
        Page 28
        Total quantities used are very low
            Page 28
        Fertilizer imports have been largely N and K
            Page 29
        Fertilizer use areas and ports of entry
            Page 29
        Fertilizer import duties
            Page 29
        World fertilizer supply outlook
            Page 30
        Fertilizer price outlook
            Page 30
    Population and food requirements
        Page 31
        Population changes
            Page 31
        Effect of income on food needs
            Page 32
        Demand for food, 1980 and 1985
            Page 33
        Conclusions
            Page 34
    Agronomic-economic aspects of production of some key food and industrial crops in Zaire
        Page 35
        Maize
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Rice
            Page 44
        Sugarcane
            Page 45
        Cotton
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Oil palm
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Cacao
            Page 51
        Coffee
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Tea
            Page 54
    Summary of fertilizer need estimates
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Increasing fertilizer use
        Page 57
        Establishment of agricultural planning staff
            Page 57
        Agricultural produce pricing policy
            Page 58
        Availability of credit to agriculture
            Page 58
        Agricultural research and extension
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Fertilizer or agricultural supply company
            Page 61
        Fertilizer supply system
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Specifications for fertilizer material and packaging
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Fertilizer pricing
            Page 69
        Fertilizer distribution system
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        North shaba rural development project
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Reference
        Page 75
    TVA fertilizer team scope of work
        Page 76
    Data tables
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Processes for imported and indigenous raw materials
        Page 79
        Sulfuric acid
            Page 79
        Wet-process phosphoric acid
            Page 79
        Granulation
            Page 80
        Many factors must be weighed
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Soil fertility project - Kasai-shaba regions
        Page 83
Full Text





Supplying Fertilizers
for Zaire's
Agricultural Development


Tennessee Valley Authority































































Prepared for

AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


AFR(TV)18-75


by

R. B. Diamond, J. J. Schultz, P. J. Stangel,
G. L. Terman, and R. C. Woodworth

NATIONAL FERTILIZER DEVELOPMENT CENTER, MUSCLE SHOALS, ALABAMA 35660









TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS REPORT

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS .
Agricultural Policy Changes to
Increase Fertilizer Use . .
Meeting Fertilizer Needs . . .
Summary of Recommendations . . .


Page
. 4


7
S 5
. 7
. 10


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES . ... 12


AGRICULTURE IN ZAIRE .
Administrative Divisions of Zaire .
Geography and Topography . .
Climate and Vegetation . .
Soils . . .
Cropping Systems . .
Land Ownership and Tenure . .
Present Agricultural Policy and Outlook


. . 13
. . 13
. . 13
. . 13
15
. . 16
. . 16
. . 17


POTENTIAL FERTILIZER RESOURCES
Organic Material . ..
Phosphate and Potash .....
Sulfur and Sulfuric Acid . ....
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal . .
Electricity . .

PORTS, TRANSPORTATION, AND
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM . .
Description of Ports . .
Alternate Import-Export Routes ..
GOZ Internal Transportation System .
Roads and Trucks ......
Present Distribution and Marketing System


FERTILIZER IMPORTS INTO ZAIRE, 1963-73, AND
WORLD SUPPLY OUTLOOK THROUGH 1980
Total Quantities Used are Very Low .. .......
Fertilizer Imports Have Been Largely N and K .
Fertilizer Use Areas and Ports of Entry ....
Fertilizer Im port Duties . . . .. .
World Fertilizer Supply Outlook .....
Fertilizer Price Outlook . ...


POPULATION AND FOOD REQUIREMENTS .
Population Changes ........
Effect of Income on Food Needs ....


Demand for Food, 1980 and 1985 . .
Conclusions .. . . .


Page
. 33
. 34


AGRONOMIC-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF
PRODUCTION OF SOME KEY FOOD AND
INDUSTRIAL CROPS IN ZAIRE . ... 35
M aize . . . . . 35
Rice .......... .. ... 44
Sugarcane . . . . . ..... 45
Cotton .... ... .. ... ...... .. ......46
Oil Palm ........... . . 48
Cacao . . .. . . ... 51
C offee . . . . . . 52
Tea ... ........ .... ..... 54

SUMMARY OF FERTILIZER NEED ESTIMATES 55

INCREASING FERTILIZER USE .......... ..57
Establishment of Agricultural Planning Staff . 57
Agricultural Produce Pricing Policy . ... 58
Availability of Credit to Agriculture . .... 58
Agricultural Research and Extension . . 59
Fertilizer or Agricultural Supply Company . 61
Fertilizer Supply System .. . .. 62
Specifications for Fertilizer Material
and Packaging ...... . . 64
Fertilizer Pricing ....... . . 69
Fertilizer Distribution System . .... .. 70
North Shaba Rural Development Project ...... ..73

REFERENCES ........ . . 75

APPENDIX A-TVA FERTILIZER
TEAM SCOPE OF WORK ............ 76


APPENDIX B-DATA TABLES . . .

APPENDIX C-PROCESSES FOR IMPORTED AND
INDIGENOUS RAW MATERIALS . . .
Sulfuric Acid . . .
Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid . . .
Granulation . . .. .
Many Factors Must Be Weighed . . .


S 31
. 31 APPENDIX D-SOIL FERTILITY
S32 PROJECT-KASAI-SHABA REGIONS .


77



79
79
79
80
81


. 83









TABLES


Page
1 Average monthly and total rainfall and mean
temperatures at selected locations in Zaire . 14
2 Estimated quantities of potential fertilizer resources. 19
3 Distribution of imports and exports for
major ports and transportation routes . 23
4 Fertilizer freight rates from port of Matadi
to various points via GOZ transportation system 25
5 Freight rates per metric ton of nutrient shipped
via the GOZ transportation system . ... 26
6 Imports of fertilizer materials into Zaire, 1963-74 28
7 Estimated fertilizer nutrient consumption .28
8 Use of fertilizer materials by
region and crop, 1973-74 . . ... 29
9 Fertilizer import duties, April 1975 . . 29
10 Recent trends in world fertilizer prices . 30
11 Population by region, 1970, and projections
for 1975, 1980, and 1985 . . .. 31
12 Population of Zaire by region
and rural or urban residence . . ... 32
13 Population of major cities, 1970, and
projections for 1975, 1980, and 1985 . 32
14 Apparent consumption of selected foods by income
group in Kinshasa, 1969 and 1970 . ... 32
15 Percent change in per capital consumption associated
with a 1% change in income for income groups
and selected foods, Kinshasa, 1969-1970 . 33
16 Levels of nutrition of income groups
in Kinshasa, 1969-1970 ............. .. 33
17 Apparent per capital consumption of
agricultural products . . . .. 33
18 Projections of per capital food and
fiber consumption, 1980 and 1985 . ... 33
19 Projected indices of consumption of
selected agricultural products in 1980
and 1985 (1973-74 = 100) . . ... 34
20 Estimated maize area and production
by regions . . . ... 35
21 Average yields for five maize varieties
in eight experiments in Kasai, 1974-75 . 36
22 Results of ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer
demonstrations for maize, 1972-73 . ... 37
23 Returns from successive 60 kg/ha increments of
nutrients for various maize and fertilizer prices 39
24 Land, labor, and capital requirements to
produce 1,000 metric tons of maize . ... 40
25 Projections for fertilized maize, fertilizer needs,
and additional maize produced, 1976 and 1980 43
26 Projected nutrient needs for
maize, 1976 and 1980 ....... ........ .. 43
27 Projected urea and DAP product needs
for maize, 1976 and 1980 . . .. 43
28 Distribution of rice production,
1972 . . . . 44
29 Projections of fertilizer required for rice
production, 1976-77 and 1980-81 .. ..... 45
30 Estimates of nutrient requirement and sugar


Page
production, 1976-77 and 1980-81 . ... 46
31 Estimates of fertilizer material requirements
for sugarcane, 1976-77 and 1980-81 ....... .46
32 Results of ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer demonstrations
for cotton in southern Kasai. 1972 ....... .47
33 Results of ONAFITEX-FAO replicated
trials for cotton in Kivu. 1973 . .... 47
34 Projections of area fertilized. fertilizer requirement.
and resulting increased cotton production . 48
35 Production, consumption, and exports of oil palm.
and related products in Zaire. 1970-75 . 49
36 Response of young oil palm to fertilizer . 50
37 Estimates of area fertilized and fertilizer
requirements for palm oil. 1976 and 1980 . 51
38 Dry cacao production, consumption, and
exports for Zaire, 1970-74. metric tons . 51
39 Apparent cacao production. 1972 .. . 5
40 Estimated fertilizer requirements
for cacao, 1976 and 1980 . . 52
41 Coffee production, 1970-71 to
1974-75. metric tons . . ..... 5
42 Estimated distribution of coffee production 53
43 Estimated fertilizer nutrient requirements for
coffee, 1976 and 1980 .. . . 54
44 Estimated fertilizer material requirements
for coffee, 1976 and 1980 . . ... 54
45 Estimated fertilizer nutrient needs by
region in Zaire, 1976 and 1980 . ...... 55
46 Fertilizer product needs by region. 1976 . 56
47 Fertilizer product needs by region. 1980 . 50
48 Fertilizer nutrient and product
needs by crop. 1976 . . . 56
49 Fertilizer nutrient and product
needs by crop. 1980 . . 56
50 Estimated schedule for various
fertilizer supply techniques for Zaire . 63
51 Capital investment and operating costs for
dockside fertilizer bagging system. 1975 basis -5
52 Capital investment and operating
costs for bulk fertilizer unloading. storage.
and bagging system. 1975 basis . ... ..66
53 Capital investment and operating costs for
a bulk fertilizer unloading. storage. blending.
and bagging plant. 1975 basis . . ... 68
54 Typical blends prepared
from three granular materials . . ... 68
55 Comparison of cost of nutrients and contribution
from freight for various materials in bags . 6
56 Components of estimated costs of bagged
fertilizer and nutrients delivered to
Equateur region, 1973-74 and 1976 ...... 70
57 Estimated operating cost at two levels of
operation for a regional warehouse handling only
fertilizer (no delivery from warehouse) ...... 71
58 Estimated cost of bagged urea and diammonium
phosphate delivered to farmers in north Shaba project 74









FIGURES


Page
1 Republic of Zaire . . . ... 14
2 The chief rivers and natural vegetation in Zaire 15
3 Location of potential fertilizer resources ... .....18
4 Major transportation routes in Zaire ....... .20
5 Ports and major transportation routes in Bas Zaire 21
6 Intercountry transportation routes . ... 22
7 Combined 1972 and 1973 import and export
cargo via major transportation routes ...... ..23
8 Freight class effects on freight rates via ONATRA .25
9 Prices for AID-financed fertilizers (average for bulk
and bagged materials f.o.b. U.S. Gulf Coast) 30
10 The widening gap between production and


consumption of maize in Zaire . . .
11 Impact of capital investment and production
rate on cost of fertilizer materials . .
12 Dockside bagging of fertilizer at the port .
13 Critical relative humidities for
fertilizer materials and mixtures . .
14 Typical fertilizer bulk
blending and bagging operation ....
15 Suggested design for regional
bagged fertilizer warehouse . . .
16 Typical schedule for fertilizer procurement,
distribution, and use on maize in Shaba and Kasai


Page
. 34

. 63
. 65

. 67

. 67

. 72

72









ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS REPORT


Fertilizers

N Nitrogen
P Phosphorus
P2 0 Phosphate
K Potassium
K20 Potash
Ca Calcium
Mg Magnesium
S Sulfur
Fertilizer formula -% of N-P20s-K20 by weight
AS Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0)
DAP Diammonium phosphate (18-46-0)
KS Potassium sulfate (0-0-48)
MAP Monoammonium phosphate (12-48-0 to 11-57-0)
OSP Ordinary superphosphate (0-16-0 to 0-20-0)
RP Rock phosphate
TSP Triple superphosphate
Urea Urea (45-0-0 to 46-0-0)
pH Measure of acidity or alkalinity



Measures


cm1
ha
km
lb
m
metric
111111
MW
7X


Centimeter (1 inch = 2.54 cnm)
Hectare (2.47 acres)
Kilometer (1 mil = 1.61 km)
Pound (0.454 kg)
Meter (1 foot = 0.305 1m)
ton (2,204 Ib)
Millimeter (I inch = 25.4 mm)
Megawatt (1,000,000 watts)
Percent


Monetary

Makuta (100K = ZI)
Zaire, monetary unit of GOZ (Z I = USS2
official rate of exchange)


ASCOTRAN GOZ Transport Association
CFDT Compagnie Francaise pour le Developpement
des Fibres Textiles
CIMMYT International Maize & Wheat Improvement
Center (Mexico)
COFAN Compan.hia de Fosfatos de Angola
CSZ Compagnie Sucriere des Zaire
EEC European Economic Community
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FED Fond Europeen de Developpement
GECAMINES Societe Generale des Carrieres et des Mines
GOZ Government of Zaire
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (World Bank)
IDA International Development Association
INEAC Institut National d'Etude Agronomique au
Congo
INERA Institut National pour 1'Etude et la
Recherche Agronomiques (GOZ)
IRHO Institut de Recherche pour les Huiles
et Oleagineux
MIBA Societe Miniere de Bakwanga
NIFOR Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
ONACER Office National des Cereales (GOZ)
ONAFITEX Office National des Fibres Textiles (GOZ)
ONATRA Office National des Transports (GOZ)
PLZ Plantation Lever au Zaire
PNM Programme National Mais
SMK Societe Miniere de Kisenge
SMTF Societe Miniere de Tengu-Fugurume
SNCZ Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer
du Zaire
SOZIR Societe Zairo-Italienne de Rafinage
(oil refinery)
SUCRAF Sucriere et Raffinerie de I'Afrique
Central
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
UNDP United Nations Development Program
U.S. United States of America
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture


Other


c.i.f. Cost, insurance, and freight
f.o.b. Free on board









Summary and Recommendations


Objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the fertilizer
use situation in Zaire; (2) identify obstacles to increased
fertilizer use; and (3) develop alternatives the GOZ might
follow in developing programs and policies for production,
distribution, and use of fertilizer on an economically sound
basis.
The TVA team has been greatly impressed by the vast
agricultural potential of Zaire. To achieve the potential of
the climate, soils, and people, however, will require major
changes in Zaire's agricultural policies, in agricultural
research, in agricultural extension, and in the fertilizer
supply and distribution system. Increased crop production
of the magnitude required will not occur without major
increases in the use of chemical fertilizers and/or an
increase in the area under cultivation.
The demand for food in Zaire will likely increase
i I. Ill by 1985 (table 19). Most of this new demand
will come from increases in population. but if the GOZ is
successful in developing policies and programs to increase
real per capital incomes, further substantial increases in
demand will follow. Other factors affecting the demand for
food and for specific food items include urbanization and
age composition of the population. The magnitude of
future food deficits is uncertain, due in part to wide
variations in estimates of recent population growth rates,
most of which range from 2.4% to 3.9%/year.
Fertilizers are needed for high yields, but fertilizer use in
Zaire is extremely low. All fertilizer is imported. Usage has
apparently decreased from 20,000 metric tons in 1971 to
11,000 metric tons in 1973 and in 1974. A major reason
for this is the low prices farmers receive for their products
in relation to fertilizer costs. Other major obstacles to
increased fertilizer use are:
1. Present shortage of foreign exchange.
2. Recent Zairianization which has resulted in lower
fertilizer use and production of commercial
plantation crops.
3. Insufficient well planned and conducted research,
demonstration, and educational programs that clearly
show the farmer the economic value of specific
fertilizers applied to food crops.
4. Lack of readily available credit in rural areas.
5. Unavailability of good markets at farm level (inade-
quate transportation and marketing channels) which
has resulted in low prices to many farmers.
6. Lack of a coordinated set of policies and programs
that will result in the most efficient increase in
agricultural productivity from scarce manpower and
capital resources.


It is estimated that no more than 10% of the fertilizer is
used on cereal crops. About 80% has been used on
sugarcane, coffee, oil palm, and cotton. Zaire does not have
a fertilizer distribution system adequate to supply the
amount of fertilizer needed to meet GOZ food production
programs. Most fertilizer has been imported on an indi-
vidual order basis; such small purchases have resulted in
high costs. Also, internal distribution costs have been high.
Import duties on finished fertilizer in the past have
amounted to 22% of the c.i.f. value. These have resulted in
an average cost of 45K to 50K/kg of nutrient to the farmer
in Shaba.
It is estimated from research data by PNM that 2 metric
tons/ha of additional maize can be produced with the use
of new production technology including 120 kg/ha of
nutrients. Based upon this assumption, the 1973-74 deficit
in maize (163.000 metric tons) could have been domes-
tically produced by using 9.780 metric tons of nutrients on
81,500 ha. The fertilizer at recent prices would have cost
Z2,934.000 and the maize Z14,670.000, c.i.f. Matadi
(maize, Z90/metric ton and nutrients, Z300/metric ton).
Thus, importing fertilizer instead of maize could have saved
the GOZ Zl 1,736,000 in foreign exchange in 1 year alone.
Increased fertilizer use and other improved crop produc-
tion technology can avoid or minimize present deficits in
cereal grains and prevent major shortages of palm oil and
cotton and even greater shortages of maize and rice by
1980. It can also improve the low living standards of rural
people, reduce foreign exchange requirements for food, and
increase overall employment. This is especially important
since three-fourths of the population is classified as rural.


AGRICULTURAL POLICY CHANGES
TO INCREASE FERTILIZER USE

One of the first steps in developing a successful fertilizer
industry in Zaire must be to increase domestic demand for
fertilizer. Each stage of the industry development depends
upon increasing demand considerably above current levels.
A developing fertilizer industry depends upon successful
crop production programs. For either to be successful,
farmers must have incentives to achieve higher crop
yields i.e.. have a reasonable expectation of benefits from
investment of capital and labor. The key elements other
than ., i ih.,'Ii, of physical inputs in providing incentives
for farmers to use fertilizers are: favorable pricing policy
regarding fertilizers and farm produce, reliable marketing









Summary and Recommendations


Objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the fertilizer
use situation in Zaire; (2) identify obstacles to increased
fertilizer use; and (3) develop alternatives the GOZ might
follow in developing programs and policies for production,
distribution, and use of fertilizer on an economically sound
basis.
The TVA team has been greatly impressed by the vast
agricultural potential of Zaire. To achieve the potential of
the climate, soils, and people, however, will require major
changes in Zaire's agricultural policies, in agricultural
research, in agricultural extension, and in the fertilizer
supply and distribution system. Increased crop production
of the magnitude required will not occur without major
increases in the use of chemical fertilizers and/or an
increase in the area under cultivation.
The demand for food in Zaire will likely increase
i I. Ill by 1985 (table 19). Most of this new demand
will come from increases in population. but if the GOZ is
successful in developing policies and programs to increase
real per capital incomes, further substantial increases in
demand will follow. Other factors affecting the demand for
food and for specific food items include urbanization and
age composition of the population. The magnitude of
future food deficits is uncertain, due in part to wide
variations in estimates of recent population growth rates,
most of which range from 2.4% to 3.9%/year.
Fertilizers are needed for high yields, but fertilizer use in
Zaire is extremely low. All fertilizer is imported. Usage has
apparently decreased from 20,000 metric tons in 1971 to
11,000 metric tons in 1973 and in 1974. A major reason
for this is the low prices farmers receive for their products
in relation to fertilizer costs. Other major obstacles to
increased fertilizer use are:
1. Present shortage of foreign exchange.
2. Recent Zairianization which has resulted in lower
fertilizer use and production of commercial
plantation crops.
3. Insufficient well planned and conducted research,
demonstration, and educational programs that clearly
show the farmer the economic value of specific
fertilizers applied to food crops.
4. Lack of readily available credit in rural areas.
5. Unavailability of good markets at farm level (inade-
quate transportation and marketing channels) which
has resulted in low prices to many farmers.
6. Lack of a coordinated set of policies and programs
that will result in the most efficient increase in
agricultural productivity from scarce manpower and
capital resources.


It is estimated that no more than 10% of the fertilizer is
used on cereal crops. About 80% has been used on
sugarcane, coffee, oil palm, and cotton. Zaire does not have
a fertilizer distribution system adequate to supply the
amount of fertilizer needed to meet GOZ food production
programs. Most fertilizer has been imported on an indi-
vidual order basis; such small purchases have resulted in
high costs. Also, internal distribution costs have been high.
Import duties on finished fertilizer in the past have
amounted to 22% of the c.i.f. value. These have resulted in
an average cost of 45K to 50K/kg of nutrient to the farmer
in Shaba.
It is estimated from research data by PNM that 2 metric
tons/ha of additional maize can be produced with the use
of new production technology including 120 kg/ha of
nutrients. Based upon this assumption, the 1973-74 deficit
in maize (163.000 metric tons) could have been domes-
tically produced by using 9.780 metric tons of nutrients on
81,500 ha. The fertilizer at recent prices would have cost
Z2,934.000 and the maize Z14,670.000, c.i.f. Matadi
(maize, Z90/metric ton and nutrients, Z300/metric ton).
Thus, importing fertilizer instead of maize could have saved
the GOZ Zl 1,736,000 in foreign exchange in 1 year alone.
Increased fertilizer use and other improved crop produc-
tion technology can avoid or minimize present deficits in
cereal grains and prevent major shortages of palm oil and
cotton and even greater shortages of maize and rice by
1980. It can also improve the low living standards of rural
people, reduce foreign exchange requirements for food, and
increase overall employment. This is especially important
since three-fourths of the population is classified as rural.


AGRICULTURAL POLICY CHANGES
TO INCREASE FERTILIZER USE

One of the first steps in developing a successful fertilizer
industry in Zaire must be to increase domestic demand for
fertilizer. Each stage of the industry development depends
upon increasing demand considerably above current levels.
A developing fertilizer industry depends upon successful
crop production programs. For either to be successful,
farmers must have incentives to achieve higher crop
yields i.e.. have a reasonable expectation of benefits from
investment of capital and labor. The key elements other
than ., i ih.,'Ii, of physical inputs in providing incentives
for farmers to use fertilizers are: favorable pricing policy
regarding fertilizers and farm produce, reliable marketing









system, credit for purchase of inputs, and technically sound
recommendations for fertilizer use.


Policy Implications of
Cost-Price Relationships

The profitability of fertilizer use depends upon the yield
response and the price of the product in relation to the cost
of fertilizer.
Response to fertilizer varies among locations and years.
The risk of not getting the expected yield response for a
given crop is high for small farmers purchasing fertilizer on
credit. Since they usually do not have reserve funds and the
fertilizer expenditure is high relative to their income, the
consequences can be serious. Moreover, small farmers use
different cultural practices and typically get lower yield
responses than those obtained in experiments. In basing
price policy on experimental data, a sizable margin is
needed to allow for these factors. For rapid adoption of
fertilizer by a large number of farmers with severe capital
restrictions, it may take an incremental benefit:cost ratio
(value of crop produced by the increment of fertilizer
divided by the cost of that increment) of 2.5 to I. For
farmers with adequate capital, a lower benefit:cost ratio
may be adequate. While some trial-and-error adjustments
would be needed to pinpoint an exact incremental benefit:
cost ratio appropriate to increase production, the TVA
team considers a 2:1 ratio as a reasonable starting level (see
page 40 for details).
From a national policy standpoint, it is important that
the majority of farmers have a favorable experience from
using fertilizer and that they continue to use it at a
minimum level of 120 kg of nutrients/ha in the major maize
production areas to increase national production. The TVA
team estimates that it may be possible to deliver urea and
diammonium phosphate to farmers at an average cost of
30K/kg of nutrients in 1976-77.
Lowering the cost of fertilizer, while important, will not
result in adequate price relationships to encourage farmers
to meet the national need for increased maize production.
Some increase in farmers' price is the surest way of getting
the increased production and encouraging its delivery into
commercial channels for urban markets. This is also in the
urban consumer's best longer term interest in getting
adequate food supplies at a reasonable cost.
It is recommended that GOZ set maize prices to farmers
at a level which will give farmers an incremental benefit:
cost ratio of 2 when fertilizing at a rate of 120 kg of
imii. 1 i Ii This would make it profitable for farmers
with limited capital to use fertilizer profitably at the
current recommended rate and for farmers without capital
restrictions to use higher rates.
These cost-price relationships are also important in
stimulating increased production of other crops. A variety


of policies may unintentionally cause unfavorable benefit:
cost ratios. These include requirements that a fixed fraction
of output be sold domestically at low prices, export and
import taxes, and subsidized imports as well as low
producer prices. If the disincentive is substantial, the
consumer actually will pay more for a smaller output and
tax revenues may be less than they would otherwise be.


Assuring Readily Available
Market for Produce

There is evidence that the farmer's ability to sell maize
and cotton is greatly impaired in many areas because of the
inability of the farmer to transport his own produce, an
insufficient number of traders (buyers) in remote areas, and
too few buying stations. Farmers will be reluctant to
purchase inputs to increase production after experiencing a
situation where they either receive very low prices or even
cannot sell their produce.
The GOZ should encourage local traders to operate in
the remote areas and establish a sufficient number of
buying stations to assure the farmer of a market for his
goods. A long-range goal should be to improve rural roads
to enable better access to villages for collection of produce
and delivery of inputs.


Availability of Credit to Agriculture

The availability of credit is essential for rapid adoption
of fertilizer and other improved technology to increase
agricultural production. Lack of any of the production
inputs will limit yield, thus limiting the return on the
investment in fertilizer.
Short-, intermediate-, and long-term credit for agri-
culture must be geared to the seasonal needs and income
characteristics of agriculture, and experienced agricultural
finance officers must appraise the soundness of loans.
Commercial credit institutions, public or private, can
provide credit needs of commercial agriculture. Direct
credit subsidies for fertilizer and other agricultural inputs
for commercial farms are usually an inefficient use of scarce
funds for development and often result in wasteful use.
reduce prospects of repayment. and deplete loan funds. The
present policy of limiting commercial bank interest rates to
6%/year for agriculture while allowing higher rates for other
industries should be reevaluated.
Credit for small farms should be extended to partici-
pating farmers in development projects where all the
necessary ingredients of efficient production are available.
The "package" approach, including improved seeds, fertil-
izer, organized markets. and supervision, is essential to get
increased production and repayment of the loan.
Important ingredients for success with such programs
include the development of trust by participating farmers in








the institution providing the credit, instruction on how to
use credit effectively, the absence of elaborate forms and
procedures, availability of credit at convenient locations,
and flexible conditions of repayment. These factors usually
are far more important for successful programs than usual
variations in interest rates.
Farm credit for the purchase of fertilizers can be made
available from several sources: (1) government organization
conducting the development project, (2) existing or new
financial institutions, (3) suppliers of fertilizer, (4) buyers
of the produce, or (5) cooperative credit unions or
organizations similar to the Production Credit Associations
in the U.S.
Along with credit, it is vital that small farmers begin to
build savings, even if at a slow pace. In some African
countries, savings clubs in conjunction with development
projects have been successful. The growth of savings makes
it possible for small farmers to develop their capacity for
management, reduce risks, and increase the size of the
enterprise.

Improving Research and Extension

In Zaire, crop response data to varying levels of N,
P20s, and K20 are noticeably lacking except for maize.
Such data are necessary to analyze the profitability of
fertilizer use and to determine rates to recommend to
farmers.
In addition to research on experiment stations, demon-
strations at varying fertilizer levels should be conducted on
farms to show response at the farm level and to demon-
strate the value of fertilizer and other improved cultural
practices to farmers. Data of this type must be developed
by GOZ organizations, especially for food crops. Likewise.
the dissemination of information to farmers in the intro-
duction phase must be through GOZ programs. But once
technology is introduced and farmers gain experience,
fertilizer dealers and others can contribute to the
introduction of new technology.
The GOZ should place greater emphasis on adaptive
research and extension education programs that will clearly
outline to the farmer the profitability of fertilizer. A good
start has been made in the PNM. Such coordinated
l:.'~i..rnl need to be expanded on maize and extended to
other crops as rapidly as possible. This should be done
through a coordinated program including basic soil fertility,
soil testing, plant analysis, fertilizer response research,
production economics, and extension education.
Specific attention should be given to establishment of
soil testing and plant analysis laboratories together with the
appropriate correlation and ..ilih, .I iii programs, first at
the INERA station at G.I i.1.Jiil..' or Kaniama and second at
Mvuazi, and providing highly trained personnel to operate
them. In addition, crop production specialists (cotton and


maize) should be provided at Gandadjika/Kaniama and a
cotton specialist at Bambesa. Production economists should
be stationed at Gandadjika/Kaniama and Yangambi. Each
location should have centers for training extension agents
similar to PNM's at k,..iis,.i Each extension agent should
be trained in production techniques for all major crops
grown in the area since specialization in only one crop
results in inefficient use of time at this level in the
organization.

Establishment of Agricultural Planning Staff

An expanded planning and evaluating capability is
needed to carry out an integrated agricultural development
program. The GOZ has strengthened the Department of
Agriculture in recent years through several actions. Con-
modity offices and INERA are now under the department's
direction. It seems consistent with GOZ policy to further
increase the capability of the Department of Agriculture.
This could be accomplished by establishing an agricultural
planning staff. Its functions would be to determine goals
and make policy recommendations concerning agricultural
production programs. commodity prices, markets, and the
use and availability of inputs such as fertilizer, seed. and
chemicals. The staff would coordinate inputs from INERA,
commodity offices, plantations, industry, and GOZ crop
production projects and extension to provide a unified
agricultural approach for the above.
Specifically for fertilizer, the staff would study and
recommend policy changes needed to stimulate fertilizer
use and determine realistic demand for types of fertilizer by
regions by working closely with all groups responsible for
research, extension, and crop production.
The staff should consist of persons in all major areas of
agriculture, such as agronomy, economics, soils, engi-
neering, and animal science, and include experienced
agricultural program planners. The use of consultants to
work on specific projects should be considered.


MEETING FERTILIZER NEEDS

Benefits to the GOZ of increasing fertilizer use and
policy changes needed to encourage farmers to use fertilizer
have been discussed. The next necessary step toward
increasing use is to supply fertilizer to the farmer at the
time of need and at a price consistent with the benefit :cost
relationships previously discussed. A well-planned fertilizer
',lIpl. system is needed to get fertilizer to the farmer
efficiently.

Fertilizer Use Estimates

The TVA team estimates of fertilizer need in 1976 and
1980 are based upon current and planned crop production








programs and assume that all recommended steps outlined
in this report will be established by January 1976. Any
delay in implementing any elements of the program will
delay the schedule accordingly.
We estimate that 34,000 metric tons of fertilizer will be
needed in the first full year of the program, 15,000 metric
tons of which will be needed in Equateur, primarily for oil
palm and cacao (table 46). About 20% of the total will be
needed in Kivu, mostly for tea and coffee. By the fifth
year, we estimate 82,000 metric tons of fertilizer will be
needed in Zaire (table 47). Equateur and Shaba regions will
be the leading consumers of fertilizer and about twice as
much will be needed for maize as for either oil palm or
coffee.
These levels of fertilizer use by 1980 can result in
self-sufficiency in maize; halt the increasing deficit of rice;
maintain the present level of export of cotton; and increase
palm oil, coffee, and tea exports.


Fertilizer Prices

Recent average nutrient prices from materials such as
urea and diammonium phosphate have been 45K to 50K/kg
delivered to farmers in Shaba. This high cost has resulted
from high world prices of fertilizers, higher cost for small
quantity purchases, import duties, high ocean freight rates
because of orders in small quantities and often low-analysis
materials, and high internal freight rates. Costs are being
lowered as world fertilizer prices are declining, most import
duties have been removed, and internal freight rates for
fertilizer have been decreased. More steps are needed to buy
high-analysis fertilizers and order each type in large enough
quantity to realize benefits of bid purchase and charter
ocean freight rates.
The effect of analysis of materials upon the freight and
total c.i.f. cost of nutrients is shown in table 55. Ocean
freight alone varies from Z27 to Z83/metric ton of nutrient
for various materials. The effect of lower world fertilizer
prices, import duties, and internal freight rates upon
fertilizer material and nutrient costs can result in lowering
nutrient costs by Z130 to Z155/metric ton for materials
delivered to Equateur region (table 56).


Fertilizer or Agricultural Supply Company

This discussion will deal only with fertilizer, but the
supply company should also handle other agricultural
inputs, which are as important as fertilizers to increase
agricultural production. Capital, labor, and overhead costs
related to the fertilizer component of the business can be
reduced by handling other inputs.
In supplying fertilizer for agriculture in Zaire, large
quantities of material must be moved from the point of
entry (Boma or Matadi) throughout the country during


relatively short periods of the year to ensure that the
farmer has an adequate supply at planting time. Because of
the intense, seasonal nature of needed supply, it is essential
that a single, well-disciplined organization handle this
function. The company could be owned and operated as a
private, public, or joint venture.
The TVA team recommends the formation of a fertilizer
company to supply adequate types and quantities of
fertilizer at the times needed. The company must have
strong management and recognition of its importance to get
support of policy and financing from the highest levels in
the GOZ. The company director should also have an open
line of communication with top levels in all essential GOZ
organizations. Liaison with these groups is necessary to get
policy decisions to encourage needed agricultural input use
and financing to provide the mechanism for delivery to
meet Zaire's crop production goals.
Some items that need immediate decisions and support
of the central government are: (1) plan for organization of
the company, (2) distribution policy of the company-to-
farmer level or to regional warehouses for final distribution
by existing merchants. (3) level of capital requirements and
availability for the company. (4) priority of company for
foreign exchange, and (5) arrangement and responsibility
for assessing the feasibility of developing phosphate
deposits in Bas Zaire and electric power from Inga for
fertilizer. Initially, the primary responsibilities of the
company would be to: (I) procure fertilizer on a competi-
tive bid basis, (2) warehouse fertilizer at point of entry. (3)
dispatch fertilizer to regional warehouses. (4) establish a
good statistical reporting system (including inventory). and
(5) develop good data on cost of fertilizer handling and
distribution in Zaire.
The administrative tasks of deciding quantities and types
to order, preparing fertilizer purchase specifications.
issuing tenders, and awarding contracts should be accom-
plished by the supply company. The management of the
company should consult regularly with regional warehouse
operators and the agricultural planning staff when
estimating fertilizer needs and formulating specific procure-
ment plans. If possible, advanced orders should be taken
from regional warehouse operators. The necessary lead time
from preparing tenders to getting fertilizer on tarms is
about 1 5 months.
Material handling tasks-such as operating interim stor-
age facilities near the point of entry. bagging when bulk
imports are received, and dispatching fertilizers to the
regional warehouses-should be performed by employees of
the company. Handling of fertilizer by regular port cargo
handling crews often results in large losses. Cre\s should be
made aware of the importance of minimizing losses and
given instructions for proper handling. The company should
monitor fertilizer handling throughout the transportation
system to minimize losses. A system for quality control for
fertilizer also should be established.








In later phases of development, the company could
eventually serve as a nucleus to develop personnel to
operate new bulk handling, blending and bagging facilities,
more sophisticated transport and distribution systems, and
eventually basic production facilities.

Methods of Fertilizer Supply

Relatively large amounts of capital are required for
fertilizer production facilities. Operation of such facilities
at less than design capacity results in increased cost per unit
of product. The effect of operating levels upon the cost per
metric ton for varying levels of capital investment is shown
in figure 11. Because of the high costs of fertilizer
production facilities and the relatively low production that
would be required of such facilities over the next 10 years,
we recommend the evolution of supply techniques and
facilities shown in table 50.
Initially, granular fertilizers in bags should be imported
through the Ports of Boma and Matadi. When trans-
shipment can be done immediately, materials may be
unloaded at Matadi. If long delays are anticipated, the less
congested Port of Boma should be used since adequate
storage space is available.
In the second phase (when imports through Boma
exceed 25,000 metric tons), granular fertilizers should be
imported in bulk and bagged in facilities located at
dockside. We estimate that bagging costs in Zaire and the
export country will be similar (Z12/metric ton), but ocean
freight rates for bulk material will be less than for bagged
material. Therefore, bagging material in Zaire will result in a
net savings of foreign exchange of more than Z12/metric
ton of product.
The third phase should be entered when there is a
demand of 30,000 to 40,000 metric tons/year for mixed
NP and NPK grades. We estimate blending and bagging of
fertilizers in Zaire will cost about Z15/metric ton or Z3
more than bagging alone. The additional cost (Z3) results
from blending complete NPK fertilizers in Zaire over
supplying straight materials. Calculations made from table
55 which show that the c.i.f. cost of nutrients from straight
materials should cost Z14 less than equivalent nutrients
contained in 10-30-10. Therefore, it is estimated that
blending in Zaire can supply complete NPK grades at a
savings of Z10 or more/metric ton.
We estimate the fourth phase is at least 10 years in the
future-when the demand for mixed NP and NPK grades
reaches at least 100,000 metric tons/year. At that time, it
may be feasible to build a granulation complex which
would use phosphate rock, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid,
ammonia, and potassium chloride to produce granular NPK
grades (appendix C).
Phosphate rock deposits in Bas Zaire should be investi-
gated to determine the feasibility of mining, beneficiation,


and use in making various types of phosphate fertilizers.
Also, the availability of electric power from Inga should be
investigated for possible use in manufacturing elemental
phosphorus and ammonia. Should either or both of these
prove feasible, the desirability of entering phase four at an
earlier date with a portion of the production being
exported should be determined.

Distribution System

Because of the seasonal nature of fertilizer use, it is
necessary to establish storage facilities within the vicinity of
use to ensure an adequate supply at the time it is needed.
The amount of fertilizer that can be transported by the
farmer is small and he can transport it only a short distance.
It is essential that limited storage facilities exist at the
village level to ensure a timely supply of fertilizer to the
farmer. Private general commodity merchants who handle
many products should be encouraged to store fertilizer at
the regional level and distribute it to the village (farmer).
This will result in lower handling and distribution cost since
the total operating cost is distributed among the many
products. The regional warehouse operator (merchant)
would depend entirely upon the company for procurement
and delivery of fertilizer to his warehouse. The national
transportation system should be used to the maximum
extent possible to move materials.
The location of regional warehouses should depend first
upon the demand for fertilizer in an area and second upon
existing general commodity merchants with adequate ware-
house facilities. Possible locations (figure 4) for regional
warehouses operated by private merchants who handle
commodities other than fertilizers are:


Region
Kinshasa
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Shaba


City


Kinshasa
Gemena and Bumba
Isiro and Buta
Luputa (serve Gandadjika and Kaniama)
Bukavu and Goma
Kabalo and Likasi


Three situations may exist whereby the fertilizer
company is justified in establishing its own regional
warehouses. They are:
I. In a high fertilizer use area, existing warehouse
facilities may not have the capacity to store adequate
quantities needed in the short fertilizer use season. In
this situation, supplying the small Warehouses from
the central port storage may not be feasible. There-
fore, it would be desirable to operate a regional
warehouse from which materials could be supplied to
distributors in a short period of time.
2. In areas where delivery from the centratport storage








would result in excessive delays (for example, Kivu),
it may be desirable for the company to maintain
warehouses to ensure adequate supplies at the times
of need.
3. In a new fertilizer use area where private merchants
may not have adequate facilities to handle fertilizer.
Possible areas that may need warehouses owned by the
fertilizer company are Equateur and Kivu because of
situations 1 and 2. In Kivu, the company's warehouse
probably should be at Uvira and in Equateur at Lisala if no
private facility is capable of handling fertilizer. A regional
warehouse owned by the company should be located at a
rail or river port and near road junctions where the greatest
cultivated area can be served with the least amount of
travel.
The TVA team estimates that each company warehouse
should have a storage capacity of 5,000 metric tons. About
10,000 metric tons/year of fertilizer should be moved
through a warehouse of this size to operate economically.
Assuming the warehouse operator anticipated moving
10,000 metric tons/year but actual movement was only
5,000 metric tons, the effect upon estimated cost of
handling and storage of material and the contribution from
various items are shown in table 57. Interest on working
capital and product losses are the largest cost items.
Because of the seasonal nature of fertilizer use, other
products could be handled without additional facilities,
equipment, or labor. This would give more efficient use of
these items and reduce the amount charged to handling
fertilizer. Costs for handling fertilizer and other inputs
could be further reduced if warehouse space were rented to
store other items when space is not needed.


SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

The following is a list of recommendations of steps to be
taken to initiate and carry out the fertilizer program
described for Zaire.
I. Establish an agricultural planning staff to plan and
evaluate an integrated agricultural development
program.
2. Establish and support farm produce prices at levels
which encourage production to meet goals of the
agricultural development program.
3. Establish credit to agriculture which permits use of
inputs consistent with goals of the agricultural
program.
4. Establish markets for agricultural products which
assure the farmer of selling his products at the
established price.
5. Reorient agricultural research and extension to
follow the pattern of PNM but with strengthening in
soils, production economics, and training of indi-


viduals in crop production techniques for more than
one crop.
6. Establish a fertilizer or agricultural supply company
to supply types and quantities of fertilizer and or
other inputs at times needed to meet Zaire's crop
production goals.
7. Support the company at the highest levels in GOZ
with policies and finances so that it can perform its
functions efficiently.
8. Obtain official confirmation of the removal of
import taxes on fertilizers.
9. Obtain official confirmation of the placement of
fertilizers in class XIII freight rate.
10. All purchases of fertilizers for Zaire should be made
by the fertilizer company in large lots (minimum of
5.000 metric tons) from lowest bidders for given
specifications.
1 1. Obtain charter ocean freight rates for imports.
12. Purchase high-analysis materials (diammonium
phosphate, urea, and potassium chloride).
13. Investigate the use of preslung and alternate
methods of cargo handling as a means of further
reducing cost of freight. handling, and loss of
product.
14. Until 25.000 metric tons year of fertilizers are
imported through one port:
a. Import in 50-kg bags constructed of woven
polypropylene with a heavy polyethylene liner.
b. Receive shipments that can be immediately
transshipped at Matadi and materials requiring
storage at Boma.
c. Take maximum advantage of existing inside
storage facilities at Boma.
d. Monitor material handling at the port and during
transport to assess losses and obtain cooperation
of handling crews when problems arise.
15. When 25.000 metric tons or more of fertilizer is
moved through one port:
a. The fertilizer company should purchase bagging
equipment, import fertilizer in bulk. and begin
bagging material at the dockside.
b. Evaluate the possibility of fabricating plastic bag
liners and woven outer jackets in Zaire for
packaging fertilizer and other products.
16. When the demand for mixed NP and NPK fertilizers
reaches 40,000 metric tons year. the company
should consider constructing a bulk blending plant
and mix bulk imported fertilizers to the desired
grades and bag them.
17. Consider negotiating fertilizer supply contracts with
nearby sources.
18. Encourage private general commodity merchants to
handle and distribute fertilizer at the regional and
village level.









19. Evaluate the need for company-owned regional
warehouses to assure that adequate supplies of
fertilizer reach farmers at the time of need.
20. Consider renting company warehouse space in
the off-season when not needed for company
products to reduce net operating costs.
21. Use the national transportation system to move
material from port of entry to railheads and
river ports.
22. If routes through neighboring countries are
selected as least-cost supply routes for fertilizer


to Shaba and Kivu, a backup system of supply
should be planned via Boma/Matadi and the
GOZ transport system.
23. Start a program to train Zaire personnel in the basic
and advanced stages of planning and operating a
fertilizer industry.
24. Conduct a detailed feasibility study of the possi-
bilities of developing Bas Zaire phosphate rock
deposits for the export market and the use of
electric power from Inga for phosphate and
ammonia production.









Introduction and Objectives


Zaire is largely a rural nation. But low priority is given to
the rural agricultural sector where 78% of the population is
found. Agriculture is not progressing as it should and
farmers are not making their potential contribution to the
national economy.
Zaire has the basic agricultural resources to supply more
foods for itself and to produce more for export. But the
relative importance of agricultural exports actually is less
than half what it was two decades ago 15%1 to 18% of the
nation's net foreign exchange earnings, compared with 35%
to 40/ in the late 1950's.
A primary reason for this decline undoubtedly is the
relatively low level of support given to agriculture. In recent
years, agriculture has been allocated less than 4% of the
national budget.
In contrast, copper is big business in Zaire. The
country's economy is highly dependent on the foreign
exchange earned by copper exports-80% of the total in
recent years. The country is, of course, fortunate to have
this valuable resource, and its importance should not be
underrated. But problems can be expected when any
government relies too heavily on one sector and provides
only limited support for developing alternate sources of
revenue. The problem comes into focus when world prices
for this commodity, and consequently its earnings, drop
sharply as happened recently with copper.
The weakening of copper highlighted the weakness
which had developed in agriculture. Witl only minimal
developmental support for many years, agriculture was in
no position to fill the earnings gap left as a result of low
copper prices. Furthermore, Zaire's food imports have been
increasing, causing further imbalance in foreign exchange
and contributing to the already high rate of :nil ir...
Incidentally, inflation is higher for food than for all
products and is higher for imported food than for
d( ..' iI. produced food.
All of these developments in Zaire's economy point up
the need for upgrading agriculture. Additional production is
needed to reduce agricultural imports and expand agri-
cultural exports. Both steps would help stabilize the
national economy. Nonagricultural sectors also would
benefit in other ways. Increased purchasing power in rural
areas means larger markets for products of the cities and


greater use of many services, such as transportation and
ports. An increase of Z1 in agricultural income generally
increases national income by Z2 to Z4. And higher
agricultural production means additional jobs in other
sectors of the economy.
Fertilizer will be an important ingredient in the de\elop-
ment of agriculture in Zaire. Its use can quickly and
dramatically produce higher yields even before major
changes are made in most other practices. Its use is a key to
the profitable use of most other modern production
practices. And the use of fertilizer can start farmers in Zaire
moving toward scientific farming and the use of a group of
purchased inputs.
The GOZ began to study agriculture more intensively in
the early 1970's. It invited D. L. McCune. then with T'A
and now with the International Fertilizer Development
Center. Florence. Alabama. to make a brief survey of the
fertilizer situation in November 1972. In June lo-4. the
GOZ Department of Agriculture requested USAID to
provide technical assistance in determining needs. sources
of supply, production possibilities- and marketing of
fertilizers in Zaire to produce food for an expanding
population.
The fertilizer team was composed of R. B. Diamond.
TVA agronomist: J. J. Schultz. TVA chemical engineer: P.
J. Stangel. International Fertilizer Development Center: G.
L. Terman. TVA agronomist; and R. C. Woodworth. TVA
agricultural economist. Each spent part of the period from
April to September 1975 in Zaire studying problems
pertaining to the development of fertilizer supplies and use.
W. G. Smith. TVA agricultural economist, and many others
at TVA and in Zaire also contributed to the report. W. E.
Garvey, food and agricultural officer. and Francis Urban.
agricultural economist. USAID Kinshasa. provided valuable
advice and assistance. It is hoped that this report will
contribute to the development of agricultural policy and
adequate levels of agricultural production in Zaire. See
appendix A for the detailed scope of work as agreed upon
by TVA. USAID/Washington. and USAID Kinshasa.
The overall objective of the study was to make an
analysis of the fertilizer situation in Zaire and to make
recommendations as to amounts of fertilizers needed over
the next 5 to 10 years and how best to supply these needs.









Agriculture in Zaire


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF ZAIRE

An outline of the various administrative units in Zaire is
as follows:


Division
Region (province)

Sous region

Zone

Collectivite
Localite


Approximate
U.S. equivalent
State

Congressional
district
County

Township
Town or village


Administrative
head
Commissaire de
Region
Commissaire sous
Regional
Commissaire de
Zone
Chef de Collectivite
Chef de Localite


There are eight regions (figure 1): Bas Zaire, Bandundu,
Equateur, Kasai Occidental, Kasai Oriental, Shaba, Kivu,
and Haut Zaire. Kinshasa and environs constitute a national
district. The regions are divided into 31 subregions which
are further divided into 131 zones, 750 collectivites, and
about 50,000 localites.
The number of rural households is about 2,227,000.
They are served by 7,717 extension workers, 967 lower
level agronomists (A-1 and A-2, with secondary school
education), and 97 higher level agronomists (A-0, A-I, and
A-2, with university education).


GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The Republic of Zaire is located in the south central part
of Africa, about one-third of the country to the north and
two-thirds to the south of the Equator. The area is
2,345,000 kin2 (905,170 mi2), about the size of the U.S.A.
east of the Mississippi River. It is connected to the Atlantic
Ocean by a coastal strip 40 km wide.
The total area of Zaire includes the following:


Forests
Cultivated land
Permanent pasture
Savannas, rivers, lakes, and mountains
Total


Millions
of ha
102.3
2.3
2.3
127.6
234.5


% of
total
44
1
1
54
100


The Zaire River system dominates the geography of the
country (figure 2). The large, low-lying central basin


(Cuvette Centrale) of the Zaire River watershed, sloping to
the north and then to the west, comprises about one-third
of the country. The altitude varies from 200 to 500 m (487
m at Yangambi on the Zaire River). It is largely covered by
equatorial rain forest (figure 2).
The Zaire River basin slopes .- .I, Ili upward to the
west, south, east, and northeast in higher plateaus or
mountains. On the west, the Crystal Mountains, which are
I.,.II. I with the coast, reach heights of 1,050 m and
separate the basin from the coastal plain.
To the south, the basin rises to plateaus of the
Zaire-Zambesi watershed (Shaba at elevations of 1,000 to
1,500 n). From these plateaus the tributaries of the Zaire
and Kasai flow north through deep valleys with numerous
rapids.
To the east and northeast, the basin is bordered by an
extensive mountain chain nearly 1,000 km long and having
heights of 2,000 to 5.000 m, some of which are snow-
covered. Also located on the east are deep lakes of the great
Rift Valley of East Africa, including Lakes (from north to
south) Mobutu, Idi Amin, Kivu, and Tanganika.


CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

Mean iii...i,1ll precipitation and mean annual tempera-
tures for several locations in Zaire are shown in table 1. The
highest total 111i ill occurs at Bambesa, in northern Zaire.
The second highest total and most uniform rainfall occurs
at Kisangani (and at Yangambi) in the tropical rain forest
area. The lowest total .1ltr ill and the most pronounced dry
season during May to September occur at Lubumbashi. All
regions of Zaire south of the Equator other than the central
rain forest also have a pronounced dry season during May
or June to September. At Bambesa, north of the Equator,
the seasons are reversed, with the drier season occurring
from December to February.
Mean annual temperatures are rather uniformly about
25 C in central and western Zaire, but lower in southern
Zaire. Light frosts occur in July and August at Lubumbashi.
Daily temperature variations average about I IC near the
Equator and up to 21 C in southern Zaire. Temperatures in
eastern Zaire are more temperate at the higher elevations.
High temperatures and humidity in the central rain forest
basin, together with malaria and other diseases, have caused
this area to be sparsely populated.
The central Zaire River basin is largely covered by
tropical rain forest vegetation. Extensive savanna areas









Agriculture in Zaire


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF ZAIRE

An outline of the various administrative units in Zaire is
as follows:


Division
Region (province)

Sous region

Zone

Collectivite
Localite


Approximate
U.S. equivalent
State

Congressional
district
County

Township
Town or village


Administrative
head
Commissaire de
Region
Commissaire sous
Regional
Commissaire de
Zone
Chef de Collectivite
Chef de Localite


There are eight regions (figure 1): Bas Zaire, Bandundu,
Equateur, Kasai Occidental, Kasai Oriental, Shaba, Kivu,
and Haut Zaire. Kinshasa and environs constitute a national
district. The regions are divided into 31 subregions which
are further divided into 131 zones, 750 collectivites, and
about 50,000 localites.
The number of rural households is about 2,227,000.
They are served by 7,717 extension workers, 967 lower
level agronomists (A-1 and A-2, with secondary school
education), and 97 higher level agronomists (A-0, A-I, and
A-2, with university education).


GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The Republic of Zaire is located in the south central part
of Africa, about one-third of the country to the north and
two-thirds to the south of the Equator. The area is
2,345,000 kin2 (905,170 mi2), about the size of the U.S.A.
east of the Mississippi River. It is connected to the Atlantic
Ocean by a coastal strip 40 km wide.
The total area of Zaire includes the following:


Forests
Cultivated land
Permanent pasture
Savannas, rivers, lakes, and mountains
Total


Millions
of ha
102.3
2.3
2.3
127.6
234.5


% of
total
44
1
1
54
100


The Zaire River system dominates the geography of the
country (figure 2). The large, low-lying central basin


(Cuvette Centrale) of the Zaire River watershed, sloping to
the north and then to the west, comprises about one-third
of the country. The altitude varies from 200 to 500 m (487
m at Yangambi on the Zaire River). It is largely covered by
equatorial rain forest (figure 2).
The Zaire River basin slopes .- .I, Ili upward to the
west, south, east, and northeast in higher plateaus or
mountains. On the west, the Crystal Mountains, which are
I.,.II. I with the coast, reach heights of 1,050 m and
separate the basin from the coastal plain.
To the south, the basin rises to plateaus of the
Zaire-Zambesi watershed (Shaba at elevations of 1,000 to
1,500 n). From these plateaus the tributaries of the Zaire
and Kasai flow north through deep valleys with numerous
rapids.
To the east and northeast, the basin is bordered by an
extensive mountain chain nearly 1,000 km long and having
heights of 2,000 to 5.000 m, some of which are snow-
covered. Also located on the east are deep lakes of the great
Rift Valley of East Africa, including Lakes (from north to
south) Mobutu, Idi Amin, Kivu, and Tanganika.


CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

Mean iii...i,1ll precipitation and mean annual tempera-
tures for several locations in Zaire are shown in table 1. The
highest total 111i ill occurs at Bambesa, in northern Zaire.
The second highest total and most uniform rainfall occurs
at Kisangani (and at Yangambi) in the tropical rain forest
area. The lowest total .1ltr ill and the most pronounced dry
season during May to September occur at Lubumbashi. All
regions of Zaire south of the Equator other than the central
rain forest also have a pronounced dry season during May
or June to September. At Bambesa, north of the Equator,
the seasons are reversed, with the drier season occurring
from December to February.
Mean annual temperatures are rather uniformly about
25 C in central and western Zaire, but lower in southern
Zaire. Light frosts occur in July and August at Lubumbashi.
Daily temperature variations average about I IC near the
Equator and up to 21 C in southern Zaire. Temperatures in
eastern Zaire are more temperate at the higher elevations.
High temperatures and humidity in the central rain forest
basin, together with malaria and other diseases, have caused
this area to be sparsely populated.
The central Zaire River basin is largely covered by
tropical rain forest vegetation. Extensive savanna areas









Agriculture in Zaire


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF ZAIRE

An outline of the various administrative units in Zaire is
as follows:


Division
Region (province)

Sous region

Zone

Collectivite
Localite


Approximate
U.S. equivalent
State

Congressional
district
County

Township
Town or village


Administrative
head
Commissaire de
Region
Commissaire sous
Regional
Commissaire de
Zone
Chef de Collectivite
Chef de Localite


There are eight regions (figure 1): Bas Zaire, Bandundu,
Equateur, Kasai Occidental, Kasai Oriental, Shaba, Kivu,
and Haut Zaire. Kinshasa and environs constitute a national
district. The regions are divided into 31 subregions which
are further divided into 131 zones, 750 collectivites, and
about 50,000 localites.
The number of rural households is about 2,227,000.
They are served by 7,717 extension workers, 967 lower
level agronomists (A-1 and A-2, with secondary school
education), and 97 higher level agronomists (A-0, A-I, and
A-2, with university education).


GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The Republic of Zaire is located in the south central part
of Africa, about one-third of the country to the north and
two-thirds to the south of the Equator. The area is
2,345,000 kin2 (905,170 mi2), about the size of the U.S.A.
east of the Mississippi River. It is connected to the Atlantic
Ocean by a coastal strip 40 km wide.
The total area of Zaire includes the following:


Forests
Cultivated land
Permanent pasture
Savannas, rivers, lakes, and mountains
Total


Millions
of ha
102.3
2.3
2.3
127.6
234.5


% of
total
44
1
1
54
100


The Zaire River system dominates the geography of the
country (figure 2). The large, low-lying central basin


(Cuvette Centrale) of the Zaire River watershed, sloping to
the north and then to the west, comprises about one-third
of the country. The altitude varies from 200 to 500 m (487
m at Yangambi on the Zaire River). It is largely covered by
equatorial rain forest (figure 2).
The Zaire River basin slopes .- .I, Ili upward to the
west, south, east, and northeast in higher plateaus or
mountains. On the west, the Crystal Mountains, which are
I.,.II. I with the coast, reach heights of 1,050 m and
separate the basin from the coastal plain.
To the south, the basin rises to plateaus of the
Zaire-Zambesi watershed (Shaba at elevations of 1,000 to
1,500 n). From these plateaus the tributaries of the Zaire
and Kasai flow north through deep valleys with numerous
rapids.
To the east and northeast, the basin is bordered by an
extensive mountain chain nearly 1,000 km long and having
heights of 2,000 to 5.000 m, some of which are snow-
covered. Also located on the east are deep lakes of the great
Rift Valley of East Africa, including Lakes (from north to
south) Mobutu, Idi Amin, Kivu, and Tanganika.


CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

Mean iii...i,1ll precipitation and mean annual tempera-
tures for several locations in Zaire are shown in table 1. The
highest total 111i ill occurs at Bambesa, in northern Zaire.
The second highest total and most uniform rainfall occurs
at Kisangani (and at Yangambi) in the tropical rain forest
area. The lowest total .1ltr ill and the most pronounced dry
season during May to September occur at Lubumbashi. All
regions of Zaire south of the Equator other than the central
rain forest also have a pronounced dry season during May
or June to September. At Bambesa, north of the Equator,
the seasons are reversed, with the drier season occurring
from December to February.
Mean annual temperatures are rather uniformly about
25 C in central and western Zaire, but lower in southern
Zaire. Light frosts occur in July and August at Lubumbashi.
Daily temperature variations average about I IC near the
Equator and up to 21 C in southern Zaire. Temperatures in
eastern Zaire are more temperate at the higher elevations.
High temperatures and humidity in the central rain forest
basin, together with malaria and other diseases, have caused
this area to be sparsely populated.
The central Zaire River basin is largely covered by
tropical rain forest vegetation. Extensive savanna areas









Agriculture in Zaire


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF ZAIRE

An outline of the various administrative units in Zaire is
as follows:


Division
Region (province)

Sous region

Zone

Collectivite
Localite


Approximate
U.S. equivalent
State

Congressional
district
County

Township
Town or village


Administrative
head
Commissaire de
Region
Commissaire sous
Regional
Commissaire de
Zone
Chef de Collectivite
Chef de Localite


There are eight regions (figure 1): Bas Zaire, Bandundu,
Equateur, Kasai Occidental, Kasai Oriental, Shaba, Kivu,
and Haut Zaire. Kinshasa and environs constitute a national
district. The regions are divided into 31 subregions which
are further divided into 131 zones, 750 collectivites, and
about 50,000 localites.
The number of rural households is about 2,227,000.
They are served by 7,717 extension workers, 967 lower
level agronomists (A-1 and A-2, with secondary school
education), and 97 higher level agronomists (A-0, A-I, and
A-2, with university education).


GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The Republic of Zaire is located in the south central part
of Africa, about one-third of the country to the north and
two-thirds to the south of the Equator. The area is
2,345,000 kin2 (905,170 mi2), about the size of the U.S.A.
east of the Mississippi River. It is connected to the Atlantic
Ocean by a coastal strip 40 km wide.
The total area of Zaire includes the following:


Forests
Cultivated land
Permanent pasture
Savannas, rivers, lakes, and mountains
Total


Millions
of ha
102.3
2.3
2.3
127.6
234.5


% of
total
44
1
1
54
100


The Zaire River system dominates the geography of the
country (figure 2). The large, low-lying central basin


(Cuvette Centrale) of the Zaire River watershed, sloping to
the north and then to the west, comprises about one-third
of the country. The altitude varies from 200 to 500 m (487
m at Yangambi on the Zaire River). It is largely covered by
equatorial rain forest (figure 2).
The Zaire River basin slopes .- .I, Ili upward to the
west, south, east, and northeast in higher plateaus or
mountains. On the west, the Crystal Mountains, which are
I.,.II. I with the coast, reach heights of 1,050 m and
separate the basin from the coastal plain.
To the south, the basin rises to plateaus of the
Zaire-Zambesi watershed (Shaba at elevations of 1,000 to
1,500 n). From these plateaus the tributaries of the Zaire
and Kasai flow north through deep valleys with numerous
rapids.
To the east and northeast, the basin is bordered by an
extensive mountain chain nearly 1,000 km long and having
heights of 2,000 to 5.000 m, some of which are snow-
covered. Also located on the east are deep lakes of the great
Rift Valley of East Africa, including Lakes (from north to
south) Mobutu, Idi Amin, Kivu, and Tanganika.


CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

Mean iii...i,1ll precipitation and mean annual tempera-
tures for several locations in Zaire are shown in table 1. The
highest total 111i ill occurs at Bambesa, in northern Zaire.
The second highest total and most uniform rainfall occurs
at Kisangani (and at Yangambi) in the tropical rain forest
area. The lowest total .1ltr ill and the most pronounced dry
season during May to September occur at Lubumbashi. All
regions of Zaire south of the Equator other than the central
rain forest also have a pronounced dry season during May
or June to September. At Bambesa, north of the Equator,
the seasons are reversed, with the drier season occurring
from December to February.
Mean annual temperatures are rather uniformly about
25 C in central and western Zaire, but lower in southern
Zaire. Light frosts occur in July and August at Lubumbashi.
Daily temperature variations average about I IC near the
Equator and up to 21 C in southern Zaire. Temperatures in
eastern Zaire are more temperate at the higher elevations.
High temperatures and humidity in the central rain forest
basin, together with malaria and other diseases, have caused
this area to be sparsely populated.
The central Zaire River basin is largely covered by
tropical rain forest vegetation. Extensive savanna areas






CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC


CABINDA-



A TLANTIC
OCEA N


Figure 1. Republic of Zaire


Table 1. Average monthly and total rainfall and mean temperatures at selected locations in Zaire
Kinshasa Kikwit Bambesa Kisangani Kindu Gandadjika Lubumbashi Dilolo
Month (west) (west) (north) (N. central) (E. central) (S. central) (south) (SW.
rainfall, mm
January 130 158 28 90 178 162 248 14
February 146 110 77 98 163 164 271 206
March 193 211 186 151 188 233 200 252
April 210 213 201 146 156 155 52 126
May 232 105 242 188 115 43 1 8
June 6 8 173 127 31 20 0 1
July 1 10 220 150 31 10 0 1
August 4 44 239 159 64 40 0 9
September 34 159 238 179 II 112 24
October 141 195 244 244 164 146 29 1
November 237 21 165 188 195 232 1 4 17
December 160 151 48 121 185 219 254 22
Total 1,494 1,583 2,061 1,841 1,581 1,536 1,241 1,300
mean annual temperature. C
25.5 25.6 24.7 5.0 20.9 23.6









cover southern, western, and northern Zaire. Tropical tall
grasses predominate on the hills and higher plateau areas,
especially on sandy soils or on heavy, poorly drained clays.
Other areas have thin stands of rather low-growing trees.
Small forested areas in the savannas occur mainly in
valleys.


SOILS

Basement rocks from which most soils in Zaire are
largely derived include granite, gneiss, and schist. Over
several geologic eras, these basement rocks have been
reworked and various types of sediments have resulted.


,f e>-
r ii ~ ... ..

,". ,
<* 1 >.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... 'i i .. 's


- N.






*YLi ~ I I II


-. ~ ,.-Y- II l

lii i I~ urn

0 BC7; I I ImI


L EQUATORIAL RAIN FOREST


L ~ GUINEA SAVANNA

!! LOW TREE SAVANNA

So1MOUNTAIN SAVANNA


Figure 2. The chief rivers and natural vegetation in Zaire


Y
~~,,,,,~
ulluii.
IIYYIL
Y V








Where the basement rocks or sedimentary rocks outcrop or
occur near the surface, the soils are very young (Inceptisols,
according to the U.S. system of classification). Only on old
stable land surfaces do Oxisols (Latosols) occur, the most
heavily leached soils of the tropics. Such an area of soils,
which are probably Oxisols, occurs around Lubumbashi. No
other such area was observed in Zaire; Oxisols may make up
less than 10' of the country.
Less heavily leached soils (I, .. I 1 tend to predominate
in most areas of Zaire. These yellowish to reddish soils
grade into dark, poorly drained clay soils (Vertisols) in local
areas, especially in Shaba Province, and into various types
of alluvial soils (Entisols, Fluvents) along the rivers. Alluvial
soils are quite extensive in the central basin.
Extensive areas of sandy soils (Psamments) occur to the
south and southwest of Kinshasa. These are intensively
leached soils developed largely from Kalhari sands. Parts of
these areas include grass-covered sand dunes.
A rather narrow band of soils derived from limestone
sediments occurs near and parallel to the Atlantic Ocean.
Extensive rock phosphate deposits occur here. Other soils
derived primarily from limestones are scattered around the
south and southwest rim of the central basin, which was
once an inland sea. Scattered soils from high-base-
containing basaltic rocks also occur. These soils are largely
LIi ..I some of which are more than 50% base-saturated.
Soils of the eastern highlands are derived largely from
volcanic materials. Because of their volcanic origin and hilly
topography, many of these soils are immature in terms of
soil profile development (Inceptisols and possibly Andepts).
Research by INEAC and later research have shown that.
except immediately after clearing and burning in shifting
cultivation, most soils are primarily deficient in N and P.
Potassium is s, -. il, in adequate supply, except in deep
sands and for oil palm. Deficiencies of K are expected to
develop for other crops with continued cultivation and with
higher yields resulting from N and P fertilization. Defi-
ciencies of Mg, B, and Zn may also occur locally after
continued cultivation.
Soil p1H varies froin about 4.5 to 6.5. The lower pH
values i II,11 occur in sandy soils and with continued use


Small plots characterize traditional agriculture.


of acidifying N fertilizers, especially AS. Need for liming is
expected to develop with increased use of fertilizers. There
are no domestic supplies of agricultural lime at present.
A general soil map of Zaire is available in terms of the
INEAC system of classification. No maps were found in
sufficient detail to be very useful in agricultural
development.


CROPPING SYSTEMS

Crop production in Zaire can be rather arbitrarily
divided into two sectors. Traditional agriculture has been
largely that of growing staple food crops (cassava, maize.
rice. plantains. peanuts, beans. and peas) undei shifting
cultivation. Soil fertility. depleted under cropping tor a few
years, is restored by allowing the land to return to forest
(Equateur. Hlaut Zaire. etc.) for about 10 to 15 years. or to
grass (Shaba) for 6 to 10 years. The land is then again
cleared. the vegetation burned, and crops planted again.
Little or no chemical fertilizers are used.
Low yields are characteristic of traditional agriculture.
and it supports a rather sparse population. Land clearing.
care of cattle, and cotton or oil palm cash crop production
is commonly done by men. but women do most of the
work for production of food crops.
Commercial, or plantation, agriculture varie- from
corporation-operated to small. poorly managed plantations.
Nearly all plantations have been Zairianized. The principal
crops are oil palm. rubber, and cacao largely for export, and
livestock, sugar, cotton. vegetables. and other crops for it-e
domestic market. Coffee and tea are also grown for ex:r't.
Most fertilizer use has been on plantations and yields of
most crops are higher than with shifting cultivation.


LAND OWNERSHIP AND TENURE

Indigenous land tenure systems in Zaire are quite
diverse, but there are certain fundamental elements in com-
mon. The two main factors that have determined ihe ch:-
acter of such land tenure systems are: ( I slillm in culti\a-
tion has been the dominant agriculture system throughout
most of Zaire. and (2) population density is low over moi
of the country. The first means that a tarmer cultivated a
plot of land only temporarily and changed plots at rather
regular intervals. The second resulted in the farmer having
little interest in retaining permanent rights to any given
piece of land. More was always available for clearing.
As a result. large tracts of land are held by tribal
groupings. Land held by the group has fixed boundaries.
but these are not always clearly delineated.
Within the tract of the tribal group. there are cultivation
rights, gathering rights. and hunting rights. All members ot








Where the basement rocks or sedimentary rocks outcrop or
occur near the surface, the soils are very young (Inceptisols,
according to the U.S. system of classification). Only on old
stable land surfaces do Oxisols (Latosols) occur, the most
heavily leached soils of the tropics. Such an area of soils,
which are probably Oxisols, occurs around Lubumbashi. No
other such area was observed in Zaire; Oxisols may make up
less than 10' of the country.
Less heavily leached soils (I, .. I 1 tend to predominate
in most areas of Zaire. These yellowish to reddish soils
grade into dark, poorly drained clay soils (Vertisols) in local
areas, especially in Shaba Province, and into various types
of alluvial soils (Entisols, Fluvents) along the rivers. Alluvial
soils are quite extensive in the central basin.
Extensive areas of sandy soils (Psamments) occur to the
south and southwest of Kinshasa. These are intensively
leached soils developed largely from Kalhari sands. Parts of
these areas include grass-covered sand dunes.
A rather narrow band of soils derived from limestone
sediments occurs near and parallel to the Atlantic Ocean.
Extensive rock phosphate deposits occur here. Other soils
derived primarily from limestones are scattered around the
south and southwest rim of the central basin, which was
once an inland sea. Scattered soils from high-base-
containing basaltic rocks also occur. These soils are largely
LIi ..I some of which are more than 50% base-saturated.
Soils of the eastern highlands are derived largely from
volcanic materials. Because of their volcanic origin and hilly
topography, many of these soils are immature in terms of
soil profile development (Inceptisols and possibly Andepts).
Research by INEAC and later research have shown that.
except immediately after clearing and burning in shifting
cultivation, most soils are primarily deficient in N and P.
Potassium is s, -. il, in adequate supply, except in deep
sands and for oil palm. Deficiencies of K are expected to
develop for other crops with continued cultivation and with
higher yields resulting from N and P fertilization. Defi-
ciencies of Mg, B, and Zn may also occur locally after
continued cultivation.
Soil p1H varies froin about 4.5 to 6.5. The lower pH
values i II,11 occur in sandy soils and with continued use


Small plots characterize traditional agriculture.


of acidifying N fertilizers, especially AS. Need for liming is
expected to develop with increased use of fertilizers. There
are no domestic supplies of agricultural lime at present.
A general soil map of Zaire is available in terms of the
INEAC system of classification. No maps were found in
sufficient detail to be very useful in agricultural
development.


CROPPING SYSTEMS

Crop production in Zaire can be rather arbitrarily
divided into two sectors. Traditional agriculture has been
largely that of growing staple food crops (cassava, maize.
rice. plantains. peanuts, beans. and peas) undei shifting
cultivation. Soil fertility. depleted under cropping tor a few
years, is restored by allowing the land to return to forest
(Equateur. Hlaut Zaire. etc.) for about 10 to 15 years. or to
grass (Shaba) for 6 to 10 years. The land is then again
cleared. the vegetation burned, and crops planted again.
Little or no chemical fertilizers are used.
Low yields are characteristic of traditional agriculture.
and it supports a rather sparse population. Land clearing.
care of cattle, and cotton or oil palm cash crop production
is commonly done by men. but women do most of the
work for production of food crops.
Commercial, or plantation, agriculture varie- from
corporation-operated to small. poorly managed plantations.
Nearly all plantations have been Zairianized. The principal
crops are oil palm. rubber, and cacao largely for export, and
livestock, sugar, cotton. vegetables. and other crops for it-e
domestic market. Coffee and tea are also grown for ex:r't.
Most fertilizer use has been on plantations and yields of
most crops are higher than with shifting cultivation.


LAND OWNERSHIP AND TENURE

Indigenous land tenure systems in Zaire are quite
diverse, but there are certain fundamental elements in com-
mon. The two main factors that have determined ihe ch:-
acter of such land tenure systems are: ( I slillm in culti\a-
tion has been the dominant agriculture system throughout
most of Zaire. and (2) population density is low over moi
of the country. The first means that a tarmer cultivated a
plot of land only temporarily and changed plots at rather
regular intervals. The second resulted in the farmer having
little interest in retaining permanent rights to any given
piece of land. More was always available for clearing.
As a result. large tracts of land are held by tribal
groupings. Land held by the group has fixed boundaries.
but these are not always clearly delineated.
Within the tract of the tribal group. there are cultivation
rights, gathering rights. and hunting rights. All members ot








the group hold hunting and gathering rights in uncultivated
areas of the group's land, but a plot under cultivation
belongs to a farmer or his immediate family. Each farmer
gains rights to a plot by putting it under cultivation and
maintains these rights until he abandons it for another.
Strangers can gain rights to land held by lineages by
cultivating and residing on it. They either attach themselves
to relatives, or become clients of lineage members. Most
systems distinguish between inherited rights, which come
down through the lineage, and stranger rights, which cannot
be passed on.
Land holding groups often cede territory to immigrant
groups, or land is divided when lineages split. Thus, land is
transferred from one tribal group to another, but it is not
sold.
Soon after founding of the Congo Government in 1885,
the colonial authorities declared all vacant land, that not
under cultivation, as the property of the State. This was
followed by a long period of rubber and oil palm
exploitation.
In the 1930's the colonial authorities initiated the
paysannat system, in which a farmer was assigned to a long
strip of land which was divided into about 20 plots, each of
which was cultivated, in turn, in a designated shifting
cultivation'rotation. Each farmer maintained a claim on his
strip by keeping parts of it under cultivation at all times.
Average cultivated plot size varies from about 0.6 ha in
forested areas to 1-2 ha in savanna areas. This I. i,, was
only partially successful and was largely abandoned after
independence in 1960.
Paysannats have been partially reinstated beginning in
1968 with one of the more notable areas with the help of
FED in the Kasai area. If used in a modern context of land
in shorter rotations, which involve cultivation of most of
the land, this system should provide some incentives to a
farmer for improving his land with fertilizers, legumes, and
crop residues. Rotation farming then can largely replace
shifting cultivation as population density increases.
This land tenure system does not appear to present
obstacles to the adoption of fertilizer, since individual
farmers have relatively clear access to future use of the land
as long as they cultivate it. The substitution of fertilizer for
shifting cultivation will certainly not take place at a
reasonable rate of progress without concentrated education
and demonstration programs.
Changes in the organization of agriculture and
regrouping of farmers around newly built roads are now
being planned. These may greatly affect educational
programs and agricultural production.
GOZ hopes to accomplish this through a proposed
cooperative type of farming-a major departure from the
present system of agriculture. Considering the relative
freedom that the agricultural producers have enjoyed since
independence, it may take considerable supervision and


regimentation to change the present system to a highly
organized one. Regardless of the methods employed,
however, it seems important and timely that some major
emphasis on organization of agriculture is being considered.


PRESENT AGRICULTURAL
POLICY AND OUTLOOK

GOZ policy is now placing high priority on agricultural
development, but production of both export cops and
domestic food crops has stalled at a level far below its
potential. In many areas, commercial food production is
not feasible because there are no farm-to-market roads.
Most foreign-owned farms and plantations have been
Zairianized. Agricultural production has dropped since this
occurred, but other factors, such as adverse cost/price
relationships, have also contributed to this decline. The
traditional sector of Zairois agriculture has continued much
as it has in the past.
A national office for textile fibers (ONAFITEX) was
created in 1971. Since then, nine more have been created as
follows to promote production and marketing of crops:
ONC, coffee (cacao and tea); ONACER, grains; ONO, oil
seeds: ONDE, livestock: ONCN, rubber: ONDS, sugar: ONP,
fisheries; and ONB, timber. Each office was initially given a
marketing monopoly for its commodity. However, as their
resources and marketing expertise are limited, they may be
required to continue to share the marketing function with
private traders and proposed rural cooperatives.
Present agricultural policy is in a state of major change
and the outlook for the next few years is unclear. This is
best illustrated by the key points made in a major policy
speech on January 4, 1975, by President Mobutu. The
salient points regarding agricultural policy were:
1. Reinforce measures to increase food production and
eliminate shortages of such basic foodstuffs as maize.
rice, cassava, sugar, meat, and fish.
2. Create production and marketing cooperatives for
farm products.
3. Improve farm-to-market transportation systems.
4. Establish large vegetable and staple food production
centers around the major cities.
5. Establish a fertilizer industry and improve
agricultural research centers for major food crops.
6. Establish a price support system to assure stable
prices to the farmer.
7. Establish an agricultural development fund and create
a farm bank to serve the small farmer.
8. Eliminate import duties on agricultural inputs
considered essential to the well-being of Zaire.
9. Restructure village and rural sectors into agricultural
cooperatives.
Item 9 may be the most significant of the points dis-
cussed regarding agriculture. It is visualized that there will








be an eventual development of agricultural cooperatives,
each including a number of villages under the supervision of
a political officer assisted by an agricultural officer.
As another part of President Mobutu's decree of January
1975, an export tax of 2K/kg will be imposed on the
exports of all agricultural produce and placed in a fund for


agricultural development administered by the Department
of Agriculture. The most important factors contributing to
the success of the plan will be the allocation of sufficient
funds, immediate improvement of the present
transportation systems, and the planned reorganization of
agriculture.


Potential Fertilizer Resources


Because of relatively modest demands for fertilizer
materials, Zaire has not developed or exploited its potential
fertilizer resources. Estimated quantities of some of these
resources are shown in table 2. Their location is shown in
figure 3. A discussion of these resources and their potential
application follows. Several hydroelectric projects smaller
than Inga are not shown.

ORGANIC MATERIAL

An estimated 300,000 metric tons of guano is located in
caves in Mont Hoyo in Haut Zaire. This material contains


OIL
EXPLORATION


Figure 3. Location of potential fertilizer resources


about 3% N, 20% P2 05, 2% K20, and 2% to 5% S. CaO.
and MgO. The combined N, P2 05. and K20 nutrient value
is in the order of 75,000 metric tons. Assuming an average
value of Z200/metric ton of nutrient, these deposits
could be worth about Z15,000.000. Proposals have been
made for the development of these deposits. but to date.
they have not been exploited. This low nutrient value
material should be consumed in a relatively close-by
market area (tea and coffee for example) to keep the
cost per unit of nutrient as low as possible. An alter-
nate approach would be to enrich the material with
chemical nutrient additives. This would significantly
increase the potential market area.


PHOSPHATE AND POTASH

A survey made by UNDP from 1969 to 1971 identified
large deposits of phosphate in the Bas Zaire coastal plain
region. These deposits extend in a band (up to 50 km wide
and 100 km long) from Cabinda. generally southeast, to the
Zaire River. The deposits are located from 6 to I2 m below
the surface and contain from 14% to 33% P20s. An esti-
mated 13,500,000 metric tons contains an average of 19.4%
P2,O (2,619,000 metric tons P205). and another
70,000,000 metric tons contains an average of 14% P Os
(9,800,000 metric tons P205).
The Cabinda deposits contain about 28% to 33" P2Os.
Studies are being made by Companhia de Fosfatos de Angola
(COFAN) pertaining to the use ofCabinda phosphate for pro-
duction of phosphoric acid at the Caala Fertilizer Complex
near Nova Lisboa, Angola.
Potassium salts (potash) are thought to occur in the Bas
Zaire region at a depth of several hundred meters. This is
likely since from 500,000 to 1.500.000 metric tons year of








be an eventual development of agricultural cooperatives,
each including a number of villages under the supervision of
a political officer assisted by an agricultural officer.
As another part of President Mobutu's decree of January
1975, an export tax of 2K/kg will be imposed on the
exports of all agricultural produce and placed in a fund for


agricultural development administered by the Department
of Agriculture. The most important factors contributing to
the success of the plan will be the allocation of sufficient
funds, immediate improvement of the present
transportation systems, and the planned reorganization of
agriculture.


Potential Fertilizer Resources


Because of relatively modest demands for fertilizer
materials, Zaire has not developed or exploited its potential
fertilizer resources. Estimated quantities of some of these
resources are shown in table 2. Their location is shown in
figure 3. A discussion of these resources and their potential
application follows. Several hydroelectric projects smaller
than Inga are not shown.

ORGANIC MATERIAL

An estimated 300,000 metric tons of guano is located in
caves in Mont Hoyo in Haut Zaire. This material contains


OIL
EXPLORATION


Figure 3. Location of potential fertilizer resources


about 3% N, 20% P2 05, 2% K20, and 2% to 5% S. CaO.
and MgO. The combined N, P2 05. and K20 nutrient value
is in the order of 75,000 metric tons. Assuming an average
value of Z200/metric ton of nutrient, these deposits
could be worth about Z15,000.000. Proposals have been
made for the development of these deposits. but to date.
they have not been exploited. This low nutrient value
material should be consumed in a relatively close-by
market area (tea and coffee for example) to keep the
cost per unit of nutrient as low as possible. An alter-
nate approach would be to enrich the material with
chemical nutrient additives. This would significantly
increase the potential market area.


PHOSPHATE AND POTASH

A survey made by UNDP from 1969 to 1971 identified
large deposits of phosphate in the Bas Zaire coastal plain
region. These deposits extend in a band (up to 50 km wide
and 100 km long) from Cabinda. generally southeast, to the
Zaire River. The deposits are located from 6 to I2 m below
the surface and contain from 14% to 33% P20s. An esti-
mated 13,500,000 metric tons contains an average of 19.4%
P2,O (2,619,000 metric tons P205). and another
70,000,000 metric tons contains an average of 14% P Os
(9,800,000 metric tons P205).
The Cabinda deposits contain about 28% to 33" P2Os.
Studies are being made by Companhia de Fosfatos de Angola
(COFAN) pertaining to the use ofCabinda phosphate for pro-
duction of phosphoric acid at the Caala Fertilizer Complex
near Nova Lisboa, Angola.
Potassium salts (potash) are thought to occur in the Bas
Zaire region at a depth of several hundred meters. This is
likely since from 500,000 to 1.500.000 metric tons year of








be an eventual development of agricultural cooperatives,
each including a number of villages under the supervision of
a political officer assisted by an agricultural officer.
As another part of President Mobutu's decree of January
1975, an export tax of 2K/kg will be imposed on the
exports of all agricultural produce and placed in a fund for


agricultural development administered by the Department
of Agriculture. The most important factors contributing to
the success of the plan will be the allocation of sufficient
funds, immediate improvement of the present
transportation systems, and the planned reorganization of
agriculture.


Potential Fertilizer Resources


Because of relatively modest demands for fertilizer
materials, Zaire has not developed or exploited its potential
fertilizer resources. Estimated quantities of some of these
resources are shown in table 2. Their location is shown in
figure 3. A discussion of these resources and their potential
application follows. Several hydroelectric projects smaller
than Inga are not shown.

ORGANIC MATERIAL

An estimated 300,000 metric tons of guano is located in
caves in Mont Hoyo in Haut Zaire. This material contains


OIL
EXPLORATION


Figure 3. Location of potential fertilizer resources


about 3% N, 20% P2 05, 2% K20, and 2% to 5% S. CaO.
and MgO. The combined N, P2 05. and K20 nutrient value
is in the order of 75,000 metric tons. Assuming an average
value of Z200/metric ton of nutrient, these deposits
could be worth about Z15,000.000. Proposals have been
made for the development of these deposits. but to date.
they have not been exploited. This low nutrient value
material should be consumed in a relatively close-by
market area (tea and coffee for example) to keep the
cost per unit of nutrient as low as possible. An alter-
nate approach would be to enrich the material with
chemical nutrient additives. This would significantly
increase the potential market area.


PHOSPHATE AND POTASH

A survey made by UNDP from 1969 to 1971 identified
large deposits of phosphate in the Bas Zaire coastal plain
region. These deposits extend in a band (up to 50 km wide
and 100 km long) from Cabinda. generally southeast, to the
Zaire River. The deposits are located from 6 to I2 m below
the surface and contain from 14% to 33% P20s. An esti-
mated 13,500,000 metric tons contains an average of 19.4%
P2,O (2,619,000 metric tons P205). and another
70,000,000 metric tons contains an average of 14% P Os
(9,800,000 metric tons P205).
The Cabinda deposits contain about 28% to 33" P2Os.
Studies are being made by Companhia de Fosfatos de Angola
(COFAN) pertaining to the use ofCabinda phosphate for pro-
duction of phosphoric acid at the Caala Fertilizer Complex
near Nova Lisboa, Angola.
Potassium salts (potash) are thought to occur in the Bas
Zaire region at a depth of several hundred meters. This is
likely since from 500,000 to 1.500.000 metric tons year of









potassium chloride is currently being produced nearby from
a deep mine in the Republic of the Congo.


SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID

Zaire produces about 6% of the world's copper. Some of
the copper exists as sulfides in the Shaba region. Major
quantities of oxides and carbonates are also present. About
150,000 metric tons of sulfuric acid is produced annually
from the sulfide ores. This acid is used to process the
copper oxide and carbonate ores. In the sulfuric acid
processing of the oxide and carbonate ores, a portion of the
acid is converted into a sludge which is discarded. About
500 metric tons of sulfuric acid per day is consumed.
Long-term projections by the copper industry representa-
tives indicate no significant change in the sulfuric acid
supply situation. Consequently, a supply of virgin or
byproduct sulfuric acid from the copper industry for
fertilizer production (digestion of phosphate rock or
production of AS) should not be anticipated.


PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS, AND COAL

Ammonia is the basic source of N in most fertilizer
materials. It is approximately 17% hydrogen by weight.
Hydrogen is usually obtained from various petroleum
products or natural gas. It can also be obtained by reacting
steam with coal (coke), or by electrolysis of water. A
summary of the current state of development of these
resources follows.
Prospect drilling for petroleum is being done in the
central basin and off the coast of Bas Zaire. The Bas Zaire
deposit is expected to produce enough crude oil to satisfy
domestic consumption by 1976. At present, about 750,000
metric tons of crude oil is imported annually. It is refined
by SOZIR near the Port of Banana in Bas Zaire. There are
methane gas sources in the Lake Kivu area. The feasibility
of exploiting this gas is yet to be determined.


There are two active coal mines in the Shaba region.
Output from these mines is committed to a cement plant
and to the Gecamines copper smelters. In addition to this
local supply of coal, Gecamines imports about 150,000
metric tons/year from South Africa.


ELECTRICITY

Hydroelectric power is undoubtedly Zaire's most
abundant and developed potential fertilizer resource. The
Inga I hydroelectric plant (now in use) in Bas Zaire has a
capacity of 350 MW. The Inga II addition (scheduled for
completion in 1976) will add another 1,270 MW of
capacity. The proposed Inga 111 plant could bring the total
output of the three units to about 4,000 MW.
Enough hydrogen could be produced by electrolysis of
water to produce about 600 metric tons of ammonia/year/
MW of capacity. On this basis, the maximum projected N
requirements for Zaire's food and fiber production by 1985
could be produced by using only about 80 MW of energy,
or only slightly more than 5% of the combined capacity of
Inga I and Inga II. Techniques for producing hydrogen
feedstock for manufacturing ammonia by decomposition
(electrolysis) of water have not been fully developed. In
1974 only about 1% to 2% of the world's fertilizer
ammonia (49.6 million metric tons) was produced with
electrolytic hydrogen.
The prospect of relatively low-cost electrical energy
from nuclear power plants in the 1960's precipitated the
concept of nuclear-powered agro-industrial complexes (23).
Studies pertaining to the development of this concept
identified the lack of efficient electrolytic cells as the major
drawback of the concept of producing ammonia from
electrolytic hydrogen. Present electrolytic cells are charac-
terized by relatively low electrode current densities, about
323 amps/1,000 cm2. Higher densities in these cells
increase power consumption drastically because of
resistance caused by gassing. Recent technical advances in
construction and operation of electrolytic cells indicate


Table 2. Estimated quantities of potential fertilizer resources
Quantity
Resource Developed Potential
Organic material (guano) None 300,000 metric tons
Phosphate None 12,500.000 to 25,000,000 metric tons P2 Os
Potash None Indicated but quantity unknown
Sulfur or sulfuric acid 150,000 metric tons H2 SO4 /yr from Unknown, but probably limited to sulfide ores
metal sulfide ores
Petroleum None Indicated but quantity unknown
Natural gas None Unknown
Coal 460,000 metric tons/yr mining 1,900,000 metric tons containing about 45% carbon
capacity
Hydroelectric power 1,620 MW 30.000-40,000 MW









potassium chloride is currently being produced nearby from
a deep mine in the Republic of the Congo.


SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID

Zaire produces about 6% of the world's copper. Some of
the copper exists as sulfides in the Shaba region. Major
quantities of oxides and carbonates are also present. About
150,000 metric tons of sulfuric acid is produced annually
from the sulfide ores. This acid is used to process the
copper oxide and carbonate ores. In the sulfuric acid
processing of the oxide and carbonate ores, a portion of the
acid is converted into a sludge which is discarded. About
500 metric tons of sulfuric acid per day is consumed.
Long-term projections by the copper industry representa-
tives indicate no significant change in the sulfuric acid
supply situation. Consequently, a supply of virgin or
byproduct sulfuric acid from the copper industry for
fertilizer production (digestion of phosphate rock or
production of AS) should not be anticipated.


PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS, AND COAL

Ammonia is the basic source of N in most fertilizer
materials. It is approximately 17% hydrogen by weight.
Hydrogen is usually obtained from various petroleum
products or natural gas. It can also be obtained by reacting
steam with coal (coke), or by electrolysis of water. A
summary of the current state of development of these
resources follows.
Prospect drilling for petroleum is being done in the
central basin and off the coast of Bas Zaire. The Bas Zaire
deposit is expected to produce enough crude oil to satisfy
domestic consumption by 1976. At present, about 750,000
metric tons of crude oil is imported annually. It is refined
by SOZIR near the Port of Banana in Bas Zaire. There are
methane gas sources in the Lake Kivu area. The feasibility
of exploiting this gas is yet to be determined.


There are two active coal mines in the Shaba region.
Output from these mines is committed to a cement plant
and to the Gecamines copper smelters. In addition to this
local supply of coal, Gecamines imports about 150,000
metric tons/year from South Africa.


ELECTRICITY

Hydroelectric power is undoubtedly Zaire's most
abundant and developed potential fertilizer resource. The
Inga I hydroelectric plant (now in use) in Bas Zaire has a
capacity of 350 MW. The Inga II addition (scheduled for
completion in 1976) will add another 1,270 MW of
capacity. The proposed Inga 111 plant could bring the total
output of the three units to about 4,000 MW.
Enough hydrogen could be produced by electrolysis of
water to produce about 600 metric tons of ammonia/year/
MW of capacity. On this basis, the maximum projected N
requirements for Zaire's food and fiber production by 1985
could be produced by using only about 80 MW of energy,
or only slightly more than 5% of the combined capacity of
Inga I and Inga II. Techniques for producing hydrogen
feedstock for manufacturing ammonia by decomposition
(electrolysis) of water have not been fully developed. In
1974 only about 1% to 2% of the world's fertilizer
ammonia (49.6 million metric tons) was produced with
electrolytic hydrogen.
The prospect of relatively low-cost electrical energy
from nuclear power plants in the 1960's precipitated the
concept of nuclear-powered agro-industrial complexes (23).
Studies pertaining to the development of this concept
identified the lack of efficient electrolytic cells as the major
drawback of the concept of producing ammonia from
electrolytic hydrogen. Present electrolytic cells are charac-
terized by relatively low electrode current densities, about
323 amps/1,000 cm2. Higher densities in these cells
increase power consumption drastically because of
resistance caused by gassing. Recent technical advances in
construction and operation of electrolytic cells indicate


Table 2. Estimated quantities of potential fertilizer resources
Quantity
Resource Developed Potential
Organic material (guano) None 300,000 metric tons
Phosphate None 12,500.000 to 25,000,000 metric tons P2 Os
Potash None Indicated but quantity unknown
Sulfur or sulfuric acid 150,000 metric tons H2 SO4 /yr from Unknown, but probably limited to sulfide ores
metal sulfide ores
Petroleum None Indicated but quantity unknown
Natural gas None Unknown
Coal 460,000 metric tons/yr mining 1,900,000 metric tons containing about 45% carbon
capacity
Hydroelectric power 1,620 MW 30.000-40,000 MW









potassium chloride is currently being produced nearby from
a deep mine in the Republic of the Congo.


SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID

Zaire produces about 6% of the world's copper. Some of
the copper exists as sulfides in the Shaba region. Major
quantities of oxides and carbonates are also present. About
150,000 metric tons of sulfuric acid is produced annually
from the sulfide ores. This acid is used to process the
copper oxide and carbonate ores. In the sulfuric acid
processing of the oxide and carbonate ores, a portion of the
acid is converted into a sludge which is discarded. About
500 metric tons of sulfuric acid per day is consumed.
Long-term projections by the copper industry representa-
tives indicate no significant change in the sulfuric acid
supply situation. Consequently, a supply of virgin or
byproduct sulfuric acid from the copper industry for
fertilizer production (digestion of phosphate rock or
production of AS) should not be anticipated.


PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS, AND COAL

Ammonia is the basic source of N in most fertilizer
materials. It is approximately 17% hydrogen by weight.
Hydrogen is usually obtained from various petroleum
products or natural gas. It can also be obtained by reacting
steam with coal (coke), or by electrolysis of water. A
summary of the current state of development of these
resources follows.
Prospect drilling for petroleum is being done in the
central basin and off the coast of Bas Zaire. The Bas Zaire
deposit is expected to produce enough crude oil to satisfy
domestic consumption by 1976. At present, about 750,000
metric tons of crude oil is imported annually. It is refined
by SOZIR near the Port of Banana in Bas Zaire. There are
methane gas sources in the Lake Kivu area. The feasibility
of exploiting this gas is yet to be determined.


There are two active coal mines in the Shaba region.
Output from these mines is committed to a cement plant
and to the Gecamines copper smelters. In addition to this
local supply of coal, Gecamines imports about 150,000
metric tons/year from South Africa.


ELECTRICITY

Hydroelectric power is undoubtedly Zaire's most
abundant and developed potential fertilizer resource. The
Inga I hydroelectric plant (now in use) in Bas Zaire has a
capacity of 350 MW. The Inga II addition (scheduled for
completion in 1976) will add another 1,270 MW of
capacity. The proposed Inga 111 plant could bring the total
output of the three units to about 4,000 MW.
Enough hydrogen could be produced by electrolysis of
water to produce about 600 metric tons of ammonia/year/
MW of capacity. On this basis, the maximum projected N
requirements for Zaire's food and fiber production by 1985
could be produced by using only about 80 MW of energy,
or only slightly more than 5% of the combined capacity of
Inga I and Inga II. Techniques for producing hydrogen
feedstock for manufacturing ammonia by decomposition
(electrolysis) of water have not been fully developed. In
1974 only about 1% to 2% of the world's fertilizer
ammonia (49.6 million metric tons) was produced with
electrolytic hydrogen.
The prospect of relatively low-cost electrical energy
from nuclear power plants in the 1960's precipitated the
concept of nuclear-powered agro-industrial complexes (23).
Studies pertaining to the development of this concept
identified the lack of efficient electrolytic cells as the major
drawback of the concept of producing ammonia from
electrolytic hydrogen. Present electrolytic cells are charac-
terized by relatively low electrode current densities, about
323 amps/1,000 cm2. Higher densities in these cells
increase power consumption drastically because of
resistance caused by gassing. Recent technical advances in
construction and operation of electrolytic cells indicate


Table 2. Estimated quantities of potential fertilizer resources
Quantity
Resource Developed Potential
Organic material (guano) None 300,000 metric tons
Phosphate None 12,500.000 to 25,000,000 metric tons P2 Os
Potash None Indicated but quantity unknown
Sulfur or sulfuric acid 150,000 metric tons H2 SO4 /yr from Unknown, but probably limited to sulfide ores
metal sulfide ores
Petroleum None Indicated but quantity unknown
Natural gas None Unknown
Coal 460,000 metric tons/yr mining 1,900,000 metric tons containing about 45% carbon
capacity
Hydroelectric power 1,620 MW 30.000-40,000 MW








that good electrical consumption efficiency can be obtained
at very high electrode densities (1,700-7.500 amps/1,000
cm2 ).
The obvious benefits of such high-density cells are lower
capital cost and reduced space requirements, both of which
tend to reduce the cost per unit of hydrogen produced. The
abundant electrical energy resources of Zaire should pro-
vide sufficient motivation for continued development and
perfection of the electrolytic hydrogen approach to
ammonia production.
In another application, electrical energy could be used to
produce elemental P by use of the electric-furnace reduc-
tion process (28). This process is well developed and has


been used for years throughout the world where low-cost
electrical energy is available. The elemental P can be
converted to phosphoric acid which, in turn, can be
combined with ammonia to produce ammonium phosphate
fertilizers. Today, less than 5%' of the world's fertilizer
P20s production (25,200.000 metric tons) is derived from
elemental P. The high cost of electrical power in the U.S.
makes it uneconomical to produce high-purity elemental P
for fertilizer use. Consequently, most of the elemental P is
used for chemical processing other than fertilizer, and lower
purity (and cost) sources of P20,. such as wet-process
phosphoric acid and normal and triple superphosphate, are
used for fertilizer.


Ports, Transportation, and Distribution System


The principal modes of transportation in Zaire are
waterways and railroads: trucks are used to a lesser extent.
Major transportation routes are shown in figure 4. Except
for a small number of privately operated trucks, the
transportation system including equipment is owned and
operated by the GOZ. The principal GOZ transportation
agencies are (1) ONATRA (ports and rail-barge system),
and (2) SNCZ (railroads within Zaire and barges on Lake
Tanganyika). An association of the GOZ transportation
agencies (ASCOTRAN) assists the GOZ in formulating
national transportation policies.
Zaire is landlocked except for a finger of land (Bas
Zaire) extending westward to the Atlantic Ocean. The Ports
of Banana, Boma, and Matadi are located here, at or near
the mouth of the Zaire River. A major portion of Zaire's
imports and exports passes through these three ports. The
location of the ports and associated transportation network
for the Bas Zaire region are shown in figure 5. Alternate
transportation routes to and from Zaire are shown in figure
6. The distribution of imports and exports via the various
routes is shown in figure 7 and table 3.


DESCRIPTION OF PORTS

Banana

This port is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth
of the Zaire River. It is designed for offshore tanker


unloading of crude oil into barges for transfer to a nearby
refinery operated by SOZIR. Plans are being made to


0 200 400
KILOMETERS
0 100 200 300
MILES

Figure 4. Major transportation routes in Zaire








that good electrical consumption efficiency can be obtained
at very high electrode densities (1,700-7.500 amps/1,000
cm2 ).
The obvious benefits of such high-density cells are lower
capital cost and reduced space requirements, both of which
tend to reduce the cost per unit of hydrogen produced. The
abundant electrical energy resources of Zaire should pro-
vide sufficient motivation for continued development and
perfection of the electrolytic hydrogen approach to
ammonia production.
In another application, electrical energy could be used to
produce elemental P by use of the electric-furnace reduc-
tion process (28). This process is well developed and has


been used for years throughout the world where low-cost
electrical energy is available. The elemental P can be
converted to phosphoric acid which, in turn, can be
combined with ammonia to produce ammonium phosphate
fertilizers. Today, less than 5%' of the world's fertilizer
P20s production (25,200.000 metric tons) is derived from
elemental P. The high cost of electrical power in the U.S.
makes it uneconomical to produce high-purity elemental P
for fertilizer use. Consequently, most of the elemental P is
used for chemical processing other than fertilizer, and lower
purity (and cost) sources of P20,. such as wet-process
phosphoric acid and normal and triple superphosphate, are
used for fertilizer.


Ports, Transportation, and Distribution System


The principal modes of transportation in Zaire are
waterways and railroads: trucks are used to a lesser extent.
Major transportation routes are shown in figure 4. Except
for a small number of privately operated trucks, the
transportation system including equipment is owned and
operated by the GOZ. The principal GOZ transportation
agencies are (1) ONATRA (ports and rail-barge system),
and (2) SNCZ (railroads within Zaire and barges on Lake
Tanganyika). An association of the GOZ transportation
agencies (ASCOTRAN) assists the GOZ in formulating
national transportation policies.
Zaire is landlocked except for a finger of land (Bas
Zaire) extending westward to the Atlantic Ocean. The Ports
of Banana, Boma, and Matadi are located here, at or near
the mouth of the Zaire River. A major portion of Zaire's
imports and exports passes through these three ports. The
location of the ports and associated transportation network
for the Bas Zaire region are shown in figure 5. Alternate
transportation routes to and from Zaire are shown in figure
6. The distribution of imports and exports via the various
routes is shown in figure 7 and table 3.


DESCRIPTION OF PORTS

Banana

This port is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth
of the Zaire River. It is designed for offshore tanker


unloading of crude oil into barges for transfer to a nearby
refinery operated by SOZIR. Plans are being made to


0 200 400
KILOMETERS
0 100 200 300
MILES

Figure 4. Major transportation routes in Zaire


















"-. -'.._,,.; ;.-. --_,,,-;- -

^ .,"... ,"1H?-P'- *. _ _
,-~;:11I5CP .


Matadi is the major ocean port. It is located on the Zaire River.


-- NONNAVIGABLE RIVER
m NAVIGABLE RIVER
-+--- RAILROAD (GAUGE I 067 METER)
i RAILROAD(GAUGE 0600 METER)
ASPHALT SURFACED ROAD
O 20 40
KILOMETER
O 10 20 30
MILES


N
A ^fj


ATLANTIC
OCEAN


MATADI


ANGOLA


Figure 5. Ports and major transportation routes in Bas Zaire


KINSHASA



-?/


"^ .bI


.5


:i
~ ..
~L~~







construct a deep water general cargo port at Banana
complete with a rail link to Matadi. However, the Port of
Banana should not be considered here, because (1) it is not







160 200






40
LIBENGE

7 BUMBA



00 MBANDAKA


ZAIRE



ILEBO
40
40 KINSHASA



MATADI I\



ATLANTIC
OCEAN


developed to handle general cargo. (2) overland transport to
the interior is not available, and (3) the Ports of Boma and
Matadi offer better location and facilities.


UBUNDU


KINDU


ANGOLA .4.. 4--
Ar


SI LUBUI


1_ I, SAKANIA

_j





TO SOUTH AFRICA


Figure 6. Intercountry transportation routes


120 k


TO -
PORT OF
LOBITO


16 -


--- -+- -- -I- FOREIGN ROUTES









Boma

The Port of Boma is located on the right bank of the
Zaire River about 77 km from its mouth. The Boma port
can handle vessels with drafts up to 7.38 m. It has a
concrete pier 366 m long; three vessels can be berthed at
one time. The port is well equipped with several movable
single-cable cranes, forklift trucks, storage buildings, and
concrete-surfaced outside storage areas. A narrow-gage
railroad connects the port to the city of Tshela, approxi-
mately 80 km to the north. Annual traffic through the port
is in the order of 64,000 metric tons inbound and 75,000
metric tons outbound. The outbound cargo consists
primarily of logs and palm oil.


Matadi

This port is located on the left bank of the Zaire River.
It is about 138 km from the mouth of the river.
Commercial travel up the Zaire River beyond Matadi is not
possible because of shallow water and rapids. The Matadi
port is the major import-export center for Zaire. The port
can handle up to 10 vessels with drafts up to 7.38 m along
its 1,768 m of steel and concrete pier. The port is well
equipped with single-cable cranes, forklifts, and cargo
storage buildings. There is only a small amount of outside
storage area.
The port was originally designed for movement of cargo
by rail. However, the port is gradually being converted so
that it can also handle an increasing number of trucks. This
is being done by removing a portion of the railroad
switchyard and railcar storage area. This move has signifi-
cantly increased the port capacity and decreased the
turnaround time for the railroad equipment because of less
need for using railcars for cargo storage. For example,
during the last 4 years, railcar turnaround time between the
port and Kinshasa has been reduced from an average of 19


days to 2.3 days. Further improvement (throughput) in
cargo handling is expected if the planned Banana-Matadi-
Kinshasa rail link is developed. During 1973, approximately
1,104,000 metric tons of cargo was imported through
Matadi and 534,000 metric tons was exported. Copper and
other minerals accounted for about 40% (215,000 metric
tons) of the exports.
The Matadi port is located in a deep narrow valley.
There is essentially no space for further development of the
harbor or adjacent warehouse or manufacturing facilities
without excessive excavation.


METRIC TONS(OOO)
MATADI -GOZ SYSTEM
(NATIONAL ROUTE )
0 1, 000 2,000 255,00
PO /RT///////////// ///IZ IMPORTS
1076,000 MT
I // EXPORTS
LOBITO-DILOLO
ANGOLAA ROUTE)
592,000


| EXPORTS
SOUTH AFRICA-SAKANIA
589,000



DAR ES SALAAM-KALEMIE
(EASTERN ROUTE)
106,000
PORTS I COPPERCOAL AND OTHER MINERALS
163 000
I(PORTS r7// AGRICULTURAL OR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
EXPORTS 1AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE


Figure 7. Combined 1972 and 1973 import and export
cargo via major transportation routes


Table 3. Distribution of imports and exports for major ports and transportation routes
Imports Exports
1972 1973 1972 1973 Total goods, 1972-73
1,000 metric tons/year % of


Banana
Boma
Matadi
Total


0.7
75
1,151


0.7
60
1,104


Transportation route
Matadi-GOZ system (National Route) 1,151 1,104 542
Lobito-Dilolo (Angola Route) 273 319 496
South Africa-Sakania (Southern Route) 282 307 89
Dar-es-Salaam-Kalemie (Eastern Route) 55 51 82
Total 1,761 1,781 1,209
aDoes not include approximately 750,000 metric tons/year of crude oil imported by SOZIR.


0.7
74
534



534
607
52
81
1.274


total
2.8 Nila
288 8
3,331 .92
3,621.8 100


3,331
1,695
730
269
6.025












~- ~^ W R"^ Usw


Railroads are used to move cargo around nonnavigable portions of the Zaire River.


River-land transfer port in Kinshasa.


r ~r I
hr4


V


~- ~- ~-


I de


~b~Lk~' nl~jf--, ,Y


"~L~"13








ALTERNATE IMPORT-EXPORT ROUTES


Because of the long distances from the Matadi port, the
GOZ transport routes to Bukavu, Kalemie, and Lubumbashi
appear less attractive than alternate foreign routes via the
Ports of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Mombasa (Kenya),
Lobito (Angola), or from South Africa (figure 6). In reality,
the foreign routes may be less attractive than the relatively
short distances shown in figure 6 indicate because of (1)
political instability and (2) frequent changes in foreign
government policy that could drastically affect port
unloading time, freight rates, availability of equipment,
and/or intercountry shipping privileges. Another disad-
vantage of using the foreign routes is that it places a drain
on GOZ foreign exchange.



GOZ INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

A combination of ..Il,..aIl, and barges is used to
transport cargo to and from the Ports of Matadi and Boma.
Railroads are used along nonnavigable portions of the Zaire
River and its tributaries, thus greatly extending the barge
system. The rail-barge (river system) is operated by
ONATRA. The system consists of 2,700 : l.... il, 710 km of
track (of which about 412 km are principal lines), and 412
barges. The barges have capacities of 30 to 1,200 metric
tons. The actual capacities of the barges are reduced about
50% during the dry season (July-September) because of low
water levels.
Transportation rates on the ONATRA system are regu-
lated by the GOZ. The rates vary according to the class of
cargo and distance. Thirteen classes have been established.
Explosives are an example of class 1 cargo: sand and
limestone are class XIII. The freight rate decreases as the
class number increases. The relationship between freight
classification and rates for cargo shipped via the GOZ
system is shown in figure 8. GOZ has recently lowered the
freight rate for fertilizer from class VI to the class XIIl rate
to encourage increased fertilizer use.
In addition to the ONATRA system, the SNCZ transpor-
tation system is also operated by the GOZ. These systems
consist primarily of interior :.iil,..d, although a small
amount of water transportation is also used. These systems
connect the ONATRA system with the east and
southeastern regions of Zaire.
Specific rates for fertilizer shipments from the Port of
Matadi to several proposed regional distribution points are
shown in table 4. The equivalent freight costs per metric
ton of nutrient derived from urea and DAP are shown in
table 5.


There are about 44,000 km of roads in Zaire. Of these.
only 4.5% (2.000 km) are hard-surfaced and suitable for
year-round truck traffic. Consequently, very few trucks
operate in the interior (east of Kinshasa). Traffic on the
remainder of the roads is subject to weather conditions.
Many of these roads may not be passable during much of
the rainy season, which extends from September to May in
most regions. Because of the relatively poor roads, four-
wheel drive vehicles (Land-Rover type) are used extensively
in rural areas. These vehicles can negotiate most roads
throughout the year.


I iU M X Y M n vni ix x =i M xii
FREIGHT,CLASS
Figure 8. Freight class effects on freight rates via ONATRA


Table 4. Fertilizer freight rates from port of
Matadi to various points via GOZ transportation system


Approximate Z/metric ton
From Matadi to distance, km Maximumna Minimumb
Kinshasa 375 14.55 7.34
Mbandaka (Equateur) 900 35.23 13.20
Ilebo (Kasai
Occidental) 1,200 41.27 14.64
Bumba (Equateur) 1,425 43.55 15.21
Kisangani (Haut
Zaire) 2.100 48.11 16.29
Kind (Kivu) 2,100 60.50 21.33
Mwene-Ditu (Kasai
Oriental) 2.025 57.80 20.12
Bukavu (Kivu) 3.350 89.50c 39.00
Kalemie (Shaba) 2.660 81.20 29.06
Lubumbashi (Shaba) 2.400 82.60 23.92
aClass VI ONATRA rates for fertilizer in effect April 1975.
bApparent new rates quoted in written correspondence dated May
28, 1975, from Directeur Commercial, ONATRA, to Directeur.
USAID/Kinshasa.
cHigh rate to Bukavu is due to 750-km haul from Kisangani by
private truck. Minimum rate (Z39) is via Kalemie.

25


ROADS AND TRUCKS








ALTERNATE IMPORT-EXPORT ROUTES


Because of the long distances from the Matadi port, the
GOZ transport routes to Bukavu, Kalemie, and Lubumbashi
appear less attractive than alternate foreign routes via the
Ports of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Mombasa (Kenya),
Lobito (Angola), or from South Africa (figure 6). In reality,
the foreign routes may be less attractive than the relatively
short distances shown in figure 6 indicate because of (1)
political instability and (2) frequent changes in foreign
government policy that could drastically affect port
unloading time, freight rates, availability of equipment,
and/or intercountry shipping privileges. Another disad-
vantage of using the foreign routes is that it places a drain
on GOZ foreign exchange.



GOZ INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

A combination of ..Il,..aIl, and barges is used to
transport cargo to and from the Ports of Matadi and Boma.
Railroads are used along nonnavigable portions of the Zaire
River and its tributaries, thus greatly extending the barge
system. The rail-barge (river system) is operated by
ONATRA. The system consists of 2,700 : l.... il, 710 km of
track (of which about 412 km are principal lines), and 412
barges. The barges have capacities of 30 to 1,200 metric
tons. The actual capacities of the barges are reduced about
50% during the dry season (July-September) because of low
water levels.
Transportation rates on the ONATRA system are regu-
lated by the GOZ. The rates vary according to the class of
cargo and distance. Thirteen classes have been established.
Explosives are an example of class 1 cargo: sand and
limestone are class XIII. The freight rate decreases as the
class number increases. The relationship between freight
classification and rates for cargo shipped via the GOZ
system is shown in figure 8. GOZ has recently lowered the
freight rate for fertilizer from class VI to the class XIIl rate
to encourage increased fertilizer use.
In addition to the ONATRA system, the SNCZ transpor-
tation system is also operated by the GOZ. These systems
consist primarily of interior :.iil,..d, although a small
amount of water transportation is also used. These systems
connect the ONATRA system with the east and
southeastern regions of Zaire.
Specific rates for fertilizer shipments from the Port of
Matadi to several proposed regional distribution points are
shown in table 4. The equivalent freight costs per metric
ton of nutrient derived from urea and DAP are shown in
table 5.


There are about 44,000 km of roads in Zaire. Of these.
only 4.5% (2.000 km) are hard-surfaced and suitable for
year-round truck traffic. Consequently, very few trucks
operate in the interior (east of Kinshasa). Traffic on the
remainder of the roads is subject to weather conditions.
Many of these roads may not be passable during much of
the rainy season, which extends from September to May in
most regions. Because of the relatively poor roads, four-
wheel drive vehicles (Land-Rover type) are used extensively
in rural areas. These vehicles can negotiate most roads
throughout the year.


I iU M X Y M n vni ix x =i M xii
FREIGHT,CLASS
Figure 8. Freight class effects on freight rates via ONATRA


Table 4. Fertilizer freight rates from port of
Matadi to various points via GOZ transportation system


Approximate Z/metric ton
From Matadi to distance, km Maximumna Minimumb
Kinshasa 375 14.55 7.34
Mbandaka (Equateur) 900 35.23 13.20
Ilebo (Kasai
Occidental) 1,200 41.27 14.64
Bumba (Equateur) 1,425 43.55 15.21
Kisangani (Haut
Zaire) 2.100 48.11 16.29
Kind (Kivu) 2,100 60.50 21.33
Mwene-Ditu (Kasai
Oriental) 2.025 57.80 20.12
Bukavu (Kivu) 3.350 89.50c 39.00
Kalemie (Shaba) 2.660 81.20 29.06
Lubumbashi (Shaba) 2.400 82.60 23.92
aClass VI ONATRA rates for fertilizer in effect April 1975.
bApparent new rates quoted in written correspondence dated May
28, 1975, from Directeur Commercial, ONATRA, to Directeur.
USAID/Kinshasa.
cHigh rate to Bukavu is due to 750-km haul from Kisangani by
private truck. Minimum rate (Z39) is via Kalemie.

25


ROADS AND TRUCKS








ALTERNATE IMPORT-EXPORT ROUTES


Because of the long distances from the Matadi port, the
GOZ transport routes to Bukavu, Kalemie, and Lubumbashi
appear less attractive than alternate foreign routes via the
Ports of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Mombasa (Kenya),
Lobito (Angola), or from South Africa (figure 6). In reality,
the foreign routes may be less attractive than the relatively
short distances shown in figure 6 indicate because of (1)
political instability and (2) frequent changes in foreign
government policy that could drastically affect port
unloading time, freight rates, availability of equipment,
and/or intercountry shipping privileges. Another disad-
vantage of using the foreign routes is that it places a drain
on GOZ foreign exchange.



GOZ INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

A combination of ..Il,..aIl, and barges is used to
transport cargo to and from the Ports of Matadi and Boma.
Railroads are used along nonnavigable portions of the Zaire
River and its tributaries, thus greatly extending the barge
system. The rail-barge (river system) is operated by
ONATRA. The system consists of 2,700 : l.... il, 710 km of
track (of which about 412 km are principal lines), and 412
barges. The barges have capacities of 30 to 1,200 metric
tons. The actual capacities of the barges are reduced about
50% during the dry season (July-September) because of low
water levels.
Transportation rates on the ONATRA system are regu-
lated by the GOZ. The rates vary according to the class of
cargo and distance. Thirteen classes have been established.
Explosives are an example of class 1 cargo: sand and
limestone are class XIII. The freight rate decreases as the
class number increases. The relationship between freight
classification and rates for cargo shipped via the GOZ
system is shown in figure 8. GOZ has recently lowered the
freight rate for fertilizer from class VI to the class XIIl rate
to encourage increased fertilizer use.
In addition to the ONATRA system, the SNCZ transpor-
tation system is also operated by the GOZ. These systems
consist primarily of interior :.iil,..d, although a small
amount of water transportation is also used. These systems
connect the ONATRA system with the east and
southeastern regions of Zaire.
Specific rates for fertilizer shipments from the Port of
Matadi to several proposed regional distribution points are
shown in table 4. The equivalent freight costs per metric
ton of nutrient derived from urea and DAP are shown in
table 5.


There are about 44,000 km of roads in Zaire. Of these.
only 4.5% (2.000 km) are hard-surfaced and suitable for
year-round truck traffic. Consequently, very few trucks
operate in the interior (east of Kinshasa). Traffic on the
remainder of the roads is subject to weather conditions.
Many of these roads may not be passable during much of
the rainy season, which extends from September to May in
most regions. Because of the relatively poor roads, four-
wheel drive vehicles (Land-Rover type) are used extensively
in rural areas. These vehicles can negotiate most roads
throughout the year.


I iU M X Y M n vni ix x =i M xii
FREIGHT,CLASS
Figure 8. Freight class effects on freight rates via ONATRA


Table 4. Fertilizer freight rates from port of
Matadi to various points via GOZ transportation system


Approximate Z/metric ton
From Matadi to distance, km Maximumna Minimumb
Kinshasa 375 14.55 7.34
Mbandaka (Equateur) 900 35.23 13.20
Ilebo (Kasai
Occidental) 1,200 41.27 14.64
Bumba (Equateur) 1,425 43.55 15.21
Kisangani (Haut
Zaire) 2.100 48.11 16.29
Kind (Kivu) 2,100 60.50 21.33
Mwene-Ditu (Kasai
Oriental) 2.025 57.80 20.12
Bukavu (Kivu) 3.350 89.50c 39.00
Kalemie (Shaba) 2.660 81.20 29.06
Lubumbashi (Shaba) 2.400 82.60 23.92
aClass VI ONATRA rates for fertilizer in effect April 1975.
bApparent new rates quoted in written correspondence dated May
28, 1975, from Directeur Commercial, ONATRA, to Directeur.
USAID/Kinshasa.
cHigh rate to Bukavu is due to 750-km haul from Kisangani by
private truck. Minimum rate (Z39) is via Kalemie.

25


ROADS AND TRUCKS








Traditionally, freight rates for trucking have been
negotiated on an individual basis, and are reported to vary
widely depending upon supply and demand. For example,
there are about 50 private trucks hauling cargo between
Matadi and Kinshasa (approximately 375 km). The going
one-way rate for this haul is Z600 regardless of the
quantity. At this rate, the freight charged by a trucker
hauling a 20-metric ton load of fertilizer would be
Z30/metric ton. Because of the apparent high freight rate
and lack of suitable trucks and roads, it is unlikely that
large amounts of fertilizer materials will be moved by truck
from the ocean port to regional distribution points.


PRESENT DISTRIBUTION AND
MARKETING SYSTEM

The transportation system throughout the large land
mass of Zaire is based upon maximum utilization of its
abundant natural waterways. Transportation via the water-
ways is supplemented by a network of railroads and roads.
The existing transportation system is adequate for the
present level of cargo movement. Plans are being formu-
lated by GOZ to increase the capacity of the system by
developing the Port of Banana and constructing a railroad
link between the Ports of Banana and Matadi. A railroad
link between Kinshasa and Ilebo is being studied. This link


would further improve the transport system's capacity to
accommodate the copper-rich (and potentially
agriculturally rich) Shaba region.
There are approximately 150 barge terminals (stops)
along the river network (11.200 km) and an undetermined
number of stops along the 4.000-km railroad network that
extends inland from the rivers. About 12 of the larger barge


Table 5. Freight rates per metric ton of
nutrient shipped via the GOZ transportation system
Z/metric ton of nutrients
Maximum Minimumn
From Matadi to Urea DAP Urea DAP
Kinshasa 32.33 22.73 16.31 11.47
Mbandaka (Equateur) 78.29 55.05 29.33 20.63
Ilebo (Kasai Occidental) 91.71 64.48 32.53 22.88
Bumba (Equateur) 96.78 68.05 33.80 23.77
Kisangani (Haut Zaire) 106.91 75.17 36.20 25.45
Kindu (Kivu) 134.44 94.53 47.40 33.33
Mwene-Ditu (Kasai Oriental) 128.44 89.75 44.71 31.44
Bukavu (Kivu) 198.89 139.84 86.67 60.94
Kalemie (Shaba) 180.44 126.88 64.58 45.41
Lubumbashi (Shaba) 183.56 129.07 53.16 37.38


aUrea contains 45% N (nutrient). DAP contains 18" N and 46'
P205 (64% nutrient).
bClass VI ONATRA rates in effect April 1975.
CApparent new rates quoted in written correspondence dated .May
28, 1975, from Directeur Commercial. ONATRA. to Directeur.
USAID/Kinshasa.


Typical primary dirt road in Shaba region.
















c.
r
LLI~L
t\"a C~y-L--
h
1
'1


Only a few roads are paved.
This one is in Bas Zaire near
the Inga Hydroelectric
Project. Only very small
trucks can travel on most
feeder roads because of
numerous light-duty
bridges (below).


. 414





I.






,:


terminals have some covered storage space. The bulk ol the
storage, transport. and sale of commodities at the village
., level is performed by merchants (traders). These traders sell
S to and purchase from the villagers and individual farmers.
They collect and consolidate produce froln the villages for
shipment via the railroad-water system to processing or
4.:/ commercial centers. The traders are very mobile because of
the large and sparsely populated nature of Zaire. Their
o operations are not centralized and they do not operate large
S warehousing ..ii. Instead, they depend upon small,
sometimes improvised, earthen brick or masonry buildings
which are numerous throughout the villages for storage.
An example of the effectiveness of the existing transpor-
Ai. '..' station and distribution system is tie movement of 80.000
to 100,000 metric tons of wheat flour/year throughout
Zaire. The wheat is received by ship at the Port of Matadi
where it is milled into flour. The flour (50-kg cloth bags) is
transported over thie water-rail system to about 10 or 12
regional distribution points (table 4). From these points,
S the traders distribute it to the consumer by truck,
; Land-Rover, wagon, boat, bicycle, and head pack. Fertilizer
could be merchandized and distributed throughout Zaire in
precisely the same manner.



Ul-











Village farmers sell their produce
in city markets like this one in Bas Zaire.


#


i
L~n:
Ih~~; .:~









Fertilizer Imports into Zaire, 1963-73,

and World Supply Outlook Through 1980


There is no fertilizer production in Zaire and no
statistics are recorded on actual consumption. Since all
fertilizer must be imported, it is assumed that consumption
is approximated by fertilizer imports. (However, it is
probable that prior to 1975 some other chemicals were
declared as fertilizers to take advantage of lower import
duties.) Fertilizer statistics are not compiled in the detail
required for accurate estimates of the real fertilizer situa-
tion in Zaire. As a result, fertilizer use data are incomplete
and often may not contain information from both food and
industrial crops sectors. Import data may thus actually
understate slightly the true fertilizer use, particularly for a
given year.
An additional complicating factor is that of reporting
use by product or groups of products rather than on a
nutrient basis. For example, 10,000 metric tons of N
products consumed as urea constitutes 4,500 metric tons of
N whereas a similar amount of AS results in less than half
that amount (2,100 metric tons) of N. Similarly, reporting
NP or NPK fertilizers in groups can be equally misleading.
For example, the nutrient contents of 10,000 metric tons
of 16-20-0, 18-46-0, 15-15-15, and 10-30-10 differ con-
siderably, and, therefore, reporting merely as phosphate
products or mixtures rather than by nutrient content can
lead to grossly misleading data. Nearly all of these
difficulties were encountered in analyzing fertilizer use data
for Zaire. Such errors are not serious in view of the current


low level of use, but GOZ should establish a more accurate
system of fertilizer statistics now which will be more
effective as fertilizer consumption and production increase.
These limitations in the data should be considered in the
following discussion of the past and present outlook for
fertilizer consumption in Zaire.



TOTAL QUANTITIES USED ARE VERY LOW

Almost all of the fertilizer imported into Zaire is
chemical fertilizer (99.5%). Only an occasional shipment of
organic fertilizer is received. Fertilizer use (tables 6 and 7)
whether expressed by product or nutrient content is very
low. Fertilizer imports remained static (2.500 metric tons
of nutrient) from 1963 through 1967. Then imports
climbed to 6,330 metric tons of nutrient in 1971 (about
7,900 metric tons of product in 1963 to 20.470 metric tons
in 1971). Imports dropped since 1971 to 11.285 metric
tons of product in 1973. Imports for 1974. while
incomplete, appear to be even lower than for 1973:
imports for 1975 may be still lower.
There are several reasons for this decline: some related
to internal GOZ policy and some due to high world market
prices of fertilizer during 1972-75.


Table 6. Imports of fertilizer materials into Zaire, 1963-74
Type of fertilizer 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973
metric tons
Nitrogen 3,110 1,699 1,251 3,407 2,255 2,874 9.069 9.599 13.644 0.055 5.136
Phosphates 326 923 299 613 331 2.574 488 1.544 1.378 1 .912 84S
Potash 2,992 1,321 752 359 1,435 3,944 3.384 2.518 2.519 2.300 2.4 4
Mixtures 1,474 3,685 3,550 1,703 2,021 1,493 2,478 4.542 2.770 1.045 ,2.-
Natural 22 56 383 159 1)9 54
Total 7,924 7,628 5,852 6,082 6,042 10,885 15,475 18,586 20,470 14,511 11,285
Source: Zaire Department of Agriculture.


Table 7. Estimated fertilizer nutrient consumption


1963 1967
Nutrient Metric tons Percent Metric tons
Nitrogen (N) 937 36.8 772
Phosphate (P20s) 330 13.0 416
Potash (K20) 1,280 50.2 1,128
Total 2,547 100.0 2,316
aCalculations based on data supplied by Zaire Department of Agriculture.


Percent
33.3
18.0
48.7
100.0


1971
Metric tons Percent
4.342 68.6
789 12.5
1,199 18.9
6,330 100.0


1973
Metric tons Percent
1.821 45.5
67S 16-9
1.506 3 .6
4,005 100.0









Fertilizer Imports into Zaire, 1963-73,

and World Supply Outlook Through 1980


There is no fertilizer production in Zaire and no
statistics are recorded on actual consumption. Since all
fertilizer must be imported, it is assumed that consumption
is approximated by fertilizer imports. (However, it is
probable that prior to 1975 some other chemicals were
declared as fertilizers to take advantage of lower import
duties.) Fertilizer statistics are not compiled in the detail
required for accurate estimates of the real fertilizer situa-
tion in Zaire. As a result, fertilizer use data are incomplete
and often may not contain information from both food and
industrial crops sectors. Import data may thus actually
understate slightly the true fertilizer use, particularly for a
given year.
An additional complicating factor is that of reporting
use by product or groups of products rather than on a
nutrient basis. For example, 10,000 metric tons of N
products consumed as urea constitutes 4,500 metric tons of
N whereas a similar amount of AS results in less than half
that amount (2,100 metric tons) of N. Similarly, reporting
NP or NPK fertilizers in groups can be equally misleading.
For example, the nutrient contents of 10,000 metric tons
of 16-20-0, 18-46-0, 15-15-15, and 10-30-10 differ con-
siderably, and, therefore, reporting merely as phosphate
products or mixtures rather than by nutrient content can
lead to grossly misleading data. Nearly all of these
difficulties were encountered in analyzing fertilizer use data
for Zaire. Such errors are not serious in view of the current


low level of use, but GOZ should establish a more accurate
system of fertilizer statistics now which will be more
effective as fertilizer consumption and production increase.
These limitations in the data should be considered in the
following discussion of the past and present outlook for
fertilizer consumption in Zaire.



TOTAL QUANTITIES USED ARE VERY LOW

Almost all of the fertilizer imported into Zaire is
chemical fertilizer (99.5%). Only an occasional shipment of
organic fertilizer is received. Fertilizer use (tables 6 and 7)
whether expressed by product or nutrient content is very
low. Fertilizer imports remained static (2.500 metric tons
of nutrient) from 1963 through 1967. Then imports
climbed to 6,330 metric tons of nutrient in 1971 (about
7,900 metric tons of product in 1963 to 20.470 metric tons
in 1971). Imports dropped since 1971 to 11.285 metric
tons of product in 1973. Imports for 1974. while
incomplete, appear to be even lower than for 1973:
imports for 1975 may be still lower.
There are several reasons for this decline: some related
to internal GOZ policy and some due to high world market
prices of fertilizer during 1972-75.


Table 6. Imports of fertilizer materials into Zaire, 1963-74
Type of fertilizer 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973
metric tons
Nitrogen 3,110 1,699 1,251 3,407 2,255 2,874 9.069 9.599 13.644 0.055 5.136
Phosphates 326 923 299 613 331 2.574 488 1.544 1.378 1 .912 84S
Potash 2,992 1,321 752 359 1,435 3,944 3.384 2.518 2.519 2.300 2.4 4
Mixtures 1,474 3,685 3,550 1,703 2,021 1,493 2,478 4.542 2.770 1.045 ,2.-
Natural 22 56 383 159 1)9 54
Total 7,924 7,628 5,852 6,082 6,042 10,885 15,475 18,586 20,470 14,511 11,285
Source: Zaire Department of Agriculture.


Table 7. Estimated fertilizer nutrient consumption


1963 1967
Nutrient Metric tons Percent Metric tons
Nitrogen (N) 937 36.8 772
Phosphate (P20s) 330 13.0 416
Potash (K20) 1,280 50.2 1,128
Total 2,547 100.0 2,316
aCalculations based on data supplied by Zaire Department of Agriculture.


Percent
33.3
18.0
48.7
100.0


1971
Metric tons Percent
4.342 68.6
789 12.5
1,199 18.9
6,330 100.0


1973
Metric tons Percent
1.821 45.5
67S 16-9
1.506 3 .6
4,005 100.0









FERTILIZER IMPORTS HAVE
BEEN LARGELY N AND K

Nitrogen and potash products have constituted 80%-85%
of the total plant food consumed by agriculture in Zaire.
This is due largely to the predominant use on industrial
crops. Potash usually comprised 40% of the total and N
accounted for 35%-65%. Phosphorus use is very low,
usually less than 700 metric tons of P2 0 or only 12%-17%
of the total plant nutrient used (table 7).
Ammonium nitrate, AS, mixtures, and urea are the
dominant N fertilizers. In 1973 these accounted for 35%,
23%, 23%, and 10% of the total N used, respectively. In
1963 AS comprised 51% and AN 17% of the N imported.
Urea and NPK mixtures (largely 1-1-1 and 1-3-1 ratios)
continued to supply about the same proportions of N over
this period (appendix table A-l). NPK mixtures (assumed
to average 15-15-15 grade) constituted the major source of
phosphorus and, depending upon the year, accounted for
52% to 73% of the total consumed. The dominant sources
of potash through 1963-73 were muriate of potash (31% to
68%) and NPK mixtures (17% to 35%). Other sources of K
were potassium nitrate and double salts of potassium and
magnesium sulfate.

FERTILIZER USE AREAS AND PORTS OF ENTRY

Nearly 70% of fertilizer imports is consumed in 3
regions: Bas Zaire (-, ), Equateur (21%), and Kivu (21%).
An additional 29% is accounted for by: Haut Zaire (.: ),
Kasai Oriental (7%), Shaba (6%), and Kinshasa (- (table
8). The major share (70%) is used for sugarcane, coffee, and
cotton; lesser amounts are used for tea, vegetable crops,
maize, and tobacco.
The small tonnages of fertilizers imported into Zaire are
thus largely N and K for use on industrial high value crops.
Very little is actually being used to produce food (maize 4%
and vegetables 7%). Little attention has been focused on
phosphate.
Estimated fertilizer distribution in 1973-74 may be
summarized as follows:
1. Areas bordering the Zaire River (Bas Zaire, Equateur,
and Haut Zaire), supplied from Matadi-65%.
2. Shaba and Kasai Oriental, supplied through Lobito,
Angola, and from South Africa- 14%.


3. North Kivu, supplied from Mombasa, and South
Kivu, supplied through Dar es Salaam-21%.
Thus, the bulk of fertilizer imports arrives through the
Port of Matadi with lesser but significant quantities arriving
through other entry points.


FERTILIZER IMPORT DUTIES

Import duties and taxes which have been levied on
fertilizers are shown in table 9. The total in recent years has
been 17.72% of the c.i.f. price for intermediate and finished
fertilizers and 23.17% of the c.i.f. price for raw materials.
All duties and taxes were abolished by executive decree
in December 1974. except possibly the 3% tax statistique.
Estimates in this report assume only a 3% tax on the c.i.f.
price of all fertilizer goods whether finished product or raw
material. Removal of duties and most taxes on fertilizers by
GOZ is a recognition that fertilizers are a vital component
of the successful achievement of its announced goals of
increased food production. Perhaps as a consistent

Table 8. Use of fertilizer
materials by region and crop, 1973-74
Metric tons % of total


Region
Bas Zaire
Bandundu
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kivu
Shaba
Kasai Oriental
Kasai Occidental
Kinshasa
Total
Crops
Maize
Tea
Sugar
Coffee
Tobacco
Palm oil
Cotton
Truck crops
Total


3,800
240
3,000
1,100
3,000
895
1,056
50
1,050
14,191

610
1,000
4,500
3,000
331
1.200
2.500
1,050
14,191


4
7
32
21
(.)
9
18
7
100


Item
Droit de douane
Droit fiscal
Taxe statistique
Contribution chiffre d'Affaires
Taxe conjoncturelle temporaire
Source: GOZ Customs, April 15, 1975.


Table 9. Fertilizer import duties, April 1975
Abbreviation Amount
DD 5% c.i.f.


DF
TS
CCA
TCT


5% c.i.f.
3% c.i.f.
9% c.i.f.+ DF + TS
5% c.i.f.


Comments
Abolished. December 1974
Abolished
To be retained
To be abolished
Applies only to raw materials, abolished









FERTILIZER IMPORTS HAVE
BEEN LARGELY N AND K

Nitrogen and potash products have constituted 80%-85%
of the total plant food consumed by agriculture in Zaire.
This is due largely to the predominant use on industrial
crops. Potash usually comprised 40% of the total and N
accounted for 35%-65%. Phosphorus use is very low,
usually less than 700 metric tons of P2 0 or only 12%-17%
of the total plant nutrient used (table 7).
Ammonium nitrate, AS, mixtures, and urea are the
dominant N fertilizers. In 1973 these accounted for 35%,
23%, 23%, and 10% of the total N used, respectively. In
1963 AS comprised 51% and AN 17% of the N imported.
Urea and NPK mixtures (largely 1-1-1 and 1-3-1 ratios)
continued to supply about the same proportions of N over
this period (appendix table A-l). NPK mixtures (assumed
to average 15-15-15 grade) constituted the major source of
phosphorus and, depending upon the year, accounted for
52% to 73% of the total consumed. The dominant sources
of potash through 1963-73 were muriate of potash (31% to
68%) and NPK mixtures (17% to 35%). Other sources of K
were potassium nitrate and double salts of potassium and
magnesium sulfate.

FERTILIZER USE AREAS AND PORTS OF ENTRY

Nearly 70% of fertilizer imports is consumed in 3
regions: Bas Zaire (-, ), Equateur (21%), and Kivu (21%).
An additional 29% is accounted for by: Haut Zaire (.: ),
Kasai Oriental (7%), Shaba (6%), and Kinshasa (- (table
8). The major share (70%) is used for sugarcane, coffee, and
cotton; lesser amounts are used for tea, vegetable crops,
maize, and tobacco.
The small tonnages of fertilizers imported into Zaire are
thus largely N and K for use on industrial high value crops.
Very little is actually being used to produce food (maize 4%
and vegetables 7%). Little attention has been focused on
phosphate.
Estimated fertilizer distribution in 1973-74 may be
summarized as follows:
1. Areas bordering the Zaire River (Bas Zaire, Equateur,
and Haut Zaire), supplied from Matadi-65%.
2. Shaba and Kasai Oriental, supplied through Lobito,
Angola, and from South Africa- 14%.


3. North Kivu, supplied from Mombasa, and South
Kivu, supplied through Dar es Salaam-21%.
Thus, the bulk of fertilizer imports arrives through the
Port of Matadi with lesser but significant quantities arriving
through other entry points.


FERTILIZER IMPORT DUTIES

Import duties and taxes which have been levied on
fertilizers are shown in table 9. The total in recent years has
been 17.72% of the c.i.f. price for intermediate and finished
fertilizers and 23.17% of the c.i.f. price for raw materials.
All duties and taxes were abolished by executive decree
in December 1974. except possibly the 3% tax statistique.
Estimates in this report assume only a 3% tax on the c.i.f.
price of all fertilizer goods whether finished product or raw
material. Removal of duties and most taxes on fertilizers by
GOZ is a recognition that fertilizers are a vital component
of the successful achievement of its announced goals of
increased food production. Perhaps as a consistent

Table 8. Use of fertilizer
materials by region and crop, 1973-74
Metric tons % of total


Region
Bas Zaire
Bandundu
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kivu
Shaba
Kasai Oriental
Kasai Occidental
Kinshasa
Total
Crops
Maize
Tea
Sugar
Coffee
Tobacco
Palm oil
Cotton
Truck crops
Total


3,800
240
3,000
1,100
3,000
895
1,056
50
1,050
14,191

610
1,000
4,500
3,000
331
1.200
2.500
1,050
14,191


4
7
32
21
(.)
9
18
7
100


Item
Droit de douane
Droit fiscal
Taxe statistique
Contribution chiffre d'Affaires
Taxe conjoncturelle temporaire
Source: GOZ Customs, April 15, 1975.


Table 9. Fertilizer import duties, April 1975
Abbreviation Amount
DD 5% c.i.f.


DF
TS
CCA
TCT


5% c.i.f.
3% c.i.f.
9% c.i.f.+ DF + TS
5% c.i.f.


Comments
Abolished. December 1974
Abolished
To be retained
To be abolished
Applies only to raw materials, abolished









FERTILIZER IMPORTS HAVE
BEEN LARGELY N AND K

Nitrogen and potash products have constituted 80%-85%
of the total plant food consumed by agriculture in Zaire.
This is due largely to the predominant use on industrial
crops. Potash usually comprised 40% of the total and N
accounted for 35%-65%. Phosphorus use is very low,
usually less than 700 metric tons of P2 0 or only 12%-17%
of the total plant nutrient used (table 7).
Ammonium nitrate, AS, mixtures, and urea are the
dominant N fertilizers. In 1973 these accounted for 35%,
23%, 23%, and 10% of the total N used, respectively. In
1963 AS comprised 51% and AN 17% of the N imported.
Urea and NPK mixtures (largely 1-1-1 and 1-3-1 ratios)
continued to supply about the same proportions of N over
this period (appendix table A-l). NPK mixtures (assumed
to average 15-15-15 grade) constituted the major source of
phosphorus and, depending upon the year, accounted for
52% to 73% of the total consumed. The dominant sources
of potash through 1963-73 were muriate of potash (31% to
68%) and NPK mixtures (17% to 35%). Other sources of K
were potassium nitrate and double salts of potassium and
magnesium sulfate.

FERTILIZER USE AREAS AND PORTS OF ENTRY

Nearly 70% of fertilizer imports is consumed in 3
regions: Bas Zaire (-, ), Equateur (21%), and Kivu (21%).
An additional 29% is accounted for by: Haut Zaire (.: ),
Kasai Oriental (7%), Shaba (6%), and Kinshasa (- (table
8). The major share (70%) is used for sugarcane, coffee, and
cotton; lesser amounts are used for tea, vegetable crops,
maize, and tobacco.
The small tonnages of fertilizers imported into Zaire are
thus largely N and K for use on industrial high value crops.
Very little is actually being used to produce food (maize 4%
and vegetables 7%). Little attention has been focused on
phosphate.
Estimated fertilizer distribution in 1973-74 may be
summarized as follows:
1. Areas bordering the Zaire River (Bas Zaire, Equateur,
and Haut Zaire), supplied from Matadi-65%.
2. Shaba and Kasai Oriental, supplied through Lobito,
Angola, and from South Africa- 14%.


3. North Kivu, supplied from Mombasa, and South
Kivu, supplied through Dar es Salaam-21%.
Thus, the bulk of fertilizer imports arrives through the
Port of Matadi with lesser but significant quantities arriving
through other entry points.


FERTILIZER IMPORT DUTIES

Import duties and taxes which have been levied on
fertilizers are shown in table 9. The total in recent years has
been 17.72% of the c.i.f. price for intermediate and finished
fertilizers and 23.17% of the c.i.f. price for raw materials.
All duties and taxes were abolished by executive decree
in December 1974. except possibly the 3% tax statistique.
Estimates in this report assume only a 3% tax on the c.i.f.
price of all fertilizer goods whether finished product or raw
material. Removal of duties and most taxes on fertilizers by
GOZ is a recognition that fertilizers are a vital component
of the successful achievement of its announced goals of
increased food production. Perhaps as a consistent

Table 8. Use of fertilizer
materials by region and crop, 1973-74
Metric tons % of total


Region
Bas Zaire
Bandundu
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kivu
Shaba
Kasai Oriental
Kasai Occidental
Kinshasa
Total
Crops
Maize
Tea
Sugar
Coffee
Tobacco
Palm oil
Cotton
Truck crops
Total


3,800
240
3,000
1,100
3,000
895
1,056
50
1,050
14,191

610
1,000
4,500
3,000
331
1.200
2.500
1,050
14,191


4
7
32
21
(.)
9
18
7
100


Item
Droit de douane
Droit fiscal
Taxe statistique
Contribution chiffre d'Affaires
Taxe conjoncturelle temporaire
Source: GOZ Customs, April 15, 1975.


Table 9. Fertilizer import duties, April 1975
Abbreviation Amount
DD 5% c.i.f.


DF
TS
CCA
TCT


5% c.i.f.
3% c.i.f.
9% c.i.f.+ DF + TS
5% c.i.f.


Comments
Abolished. December 1974
Abolished
To be retained
To be abolished
Applies only to raw materials, abolished









component of its overall policy, GOZ might consider
removal of the statistical tax as well.


WORLD FERTILIZER SUPPLY OUTLOOK

A key element to the success of a fertilizer program in
Zaire is the prospect for an adequate world supply of
fertilizer at a reasonable price. Almost all indicators in
international trade suggest that fertilizer supplies are now
sufficient to meet demand. This is due to a combination of
factors. including reduced demand caused by high fertilizer
prices and increased supply caused by a drop in industrial
demand for N and P20 s. The phosphate i I 1.1 '.1.I .,.n..1
situation in particular should improve even more during
1975. Further improvement in supply relative to demand
can be expected through 1980. These developments have
already caused world fertilizer prices to drop, and this may
continue (table 10 and figure 9).
The intermediate term outlook for the supply/demand
balance appears equally promising. Phosphate supplies
should be sufficient to meet demand through 1978, and
possibly longer. Stocks of N should improve steadily, with a
major surplus extending from 1977-80. Potash supplies will
remain tight, but adequate through 1977. with a real
', iil,,i of a shortage developing after 1977 unless yet
unannounced additional capacity is brought on-stream by
that time.


FERTILIZER PRICE OUTLOOK

Prospects with respect to the quantity and price of
fertilizer have improved relative to the present situation,
but there are no indicators suggesting a return to the
surpluses and low prices of the 1968-71 period. However,
such a situation could emerge if announcements of plant
expansion should continue at the present rate and a major
diop in raw material prices occur.
It is not easy to forecast prices at any time, particularly
under such volatile conditions as prevailed in the world


market in 1972-74. Nevertheless. some estimate is required
if GOZ is to justify major efforts towards increasing crop
production through increased use of fertilizer.
Prices of fertilizer stabilized in late 1974 and have now
started downward (table 10 and figure 9). By mid-May
1975, the prices for urea and AS were down 30' from their
late 1974 peak. Similar drops have occurred for other types
of fertilizer. It is believed that May 1976 prices will be
about 40:(-50'M below the 1974 peak. This would permit
c.i.f. prices at Matadi for urea at ZI17. AS at Z-2. and
various NPK grades at ZI00-Z110 metric ton of bagged
fertilizers.
In summary, much of the adjustment in fertilizer costs
needed to stimulate crop production is already occurring as
a result of operation of normal world market forces.
Further reductions in fertilizer costs may accrue through
additional reduction of distribution costs in Zaire.
400
/\
-- -- 8-46-0
46-0-0 /
300- ---- 0-46-0 /
300 21-0-0 r

0 I "
I
o_ / I
- 200
N /




oo, /



0 1 i I I I
1969 1971 1973 1975

Figure 9. Prices for AID-financed fertilizers (average for
bulk and bagged materials f.o.b. U.S. Gulf Coast)


Material


Table 10. Recent trends in world fertilizer prices
February May Forecast
1972 1973 1974 1975 1975 May l-o
Z/,metric ton


Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 17.5 21.0 75.0 57.5 5 5 42
Urea (45-0-0 or 46-0-0) 27.5 37.5 175.0 150.0 1225 .
TSP (0-46-0) 39.0 77.5 180.0 132.5 145.0 5.0
DAP(18-46-0) 27.5 60.0 170.0 100.0 o0.0
13-13-13 37.5 44.0 122.5 102.5 72.5 6.5
15-15-15 39.0 45.0 130.0 107.5 77.5 2.5
12-24-12 3 8.0 47.5 117.5 100.0 83.5
10-30-10 32.5 43.5 112.5 97.5 75.0 U0-
a '.o.b. U.S. Gulf ports, bulk material. Add Zl 2.5/netric ton for bagging and Z17.5/metric ton for shipping to Matadi.









component of its overall policy, GOZ might consider
removal of the statistical tax as well.


WORLD FERTILIZER SUPPLY OUTLOOK

A key element to the success of a fertilizer program in
Zaire is the prospect for an adequate world supply of
fertilizer at a reasonable price. Almost all indicators in
international trade suggest that fertilizer supplies are now
sufficient to meet demand. This is due to a combination of
factors. including reduced demand caused by high fertilizer
prices and increased supply caused by a drop in industrial
demand for N and P20 s. The phosphate i I 1.1 '.1.I .,.n..1
situation in particular should improve even more during
1975. Further improvement in supply relative to demand
can be expected through 1980. These developments have
already caused world fertilizer prices to drop, and this may
continue (table 10 and figure 9).
The intermediate term outlook for the supply/demand
balance appears equally promising. Phosphate supplies
should be sufficient to meet demand through 1978, and
possibly longer. Stocks of N should improve steadily, with a
major surplus extending from 1977-80. Potash supplies will
remain tight, but adequate through 1977. with a real
', iil,,i of a shortage developing after 1977 unless yet
unannounced additional capacity is brought on-stream by
that time.


FERTILIZER PRICE OUTLOOK

Prospects with respect to the quantity and price of
fertilizer have improved relative to the present situation,
but there are no indicators suggesting a return to the
surpluses and low prices of the 1968-71 period. However,
such a situation could emerge if announcements of plant
expansion should continue at the present rate and a major
diop in raw material prices occur.
It is not easy to forecast prices at any time, particularly
under such volatile conditions as prevailed in the world


market in 1972-74. Nevertheless. some estimate is required
if GOZ is to justify major efforts towards increasing crop
production through increased use of fertilizer.
Prices of fertilizer stabilized in late 1974 and have now
started downward (table 10 and figure 9). By mid-May
1975, the prices for urea and AS were down 30' from their
late 1974 peak. Similar drops have occurred for other types
of fertilizer. It is believed that May 1976 prices will be
about 40:(-50'M below the 1974 peak. This would permit
c.i.f. prices at Matadi for urea at ZI17. AS at Z-2. and
various NPK grades at ZI00-Z110 metric ton of bagged
fertilizers.
In summary, much of the adjustment in fertilizer costs
needed to stimulate crop production is already occurring as
a result of operation of normal world market forces.
Further reductions in fertilizer costs may accrue through
additional reduction of distribution costs in Zaire.
400
/\
-- -- 8-46-0
46-0-0 /
300- ---- 0-46-0 /
300 21-0-0 r

0 I "
I
o_ / I
- 200
N /




oo, /



0 1 i I I I
1969 1971 1973 1975

Figure 9. Prices for AID-financed fertilizers (average for
bulk and bagged materials f.o.b. U.S. Gulf Coast)


Material


Table 10. Recent trends in world fertilizer prices
February May Forecast
1972 1973 1974 1975 1975 May l-o
Z/,metric ton


Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 17.5 21.0 75.0 57.5 5 5 42
Urea (45-0-0 or 46-0-0) 27.5 37.5 175.0 150.0 1225 .
TSP (0-46-0) 39.0 77.5 180.0 132.5 145.0 5.0
DAP(18-46-0) 27.5 60.0 170.0 100.0 o0.0
13-13-13 37.5 44.0 122.5 102.5 72.5 6.5
15-15-15 39.0 45.0 130.0 107.5 77.5 2.5
12-24-12 3 8.0 47.5 117.5 100.0 83.5
10-30-10 32.5 43.5 112.5 97.5 75.0 U0-
a '.o.b. U.S. Gulf ports, bulk material. Add Zl 2.5/netric ton for bagging and Z17.5/metric ton for shipping to Matadi.









Population and Food Requirements


The future demand for food depends on population,
income levels, shifts in rural-urban population, and on taste
or awareness of improved nutrition. A change in population
is the most important factor affecting future food
requirements.


POPULATION CHANGES

The 1970 GOZ census showed a Zaire population total
of 21.6 million (table 11). Some authorities consider this
figure too high because some individuals who left a rural
village for the city were counted in both places. However,
the official GOZ data are used in this report. Using a
2., ,-. growth rate (assumed by the GOZ Department
of Agriculture Bureau d'Etude; other estimates vary from
2.2% to 3.'' ), estimated population is 24.8 million in
1975, 28.5 million in 1980, and 32.7 million in 1985. Thus,
the 1985 population would be 50% larger than the 1970
census, and if diets do not change, would increase food
needs by a lil 11 amount.
In 1970 the regions of Kivu and Haut Zaire had the
highest populations (table 11), but the national district of
Kinshasa was the most densely populated, followed by Bas
Zaire and Equateur. Kinshasa grew much faster than the
nation as a whole between 1970 and 1975. The regions of
Bas Zaire, Kasai Occidental, Bandundu, Shaba, and Kivu
grew at about the same; rate as the nation; and Kasai
Oriental, Equateur, and Haut Zaire grew at less than the
national rate.
The degree of rural-urban shift is important in antici-
pating food needs because the rural population is largely
self-sufficient for food: migration to the cities requires


commercial production or imports. Second, tile urban
movement changes income patterns and the kinds of food
consumed.
Urbanization was particularly rapid in Zaire after 1960
as a result of a lack of security in rural areas and because of
the repeal of laws restricting migration. The 1970 census
shows that 22% of the population lived in 79 cities. Thus,
the rural population was 78% of the total. This major sector
of the population has a very low income and a standard of
living much lower than for urban residents, except for the
unemployed. Agricultural development is thus the only
major hope for increasing the welfare of most of the
population in the near future.
The most rural regions in 1970 were Kivu (91%/) and
Equateur (90%). Rural population density was highest in
Bas Zaire at 20/km2, fI.ll ....- by Kasai Occidental and
Kivu with 12. The regions with the lowest densities were
Shaba with 4/km2 Equateur with 5, and Haut Zaire with 6
(table 12).
The annual growth of cities is projected to slow to
about 6% during the 1970's. The 1970 and projected
1975, 1980, and 1985 populations for the nine largest
cities (table 13) are based on 6% overall growth rate for
cities. The projections indicate that the population in
the nine largest cities will increase relative to total
population from 14% in 1970 to 16% in 1975, 19%, in
1980, and 22% in 1985. This suggests that every 5
years city population will increase by one-third. Kinshasa is
projected to grow at a much faster rate than the other eight
cities. The slowest growing cities are projected to be
Mbandaka, Matadi, and Kisangani.


Table 11. Population by region, 1970, and projections for 1975, 1980, and 1985 (11)
Population, Projected population Increase in
Region 1970 census 1975 1980 1985 population. 1970-1980
m illi ,/ v ) t fpt' n nlP


Kinshasa 1.32
Bas Zaire 1.51
Kasai Oriental 1.87
Equateur 2.43
Kasai Occidental 2.44
Bandundu 2.60
Shaba 2.75
Haut Zaire 3.36
Kivu 3.36
Total 21.64
alased on an overall ~ i rate of 2.8%/year.


1.89
1.72
2.07
2.72
2.79
2.95
3.21
3.62
3.87
24.84 2


2.65
1.97
2.28
3.03
3.19
3.35
3.71
3.90
4.44
28.52


3.67 101
2.23 31
2.52 22
3.38 25
3.63 31
3.78 2)
4.26 35
4.22 16
5.05 32
32.74 28









Population and Food Requirements


The future demand for food depends on population,
income levels, shifts in rural-urban population, and on taste
or awareness of improved nutrition. A change in population
is the most important factor affecting future food
requirements.


POPULATION CHANGES

The 1970 GOZ census showed a Zaire population total
of 21.6 million (table 11). Some authorities consider this
figure too high because some individuals who left a rural
village for the city were counted in both places. However,
the official GOZ data are used in this report. Using a
2., ,-. growth rate (assumed by the GOZ Department
of Agriculture Bureau d'Etude; other estimates vary from
2.2% to 3.'' ), estimated population is 24.8 million in
1975, 28.5 million in 1980, and 32.7 million in 1985. Thus,
the 1985 population would be 50% larger than the 1970
census, and if diets do not change, would increase food
needs by a lil 11 amount.
In 1970 the regions of Kivu and Haut Zaire had the
highest populations (table 11), but the national district of
Kinshasa was the most densely populated, followed by Bas
Zaire and Equateur. Kinshasa grew much faster than the
nation as a whole between 1970 and 1975. The regions of
Bas Zaire, Kasai Occidental, Bandundu, Shaba, and Kivu
grew at about the same; rate as the nation; and Kasai
Oriental, Equateur, and Haut Zaire grew at less than the
national rate.
The degree of rural-urban shift is important in antici-
pating food needs because the rural population is largely
self-sufficient for food: migration to the cities requires


commercial production or imports. Second, tile urban
movement changes income patterns and the kinds of food
consumed.
Urbanization was particularly rapid in Zaire after 1960
as a result of a lack of security in rural areas and because of
the repeal of laws restricting migration. The 1970 census
shows that 22% of the population lived in 79 cities. Thus,
the rural population was 78% of the total. This major sector
of the population has a very low income and a standard of
living much lower than for urban residents, except for the
unemployed. Agricultural development is thus the only
major hope for increasing the welfare of most of the
population in the near future.
The most rural regions in 1970 were Kivu (91%/) and
Equateur (90%). Rural population density was highest in
Bas Zaire at 20/km2, fI.ll ....- by Kasai Occidental and
Kivu with 12. The regions with the lowest densities were
Shaba with 4/km2 Equateur with 5, and Haut Zaire with 6
(table 12).
The annual growth of cities is projected to slow to
about 6% during the 1970's. The 1970 and projected
1975, 1980, and 1985 populations for the nine largest
cities (table 13) are based on 6% overall growth rate for
cities. The projections indicate that the population in
the nine largest cities will increase relative to total
population from 14% in 1970 to 16% in 1975, 19%, in
1980, and 22% in 1985. This suggests that every 5
years city population will increase by one-third. Kinshasa is
projected to grow at a much faster rate than the other eight
cities. The slowest growing cities are projected to be
Mbandaka, Matadi, and Kisangani.


Table 11. Population by region, 1970, and projections for 1975, 1980, and 1985 (11)
Population, Projected population Increase in
Region 1970 census 1975 1980 1985 population. 1970-1980
m illi ,/ v ) t fpt' n nlP


Kinshasa 1.32
Bas Zaire 1.51
Kasai Oriental 1.87
Equateur 2.43
Kasai Occidental 2.44
Bandundu 2.60
Shaba 2.75
Haut Zaire 3.36
Kivu 3.36
Total 21.64
alased on an overall ~ i rate of 2.8%/year.


1.89
1.72
2.07
2.72
2.79
2.95
3.21
3.62
3.87
24.84 2


2.65
1.97
2.28
3.03
3.19
3.35
3.71
3.90
4.44
28.52


3.67 101
2.23 31
2.52 22
3.38 25
3.63 31
3.78 2)
4.26 35
4.22 16
5.05 32
32.74 28









EFFECT OF INCOME ON FOOD NEEDS


At the general level of incomes in Zaire, an increase in
per capital income relative to the cost of living would likely
result in a substantial increase in the demand for food. This
would be particularly true for low and middle income
groups. Moreover, demand for some foods would increase
more than for others. As incomes continue to rise, per
capital consumption of some foods declines. These relation-
ships for Kinshasa from a study made in 1969-70 are shown
in tables 14 and 15. Table 14 shows per capital consumption
of selected foods for different income categories. In table
15, these relationships are shown in percentage change in
per capital consumption associated with a 1% change in
income. For example, for low income groups, a 1% increase
in income would increase cereal consumption 1.2%, indi-
cating unsatisfied demand for cereal and a willingness to
purchase more if incomes increased. Similarly, for the
highest income group, a 1% increase in income would


Table 12. Population of Zaire by region
and rural or urban residence (11)


Kins
Bas
Kasa
Equ;
Kasa
Bane
Shab
Haut
Kivu
Tota
'Popi


Population
Region distribution
millions %
hasa 1.32 6
Zaire 1.50 7
i Oriental 1.87 9
ateur 2.43 11
i Occidental 2.44 11
lundu 2.60 12
ia 2.75 13
Zaire 3.36 15
3.36 16
I 21.63 100


elation of the


Population
density
Total Rural
persons/km2
133 0
28 20
11 9
6 5
16 12
9 8
6 4
7 6
13 12
9 7


Distribution
by residence
Rural Urbana
% %
0 100
81 19
83 17
90 10
76 24
88 12
70 30
86 14
91 9
78 22


11 largest cities and 68 secondary centers.


increase cereal consumption only 0.2'f: the demand for
cereal is largely met compared to other uses for income.
The tables show that per capital consumption of all the
food categories increases as incomes rise for low and middle
income groups. Consumption of beer. meat. milk. sugar.
and cereals are the most responsive to income, while
cassava, groundnuts, and fats and oils are less so. For the
highest income group, beer and meat are the most
responsive to income, while consumption of cassava. sugar.
legumes, fish, milk, and fats and oils actually decline as
other foods are substituted.
While these estimates refer only to Kinshasa and may be
subject to substantial error in measurement, they probably
reflect the general consumption relationships for the urban
population. However. there are regional differences in
preference including greater consumption of maize in Shaba
and of cassava in Bas Zaire and Bandundu.

Table 14. Apparent consumption of selected foods
by income group in Kinshasa, 1969 and 1970 (19)
Apparent consumption, kg capital yr


Lower
Commodity income
Cereals 18.0 28.0


Tubers, total
Cassava
Sugar
Legumes, total
Groundnuts
Haricot beans
Vegetables, total
Cassava leaves
Fish
Milk
Meat, total
Beef
Beer
Oils and fats, total
Palm oil


68.7
65.9
3.0
8.1
2.5
4.9
31.7
19.4
17.1
0.9
3.9
2.7
7.5
7.8
7 4


103.0
99.6
4.3
9.6
3.1
5.5
36.5
21.9
20.2
1.4
6.1
4.2
1 2. 1
9.4
8 8


Middle
income
37.4 48.7
118.3 136.5
1 14.0 130.7
5.7 7.3
11.2 13.4
3.5 5.3
7.0 7.4
43.2 50.7
24.9 28.8
24.5 28.8
1.9 2.8
8.4 13.0
5.8 20.7 35.8
10.8 12.3
99 106


Upper
income
67.3 76.6
148.8 112.6
135.9 91.4
9.5 S.1
13.6 10.3
4.5 2.)
8.6 7.1
60.0 60.9
35.7 35.0
31.4 24.1
4.0 3.6
18.-2 25.1
1 i:) 15.2
454 72.4
14.2 11.)
11.7 7.7


Table 13. Population of major cities, 1970, and projections for 1975, 1980, and 1985 (11)
Population. Projected population Increase in
City 1970 census 1975 1980 1985 population. 1970-1950
thousands of people
Kinshasa 1,320 1,890 2,650 3.670 101
Kananga 430 570 760 1.010 77
Lubumbashi 320 390 480 610 50
Mbuji-Mayi 260 320 410 530 58
Kisangani 230 290 360 460 56
Bukavu 130 170 220 290 69
Matadi 110 140 170 220 55
Kikwit 110 140 190 240
Mbandaka 110 130 160 200 45
Total 9 cities 3,020 4,040 5,400 7,230 79
% total population 14.0 16.0 19.0 22.0
aBased on 6'/ annual growth rate for all cities with relative increases for different cities.









Table 15. Percent change in per capital consumption
associated with a 1% change in income for income
groups and selected foods, Kinshasa, 1969-1970 (19)
Changes in per capital consumption, %
Change from income group
Low Middle High
Commodity 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 5 5 to 6
Cereals 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.2
Cassava 1.1 0.5 0.4 0.1 -0.6
Sugar 2.0 1.1 0.8 0.5 -0.2
Legumes 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.0 -0.4
Groundnuts 0.5 0.4 1.5 -0.3 -0.6
Haricot beans 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 -0.3
Vegetables 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.0
Cassava leaves 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.0
Fish 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.2 -0.2
Milk 1.2 1.2 1.4 0.7 -0.2
Meat 1.2 1.3 1.6 0.7 0.7
Beef 1.2 1.3 1.5 0.6 0.5
Beer 1.3 2.5 2.2 0.5 1.0
Oils and fats 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 -0.3
Palm oil 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 -0.6
aApparent income elasticities for the selected commodities.

In addition to increasing the demand for food, an
increase in income would also likely improve the nutritional
status of low and middle income groups. Table 16 shows
the relationship between income and calorie and protein
consumption based on the Kinshasa study.


DEMAND FOR FOOD, 1980 AND 1985

The first step in developing future projections for food
demand was to organize the existing per capital consump-
tion information. The second step was to derive estimates
based on reported production plus imports less exports for
total national consumption for 1970 through 1974. These
estimates were then divided by the population estimates.
Results of these calculations (table 17) show an apparent
increase in cereal consumption (maize, rice, and wheat)
during the 5-year period 1970-74. There also appears to be
increasing per capital consumption of sugar, tobacco,
cotton, and potatoes during this period. Since there is little
evidence of an overall change in real income during this
period, the increased per capital consumption would appear
to be related to some combination of changes in the
distribution of income, urbanization, the age composition
of the population, and changes in consumer preferences.
Changes in any one year may be due to changes in stocks
on hand, the timing of imports, or to errors in estimating
production. A trend over several years would more likely
reflect changing consumption patterns.
For the projections of food needs in 1980 and 1985,
three levels of increases in per capital real incomes are used:
0%, 1.5%, and 3%/year. Future increases in real income can


Table 16. Levels of nutrition of income
groups in Kinshasa, 1969-1970 (19)
Consumption/adult/day
Income group Calories Protein, g
Lower 1,210-1,640 27-34
Middle 1,725-1,960 37-43
Upper 2,180-2,850 50-72
Nutritional standard 2,215
aAssessment of the World Food Conference, Present and Future.
United Nations World Food Conference, Rome, November 1974,
Item 8 of Provisional Agenda. No separate standard is given in the
United Nations report for protein.


Table 17. Apparent per capital
consumption of agricultural productsa
Apparent consumption
Commodity 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974
kg/,. ..;,. 'year
Maize 19.3 20.5 20.6 22.0 22.3
Rice 9.1 8.6 8.7 11.9 10.8
Wheat 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.0 6.2
Millet and sorghum 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Groundnuts 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.5 5.4
Potatoes 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3
Sweet potatoes 15.9 15.7 15.3 14.9 14.9
Cassava 438 404 398 404 402
Sugar 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.2
Banana 47.5 49.5 52.5 51.0 53.8
Meat 2.2 3.2 2.4 2.1 NA
Cotton, lint 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.6
Tobacco 13.9 31.5 38.3 38.3 49.7
aBased on production plus imports minus exports.


Table 18. Projections of per capital food
and fiber consumption, 1980 and 1985
1980 1985
Commodity Lowa Med.b Highc Lowa Med.b Highc
kg/capita/year
Maize 22 24 26 24 26 28
Rice 11.0 11.5 12.0 11.5 12.0 12.5
Wheat 6.4 6.7 7.0 6.7 7.0 7.3
Millet and
sorghum 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3
Groundnuts 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Potatoes 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3
Sweet potatoes 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.1 15.2 15.3
Cassava 404 405 406 404 405 405
Sugarcane 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.7
Banana 52 53 54 53 54 55
Meat 2.5 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.3 3.6
Cotton, lint 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.1
Tobacco 46 50 53 50 54 56
aAssumes no increase in income and continuation of recent
consumption trends.
bAssumes a 1.5%/year increase in income and continuation of
recent consumption trends.
CAssumes a 3//year increase in income and continuation of recent
consumption trends.









take place directly through increases in wages in excess of
the cost of living or indirectly through welfare and related
services which may leave more income available for food.
Projections of per capital consumption of various food
products for 1980 and 1985 are shown in table 18. For
each year, the high, medium, and low estimates represent
changes in income with a continuation of recent consump-
tion trends. The low estimates assume no change in real
income levels, but there is some continuing increase in
cereals, sugar, and sonme other products at the apparent
trends of 1970-74. The medium level assumes an increase in
income of 1.5%/year and the high estimate assumes a 3(
increase along with changes due to other factors.
The potential changes in per capital consumption
together with increases in population result in substantial
increases in food requirements for the future. With a


800

700

600

500

400

300

200


1970


1975
YEAR


Figure 10. The widening gap between
consumption of maize in Zaire


production


19

an


continual shift from rural to urban, a larger percentage of
this food will be purchased, and the commercial volume of
urban food requirements will continue to reflect a rising
percentage of the total food requirements. Projected
percentage increases in total demand for 1 lxO and 19,5 for
the low. medium, and high income changes compared to
the 1973-74 average are shown in table 1 ). Tihe projected
levels of consumption (metric tons) in 190O and 1 -s5 are
shown in appendix table B-2. B\ 1)0S medium income
projected consumption of maize will be 130' of ihe
1973-74 consumption. For 19 5 it is 161' of the 1 "3--4
level. These deficits could be met either from increased
production or from imports.
Of this increase in 1)80 requirements for mOaize o- i,
caused by population increase while the other 33 i- s t, e
result of changes in income a and othel associated factors.
While the medium income projection is used for illusr;a-
tion. it is doubtful that a 1.5' increase Cyea in per cap:i.
income will be realized b\ 1l%0. On the other lhand. it
should be recognized that increases in per capital income.
particularly foi the lower income group,. \,ou!d resu': i:.
increases in the demand loi food in general and ari ncularlv
for these products with a high income elasticii .



CONCLUSIONS


These projections, on population and food Ineed in I ci
and 1985 provide a setting of need and an indicator:
of the magnitude and urgency for developinii sr -
culture in Zaire. Clearly. dramatic increases in ro-
80 d action of several major food ciop, v here the
production potential is favorable will be necessary ii
d the next few years to avoid large increa-es in imlport-.


Table 19. Projected indices of consumption of


selected agricultural products in 1980 and


1985 (1973-74 = 1001


1973-74
Commodity Production Use
1,000 metric tons
Maize 365 528
Rice 233 240
Wheat 3 142
.1,l1. i and sorghum 26 26
Groundnuts 165 165
Potatoes 26 26
Sweet potatoes 355 355
Cassava 9,750 9.570
Sugarcane 60 78
Banana 1,250 1.250
Meat 41 55
Cotton, lint 22 16
Tobacco 1,050 3,850


I 980
Lowa Mediumbi


aAssumes no increase in income and continuation of recent consumption trends.
bAssumes a 1.5;/year increase in income anu continuation of recent consumllption trends.
CAssumies a 3:y/year increase in income and continuation of recent consumption trends.


| LS5
I liehc Lowa Mediumb Hid


5 of 19 73-
140
143
141
138
142
131
I 3I1
1922
128
123
160
181
144


74 average
149
157
154
138
15)
b

16
138


131
167
163
1560


I 111 --
So4 I 0
161 l "
150 o105
101 1o2
150 162
140 A14
I 3o 136
14 55
142 144
196 214

10 1


I I I I i I I I


CONSUMPTION






- PRODUCTION





I I I I I I I


O








The widening gap between consumption and production
of food crops is illustrated in figure 10 for maize. The 1985
medium projection of 851,000 metric tons compares with a
1973-74 average production of 365,000 metric tons
(appendix table B-2). If production remains at the 1973-74








Agronomic-Economic

Some Key Food and


A major effort will have to be made to boost production
of several key agricultural crops if Zaire is to avoid a very
serious foreign exchange drain and possibly a food crisis by
1980. In order to properly highlight the obstacles and
potentials for increasing crop production, maize, rice,
sugarcane, cotton, oil palm, cacao, coffee, and tea are each
discussed.
Data in Zaire, except for maize, are too limited for a
detailed analysis of the production economics of these
crops. Enough detail is presented, however, with special
reference to fertilizer to establish guidelines for needed
policy changes.


MAIZE

Maize production has not kept up with a rising per
capital consumption and increased population. Larger and
larger imports have been necessary. The percentage of total
usage which is produced in Zaire has declined from about
86% in 1968 to about 66% in 1974. Maize imports in 1974
were 163,000 metric tons. Increasing maize production is
thus the first priority of GOZ.
Maize is produced in every region for home use, but
about 70% of commercial production is primarily in
Bandundu, Shaba, and Kasai Occidental and Kasai Oriental
regions (table 20). Since 1970 some 350,000 ha has been
harvested each year with yields estimated at 650 kg/ha by
GOZ Department of Agriculture and at 1,000 kg/ha by
FAO.
In southern Shaba, improved yellow soils are the most
fertile and highest yielding, black soils are intermediate, and
red soils are least fertile and lowest yielding. Retention of
most nutrients against leaching depends largely on soil
contents of clay and organic matter. Very sandy soils are


average level, imports would increase from 163,000 metric
tons for the 1973-74 period to 486,000 metric tons in
1985. At Z90/metric ton for maize imports, foreign
exchange requirements would increase from Z14.670,000
to Z43,740,000.








Aspects of Production of

Industrial Crops in Zaire


drought and infertile, and are therefore poor for maize
production, as are some very infertile red soils (Oxisols).
Leaching of nutrients is minimized by the rainy season
occurring during the maize production season, followed by
little or no rain between crops.

Production System

Production practices for maize typically consist of
mixed crop planting among trees, stumps, and logs in the
forest area and mixed crop planting in the savanna area.
Plant population is very low, native seed is used, no
fertilizer is used, and competition from other crop plants
and weeds is high.
Hundreds of local varieties and hybrids from Africa,
Central America, and other countries are under test in the
PNM (conducted by CIMMYT under contract with GOZ).
A multiple-cross variety was selected for increase, based on
H632, a three-way cross from Kenya, and SR52, a single
cross from Rhodesia. This variety, Shaba Safi. was used in

Table 20. Estimated maize area and
production by regions (GOZ, 1972)
Province 1,000 metric tons 1 1,000 ha
Bas Zaire 10.8 3 10.5
Equateur 39.6 11 38.5
Haut Zaire 32.4 9 31.5
Kivu 21.6 6 21.0
Subtotal 104.4 29 101.5
Bandundu 68.4 1) 66.5
Shaba 86.4 24 84.0
Kasai Occidental 43.2 12 42.0
Kasai Oriental 57.6 16 56.0
Subtotal 255.6 71 248.5
Total 360.0 100 350.0








The widening gap between consumption and production
of food crops is illustrated in figure 10 for maize. The 1985
medium projection of 851,000 metric tons compares with a
1973-74 average production of 365,000 metric tons
(appendix table B-2). If production remains at the 1973-74








Agronomic-Economic

Some Key Food and


A major effort will have to be made to boost production
of several key agricultural crops if Zaire is to avoid a very
serious foreign exchange drain and possibly a food crisis by
1980. In order to properly highlight the obstacles and
potentials for increasing crop production, maize, rice,
sugarcane, cotton, oil palm, cacao, coffee, and tea are each
discussed.
Data in Zaire, except for maize, are too limited for a
detailed analysis of the production economics of these
crops. Enough detail is presented, however, with special
reference to fertilizer to establish guidelines for needed
policy changes.


MAIZE

Maize production has not kept up with a rising per
capital consumption and increased population. Larger and
larger imports have been necessary. The percentage of total
usage which is produced in Zaire has declined from about
86% in 1968 to about 66% in 1974. Maize imports in 1974
were 163,000 metric tons. Increasing maize production is
thus the first priority of GOZ.
Maize is produced in every region for home use, but
about 70% of commercial production is primarily in
Bandundu, Shaba, and Kasai Occidental and Kasai Oriental
regions (table 20). Since 1970 some 350,000 ha has been
harvested each year with yields estimated at 650 kg/ha by
GOZ Department of Agriculture and at 1,000 kg/ha by
FAO.
In southern Shaba, improved yellow soils are the most
fertile and highest yielding, black soils are intermediate, and
red soils are least fertile and lowest yielding. Retention of
most nutrients against leaching depends largely on soil
contents of clay and organic matter. Very sandy soils are


average level, imports would increase from 163,000 metric
tons for the 1973-74 period to 486,000 metric tons in
1985. At Z90/metric ton for maize imports, foreign
exchange requirements would increase from Z14.670,000
to Z43,740,000.








Aspects of Production of

Industrial Crops in Zaire


drought and infertile, and are therefore poor for maize
production, as are some very infertile red soils (Oxisols).
Leaching of nutrients is minimized by the rainy season
occurring during the maize production season, followed by
little or no rain between crops.

Production System

Production practices for maize typically consist of
mixed crop planting among trees, stumps, and logs in the
forest area and mixed crop planting in the savanna area.
Plant population is very low, native seed is used, no
fertilizer is used, and competition from other crop plants
and weeds is high.
Hundreds of local varieties and hybrids from Africa,
Central America, and other countries are under test in the
PNM (conducted by CIMMYT under contract with GOZ).
A multiple-cross variety was selected for increase, based on
H632, a three-way cross from Kenya, and SR52, a single
cross from Rhodesia. This variety, Shaba Safi. was used in

Table 20. Estimated maize area and
production by regions (GOZ, 1972)
Province 1,000 metric tons 1 1,000 ha
Bas Zaire 10.8 3 10.5
Equateur 39.6 11 38.5
Haut Zaire 32.4 9 31.5
Kivu 21.6 6 21.0
Subtotal 104.4 29 101.5
Bandundu 68.4 1) 66.5
Shaba 86.4 24 84.0
Kasai Occidental 43.2 12 42.0
Kasai Oriental 57.6 16 56.0
Subtotal 255.6 71 248.5
Total 360.0 100 350.0








farmer demonstrations in Shaba during the 1972-73 season.
It gives a much higher yield than the local variety, commonly
an eight-row white variety (Hickory King). However, Shaba
Safi is also an open-pollinated variety, which permits a
farmer to plant or sell seed harvested from his previous
crop. Two new open-pollinated maize varieties are now
available. These are PNM-1 [Tuxpeno 1 (mix 1 X Colima
Gpol) Eto X Shaba Safi] to replace Shaba Safi in Shaba
region and Salongo (bulk of 10 best lines of Tuxpeno 1
progenies, Cycle II) for the Kasai regions. About 200
metric tons of seed of the two varieties was harvested in
early 1975 and stored for planting starting in September.
Numerous insect and disease pests which attack maize
have been identified. Development of pest-resistant varieties
is a major goal. Control of diseases and insects with
pesticides is not now practiced.
Numerous experiments of other types are also being
carried out. For example, rotation experiments with various
legumes, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and cowpeas
(Vigna unquiculata) in rotation with maize, show yields up
to about 2 metric tons/ha of soybean grain and fair yields
of cowpeas for food, as well as supplying some N for the
following crop. Other legumes, such as Crotalaria caricea,
grown for soil improvement, supply much more N to the
soil.
PNM now recommends applying 100 kg of DAP/ha
(18-46-0) just prior to planting and 100 kg of urea (45-0-0)
when maize plants are 75 cm high, planting seed of a good
variety to establish 50,000 to 55,000 plants/ha (25 cm
apart in rows 75 cm apart), control of weeds, harvesting
when moisture content of grain is 20% or less, and storing
grain in a manner to reduce losses by insects, rot, and
rodents.


Agronomic Responses to Fertilizer

Experiments conducted on maize prior to 1973 by
INEAC and INERA were largely of the nutrient subtraction
type. That is, yields with NPK or NPKS treatment at one
rate of application were compared with treatments in which
each nutrient was successively omitted. The results
obtained showed the need for N and P in most trials and of
S in a few. Results from such experiments are largely
unsatisfactory for determining economic returns.
PNMresearch results--The most satisfactory fertilizer
response results in 1972-73 were obtained at the Kisanga
station on a rather fertile soil. The following results indicate
linear yield response up to 180 or 240 kg of N/ha, but only
slight increases in yield with 60 to 180 kg of P2Os/ha:
N applied and maize grain yields,
kg/ha, avg. of all P2 Os levels
Variety 0 60 120 180 240
Shaba Safi 7,030 7,870 9,140 10,220 9,900
Hickory King 3,850 4,830 4,490 5,780 6,030


Shaba Safi
Hickory King


P2 Os applied and maize grain yields.
kg/ha, avg. of all N levels
0 60 100 140 180
8,930 9,210 8,500 8,890 8.590
4,830 5,590 4,440 5.020 4.990


Eight experiments comparing four N rates and three P2 0O
rates were completed during the 1973-74 season. Detailed
results are shown in appendix table B-3. Average grain
yields were as follows (kg/ha):
P2 05 applied, N applied. kg, ha
kg/ha 0 60 120 180
Average experiments 1 and 2, Kasai Oriental
0 2,953 2,540 2.651 2.942
60 4,064 5,947 6.551 5.842
120 4,519 6,170 7.122 7.672
Average experiments 3-8, Shaba
0 3,793 5,469 6.145 6.557
60 3,902 5,782 6.419 7.384
120 4,368 6.024 6.806 7.736
The two Kasai experiments show no yield response to N
without P but considerable response to P without N. At the
highest rates of N and P, yields averaged 7.7 metric tons ha,
an increase of 4.7 metric tons/ha.
Averages for the six experiments in Shaba show higher
yields with low rates of applied N or P than occurred in
Kasai, but the maximum yield was the same. 7.7 metric
tons/ha. Increases in yield to N or P occurred at each rate
of the other nutrient.
Average yields for five maize varieties in 1974-75 at
eight locations in Kasai (table 21) show increases at all
locations up to the maximum rate of applied N (180
kg/ha). Near-maximum yields were obtained with 90 kg of
N at three of the locations.
PNM demonstration results--In 1972-73 to produce a
"shock effect" on farmers at first, such as luxuriant growth
and high yield, Shaba Safi was planted at a density of



Table 21. Average yields for five maize
varietiesa in eight experiments in Kasai, 1974-75
No 90 kg 180 kg
Location N of N of N Average
kglha
Mpoy 2,645 3.650 4.745 3.680
INERA 3,200 5.300 6.555 5.020
Shabanza 1,960 3,170 3.320 2.820
Mulamba 2,940 5,770 7.070 5.260
Nsona 1,970 3.985 4.090 3.350
Yamba 1,820 4.220 4.935 3.660
Kisenge 2,550 5,690 6.390 4.875
Mweka 2,910 4,615 4.635 4.055
Average 2.500 4,550 5.220
apNM-l, Salongo, ETO pb. X Tuxpeno pb. (Mix. 1 x col. epo 1)
ETO pb X Tuxpena pb., and local variety (hybrid double or farmer
mix.).








53,300 plants/ha (the usual density is 10,000 to
20,000/ha), together with a heavy application of complete
fertilizer. This was 1,000 kg/ha of 17-17-17 or 17-17-17-2%
MgO (the only fertilizers then available) prior to planting
plus 200 kg of urea/ha sidedressed when the crop was about
50 cm tall.
At 14 sites in 1972-73, the average yield was 6,800
kg/ha, four times that produced by the farmers' traditional
methods (local variety, low plant density, and no fertilizer).
For 1973-74 total nutrients applied for maize at 56 sites
were 129-115-38/ha. One-third of the N was applied at
planting and two-thirds at maize height of 75 cm (40-45
days after planting). Average yields of shelled maize (kg/ha,


14% moisture) w

Zone
Kapanga
Sandoa
Dilolo
Lubumbashi
Kolwezi
Lubudi
Sakania
Kambove
Total or average


'ere:

No. of tests Fertilized
5 2,270
5 2,910
19 3,840
3 6,190
6 2,930
8 7,210
3 6,340
7 4,820
56 4,380


Not fertilized
330
1,340
420
3,280
80
2,840
1,390
1,040
1,140


Yields without fertilizer in individual tests ranged from 0
to 5,320 kg of grain/ha. Yields with fertilizer ranged from
970 to 8,990 kg/ha. Some poor yields were due to later
than usual rainfall and some sandy, poorly managed soils.
In 1973-74, 15 supervised credit (no interest) plantings
were made in Shaba with the Shaba Safi variety. Average
yields were 5,183 kg/ha (5,565 without two late plantings).
Of the Z426 advanced as credit, 91% was repaid.


ONAFITEX-FAO Demonstrations

The first results of this program were obtained in the
Tshilenge and Mweme-Ditu areas of Kasai Oriental in 1973.
In 156 demonstrations in which maize followed cotton
which had received zero or two levels of complete fertilizer,
45 kg of N/ha gave increases in maize yield of from 540 to
742 kg/ha (table 22). Yield increases obtained from N for
maize following cotton were greater with the highest level
(50-65-10-25S) of fertilizer applied for cotton, but the
increase was not in proportion to that applied. These data
indicate a residual value for maize of fertilizer which was
previously applied to cotton.

Summary of Agronomic Response

Well-designed trials resulting in useful fertilizer response
data have been conducted in the PNM. Because of the
limited time the program has been active, the number of
test sites is relatively few for the size of the maize growing


area. Results to date indicate a minor response to P2 Os in
most trials conducted in Shaba but a major response in
trials in Kasai Oriental. In both areas, response to N is good
when P20s is adequate (2 metric tons of maize from 60 kg
of N/ha). No yield responses have been obtained to applied
K20, but such responses would be expected in a few years
after fertilization with N and P20s, accompanied by high
yields of maize. In the present stage of research develop-
ment, we concur with the general recommendation of 100
kg/ha of each urea and DAP.


Economic Aspects of Fertilizer Use for Maize

Agricultural practices followed by small subsistence
farmers have generally been in use for centuries. However,
experience in Zaire and under similar conditions in other
countries suggests that subsistence and semisubsistence
farmers do respond to economic incentives. A subsistence
farmer whose output is close to minimum living standards
must be concerned not only with the most probable
outcome but also with its range of variability. He has
learned from bitter experience to be wary of new methods
which as he sees them have been insufficiently adapted and
evaluated for his particular situation.
Recent experience from the production programs con-
ducted by the PNM involving supervised credit confirms
experience in other countries that, given a well-conceived
project with adequate economic incentive, adoption of
fertilizer can take place quite rapidly-more rapidly than
would be the case for many other innovations, since results
of fertilizer use are very dramatic and easily seen.
Since most small farmers in Zaire have not used fertilizer
in the past and are not fully familiar with it, a first step
must be to make them aware of its potential. Fertilizer
demonstrations on farmers' fields is an essential and proven
technique to acquaint farmers with the possibilities of
increasing yields. Person-to-person contact by extension
agents with farmers is indispensable.
The profitability of fertilizer use depends upon the yield
response and the price of the product in relation to the cost

Table 22. Results of ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer


demonstrations for maize, 1
Nutrient rate applied, kg/ha
Cotton Maize
N P20s K20 S N
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 45
30 40 6 15 0
30 40 6 15 45
50 65 10 25 0
50 65 10 25 45


1972-73a
Maize
yield
kg/ha
1,080
1,620
1,497
2,156
1,837
2,579


Benefit:
cost
ratiob

1.6

2.0

2.1


aResults of maize following cotton in southern Kasai Oriental,
average of 156 demonstrations.
bRatio of value of maize increase to cost of fertilizer applied for
maize with maize valued at 4K/kg and N at 30K/kg.









































(Foreground and left background)
Recommended maize variety at proper plant
density and well weeded, but growing
without fertilizer. (Right background)
Same conditions, but with profound positive
effects of fertilizer on the maize crop.












(Foreground) Farmer's local maize growing
with no fertilizer, traditional low plant
density, and poor weeding. (Background)
Variety recommended in Zaire National Maize
Program and fertilized, sown at desirable
plant density, and well weeded. Farmer's
traditional maize culture usually results
in yields of 0.5 to 1.5 metric tons of
grain/ha, compared with 6 to 10 tons
with the demonstrated package on good soils
and recommended open pollinated cultivars.








of fertilizer. A major reason for the declining use of
fertilizer in Zaire is the unfavorable price relationships.
While differences in weather from year to year or from
one location to another are a major cause of yield variation
and cannot be controlled, farmers can select appropriate
advantageous field locations, increase water-holding
capacity of the soil with organic matter, and plant at the
most advantageous time to avoid some of the risk of
moisture stress. Adequate land preparation and control of
weeds and insects are other ways to improve yield
potentials.
Onfarm demonstrations conducted by PNM for the
1973-74 season illustrate some of the yield variability risk
faced by farmers. These demonstrations were designed to
dramatize response potential visually and hence the fertil-
izer application rate was high to contrast with the no-
fertilizer plot. For the 48 demonstrations for which
complete data are available, ratios of the value of the maize
yield response to the applied nutrient cost (50K/kg) were
1.25 for the best 25% of the demonstrations, 1 to 1.25 for
the next 21%, 0.75 to 1 for the next 25%, and less than
0.75 for the poorest 29%.


Determining How Much Fertilizer to Use

Table 23 shows agronomic and economic implications of
alternative levels of fertilizer prices of maize and of
fertilizer based on average PNM results for six locations in
Shaba in the 1973-74 season.
In the illustration, total yield increased at a decreasing
rate with amount of fertilizer applied. As can be seen from
table 23, the first 60 kg of nutrients gave a yield increase of
1,157 kg of maize (19 kg of maize/kg of nutrient), the
second, an increase of 832 kg (14 kg of maize/kg of
nutrient), and the third, only a 518-kg increase (8.6 kg of
maize/kg of nutrient).
Even with a 19 to 1 response to fertilizer, it is not
profitable to use even 60 kg of nutrients/ha if the
benefit:cost ratio is unfavorable. For example, if the price
of maize is 2K/kg and the cost of fertilizer nutrients is


50K/kg, the increase in yield would not cover the cost of
fertilizer. This is about what fertilizer cost farmers in Shaba
in 1974, and maize prices of 2K/kg were reported in the
more remote areas. However, if the farmer received 4K/kg
of maize (official price in Shaba prior to August 1975), a
return of Z1.54 would be realized for each Z invested in
fertilizer. And if the price of maize were 6K, the farmer
would get a return of Z2.3/Z spent for fertilizer.
The second increment of fertilizer applied has a smaller
value because the yield increment declined from 1,157 to
832 kg. Hence, with a maize price of 2K, the farmer would
get back only 56% of his fertilizer investment. For a 4K or
6K maize price, he would get back ZI.10 or Z1.66/Z
invested in fertilizer, respectively.
The TVA team estimates that it may be possible to
deliver urea and DAP to farmers at an average cost of
30K/kg of nutrients in 1976-77 (see pages 73 and 74 for
details). Table 23 shows that at this cost the farmer would
get back his fertilizer cost for the first 60 kg of nutrients/
ha, even at a price of 2K/kg for maize. At a 4K maize price,
the investment in the second and third increments of
fertilizer would be returned with incremental benefit:cost
ratios of 1.85 and 1.15, respectively. At a maize price of
about 5K/kg, the benefit:cost ratio would be 2.0 for the
second increment of fertilizer. This 120 kg of nutrients/ha
is a reasonable minimum level of fertilization and approxi-
mates the current PNM recommendation. From a national
policy standpoint, it is important that the majority of
farmers have a favorable experience from using fertilizer
and that they continue to use it at a minimum level of 120
kg of nutrients/ha in the major maize production areas to
increase national production.
As implied in table 23, lowering the cost of fertilizer,
while important, will not result in adequate price relation-
ships to encourage farmers to meet the national need for
increased maize production. Higher prices to farmers is
the surest way of getting the increased production and
encouraging its delivery into commercial channels for
urban markets. This is also in the urban consumer's
best long-term interest in getting adequate food
supplies at a reasonable cost.


Table 23. Returns from successive 60 kg/ha increments of nutrients for various maize and fertilizer prices
Incremental benefit: Incremental benefit:
Total Yield increase Value of increased cost ratio with cost ratio with
nutrients from each successive yield of maize (Z/ha) nutrient cost of Z30/60 kg nutrient cost of Z18/60 kg
applied, 60 kg of fertilizer when price of maize is: when price of maize is:a when price of maize is:b
kg/ha nutrient, kg/ha 2K/kg 4K/kg 6K/kg 7.5K/kgc 2K/kg 4K/kg 6K/kg 7.5K/kgc 2K/kg 4K/kg 6K/kg 7.5K/kgc
60 1,157 23.10 46.30 69.40 89.78 0.77 1.54 2.31 2.99 1.29 2.57 3.86 4.98
120 832 16.60 33.30 49.90 64.65 0.56 1.10 1.66 2.15 0.92 1.85 2.77 3.59
180 518 10.40 20.70 31.10 38.85 0.34 0.69 1.04 1.29 0.58 1.15 1.73 2.15
aNutrient cost of Z30/60 kg = 50K/kg.
bNutrient cost of Z18/60 kg = 30K/kg.
cThe maize price as of August 1975. Farmgate prices (prix a la production) for principal products were increased in August 1975 as follows:
maize and rice, from 4K to 7.5K/kg; peanuts unshelledd), from 8K to 16K/kg; palm fruit, from 0.6K to 1K/kg; palm oil (ex-mill), from Z92
to Z145/metric ton; coffee (dry berries), from 9.5K to 11K/kg; and seed cotton (first quality), from 7K to 10K/kg.








Response to fertilizer varies among locations and years.
The risk of not getting the expected yield response for a
given crop is especially critical for small farmers purchasing
fertilizer on credit. Since they usually do not have reserve
funds and the fertilizer expenditure is high relative to their
income, the consequences can be serious. Moreover, small
farmers use different cultural practices and typically get
lower yield responses than those obtained in experiments.
In basing price policy on experimental data, a sizable
margin is needed to allow for these factors.
For rapid adoption of fertilizer by a large number of
farmers with severe capital restrictions, it may take an
incremental benefit:cost ratio (value of crop produced by
an increment of fertilizer divided by the cost of that
increment) of 2.5:1. Trial-and-error adjustments would be
needed to pinpoint an exact incremental benefit:cost ratio
appropriate to increase production, but the TVA team
considers a 2:1 ratio under farm conditions as a reasonable
starting level (which means ratios on test plots should be
considerably higher). This would make it profitable for
farmers with limited capital to use fertilizer profitably at
the current recommended rate and for farmers without
capital restrictions to use higher rates.
To calculate the crop price needed to give this incre-
mental benefit:cost ratio (1) select the level of fertilization
desired to meet production needs, (2) determine the cost of
nutrients delivered to farmers, (3) determine the average
yield response expected-on the basis of agronomic
research-from the last 30- to 60-kg increments of nutrients
for the selected level of fertilization, and (4) multiply the
cost of the last increment of nutrients by 2 and divide by
the expected average yield increase from the last increment
of nutrients.
Example for maize- Assuming it is desirable to
encourage farmers to use 120 kg/ha of nutrients, allowing a
benefit:cost ratio of 2:1 for the second 60-kg increment of
nutrients, and that the yield response data in table 23 is
representative of a large area where fertilizer use and maize
production will be encouraged, the minimum price of maize
should be:

Z18.00 x 2
832 kg Z.0433/kg.


These benefit:cost relationships are also important in
stimulating increased production of other crops. A variety
of policies may unintentionally cause unfavorable benefit:
cost ratios. These include requirements that a fixed fraction
of output be sold domestically at low prices, export and
import taxes, and subsidized imports as well as low-
producer prices. If the disincentive is substantial, the
consumer actually will pay more for a smaller output and
tax revenues may be less than they would otherwise be.


Use of Land, Labor, and
Capital in Maize Production

A reasonable strategy in developing maize agriculture in
Zaire is to introduce improved seeds and fertilizer as proven
methods of quickly increasing yields. Farmers are then
conditioned to consider the adoption of more complex
changes in cultural practices. The introduction of small
tractors or animal power, improved tillage equipment, and
simplified harvesting equipment is desirable but will require
an extended time period to be utilized efficiently. The
introduction of tractors and modern mechanization should
proceed at the same rate as the training in operation and
repair, and a system of making spare parts readily available
is essential for efficient operation.
Use of fertilizer would result in a significant change in
the levels of land, labor, and capital utilized in producing
the nation's maize. Fertilizer substitutes for land and labor
but utilizes more capital. These relationships are illustrated
in table 24 for the response relationships from table 23 and
a fertilizer nutrient cost of 30K/kg of nutrient. The detailed
budgets and assumptions per hectare are included in
appendix table B-4.
As fertilizer use is increased, yields per hectare increase.
and fewer hectares are needed to produce 1.000 metric tons
of maize. While more labor is required per hectare. total
labor requirements decrease because fewer hectares are
involved. Capital requirements per hectare and per 1.000
metric tons of maize both increase.
As indicated in table 24, use of 120 kg (60 N and 60
P20s) of fertilizer nutrients/ha, compared to no fertilizer.
would reduce land requirements per 1.000 metric tons of
maize from 264 to 173 ha. Labor requirements for planting
and growing would be reduced from 21.100 man-days to
14,400. The capital cost would increase from Z1.287 to
Z7,440.
The usefulness of fertilizer to reduce land and labor
requirements depends upon the relative limitations and


Table 24. Land, labor, and capital requirements
to produce 1,000 metric tons of maize
Fertilizer nutrients applied, kg,ha
Resource 0 60 120 180 240
Land, ha 264 202 173 159 147
Cash expense, Z 1,287 4,840 7,440 9.860 11.930
Labor (planting
and weeding),
100 man-days 211 166 144 133 125
Capital added, Z -3,550 2,600 2.410 2.070
Labor saved,
100 man-days 45 22 11 8
Capital required
to replace
100 man-days, Z 78 118 236 245








values of each resource. Unlike many other countries, land
is not a limiting factor in maize production in Zaire. Only a
fraction of the land suitable for maize production in Shaba,
Kasai Oriental, and Kasai Occidental is being utilized;
fertilizer would replace the existing system of shifting
cultivation, making a much larger land area under
cultivation feasible.
Labor is an important resource and may be limiting
during critical periods such as at planting time. Maize is
planted in Shaba and Kasai during the beginning of the
rainy season and yields decline if not planted on time. The
second labor use restraint concerns the difficulty of tasks.
Farmers consider the return that they receive from sale of
maize in relation to the amount of arduousness of the work
and other resources which have gone into its production.
Capital is undoubtedly the most limiting resource for
individual farmers. However, its appropriate use in
developing the nation's capacity to produce food is far less
costly than the importation of food.
The substitution of fertilizer for labor is more important
in the agricultural economy of Zaire than is the substitution
for land. Moreover, as more fertilizer is used per hectare,
larger amounts of capital are required to replace 100
man-days of labor in the production of 1,000 metric tons
of maize. This relationship is apparent from observing the
last three lines of table 24. For each 60 kg increment of
nutrients per hectare, less total labor is replaced by that
increment, so that the capital required to replace 100
man-days (table 24) increases from Z78 for the first 60 kg
of nutrients to 118 and 236 for the second and third
increments, respectively.

National Programs and Projects

Programs or projects in Zaire which include maize
production discussed below will be used as the basis for
projecting fertilizer use for maize through 1980.
National maize program (PNM)--The PNM was estab-
lished in 1972 with technical assistance from CIMMYT for
the improvement of maize production in Zaire. The
research program includes work in plant breeding, variety
selection, resistance to disease and insects, effect of cultural
practices, and crop response to fertilizer. In 1974 con-
trolled experiments were conducted on four research
stations: Kisanga (southern Shaba), Kaniama/Kasese (north-
western Shaba), Gandadjika (Kasai Oriental), and Bena
Longo-Mweka (Kasai Occidental). Also, many trials were
conducted off-station in these regions.
Extension activities are an integral part of PNM. Exten-
sion agents are trained in maize production techniques at
training centers at Lubumbashi and Gandadjika. Supervi-
sion is given in conducting seed multiplication and produc-
tion demonstrations with Zairois farmers and a number of
industry farms. In the 1973-74 and 1974-75 seasons,


supervised credit plantings were conducted in Shaba. Credit
was extended for fertilizer and visits were made to supervise
planting, weeding, N sidedressing, and harvesting.
The PNM plans to have 11,000 ha under its supervised
credit program in the 1975-76 season in the areas of
Gandadjika and Kaniama. The work in these areas is
planned with farmers who have been in the FED-sponsored
project for cotton and maize production in the Gandadjika
area and those in the TABAZAIRE project in the Kaniama
area. They plan to use 100 kg/ha of each DAP and urea.
Since fertilizer had not been ordered as of June 1, 1975, we
anticipate this program will be delayed.
Ubangi-IBRD Project--This is a regional development
project in the savanna area of Equateur region. IBRD
provides financial and technical assistance to promote
production practices for cotton and maize. Total area in the
project is now 38,000 ha and it is expected to expand to
44,000 ha by 1980. No fertilizer is now used in the project.
Mweka-French technical assistance-The project is
being started in 1975. It is primarily aimed at improving
maize production in central Kasai Occidental region, but
other crops are grown in rotation. By 1980 the project will
involve 75,000 cultivators on about 30,000 ha in the zones
of Mweka, Luebo, Illebo, and Demba.
Tanganika-north Shaba--This is a project proposed by
GOZ to USAID for funding in 1976 to influence about
100,000 ha by 1982. The proposed project will involve
bridge construction and road improvement to give better
transportation access to supply farm inputs and markets for
farm goods and promotion of improved maize production
practices. Average yield of maize for the area is now about
750 kg/ha. The project proposes initially to increase average
yield to 1,200 kg/ha by advising farmers on production
practices and introducing improved seed. Fertilizer will be
introduced when the price of maize and fertilizer are
adjusted to give the farmer an adequate return.
Kasese mechanized farming project- Belgium provides
financial and technical assistance for this project located
near Kaniama in western Shaba region. There are 45,000
ha available for the project which started in 1972. About
27,000 ha will be used for ranching and 18,000 ha for
maize. Currently, there is 1,500 ha of maize under
mechanized cultivation with average yields of 3,500 kg/ha.
Industry farms--The GOZ has recently required large
mining and other companies to produce maize for their
employees. The following companies have initiated mecha-
nized maize production projects and may expand to an
average of about 5,000 ha/company.

Estimated'maize
Company in 1975, ha
GECAMINES (Societe Generale des
Carrieres et des Mines) 500
SNCZ (Societe Nationale de Chemins de
Fer du Zaire) 200
SMK (Societe Miniere de Kisenge) 50
MIBA (Societe Miniere de Bakwanga) 10
SMTF (Societe Miniere de Tengu-Fugurume) 10

































Mechanized farm operations like this one in Shaba are rare.


Fertilizer Needs


The projections for fertilizer consumption for maize in
Zaire were based upon the f 'i. ... 111 assumptions:
1. National policy adjustments will be made to assure
the farmer a reasonable return on his investment in
fertilizer.
2. Fertilizer and credit will be readily available to the
farmer at a reasonable cost.
3. Fertilizer use will largely occur through maize
production projects.
4. Maize growers who are in cotton and tobacco
projects are included in PNM statistics.
5. Area in maize which will be fertilized was calculated
from (a) reported areas in projects now under way
or planned to start by 1976, (b) our projected area
in new projects to be started before 1980, and (c)
our projected area in large mechanized farms.
6. Starting in 1976, maize will be produced in 2 years
of a rotation consisting of 4 years cropping and 4
years fallow. Thus, maize is produced on one-fourth
the area listed in the projects.
7. In 1980 maize will be produced in 2 or 3 years of a
rotation under continuous cropping.
8. Continuous maize will be produced on large mecha-
nized farms on newly cultivated land, thus adding to
the area under cultivation. Kasese will use new
technology on existing cultivated land.
9. Each hectare of fertilized maize will receive 60 kg of
N and 45 kg of P20s and will be grown using the


technology recommended by PNM.
10. Maize grown with the recommended technology will
yield 2 metric tons/ha more than traditionally
grown maize. Yield on mechanized farms will
average 4 metric tons/ha.
The projections for area of maize fertilized, fertilizer
consumption, and additional maize produced are given in
table 25. These projections are relatively ambitious, with
increases of more than 20.000 ha year of production with
new technology in regional projects with small farmers plus
about 6,000 ha of large mechanized farm production
beginning each year. The projections are realistic if a
concerted effort is made in ALL areas outlined for the
fertilizer introduction program.
Our medium level estimates of increased maize con-
sumption will leave Zaire with a deficit of over
200.000 metric tons in 1976. The deficit is growing at
a rate of 20.000 to 25.000 metric tons annually. That
means that 10.000 to 12.000 ha must be brought into
production under new technology each year to offset
increased consumption. During the first year of the
outlined program, Zaire can begin to lower that defi-
cit. In 1981 the deficit can be eliminated. However.
this requires the use of 7.500 metric tons of N and
5,600 metric tons of P2Os by small farmers plus
1,500 metric tons of N and 1.100 metric tons of
P205 on industry farms in the 1980-81 season. This is
equivalent to about 15.000 metric tons each of urea
and DAP. Projected fertilizer use for maize by
province is shown in tables 26 and 27.








Table 25. Projections for fertilized maize, fertilizer needs, and additional maize produced, 1976 and 1980
Maize Nutrient need Additional
fertilizeda 1976 1980 maize produced
Projects 1976 1980 N P,20 N P20s 1977 1981
1,000 ha metric tons 1,000 metric tons
GOZ
PNM 11 30 660 500 1,800 1,350 22 60
Ubangi 9 30 540 410 1,800 1,350 18 60
Mweka 5 20 300 230 1,200 900 10 40
Tanganika 3 33 180 140 1,980 1,490 6 66
Kasese 2 12 120 90 720 540 4 24
30 125 1,800 1,370 7,500 5,630 60 250
Industry farms 1 25 60 40 1,500 1,120 4 100
Total 31 150 1,860 1,410 9,000 6,750 64 350
aAssume-1976: Maize produced in 2 years of a rotation consisting of 4 years of cropping and 4 years fallow. Thus maize hectarage equals
one-fourth of project area. 1980: Maize produced 2 of 3 years in a continuous cropping system. Thus, maize hectarage equals two-thirds of
project area. Continuous maize on large mechanized farms.
bAssume 60 and 45 kg/ha of N and P2Os, respectively.
CAssume 2 metric tons/ha increased yiela of maize from improved technology on GOZ projects and 4 metric tons/ha yield on newly cultivated
land on industry farms.


Table 26. Projected nutrient
needs for maize, 1976 and 1980
1976 1980
Province N P205 N P20s
metric tons
Bandundu 360 270
Equateur 540 410 1,200 900
Haut Zaire 600 450
Kasai Occidental 300 230 1,200 900
Kasai Oriental 360 270 720 540
Shaba 660 500 4,920 3,690
Total 1,860 1,410 9,000 6,750

Table 27. Projected urea and DAP product
needs for maize, 1976 and 1980
1976 1980
Province Urea DAP Urea DAP
metric tons
Bandundu 565 585
Equateur 845 890 1,890 1,955
Haut Zaire 945 980
Kasai Occidental 465 500 1,890 1,955
Kasai Oriental 565 585 1,135 1,175
Shaba 1,035 1,085 7,720 8,020
Total 2,910 3,060 14,145 14,670

Encouraging industries to establish large mechanized
farms for maize production seems sound at first thought. It
centralizes production areas and makes handling and
marketing easier. Also, it is much less labor intensive than
peasant farming. However, several problems exist in the
present mechanization projects. Management skills are
scarce, skilled labor must be trained to operate and
maintain machinery, machinery is costly, there is a long
time lag in replacing worn and broken parts, and land
selection and land use planning have not been optimum.


If GOZ depends upon large mechanized farms to supply
significant quantities of maize, a national mechanized maize
project should be started. Expatriates highly qualified in
large-scale maize production should be employed to manage
the project and train Zairois for management and operation
of the farms.
Some requirements from GOZ include:
1. Assure adequate and timely supply of equipment,
parts, and fuel for the farms. This can be accom-
plished through one or more existing supply compa-
nies by informing them of the need and encouraging
establishment of inventories of parts and machinery.
Import taxes on these inputs to agriculture should be
reduced.
2. Provide training for farm managers, production
specialists, and foremen from the large farms.
3. Establish training courses for mechanics and equip-
ment operators. This might be accomplished through
the Kasese project.
4. Provide a staff consisting of (a) GOZ project manager
who reports directly to PNM director, (b) land use
specialist, and (c) production agronomist. The project
manager should have practical experience as manager
of large-scale maize farms. This staff will work
directly with the farm management personnel and
coordinate training courses for the mechanized farm
group. The staff will assist farm managers in making
farm plans (field layout, drainage, etc.) and approve
the final plan as well as work with them during the
production season.
Requirements from industries:
1. Send all farm managers and foremen to training
courses provided by PNM.
2. Train mechanics and operators in PNM-approved
courses.








3. Obtain an approved land use plan for the farm.
This project might be financed through a grant from
some organization or the industries might be required to
fund the project.


RICE

The major upland rice growing area in Zaire is along the
right bank of the Zaire River between Lisala and Kisangani,
which includes areas of Equateur and Haut Zaire regions.
About 16% of the country's rice is grown in Equateur and
30% in Haut Zaire (table 28). This zone is the primary
supplier to the Kinshasa market. Rice is grown under
upland culture, seed quality is poor, and the rice grown is
of poor quality; milling percentage is often as low as 50%.
Yields are apparently about 750 kg/ha.
About 28% of Zaire's rice is grown in the Ruzizi Valley
of Kivu. Most of this rice is irrigated, but yields are
apparently only about 1 metric ton/ha.
There are many excellent areas for rice production in
Shaba and Bandundu which have not been so used.


Agronomic Response to Fertilizer

Upland rice is commonly one of the first crops grown,
together with others, in the shifting cultivation pattern.
Little or no yield response to fertilizer would be expected
in such situations, even with improved varieties. With
continued cultivation, NP or NPK fertilizers are essential
for maximum yield.
Very few data on response of rice to applied fertilizers in
Zaire were found. Yields of upland rice and groundnuts at
Yangambi in 1958 with some TVA experimental fertilizers
were as follows:


No fertilizer
100 kg triple superphosphate +
10.5 kg N as AS
65 kg ammonium metaphosphate
75 kg calcium metaphosphate +
10.5 kg N as AS


Groundnuts Rough rice
kg/ha
1,133 2,036

2,450 4,017
2,402 4,217

2,272 4,298


Effects of soil amendments on flooded Tainan 5 rice
yields at Lodja (Kasai Oriental) in 1973 as reported by the
Chinese Agricultural Mission were:


Amendment
None
Green manure (22.5 metric tons/ha)
Cottonseed meal (1.1 metric tons/ha)
Chemical compost (262.5 kg/ha)


Kg/ha
4,690
6,100
5,750
5,655


Table 28. Distribution of rice
production, 1972 (11)
Production Apparent area.
Region 1,000 metric tons % 1.000 ha
Bandundu 9.2 4.5 11.7
Bas Zaire 5.9 2.9 7.5
Equateur 32.7 15.8 41.1
Haut Zaire 62.8 30.4 79.1
Kasai Occidental 6.8 3.3 8.6
Kasai Oriental 22.8 11.0 28.6
Kivu 57.2 27.7 72.0
Shaba 9.0 4.4 11.4
Total 206.4 100.0 260.0

Average yields of upland rice over a 2-year period were
4.4 metric tons/ha at Mawunzi (Bas Zaire) and 1.1 metric
tons/ha at Kikwit (Bandundu). Yields reported for 14 rice
varieties grown under flooding at Ruzizi. Kivu. in 1973
were 5,760 kg/ha and higher.
Experiences in other countries have shown yield
increases of upland rice of 15 to 20 kg/ha of rice kg of N
below 60 to 70 kg/ha. Where responses to N and POs are
obtained, a response of 10 to 15 kg/ha of rice, kg of
nutrient may be expected. Need of K for rice in Zaire has
not been reported. Additional response data are needed.


National Programs

A program to increase rice production is being super-
vised by the Chinese Agricultural Mission. In 1973 the
mission assisted in growing 14,000 ha of unirrigated and
460 ha of irrigated rice in five regions. Most of the flooded
rice was in the Ruzizi project where yields were 1.6 metric
tons/ha. Several small flooded rice projects were in Bas
Zaire, Kasai Oriental, Equateur. and Bandundu with average
yields of 8.4 metric tons/ha. About 12.450 ha of upland
rice was grown near Bumba. Equateur. and in Bandundu
and Kasai Oriental with average yields of 1 metric ton ha.
Other smaller projects in Bas Zaire and in Kinshasa District
yielded 2 to 2.5 metric tons/ha.


Fertilizer Needs

Fertilizer needs for rice in the near future will depend
upon use of fertilizer in rice production projects. Total
needs will depend upon the response of rice to fertilizer.
availability of fertilizer, distribution of improved seed. and
the relative price of rice and fertilizer.
Fertilizer response experiments should be established at
once in all of the rice growing areas to determine the
economics of fertilizer use. The following projections are
based on results from other countries and may need to be
adjusted after Zaire data become available. Assumptions
used were:
1. Fertilizer will be applied at a rate of 30 kg,ha each of
N and P205 for the total planted area.








2. Project area will expand by 10,000 ha annually.
3. Growers will continue to use fertilizer after the close
supervision is discontinued.
4. Yield increases will be 600 kg of rough rice/ha (10
kg/ha/kg of N plus P20 5 applied).
If 30,000 ha of rice is fertilized in 1976 at a rate of 30
kg/ha each of N and P205, the fertilizer requirement will
be 1,200 and 2,000 metric tons of urea and DAP,
respectively (table 29). This will result in about 18,000
metric tons of additional rice. By 1980 we project 70,000
ha to be fertilized, which will require 3,900 and 4,600
metric tons of urea and DAP. The projected increased
consumption rate is 11,000 metric tons of rice annually,
but our projection for increased production is 6,000 metric
tons/year. An increased production rate may be obtained
by increasing hectarage, increasing area fertilized, or fertil-
izing at higher rates. The best choice can only be made after
appropriate yield response data to fertilizer are obtained.


SUGARCANE

Sugarcane is grown near two sugar factories. Compagnie
Sucriere du Zaire (CSZ) has a 50,000-metric ton plant in
the Kwilu-Ngongo area of Bas Zaire. About 8,000 ha of
cane is grown in an 18-month cycle, resulting in harvests of
4,800 ha annually. About 44,000 metric tons of sugar was
produced in 1974.
Sucriere et Raffinerie de l'Afrique Central (SUCRAF)
operates a 23,000-metric ton capacity plant at Kilaba in the


Ruzizi Valley of Kivu. About 2,000 ha of cane is grown
under irrigation and the cane is cut annually. Area and
water are available for expansion to 4,000 ha, but plant
capacity will limit production to about 2,400 ha. In 1974
over 18,000 metric tons of sugar was produced.
Five additional sugar projects have been announced, but
construction of factories has not started. The projects are:
Luiza, Kasai Occidental (Belgian); Lubilashi, Shaba
(French); Mushi Pentane, Bandundu (British); Businpa,
Equateur (Italian); and Yawenda, Haut Zaire, (Chinese).
Plans are for planting 1,000 to 2,000 ha annually resulting
in 6,000 to 8,000 ha of cane at each project in 5 years.
No yield data on response of sugarcane to fertilizer were
found in Zaire.

Fertilizer Requirements

The sugarcane plantations will offer a captive market for
the proposed fertilizer industry. Fertilizer apparently has
been used, even with the recent high prices. We assume
fertilizer use at rates of 80-70-60 kg/ha for land presently in
cane and a planting schedule as proposed for three new
projects. The projected fertilizer need for cane and the total
sugar produced (table 30) show need for 1,100 metric tons
of urea, 1,500 metric tons of DAP, and 1,000 metric tons
of muriate of potash in 1976. At that time, Zaire will still
be importing about 20,000 metric tons of sugar. By 1980
Zaire could have about 90,000 metric tons of sugar for
export annually. The fertilizer requirement in 1980 will be


Table 29. Projections of fertilizer required for rice production, 1976-77 and 1980-81
Land area Fertilizer need, Increased rice
fertilized, 1,000 metric tonsb production,
Region 1,000 haa N P2Os Urea DAP 1,000 metric tons
1976-77
Bandundu 1 30 30 40 65 0.6
Bas Zaire 1 30 30 40 65 0.6
Equateur 10 300 300 405 650 6.0
Haut Zaire 6 180 180 245 390 3.6
Kasai Occidental 2 60 60 80 135 1.2
Kasai Oriental 4 120 120 160 260 2.4
Kivu 6 180 180 245 390 3.6
Total 30 900 900 1,215 1,955 18.0
1980-81
Bandundu 2 60 60 80 135 1.2
Bas Zaire 2 60 60 80 135 1.2
Equateur 25 750 750 1,015 1,630 15.0
Haut Zaire 10 300 300 405 650 6.0
Kasai Occidental 6 180 180 245 390 3.6
Kasai Oriental 10 300 300 405 650 6.0
Kivu 15 450 450 610 980 9.0
Total 70 2,100 2,100 2,840 4,570 42.0
aAssume total planted area under projects fertilized. Distribution to regions is made mainly on the basis of project areas active in each province.
bAssume fertilized at a rate of 30 kg/ha of each N and P2Os.
CAssume yield increase of 600 kg/ha due to fertilizer.








2,800 metric tons of urea, 3,600 metric tons of DAP, and
2,300 metric tons of muriate of potash (table 31).


COTTON

Cotton production and consumption have risen slightly
since 1970 and exports are about 7,000 metric tons/year.
Cotton is mainly grown in three areas: 49% in northern
(Equateur and Haut Zaire), 38% in southern (Shaba and
Kasai Oriental), and 13% eastern (Kivu).

Production System

Most of the 225,000 ha of cotton is grown by planters
who cultivate 0.3 to 0.5 ha. Tollens (1975) reported that
79% of cotton grown in the north was in forest areas and
that the average size field was 0.35 ha in both forest and
savanna. Average yield in this study was 391 kg/ha of seed
cotton. The highest yield found was 1,704 kg of seed
cotton/ha near Bambesa.
Fertilizer is not used for cotton in the north. Some form
of mechanization is used only on about 2,500 ha or 1% of
the cotton grown in Zaire. Cotton is usually planted in a
rotation with maize, rice, and cassava in the north and with
maize, peanuts, and cassava in the south and east. Short
staple length varieties are planted in the north in June and
July, and medium staple length varieties in the south in
December and January.

Agronomic Response to Fertilizer

The first controlled experiments with fertilizers for
cotton in Zaire were initiated at the Bambesa Experiment
Station (Haut Zaire) in 1935 (INEAC report). In this
forested area, applied N, P, and K increased yields. Ten tons


of cottonseed hull compost increased yields 57% and 800
kg of cottonseed ashes by 73%. In later experiments after
1945, 100 kg of AS and 100 kg of TSP/ha produced crops
of peanuts and maize or cotton each year for 6 years or
more without yield deterioration. Average seed cotton
yields of 1,600 to 1,700 kg/ha were obtained in years of
favorable weather. Without fertilizers, production in the
sixth year was 60% lower than in the first year. Recom-
mendations for cotton were 100 kg of TSP/ha each year
and 100 kg of AS after the third year following clearing of
the forest. This could prolong the cultivation cycle and
reduce land clearing by one-third.
In the Ubangi (Equateur) forest area experiments at the
Boketa station, average responses to N and P were about
24% and 19%. The responses were erratic and always
uneconomical.
At the Kutubongo station in northern Ubangi on
savanna dominated by Imperata cylindrica. and at the
Magombo station in northern Uele on Guinea grass savanna.
significant yield responses were obtained to N and P.
However, the yields obtained from these soils were so low
Table 31. Estimates of fertilizer material
requirements for sugarcane, 1976-77 and 1980-81
Fertilizer material, metric tons
Province Urea DAP KCI
1976-77
Bas Zaire 935 1.215 800
Kivu 235 305 200
Total 1,170 1,520 1,000
1980-81
Bandundu 465 610 400
Bas Zaire 1,050 1.370 900
Kasai Occidental 465 610 400
Kivu 275 370 240
Shaba 465 610 400
Total 2,720 3,570 2,340


Table 30. Estimates of nutrient requirement and sugar production, 1976-77 and 1980-81
Planted land Fertilizer nutrient, metric tonsb Sugar produced.
Province area, 1,000 haa N P2 0O KO 1.000 metric tonsC
1976-77
Bas Zaire 8.0 640 560 480 46
Kivu 2.0 160 140 120 19
Total 10.0 800 700 600 65
1980-81
Bandundu 4.0 320 280 240 38
Bas Zaire 9.0 720 630 540 50
Kasai Occidental 4.0 320 280 240 38
Kivu 2.4 190 170 145 23
Shaba 4.0 320 280 240 38
Total 23.4 1,870 1,640 1,405 187
aLand area in cane plus announced plans. Harvested area in Bas Zaire is 60% of planted area and 100% in other provinces.
bAssumed application of 80, 70, and 60 kg/ha of N, P20s, and K20.
CAssumed production of 9.5 metric tons/ha of sugar.









that yield increase of 50% to 100% to fertilizers still did not
make fertilizer applications economical.
More recently CFDT started fertilizer trials in the
northern area. In 1973 trials conducted in Ubangi-Mongala,
only one of five locations showed an acceptable response to
fertilizer (29):

Cottonseed Seed cotton increases from
yield without 20-20-0-6% S, 100 kg/haa
fertilizer, kg/ha Kg/ha Z/ha Profit, Z/hab
1,433 517 31 19
1,015 97 6 -6
438 62 4 -8
1,180 346 21 9
635 166 10 -2
Average (5) 238 14 2
Average (3 best) 343 21 9
aSidedressed 1 week after planting.
bFertilizer cost, 30K/kg of N and P2Os; seed cotton price, 6K/kg.

The INEAC and CFDT experiments showed that the
profitability of use of fertilizers on cotton in the northern
area depended on the soil type and whether the effect on
the entire rotation was considered. That is, fertilizer can
substitute in part for labor and other costs of clearing land.
The first results of the ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer
demonstration program were obtained in Tshilenge and
Mweme-Ditu areas of Kasai Oriental in 1973. Fertilizers
were applied as recommended for cotton by INERA,
50-65-10-25S (kg/ha), and at 40% of this rate. Results are
shown in table 32. Average results of 264 trials were 717 kg
of seed cotton without fertilizer, 1,164 kg with
30-40-6-15S, and 1,545 kg with 50-65-10-25S. These
increases over no fertilizer were 447 and 828 kg/ha. As seen
from the benefit:cost ratio, the average for all
demonstrations shows a very low return over fertilizer cost.
In the eastern cotton area, ONAFITEX-FAO conducted
two replicated fertilizer trials for cotton in 1973. At the
first increment of fertilizer applied (table 33), yield
response was 1,042 and 1,800 kg of seed cotton/ha at
Samba and Kassongo, respectively. However, at the
assumed prices of fertilizer and cotton, the benefit:cost
ratios were 1.7 and 2.9
In summary, based on the extremely limited response
data for cotton to fertilizer in Zaire, it appears that 100
kg/ha of 18-46-0 would be appropriate for much of the
cotton in Zaire and that this should result in a yield
response of 500 kg/ha of seed cotton.


Economics of Fertilizer Use

The price the Zairois farmer received for cotton in 1975
was less than one-third of the world price, while fertilizer
cost to the farmer in 1975 was about twice that in fertilizer
producing countries.


Table 32. Results of ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer
demonstrations for cotton in southern Kasai, 1972
Nutrients applied, kg/ha Seed cotton Value:cost
N P 0s K20 S yield, kg/haa ratiob


0 0 0 0 717
30 40 6 15 1,164 1.2
50 65 10 25 1,545 1.3
aAverage of 264 demonstrations.
bRatio of value of increased cotton yield to cost of fertilizer applied
with seed cotton valued at 6K/kg and fertilizer at 30K/kg of N,
P2 05, and K20.


Table 33. Results of ONAFITEX-FAO
replicated trials for cotton in Kivu, 1973
Nutrients applied, Seed cotton
kg/ha yield, kg/ha Value:cost ratio
N P2Os K2O Samba Kassongo Samba Kassongo
0 0 0 820 1,400
50 65 10 1,862 3,200 1.7 2.9
50 110 10 1,580 2,200 0.9 0.9
85 65 10 1,497 1,850 0.8 0.6
aRatio of value of increased cotton yield to cost of fertilizer applied
with seed cotton valued at 6K/kg and fertilizer at 30K/kg of N,
P205, and K20.

With a yield response of 500 kg of seed cotton to 100 kg
of 18-46-0/ha and a price 6K/kg of seed cotton and 30K/kg
of N + P2Os, Z19.20 invested in fertilizer gives increased
cotton yield valued at Z30.00. This is insufficient incentive
for a farmer to use fertilizer for cotton when all the risks of
production are considered. The price the farmer receives for
cotton would need to be increased substantially to induce
him to produce cotton.

National Programs

The Ubangi cotton production program was described
under maize. In addition, there was a GOZ program in the
Ruzizi Valley for about 4,200 ha of cotton in 1974 and
7,000 ha in 1980.
The ONAFITEX-FAO fertilizer demonstration program
was conducted in the areas of Cabinda, Tshilenge, and
Mweme-Ditu in 1972-73. A total of 353 demonstrations
was conducted using three 0.05-ha plots to compare no
fertilizer, 30-40-6-15S/ha and 50-65-10-25S/ha.

Fertilizer Needs

The fertilizer needs for cotton and other crops will
depend upon GOZ production policies. The desire for
increased maize production seems evident, but programs for
cotton production seem to be limited in effectiveness. Zaire
is now an exporter of cotton, but may not be by 1980
unless effective production programs are initiated. About
15,000 ha of cotton is grown in rotation with maize in
Shaba and Kasai Oriental in project areas where major








emphasis will be placed upon maize production. Increased
production of cotton will result from farmer use of
fertilizer on maize; but if maize production is more
profitable for the farmer, he will reduce his cotton and
increase maize.
About one-half of the cotton is grown in the northern
area where there is no major maize program, but maize will
likely be needed to prevent it from becoming a major
deficit area.
Cotton production projects similar to the PNM program
for maize will be needed to increase cotton production.
Since most cotton and maize are grown in rotation in Zaire,
little additional effort over an effective maize program is
needed to increase production of cotton. The main addi-
tional inputs would be to provide adequate price relation-
ships between fertilizer, cotton and maize, pesticides for
cotton, advice on cultural practices, and marketing
structure.
Using the same basic assumptions as for maize, we
project the fertilizer needs and increased cotton production
as shown in table 34. The use of 2,500 metric tons of
fertilizer is expected to produce an additional 12,500
metric tons of seed cotton or about 4,000 to 5,000 metric
tons of lint. This limited program will permit Zaire to
continue export at about the present level through 1980.


OIL PALM

Palm oil is the major source of vegetable oil for the
domestic market, and is Zaire's second ranking agricultural


commodity. Zaire was the world's largest exporter of oil
palm products in 1960. Therefore, oil palm production has
been and should continue to be important in the overall
economy.
The total area of oil palm is difficult to establish because
it grows both naturally and on commercial plantations. The
total was estimated at 179,000 to 185,000 ha in 1959.
200,000 ha in 1970, and between 150,000 ha (Belgian
estimate) and 182,600 ha (GOZ estimate) in 1973. Produc-
tion totaled about 750,000 metric tons of palm fruit and
77,000 metric tons of palm kernel in 1974. distributed as
follows: Bas Zaire (10%), Bandundu (27%). Equateur
(32%), Haut Zaire (15%), and other regions (16%).
Exports of palm oil, kernel oil, and cake have shown a
steady decline since 1970 (table 35). For example. nearly
124,000 metric tons of palm oil was exported in 1970. but
only 39,000 metric tons is forecast for 1975 because of
decline in production and rising domestic demand for
vegetable oil.
Zaire could be a net exporter of oil products by 1980;
but even if palm oil production is restored to its 1970 level.
increases in domestic consumption preclude any significant
export earnings unless production increases.
Major factors which appear to have contributed to the
sharp drop in production of oil palm products include: (a)
the GOZ requirement that most palm oil must be sold in
the domestic market at artificially low prices. (b) scarcity
of qualified management personnel, and (c) scarcity of
laborers. These problems have been amplified by the
Zairianization of most of the oil palm units.


Table 34. Projections of area fertilized, fertilizer requirement, and resulting increased cotton production
Fertilizer Increased seed
Production requirement, metric tonsb cotton. 1.000
Region area, 1,000 haa N P2 0s DAP metric tonsa
1976-77
Equateur 4.5 80 210 450 2.25
Haut Zaire -
Kasai Oriental 1.5 30 70 150 0.75
Kivu 0.5 10 20 50 0.25
Shaba 1.0 20 50 100 0.50
Total 7.5 140 350 750 3.75

1980-81
Equateur 10 180 460 1,000 5.00
Haut Zaire 5 90 230 500 2.50
Kasai Oriental 4 70 180 400 2.00
Kivu 3 50 140 300 1.50
Shaba 3 50 140 300 1.50
Total 25 440 1,150 2,500 12.50
aFor Equateur and Kivu in 1976, it is assumed that one-fourth of project areas is growing cotton and one-half of this will be fertilized. For
1980, it is assumed that one-third of project areas is growing cotton in a given year and that all will be fertilized.For Haut Zaire, Kasai
Oriental, and Shaba, these are suggested project areas which may be included with maize projects.
bIt is assumed that DAP will be applied at a rate of 100 kg/ha.
cIt is assumed that increased yield will be 500 kg/ha of seed cotton.








Table 35. Production, consumption, and exports of oil palm, and related products in'Zaire, 1970-75a
1980c
Type of product 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975b Low High
1,000 metric tons


Palm oil
Production 197 190 185 174 165 156 140 197
Consumption 73 78 98 104 110 117 188 188
Export 124 112 87 70 55 39 (-48) 9
Palm kernel (cake)
Production 58 56 56 43 35 34 -
Consumptiond 7 1 11 12 _d
Export 51 55 45 31 39 -
Palm kernel oil
Production 50 48 47 45 40 38 29 50
Consumption 5 3 10 12 6 10 18 18
Export 45 45 37 33 34 28 11 32
aGOZ Department of Agriculture, Bureau d'Etudes.
bEstimate, U.S. Agricultural Attache.
CEstimates based as follows: Low-assumes present 1970-75 decline continues; high-assumes production restored to 1970 levels. Consumption
for 1980 assumed to increase at 1970-75 rates.
dConsumption of oil cake is negligible. The figures actually refer to surplus; hence, because of extra stocks (carryover), exports may exceed
production for any one year.


As a result, oil palm stands have not been renewed, most
are getting quite old (beyond 20 years), and their pro-
ductivity is dropping steadily. (Note: It takes 8 to 10 years
to bring new plantings into full production.) Thus, a major
effort is needed to restore palm oil production.

Production System

In addition to renewing of plantations, increasing oil
palm production in Zaire requires a combination of
judicious use of fertilizer coupled with a good breeding
program and good cultural practices. The three main factors
which influence the yield of oil palm are: (a) the genetic
potential of the palms, (b) the soil and climatic conditions
at the site, and (c) plantation renewal and maintenance,
particularly the correct use of fertilizer.
Breeding programs are extremely important to oil palm
production. Native varieties generally produce only 3,500
to 4,500 kg of bunches of fresh fruit or about 300 to 400
kg of oil/ha. Crossbreeding can easily raise this 6 to 10
times. INERA is cooperating with IRHO (Ivory Coast),
NIFOR (Nigeria), and others to improve oil palm varieties.
It is extremely important that the program be maintained
in Zaire if it hopes to compete in the international trade of
palm oil.
The optimum temperatures for oil palm growth range
from 25 to 300C. In general, oil palm growing is not
recommended for areas where temperature may fall below
20'C, or where there is more than a 1-month dry season.
Research by PLZ at Yaligimba showed good or poor
sunshine 31 to 34 months before ripening could affect fresh
fruit yield by 2.5 tons/ha/year and adequate rain 12
months before harvest could add another 1 metric ton.


Hence, sunshine and moisture variations could account for
up to 3.5 metric tons of yield. Climatic conditions are most
favorable in Equateur and Haut Zaire.
The main soil requirement of oil palm is a deep,
well-structured and well-drained, permeable, unrestricted
rooting medium of reasonable water holding capacity. In
Zaire most of the productive oil palm is grown in heavily
leached clay loams of low fertility developed on sedi-
mentary formations. Oil palm grows in soils of pH 4 to 6.5;
a pH 5 to 5.5 is near the optimum.

Nutritional Requirements

Oil palm has a higher demand for N, P, K, and Mg than
do other perennial crops. Various estimates based on
production figures and analytical results in Africa
(including Zaire) show average nutrient removal by a
mature palm tree producing 20 metric tons of fresh fruit
bunches/year to be 56 kg N, 22 kg P2Os, 105 kg K20, 18
kg MgO, and 14 kg CaO.
Field experiments are needed to determine nutritional
needs, but perennial crops like oil palm require several years
for conclusive results of practical value. Soil testing and
plant tissue analysis have also been used for diagnosis. Soil
analysis has proved a valuable indicator of nutritional needs
in Zaire, mainly for K and Mg. Threshold levels (below
which deficiency develops) have been set at 0.14-0.20
milliequivalents (meq) of K and 0.4 meq of Mg/100 g of
soil. The ratio of exchangeable Mg to K should be greater
than 1 for mature oil palms (15 to 20 years old) and greater
than 4 for young oil palms (3 to 7 years).
Foliar analysis of frond 17 gives the best indication of a
well-balanced fertilizer program. The practice in Zaire is to








use the first fully opened leaf, in which K levels should be
above 1.8%. The recommended levels for four ages of trees
are as follows (Ollagnier et al, 1970):


Stage of growth


Very young trees (up to 3 years)
Young trees (4 to 9 years)
Mature trees (10 to 20 years)
Older trees (21 years plus)


Nutrient content
of frond 17
N P K Mg
percent
2.70 0.17 1.15 0.25
2.60 0.16 1.10 0.25
2.50 0.15 1.00 0.25
2.35 0.14 0.85 0.25


Fertilizer requirements for trees 10 to 20 years old are 3
to 4 kg of AS/tree (450 to 600 kg/ha); about 1 kg of TSP or
2 kg of RP/tree (150 or 300 kg/ha) if the leaf P is below
0.15%, and about 3 kg muriate of potash/tree (450 kg/ha)
if leaf K is below 0.8%; with leaf Mg below 0.20%, 3 kg
kieserite/tree (450 kg/ha) should be used.
Fertilizer use for oil palm in Zaire varies in accordance
with type of oil palm, stage of growth, specific soil
conditions, and with specific plantation preference. Fertil-
izer application is done by tree in accordance with a fairly
sophisticated system of soil and plant analysis, largely
developed through experience at other centers around the
world.
Generalized recommendations for oil palm in Zaire are:

Quantity of nutrient, kg/haa
Age N P20s K20 MgO
1 18 21 25 12
2 18 18 28 9
3 37 18 28 9
4 55 46 71 24
4+ 0 30 68 34
Total nutrient use
1-4 years 128 103 152 54
5-20 years 0 480 1,088 544
Total 128 583 1,240 598
aBased upon 142 trees/ha. Borax at a rate of 5.7 kg/ha is
recommended for bearing trees.

The specific fertilizer recommendations for the new
FED project at Ubangi are:
First year: 67 kg/ha of AS + 60 kg of kieserite
Second year: 90 kg/ha of AS + 75 kg/ha of kieserite
Third year: 135 kg/ha of AS + 120 kg/ha of kieserite


Agronomic-Economic Responses to Fertilizer

In nutrient subtraction experiments conducted by PLZ
in Zaire, a complete fertilizer treatment (N + P205 + K20
+ MgO) was applied annually to single plots for several
years. Other treatments were compared in which each
nutrient was successfully omitted. Table 36 shows agro-
nomic and economic response data using May 1975 prices


Table 36. Response of young oil palm to fertilizer
Yield


Total
applied Fresh fruit
5 years, yield over
Nutrient kg/ha check. kg ;h
Iforna-Boteke, 1959-63 (5 years,
application omitted in 1960)
N 90 4.400
P20s 200 200
K20 50 14.600
MgO 130 8.300
Yaligimba, 1957-63 (6 years)
N 136 190
P20s 298 7.070
K2 762 1.410
MgO 192 3.410


response.
kg/kg of
nutrient
la Fruit Oila


48.5
1.0
28.7
62.9

1.4
23.7
1.9
17.7


4.85
0.10
2.87
6.29


aOil content assumed to be 10 of fresh fruit.
bAssume 30K/kg of nutrient, Zl0/metric ton of
Z92/metric ton of oil.


Return to
fertilizer.
Z Zb
Fruit Oil


1.6 1.5
-29.0 -20.0
1.0 0.9
2.1 1.9


fresh fruit. and


for palm oil or fresh palm and fertilizer prices forecast for
May 1976.
PLZ conducted research for 8 years to determine the
effects of 15 kg of P2 O0. 34 kg of KO. and 17 kg of MgO
applied annually on yield of oil palm (10-20 years of age) at
Yaligimba. A total of 120. 272. and 136 kgha of P O.
K20, and MgO gave a yield increase of 9.1 metric tons ha.
or 17.2 kg of fresh fruit/kg of nutrient applied. At the
assumed prices (table 36), this resulted in a loss of Z13 ha
for the 8 years.
The type of experiment conducted did not allow for an
accurate economic analysis for each type or unit of
fertilizer applied. Experiments of the type reported for
maize are needed for oil palm. However. despite yield
responses to K and Mg. it seems highly doubtful that
fertilizer will be profitable under 1975 prices of fresh fruit
oil palm or for palm oil at the farm level.
In view of the impending shortage of palm oil by 1980.
GOZ should consider raising the price of fresh fruit of oil
palm to Z20/metric ton and palm oil to ZI80 metric ton at
the farm level. This would reflect current world market
prices, provide the incentive for increased fertilizer use. and
hopefully increase production. Such a move made now
would save foreign exchange in 1978-79 and 1980. In
addition, it would provide the incentive to establish new
plantings and improve foreign exchange by 1985.


Production Projects

FED and PLZ are the only major groups presently
investing in expansion of the oil palm industry in Zaire.
even at relatively modest levels. A national palm program is
being planned to plant 100.000 ha in Equateur. with 1.000
ha to be planted in 1976 and 10.000 ha annually bv 1)80.









The FED project, now under development in Ubangi,
consists of 3,500 ha, and is expected to produce 5,900
metric tons of oil at full production.
PLZ normally plants 800 to 1,000 ha/year, but only 500
ha was planted in 1974. Should this trend continue, the
present level of oil production (60,000 metric tons/year)
cannot be maintained.
Other remaining large plantations have not invested in
new plantings for some time as a result of new ownership
lacking technology and financial resources. Small planters
have not invested because present incentives are insufficient
to make the necessary input to maintain production.


Fertilizer Needs

Under the 1975 price situation for palm fruit and oil
in Zaire, very little fertilizer will be used. The following
projections are based on the assumption of a favorable price
paid to the grower to give an incentive for production.
Nutrient needs for oil palm in Equateur are estimated as
follows:
Estimated nutrient needs,
metric tons


Year N
1976 140
1980 340


P205
980
1,450


K20
1,960
2,900


MgO
945
1,365


The nutrient needs (table 37) could be met in 1976 by
1,400 metric tons of 10-10-27-7.5Mg for young trees and
8,400 metric tons of 0-10-20-10Mg for bearing trees and in
1980 by 3,400 metric tons of 10-10-20-7.5Mg and 11,100
metric tons of 0-10-20-10Mg, or equivalent amounts of
these nutrients as urea, TSP, muriate of potash, and
kieserite. The latter sources give plantation managers
greater flexibility to meet individual field needs.


Use of half-mixed fertilizers and half materials will
require the following quantities for oil palm in Equateur:

1976 1980
metric tons


10-10-20-7.5Mg
0-10-20-10Mg
Urea
TSP
KCl
Kieserite


700
4,200
150
1,050
1,650
1,650


1,700
5,550
375
1,575
2,400
2,350


CACAO


Cacao, mainly for export, is grown largely in southern
Ubangi under shade plantation. About 20,000 ha of cacao
has been grown in Zaire since 1970, with some new
plantings now being added in the Bulu area. Production has
been about constant at about 6,000 metric tons of dry
cacao since 1970 (table 38.) Commercial production is
restricted mainly to Equateur and Bas Zaire (table 39).
Practically all of this is in conjunction with oil palm and
rubber plantations. Because of the poor economics of
rubber production, several of these plantations are being
planted to cacao.
Table 38. Dry cacao production, consumption,
and exports for Zaire, 1970-74, metric tonsa
Year Production Consumption Export
1959 4,500 500 4,000
1970 5,000 600 4,400
1971 6,000 6,000
1972 6,000 6,000
1973 6,000 800 5,200
1974 5,000
aGOZ Department of Agriculture (Bureau d'Etudes) and U.S.
Agricultural Attache.


Table 37. Estimates of area fertilized and fertilizer requirements for palm oil, 1976 and 1980
Fertilizer nutrient requirement, metric tonsb
Area fertilized, 1,000 haa Under 4 years Over 4 years
Project Under 4 years Over 4 years N P2Os K20 MgO P205 K20 MgO
1976


840 1,680


840 1,680


1980
PLZ 6 34 120 120 240 90 1,020 2,040 1,020
FED 1 2 20 20 40 15 60 120 60
National 10 1 200 200 400 150 30 60 30
Total 340 340 680 255 1,110 2,220 1,110
aAssume total project areas fertilized.
bAssumed fertilizer rate: trees 1 to 4 years-20, 20, 40, and 15 kg/ha of N, P20s, K20, and MgO; trees over 4 years--30, 60, and 30 kg/ha of
P205, K20, and MgO.


PLZ
FED
National
Total









Production System

Cacao has about the same requirements as oil palm, and
both are grown in the same areas in Zaire. Cacao requires a
deep, well-drained, well-structured, moisture-retaining soil
having a pH of about 6.5 and high nutrient content; the
topsoil should be rich in organic matter. Cacao has a
shallow root system, with more than 80% of the roots
within the top 15 cm of soil, and responds well to fertilizer.
Good yields of cacao depend not only on suitable soil
conditions, but also on a well-planned shade policy and
high-yielding varieties. Low-yielding cacao grown under
shade does not place much stress on soil nutrient reserves,
but a high level of production could cause rapid depletion
of these reserves. Without fertilizer, it is unlikely that even
the most fertile soils could maintain vigorous, unshaded
cacao for more than a few years.


Agronomic Response to Fertilizer

PLZ conducted a large number of 3 x 3 factorial N, P.
and Mg experiments on cacao. Average results in 1962-63
showed that N decreased yields 4% to 6% from the base
level of 701 kg of dry cacao/year, P increased yields 4% to
18%,and Mg increased yields 6% to 14%.
In another nutrient omission experiment over a 7-year
period, P increased the yield of dry cacao beans by 15%
(average of 241 1. .'..11.). There was no prolonged and
consistent effect of K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Ca on yield.
These results are consistent with most work reported in
west Africa. That is, cacao responses under shade are
limited to P. However, responses to N and K are obtained
under reduced or no shade.


Production Projects

GOZ is developing a 500-ha industrial block and 2,000
ha in small plantations in the Bulu area of Uh.lii,1 in
Equateur. As of June 1975, 600 ha had been planted. PLZ
has about 3,700 ha of cacao in production in Equateur. The
fertilizer recommendations are as follows:
Time AS KS
Ag, lhta
At planting 70 35
First year 70 105
Second year 70 105
Third year 140 105
Fourth year 175 140
Fifth year 175 140
aAssumed 700 trees/ha.

Fertilizer Needs

The estimated cultivated area in cacao and the nutrient
requirement for established trees are shown in table 40. In


addition, we estimate that about 1.000 ha of new cacao will
be planted each year. probably more than 90, in Equateur.
N and K20 will likely be used during the first 3
years at average rates of 15 and 80 kg ha. respectively. on
3,000 ha/year. This will require 45 and 240 metric
tons/year of N and K20 in 1980.


Estimated
1980 are:

Region


fertilizer material needs for cacao in 1976 and


1976
TSP


Bas Zaire
Equateur
Total


1980
Urea TSP KS
metric tons
85
100 1.110 480
100 1,195 480


COFFEE


Coffee is the leading earner of foreign exchange in Zaire
agriculture, having surpassed oil palm in 1973. Robusta
coffee is grown on 214.000 ha in five regions: Bas Zaire.
Bandundu. Equateur, Haut Zaire. and Kivu. About 12.000
metric tons of Arabica coffee is grown almost entirely in
Kivu (28,200 ha).
Total production reached 80.000 metric tons in 1)73
(table 41). Exports during this period (85% Robusta type)
have been closely related to the quota set by GOZ. ranging
from 66.000 to 74.000 metric tons year.


Table 39. Apparent cacao production, 1972
Estimated
Production (12) yield (19) Estimated land
Region metric tonsa kg 'ha area. hab
Bas Zaire 600 228 2.600
Equateur 5.400 287 1 .800
aGOZ statistics indicate total production at 6.000 metric tons.
bCalculated from estimated production and yields.



Table 40. Estimated fertilizer
requirements for cacao, 1976 and 1980
Estimated area
cultivated Required P, O;
Region and project 1976 1980 1976 1980
1,000 ha metric tonsa
Equateur
GOZ 0.6 2 30 100
PLZ 3.7 4 185 200
Other 14.5 17 70 210
Subtotal 18.8 23 28 510
Bas Zaire 2.6 3 15 40
Total 21.4 26 300 550
aAssume that GOZ and PLZ projects are 100'; fertilized in 1976
and 1980; other areas 10'; fertilized in 1976 and 25'; in 1980 at
50 kg of P20 s/ha.








The total area planted to coffee was estimated at
160,000 ha in 1968-69 and 243,000 ha in 1972 (about 50%
in actual production). Estimated distribution of coffee
production by regions is shown in table 42.
Zairianization of foreign-owned plantations in 1973
caused a sharp rise in exports to 81,000 metric tons in 1974
as former producers attempted to liquidate stocks. Esti-
mates of 1974-75 production are 65,000 metric tons, down
15,000 metric tons from 1973. This drop was due to several
factors, primarily the decline in the world price of coffee
during that period and an abrupt shift in policy which
caused a lack of new investment, managerial capability, and
technical expertise.
It is assumed for the purpose of developing fertilizer
needs that present coffee problems will be corrected and
that GOZ will not allow further deterioration of this
industry.


Production System

The most suitable climatic conditions for Arabica
production are in altitudes of the tropics between 1,600
and 1,850 m having a mean annual temperature range of
150 to 250C. Thus, all the Arabica production in Zaire is
concentrated in the higher elevations of north Kivu
region. Robusta coffee requires higher temperatures and
is better suited to the warm, humid, tropical lowlands and
lower hillsides. Most of the coffee in Zaire (85%) is of the
Robusta type grown particularly in Haut Zaire and
Equateur. Coffee prefers a slightly acid soil pH of 6 to 6.5,
but excellent results can be obtained on more acid soils,
provided they are in good physical condition and fertilizers
are used extensively. Arabica coffee is usually grown at a
spacing of 2.7 x 2.7 or 2.7 x 3 m (1,300 trees/ha); the
Robusta type is spaced 3 x 3.6 m (1,000 trees/ha).

Agronomic Response to Fertilizer

About 35 kg of N, 7 kg of P2 0, and 50 kg of K20 are
removed by 1 metric ton of coffee beans; additional
nutrients are required for vegetative development. Thus, at
least 135 kg of N, 34 kg of P2 0, and 145 kg of K20 are
required annually for a fast-growing, high-yielding crop.
Yields and fertilizer requirements are lower for coffee
grown under shade than with little or no shade. Coffee is
particularly responsive to N and K fertilizers, which are the
most effective in controlling dieback disease. About 60 to
120 kg of N/ha should be applied in split doses each year.
Urea is an acceptable source of N for coffee and can be
applied either as a foliar spray or to the soil. Foliar
applications should be made with a 2.1% to 2.5% urea
solution low in biuret (less than 0.5%). The best response to
P is obtained on young coffee; mature coffee seldom
responds to P.


Table 41. Coffee production, 1970-71
to 1974-75, metric tonsa
Year Robusta Arabica Total
1971 58,500 9,000 67,500
1972 64,900 9,600 74,500
1973 67.500 12,500 80,000
1974 67,000 12,000 79,000
1975 (est.) 56,000 9,000 65,000
aU.S. Agricultural Attache, Kinshasa.


Table 42. Estimated distribution of coffee production (11)
Land area planted Production,
Region %a 1,000 ha 1,000 metric tons
Bandundu 3.2 7.8 4.8
Bas Zaire 1.8 4.4 3.6
Equateur 27.9 67.8 17.5
Haut Zaire 41.3 100.3 33.4
Kivu 18.3 44.5 20.7
Kasai Oriental 6.3 15.3
Shaba 1.2 2.9
Total 100.0 243.0 80.0
aFor the period 1968-69. Planted areas were calculated using these
percentages and a GOZ total estimate of 243,000 ha and 80,000
metric tons production.

Requirements for K are high, particularly during
maturing and ripening of the coffee berries. INEAC
reported in 1958 that Mg deficiency was a problem on
several soils in Zaire.
Standard recommendations for fertilizing Arabica coffee
in Kivu to maintain annual production of market coffee at
1,500 kg/ha are:
150 kg N/ha (225 kg N where little shade exists)
100 kg P20s/ha (phosphate rock on acid soils)
150 kg K20/ha as K2 S04
75 kg MgO/ha as MgSO4
Lime soil to keep pH above 5.5. Foliar sprays containing
B (0.5% borax) and Zn (0.5% ZnSO4) are necessary
for large areas of Kivu.
For plantations on young volcanic soils north of Lake
Kivu, 250 kg N/ha as AS plus at. least two foliar
applications of Mg sulfate is recommended.
In neighboring Rwanda and Burundi, the recommenda-
tion for Arabica coffee is 520 kg/ha of 10 or 20-10-10-5Mg
split into two applications (November and February/
March). Where Mg deficiency is a problem, use 390 kg/ha of
20-10-10 in two applications plus 130 kg/ha of kieserite
applied in November. A later recommendation for Arabica
coffee in Burundi is 156 kg N, 26 kg P2 0s, and 52 to 65 kg
K2 O/ha annually.

Fertilizer Needs

Based upon the above recommendations, 100 kg N, 25 kg
P20, 75 kg K20, and 35 kg MgO (MgO on one-half of area








fertilized) should be satisfactory, but use will vary among
regions and growers. We assume that 15% of the coffee in
Kivu will be fertilized in 1976 and 30% in 1980 (5% to 10%
in other areas).
Projections for fertilizer nutrient and product use for
coffee are shown in tables 43 and 44. As much as 8,000
metric tons of products could be used on coffee during
1976, but this does not seem realistic without a drastic
change in GOZ policy. With policy changes to encourage
production, fertilizer use on coffee could increase to
16,000 metric tons/year by 1980.



TEA

Nearly all the tea in Zaire is grown at the higher
elevations of Kivu, where the first plantations were started
in 1940. In 1960 there was about 8,000 ha of tea in Zaire.
This reached 14,000 ha in 1970 and has stabilized at about
12,000 (with 4,000 ha in small holdings) since GOZ is now
initiating a program to again increase plantings.
Tea production has remained at 9,000 to 10,000 metric
tons since 1970, but production dropped to about 8,000
metric tons in 1974. Exports have remained fairly steady,
as follows:

Year Production Exporta
1970 9,000 6,900
1971 9,000 7,900
1972 10,000 9,200
1973 9,000 6,800
1974 8,000
aGOZ Department of Agriculture and U.S. Agricultural Attache,
Kinshasa.


Fertilizer Recommendations

For young tea in Kivu, 250 kg of 10-7-15/ha is
recommended the first year after planting, 350 to 450
kg/ha the second year, and 500 to 600 kg/ha the third year.
Split applications are made 3 to 4 months after seedling


plantings and 6 to 8 months after stump plantings. This
averages 25-18-38 the first year. 40-28-60 the second year.
and 50-35-75 the third year. These quantities should be
increased by 50% for selected clones.
A mixture of AS and KS (15.7% N and 11' KO0
is used for mature tea on the volcanic ash soils of
northern Kivu. The amount applied depends upon tea
yields. However, for tea grown on drained, acid. peaty
soils rich in organic material but poor in P and K.
about 100 kg P205 and 160 kg KO ha should be
applied for each 1.000 kg of tea harvested. Deficiency
of Mg has occurred in several areas of Kivu. Leaf
analysis confirmed the field diagnosis of Mg deficiency
near Lake Kivu (less than 0.2% Mg in leaf drx matter
and a K/Mg ratio above 10).
The most common source of N is AS but at high rates it
tends to intensify soil acidity: AN is less acidifying and its
use is increasing.


Table 44. Estimated fertilizer material
requirements for coffee, 1976 and 1980
Region Urea DAP KS Kieserite
netric tons
1976


Bandundu
Bas Zaire
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Total

Bandundu
Bas Zaire
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Total


80
40
760
1,110
160
1,500
3,650

160
80
1,520
2,230
320
2,990
7,300


1980
40
20
370
540
85
740
1,795


60
30
510
750
100
1.000
2,450

120
60
1.020
1.500
200
2.000
4,900


30
30
400
5I0
1 0
7"0
1,900


Table 43. Estimated fertilizer nutrient requirements for coffee, 1976 and 1980
Area
fertilized 1976b IQSO0b
Region 1976 1980 N P205 K20 MgO N POs K.O MgO


Bandundu
Bas Zaire
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Total


1,UUU0 ha
0.4 0.8
0.2 0.4
3.4 6.8
5.0 10.0
0.7 1.5
6.7 13.4


40
20
375
550
80
740
1,805


30
15
255
375
50
500
1,225


metric tons
5
5
60 7
90 1,1
10 1i
120 1.41
290 36


80
40
50
00
60
80
10


60 10
30 10
510 120
750 l "5
100
1.000 235
2,450 575


aLand area fertilized is assumed to be: Kivu-15% in 1976 and 30% in 1980. Others-5% in 1976 and 10'; in 1980.
bFertilized at average rates of 110, 25, 75, and 35 kg/ha of N, P205, K20, and MgO, respectively. MgO used on one-half of fertilized area.


--


__


I










Production Projects


The FED initiated projects starting in 1971 near
Butembo and near Bukavu. These plantings in north Kivu
totaled 700 ha in 1975 with plans for 900 ha in 1976. New


projects of about 100 ha
north Kivu and of 600
application rate used was


At planting
First year
Second year and later


At planting
First year
Second year
Third year and later


were started in 1973 at Butuhe in
ha in south Kivu. The fertilizer
as follows/ha:

Village plantings __
250 kg 20-10-10
250 kg 25-5-5-4Mg
250 kg 25-5-5-4Mg
Industrial plantings
138 kg TSP + 92 kg/20-10-10
250 kg 20-10-10
350 kg 20-10-10
500 kg 20-10-10


Estimates of fertilizer use for tea in 1976 and 1980 are
as follows:


Nutrients
Year N P20s K20
metric tons
1976 540 180 180
1980 810 270 270


Materials
Jrea 20-10-10


1,800
2,700


These estimates assume that fertilizer will be
available to tea growers at lower cost in 1976 and
that present GOZ tea projects will continue. We
assume that 50% of the 12,000 ha of tea will be
fertilized in 1976 and 75% in 1980 at 90-30-30/ha. A
small amount of kieserite (50 to 100 metric tons) will
also be needed to supply the Mg.


Summary of Fertilizer Need Estimates


Estimates for fertilizer needs in 1976 and 1980 have
been developed for eight key crops. The first year of a
program with major emphasis on fertilizer is assumed to be
1976; but if the program is delayed, then dates should be
adjusted accordingly. The basic assumptions used for
fertilizer projections were that the recent and present lack
of incentives for fertilizer use and crop production will be
corrected, and that planned or proposed crop production
programs will be carried out.
A summary of the estimated nutrient needs by regions is
shown in table 45. Estimates of quantities and types of
fertilizers needed in the first and fifth years of a concen-
trated fertilizer use program are shown in tables 46 to 49.
These estimates show that in the first year the largest
quantity of fertilizer will be needed in Equateur (46%) and
Kivu (20%). In Equateur, 75% of the fertilizer will be
needed for oil palm and cacao and a similar portion of that
needed in Kivu will be on coffee and tea. We estimate that
62% of fertilizer needed the first year of the recommended
program will be used for these important export crops.
Increased production could assist in generating foreign
exchange necessary for importing inputs for increased food
production.
In the fifth year of the fertilizer program, Equateur
will still be the leading province in fertilizer need
(33%) but Shaba will be second (21%). Most of the


17,500 metric tons will be for maize
total fertilizer needs in Zaire).


Bandundu
Bas Zaire
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Occidental
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Shaba
Total

Bandundu
Bas Zaire
Equateur
Haut Zaire
Kasai Occidental
Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Shaba
Total


1976
70
690
1,435
730
360
590
1,630
680
6,185
1980
820
820
3,265
2,090
1,700
1,250
2,980
5,290
18,215


40
610
2,270
305
290
480
690
550
5,235

630
850
4,240
1,120
1,360
1,060
1,370
4,110
14,740


(34% of the


30
495
2,215
375

50
800


5
5
1,005
90

10
135


3,965 1,250


300
570
3,650
750
240
100
1,415
240
7,265


10
10
1,485
175

25
265

1,970


Table 45. Estimated fertilizer nutrient
needs by region in Zaire, 1976 and 1980
Region N P2,O K 20 MgO
metric tons


Fertilizer Needs








Table 46. Fertilizer product needs by region, 1976
Metric Metric
Bandundu tons Kasai Oriental tons
Urea 120 Urea 885
DAP 85 DAP 1,035
KS 60 KS 100
Kieserite 15 Kieserite 40
280 2,060


Bas Zaire
Urea
DAP
TSP
KCI
KS
Kieserite


Equateur
Urea
DAP
TSP
KCI
KS
Kieserite
10-10-20-7.5
0-10-20-10




Haut Zaire
Urea
DAP
KS
Kieserite

Kasai Occidental
Urea
DAP


2,380
1.115
200
1,000
440
1,800
6,935


Table 47. Fertilizer product needs by region, 1980
Metric Metri:
Bandundu tons Kasai Oriental tons
Urea 1.270 Urea 1.860
DAP 1,370 D.AP 2310
KCI 400 KS 200
KS 120 Kieserite N0
Kieserite 30 4.450
3.190


Bas Zaire
Urea
DAP
TSP
KCI
KS
Kieserite


Kivu
1,015 Urea
1,290 DAP
30 KCI
800 KS
30 Kieserite
15 20-10-10
3,180
Sliaba
2,160 Urea
2,175 DAP
1,670
1,650
510
1,850
700 Zaire
4,200 Urea
14,915 DAP
TSP
KCI
KS
Kieserite
1,355 10-10-20-7.5
660 0-10-20-10
750 20-10-10
290
3.055


1,700
2,650
2.450
2,650
700
4,200
1.800
33.825


Haut Zaire
Urea
DAP
KS
Kieserlte


Kasai Occidental
Urea
DAP
KCI


Kivu
1.210 Urea
1,525 DAP
85 KCI
900 KS
60 Kieserite
30 20-10-10
3.810
Shaba
4.900 Urea
4.955 DAP
2.685 KCI
2.400
1.500
2.750 Zaire
1.700 Urea
5.550 DAP
26.440 TSP
KCI
KS
Kieserite
3.580 10-10-20-7.5
2.670 0-10-20-10
1.500 20-10-10
580
8.330


4.4-5

240



12.6"5

I .,5

400
1t.515


2'.0"0
27.105
2.7'0
4.740
5.3i0
4.350
1--O0
5.550
2.-00
\' 2*~"


2.600
2.955
400
5.955


Crop

Maize


Table 48. Fertilizer nutrient and
product needs by crop, 1976
Nutrient Product
metric tons
N 1,860 Urea
P20, 1,410 DAP


Rice N 900 Urea
P,0s 900 DAP


Sugarcane N 800 Urea
P20s 700 DAP
K20 600 KCI

Cotton N 140 DAP
P20s 350


2.910
3,060
5,970


Table 49. Fertilizer nutrient and
product needs by crop, 1980
Crop Nutnent Product
metric tons
Maize N 9.000 Urea 14.145
P20s 6.750 DAP 14.0o0


1,215 Rice
1,955
3,170

1,170 Sugarcane
1.520
1,000
3.690
750 Cotton


Oil pali N 140 Urea 150 Oil palm
P20s 980 TSP 1.050
K20 1,960 KCI 1.650
MgO 945 Kleserite 1,650
10-10-20-7.5 700
0-10-20-10 4,200
9,400
Cacao P2Os 300 TSP 650 Cacao


Collee


N 1,805 Urea
P2Os 415 DAP
KO 1,225 KS
MgO 290 Kieserite


Tea N 540 Urea
P20s 180 Kieserite
K20 180 20-10-10
MgO 15


3.650
895
2.450
950 Coffee
7,945
400
50
1,800
2,250 Tea
33,825


N 2.100 Urea
P205 2,100 DAP

N 1.870 Urea
POs 1.640 DAP
K20 1.405 KC!

N 440 DAP
P,0s 1.150
N 340 Urea
P2,0 1.450 TSP
K20 2.900 KCI
MgO 1.365 Kieserite
10-10-20-7.5
0-10-20-10

N 45 Lrea
P20s 550 TSP
K,O 240 KS

N 3.610 Lrea
P20s 830 DAP
KO 2.450 KS
MgO 575 Kieserite

N 810 Urea
P2Os 270 Kieserite
K,O 270 20-10-10
MgO 30


2.,40
4.5"0
7.410
2.-20

2.3401


2.5LK0I



I.5-5
14U
2.350
I.7oo
5.550


100
I .1


300



15. O-

100
2."00
3.400
82.375


1,035 Equateur
1,185 Urea
2,220 DAP
TSP
KCI
KS
Kleserite
9,495 10-10-20-7.5
8.180 0-10-20-10


545
635
1,180








Increasing Fertilizer Use


Promotion of greater crop production through the use of
fertilizer and improved seed and cultural practices is one
way for Zaire to increase its food supply and its foreign
exchange. The PNM has shown that a package of new maize
production technology including use of 120 kg/ha of
fertilizer nutrients can increase production by 2 metric
tons/ha. Based upon these results, the 1973-74 deficit in
maize (163,000 metric tons) could have been domestically
produced by using 9,780 metric tons of nutrients on
81,500 ha. The fertilizer at 1973-74 prices would have cost
Z2,934,000 and the maize Z14,670,000 c.i.f. Matadi
(maize, Z90/metric ton and nutrients, Z300/metric ton).
Thus, importing fertilizer instead of maize could have saved
the GOZ Z 11,736,000 in foreign exchange in one year
alone. Savings would be considerably greater at 1975
fertilizer prices.
The net savings are not from fertilizer use alone but
from using a complete package of production practices.
However, it does represent a gain in foreign exchange since
the costs associated with producing and distributing
improved seed and research and extension activities use
local currency.
Foreign exchange benefits from improved production
technology would likely be even greater for the high-value
export crops. Unfortunately, data were not available to
permit analyses for these crops.
Zaire is at the crossroads. It must make some very
important and difficult decisions with respect to fertilizer
use and food production. Production of adequate food in
Zaire will not be achieved without a major increase in the
use of commercial fertilizer. Zaire does not now have a
fertilizer distribution system capable of supporting the
current and projected plans to increase food production.
Furthermore, farmers do not have sufficient incentive to
use fertilizer to increase food production. Fertilizer use in
Zaire is too low to allow for the orderly development of an
efficient fertilizer industry without definite stimulation by
GOZ.
A good fertilizer introduction program cannot be sepa-
rated from a good crop production program. The success of
each depends upon the profitability of fertilizer use by
farmers. Some important factors leading to farmers' decision
to use fertilizer are: (I) net price the farmer receives for pro-
duce and his confidence in receiving that price, (2) availabil-
ity of credit at reasonable cost,(3) yield response obtained to
fertilizer, and (4) cost and availability of fertilizer.


ESTABLISHMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
PLANNING STAFF

Expanded planning and evaluating capability is needed
to carry out an integrated agricultural development
program. The GOZ has strengthened the Department of
Agriculture in recent years by placing commodity offices
and INERA under its direction. It would seem to be
consistent to further increase the department's capability
by establishing an agricultural planning staff. The staff
would report directly to the Director General, Department
of Agriculture.
The staff's functions would be to:
1. Evaluate the alternative costs and returns of different
agricultural programs with respect to the economy of
Zaire. For example:
On what crops should limited funds and manpower
be concentrated to improve the diets and total
output of food for Zaire in the shortest possible
time?
What savings in foreign exchange would result
from various program alternatives?
How much emphasis should be placed on the
increase of individual crops for export to increase
foreign exchange reserves?
What individual export crops have the best chance
of earning a continuing stream of foreign
exchange, given the price fluctuation of world
agricultural commodities?
What manpower and financial commitments are
needed to increase agricultural output in tihe
shortest possible time?
When and at what rate should work animals and
mechanization be introduced and into what areas?
What factors most limit increases in agricultural
production, what policies or programs can be
devised to overcome obstacles, and how long will
the process take?
2. Determine goals and make policy recommendations
concerning agricultural production programs, com-
modity prices, markets, and the use and availability
of inputs such as fertilizer, seed, and chemicals.
3. Coordinate inputs from INERA, commodity offices,
plantations, industry, and GOZ crop production
projects and extension to provide a unified
agricultural approach for the above.








Increasing Fertilizer Use


Promotion of greater crop production through the use of
fertilizer and improved seed and cultural practices is one
way for Zaire to increase its food supply and its foreign
exchange. The PNM has shown that a package of new maize
production technology including use of 120 kg/ha of
fertilizer nutrients can increase production by 2 metric
tons/ha. Based upon these results, the 1973-74 deficit in
maize (163,000 metric tons) could have been domestically
produced by using 9,780 metric tons of nutrients on
81,500 ha. The fertilizer at 1973-74 prices would have cost
Z2,934,000 and the maize Z14,670,000 c.i.f. Matadi
(maize, Z90/metric ton and nutrients, Z300/metric ton).
Thus, importing fertilizer instead of maize could have saved
the GOZ Z 11,736,000 in foreign exchange in one year
alone. Savings would be considerably greater at 1975
fertilizer prices.
The net savings are not from fertilizer use alone but
from using a complete package of production practices.
However, it does represent a gain in foreign exchange since
the costs associated with producing and distributing
improved seed and research and extension activities use
local currency.
Foreign exchange benefits from improved production
technology would likely be even greater for the high-value
export crops. Unfortunately, data were not available to
permit analyses for these crops.
Zaire is at the crossroads. It must make some very
important and difficult decisions with respect to fertilizer
use and food production. Production of adequate food in
Zaire will not be achieved without a major increase in the
use of commercial fertilizer. Zaire does not now have a
fertilizer distribution system capable of supporting the
current and projected plans to increase food production.
Furthermore, farmers do not have sufficient incentive to
use fertilizer to increase food production. Fertilizer use in
Zaire is too low to allow for the orderly development of an
efficient fertilizer industry without definite stimulation by
GOZ.
A good fertilizer introduction program cannot be sepa-
rated from a good crop production program. The success of
each depends upon the profitability of fertilizer use by
farmers. Some important factors leading to farmers' decision
to use fertilizer are: (I) net price the farmer receives for pro-
duce and his confidence in receiving that price, (2) availabil-
ity of credit at reasonable cost,(3) yield response obtained to
fertilizer, and (4) cost and availability of fertilizer.


ESTABLISHMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
PLANNING STAFF

Expanded planning and evaluating capability is needed
to carry out an integrated agricultural development
program. The GOZ has strengthened the Department of
Agriculture in recent years by placing commodity offices
and INERA under its direction. It would seem to be
consistent to further increase the department's capability
by establishing an agricultural planning staff. The staff
would report directly to the Director General, Department
of Agriculture.
The staff's functions would be to:
1. Evaluate the alternative costs and returns of different
agricultural programs with respect to the economy of
Zaire. For example:
On what crops should limited funds and manpower
be concentrated to improve the diets and total
output of food for Zaire in the shortest possible
time?
What savings in foreign exchange would result
from various program alternatives?
How much emphasis should be placed on the
increase of individual crops for export to increase
foreign exchange reserves?
What individual export crops have the best chance
of earning a continuing stream of foreign
exchange, given the price fluctuation of world
agricultural commodities?
What manpower and financial commitments are
needed to increase agricultural output in tihe
shortest possible time?
When and at what rate should work animals and
mechanization be introduced and into what areas?
What factors most limit increases in agricultural
production, what policies or programs can be
devised to overcome obstacles, and how long will
the process take?
2. Determine goals and make policy recommendations
concerning agricultural production programs, com-
modity prices, markets, and the use and availability
of inputs such as fertilizer, seed, and chemicals.
3. Coordinate inputs from INERA, commodity offices,
plantations, industry, and GOZ crop production
projects and extension to provide a unified
agricultural approach for the above.









4. Determine agriculture's needs for the coming years)
for finance, transportation, foreign exchange, etc., so
that the GOZ could plan in advance for such needs.
5. Study and recommend policy changes needed to
stimulate use of fertilizer and other inputs and to
determine realistic demand for types of fertilizer by
regions by working closely with all groups responsible
for research, extension, and crop production.
The staff should consist of persons in all major areas of
agriculture, such as agronomy, economics, soils, engi-
neering, and animal science, and include experienced
agricultural program planners and technical personnel. The
use of consultants to work on specific projects should be
considered.


AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE PRICING POLICY

Zaire has a vast agricultural potential; however, the
profitability of fertilizer use depends not only upon the
yield response of a crop to fertilizer but also the price of
the product in relation to the cost of the fertilizer. The
apparent decrease in fertilizer usage from 20,000 metric
tons in 1971 to 1 1,000 metric tons in 1973 and 1974 was
basically the result of the unfavorable ratio of product
prices to fertilizer costs.
Since maize and rice are grown by small farmers and
since most small farmers in Zaire have not used fertilizer in
the past, the first step in increasing food output is to make
farmers aware of the potential increase in yields and profits
from fertilizer. However, assume that small farmers obtain a
large yield response to fertilizer, such as 19 kg of maize/kg
of fertilizer for the first 60 kg of nutrients. If the price of
fertilizer is high relative to the cost of maize, then it will
not be profitable for farmers to use fertilizer. To ensure
that maize or any crop fertilizer program is successful, the
GOZ must establish prices of products relative to the cost
of fertilizer that will make it attractive for the small farmers
to use fertilizer without undue risk.
The TVA team suggests an incremental benefit:cost ratio
of 2:1 to farmers as being necessary for rapid adoption of
fertilizer use. This could result from a maize price of about
5K/kg and a nutrient price of 30K/kg. Lowering the cost of
fertilizer is important, but it will not result in adequate
price relationships to encourage farmers to meet the
national need for increased food production. The surest
way of getting farmers to increase fertilizer use is to set
product prices high enough that they will encourage
fertilizer use and increase crop production at a minimum
risk to the farmer.
While higher prices for agricultural products mean at
least temporary higher costs to the consumer, substantial
savings of foreign exchange for Zaire would result through
the reduction in need for importing food. It is to Zaire's


interest that agricultural production be adequate. since this
should soon result in adequate domestic food supplies and
lower food costs. The reduced drain on foreign exchange
reserves should benefit both agriculture and the economy as
a whole. Since the majority of Zaire's population is rural.
adequate farm produce prices to farmers is the sures; wayx
of increasing the real money incomes of the majority of the
people and their purchasing power.


AVAILABILITY OF CREDIT TO AGRICULTURE

Available credit is essential for rapid adoption oT
fertilizer and other improved technology to increase agri-
cultural production. Lack of any production input will
limit yield: thus, lack of credit that restricts use of an\
input will limit the return on the investment in fertilizer
and limit gains in agricultural production.
Short-. intermediate-, and long-term credit for agri-
culture is a requisite in modern agriculture. It must be
geared to the seasonal needs and income characteristics of
agriculture and experienced agricultural finance officers
must appraise the soundness of loans. Commercial credit
institutions, public or private, can provide credit needs of
commercial agriculture. Direct credit subsidies for fertilizer
and other agricultural inputs for commercial farms are
usually an inefficient use of scarce funds for development
and often result in wasteful use. reduce prospects or
repayment, and deplete loan funds.
The present policy of limiting commercial bank interest
rates to 6%/year for agriculture while allowing higher rates
for other industries should be reevaluated to ensure that it
does not result in a serious depletion of loan funds available
for agriculture. It is more important that banks increase
services and make adequate capital available to farmers
and to incur the higher risks of servicing a wider raine of
potentially productive investments to meet the needs ot
farmers, agriculture, and the governmnent-than to restrict
banks to the 6%( loan policy for agriculture. This applies to
credit extended to either plantations and commercial
agricultural sector or to fertilizer suppliers.
Priority for credit for small farms should be extended .t
participating farmers in development projects where all the
necessary ingredients of efficient production are available.
The "package" approach including improved seeds. tertii-
izer. organized markets, and supervision-is essential to gei
increased production and repayment of the loan.
Important ingredients for success with such program-
include the development of trust by participating farmers in
the institution providing the credit, instruction on how rt
use credit effectively, the absence of elaborate forms- and
procedures, availability of credit at convenient locations.
and flexible conditions of repayment. These factors usually
are far more important for successful programs than usual
variations in interest rates.









4. Determine agriculture's needs for the coming years)
for finance, transportation, foreign exchange, etc., so
that the GOZ could plan in advance for such needs.
5. Study and recommend policy changes needed to
stimulate use of fertilizer and other inputs and to
determine realistic demand for types of fertilizer by
regions by working closely with all groups responsible
for research, extension, and crop production.
The staff should consist of persons in all major areas of
agriculture, such as agronomy, economics, soils, engi-
neering, and animal science, and include experienced
agricultural program planners and technical personnel. The
use of consultants to work on specific projects should be
considered.


AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE PRICING POLICY

Zaire has a vast agricultural potential; however, the
profitability of fertilizer use depends not only upon the
yield response of a crop to fertilizer but also the price of
the product in relation to the cost of the fertilizer. The
apparent decrease in fertilizer usage from 20,000 metric
tons in 1971 to 1 1,000 metric tons in 1973 and 1974 was
basically the result of the unfavorable ratio of product
prices to fertilizer costs.
Since maize and rice are grown by small farmers and
since most small farmers in Zaire have not used fertilizer in
the past, the first step in increasing food output is to make
farmers aware of the potential increase in yields and profits
from fertilizer. However, assume that small farmers obtain a
large yield response to fertilizer, such as 19 kg of maize/kg
of fertilizer for the first 60 kg of nutrients. If the price of
fertilizer is high relative to the cost of maize, then it will
not be profitable for farmers to use fertilizer. To ensure
that maize or any crop fertilizer program is successful, the
GOZ must establish prices of products relative to the cost
of fertilizer that will make it attractive for the small farmers
to use fertilizer without undue risk.
The TVA team suggests an incremental benefit:cost ratio
of 2:1 to farmers as being necessary for rapid adoption of
fertilizer use. This could result from a maize price of about
5K/kg and a nutrient price of 30K/kg. Lowering the cost of
fertilizer is important, but it will not result in adequate
price relationships to encourage farmers to meet the
national need for increased food production. The surest
way of getting farmers to increase fertilizer use is to set
product prices high enough that they will encourage
fertilizer use and increase crop production at a minimum
risk to the farmer.
While higher prices for agricultural products mean at
least temporary higher costs to the consumer, substantial
savings of foreign exchange for Zaire would result through
the reduction in need for importing food. It is to Zaire's


interest that agricultural production be adequate. since this
should soon result in adequate domestic food supplies and
lower food costs. The reduced drain on foreign exchange
reserves should benefit both agriculture and the economy as
a whole. Since the majority of Zaire's population is rural.
adequate farm produce prices to farmers is the sures; wayx
of increasing the real money incomes of the majority of the
people and their purchasing power.


AVAILABILITY OF CREDIT TO AGRICULTURE

Available credit is essential for rapid adoption oT
fertilizer and other improved technology to increase agri-
cultural production. Lack of any production input will
limit yield: thus, lack of credit that restricts use of an\
input will limit the return on the investment in fertilizer
and limit gains in agricultural production.
Short-. intermediate-, and long-term credit for agri-
culture is a requisite in modern agriculture. It must be
geared to the seasonal needs and income characteristics of
agriculture and experienced agricultural finance officers
must appraise the soundness of loans. Commercial credit
institutions, public or private, can provide credit needs of
commercial agriculture. Direct credit subsidies for fertilizer
and other agricultural inputs for commercial farms are
usually an inefficient use of scarce funds for development
and often result in wasteful use. reduce prospects or
repayment, and deplete loan funds.
The present policy of limiting commercial bank interest
rates to 6%/year for agriculture while allowing higher rates
for other industries should be reevaluated to ensure that it
does not result in a serious depletion of loan funds available
for agriculture. It is more important that banks increase
services and make adequate capital available to farmers
and to incur the higher risks of servicing a wider raine of
potentially productive investments to meet the needs ot
farmers, agriculture, and the governmnent-than to restrict
banks to the 6%( loan policy for agriculture. This applies to
credit extended to either plantations and commercial
agricultural sector or to fertilizer suppliers.
Priority for credit for small farms should be extended .t
participating farmers in development projects where all the
necessary ingredients of efficient production are available.
The "package" approach including improved seeds. tertii-
izer. organized markets, and supervision-is essential to gei
increased production and repayment of the loan.
Important ingredients for success with such program-
include the development of trust by participating farmers in
the institution providing the credit, instruction on how rt
use credit effectively, the absence of elaborate forms- and
procedures, availability of credit at convenient locations.
and flexible conditions of repayment. These factors usually
are far more important for successful programs than usual
variations in interest rates.









Along with credit, it is vital that small farmers begin to
build savings, even if at a slow pace. In some African
countries, savings clubs organized in conjunction with
development projects have been very successful. The
growth of savings makes it possible for small farmers to
develop their capacity for management, reduce risks, and
increase the size of the enterprise.
In GOZ-sponsored projects, such as the PNM, the project
management should assume the role of ensuring that
adequate credit is available as part of the package approach.
This role could be that of (1) coordination by arranging
with another institution (such as a bank or the fertilizer
supplier) to provide the credit under stated and most
favorable terms, (2) assisting in the formation of a project
credit union or cooperative, or (3) providing credit services
directly. It would be most desirable to combine the credit,
savings, and associated educational activities in the same
office or institution on site.
In any case, the system should be well organized and
utilize generally accepted accounting and crediting pro-
cedures. Procedures concerning eligibility and terms should
be developed in written form and made available to all
concerned. Farmers should receive easily understood state-
ments of true interest rates and credit costs in monetary
terms. A simplified accounting of costs and returns for each
enterprise could be provided the farmer as a service of
educational value.
With respect to the individual farmer or group of farmers
in a village which is not included in a development project,
probably the only sources of credit available for fertilizer
would be through local traders, fertilizer dealers, or local
individuals.



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION

Reasonable yield response to fertilizer is assured through
reputable information disseminated about type of seed,
planting date, planting depth, seedbed preparation, nutrient
rates to apply, timeliness of fertilizer application, weeding,
harvesting, and storage. A program to provide this informa-
tion assumes that soil and agronomic research has been
performed, results analyzed and interpreted, and a
sufficient advisory force trained and employed to reach
farmers.
Agricultural research and extension activities form the
basis for a country's agricultural development. In a food-
deficient country, agricultural research results need to be
readily applied to improvement of crop production. Funda-
mental research results can largely be imported from other
countries, but extension activities must be geared directly
to the needs of local farmers.


Agricultural Research

INERA, the national agricultural research organization
of Zaire, was established after the disintegration of INEAC
during disorders in the 1960's. INERA operates under
government ordinance No. 70-061 of March 1970 which
charges it to promote and develop the scientific agriculture
of Zaire. It is now under the Department of Agriculture
with headquarters at Yangambi. In 1974 INERA operated 7
principal and 16 secondary stations as follows:


Province
Bandundu
Bas Zaire

Equateur

Haut Zaire




Kasai Oriental
Kivu
Shaba


Principal


Mvuazi

Bongabo

Yangambi, Bambesa,
and Nioka


Gandadjika
Mulungu


Secondary
Kiyaka
Gimbi, Kondo,
and Luki
Binga, Boketa,
Eala, and Loeka
Gabu, Gazi, Mt.
Hawa, Lekwa,
Ndihira, and
Nioka


Kaniama and
Kipopo


The staff in 1973 consisted of 26 Zairois in major
supervisory positions, 640 in lesser supervisor positions, and
4,750 others. Assistance from Belgium supported 39
permanent technical assistants and 24 for short periods.
Other permanent assistants included six by FAO and one
by Italy. The 1973 budget was Z1.6 million. Other aid,
amounting to about Z500,000, was received in 1973.
Research is conducted on variety selection, seed multi-
plication, and pathology of most food and fiber crops.
Some work is done with fertilizers, but most of the
experiments have been of the subtraction type in which N,
P, K, or S is successfully omitted. Rates of applied nutrients
are usually high. This type of experiment helps to identify
nutrient deficiencies, but yields little useful information on
economics of fertilizer use. INERA has developed largely
maize double hybrids. In an area of inadequate technology,
the need to produce hybrid seed seems less appropriate
than use of open pollinated varieties.
Additional GOZ-sponsored agricultural research is con-
ducted with maize by PNM in Shaba and Kasai regions and
with rice by the Chinese Agricultural Mission in Bandundu,
Bas Zaire, Equateur, Kasai Oriental, and Kivu regions.
The 1974 document on reorientation and restructuring
of INERA research (14) is impressive. If those plans are
executed, the research could be effective. Separate organi-
zations with overlapping research responsibilities result in
duplication of effort and tend to create competing factions
each jealous of the other. We recommend one centralized








research organization with flexibility to meet the needs of
all commodity groups. Until this is accomplished, liaison
and coordination of efforts among the various groups
should be established. The PNM research group should be
used as advisors to and work closely with INERA in maize
research.
The PNM program appears to be an excellent model on
which to reorient national research programs for all
commodities. This research program includes research on
maize breeding, variety selection, resistance to disease,
effect of cultural practices, and crop response to fertilizer.
In addition, this program includes training of technical
staff. One area in which PNM needs strengthening is by
including soil testing to help determine the need for
fertilizer application. A systematic program needs to be
established of sampling the soil at each experimental site, so
that crop response to fertilizer may be correlated with soil
test values. This is particularly important with respect to P
and K. Such a system enables one to make reasonably
accurate fertilizer recommendations on the basis of soil
tests without conducting expensive fertilizer response
experiments on each soil.
It is recommended that the GOZ make a major effort to
improve the reliability of soil fertility data and fertilizer
recommendations to farmers.This should be done through a
coordinated program involving basic soil fertility, soil
testing, plant analysis, production economics, and exten-
sion education. A suggested project is outlined in
appendix D.
The facilities of some INERA stations appear adequate
to serve as bases for improved research programs. However,
a specially selected and trained staff with the best qualifica-
tions is essential. Current research priorities should be
reoriented toward practical objectives (information which
can be used at once to increase crop production).
A feasible approach to reorganizing the research
capability appears to be:
1. Analyze the needs for applied research in the various
important production areas of the country.
2. Formulate objectives of research in each area to meet
the most critical needs.
3. Determine qualifications of staff needed and write
job descriptions for each position.
4. Review qualifications of staff at each station.
5. Relocate staff among stations as needed, transferring
those not qualified if they cannot be trained for the
openings available.
6. Set up training programs for those who are trainable.
7. Recruit persons who are qualified to fill vacancies.
The nature of training programs will depend upon the
qualifications of the individual and the nature of the job.
This may include on-the-job training in a laboratory for
laboratory technicians or assistants. If a professional man in
this specialty is at the station, he may be sent to a reputable


laboratory doing similar work. Field assistants may also be
trained on station or sent to other places. For both types of
training, one should consider one of the international
agricultural institutes. Of course, for field work with maize.
Zaire has its own capability in the PNM. That organization
should be used for further training.
In determining the professional staff needs at each
station in relation to research objectives, one should
consider the need for a plant breeder, production agrono-
mist, soil fertility specialist, plant pathologist, agricultural
engineer, and a production economist. Where livestock is
involved, consider a veterinarian and animal nutritionist. All
of these will not be needed at each station, but more than
one specialist may be needed in some of the above general
professions. However, individual professionals should work
with more than one crop. Productive applied research
requires people from several disciplines working together to
encourage the team approach on individual projects.
Use only the experiment stations that are needed to
meet the needs of the area delineated and staff them as
regional headquarters for the research programs. Use other
stations with skeleton staffs under the supervision of the
regional station. Evaluate equipment and facilities at each
station, determine how to best use them in the new
situation, and obtain needed equipment and or facilities
where necessary. Use outlying areas as well as the station
for research work.
Concerning locations of regional experiment stations, in
addition to Yangambi. we suggest considering: (1 Bongabo-
Boketa, (2) Bambesa, (3) Mvuazi,(4) Kiyaka.(5) Kaniama-
Gandadjika, and (6) Kisanga and possible establishment of
others in Ruzizi Valley and north Shaba.
Staffing recommendations:
1. Maintain a small professional and technical head-
quarters staff at Yangambi in addition to the station
and university staffs. This staff should consist of no
more than a director, chief of research, and one
professional in each of the major areas of research
and an economic section.
2. Staff regional experiment stations with four to eight
professionals for applied research in the fields of
greatest need to serve the region. A person well
trained in soil testing should be located at
Gandadjika-Kaniama. Crop production specialists
should be located at Gandadjika-Kanianma. Mvuazi.
and Bambesa. Production economists should be
located at Gandadjika-Kaniama and Yangambi.


Getting Information to Farmers

An effective Agricultural Extension Service is essential in
bringing about the adoption of improved methods of
farming, improved use of resources, and increased agri-
cultural production. Drawing on research from the








experiment stations, the extension service assists farm
families and others in applying modern technology.
Typically, extensive use is made of demonstrations to show
farmers firsthand what results can be expected and what
skills are needed.
Extension administration in Zaire is organized on the
basis of the administrative divisions of the country with
personnel at the national, regional, subregional, zonal, and
local level. The extension program needs to be expanded
and improved. Past efforts have been hampered by a lack of
well-trained professional personnel, staff have had duties
other than extending research results, lack of vehicles, poor
roads, sparse farm population, and a lack of well-defined
goals and responsibilities consistent with the long-term
needs for developing agriculture and the welfare of rural
people (13).
The development of production projects to increase
food and fiber production on small farms will bring about
some very specific and immediate needs for the extension
service if the projects are to be successful. It is anticipated
that each project will have a central management organiza-
tion which will assume responsibility for assembling or
coordinating the agricultural inputs, marketing the crops,
and supervising plantings. Research and extension organiza-
tions would have a big role in training these workers and in
providing the guidelines for efficient production.
The pilot development activities of PNM provide experi-
ence in how some of these needs can be met. PNM
programs have included: (1) ..1., I;i,. supervising, and
assisting in harvesting seed multiplication and maize pro-
duction demonstrations, (2) carrying out supervised fertil-
izer credit plantings with farmers (credit for fertilizer is
extended to the farmer, plantings supervised, and followup
visits are made to see that weeding, nitrogen topdressing.
and harvesting are done correctly), (3) training Zairois
professionals (on-the-job, at universities, and CIMMYT
headquarters in Mexico), and (4) training high school
graduates to work with farmers (spend one full cycle in a
PNM training center in learning maize production
techniques).
In meeting the needs for increased food and fiber
production, improved communication and working rela-
tionships should be developed between extension, research,
and the university. Each of these institutions has a unique
role in furthering agricultural development. Provisions
should be developed to utilize each so that maximum
....,1, ,ii ii.ii are '..ili... .m in This m ay include training
selected extension workers in crop production techniques
at the experiment stations, providing for joint appoint-
ments as needed, stationing professional extension person-
nel at the experiment station for outreach work related to
the applied research program, and training of extension
agents working at the village level.


Summary

Improved agricultural research and extension activities
can have major roles in helping meet the crop production
needs of Zaire. They can contribute to the success of crop
production projects through the development and dissemi-
nation of information. Research should be reoriented to
activities which yield knowledge that can be immediately
used to increase production. Soil fertility and fertilizer
response research particularly is lacking. Joint efforts of
several professional disciplines are needed. Extension
personnel need better training and vehicles for greater
mobility. Training in crop production techniques could be
done at training centers established in conjunction with
regional experiment stations. Some personnel with profes-
sional training in soil fertility and crop production could be
stationed at regional experiment stations and perform
applied research and extension functions. Their extension
work might consist mainly of on-the-job training of A-1 and
A-2 personnel.


FERTILIZER OR AGRICULTURAL
SUPPLY COMPANY

This discussion will deal only with fertilizer, but the
supply company should also handle other agricultural
inputs. Capital investment, labor, and overhead costs
related to the fertilizer component of the business can be
reduced by handling other inputs.
The very first step needed to start the development of a
Zaire fertilizer industry (either production or marketing) is
to clarify existing policy or establish new fertilizer policy.
Key issues are: What is the best way to target inputs such as
fertilizer to the farmer at a price he can afford, at the level
needed to support national goals, but at the least cost to
GOZ? Should there be a subsidy? On fertilizer? On the
farmers' output? Or neither? Should fertilizer production
and distribution be in public hands? Private hands? Or
both? What safeguards can be developed that will ensure
that savings generated by new production, marketing, or
handling technology are actually passed on to the
customers? These and many other issues need to be
considered by the GOZ now before the system evolves.
In supplying fertilizer for agriculture in Zaire, large
quantities of material must be moved from the point of
entry (Boma or Matadi) throughout the country during
relatively short and specific periods of the year to ensure
that the farmer has an adequate supply at planting time.
Because of the intense, seasonal nature of needed supply, it
is essential that a single, well-disciplined organization
handle this function. The TVA team recommends the
formation of a fertilizer company to supply adequate types
and quantities of fertilizer at the times needed in the most








efficient manner. The company could be owned and
operated as a private, public, or joint venture.
It seems imperative that an individual or group be
appointed with the primary purpose of clarifying and
establishing agricultural input policy and establishing a
fertilizer or agricultural supply company. The TVA team
recommends that an agricultural supply board be appointed
for a period of 2 years for this purpose. The board should
consist of members from GOZ representing agriculture,
finance, commerce, and transportation and from private
industry representatives of major importers of agricultural
inputs and grain millers. It is suggested that the agricultural
representative be chairman.
Board representatives must be of sufficiently high status
within their organizations to make decisions that are
supported by those organizations. The organizations fur-
nishing representatives to the board must support them
with technical information from their staffs. At the time
the board is established, it must receive adequate funding to
hire consultants for special studies and consult in matters
where representative organizations lack expertise. It is very
important that the board be appointed immediately and
that it act quickly for the company to begin supplying
materials for the 1976-77 cropping season.
Items that need immediate decisions from the board and
support of the central government are: (1) plan for
organization of the company, (2) distribution policy of the
company-to-farmer level or to regional warehouses for final
distribution by existing merchants, (3) level of capital
requirements and availability for the company, (4) priority
of company for foreign exchange, and (5) arrangement and
responsibility for assessing the feasibility of developing
phosphate deposits in Bas Zaire and electric power from
Inga for fertilizer.
The company must have strong management and recog-
nition of its importance to get support of policy and
financing from the highest levels in the GOZ; the company
director should have an open line of communication with
top levels in all essential GOZ organizations. Liaison must
be accomplished with these groups to get policy decisions
to encourage needed agricultural input use and financing to
provide the mechanism for delivery to meet Zaire's crop
production goals.
Initially, the primary responsibilities of the company
would be to: (1) procure fertilizer on a competitive bid
basis, (2) warehouse fertilizer at point of entry, (3) dispatch
fertilizer to regional warehouses, (4) establish a good
statistical reporting system (including inventory), and (5)
develop good data on cost of fertilizer handling and
distribution in Zaire.
The administrative tasks of deciding quantities and types
to order, preparing fertilizer purchase specifications, issuing
tenders, and awarding contracts should be accomplished by
the supply company. The management of the company


should consult regularly with regional warehouse operators
and the agricultural planning staff when estimating fertilizer
needs and formulating specific procurement plans. If
possible, advanced orders should be taken from regional
warehouse operators. The necessary lead time from
preparing tenders to get fertilizer on farms is about 15
months.
Material handling tasks, such as operating interim storage
facilities near the point of entry, bagging when bulk
imports are received, and dispatching fertilizers to the
regional warehouses, should be performed by employees of
the company. Handling of fertilizer by regular port
handling crews often results in large losses of fertilizer.
Crews should be made aware of the importance of
minimizing losses and given instructions for proper
handling. The company should monitor handling of fertil-
izer throughout the transportation system and obtain
cooperation from the transport system to minimize losses.
A system for monitoring quality control for fertilizer also
should be established.
In later phases of development, the company could
eventually serve as a nucleus to develop personnel to
operate new bulk handling, blending and bagging facilities.
more sophisticated transport and distribution, and
eventually basic production facilities.
No fertilizer company can efficiently supply fertilizer to
farmers without having the benefit of good. sound, tech-
nical advice. With the fertilizer problems as basic as those
facing Zaire, it would seem worthwhile to have a group of
technicians working full time on various aspects of fertil-
izer. Therefore. a logical part of the fertilizer company
should be a full-time technical staff.
The staff should include chemical engineers, transporta-
tion and production economists, agronomists. distribution
specialists, statisticians, and finance personnel. This staff
would provide the technical information and suggested
plans for an immediate operational program. lay the
groundwork and the necessary input for the development
of a basic fertilizer industry, serve as counterparts in future
fertilizer studies, and eventually take the leadership in
doing such work without outside assistance. The staff
should be developed slowly with emphasis on quality and
professionalism.
At least in the initial phases of company operation. GOZ
may have to supply monetary support to help maintain the
technical staff. Much of the staff's work will be in providing
information for the development of a sound fertilizer
industry. Therefore, it will be in the best interest of Zaire.


FERTILIZER SUPPLY SYSTEM

The choice of supply system (type of materials and the
way they are handled or processed) can greatly affect the









cost of material delivered to the user. In most processes, the
cost of fertilizer increases rapidly if production is not at
near capacity rates. At the same time, the economic
optimum design capacity is different for each process. The
net effect of these two factors is that the process must be
matched to the near-term product requirement if costs are
to be minimized.
The impact of capital investment on the cost of fertilizer
for several processes is shown in figure 11. The capital
investments used in this analysis are those for a minimum
size, economical plant. This graph shows the wisdom of
choosing fertilizer supply alternatives that require low
capital investment, particularly when plants may not be
operated at design capacity. This is of special importance
for areas where fertilizer production may be inhibited for
reasons other than demand, such as inadequate transporta-
tion, lack of raw materials, usual maintenance problems,
and difficulty in obtaining repair parts.
Based upon these points and the projected fertilizer
requirement through 1980, we recommend the sequence
shown in table 50 for supplying fertilizer to Zaire's
agriculture.
The Ports of Boma and Matadi are recommended for
immediate receipt of bagged fertilizer materials in shipload
or partial shipload quantities of 5,000 to 10,000 metric
tons. In-country transport should be performed by the
GOZ railroad-barge system. The GOZ transport system
could be supplemented by truck shipments direct from the
port to most of the Bas Zaire region. Alternate supply
routes for fertilizer to Shaba via Dar es Salaam, Lobito, or
South Africa should be considered on the basis of reliability
and economy. Single shipment tonnage (with the possible
exception of the South African route) probably would have
to be in the order of 5,000 metric tons to justify
consideration of these alternate routes.
Bulk fertilizer shipments could be bagged at either the
Boma or Matadi ports. However, Boma is recommended
because it has (1 ) a low level of cargo-handling activity, (2)
several buildings that could be used for bulk and bagged
fertilizer storage, and (3) a large amount of free land space
in the port area that could be used for future development
of fertilizer facilities (M 11.I.J1 has practically no free land
space).


The transition from bagged fertilizer to bulk and finally
to blending or other processing techniques could proceed
smoothly at the Boma site. The single-site approach would
have the advantages of (1) reduced capital cost because
facilities would not have to be duplicated. (2) centralized



so


CAPITAL INVESTMENT BASIS
45-
CAPITAL
PLANT INVESTMENT Z
PHOSPHORIC 5,874,000)
SULFURIC 5,233,00 ) GRANULATION COMPLEX
40 GRANULATION 3,999,000
BULK BLEND 524,000
DOCKSIDE BAGGING 65,000
DEPRECIATION SCHEDULE
S DOCKSIDE BAGGING UNIT-5YEARS
S- ALL OTHERS-IO YEARS

0

o 30
2
i-
W GRANULATION COMPLEX
100,000 MT/YR
S25







10




BULK BLEND UNIT 40,000
MT/YR

5-
DOCKSIDE
BAGGING UNIT


o 10 20 30 40 5s 60 70 0 90 10(
PRODUCTION RATE,% OF DESIGN CAPACITY

Figure 11. Impact of capital investment and production
rate on cost of fertilizer materials


Table 50. Estimated schedule for various fertilizer supply techniques for Zaire
Estimated Capital
time Fertilizer supply Feasible annual investment
schedule technique use, metric tons at 1975 prices. Z
1976 Import bagged product Up to about 25,000 None
1977 Import bulk product and bag in Zaire 25,000 to 40,000 of total product 65.000
1981 Import bulk product, blend to obtain 30,000 to 40.000 of blended material 524.000
desired grades, and bag
1985 Convert the largest blending plant 100,000 to 200,000 of NP and NPK products 15.107.000
to a granulation process based on imported
and/or native raw materials








management, and (3) more rapid development and stability
of a knowledgeable labor force that would be geared to
handling and processing fertilizer materials.


Imported Granular Fertilizer in Bags

Importation of high-analysis granular fertilizers in bags is
strongly recommended until the annual use reaches about
25,000 metric tons. Although this method of supply can
probably be shown by calculations to be the most
expensive of the sequence suggested, it has the following
favorable, practical advantages.
1. Essentially no additional capital cost would be
required for fertilizer receiving and distribution
equipment.
2. No skilled labor is required.
3. Costs can be optimized because of flexibility in
selecting source of supply and point of entry into the
country.
A disadvantage of this method of supply is that the c.i.f.
cost of fertilizer (and ultimate cost to the GOZ or farmer)
is subject to wide fluctuations as a result of the world
fertilizer supply and demand situation. However, since no
capital investment is involved, the benefit of a decline in
c.i.f. fertilizer costs is felt immediately. Until major
portions of the nutrient inputs are obtained from native raw
materials, wide fluctuations in the cost of fertilizer may
occur.
It should be pointed out that in addition to the product
requirements, the purchase specification for fertilizer pro-
cured in bags should include specific details about the
construction of the bag, method of closure, and identifica-
tion and marking. Woven polypropylene bags with a solid
plastic liner are recommended. The plastic liner should be
tied shut and the woven polypropylene outer jacket should
be sewed shut. A 50-kg bag size is suggested. This is the
standard size in international fertilizer trade and is con-
venient for one person to handle. Also, one bag would
usually be a sufficient amount for a single application on a
typical cultivated plot (0.5 ha). The following specification
is an example suggested for bagged DAP (18-46-0).


SPECIFICATIONS FOR FERTILIZER
MATERIAL AND PACKAGING'


Product Name-Diammonium Phosphate (DAP)

Physical ., ,i.,lii. .I, ii1, free flowing
Nitrogen content-- I asN, minimum
Phosphorus content 46% as P20 s, minimum


SFrom USAID specifications.


Water-soluble P2Os ((4 of available P: O )-o0'
minimum
Moisture content-2% as H20. maximum
Screen size (Tyler)-854% -6 +16 mesh. minimum


Packaging

Outer bags openmouthedd polypropylene)--50-kg (net
weight) bags shall be made from 100'l polypropylene.
Yarns to be either multifilament of a 1.000 denier.
minimum, or monofilament ribbon yarn having a 2- x
100-mill dimension of 1.000 denier. minimum. Cloth to be
of plain weave with a 12 x 10 construction. minimum-
Material must have not less than 70'i strength retention
after 400 hours in the Weather-Ometer as specified in
Method 5804.1 of Federal Specification CCC-T-191.
Openmouthed bags shall be sewed shut with stabilized
multifilament thread. Stitches shall be 3.5 or 4 inch.
Liner -Tubular polyethylene film. 4 mils thick. Should
be sized to provide a loose fit in polypropylene outer bag.
Liner shall be tied shut with plastic-covered wire tie or
acid-resistant metal clip.


Labeling and Marking

MANUFACTURER'S OR IMPORTER'S
NAME AND ADDRESS
Diammonium Phosphate
Available Nutrients
Nitrogen -18 N
Phosphorus 46"' PO
Water-soluble nitrogen-1000 of available
Water-soluble P205-90% of available, minimum
Net weight 50 kg (110 Ib)
Use no hooks

There are several techniques available for reducing
costs of handling bagged materials. These include pre-
slung cargo netting which is placed in the ship at the
time of loading, and shrink wrap (15) which consists
of banding of bags to pallets and wrapping in plastic.
Both methods permit handling of I to 1.5 metric tons
of bagged materials at once and could be used on
ships, barges, and railcars. Each should reduce handling
costs and losses due to breakage of bags. Another
system with similar advantages is '"mini bulk" (24) or
"big bag" which uses a woven polypropylene bag with
a capacity of about 1 metric ton. The large bag is
reusable, has an ejection chute at the bottom for
emptying, and can be moved by a crane or forklift
without use of a pallet. These handling systems should
be investigated and arrangements made with the
exporter and government transport system for using
the most appropriate method.









Bulk Imports of Granular Fertilizer


Bagging of imported bulk fertilizer materials should be
considered when the annual tonnage through one port of
entry is in the order of 25,000 to 40,000 metric tons.
Therefore, if Boma is used as the only port of entry, bulk
imports may be considered during the second year of
operation.
The bagging operation can be accomplished in two ways.
The first and least expensive method in terms of capital
cost would be to use portable dockside bagging machines.
These units are designed for ship unloading. Bulk product is
transferred from the ship's hold to a surge hopper located
above the bagging unit by using the dockside crane or ship's
gear. From 8 to 10 men are required in the ship's hold to
fill a lined cable sling or bucket with material. Another 8 to
10 men are required to operate the bagging unit and load
the bagged material onto trucks or railcars. The material
can be bagged at a rate of about 25 metric tons/hour for
each unit. A 10,000-ton ship can be unloaded in about 200
hours if two bagging units are used. A diagram of this
method of operation is shown in figure 12. An estimate of
capital and operating cost requirements is shown in
table 51.


Figure 12. Dockside bagging of fertilizer at the port


Table 51. Capital investment and operating costs
for dockside fertilizer bagging system, 1975 basis
Z
Capital investment
Two dockside bagging units plus spare parts 55,000


(25 metric tons/hour capacity each)
Surge hoppers and crane buckets (2 of each)
Auxiliary facilities
Total plant investment (TPI)


7,000
3,000
65,000
Z/metric ton


Operating cost, 25,000 metric tons/yrb
Electricity 0.05
Labor 0.87
Maintenance (10% of TPI) 0.26
Overhead (100% of labor) 0.87
Taxes and insurance 0.05
Depreciation (5 yr) 0.52
Interest on plant investment (10% on
average plant investment) 0.14
Average interest on working capital
(10% on Z50,000)b 0.12
Loss of product (2 ,1 2.12
Bags (ZO.30 each) 6.00
Total operating cost 11.00
aCurrent "grass roots" project cost; cost of land is not included.
Future costs may have to be adjusted.
bWorking capital is considered as 25% of annual cash expense.
Interest on fertilizer cost is an additional cost of supplying
fertilizer but not necessarily a part of the bagging operation.


The main disadvantage of the dockside bagging system is
that the port time of the ship is dependent upon the
performance of the bagging machinery and crew. The
bagging operation is also subject to delays caused by bad
weather. Another potential problem that is common to
receiving fertilizer already bagged or bagging it on the dock
is the lack of sufficient transportation and storage facilities
to ensure that the material is moved from the dock area.
Temporary outside storage of bagged fertilizer is practical if
the lined polypropylene bags are neatly stacked on pallets
and covered with plastic. The combination of the pallets
and plastic covering provides adequate protection against
surface water and direct rain. Fertilizer is often stored for
several months in this manner, especially during the dry
portion of the year.
A second alternative which essentially eliminates the
disadvantages of the dockside bagging operation would be
to provide a bulk storage building. A building with a
combined bulk and bagged product capacity of 10,000
metric tons would be adequate. With this scheme, the
bagging operation could be carried out independently of, or
simultaneously with, ship unloading. Dump trucks could be
used to transport the bulk material from dockside to
storage. A conveyor system for this duty is not recom-
mended because of the high capital cost relative to the
actual operating time. For example, a conveyor system








would be operated only about 600 hours/year (less than
10% of the time) to unload 25,000 metric tons of material.
However, a portable conveyor could be used to increase the
height of the piles if sufficient horizontal storage space is
not available. The dockside bagging machines mentioned
earlier could be installed in the storage building and used to
bag the bulk material as it is reclaimed to fill orders. An
estimate of the capital and operating costs for a typical
bulk unloading, storage, and bagging operation is shown in
table 52.
The decision to store the fertilizer materials in bulk or
bagged form would depend upon the type of fertilizer
material and the weather conditions (relative humidity).
For example, TSP and DAP are less hygroscopic than urea
and could be stored in bulk with less deterioration than
urea. The storage characteristics (critical relative humidity)
of several fertilizer materials are shown in figure 13.
The transition from imported bagged material to bulk
should be gradual. The objective for bagging bulk material
in Zaire should be to provide fertilizer at least cost to the



Table 52. Capital investment and


operating costs for bulk fertilizer unl
storage, and bagging system, 1975

Capital investment
100 metric tons/hour unloading,
25 metric tons/hour bagging
Dockside hopper and covered belt conveyo
(150 m long)
Bucket elevator, screens, and
bagging equipment
Storage building and conveyor system
(10,000 metric tons capacity)
Maintenance shop and office
Total plant investment (TPI)

Operating cost, 40,000 metric tons/year
Electricity
Labor
Maintenance (107 of TPI)
Overhead (100% of labor)
Taxes and insurance
Depreciation (10 yr)
Interest on plant investment (I10% on
average plant investment)
Average interest on working capital
(10% on Z1,150,000)b
Loss of product (27)
Bags (Z0.30 each)
Total operating cost
aCurrent "grass roots" project cost; cost of land
Future costs may have to be adjusted.
bWorking capital is considered as 257/ of annual fe
cash expenses (annual fertilizer cost of Z4,240,001
ton and annual cash expenses of Z360,000).


GOZ and to the farmer. The bagging cost (table 51 will be
about Zl I/metric ton, not including interest on the cost of
fertilizer. This is similar to the current costs at most export
ports. Cost of bags accounts for more than half (Z6 metric
ton) of the total bagging cost. Therefore, to obtain the
maximum cost benefits of bagging fertilizers. it is recom-
mended that the feasibility be determined for fabricating
bags locally, taking into account uses of this type of bag for
other materials. The ocean freight cost for bulk fertilizer is
only about 70% of that for bagged material. The savings on
bulk freight rates will reduce the c.i.f. cost of fertilizer
about Z5/metric ton. Thus. potential savings in foreign
exchange are Z8/metric ton of fertilizer (Z5 freight plus an
estimate of Z3 for bags).
Figures shown in table 52 estimate the total costs of
handling, packaging, and storage of fertilizer at the port.
These figures include costs which would occur even if the
fertilizers were imported in bags. Thus. the above
mentioned potential savings in foreign exchange remain
valid.


Blending and Bagging Fertilizer Materials


oading, Bulk blending is recommended when ( II agricultural
basisa practices have sufficiently demonstrated the need for a
Z variety of nutrient ratios specifically tailored to crop and
soil type and (2) the total quantity of blended material for
each production unit reaches at least 40.000 to 50.000
metric tons/year. As demand for fertilizer increases. addi-
190,000 tional capacity could be added at a single site. However. b\
the time a second unit is required, it is likely that
75,000 consumption trends will be well established. These trends
and areas of consumption will undoubtedly identify the
200,000 optimum location for additional bulk blending units.
10,000 Bulk blending of granular fertilizer materials is a simple
475,000 and efficient way to obtain a variety of nutrient ratios with
Z/metric ton only a few basic materials. However. a bulk blending plant
and the associated storage and bagging facilities require a
0.10 relatively large capital investment. A typical bulk blending
1.02 operation is shown in figure 14. A capital and operating
1.18 cost analysis is shown in table 53. We estimate only about
1.02 ZO.60/metric ton additional cost for blending over the
0.24 flexible bagging. handling, and storage system previously!
.18 mentioned.

0.59 In addition to the previously mentioned lower freight:
rates for bulk fertilizer materials. further reductions in tlhe
2.88 cost of fertilizer should be obtained by bulk blending
2.12 because some fertilizer materials will not have to be
6.00 transported to distant manufacturing points and returned.
16.33 For example, phosphate and potash materials from \Vest
is not included. Africa and nearby Republic of the Congo are now shipped

rtilizer cost plus to Europe where they are manufactured into granular
0 at Zl06/metric fertilizer. The complete fertilizer is then shipped to Zaire.
In this example, the freight cost for phosphate and potash









The critical relative humidity (%) stated for each
fertilizer material or mixture is the relative humidity
level at which the material is at equilibrium with the
moisture from the air. Wetting and deterioration of
the material is more likely to occur if the critical
relative humidity value is lower than the ambient
relative humidity.
An asterisk (*) indicates approximate value obtained
by TVA. All other values from literature for pure
salts.


Figure 13. Critical relative humidities for fertilizer materials and mixtures


Figure 14. Typical fertilizer bulk blending and bagging operation









is about twice what it would be if the phosphate and potash
were sent direct from the Congo to Zaire.
Bulk blending also offers the advantage of maximum
utilization of available fertilizer materials. This is a signifi-
cant advantage during periods when fertilizer materials are
difficult to obtain. For example, if a bulk blend operation
had only urea, DAP, and potash, a large variety of mixtures
could be prepared that would undoubtedly fill most needs.
Typical blends using these three materials are shown in
table 54.
Another advantage is that bulk blending precludes the
need for separate shipment and separate application of the
individual nutrients, both of which tend to increase food
production costs.


Processing Imported and
Indigenous Raw Materials

Processing raw materials into granular fertilizer is not
recommended until the local phosphate deposits are
developed and the annual market for granular product is
about 150,000 to 200,000 metric tons. When these occur,
it may be desirable to determine the feasibility of importing
ammonia and sulfur and to manufacture sulfuric and
phosphoric acids which could be processed into granular
fertilizer materials. A brief description of each of these
processes is found in appendix C.


Inga Hydroelectric Project-
Bas Zaire Phosphates

The abundant hydroelectric potential in the Bas Zaire
region appears to be the key to a greatly expanded
production and economic base for Zaire. Although the
expected fertilizer requirement for Zaire during the next 10
years does not justify a large capital investment in
production facilities, it is recommended that the feasibility
of initiating an accelerated hydroelectric-phosphate
development program be studied immediately. The objec-
tive should be to determine if it would be feasible to
commit a portion of Inga II and the proposed Inga III
energy to the production of elemental P or related N and P
products. This approach has the potential of giving Zaire
both a major source of additional foreign exchange by
exports of phosphate rock or finished phosphates and a
lower cost supply than imports of phosphate fertilizers.
The unique location of the Inga hydroelectric project
with respect to the Bas Zaire phosphate deposits and the
Ports of Matadi, Boma, and Banana (proposed) strongly
suggests the feasibility of immediately exploiting these
phosphate and energy resources for export. The capital
investment required for a 20,000 metric ton/year elemental
phosphorus production facility (equivalent to 45,000
metric tons/year P2Os) would be in the order of


Table 53. Capital investment and operating
costs for a bulk fertilizer unloading,
storage, blending, and bagging plant, 1975 basis
Z
Capital investment
25 metric tons/hour blending and bagging rate
Dockside hopper and covered conveyor belt 190.000
Machinery and equipment 124.000
Storage building and conveyor system
(10,000 metric tons capacity) 200.000
Maintenance shop and office 10.000
Total plant investment (TPI) 524,000
Z metric ton
Operating cost, 40,000 metric tons vr
Electricity 0.10
Labor 1.14
Maintenance (10% of TPI) 1.30
Overhead (100% of labor) 1.14
Taxes and insurance 0.26
Depreciation (10 yr) 1.30
Interest on plant investment (10', on
average plant investment) 0.05
Average interest on working capital
(10% on Zl,160.000)b 2.00
Loss of product (2%) .12
Bags (ZO.30 each) 6.00
Total operating cost 16.91
aCurrent "grass roots" project cost: cost of land is not included.
Future costs may have to be adjusted.
bWorking capital is considered as 25'; of annual fertilizer cost plus
cash expense (annual fertilizer cost of Z4.240.000 at Z106 metric
ton and annual cash expenses of Z400.000).


Table 54. Typical blends
prepared from three granular materials
Quantity of
Maximum grade. material required
Nominal b' by weight per metric ion. kg
nutrient ratio N P205 K0O I'rea DAP KC1
1:1:1 19 19 19 261 41s 321
1:1:3 11 11 35 159 255 5S6
1:2:1 15 30 15 75 66 256
2:1:1 26 13 13 482 2o
2:2:1 22 22 11 310 499 1I)
3:1:1 31 10 10 601 226 17
4:1:1 33 8 S 676 1,4 140
aMaterial analysis: urea 45'" N. DAP 18': N and 46 PO;. and
KC160% K20.


Z20,000.000 to Z30.000.000 (1975 basis). A logical
expansion of the elemental phosphorus facility could
include an ammonia unit based on electrolytic hydrogen
and a thermal phosphoric acid unit. The complete complex
would have the capability of producing and exporting
elemental phosphorus. phosphoric acid. ammonia, and
high-analysis ammonium phosphate fertilizers. In effect.
this approach would amount to exporting energy and it








would complement Zaire's already flourishing copper
production and export activity.
The major purpose of the feasibility study should be to
determine the following:
I. The quantity and scheduled availability of electrical
energy from Inga 11 and III that could be committed
to phosphate and nitrogen production.
2. The quantity and quality of the Bas Zaire phosphate
deposits. Special attention should be given to deter-
mining the properties of the phosphate ore. It should
be determined if it is suitable for electric-furnace
reduction to elemental phosphorus and/or for
wet-process phosphoric acid.
3. The short- and long-term supply and economic
outlook for silica and coal (coke) both of which are
required with the electric-furnace process.
4. The medium- and long-term (10 to 30 years) world
supply, demand, and market situation for elemental
phosphorus, nitrogen, and phosphate materials.
5. Alternate methods of exploiting the Bas Zaire phos-
phate deposits without a large commitment of
electrical energy. For example, production of phos-
phate rock and wet-process phosphoric acid instead
of elemental phosphorus.
Information pertaining to the electric-furnace process
for production of elemental phosphorus, thermal phos-
phoric acid, and high-analysis ammonium phosphate
fertilizer materials is available from TVA.


FERTILIZER PRICING

High import prices of fertilizer in the past few years,
high transportation cost within Zaire, and unfavorable GOZ
commodity pricing and taxation policies have combined to
make use of fertilizer uneconomic for most crops. The only
exception has been for the high-value crops-such as coffee,
sugar, tobacco, oil palm, and tea-for which fertilizer
comprises a small part of total production costs.


Recent average nutrient prices for materials such as urea
and DAP have been 45K to 50K/kg delivered to farmers in
Shaba. This high cost has resulted from high world prices of
fertilizers, higher cost for small quantity purchases, import
duties, high ocean freight rates because of orders in small
quantities and often low-analysis materials, and high
internal freight rates. Costs are being lowered as world
fertilizer prices are declining, most import duties have been
removed, and internal freight rates for fertilizer have been
decreased. Greater effort should be made to buy high-
analysis fertilizers and to order each type in large enough
quantity to realize benefits of bid purchase and charter
ocean freight rates.
The effect of analysis of materials upon the freight and
total c.i.f. cost of nutrients is shown in table 55. Ocean
freight alone varies from Z27 to Z83/metric ton of nutrient
for various materials. The c.i.f. cost per metric ton of N
varies from Z261 for urea to Z340 for AS.
The effect of lower world fertilizer prices, import duties,
charter ocean freight rates, and internal freight rates upon
fertilizer material and nutrient costs are shown in table 56.
These items can result in lowering nutrient costs by Z140
to Z167/metric ton for materials delivered to Equateur.
Consideration might be given to equalizing freight costs
as a way of reducing the cost of fertilizer to important
inland agricultural areas. In the case of maize production in
Shaba, this approach might be a way of increasing fertilizer
use while limiting increases in maize prices to consumers.
It is recommended that the following measures be
implemented to reduce the immediate cost of fertilizer c.i.f.
Zaire:
1. Move to centralized procurement. All fertilizer
should be ordered by one agency or company.
2. Purchase in large lots. Establish annual needs and
purchase these in no more than two lots.
3. Use competitive bid procedures. It is well established
that in a buyer's market, the cheapest price comes
from a sealed competitive bid basis. The invitation
for bid procedures has been well established by
USAID, the IBRD, and others.


Table 55. Comparison of cost of nutrients and contribution from freight for various materials in bags
Nutrient Freight C.i.f.
Fertilizer content, F.o.b. cost, Z/metric tona Z/mctric ton Z/metric ton
material % Material Nutrient of nutrients of nutrient
Urea (45-0-0) 45 100 222 39 261
Ammonium nitrate (33.5-0-0) 33.5 84 251 52 303
Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 21 54 257 83 340
Diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) 64 102 159 27 186
Monoammonium phosphate (11-52-0) 63 104 165 28 193
Triple superphosphate (0-46-0) 46 97 211 38 249
Potassium chloride (0-0-60) 60 62 103 29 132
Potassium sulfate (0-0-52) 52 65 125 34 159
15-15-15 45 92 204 39 243
10-30-10 50 87 174 35 209
aEstimated cost for May 1976, International Fertilizer Development Center.
bAssumed insurance and ocean freight of Zl 7.5/metric ton of material.








Table 56. Components of estimated
costs of bagged fertilizer and nutrients
delivered to Equateur region, 1973-74 and 1976
Cost in bags, Z/metric ton
Diammonium
phosphate Urea
1973-74 Estimated 1973-74 Estimated
Item average 1976 average 1976
F.o.b. 130 102 120 100
Insurance and
freight 22 17 22 17
Import duties 32 4 26 4
Internal freight 43 15 43 15
Importer's margin
(3% of c.i.f.) 5 4 4 4
Delivered to Lisala
Material basis 232 142 215 140
Nutrient basis 362 222 478 311
aLiner rates for 1973-74 and charter rates for 1976.
bIncludes unloading ship, handling, and transport to barge dock.


4. Shift from liner to charter freight terms. This is
possible if individual lots exceed 5,000 metric tons.
5. Purchase high-analysis fertilizer. Shift from AS (21%
N) and AN (33% N) to urea (45% N) and from TSP
(0-46-0) and 16-20-0 to DAP (18-46-0).


FERTILIZER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The principal recommendations regarding the
distribution of fertilizer are as follows:
1. GOZ transport system be used to the maximum
extent possible.
2. Existing warehouse and storage space be used before
additional warehouse space is built.
3. That existing merchants and traders become
wholesalers and retailers of fertilizer.
4. That the system provide for backup regional storage
system for fertilizer in major use areas.
5. That the fertilizer be stored in place at the village
level in projected use areas ahead of the fertilizer use
season.
The major fertilizer use crops for 1980 are maize, coffee,
and oil palm followed by sugarcane and rice. Since
sugarcane, oil palm, coffee, cacao, and tea are plantation or
industrial crops, the distribution and storage of fertilizer for
these crops is not anticipated to be a problem under either
the 1976 or the 1980 plan. However, since maize, rice, and
cotton are grown by small farmers, the distribution of
fertilizer to the farmer to meet the projected requirements
and increased production of these crops are the main
concerns.
The regions of Shaba, Kasai Oriental, and Kasai Occi-
dental constitute major regions for maize production in the


future. The largest expected user of fertilizer for both 1976
and 1980 is Equateur; but since Equateur is in a different
climatic region than Shaba and Kivu. this could mean that
the country would have two or more distinct fertilizer use
periods, which would ease fertilizer transportation
problems.
As fertilizer consumption increases in Zaire. it will
become increasingly necessary to develop warehouse facili-
ties to store fertilizer in several areas. The seasonal nature
of fertilizer use (most used during 6 to 12 weeks during the
planting season) requires storage near the use area. This is
especially true in the Kivu. Shaba. Kasai. northern
Equateur, and Haut Zaire regions. Fertilizer use generally is
spread throughout the year in the more humid areas where
oil palm, coffee, tea, and cacao are grown.
The existing transportation system is adequate for
handling the projected annual tonnage of fertilizer for
several years. However, the seasonal nature of its use would
place an unnecessary burden on the transport system at
certain times. The ability of the transport system to absorb
a seasonal surge of cargo (fertilizer) is further restricted bv
an approximate 50% reduction in the capacity of the barges
near the end of the dry season, which. incidentally.
coincides with the beginning of the planting season. Storage
of fertilizer near the use area would ensure adequate
supplies in spite of these handicaps. It would also improve
the overall efficiency of the barge system. which could be
used to transport fertilizer materials during the rainy season
well in advance of the planting season.
The basic distribution system for fertilizer should consist
of movement by the fertilizer company via the GOZ
transport system (figure 4) from Boma or Matadi to rail or
barge terminals and by general commodity merchants.
cooperatives, and project managers from these sites to
villages beyond. Merchants and plantations able to arrange
their own transport and storage would purchase from the
company and obtain deliveries at the depots or river ports.
This provides availability of fertilizer to hundreds of
merchants at the regular stops along the transportation
system. This arrangement should provide adequate storage
and supply of fertilizers near the use area.
Three situations may exist whereby the fertilizer
company is justified in establishing its own regional
warehouses. They are:
1. In a high fertilizer use area. existing warehouse
facilities may not have the capacity to store adequate
quantities needed in the short fertilizer use season. In
this situation, supplying the merchants and planta-
tions from the central port storage may not be
feasible. Then, it would be desirable to operate a
regional warehouse from which materials could be
supplied to distributors in a short period of time.
2. In areas where delivery from the central port storage
would take very long for delivery (for example.









Kivu), it may be desirable for the supply organization
to maintain warehouses to ensure adequate supplies
at the times of need.
3. In a new fertilizer use area where no private merchant
has adequate facilities to handle fertilizer.
Consideration should be given to company-operated
warehouses (rented or owned) at:
1. Kinshasa-This warehouse could service the Kinshasa
area and provide intermediate storage for materials
for transshipment to inland areas.
2. Mbandaka, Lisala, or Bumba-A warehouse in this
area would serve as backup storage for Equateur and
Haut Zaire regions.
3. Kamina or Kabalo-This warehouse would serve
primarily as backup storage for Shaba and Kivu.
4. Uvira-This location would be considered as an
alternative to supplying northern Kivu region from
Kamina or Kabalo.
Company-owned regional warehouses should be located
at junctions of transportation systems and as nearly as
possible to depots and river ports to reduce handling costs.
Existing warehouse facilities should be used when possible
for intermediate storage of fertilizer. Other products also
should be stored in the warehouses to use the space as
much as possible over the whole year and reduce storage
charges to any one product. These products might include
agricultural inputs and produce and nonagricultural
products. The company may contract for storage and
handling of certain products to use its space and labor
supply when fertilizer movement is low.
If it is necessary to build warehouses, the size should be
based upon the quantity of products moved through.
Assuming that the bags are stacked 20 high, a warehouse 43
m wide and 87 m long will store 5,000 metric tons of
bagged fertilizer. This would allow sufficient space for work
aisles. The side walls should be about 5 to 6 m high. They
could be constructed of locally made concrete blocks.
Wood poles could be used for the roof support members.
Asbestos (Transite) or reinforced plastic would be a good
choice for covering.
It may be more desirable at some locations to build
smaller warehouses. The capital cost per metric ton of
storage would increase about 25% when size is reduced by
50%. Suggested designs for a 2,500- or a 5,000-metric ton
warehouse are shown in figure 15.
Fertilizer procurement and distribution functions using
the regional warehouse concept are diagramed in figure 16.
The lead times shown will ensure that the farmer has a
sufficient amount of fertilizer at planting time, obtain a
desirable movement through a warehouse to justify the
operation, and obtain maximum waterway shipping
economy by moving most of the fertilizer to the regional
warehouses during periods of high water and maximum
barge capacity. It is estimated that 12 to 15 months is


required from the time of deciding what to order and
delivery to the farm.
Estimates of contributions of various items to warehouse
handling and storage costs are shown in table 57. The
estimates are based on a warehouse capable of storing 5,000
metric tons of bagged fertilizer, movement of either 5,000
or 10,000 metric tons/year, total costs charged to fertilizer,
and other factors listed in the table. The accuracy of such
estimates is unknown to the team, but the main points are
the relative contributions of various items and the effect on
unit costs of doubling the amount moved through the
facility. Interest on working capital and product losses are
the largest cost items.
Because of the seasonal nature of fertilizer use, other
products could be handled without additional facilities,
equipment, or labor. This would give more efficient use of
these items and reduce the amount charged to handling
fertilizer. Costs for I Iiudlin fertilizer and other inputs
could be further reduced if warehouse space were rented to
store other items when space is not needed.
Fertilizer must reach farms for benefits to be realized.
Movement to warehouses is only a part of the need in
distributing fertilizer. To meet many small farmers' needs,
fertilizer must move considerable distances from rail and
barge terminals to the locality of use. We recommend that
traders (merchants) perform this function of getting the
fertilizer out to villages and farmers. Fertilizer could be
distributed along with flour, beer, and other products. The
traders could also buy and assemble agricultural produce
and return it to the transportation system for distribu-
tion within the country or for export. Small multiple-
product storage warehouses or sheds would be needed at a

Table 57. Estimated operating cost at two
levels of operation for a regional warehouse handling
only fertilizer (no delivery from warehouse)
Annual cost,
Z/metric ton
Item Basis 5,000 10,000
metric tons


Handling


Repair, maintenance,
and miscellaneous
Depreciation
Interest on capital
investment
Interest on working
capital
Product loss


Administration
Total


10 employees at
Z600/year
10% of mobile
equipment
7-year average
10% of 50% of
investment
10% of 50% of
material cost
3% of Z142/
metric ton
100% of labor cost


1.20 0.60

0.48 0.24
3.54 1.77

1.24 0.62

7.10 7.10

4.26 4.26
1.20 0.60
19.02 15.19


aEstimated capital investment includes: warehouse, Z100,000 and
three trucks, Z24,000. Total capital investment, Z124,000.
bEstimated average material cost delivered to warehouse: Z142.
















WOOD POLES (SUPPORT MEMBERS)


STACKED 20 HIGH


WALLS-
CONCRETE BL


Figure 15. Suggested design for regional bagged fertilizer warehouse


Task No.


Description


Task No.


1 Procure and assemble orders
2 Prepare tender
3 Issue tender and await bids
4 Review bids and award contract
5 Ocean transport


JUNE J A S O N D J F M A
I l I I I I I I I


DAP TASK NO. I


2 3 4


5 6


Description


6 Unload at port and prepare orders for shipment
7 Transport from port to regional warehouses
8 Distribute from regional warehouses to villages
9 Apply fertilizer, DAP during planting followed
with urea sidedress


M J J A S 0 N DEC.
I I l l


7


8


9


JULY A0 N J F M A M I A S


JULY A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S O N D JAN

UREA TASK NO.I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


LOW RIVER
LEVEL
(80% OF AVG. FLOW)


i -------- H
LOWEST RIVER
LEVEL
(70% OF AVG. FLOW)


Figure 16. Typical schedule for fertilizer procurement, distribution, and use on maize in Shaba and Kasai


LEGEND
DIMENSIONS, METERS
CAPACITY LENGTH WIDTH HEIGHT
M/TONS
2.500 65 30 6
5,000 87 43 6


s i .


, i |


I









number of larger villages to serve as distribution and
assembly centers. GOZ assistance should be considered to
strengthen these merchants, as they are essential for an
efficient distribution and collection system.
If sufficient traders did not exist in remote areas or in
low use areas, the fertilizer company might distribute
fertilizer to villages. Also the company might act as
intermediary in obtaining and collecting agricultural output
from the village level to the regional storage facility.
Presumably, the system would work most efficiently if the
fertilizer ...i. i'.I had control of the fertilizer up to the
regional warehouse where private traders distributed it from
that point to the village.
In areas of government production projects, the project
management could distribute the fertilizer and other
necessary inputs in project areas. This service could also be
performed for area farmers not associated with the project.
A third alternative would be for the GOZ to distribute
the fertilizer from the regional warehouse to the village
level. The main concern of any system of distribution is
that existing facilities and organizations already established
be used and that the fertilizer be at the village level or
production area prior to the time it is needed so that it can
be used to increase yields and food production.
It should be stressed that the transportation network of
barge-rail-trucks, plus several levels of intermediate storage,
will mean that each bag of fertilizer will be handled
numerous times hence increasing costs and losses. The
system proposed of a fertilizer company plus private traders
should minimize losses compared to a totally government-
operated system when profit motive (and savings) may be
missing. Various studies dealing with fertilizer handling and
..lI-IIi.Ii.,ii, have found losses of 1% to 2% at the port and
3% to 5% in transit within the country. Losses in transit
could easily be higher in Zaire because of the many
transfers required on the transportation system. Special
handling, such as the use of preslung cargo and shrink wrap,
would be important in reducing losses. Also, extra bags
should be included with shipments so that crews could
rebag fertilizer when bags are broken. The importance of
minimizing losses is illustrated by noting that each 1% loss
(one bag for each 100 handled) adds from Z1.25 to
Z1.5/metric ton of product. On the basis of the studies
mentioned above, losses may add from Z6 to Z10.5/metric
ton to the cost of fertilizer.
An FAO study by Zchernitz (36) of the fertilizer
marketing system in Kenya (similar to the retail system we
recommend for Zaire) found retail margins (excluding
transportation) of 5.5% to 8.5% of retail price or 8% to
14%I of c.i.f. It was considered that retail margins should be
about 15%I of c.i.f. to permit retailers to store fertilizer. In
that study, wholesalers' margins were 7% to 8% of retail
price or 10'% to 11% of c.i.f. This allowed for financing
stocks for 6 months. Our estimates of wholesalers' margins


were 12.8% to 16% of c.i.f. when handling fertilizer alone.
Including other products in the business could reduce this
cost considerably. Therefore, we consider the wholesaler's
margin of 10% of c.i.f. found in Kenya to be applicable for
Zaire. With a retail distribution system similar to Kenya,
the retailer's margin also will likely be similar (15% of
c.i.f.).
Therefore, we estimate the cost of DAP at a retailer's
outlet in northern Equateur (100 km from Lisala) will be
approximately Z181/metric ton or Z0.28/kg of nutrient.
The contribution of various components of the total cost in
the initial phase when the supply company is importing
fertilizers in bags is shown below.


Cost item
C.i.f. port
Import duties
Importer's margin (3% of c.i.f.)
Transportation to regional warehouse
Regional warehouse margin (10% of c.i.f.)
Transportation to retailer (100 km @
Z0.085/metric ton/kim)a
Retailer's margin (15% of c.i.f.)


Z/metric ton
119

4
4
15
12

9
18
181


aCoursier (5).

In summary, the fertilizer distribution system from the
port of entry should mainly consist of movement of
fertilizer under company ownership via the government
transportation system to merchants, plantations, and
projects at regular barge or rail terminals. The merchants
take ownership at the terminal and are responsible for
transportation and storage. Depending upon the size of
merchants' businesses and facilities, they will (1) store,
transport, and wholesale to village merchants, plantations
and projects, both near and distant from government
transport terminals, or (2) store small quantities for retail
to farmers in the retail sales area around the terminal.
The company should not retail fertilizer in small
quantities to small farmers but should limit sales to
wholesale and retail merchants, plantations, and production
projects. The sales price from the company at a given
terminal should be the same for all buyers of a given
product. This will encourage wholesale merchants to
distribute fertilizer at some distance from the terminal since
retailers in the vicinity of the wholesaler can obtain
fertilizer at the same price. It is vital that fertilizers be
distributed to farmers at distances from the terminal as well
as near the terminal.


NORTH SHABA RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

The TVA study clearly shows that the use of fertilizer
could markedly improve the productivity of the existing








Zairois agricultural community. An increase in the pro-
ductivity of the rural community tends to improve the
quality of life among the inhabitants since consumption of
more and higher quality commodities usually occurs.
Of course, fertilizer is only one component in the
complex production and marketing chain. All components
must function in relative harmony before the latent benefit
of each can be translated into advantages that will justify
the added work and risk. Fortunately, utilization of most
of the components required for an effective crop produc-
tion program (management, research, applied education,
transport and marketing systems, consumer and production
credit, manufacturing facilities, etc.) is not limited to a
single product or program. The infrastructure required for
an effective crop production program will have a synergistic
effect on the growth of other phases of the economy
brought about as a result of increased productivity of the
rural community.
An integrated rural development program for the north
Shaba region (Kalemie-Kabalo-Kongolo triangle) has been
proposed by the GOZ Department of Agriculture. The
projected target date for initiation of the project is January
1976. It is expected that 3 to 4 years will be required for
implementation of phase 1 which will include 4,000
participating farmers or about 5% of the farmers in the
project area.
The objective of the rural development program
(improve the quality of life of the rural Zairois) is clear.
Methods outlined for obtaining this goal and techniques for
measuring and evaluating results are sound. The project
proposal recognizes, as does the TVA team, that the key
element required to carry out an effective and productive
program is to provide well-disciplined, coordinated
grassroots management and surveillance.
Since the proposed objectives, methods, and manage-
ment for the north Shaba project are similar to those of a
fertilizer and crop production program envisioned in the
TVA study, it is proposed that the north Shaba project be
used to pilot the fertilizer supply and crop production
concepts proposed by the TVA team. Other components of
the north Shaba project-such as roads, distribution and
marketing systems, health, and applied education
programs-would highly complement and reinforce
introduction of new crop production techniques.


It is recommended that as a first step toward meeting
this goal the project management and the agricultural
planning staff with assistance from PNM verify the TVA
findings regarding the necessary fertilizer and maize prices
needed to stimulate fertilizer use and maize production in
north Shaba. In addition, fertilizer needs for 1976-77
should be determined and procurement should begin
immediately. In the future if a fertilizer company is
formed, fertilizer needs should be given to the company 15
to 18 months before intended use.
The estimated costs of fertilizers delivered to farmers in
the vicinity of Kabalo are shown in table 58. The cost for
60 kg each of N and P205 from urea and DAP would be
Z37.56 or an average of ZO.313/kg of nutrient. This
estimate is near that used (30K/kg) in the section on
agronomic-economic aspects of maize production. There-
fore, data from that section were used to estimate added
income for farmers participating in the production project.
Assuming yield responses from the previous analysis. the
use of 480 metric tons of nutrients on 4.000 ha should
produce an additional 7,956 metric tons of maize over
present production. At 5K/kg of maize, the additional
maize would be worth Z397,800. The fertilizer input would
cost Z 150.240. This gives a net gain in income for the area
of Z247,560 or Z61.89/farmer growing 1 ha of maize. Cost
of credit, seed, and other inputs in the new technology
package should be subtracted from this. These costs would
likely be no more than Z3 to Z5/ha.


Table 58. Estimated cost of bagged urea and diammonium
phosphate delivered to farmers in north Shaba project
Z metric ton
Cost item Urea DAP
C.i.f. port 117 119
Import duties (3% of c.i.f.) 4 4
Importer's margin (3% of c.i.f.) 4 4
Transportation to Kabalo 26 26
Project cost for handling
and storage (10% of c.i.f.) 15 15
Delivery to farms
(100 km (a@ Z0.085/metric ton/km) 9 9
175 177










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Project for the Sub-Region of Tanganika." USAID, Kinshasa
(unpublished).
33. USAID. 1973. "East Kasai (Zaire) Report." USAID,
Washington, D.C. (unpublished).
34. USDA. 1974. "The Agricultural Situation in Africa and West
Asia." ERS Foreign 363.
35. Verhaegen, G. 1973. "Le Developpement de I'Agriculture
Paysanne au Zaire." Zaire Afrique.
36. Zchernitz, K. 1972. The Fertilizer Marketing System in Kenya.
FAO, Rome.









Appendix A

TVA Fertilizer Team Scope of Work


The team of technicians will obtain and study the
following information:
1. The general nature of agriculture in Zaire, its
geography, climate, soils, crop production by type and
geographic region, cropping patterns, land tenure, farm to
market transportation and its effects on crop marketing and
input distribution, cropping technology with emphasis on
soil fertility practices, and amounts of fertilizers used.
Physical impediments to increase crop production, current
anticipated fertilizer application recommendations, and
projected increased crop production by geographic area.
2. Population, its geographic trends by region and
labor supply for agriculture, considering seasonality division
of labor between man and woman.
3. Cost price relationships in crop production based
upon enterprise budgets reflecting cost and return for
fertilizer use at various levels on most important crops.
4. Projected food needs-supply and demand projec-
tions of each major crop on per capital consumption, with
consideration of reserve requirements, losses, shifts in
demand over time based on quality and type of crops, and
income elasticities.
5. Crop import and export trends, input of import
tariffs on food and fertilizers, and export and import
projection by crop.
6. The programs and policies of the GOZ, adequacy of
research and extension, general recommendations for
improvement of research as applied to soil fertility, and
policies of the present government as they affect crop
production/fertility. Also evaluated should be government
price and subsidy policies in terms of economic and
behavioral impact on farmers and others in the fertilizer
and agricultural product markets with alternatives suggested
and analyzed. Credit program requirements at farm level to
achieve adaption of fertilization credit program
recommendations.


7. Fertilizer requirements and projections-type of
demands structure, i.e., paysannats plantations. PNM small
farmers, most desirable grades and ratios and need for
secondary and micronutrients, quantitative fertilizer needs
by crop through 1985 based on internal consumption. and
export requirements developed in preceding sections and
consistent with economically efficient use levels.
8. Physical infrastructure requirements-location and
condition of present infrastructure and distribution system.
location of import centers, fertilizer plants, raw material
sources, power sources, and transportation system.
Capacity and desire of Zaire to build and operate simple
fertilizer mixing plants versus more complex plants. Quanti-
tative analysis of existing distribution system including
costs and margins for each function and/or transaction
point, with recommendations for effective intervention.
9. Resource materials and production potential short-
and long-term sources of raw and intermediate fertilizer
materials, local sources, imported materials, including
potential African sources as well as byproducts from copper
smelting and other industries, and production potential
given Inga-Shaba power resources.
10. With specific reference to the north Shaba project.
evaluate alternative fertilizer technologies applicable to the
project and existing fertilizer transport and delivery.
infrastructure, project supply, transport. credit needs
applicable to the various alternatives, and recommend
pricing policy.
11. Evaluate alternatives in building a sound fertilizer
industry that the GOZ might consider with short-term
strategy, taking current and near future world fertilizer
situation into full account, long-term strategy based upon
major expansion of potash and copper deposits and power
sources in Zaire and neighboring countries. foreign
exchange implications of recommended alternatives. and
Zaire long-term fertilizer export potential.









Appendix B

Data Tables


Table B-1. Breakdown of nitrogen usage by product, 1963, 1967, 1971, and 1973


Product


Natural source
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium nitrate
Calcium nitrate
Sodium nitrate
Calcium cyanamide
Urea
Ammonium nitrate
sulfate
Other sources
Mixtures
Total


Phosphates
Single superphosphate
Double superphosphate
Basic slag
Phosphate rock
Mixtures
Total P
Potash products
Muriate of potash
Potassium nitrate
K2SO4-MgSO4
K2S04
Mixtures
Other
Tntal KI


1963 1967
Product Nutrient Total Product Nutrient Total
metric metric
tons % tons %
22 1.1 <1 0 0 0
2,292 481.3 51.3 2,019 424 55
477 157.4 16.8 39 13 2
1 0 0 0
11 2 <1 2 <1 <1
0 0 0
10 4.6 <1 11 5 <1


80
239
1,462
4,594

21
184
5
115
1,462
1,787

817
178
1,335
172
1,463
490
4 4RR


24
48
219
937.4

5
70
1
35
219
330

490
78
280
66
219
147
1 280


2.6 0
5.2 134
23.4 2,020
4,225


1.5
21.2
<1
10.6
66.4


38.3
6.1
21.9
5.1
17.1
11.5


138
165
49
29
2,020
2,401

1,271
75

9
2,020
79
3455


1971
Product Nutrient Total
metric
tons %


159
3,278
6,636
380
775
0
548


0 0
3.5 2,028
39.3 2,769
16,573


8.4
15.1
1.7
1.8
72.8


826
73
28
451
2,769
4,147


763 68 623
33 2.9 100
0 18
5 <1 12
303 26.9 2,769
24 2.1 1,778
1.128 5.300


8
688
2,190
57
124
0
252

0
608
415
4,342

207
28
4
135
415
789

374
44
4
6
415
356
1.199


<1
16
50
1.3
2.8
0
5.8


1973
Product Nutrient Total
metric
tons %


55
2,027
1,946
0
0
0
399


0 0
14 763
9.6 2,752
7,942


26.2
3.5
<1
17.1
52.3



31
3.7
<1
<1
34.6
29.7


318
318
0
212
2,752
3,600

851
580
110
118
2,752
816
5.227


3
426
642
0
0
0
184

0
153
413
1,821

80
121

64
413
678

511
255
23
59
413
245
1,506


<1
23.4
35.3
0
0
0
9.9

0
8.4
22.7


11.8
17.8

9.4
60.9



34
16.9
1.5
3.9
27.4
16.3


Source: Bureau d'Etudes et Programme Agricole.
Table B-2. Projected total consumption of selected agricultural products, 1980 and 1985
Consumption
Production 1980 1985
Crop 1973-74 1973-74 Lowa Mediumb Highc Lowa Mediumb Highc
1,000 metric tons
Maize 365 528 627 684 742 786 851 917
Rice 233 240 314 328 342 376 393 409
Wheat 3 142 182 191 200 219 229 239
Millet and sorghum 26 26 31 34 36 36 39 43
Groundnuts 165 165 228 231 234 262 265 267
Potatoes 26 26 28 31 34 36 39 42
Sweet potatoes 355 355 428 431 433 490 498 500
Cassava 9,750 9,750 11,520 11,550 11,580 13.230 13.260 13,260
Sugarcane 60 78 88 94 100 108 115 121
Banana 1,250 1,250 1,480 1,510 1,540 1,740 1,770 1,800
Meat 41 55 71 80 88 92 108 118
Cotton, lint 22 16 20 22 29 26 30 36
Tobacco 1,050 1,050 1,312 1,426 1,512 1.637 1,768 1,833
aAssumes no increase in income and continuation of recent consumption trends.
bAssumes a 1.5%/year increase in income and continuation of recent consumption trends.
cAssumes a 3%/year increase in income and continuation of recent consumption trends.









Table B-3. Maize grain yields (kg/ha, 14%
moisture) in eight N and P rate experiments, 1973-74


P20,
applied Test
kg/ha station
0 I Gandadjika
2 Gandadjika
3 Kieumbe
4 Chef Katanga
5 Kisanga
6 Kisanga
7 Kisanga
8 Kisanga
Average
60 1 Gandadjika
2 Gandadjika
3 Kieumbe
4 Chef Katanga
5 Kisanga
6 Kisanga
7 Kisanga
8 Kisanga
Average
120 I Gandadjika
2 Gandadjika
3 Kieumbe
4 Chef Katanga
5 Kisanga
6 Kisanga
7 Kisanga
8 Kisanga
Average


N. kg/ha
0 60 120 180
2,646 2,117 2,603 2.730
3,260 2,963 2,709 3,154
6,254 7,395 8,147 8,968
5,793 6,959 8,446 9.109
4,500 6,312 7,386 8,908
2,445 3,859 5,302 3.220
2,306 4,549 4,230 5.825
1,463 3,742 3,362 3,315
3,583 4,737 5,273 5,654
4,106 4,741 5,313 5,292
4,022 7,154 7,789 6,392
6,830 8,527 9,164 10,082
5,957 7,973 8,107 10,143
4,724 6,213 8,398 9,165
2,093 3,785 3,826 5,320
2,306 4,783 4,717 6,267
1,500 3,412 4,300 3.325
3,942 5,824 6,452 6,998
4,424 5,376 6,286 6.794
4,614 6,964 7,959 8.551
7,334 9,678 9,665 9.951
7,383 8,622 8,989 9.601
4,378 5,391 7,585 9,670
2,677 5,335 4,999 5.793
2,968 4,246 5,380 6,340
1,468 2,874 4,217 5.062
4,406 6,061 6,885 7,720


Table B-4. Yield and resource requirements for maize


Yield, kg/ha
Cash expenses, Z/ha
Fertilizer
Seed comb
Interests
Miscellaneous
Total


Rate of nutrient
application, kg/ha
0 60 120 180 240
3,793 4,950 5,782 6,300 6.806


0
3.60
0.28
1.00
4.88


18.00
3.60
1.36
1.00
23.96


36.00
3.60
2.44
1.00
43.04


54.00
3.60
3.52
1.00
62.12


72.00
3.60
4.60
1.00
81.20


Labor man-days/had
Planting and weeding 80 82 83 84 85
Harvest 76 99 1 16 126 136
Total 156 181 199 210 221
a30K/kg fertilizer nutrient.
b30 kg/ha at K/kg.
CAssumed interest rate 1 2% for 6 months.
dAssumed to be 6-hour days. Customarily, work hours vary from
day to day, but the 6-hour average has been found to be the most
usual in studies conducted by Dr. Eric Tollens at UNAZA.




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