Bibliography of readings in farming systems

Material Information

Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
001822822 ( ALEPH )
13012743 ( OCLC )
AJP6828 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
1984 Volume 1
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523

One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research (FSR) practitioners is the difficulty in locating and accessing relevant FSR literature. The expansion of FSR projects and programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports, and monographs dealing with particular aspects of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR work makes it difficult, if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research journals. Additionally, much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished manuscripts from the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level practitioners, who by the nature of their work are stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability of these materials can only slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.
As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR documents for theirannotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE)/Development Information Division.
This is the first volume of the bibliography. Subsequent volumes will be published annually throughout the life of the FSSP. CDIE will catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography series and will be able to provide copies of all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE documentation center and duplicating services will continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will remain available.
The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies. Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:
Resources on Developing Countries
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66505
Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are
also welcome.

Item number 101 PN-AAK-592 Document number
M F $3.241PC $28.47 Title Microfiche/
Soybean seed quality and stand establishment; pro- Paper Copy prices
Author(s) seedings
Sinclair, J.B.; Jackobs, J.A.
Institution(s) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. College of
Agriculture. International Soybean Program Serial title
Meeting F (Conference on Soybean Seed Quality and Stand Establish- and number, date,
ment, Colombo, LK, 25-31 Jan 1981) pagination, and
Supplementary INTSOY series, no. 22, 1982, xiii, 206 p., En language
note(s) Published by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
_ Grant DAN-1406-G-O0-1015-O0 Publisher
Project number 93105600
Contract/Grant AID/ta-C-1294
Soybean research has shown that both physical and biological factors are responsible for reduced seed quality and vigor, that stand establishment depends on seed quality, and that seed quality is directly influenced by weather conditions during seed maturation and harvest and by subsequent storage conditions. Because knowledge of these facts remains largely fragmented and is not being communicated to farmers, the International Soybean Program (INTSOY) hosted an international conference in Sri Lanka for research scientists and extensionists to correlate current knowledge on soybean seed quality and stand establishment, discuss ways to communicate this knowledge to farmers, and determine future research needs.
The conference proceedings presented in this volume include: (1) 19 invited papers and abstracts of 13 volunteered papers on soybean seed maturation, genetic differences in seeds, the effect of weather, harvesting and planting procedures, and the role of insects and pathogens; (2) 11 country reports from various Asian nations; and (3) reports from three Abtract working committees on soybean production, crop protection, and storage and mechanization In the plenary sessions, the speakers voiced a number of proposals on what emerged as a major concern among the delegates-the importance of seed quality in expanding soybean production in tropical and semi-tropical areas. Pointed out in particular was the complexity of soybean seed production in the tropics and semi-tropics due to the high humidity and temperature levels that prevail throughout the year. Other themes sounded were the necessity for good seed to make soybean an economical crop and the nutritional importance of soybeans.'
All information presented during the conference related to seed production, technology, and storage and to seed certification in tropical and semi-tropical developing countries. Such information is directly related not only to INTSOY goals, but to complementary efforts of other international donors such as the Food and Agriculture Organization's ongoing Regional Field Food Crops project in North Africa and the Middle East.
To facilitate rapid and accurate processing of your requests for documents from this bibliography, please observe closely the ordering instructions found on the page following the index.

001 PN-AAP-094 farmers, rurai women, government officials, and extension
MF $3.24/PC $31.98 workers.
Animal production systems in the Eastern
Caribbean 003 *PN-AAP-652
Archibald, K.; Singh, R. MF $2.16/PC $21.84
Winrock International; University of the West Indies, St.
Augustine. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Multiple cropping and tropical farming
Development Institute
Apr 1981, 220p. :En Consultant report no. 7 systems
5380015 Beets, William C.
1982, xiv, 156p. : Bibliography p.146-152, En
In 1981 the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Develop- Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 ment Institute (CARDI) conducted a survey in order to charac- USA terize animal production on small farms in the Eastern Caribbe- Well-planned multiple cropping is one of the more feasible an as to resources, constraints, and productivity level, and to
identify high priority experimental interventions to improve ways of raising agricultural production in the tropics, according productivity. Results are herein presented. Seven country re- to this review of the subject. After an introductory explanation ports (St. Kitts-Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, of tropical farming systems and multiple cropping, the author St. Vincent, Grenada) are followed by a general characteriza- lists the types of multiple cropping systems and gives a history tion of animal production systems in the region, and by discus- of the practice. Discussion is then given to: (1) economic and sions of economic considerations and of possible interventions social factors affecting tropical small farm productivity (levels of in such areas as animal nutrition and health, genetic improve- technology and resources, farmer managerial ability and tradiment, animal husbandry, policy and institutional interventions, tions, agricultural infrastructure, population pressure, farm size and farm management. and type, and demand and prices); (2) agro-technical features
The authors conclude that insufficient policy-level attention of multiple cropping systems (crop and variety selection, plant has been given to coordinated parallel development of animal population and spatial arrangements, timing, fertilization, irrigaproduction and crop production. While pricing policies are the tion, erosion, crop management, and mechanization); (3) plant major constraint on self-sufficient animal production, other interrelationships and competition; and (4) agro-ecological, problems (e.g., inadequate processing and marketing facilities biological, and plant physical aspects (climate, soil, light, water, and high-priced imported feed) must also be addressed. Ap- micro-climate, and pests and diseases). Techniques for evalupended are a list of specific interventions to improve animal ating the productivity of different cropping systems are anaproduction on small farms and a 35-item bibliography (1975- lyzed, as are the selection and design of suitable multiple 81). cropping systems in terms of both natural environment and
human management. A discussion of research issues, including a survey of current multiple cropping systems research,
concludes the study. Included are 56 figures and a 135-item
002 PN-AAP-842 bibliography (1887-1977) of international sources.
MF $2.16/PC $19.76
Integrated crop-livestock-fish farming04PNA -15
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center 004_______PN-AAP__________ 105__(Symposium-Workshop on Integrated Crop-Livestock-Fish MF $1.08/PC $10.79
Farming, Los Banos, PH, 19-24 Nov 1979)
FFTC book series, no. 16, May 1980, 1 47p. : En Design and management of survey research: a
Wase rcylin isa ey eaureof ucessul ntgraed guide for agricultural researchers Wast reyclng s akeyfeaure f sccesfu inegrted Bernsten, Richard H. crop-livestock-fish farming in the Republic of China, Malaysia, 1979, ii, 80p. : En Thailand, and several other Asian countries. The 17 papers
included in this volume the proceedings of a 1979 conference The value of data collected in an agricultural survey deon integrated farming show the complexity of integrated pends on following established survey research principles. This farming systems in Asia and point out the need to develop booklet outlines these principles and offers practical sugsystems that are location-and situation-specific. gestions to accommodate a wide array of field problems.
The first four papers provide an overview of integrated Discussion is given to: conducting pre-survey research to systems in general and of systems having, respectively, crops, determine the survey's purpose; focusing the survey's specific fish, or livestock as the major enterprise (prefeasibility studies analytical, disciplinary, and data goals; defining the sampling for these three types of systems are also presented). The unit and choosing appropriate sampling methods; choosing remaining papers describe specific integrated systems in primary data collection strategies (individual, group, and village Taiwan, the Philippines, Korea, Malaysia, and Japan; included interviews, farm recordkeeping); designing, coding, formatting, are discussions of an inland fishery, of complex upland farming, and pre-testing the questionnaire or interview questions; of an integrated rice mill and farm complex, and of the selecting, training, and supervising hired interviewers; gaining utilization of hog wastes through anaerobic fermentation. Sev- cooperation from vilages and farmers; and selecting a dataeral issues emerge as important: analysis of the nature and analysis system. While one-third of the report is devoted to availability of environmental and socioeconomic resources; detailed instructions on preparing survey data for computer new management skills and technologies for specific locations; analysis by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) development of a systematic cooperative marketing scheme programs, it also suggests simpler analysis methods (tabular through farmers' associations; applied research; and training of sheets and sorting strips).
Vol 1, 1984 1

005 PN-AAP-309 007 PN-AAP-980
MF $1.08/PC $5.33 MF $2.16/PC $14.56
Sistemas integrados de cultivos alimenticios Network methodology and cropping system
como medio para proveer una dieta adecuada research in Indonesia
(Integrated systems of food plant cultivation Central Research Institute for Agriculture
as a means of providing an adequate diet) (Indonesian Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting,
Burgos, Carlos F. Bogor, ID, 20-21 Jul 1979)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center Jul 1979, v.p. : En 1978, iii, 37p. : Es Results in Indonesia of a cropping systems research proA farming systems research (FSR) program undertaken by gram begun in South and Southeast Asia in 1965 by the CATIE to upgrade small farm diets in Central America is International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are presented in described. After briefly defining characteristics of an this collection of papers given at a 7/79 workshop at Inagroecosystem, the report describes: CATIE's FSR methodolo- donesia's Central Research Institute for Agriculture (CRIA). gy; the relation between farming systems and human nutrition After an initial paper sketching the program's history, organi(especially proteins and energy); some nutritional aspects of zation, and basic activities, a paper describing activities being Central American crops (including corn, beans, and rice); and undertaken with CRIA to improve the productivity of upland results of CATIE's surveys of cultivation systems and nutrition irrigated and lowland rainfed rice farming in Indonesia is in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. A final section out- presented. Discussion focuses on the selection of specific lines a strategy to obtain an adequate diet through crop target areas for research, with attention to selection criteria, diversification and intensification; home gardening of crops site description, and the collection of biological and economic such as corn or rice which can supply the nutritional elements data. Simplified methods and guidelines for designing and lacking in the main crop is suggested. Increased livestock testing cropping patterns are presented and are exemplified by production is suggested as an alternative strategy. The need to a review of systems designed to assess the relative importance integrate food technology specialists with agricultural research- of inputs, markets, and farmer technological know-how as ers in the entire research process is stressed. Included are 3 production constraints in Indramayu and Lampung. Further figures, 10 tables, and a 45-item bibliography (1949-78). aspects of site specificity and of research in Lampung are
discussed in three appended papers. Other appendices treat
research priorities and economic analyses of simple dispersed
006 PN-AAP-344 trials.
MF $1.08/PC $12.48
Course in farming systems research: the 008 N-AAP-978
Cornell experience MF $3.24/PC $3315
Casey, Frank; Barker, Randolph
Cornell University. New York State College of Agriculture and Systems research in the arid zones of Malil:
Life Sciences
Cornell international agriculture mimeograph, no.93, Jul 1982, initial results
92p. : Bibliography, p.72-92, En Chater, Simon
Program in International Agriculture, 252 Roberts Hall, International Livestock Centre for Africa Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 single copy free, ILCA systems study, no. 5, Aug 1981, 251p. : En additional copies 25 cents each ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The development and content of a new course, entitled The two main livestock production systems in Central Mali's "Farming Systems Research (FSR) in Developing Countries," arid zones are the agropastoral and pastoral systems, defined first offered at Cornell University during the Fall 1980 semester, respectively by the relative domination of agricultural or liveare herein described. stock production. This report summarizes 5 years of research
Section I of this report presents the program of a workshop, on two subsystems of these systems the rainfed millet held at Cornell during the summer of 1980, at which faculty and cropping agropastoral system, and the pastoralism associated students examined proposals as to course activities, materials, with floodplain grazing and farming. organization, and teaching methods. Included in the discussion After a short description of Mali's natural resources, the two are comments pertaining to the philosophy behind the FSR subsystems are described in detail. The section on the millet approach, the nature of inter-and multidisciplinary research, subsystem covers: labor; 1980 crop yields; the village econoand procedures for conducting field research. Section II pro- my; the production and nutrition of livestock (cattle, sheep, and vides an outline of the course as given in 1980 and summarizes goats); and crop agronomy and improvement, with a focus on participants' comments on FSR as a research methodology, as cowpea agronomy and millet fertilization. The section on the well as on pedagogical issues and course content and mechan- pastoral system covers rangeland feed resources, livestock ics. Section III provides an updated description of the second production and nutrition, and the problematic social-territorial FSR course (Fall 1981), highlighting specific changes from the livestock management framework. original offering, and again including student comments. Read- A final section on future research prospects concludes that ing materials associated with the course are listed in an annex, the improvements in livestock production systems that are which includes 16 pages of references (1951-81) divided into possible given the Sahel's delicate ecological balance, may, methodological readings, bibliographic material, and works on although slight, be vital for the survival of these ecornonically farming systems, cropping systems, and other farm manage- important systems. Included are 67 figures, 84 tables, and a 7ment topics. page bibliography (1960-81) citing works in French and English.
2 VoL I, 194

009 PN-AAP-952 Zimbabwe is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on: lessons learned
MF $5.40/PC $61.10 in modifying a strongly compartmentalized research network in Kenya and the difficulties junior economists faced in initiating
Farm management in peasant agriculture dialogue with senior technical scientists in Kenya; how the
Collinson, Michael Kenyan experience was used to help reorganize and strength1983, xxvii, 454p. : Bibliography p.433-444, En en the agricultural research system in Zambia; and the integral
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 link between FSR and inservice and short-term training workUSA shops.
A concluding section analyzes several issues FSR as a
This book, based primarily on research in Tania and link between local and national priorities, whether FSR should elsewhere in East Africa, describes how farm m anagem ent or s ul n t be p f c s d on a i g e e t r rse( ch s economics can contribute to the development of traditional or should not be prefocused on a single enterprise (such as African agriculture, maize), whether developing countries have adequate research
manpower for FSR, and issues pertinent to the further promoPart I reviews the organization of African peasant agriculture tion of FSR. at both the farm and sector levels and then introduces a costeffective, systems-level approach for the application of farm
management economics. The approach evaluates the potential
impact of extension program content on the goals, managerial 011 PN-AAP-232
task, and resource productivity embodied in existing small-farm MF $1.08/PC $2.34
systems. Parts II and III detail methods for implementing this
approach. Part II, on the investigation phase, covers: farm Low cost approach to understanding small classification as a prerequisite to investigation and the accura- farmers cy/cost compromise inherent in survey design; a method of Collinson, Michael P. building representative farm models which includes control of Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.433-450 : En aggregation bias; detailed descriptions and comparisons of
data collection methods for key attributes; and conclusions for A low-cost, farming systems approach developed by the survey organization and design, based on different data collec- International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) tion methods. Part Ill, on planning extension strategy and for understanding decisionmaking by small farmers is precontent, shows how evaluation criteria important to farmers are sented; the method is described as applied to Central Province, used in interpreting the results of modeling. Based on the Zambia. Basic elements of the CIMMYT approach grouping premise that small farmers change their existing systems farmers into homogeneous populations on the basis of their relatively slowly, the aim is to produce a series of extension existing farming systems and evaluating local social and ecoprograms, compatible with farmers' goals, low cash incomes, nomic circumstances in order to bring to light farm manageand low risk preferences, and with the pressures on their land ment problems are described. Details are then outlined for and labor resources. Included are 109 tables, 7 figures, and a conducting an exploratory survey, i.e., unstructured farmer 12-page bibliography (1928-70). interviews, to gain a rapid understanding of farming systems
and farmer decisionmaking patterns, and for a subsequent
formal survey to verify this information, test hypotheses regarding farm management strategies and production techniques, as
010 *PN-AAM-826 well as farmer attitudes toward changes in these areas, and
MF $1.08/PC $8.97 examine farmers who have already made such changes. Vital
Farming systems research in Eastern Africa: to the entire process is the interaction between biological and
social scientists. Detailed suggestions for an exploratory surthe experience of CIMMYT and some national vey, as tested in Zambia, are appended.
agricultural research services, 1976-81
Collinson, Michael P.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics 012 *_PN-AAP-574
MSU international development paper, no.3, 1982, vi, 61 p.: PC $2.08
6980444 Planning an adaptive experimental programme
AID/TA-CA-3 on maize for farmers of the Ufipa plateau
* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU Collinson, Michael P.; Croon, S.I.; Mkindi, G.I. Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing, MI 48824 Uyole Agricultural Centre Nov 1980, 16p. : En
The experiences of the International Maize and Wheat Microfiche not available paper copy only Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in efforts to institute farming
systems research (FSR) in national agricultural research serv- Results of a diagnostic study of the farming systems of ices in Eastern and Southern Africa over the period 1976-81 Tanzania's Ufipa Plateau, together with suggestions for an are reported. experimental research program aimed at helping Ufipa farmers
The author first examines how CIMMYT introduced FSR into improve management of their increasingly important maize Africa via demonstrations which provided research administra- crop, are presented. tors with quick and tangible results for evaluating FSR ap- After describing labor and land use in the plateau's current proaches. A description of FSR procedures focuses on CIM- farming system, and its major crops, the report examines the MYT's use of the informal survey (a reprint of which is includ- rapid changes both in the system and in the constraints to its ed), a pivotal and cost-effective technique for diagnosing the development which have occurred after 1973 as a result of farming system. Progress in institutionalizing FSR in national increasing ox production and the official villagization policy. agricultural research services in Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Stress is laid on the declining importance of labor-intensive
Vol. I, 1984 3

finger millet cultivation and the correlatively increasing impor- gap between farmers' present yields and the highest potential tance of the November-January labor peak. Maize manage- yield for their fields after predetermined production factors are ment practices in Ufipa are then quantified, and analysis is modified? (2) How much of the yield gap can be attributed to made of the way in which maize management decisions are each of the predetermined production factors? (3) What are the influenced by farmer priorities, resource limitations, and haz- differences in costs and returns? (4) How much of the yield gap ards such as the uncertainty of rainfall and crop losses due to can be profitably recovered? and (5) If the inputs that are most insects. The report concludes by proposing an adaptive re- profitable differ from the actual inputs used by farmers, what search program that focuses on testing ways to ease the personal, social, institutional, or political factors keep farmers November-January labor bottleneck, conducting fertility main- from using the most profitable levels? The handbook discusses tenance trials to prolong the use of cleared land, and improving the selection of study area experimental sites, and factors to be the reliability of maize storage. tested (such as fertilizer, weed control, and insect control).
Sample survey questionaires are presented and iustrative
analyses are performed on constraint data.
013 PN-AAP-364
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 PN-AAG-895
Livestock in farming systems research and MF $2.16/PC $25.48
development programs
De Boer, A.J. Southern Fulani farming system in Upper
Winrock International. Livestock Research and Training Volta: a model for the integration of crop and Center; U.S. Agency for International Development. livestock production in the West African
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Farming Systems Workshop, Port of Spain, TD, 26-27 Apr Savannah 1979) Delgado, Christopher L.
(1979), (14p.) : En University of Michigan
1978, 176p. : En
The majority of animal products consumed within the French edition: PN-AAG-896
world's tropical belt are produced on small farms, typically as AID/REDSO/WA-77-107; AID/AFR-G-1261 part of a naturally integrated system of crop/livestock production. This report begins by outlining three stages for study of This paper provides research results of a study of the crop/livestock production before application of a broad-scale Southern Fulani farming system in south-central Upper Volta. development package: analysis of existing crop/livestock pro- Following the Sahelian drought of 1974, donor agency and duction and marketing operations (to explain efficiency governmental policy in this area has stressed shifting livestock parameters of livestock, the rationale for input levels, and the production from northern to southern and central regions of the mix of livestock products); definition and quantification of country in order to lessen dependence on erratic rainfall constraints limiting animal production; and on-farm testing of patterns. Hypotheses about Fulani society and economic relacombinations of livestock enterprises and cropping systems. tions which address this strategy are researched and tested by Components of the crop/livestock system are then considered. the author. Areas examined include: (1) characteristics of the Discussed in turn are: general measures of efficiency; the research site; (2) availability and allocation of labor within an multiple uses of livestock; herd structure variables; animal average household; (3) monthly flow of crop and livestock inputs into the cropping system; a model of crop-animal outputs from the average household; and (4) a summary profile integration in the Caribbean; the construction of feed demand- of the typical Fulani production unit. The primary conclusion supply balances; animal feed requirements; classification and resulting from this research is that the real potential for nutritional value of feed sources; relationship of feeding to economic growth through integration of crop and livestock animal genetic qualities; and means of intensifying forage. enterprises lies in closer relations between the Fulani and Modeling and species considerations are discussed briefly. Mossi tribes. The objective of rural development policy should be to promote specialization in crops and small stock by the
Mossi, and cattle and small stock by the Fulanis. Recommended policy actions cover 4 major types of interventions: (1)
014 PN-AAG-274 government actions to bolster the cattle-entrusting system; (2)
MF $1.08/PC $8.19 creating a rise in relative returns to herdsmen for maintaining Entrusted cattle; (3) actions to move surplus Fulani cattle Handbook on the methodology for an manure to uses in Mossi market gardening; and (4) improving
integrated experiment-survey on rice yield herder access to purchased food grains. A bibliography of
constraints references is provided, along with tables of labor flow data, and
De Datta, Surajit K.; Gomez, K.A.; et al. samples of questionnaires used in the study.
International Rice Research Institute
1978, 65p. : En
Presented here is a methodology for analyzing constraints
to increased rice production in farmers' fields. The methodology, the result of a 4-year multidisciplinary research project to
study rice yield constraints by a team of agronomists, economists, and statisticians from the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) and by 6 cooperating national teams, will give
researchers answers to the following questions: (1) What is the
4 VOL I, 1964

016 PN-AAP-595 come to be known as PPB (Planning, Programming and
MF $2.16/PC $13.65 Budgeting) is generally more efficient than is the traditional disciplinary approach. A 39-item bibliography (1967-74) is
Cropping systems in Pespire, Southern appended.
Honduras, University of Kentucky, INTSORMIL
project: preliminary report number 1
DeWalt, Billie R.; DeWalt, Kathleen M.; et al. 018 PN-AAP-683
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural MF $2.16/PC $20.02
Experiment Station; University of Kentucky. Department of
Sociology; University of Kentucky. Department of Farm management research for small farmer
Anthropology development
1st ed. 1982, 103p. : En Dillon, John L.; Hardaker, J.B.
9311254 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization
AID/DSAN-G-0149 FAO agricultural services bulletin, no.41, 1980, x, 145 : En
Data from interviews with 52 male and 72 female household Methods of conducting farm management research geared heads in three small communities are used to describe to the needs of small farmers in developing countries, particucropping systems, especially for sorghum, in the Pespire region larly those in Asia and the Far East, are presented in this of southern Honduras and ways they can be improved to help manual. the country out of its bleak agricultural situation. After an introductory chapter on the need for and apAfter a general introduction to Honduras and to the south- proaches to farm management research on small farms, methern region, the region of greatest sorghum production, variants ods of data collection (e.g., farm and village surveys, farm of Pespire's two main cropping systems slash and mulch, and recording schemes, case studies, and experiments) and simple slash and burn (both of which use sorghum and maize, the data analysis (including tabular analysis, measures of whole region's two main crops) are described, as is the cultivation of and partial-farm performance, and comparative analyses) are secondary crops and of pasture. The report then indicates presented. Succeeding chapters outline methods of planning major production constraints in Pespire and some possible and analyzing whole-farm and partial-farm budgets and cover solutions; seed types used in the area are characterized, such topics as activity budgets; farm resource use; farm
The survey showed sorghum to be both a multipurpose and programming and systems simulation; farm development bud- due to its drought tolerance an important risk-aversion crop. gets; and partial profit, gross margin, partial cash flow, parametKey production constraints were identified as bird predation, ric, and risk budgeting. Procedures for conducting input-output storage losses (especially to C. granaria), locusts, fall army budget analysis are described (covering estimating benefits worm, and the eating of seed before it germinates by ants and and costs, allowing for capital scarcity, marginal analysis of net termites. The survey also revealed that wide adoption of benefits, etc.), followed by an introduction to the use of pesticides by farmers augurs well for future technology diffu- production function analysis in farm management research. sion efforts. The final chapter employs decision theory to analyze risk-laden
Two appendices analyze, respectively, the use of sorghum decisionmaking by small farmers.
as a human food and changing land use patterns in Honduras A glossary of farm management research terms and a and Central America; the latter indicates that increased cattle subject index are appended; 68 tables and 38 figures illutrate production is leading to wholesale destruction of forests and a the text. References are included after individual chapters. reduction in arable land. Included are 22 tables and a 42-item
bibliography (1959-82) of English and Spanish titles.
019 PN-AAP-161
017 PN-AAP-233 MF $3.24/PC $25.61
MF $1.08/PC $2.34 Farming systems research at the international Economics of systems research agricultural research centers: I analysis by
Dillon, John L. the TAC review team of farming systems
Agricultural systems, v.1, 1976, p.5-22 : En research at CIAT, IITA, ICRISAT and IRRI; II
The systems approach to agriculture, according to this proceedings of the workshop on farming
paper, constitutes a new way of viewing the world one which systems research, Nairobi, May 29-31, 1978 no longer sees the world in terms of analyzable and Dillon, John L.; Plucknett, Donald L.; et al. mechanistically related parts, but as an interacting and purpos- Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ive whole. As a corollary, there are important implications for (Workshop on Farming Systems Research, Nairobi, KE, 29agricultural research and professional research training. In 31 May 1978) particular, the systems approach has an important role to play Sep 1978, v.p. : En in the allocation of research resources because it recognizes
that agricultural research is an instrument for achieving higher- Farming systems research (FSR) programs at four internalevel goals (i.e., is not only oriented toward production in- tional agricultural research centers the International Center creases) and it provides a framework both for bringing research for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the International Institute for alternatives to attention and for their assessment. Use of the Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the International Crops Research systems approach will allow decisionmakers to choose from a Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and the Internavariety of alternative research projects, based on systems tional Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are assessed. analysis of their probable outcomes. Moreover, a goal-orient- After an introduction to FSR concepts, terminology, goals, ed, systems approach to research management, which has and potential benefits, the FSR methodologies employed in
Vol. I, 1984 5

national FSR programs in Costa Rica and Senegal are ana- Eastern Caribbean. Special evaluation covers the period lyzed, along with general (baseline data analysis) and special through 4/8/82 and is based on document review, site visits, (on-farm and research station) methodological needs. Guide- and interviews with project participants. lines for an FSR strategy, including a strategy for balancing on- Although the project's ambitious objectives have not been and off-station work and for cooperation between international fulfilled and many of the expected results not obtained, a sound centers and national programs, are proposed. FSR programs at infrastructure for farm-level applied research and extension the four centers are then assessed both as to their structure has emerged, as farming systems research (FSR) has been and operation and in relation to other center programs. Conclu- readily embraced by farmers and has become the focal point of sions and recommendations anent the preceding conclude the participating countries' agricultural research programs. Joint report. country/Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Appendices include individual reports on FSR at the four Institute (CARDI) teams have been established in 7 countries centers, and a 10-page, multi-language bibliography (1959- and some 25 farmer cooperators selected on each of the 78). The report also includes proceedings of a May 1978 islands. CARDI/FSR staff have become aware of the complex workshop on FSR held in Nairobi, Kenya, which endorsed the farming systems in the region, a number of production conresults of the above study. straints have been discovered, on-farm adaptive problemsolving research has been initiated, and some observation
trials conducted. Also, various workshops and seminars have
020 PN-AAP-573 been conducted for research personnel.
Progress has been hampered by a number of implementaMF $1.08/PC $10.14 tion problems, however. The project has been spread too thin,
Annual report to the project: new ways for old geographically, to be effective. Interterritorial communication
worlds: development and research, a new has been poor and true interdisciplinary interaction among core
CARDI personnel not achieved. Overemphasis on data collecapproach to the Ethiopian rangelands tion and detailed analysis, coupled with a lack of flexibility, has
development project (third livestock led to a slow cautious approach to field trials. In fact, the project
development project) has collected too much data, too rapidly, about a subsample of
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands Production System Study farmers which represents neither a homogenous group nor a
Programme random sample. The project's ad hoc exploratory interventions
Mar 1981, 73p..: En (7-15 per country) represent constraints identified through
informal observation, not during the data analysis process.
Development projects must take into account not just Thus, to date, project research has added little knowledge technological feasibilities and national-level aims, but also the about or had little impact on farming systems. production system to be developed, and the desires of the Included in this evaluation are analyses of crop and animal society involved. Provided in this paper is a proposal for linking production in the Eastern Caribbean and of CARDI's organizaproject implementation to systems research in the Ethiopian tional and functional patterns. Detailed recommendations for Rangeland Development Project. Phase 11 of the project address these and other issues.
Following brief introductory sections in which the author
explains the philosophy underlying the systems research approach to development, the approach itself is outlined, using as
an example two Ethiopian pastoral societies the wild northern 022 PN-AAP-234
Afar or Danakil and the Borana husbandmen of the South. The MF $1.08/PC $6.63
situation geography and ecology, external pressures, development options, leadership, and social units of each society is Development of plant genotypes for multiple described. Also included are (1) study models prepared for the cropping systems two societies outlining questions which need to be answered Francis, C.A. on nutrition, decisionmaking, herd structure, relationships with 1981, p.179-231 : En neighboring pastoralists and farmers, market offtake, water Plant breeding II resources, and technical inputs and (2) information on the level Frey, K.J. (personnel, specific tasks) at which studies can be initiated. In Iowa State University Press conclusion, the author suggests that the methods being pioneered in the Ethiopia project may lead the way for complete The potential for improving multiple cropping systems dereorientation of livestock development projects in Africa. pends on the researcher's ability to combine genetic advance with new agronomic techniques. Thus concludes this paper,
which was presented at a plant breeding symposium held at
021 PD-AAN-228 Iowa State University in 1979.
Emphasis throughout is on intensive cropping systems that
MF $2.16/PC $13.65 combine two or more crops in the field at the same time. Evaluation of the CARDI/USAID small farm Species choice and genetic selection are discussed first;
multiple cropping systems research project attention is given to the interactions of genotypes in different
Everson, Everett; Beausoleil, Joseph W.; et al. cropping systems, and statistical alternatives for comparing
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean these interactions. Steps in the practical screening and testing
Agricultural Research and Development Institute of new cultivars are then outlined: the decision to breed for 1 Agiutrl Research and. De n I e intercropping systems; phenotypic traits desirable for inter5380015 cropping (with respect to photoperiod, temperature sensitivity,
plant morphology, rooting systems, planting density, and early
Evaluates project to develop recommendations for im- seedling growth); insect and disease resistance; screening proved farming systems through farm-based research in the techniques for breeding; and on-farm testing and technology
6 VoL 1964

transfer. The potential productivity of multiple cropping systems Defining farming systems as human and environmental is assessed in terms of competitive ability to use available totalities, the authors of this state-of-the-art study review the resources literature on FSR, evaluate current FSR programs, and make
A multidisciplinary research focus and improved graduate recommendations to make FSR more responsive to small study are recommended to provide the necessary expertise in farmer needs. The political, social, technological, and human genotype development. Comments by symposium panel mem- components of a farm system are reviewed, and a framework bers and a 136-item bibliography are appended. and general description are provided for "downstream" FSR.
Unlike "upstream" FSR, which takes place on an institutional
level and seeks to generate prototypes to solve deep-seated
production constraints, "downstream" FSR is directed at gen023 *PN-AAM-827 erating, in cooperation with farmers, immediate and siteMF $1.08/PC $7.67 specific solutions to their needs. Current "upstream" and "downstream" programs at the national (e.g., Columbia, GuateFarming systems research (FSR) in Honduras, mala, and Senegal) and international levels (e.g., IRRI and
1977-81: a case study ICRISAT) are reviewed, as are several issues affecting the
Gait, Daniel L.; Diaz, Alvaro; et al. programs' content and focus, including institutional mandates,
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural linkages among research and implementation agencies,
Economics professional and practical credibility, efficiency and accountaMSU international development working paper, no. 1, 1982, bility of research, and constraints of and criteria for improving
49p. : Bibliography, p.48-49, En FSR approaches. Next, the four stages of FSR methodology
5220139 are detailed: target area description and diagnosis; project or
AID/TA-CA-3 experiment design; testing or implementation; and evaluation
* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU and extension. Problems involved in institutional linkages and Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing Ml 48824 in FSR training programs are also covered. General conclusions and three concerns regarding FSR (conflicts of private
Problems and achievements resulting from the introduction and public interests, gaining sufficient funding, and time to of farming systems research (FSR) into the national agricultural prove FSR's worth) preface the following recommendations: research system in Honduras are examined in this study. direct future FSR work toward cost/benefit analyses in different
After providing a historical overview of agricultural research ecological zones; develop methodologies to include livestock in Honduras, the authors discuss the organizational framework and societal, environmental, and distributional impacts; and for FSR in the country, focusing primarily on the creation of a establish more operational linkages between FSR activities Central Unit for FSR within the Honduran Ministry of Natural and the entire range of agricultural research, planning, and Resource's National Program of Agricultural Research. Next, program implementation. implementation of the FSR program is addressed, with particu- Appended are descriptions of selected FSR programs and a lar attention to: selection of regions, farmers, and specific 155-item bibliography (1 902-80). problems for on-farm and on-station trials; experiences in
implementing farm trials and farm recordkeeping systems;
research results and efforts to extend FSR to other regions;
and training of Honduran researchers. Key problems e.g., in 025 PN-AAJ-640
introducing FSR to agricultural research personnel, in commu- MF $1.08/PC $6.89
nicating among the various entities involved, and in obtaining
sufficient resources are described. ICTA in Guatemala: the evolution of a new
It is concluded that while not all of the program's goals were model for agricultural research and realized, a good deal was achieved in modifying research
philosophy and methodology. Recommendations for imple- development menting FSR in other countries are provided. Appended are a Gostyla, Lynn; Whyte, William F. 17-item bibliography (1976-81) and comments by FSR re- Cornell University. Center for International Studies searchers. Special series on agriculture research and extension, 1980,
53p. : En
Spanish edition: PN-AAP-278
024 PN-AAK-049 AID/TA-BMA-8
MF $2.16/PC $19.24 Agricultural research can have no impact upon small farFarming systems research: a critical appraisal mers' cultivation practices unless it addresses farmers' real
Gilbert, E.H.; Norman, David W.; Winch, F.E. problems and defines efficiency in, farmers' terms. Traditional
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural research and development efforts unilateral flows of initiative
Economics and information directed by national planners, executed by
MSU rural development paper, no.6, 1980, 147p. : En technicians through commodity programs, and imposed upon French edition: PN-AAN-029 farmers often result in production techniques that are rejected
9311006 by small farmers. This report describes the development of
AID/TA-CA-3 Guatemala's Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology
(ICTA), which is dedicated to a decentralized research methodIt is increasingly evident that public investment in farming ology designed to make research programs responsible for the system research (FSR) over the last 20 years has been adoption of appropriate agricultural techniques by including the focused on the needs of commercial farmers and professional contributions of farmers and social scientists. Under ICTA's researchers rather than on the needs of developing country interdisciplinary research program, mainly developed by its small farmers. Socio-Economic Unit(SEU), natural and social scientists surVol. 1, 1984 7

vey farmers to identify homogeneous groups and their produc- 027 PN-AAP-100
tion constraints. The farmers then record their cultivation MF $1.08/PC $4.03
practices, supplying data about annual crop labor/resource
investments. Experimentation with specific treatments, such as Methodological issues facing social scientists agronomic practices or crop varieties, is based on farmer in on-farm/farming systems research information and the results of controlled tests at production Harrington, Larry centers. Using the farmers' traditional techniques, an agrono- International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center mist and farmer test the selected treatments and then apply (Workshop on Methodological Issues Facing Social Scientists them to larger areas at different sites. In the next phase, the in On-Farm/Farming Systems Research, Mexico City, MX, farmer tests the treatments alone; ICTA personnel visit to 1-3 Apr 1980) record information and conduct evaluations. Problems arose in 17 Nov 1980, 26p. + annex: En the initial implementation of this approach, as technicians
deprecated farmer input and SEU's low-level regional pre- Methodological issues facing social scientists in applied or sence was often erratic. The situation improved as technicians on-farm farming systems research (FSR) were discussed at a began to realize the benefits of farmer participation and as SEU 4/80 workshop held at CIMMYT. Initial dicussions of these sent adequate personnel into needed areas. The use of leader- issues, according to this report on the workshop, focused on ship farmers to monitor recordkeeping and test sites also has the role of the social scientist in FSR and on the usefulness to been helpful. An indication of the obstacles facing those farmers, policymakers, and experiment stations of on-farm introducing such innovations is provided in the authors' histo- FSR, as well as on the latter's cost-effectiveness. Discussion ries of ICTA and SEU, including the latter's conflicts with on the farmer as research client covered the choice of farmer external and internal proponents of traditional methods and target groups and the appropriate size of recommendation relations with similar institutions, domains; whether to focus on a predetermined commodity
rather than the whole farm system (the report recommends the
latter when it is technically feasible and there is little hope for
improvement in the farmer's main crop); and the general
026 PN-AAP-903 preferability of individual technological components to large
MF $3.24/PC $32.76 technological packages. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of various data sources and data collection
Interdisciplinary perspective of cropping instruments are summarized, and the wisdom of following the
systems in the Chiang Mal Valley: key informal survey with a formal survey and of making observaquestions for research tions in farmers' fields noted. The report's concluding sections
Gypmantasiri, Phrek; Wiboonpongse, Aree; et al. summarize discussions on procedural issues in designing, University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture; Ford testing, and evaluating new technologies including on-farm
Foundation testing, prescreening, farmer assessments, and analysis of
Jun 1980, xiv, 238p. : En economic impacts and on integrating social scientists into
FSR institutes.
The past (1969-80) achievements and future prospects of
the Multiple Cropping Program (MCP), a multidisciplinary research project being conducted by Chiang Mai University in 028 PN-AAP-019
Northern Thailand's Chiang Mai Valley, are assessed. MF $1.08/PC $3.38
Initial chapters describe the Valley's structure (including
water supply, cropping intensity, population, infrastructure, and Determinants of agroecosystem structure and villages); dynamics (seasons, cropping patterns, prices and function labor, long-term cropping changes, and crop stresses and Hart, Robert D. perturbations), and farmer decisionmaking processes (as af- (Agricultural Ecosystems Unifying Concepts, University fected by national policy objectives and local needs and Park, PA, US, 12 Aug 1982) constraints). Against this background, the performance and 12 Aug 1982, 25p. : En constraints of the MCP systems introduced into the Valley by
the University, together with the productivity, stability, and Agroecosystems are determined by both ecological and durability of these systems, are assessed. A detailed series of socioeconomic factors. This paper analyzes how these two key evaluative questions covering all major areas of the Valley types of factors influence farmer decisions in designing and system is posed. Preliminary answers to these questions implementing (controlling) a farm management plan. provide a basis for a concluding outline of research priorities Several determinants of farmer decisions are enumerated: and future directions. It is stressed that the program's compara- the natural environment, which affects the agroecosystem tive advantage lies in its focus on the research questions raised either directly (through the availability of energy and material by the evaluation. The text is illustrated by 96 charts, tables, inputs) or indirectly (by triggering farmer decisions); agricultural and graphs. resources (land, labor, capital, management capability, and
A 75-item bibliography (1962-80) and English and Thai farm inputs); the farm household (which mainly affects design language glossaries of terms are appended. decisions); energy and material flows from other
agroecosystems; and the ongoing performance of the
agroecosystem itself. Specific hypotheses regarding determinant-decision relationships are exemplified from experience in
Central America the relations between temperature and
cropping system selections (a design decision) and between
the onset of the rainy season and selection of the first crop in a
rotation system (a control decision). Concluding sections of the
paper discuss the implications of these issues for farming
8 VoL I, 1964

systems research and agricultural modeling, as well as for fer, by first identifying the type of farm system and of ecological agro-and natural ecosystem research. A 22-item bibliography and socioeconomic environment where a new technology is (1965-82) is appended. appropriate and then testing its applicability on other farms in
other areas. Technology that passes this final test is then
communicated to all farms in all areas where it is appropriate.
029 XN-AAL-341-A
MF $2.16/PC $24.18 031 PN-AAP-617
One farm system in Honduras: a case study in MF $2.16/PC $21.97
farm systems research Small farm development: understanding and
Hart, Robert D.
1982, p.59-73 : En improving farming systems in the humid
Readings in farming system research and development tropics Colorado State University Harwood, Richard R.
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 U.S. Department of Agriculture. International Agricultural USA Development Service
lADS development-oriented literature series, 1979, xiv, 160p.
The conceptualization of a farm system as a set of : En
subsystems with inputs, outputs, and between-system flows Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 can be a valuable tool in cropping systems research. Thus USA concludes this article, which begins by describing data collected from one farming household in Yojoa, Honduras. Begin- Tropical farming systems are interactions of varied but ning in May 1976, Mr. Aureliano Alvarado, having been select- complementary farm enterprises undertaken with limited reed as a representative farmer, was interviewed weekly over a sources. This book analyzes ways in which such farming one-year period. Quantitative interview data were analyzed and systems can be used to further agricultural development. from them a qualitative model of a farm system, showing Part one presents an overview of tropical small farms and socioeconomic and agro-eco subsystems, their inputs, out- their production systems, with explicit attention to the stages puts, and between-systems flows of money, materials, energy, and goals of small farm development and indicators of farmer and information, was constructed. This model and the interview well-being. The final chapter in this part the heart of the whole data were then used as guidelines in developing methodologies book suggests a development approach for collaboration for further cropping systems research at Yojoa. The major among scientists, extensionists, and farmers to develop and findings resulting from this research are described and sug- extend relevant technology to resource-limited farms. gestions for refining the methodology provided. Part two deals in greater depth with critical but often
overlooked factors limiting increased cropping intensity on
small farms and describes existing and/or appropriate methods
of addressing them. Treated in turn are: physical limitations
030 PN-AAP-062 (water, soil fertility); economic determinants (labor, cash, manMF $1.08/PC $2.08 agement capability); resource requirements of multiple cropping; animals in mixed-cropping systems; farmyard and
Using the concept of agroecosystem fencerow noncommercial enterprises; soil fertility; efficient redeterminants to link technology transfer and source use; and the need for mechanization. Finally, it is
technology generation to form a farming stressed that farmers will only adopt systems that involve
minimum risk and maximum stability.
systems research and extension process Lists of sources of farming systems information and termiHart, Robert D. nology; botanical names of crops; and an annotated 58-item
(Role of Crops and Animals in Farming Systems, Columbia, bibliography (1956-79) are appended.
MO, US, 19-20 May 1983)
May 1983, 15p. : En
While farming systems research (FSR) has made a major 032 PN-AAP-231
contribution to agricultural extension, there is still a gap be- MF $1.08/PC $1.30
tween the information needed for technology transfer and that
produced by most FSR projects. In this paper, the concept of Combining disciplines in rapid appraisal: the agroecosystem determinants is proposed as a framework Sondeo approach which can be used to identify the information needed to link Hildebrand, Peter E. FSR with technology transfer. Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.423-432 : En
The author begins by discussing the nature of
agroecosystems, and their relationships to farm systems and The Sondeo is a multidisciplinary rapid survey technique socioeconomic systems. Farm system decisionmaking is ex- developed by the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science amined next and it is shown that these decisions are based on and Technology (ICTA) to provide the information needed to one or more of the following types of agroecosystem determi- orient the work of a technology generating team. A reconnaisnants: the ecological and socioeconomic environment; agricul- sance survey team of 10, equally split between tural resources; the household; the performance of the existing socioeconomists and technologists, assesses farmer conagroecosystem; and the flow of materials or energy among straints and technology needs as a basis for agricultural agroecosystems. Identification of these decision determinants, research. Quantified information and questionnaires are not it is suggested, can be used by FSR workers to implement a required and the survey lasts only one week. The team process which links technology generation to technology trans- investigates farmer conditions in pairs made up of a social
Vol. I, 1984 9

scientist and a natural scientist. On each of four days the resulting in calculation of gross and net crop incomes. Stress is pairing changes. Daily post-survey team discussions are re- laid on the importance of close contact between ICTA persongarded as essential. Each member of the team prepares a nel (at first technicians, but later joined by socioeconomic report and these are finally amalgamated into one joint report. personnel) and farmers, who are often illiterate, in order to Experience has shown that combined disciplines can, if well ensure accurate reporting. After suggesting some improvemanaged, produce incisive and efficient diagnoses of rural ments for the future, tf e report concludes that the project, conditions and needs and educate the participants in mul- which has shown that crop records yield valuable information tidisciplinary thinking. (Author abstract, modified) on technology advances, has been made an integral part of the ICTA program. Demonstration recording forms are included.
033 PN-AAP-099
MF $1.08/PC $3.38 035 PN-AAP-095
Generating technology for traditional farmers: MF $1.08/PC $7.41
a multi-disciplinary methodology Incorporating the social sciences into
Hildebrand, Peter E. agricultural research: the formation of a
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute national farm systems research institute:
(Conference on Developing Economies in Agrarian Regions:
a Search for Methodology, Bellagio, IT, 4-6 Aug 1976) report of a five year tour of duty Dec 1976, 20p. + appendix: En Hildebrand, Peter E.
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute; Rockefeller
The multidisciplinary research methodology of the Guate- Foundation
malan Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), Dec 1979, iii, 43p. + 3 appendices : En outlined herein, aims at developing the low-risk technologies
needed by traditional small farmers to increase the production Results of a 5-year project aimed at incorporating the social of basic grains. The methodology has four components. The sciences into the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Technolfirst, description and analysis, focuses on informal and formal ogy's (ICTA) small farm research program are highlighted in agro-economic surveys of targeted groups of farmers having this consultant's report. common cropping systems. Adaptive research, the second The report describes the development and use of a social component, consists of two phases an initial period of science methodology based on full-scale agro-econornc experimentation aimed at improving traditional technology in surveys preceded by preliminary questionnaires (sondeos) the short run, and a longer process of refining the improved administered to farmers aimed at helping ICTA researchers traditional technology. The third component consists of testing focus their work on small farmer needs and problems; stress is and promoting the technology through two types of on-farm laid on the importance of field activities in La Barranca and trials farm experiments, financed by ICTA, and farmer tests, Tecpan. A related farm records project is briefly assessed. The financed by farmers themselves. The fourth component evalu- use of sondeos, the involvement of farmers in technology ates long-range technology adoption through farm records, development, and the conducting of research under conditions technician reports, comparative trial records, and followup relevant to farmers enabled the project to increase the speed surveys. A final section of the report describes use of the and efficiency with which agronomists developed appropriate methodology in various parts of Guatemala La Maquina on technology. However, although the social scientists' practices the Coast, the Department of Jutiapa in the southeast, and were integrated into many ICTA programs, their long-term role Chimaltenango in the Western Highlands. A discussion of the within ICTA is unclear: failure to replace social scientists who role of the social scientist in biological research is appended. leave the Institute, together with the decentralization of the social science unit seems to augur a diminishing impact on
ICTA decisions and practices.
A list of 67 project publications, 59 of which are in Spanish,
034 PN-AAP-659 is appended.
MF $1.08/PC $2.86
ICTA farm record project with small farmers:
four years of experience 036 PN-AA 977
Hildebrand, Peter E. MF $2.16/PC $14.56
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology Central America: small-farmer cropping Jul 1979, 16p. + attachments : En systems
Hobgood, Harlan H.; Bazan, Rufo; et al.
The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology's U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for (ICTA) crop reporting project in Guatemala is reviewed from its Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation beginning in 1975 as a 3-crop, 40-record project on a 20-ha A.I.D. project impact evaluation report, no.14, 1980, 111p.: agrarian reform plot through its development into a nationwide En 34-crop, 583-record project. 5960064
In the project, which focuses on keeping crop records (as
opposed to full-farm records) and so minimizing the time Rural development strategies have increasingly focused on needed for data gathering/analysis and training, data from daily extending modern production technology to improve the low work sheets kept by farmers and from supplemental sheets yields of small farmers who produce most of the world's food filled out by ICTA personnel are analyzed to provide detailed crops. This report evaluates a research project to increase tables of inputs, technologies used, crop yields, and prices, small-farmer production in Central America by developing
10 VoL 1, 194

improved cropping practices. The Small Farmer Cropping Sys- 038 PN-AAP-096
tems Project (SFCS) supported research by the Tropical Agri- MF $1.08/PC $3.90
culture Research and Training Center (CATIE) in Costa Rica on
the traditional multicropping systems used by over 4 million Gula metodologica para conduccion de small farmers in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, ensayos de finca (Guide to methodology for and Guatemala. Although progress was slow in El Salvador and
Guatemala, the project succeeded in implementing on-farm conducting farm research trials) research and developing area-specific recommendations. The Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program major shortcoming of the 5-year project was that it concen- for Agricultural Research trated on the research process itself rather than on verifying 1979, 22p. + annex: Es. and disseminating results. Farmer impact was thus limited to The current (1979) Honduran National Development Plan the 75 small farmers on whose farms research was conducted. places top priority on the traditional small and medium farmers Farmers in Nicaragua and Guatemala were active participants, who together produce at least 70% of the country's grain. whereas those in Costa Rica and Honduras remained largely Experience has shown that research in traditional, as distinct ignorant of the project and disinterested in adopting alternative from modern, commercial agriculture, must take into account systems. Test farm yields increased in every country but ecological, economic, and technological conditions, as well as Guatemala. CATIE's staff, training, and support capabilities limits and possibilities and hence is preferably conducted onwere greatly improved and most national agricultural institu- farm rather than at experimental stations. This manual provides tions involved were positively affected. The team concluded a methodological guide for conducting on-farm trials. After an that SFCS is a replicable model capable of significantly improv- introductory section on problem identification, treatment is ing the lot of the small farmer. Recommendations for future given in turn to choice of location, arranging the experiment, projects are: (1) disseminate research results; (2) stress an site characterization, and data needs at each stage of the interdisciplinary approach; (3) seek the active participation of farming process. Included are two appendices, one on evaluatfarmers; (4) improve SFCS methodology by upgrading farm ing weeds, the other on evaluating insects and leaf disease selection criteria, clarifying the relationship between on-farm affecting beans, corn, and sorghum. and central station experiments, and increasing attention to the
non-agronomic aspects. of small farm systems; (5) promote
maximum interagency collaboration; and (6) shorten the time *P-A-1
lag between research, verification, and dissemination. Appen- 039 P-A-1
dices on evaluation methodology, project impact on CATIE, MF $6.48/PC $72.41
and CATIE's production data are included, as are reports on
Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica. International workshop on farming systems
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
037 N-AA-097Tropics
037 N-AA-097 (International Workshop on Farming Systems, Hyderabad, IN,
MF $2.16/PC $16.64 1974)
reseach i Honuras1974, 556p. : En
Agricultural reerhi odrsAID/TA-G-1 073
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program *ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324
for Agricultural Research; International Agricultural
Research Service; Honduras. Ministry of Natural Nearly every aspect of farming in the semi-arid tropics was
Resources examined at the workshop, and it was felt that only through the
1978, viii, 83p. + 6 appendices : En dissemination of information and an integrated systems approach can farming problems be remedied. Toward that end,
Measures to strengthen the Honduran National Program for this report includes the papers presented at the workshop and Agricultural Research (PNIA) are suggested, based on a review the discussions following each major group of topics. The first of agriculture's role in the Honduran economy and an assess- group, Committee 1, covered those subjects related to resource ment of the existing PNIA program. assessment and utilization of research on farming systems in
The authors found that PNIA was characterized by: (1) a the semi-arid tropics. Major attention was given to land, soil, program largely restricted to station-based varietal testing and water, climate, and manpower resources for improving producagronomy trials; (2) a network of research stations badly tion under the rainfed conditions in this seasonally dry area. needing improvement; (3) a serious shortage in trained man- Committee 11 examined the crops and cropping systems repower; (4) productive but limited linkages with other foreign and search needs for the semi-arid tropics, and Committee Ill domestic research institutions; and (5) lack of administrative discussed the socioeconomic problems related to farming control over the research budget. Suggestions for strengthen-. systems research in this area. Finally, Committee IV explored ing agricultural research focus on: reorganization of PNIA into the question of research at cooperating centers and transfer of three levels headquarters, central unit, and regional units, the technology. The group evaluated various ways for the internalatter comprised of both farming systems teams and station- tional institutes to play a productive role in the generation of based teams; inclusion of an extensionist on each farming location-specific technology and its transfer to the different systems team; full PNIA control over its research budget; a agro-climatic and soil regions in the semi-arid tropics. substantial increase in technical personnel as well as inservice
and advanced degree training requirements; and increased and
strengthened relations with other research and development
institutions. Implementation and funding of these changes are
discussed. Appendices include budgetary and staffing data and
a report on animal production and research.
VoL 1, 1984 1

040 PN-AAJ-522 041 N-AAJ-526
MF $5.40/PC $55.38 MF $1.08/PC $10.01
Proceedings of the international workshop on Planning technologies appropriate to farmers:
socioeconomic constraints to development of concepts and procedures
semi-arid tropical agriculture International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid 1980, 77p. : En Tropics 936411101
(International Workshop on Socioeconomic Constraints to AID/DSAN-G-0216 Development of Semi-arid Tropical Agriculture, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trgo, Hyderabad, IN, 1979) Apdo. Postal 6-641, Londres 40, Mexico 6, DF, Mexco
1979, x, 435p. : En A key reason preventing farmers in developing countries
9310786 from adopting fully the technologies recommended to them by
AID/TA-G-1406 researchers and extensionists is the inappropriateness of the
* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324 technologies themselves. This manual was prepared to present
New technologies cannot be disseminated in developing procedures and guidelines to assist agricultural researchers in countries without an understanding of local socioeconomic formulating technologies truly appropriate to farmer needs and conditions. Such is the view adopted by the International Crops is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of a Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in research program aimed at developing appropriate technolosponsoring the International Workshop on Socioeconomic gies. Included are descriptions of on-farm and experimental Constraints to Development of Semi-Arid Tropical Agriculture, station research the key research procedures involved and held February 19-23,1979 in Hyderabad, India, the proceedings the government policy context in which research must occur. It of which are presented in this report. The Workshop's primary is emphasized that successful research must proceed from aim was to consider ways and means of overcoming the knowledge of the farmer's circumstances, that is, the factors, various socioeconomic constraints to agricultural development both natural (e.g., climate and soils) and socioeconomic (e.g., in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) and emphasis was focused on farmers' goals, markets, national policy) that affect farmers' the role new technologies and/or policies could play in alleviat- decisions on crop technologies. Part II describes procedures ing development constraints in SAT. The subject matter ses- for obtaining information on these circumstances, with stress sions addressed the analysis of existing farming systems and laid on the need to make the process a true collaboration practices, socioeconomics of prospective technologies, field between researchers and farmers. Specific procedures deassessment of prospective technologies, issues in foodgrain tailed are: gathering and analyzing pertinent background data marketing, the nature and significance of risk, rural labor from government and research reports; conducting an exploramarkets, and the economics of improved animal-drawn imple- tory survey, that is, informal interviews with farmers and other ments and mechanization. Among the important observations, knowledgeable individuals; and conducting a formal survey or it was noted that larger farmers were earlier and more frequent questionnaire. Individual chapters discuss questionnaire develadopters of new technology and that lack of capital is a major opment, sampling methods, and practical ways to make the constraint to adoption. Research indicates that the sum total of survey truly collaborative. In Part Ill, methods are discussed for current agricultural policies reduces farm income so that the gleaning from survey results the information pertinent to planincentive for increasing cereal production is probably nil. One ning crop research. In particular, the authors present guidelines common recommendation emerging from all sessions was the for prescreening a few two or three at most are recornneed to improve the methodological and empirical bases on mended "best-bet" technologies for research. A final chapter which policy judgements are made. There is a particular need exemplifies use of these guidelines in two on-farm programs for data on the importance of risk and uncertainty in determin- and one on-station program. The authors note that those who ing farmer behavior in SAT regions as well as on labor think reseachers should only go to farmers with finished bottlenecks and on the degree to which new technology technologies for demonstration will find this manual less useful constrains labor and affects wage rates. It was also recom- than those who support on-farm research. Graphs, charts, and mended that greater emphasis be placed on understanding the a 25-item glossary of terms are included. Short bibliographies nature of consumer preferences and that policy initiatives in are appended to each chapter. foodgrain marketing consider the economic policies of SAT
countries as well as the political situation of both donor and
host government agencies. Appended are texts of papers 0 presented in French and lists of country papers and of work- 042 shop participants and observers. MF $5.40/PC $56.42
Proceedings of the symposium on cropping
systems research and development for the
Asian rice farmer, IRRI, Los Banos,
Philippines, 1976
International Rice Research Institute
(Symposium on Cropping Systems Research and
Development for the Asian Rice Farmer, Los Banos, PH,
1977, 416p. : En
Funded in part by A.I.D. under CGIAR grant
IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manilla, Philippines
12 VOL 1, 1984

Contains 25 papers and additional discussions from a er the practice is advantageous in specific situations. In terms symposium on cropping systems and development for the of withdrawal of nutrients from the soil, economic return, Asian rice farmer. The papers present strategies for planning improvement of the nitrogen status of the soil-plant system and implementing cropping systems research programs to when one of the crops is a legume, and greater stability of increase farm income and improve the quality of farm life, yields over time, the benefits of polyculture are clear. With Cropping systems research focuses on efforts to increase crop regard to ease of harvest and other mechanized operations, yields, but also concerns itself with the number of crops grown polyculture offers some problems but recent research aimed at each year, with the goal of increasing food production. The reducing these difficulties has been surprisingly successful. papers are organized into these categories: framework for Certain species and combinations of species appear to perform cropping systems research and development for the Asian rice more successfully in polyculture than do others. Associations farmer; physical aspects of cropping pattern design; economics of cotton, groundnuts, and maize-legume combinations are of cropping systems; testing of cropping patterns; component commonly used and it is the price relationships of these technology including weed science, insect-pest management, combinations, rather than the cropping systems themselves, and varietal requirements; and cropping systems approach to which appear to be the determining factors. The effects of adaptive research and to production programs. climatic change on polyculture have been well documented,
primarily with respect to wet and dry seasons in the tropics rather than year to year variability in the same cropping season. 043 N-AA-023 The fact that nutritional requirements and physiology of varie043 N-AA -023 ties within a single species may vary more than those of
MVF $1.08/PC $5.20 different species has been described in the literature of polyculLimiting factor economic evaluation of ture. Suggestions for further research are summarized.
cropping systems
Johnston, T.D.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program 045 *PN-AAP-575
Iof Annual Cultivation PC $4.55
1978, viii, 31p. :En, EsOvriwomehnztnpobmsna
The cropping systems most likely to improve farm family Oeveviw oumechanitio spilfrob es ci a o income are those which identify that resource which most limits dvlpn onr ihseilrfrnet per ha yields. Since different types of small farmers need Nigeria different kinds of farming and cropping systems, such informa- Kaul, R.N. tion requires a thorough study of the resources, cropping American Society of Agricultural Engineers systems, and farming systems of particular groups of farmers (American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Summer and of the social, cultural, agroclimatic, or marketing con- Meeting, 1982, Madison, WI, 27-30 Jun 1982) straints which dictate the use or avoidance of particular ASAE paper, no.82-500 1, Jun 1982, 35p. :En cropping systems. While researchers cannot, of course, devel- *Microfiche not available paper copy only op a system for each farmer, farmer groups can be identified by Farm mechanization problems that occur when developing differences in goals, farming systems, resource mixes, agrocli- countries import agricultural machinery are analyzed in this matic characteristics, etc. Awareness of these differences will -perwhcfousonrblminNgia enable researchers to design improved systems which make Foalerwhingchous noato on prolem in l Nigeria.uip
theefiituse tan amch bero chancemoft bemiing doptcead ment in general and on different sources of power (manual, which tustnamuhbtechneobenadpd. animal, and tractor power), the author identifies and discusses
In this study, the methodology for conducting such a limited four problems associated with importation of agricultural mafactor analysis of a small farm is described and exemplified chinery: focus on larger units which often are not economical; from a study in Costa Rica. Charts measuring total inputs and lack of appreciation of local cropping systems and of negative prices against outputs for each of five cropping systems effects on women (who must increase their labor in order to demonstrate which system produces the highest income for a harvest and process increased crop outputs); poor performparticular limited resource. (Author abstract, modified) ance of imported equipment; and failure to encourage local
development and manufacture of equipment. Findings from Nigerian field trials concerning operational constraints on trac044 PN-AAG-025 tors and the performance of crop protection and harvesting
MF $1.08/PC $9.23 equipment are presented. The author concludes that farming
systems must be balanced in the technologies they employ; Polyculture cropping systems; review and exporters of agricultural machinery should invest in research to
analysis modify their product to suit developing country situations. A 27Kass, D.C. item bibliography (1962-82) is appended.
Cornell University
Cornell international agriculture bulletin, no.32, 1978, 72p.:
AID/TA-C-i 441
An analysis of the literature indicates that polyculture, or
growing two or more useful plants simultaneously in the same area, is generally beneficial. The choice of crops and other environmental variables will determine to a large extent whethVol. 1, 1984 13

046 PN-AAB-723 048 PN-AAP-660
MF $3.24/PC $28.99 MF $1.081PC $6.37
Field data collection in the social sciences, Basis for planning an adaptive research
experiences in Africa and the Middle East programme on rice for small farmers in Kyela
Kearl, B.E. Kirway, T.N.
Agricultural Development Council, Inc. Uyole Agricultural Centre
(Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences, Uyole Agricultural Centre research report no.36, Jun 1982,
Beirut, LB) vi, 42p. : En
1976, 221p. : En Small farm management in Kyela Plain, Tanzania, is tw
French edition: PN-AAC-817 subject of this study, which was based on interviews with
9310887 farmers and village leaders and conducted to provide a knowiAID/CSD-2813 edge base for farming systems research in the area.
* Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the Farming circumstances in Kyela natural, economic, and Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA institutional are described first, followed by a discussion of
A discussion of research methods practical field proce- farmers' objectives (primarily subsistence), priorities (staple dures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 socialavailable resources (land, labor, and capital). Findings in these areas are
scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered then related to farm management practices cropping patterns include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and recon- and the crop calendar, soil fertility maintenance, and means of naissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling; dealing with specific resource limitations such as seasonal
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using labor shortages. The next section identifies hazards faced by data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific varia- farmers (floods, delayed rains, pests and disease) and their bles; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enu- strategies for dealing with them, e.g., use of cassava and sweet merators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9) potatoes as insurance crops, multiple plantings of major crops, interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning coopera- and early planting. Finally, suggestions are presented for tion of respondents; and (11) precoding, and preliminary steps resolving the labor bottleneck, introducing new cash crops, and in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication improving rice management. Appended is a 10-item bibliograis intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution phy (1952-79). rather than a comprehensive reference or text.
049 PN-AAP-103
047 PN-AAQ-008 MF $1.08/PC $4.68
MF $1.08/PC $6.37 Screening crop innovations in a whole-farm
Demonstrations of an interdisciplinary farming framework
systems approach to planning adaptive Labadan, E.; Bantilan, C.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
agricultural research programmes 13 Dec 1980, 26p. + appendices : En
Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture; Egerton College. Department
of Economics; International Maize and Wheat Although researchers frequently use the farmer's field as
Improvement Center the unit of analysis when evaluating crop innovations, since
Apr 1977, iii, 41p. : En Report no. 1 methodologies for this are readily available, farmers normally
judge new cropping patterns on the basis of their total farmA 1976 project to demonstrate the use of an interdisciplinary household operation. This report presents an example of farming systems approach in planning adaptive agricultural whole-farm analysis of alternatives for new cropping systems research in Kenya's Siaya District was the initial effort of the at a site in Cagayan Valley in the Philippines. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's (CIM- The new cropping patterns are evaluated for bio-technical MYT) Regional Programme in Economics for Eastern Africa. feasibility, profitability, and compatibility with the farming sysResults of that planning project are herein presented. tem and with the community's socioeconomic infrasbucture.
After providing background information on the CIMMYT The research site and a 3-component farm planning linear program and on procedures to be employed in interdisciplinary programming model are described. The components include an research planning, the report examines farmer circumstances objective function (farmers' goals), a set of alternative activities in the Siaya District, taking into account the area's climatic and (e.g., crop and livestock production), and a set of constraints soil conditions, off-farm economic conditions, and land, labor, (e.g., land, labor, and power availability). Three classes of capital, and farm management factors. Next, the objectives and innovations are considered: alternative cropping patterns/techpriorities of Siaya farmers (mainly, reliable food supplies) and nology, institutional credit, and irrigation. the farming system and its development are analyzed, and the It is concluded that while whole-farm analysis via linear importance of deciding on the future of livestock operations is programming offers considerable analytical power, its field use noted. A 5-year maize research program, based on an analysis is limited by its reliance on computers; simpler analysis methof key farming systems components (varieties, use of pur- ods must be sought for use at cropping systems sites. In the chased inputs, method of and time of planting, thinning and example cited, four typical weather occurrences (2 floods, a weeding), is outlined for Siaya areas receiving less than 1,500 drought, and a typhoon) affected the analysis. Future planning mm annual rainfall. Comments on possible improvements in models should account for environmental realities; a sequenthe sequence of research procedures in the Kenya context tially oriented decision model is recommended. A 27-item conclude the report. bibliography (1961-80) is appended.
14 VOL 1, 1964

050 PN-AAP-542 The author concludes that since irrigated rice farming
MF $4.32/PC $38.48 requires extensive capital investment, support to rainfed cropping is indicated when the target is a rapid increase in
Traditional African farming systems in Eastern production. Included are 9 appendices providing additional
Nigeria: an analysis of reaction to increasing detail and a 17-page bibliography (1935-77), citing works in
population pressure French, German, and English.
Lagemann, Johannes
IFO Institute for Economic Research
Afrika-studien, no.98, 1977, xvii, 269p. + attachment : En 052 PN-AAP-902
* /FO-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Poschingerstrasse 5, MF $2.16/PC $19.76
8000 Munich 86, Federal Republic of Germany Report of a meeting of Asian rice-based
To examine changes in land use and farm production as cropping systems entomologists population pressures increase, this study uses data from three Litsinger, J.A. Eastern Nigerian villages with markedly differing population International Rice Research Institute densities. (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, Bogor, ID,
The first section provides a historical review of land use 18-22 May 1981)
systems in Eastern Nigeria and discusses emerging problems 22 May 1981, 151p. : En related to population growth. The second, treating farm and IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines household as a unit, analyzes how root crop/oil palm farming
systems have changed in relation to changes in land resources. The proceedings of a meeting of entomologists from six Subsections cover: the resource base; the organization of land countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, use; soil fertility; crop production; yield relationships; the live- Bangladesh), this report focuses on methodological issues stock economy; the labor economy; and economic returns and pertinent to insect control research in rice-based cropping the use of cash income. The analysis shows that farmers react systems. to declining soil fertility and yields by concentrating production Presented first is a summary of issues discussed at the on small compounds around the house which receive mulch meeting, which describes in detail methodologies for developand manure from household refuse, outlying fields, and land ing insect control recommendations and testing various under fallow, and thus have a much higher yield than do technologies, discusses organizational aspects of cropping extensively used fields. Another finding is that off-farm income systems research, and concludes by recommending establishincreases with population growth. The third and final section ment of a collaborative project to evaluate the performance of assesses a number of proposed strategies for increasing economic thresholds as a basis for insecticide applications. productivity, including: combining upland tree cropping with Next, status reports on national programs for entomological arable crops; producing wet rice in valley bottoms; and cropping systems research in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Indeveloping a multistoried cropping system near houses. De- donesia are provided, followed by a paper on farmers' pest tailed data and a case study are provided in 13 appendices and control practices at three locations in Yogyakarta Province, a 19-page bibliography (1910-76) is included. Indonesia. A final paper presents a compilation of data sets
derived from cropping systems sites in three Philippines provinces.
051 PN-AAP-691
MF $3.24/PC $33.28 053 PN-AAJ-081
Economics of rainfed rice cultivation in West MF $1.08/PC $4.03
Africa: the case of the Ivory Coast Methodology for determining insect control
Lang, Harald; Kuhnen, Frithjof recommendations
Socio-economic studies on rural development, no.35, 1979, Litsinger, J.A.; Lumaban, M.D.; et al.
xiii, 236p. : Bibliography, p.219-236, En International Rice Research Institute
Although rice may be grown in West Africa as either an IRRI research paper series, no.46, 1980, 31p. : En 936411102
upland rainfed crop or a lowland irrigated crop, development AID/DSAN-G-0083 efforts have emphasized irrigated rice production. This study,
focusing on the Ivory Coast, investigates the conditions under A cropping systems approach has recently emerged as an which rainfed cultivation in permanent arable farming or ley effective means of improving insect control a task which, systems may be more profitable for farmers and feasible on a because of its complexity, high demand on resources, and macroeconomic level. location-specific nature, has impeded past efforts to produce
First, using data from other West African countries, the on-farm yields comparable to those obtained at research economics of rainfed rice cultivation at the farm level is stations. This report explains the role of cropping systems analyzed for various cropping methods and different levels of research in insect pest control and outlines a methodology for farm mechanization. Two case studies from the Ivory Coast are determining insect control recommendations. then presented, examining, respectively, the profitability of Cropping systems research entails specifying a given insect traditional and semi-mechanized upland rice production under pest control technology by taking into account the cropping favorable climatic conditions in the West Ivory Coast and under patterns of individual farmers, the geographical and temporal unfavorable conditions in the Central part of the country. distribution of pests, environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, Following this, rainfed and irrigated rice production are com- soil type, landform), cultural practices (e.g., planting, irrigation, pared from a macroeconomic point of view. and insecticide application methods), farmers' capabilities
Vol. 1, 1984 15

(e.g., resources, beliefs, and customs), and a crop's inherent Low crop yields and a high rsk of crop failure have yield potential. A four-part methodology for using cropping traditionally led farmers in semiarid Africa to rely on domestic systems data, developed in accordance with the requirements grazing animals to supplement their food supply. This paper of the Asian Cropping Systems Network of research sites, is identifies different types of linkages between cultivation and presented. The initial stage, description, entails gathering base- livestock production and considers the conditions under which line economic and biological data on pests known to farmers, each linkage is expected to occur. the level of pest control needed, the current status of insect Two types of linkages are distinguished those that obtain control, and the kinds and levels of technology farmers are when agricultural and livestock production are separated (ecowilling to adopt. Next, several tentative insect control technolo- logical, competitive, and exchange linkages) and those that gy packages compatible with farmers' resources and capabili- obtain when the two are integrated (investment, food, manure. ties are designed. These packages consist of specific insect draft, and fodder linkages). Patterns of cropping/livestock pest control recommendations i.e., lists of insects and the production linkages are examined in eight summer rainfall, insecticides effective against them, resistant varieties, and semiarid African zones (Western Senegal, Bambara and Gourcultural control methods pertaining to the entire spectrum of ma of Mali, Mossi in Upper Volta, Hausaland in Niger and pest problems for each crop within the target area. These Nigeria, Bokoro of Mali, Western Darfur in Chad and Sudan, alternative packages are then tested for several years at each Harar in Ethiopia). Finally, evolutionary trends are discussed to site. Finally, the costs and returns of the alternative packages consider what linkages are likely to emerge under different are evaluated. The above method, in the authors' opinion, will ecological, political, and economic conditions. Appended is a allow the development of optimal insect control recommenda- 43-item bibliography (1939-75). tions within 2-3 years, is highly objective, is not costly, and can
be carried out by researchers with minimal experience. A 21item bibliography (1976-79) is appended. 056 PN-AAJ-178
MF $1.08/PC $7.28
054 PN-AAP-981 Guatemala: development of the Institute of
MF $1.08/PC $7.41 Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA)
Economic returns to institutional innovations and its impact on agricultural research and
in national agricultural research: on-farm farm productivity
research in IDIAP, Panama McDermott, James K.; Bathrick, David D.
Martinez, Juan Carlos; Sain, Gustavo U.S. Agency for International DevelopmenL Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation
Iternationmie a pro veme workin t er nter4 Apr A./.D. project impact evaluation report, no.30, Feb 1982, iu, C/MMYT economics program working paper, no.04/83, Apr 14p. + 5 appendices: En
1983, 53p. : En 5200232
The level and speed of farmer adoption of technologies In 1975 A.I.D. initiated a project to increase the production generated in an on-farm research program undertaken by and nutritive quality of basic crops in Guatemala and to develop Panama's Institute of Agricultural Research (IDIAP) in the the capability of the Institute for Agricultural Science and country's Caisan area are used in this report as a means of Technology (ICTA) to generate and promote the use of imassessing the cost-efficiency of the research methodologies proved small farm technology. This report describes the projemployed in the project. ect's setting and activities, outlines its impact, and summarizes
After a lengthy description of the evaluation methodology, its lessons.
results are discussed with regard to the adoption of technologi- Under the ICTA system, new farm-tested seed varieties and cal alternatives; the annual flow of net benefits due to the new cultural practices acceptable to small farmers were developed technology (including yield increases and net benefits per unit for maize, beans, and sorghum and led to increased yields and of land); and the annual flow of research costs. The benefit- development of a thriving private seed industry. In addition, cost ratio and the social rate of return of the research method- ICTA staff increased both quantitatively and qualitatively (alologiesthough rigid government salary schedules have led to a high
Results, which confirm the cost-efficiency of IDIAP's on- to rgidagoernmentsalarytcheduls hveed ai farm methodologies as compared to traditional research sta- vanced degrees, threatening ICTA's future progress); benefited tion methods, show that the lowest rates of return generated by vace egreate ing re rog nited the on-farm research methodology were 118% and 155% from expatriate help in its research work and organizational (depending on the pricing scenario adopted), a figure increas- growth; and received dramatic increases in financial support ing to between 194% and 255% in the most likely case of a from the government. ICTA has come to represent a new and new flow of social benefits lasting until 1990. innovative model for agricultural research and is now working
Fourteen tables and a 35-item bibliography (1953-83) are to share its approach with DIGESA, the Minisry of Agriculture's included. extension service.
Project experience taught: the benefit of an unconventional
approach to generating acceptable small farmer technologies;
the importance of sustained USAID/G involvement and of
055 PN-AAP-230 investing simultaneously in human, institutional, and technologMF $1.08/PC $4.68 ical resources; A.I.D.'s potential for developing agricultural institutions, its comparative advantage in institution-building
Interaction between cultivation and livestock projects, and the need in such projects to provide for an
production in semi-arid Africa institution's support after the project ceases; the productivity of
McCown, R.L.; Haaland, G.; De Haan, C. ICTA's linkages to international and U.S. agricultural research
Ecological studies, v.34, 1979, p.297-332: En centers; the importance of coordinating technology and sociol16 VoL 1, 1984

ogy in small farmer research projects; and the need for special has not matched potential due to the unavailability of water in financial incentives to retain ICTA's advanced degree scien- partially irrigated areas and the need for additional power for tists, special feedback information systems to test technology planting, weeding, and harvesting. The need for a more orresults, and flexibility in project implementation. ganized and concentrated production program is also inAppendices treat the evaluation methodology, ICTA's ap- dicated. In Lampung, good rainfall and distribution make year proach to technology development and farmer acceptance of round crop production possible despite low inherent soil fertiliit, the role of improved seed, and ICTA's institutional develop- ty, drainage problems, and low pH; limited sources of power ment. and of markets are currently the main production constraints.
A concluding 'sketch of future activities notes that CRIA
efforts will focus on developing rainfed agriculture, in particular
on introducing alternative power sources such as animals and
057 PN-AAP-517 mechanization.
MF $1.08/PC $9.88
Integrated crop and animal production: making
the most of resources available to small farms 059 PN-AAP-365
in developing countries MF $1.08/PC $6.63
McDowell, Robert E.; Hildebrand, Peter E. Prospects for small farm goat production in a
Rockefeller Foundation; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Development Support. Office of transmigration area of Indonesia: results of a
Agriculture survey
(Bellagio Conference, 18-23 Oct 1978) Mink, Stephen
Jan 1980, 78p. : En Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania; Princeton University.
Wilson (Woodrow) School of Public and International
Training institutions and government agencies need to Affairs; Winrock International. Livestock Research and become more aware of the integral and essential role played by Training Center; U.S. Agency for International animals in small farm systems. So concluded participants at a Development. Bureau for Asia. Indonesia 10/78 international conference hosted by the Rockefeller Jan 1983, iv, 46p. : En Foundation, working papers from which are herein presented. AID/DSAN/XII-G-0049
An initial paper provides a conceptual framework of the
different types of farming systems in the developing world (by Goat husbandry practices were surveyed in two villages with animal species, dominant crop, main feed resources) as an aid different agricultural settings in the Way Abung II transmigration to understanding various crop-livestock relationships. More project in the Northern Lampung Province of Sumatra, Inspecific information is given in a paper describing levels of donesia, in order to determine the potential for goat production crop-livestock integration within selected systems in Asia, intensification programs in these areas. Results of the survey Latin America, and Africa. Each system is discussed in terms of are presented. the region's physical features, crops and cropping systems, After briefly recounting the history of the area, the report and the current and possible expanded role of livestock. A case describes the agricultural setting; husbandry of goats, cattle, study of a small farm in the western highlands of Guatemala and chickens; labor use by farm families; crop, livestock, and leads to a review of the kinds of problems which have inhibited input markets; and formal and informal credit sources. integrated development of crop and livestock technology: lack The survey revealed that although Way Abung farmers of a holistic view; the dominance of Western models of farm clearly prefer to raise cattle, profitability and especially higher systems; emphasis on large-scale farms and productivity; and fertility and lower mortality portend a considerable potential for professional biases (e.g., single commodity stress). Summary increasing goat production. Constraints to realizing this potenconclusions and recommendations conclude the report. tial poverty and lack of cash resources should be removed in the next several years as a result of clove, fruit tree, and
rubber plantation production. Currently, however, vaccinating
058 PN-AAP-1 02 poultry against Newcastle Disease and increasing the use of
058 _PN-AAP-102_ cattle in the slack agricultural season are more appropriate
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 than are goat projects in the livestock sector. Goat projects research activities in relating to male and female breeding stock and production
Cropping systems credit might be intitiated. If so, they should include research Indonesia aimed at increasing high quality fodder on small farms.
McIntosh, J.L.; Effendi, Suryatna
International Rice Research Institute; Central Research
Institute for Agriculture
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, Los Banos, PH, 060 PN-AAP-312
2-5 Oct 1978) MF $1.08/PC $5.46
5 Oct 1978, 14p. : En Algunos sistemas de produccion de cultivos
Cropping systems research conducted 1973-1978 under anuales de pequenos agricultores en el istmo the aegis of the Central Research Institute for Agriculture centroamericano (Various systems of (CRIA) in two rice-producing regions of Indonesia Indramayu,
an irrigated lowland area, and Central Lampung, a rainfed production of annual crops by small farmers upland area is profiled. in Central America)
The Indramayu region, it was found, shows potential for two Moreno, Raul A.
rice crops plus a supplementary legume crop (preferably Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center soybean) to maintain good soil fertility. Production, however, 1979, v, 37p. : Es
Vol. I, 1984 17

For subsistence farmers, physical and biological factors are Showing the utility of on-farm research while presenting a most important in determining the production system (i.e., model for the administration and organization of such research cropping pattern) to be used. This report describes the produc- within a larger program, this report describes the evolution of a tion systems best suited to the various climatic conditions in new research entity, the Production on Investigation Program Central America. (PIP), within Ecuador's National Institute for Agricultural RePrecipitation is seen as the most important factor in deter- search (INIAP).
mining crop combinations in the region. Cropping patterns are In 1976 INIAP added to experiment station research and outlined first for the humid tropics: for regions without a dry regional trials on large farms a third research level, centered season, those with a short drier period, and those with an directly at the farm level, in order to develop and verify identifiable dry season. Similarly, cropping patterns are outlined technologies appropriate for the mass of small farmers producfor "humid dry" regions, those with greater fluctuations in ing basic foods, such as corn, which had declining or static rainfall. In general, small farmers can grow corn, rice, and yields. The essential elements of the research process which cassava in the most humid regions, corn and beans under emerged, described in detail in this paper, were: (1) delineation intermediate rainfall, and corn and sorghum in the driest of recommendation domains; (2) use of exploratory surveys to regions. For each region, the sequence of farmers' activities is identify key farming improvements needed (early maturing outlined by calendar dates. varieties, fertilizing, and weed and insect control); (3) on-farm
variety, multiple-factor, fertilizer-level, and verification tials
and (4) adjustment of subsequent on-farm and on-station
experimentation in terms of findings. PIP, established in 1979
061 PN-AAM-528 as a means of institutionalizing the on-farm program, is characMF $1.08/PC $4.29 terized by personnel especially trained in on-farm research living on-site and by strong coordination with other INIAP
Farming system research approach for small programs and with extensionists.
farms of Central America
Moreno, Raul A.; Saunders, Joseph L.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program 063 PN-AAP-104
of Annual Cultivation
1978, 30p. : En MF $1.08/PC $4.03
Three integrated farming systems research projects being Farming systems in St. Lucia: an conducted by the Institute for Tropical Resources (CATIE) to anthropological perspective relieve the production constraints facing Central American Narendran, Vasantha small farmers are described. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
The report first outlines the goals, strategy, and methodolo- Agricultural Research and Development Institute gy of CATIE's small farmers' cropping systems research proj- 13 May 1981, 18p. + attachments: En ect, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of technologi- 5380015 cal alternatives. Project experiments include testing water and Small farmers in St. Lucia employ a heterogeneity of soil conservation practices in El Salvador and Nicaragua and cropping patterns and technologies including multiple using velvet bean as a cover crop in lowland areas.
simivlrt infatn s g forer tropinlown proecs -cropping and polyculture, in which four to six crops are planted Similar information is given for the other two projects one in vertical and/or horizontal combinations. Using data from an aimed at using crop byproducts to develop an integrated small island-wide sample of 31 farmers, this report examines St farm crop-cattle (milk and beef) production system, and one Lucia's small farming systems with respect to land tenure, designed to counteract deforestation by developing alternative farmer classification, and climate. production systems that combine agricultural and tree crops, First, the island's system of land tenure is analyzed, and it is forest plants, and animals. Experiments for the first of these shown how tenural arrangements family land, annual leasing, projects include using maize-bean combinations and sweet freeholding, or sharecropping are maximally manipulated by potatoes as cattle food sources; for the second, simultaneous the farming household. It is noted that the various land tenure planting of trees with annual crops and interplanting maize and arrangements have evolved due to limited alternatives and common beans between rows of fast-growing tree species. A scarce resources (e.g., farm labor, capital, inputs, and farm brief note on integrating and extrapolating from research re- management) and that fragmentation of land is not as severe a suits concludes the report. problem as in other developing countries. Next, St Lucia's
system of farm agriculture and differences in level of farming by
category of farmer (e.g., commercial, semi-commercial) are
062 PN-AAN-890 assessed. Crop differences by climatic zone are described;
while various cropping patterns are identified, it is noted that
MF $1.08/PC $3.77 each farmer in the sample seems to have developed his/her Creating an on-farm research program in own unique system. A concluding section identifies key conEcuador: the case of INIAP's production strains on increased food production.
research program
Moscardi, Edgardo; Cardoso, Victor H.; et al.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.01/83, Jan
1983, 28p. : En
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico
18 VoL 411964

064 PN-AAP-414 priorities. Farmers and multidisciplinary teams work together to
PC $2.86 design, modify, and improve farming systems in a local area.
Although agricultural scientists for years have disdained
CATIE's small farmers oriented agricultural mixed cropping, an FSR project in northern Nigeria showed that
research effort in the Central American mixed cropping was an efficient strategy for farmers facing land
Isthmus or labor constraints or uncertain weather. In northern Nigeria, a
Navarro, Luis A. FSR cotton project succeeded after farmers rejected a univerTarrol Aicr R h asity-designed cotton planting technology package because its
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S. labor demands were incompatible with their farming systems.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for An FSR project in Southeast Asia led to a dramatic increase in Development Support. Office of Agriculture cropping intensity in only 4 years while in Guatemala an FSR(Consultation Meeting on Natural Resources Management for revised planting system increased farmers' income by 33%.
Food and Agricultural Production through Farming However, FSR is still in a developmental stage and faces Systems adapted to Ecological and Socio-economic numerous problems, including the short supply of researchers Conditions of Small Farmers in the Caribbean Region, capable of understanding and working with small farmers in Kingston, JA, Jun 1980) developing countries; the lack of a standard methodology; and
Jun 1980, 22p. : En the time demands and expense of its area-specific approach.
5960064 To overcome these problems, FSR should: expand its systems
Microfiche not available approach to include marketing and off-farm enterprises;
CATIE's small farm research program in Central America strengthen links to extension agencies in order to reduce time called the Annual Crops Program is described. After outlining lags between recommendation and adoption of solutions; and CATIE's mandate, goals, and action framework, the report develop more widely applicable technology packages. Also, if a discusses the four stages of the program's research methodol- working environment more favorable to FSR is to be created, ogy description of the current farming system, design and agricultural institutions and scientists will have to take a more testing of new technology, validation of the most promising holistic approach and be more willing to interact with farmers technologies, and extension of those found optimal. Initial and and extension workers. A list of 28 references (1972-79) is yearly activities of the research team are briefly recounted, and provided. the benefits of multidisciplinary research and of institutional
interaction and cooperation discussed. Findings and results of
the Annual Crops Program are presented, showing changes in
technical and economic indices for on-farm cropping system 066 PN-AAG-951
experiments in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Sal- MF $2.16/PC $18.85
vador. The paper concludes with descriptions of other CATIE Technical change and the small farmer in research programs (e.g., the Cattle and Small Farm Animal hu alndnr the e a Program) and of the types of training CATIE provides. Hausaland, northern Nigeria
A bibliography (1976-79) of 24 titles, 16 in Spanish, is Norman, David W.; Pryor, D.H.; Gibbs, C.J.
appended. Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
African rural economy program: working paper, no.21, 1979,
141p. : En
065 PN-AAK-475 6250926
MF $1.08/PC $4.55 AID/AFR-C-1260
Farming systems approach: relevancy for the As an indirect recipient of Ford Foundation grant funds in
small farmer 1964 and of subsequent funding from the Ahmadu Bello
Norman, David W. University, the Institute of Agricultural Research and Special
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Services has undertaken a four-phase social science research
Economics; U.S. Agency for International Development. program to study the economics, profitability, improvement, Bureau for Development Support. Office of Rural and implementation of small farming in Hausaland. Reporting Development and Development Administration on only a small portion of this total program, this paper presents
MSU rural development paper, no.5, 1980, vi, 26p. : En a comparative analysis of the economics of traditional smallFrench edition: PN-AAN-207 farm agriculture in Sokoto, Zaria, and Bauchi, three areas in
9311190 Hausaland; assesses the profitability and relevance of imAID/TA-BMA-4 proved technological packages for cotton, sorghum, and
maize; and discusses the implications of the results for reFarming systems research (FSR) is a "bottom-up" or farm- search workers and policymakers in Hausaland and in the level approach to the development of small farmer technolo- Sahelian countries with a similar ecological base. Following a gies. This paper defines the basic characteristics of FSR, gives very brief discussion of the farming system and of Hausaland examples of successful FSR projects, and discusses problems proper, the methodology for the selection of villages and farm in implementing FSR. families for study is outlined. A description of the method of
Conventional agricultural technology development tries to data collection is also included in this section. So that study modify technical farming elements but ignores human factors. results are presented in an orderly manner, the next three FSR, on the other hand, recognizes and focuses on the sections concern traditional farming in the Hausa region, cominterrelationships between technical and human elements in a parative analysis of traditional farming in the Sokoto, Zaria, and farming system. Its primary aim is to increase productivity in a Bauchi areas, and an analysis of improved technology packway that is acceptable to the farming family. FSR gives the ages in Daudawa village in the Zaria area. Traditional farming in small farmer, often for the first time, a voice in tailoring research Hausa is discussed in terms of land, labor and labor concentraVoL I, 1984 19

tions, capital, cash production costs, land and labor relation- A short course was developed in 1971 at the University of ships, cropping systems, and income. The following factors are Sydney, Australia, on the basic biological and physical princiapplied to the comparison of traditional farming in the three pies of tropical farming systems. This textbook was developed study areas: effect of population density on farming; effect of from the course to serve as an introduction to annual cropping
climate on farming; self-sufficiency and incomes among areas; systems, particularly in Africa and Asia.
influence of cattle ownership; the changing family structure; A farming system is first described, with specific reference and influence of access to urban areas. The analysis of to resource patterns and uses, farming system typology, and improved technology packages is described by their compati- tropical climates and soils. Next, background information on bility with technical elements (land types, water), with endoge- hydrology, energy, biogeochemistry, and socioeconomics in nous factors (return per unit of land, and return per unit of tropical farming systems is provided. These same four factors labor), and with exogenous factors (market accessibility, credit, are then discussed with reference to the following specific fertilizer distribution). Finally, a section containing a summary types of annual cropping: shifting cultivation, semi-intensive and implications for consideration by the policymaker includes and intensive rainfed cultivation, and irrigated cultivation. Mixed the concluding statement, which is also the premise of this systems of annual and perennial crops are viewed from the
paper: that sound development of farming systems must build same aspects.
upon, rather than destroy, the farmer's traditional techniques. A The final two chapters describe, respectively, the role of reference list of 110 entries (1955-1978) and a table of the Gini livestock in annual cropping systems and the elements of coefficient on distribution of land by village are appended to the tropical farming systems research: its meaning, objectives, and paper. components. Included are evaluations of established farming
systems, of environments, and of the transfer of new technology. References follow each chapter.
067 PN-AAP-478
MF $3.24/PC $37.57 069 PN-AAP-977
Farming systems in the Nigerian Savanna: MF $1.08/PC $11.31
research and strategies for development Cropping systems and related research in
Norman, David W.; Simmons, Emmy B.; Hays, Henry M. Africa 1982, xxiv, 275p. : En Okigbo, Bede N.
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Sciences in USA Africa
Presenting the case for a farming systems approach to Occasional publication series OT, no. 1, Apr 1978, 81p. : En research in developing countries, this book considers the role Published information on African cropping systems and of new technology and appropriate development strategies in related topics is synthesized in this report. improving agricultural production and the welfare of farming After describing Africa's physical characteristics, its farming families in the semiarid tropical region of West Africa. The and cropping systems, and the crop combinations and spatial authors draw extensively on comprehensive studies they and arrangements in traditional African cropping systems, the autheir associates conducted over an 11-year period in northern thor surveys cropping systems and practices in the countries of Nigeria. Their discussion of these studies, which focused on West, Central, Southern, East, and North Africa. Research on production, consumption, and marketing systems and included African intercropping systems is then reviewed and the advanthe testing of improved technology packages, is supplemented tages and disadvantages of intercropping are summarized. by results of research conducted in other parts of semiarid Guidelines for research on crop combinations, discussions of West Africa. Emphasizing the importance of a proper under- its scope, and, briefly, of the need for standardized experimenstanding of the technical and human environment in which tal techniques and terminology, conclude the report. farming families operate, they describe the essential charac- The text is illustrated with 44 charts, tables, and maps. teristics of a farming systems approach and consider methodo- Appendices include lists of cropping system terms, classificalogical and implementation problems that must be solved if it is tions of African farming systems, and a bibliography of 105 to become a widely accepted development strategy in the items (1933-77). 1980's.
Appended are a 20-page bibliography (1951-81) and author and subject indexes; 41 tables, 16 figures, and 3 maps 070 PN-AAP-576
illustrate the text. (Author abstract, modified) MF $1.08/PC $2.47
Nutritional criteria in plant breeding: technical
068 PN-AAP-377 problems and constraints in relation to Sri
MF $3.24/PC $37.05 Lanka's plant breeding programme
Pain, Adam
Annual cropping systems in the tropics: an University of East Anglia. School of Development Studies
introduction UEA discussion paper, no.122, Feb 1983, 17p. : En
Norman, M.J. Plant breeding literature has largely been concerned with
University of Florida analyzing the products of plant breeding and with redirecting
1979, x, 276p. : En research from simple yield objectives to broader considerations
* University Presses of FL, 15 N. W. 15th St., Gainesville, FL such as crop stability and disease and pest resistance, wNle for 32603 USA the most part neglecting to examine the use of nutritional
20 VoL 1984

criteria to determine research priorities. This paper, using Sri 072 PN-AAP-778
Lanka's plant breeding program as an example, explores MF $1.08/PC $9.36
nutritional criteria for plant breeding, and, in particular, technical problems that have frustrated breeders. Proceedings: farming systems seminarThe Sri Lanka program shows that strategies for nutritional workshop, March 16 -18, 1981, PCARR, Los improvement encompass far more than just concerns as to the BnsLgn protein profiles of individual crop species and that issues such Balins. Lagnr Agiutr.NioaSceean as pricing policies, subsidies, and distribution mechanismsTehogyAtri. Philippines. Ministry ofr Agriculture.NtoaSceean should inform and direct nutritional programs. Moreover, the Tn eoogyce Authority PhilippielontorArcutr fact that nutritionists have clearly stated that crop protein (amn Resures ResenarhoandhDeveLomen P, values are not below safe levels for human intake should lead (F armn Sytm1 Smnr-okhoLs1ao,)H 6
plant breeders to refocus their attention toward carbohydrates 18 Mar, 181)E and toward the neglected area of improving the oil content of 18,ii 8.:E food species. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that this is To develop a methodology for disseminating farming systaking place. Appended is a 23-item bibliography (1966-80). tems research (FSR) information to farmers on the use of (Author abstract, modified) technology packages developed by research and agricultural
institutions, an FSR workshop was held in Los Banos, Philippines in 3/81. The workshop's proceedings are presented in 071 PN-AAE-446 this report.
The report provides, in whole or part, the text of eight MF $1.08/P1C $7.28 workshop papers on the following FSR topics: Central Luzon
From agronomic data to farmer State University's Technology Packaging Project and 1980-81
results of its integrated model farm; the cropping systems recommendations: an economics training approach employed in the Capiz settlement area; the Farm
manual Systems Development Corporation's experiences with irrigaPerrin, R.K; Winkelmann, Donald L.; et al. tion-based farming systems; results of the University of the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Philippines at Los Banos's Integrated Rural and Agricultural
In formation bulletin, no.27, 1976, 52p. : En Development Program; a review of FSR types and methodoloAID/TA-G-1 083 gies; the experiences of the Inter-Asia Cropping Systems
Network; and the Benchmark Soils Project conducted by the The quality of recommendations that agronomists make to Universities of Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Also included is a farmers depends upon how carefully the agronomist has con- workshop discussion of the role played by social scientists in sidered all of the factors relevant to the farmers' situation and developing FSR technology and reports of workshop groups in goals. Some of those factors may not be evident to the the areas of technology generation, verification, and dissemiagronomist. This manual shows agronomists how to develop nation. recommendations suited to the farmer's desire to increase his average income, avoid risks, and, if possible, avoid investing in additional capital equipment. A good farm recommendation can be defined as a choice the farmer himself would make if he had 073 *PN-AAP-843
all of the agronomic information available to the agronomist. MF $4.32/PC $49.92
Successful farm recommendations must be based on agronomic data that fit the farmer's agronomic conditions or the Vegetable farming systems in China: report of farmer will not obtain the predicted results. Because it is the visit of the vegetable farming systems impossible to conduct experiments on each farm and then delegation to China make recommendations tailored to each farm, the agronomist Plucknett, Donald L.; Beemer, Halsey L. Jr. must define a target group of farmers, conduct experiments Westview special studies in agricultural science and policy, under conditions representative of their farms, and make 1981, xi, 386p. : En recommendations applicable to the entire group. This manual *Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 assumes that farmers think in terms of net benefits as they USA make decisions. Illustrative examples of this decision process are discussed. The two main problems in evaluating agronomic Agricultural modernization in mainland China has focused alternatives in terms of their net benefits are (1) estimating the on vegetable production, which is carried out largely by hand relative weights the farmers place on various kinds of goods, and focuses on meeting the needs of city dwellers. This report and (2) estimating the effect of uncertainty on farmers' deci- presents the findings of a U.S. agricultural team on vegetable sions about net benefits. The process of deriving recommenda- farming systems being used in China's northeast and southeast tions is discussed in detail. regions, the country's two major suburban vegetable producing
Chapters in Part I treat vegetable production in terms of land and water resources management, fertilizer (organic and inorganic) production and use, vegetable cropping systems, environmental control structures, plant protection, and weed control. In Part 11, discussion is given to research and extension and to three agricultural support services plant breeding programs, vegetable seed production and maintenance, and vegetable storage and preservation. The final section focuses on the planning, organization, price determination, and marketing structure of China's urban vegetable supply.
VOL 1, 1984 21

Appended are a description of the institutions visited by the 075 PN-AAP-648
team, a study of pig raising in China, and several tables of MF $2.16/PC $21.45
supporting data.
Socioeconomic constraints to the production, distribution and consumption of sorghum,
074 PN-AAJ-280 millet and cash crops in North Kordofan,
MF $3.24/PC $34.45 Sudan: aspects of agricultural production, the
Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming household economy, and marketing
Reeves, Edward B.; Frankenberger, Timothy
systems University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
Pullin, S.V.; Shehadeh, Z.H. Experiment Station; University of Kentucky. Department of
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Sociology; University of Kentucky. Department of
Management Anthropology
(ICLARM-SEARCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture- Farming systems research in North Kordofan, Sudan: report,
Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, PH, 6-9 Aug 1979) no.2, Nov 1982, xi, 151p. : En 1980, 265p. : En 9311254
ICLARM conference proceedings, no.4 AID/DSAN-G-0149
AID/DSAN-G-0178 Its goal to identify socioeconomic constraints impeding
agricultural production and marketing in the el-Obeid area of Although integrated agriculture aquaculture (IAA) farming Kordofan, Sudan by analyzing relationships between subsisthas been practiced in Asia for centuries and offers efficient ence (sorghum and millet) and cash (primarily grouindnuts and resource utilization, reduces risk by diversifying crops, and sesame) crops, this is the second of two farming systems provides additional food and income, reliable quantitative pro- research reports written during the course of field investigation duction and management guidelines have yet to be produced in 15 villages. and disseminated for use as a basis for development programs. Part I, on household economy and agricultural production, This report on the proceedings of the Fourth International presents detailed data on crops, land tenure and land use, Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management Conference cultivation practices, and methods to reduce risk and labor (ICLARM 4) addresses this need. The conference was held 6 inputs, using findings from a preliminary survey of 40 farm 9 August 1979 in Manila, Philippines and was co sponsored households in 3 villages. Part II, based on data on sellers, by ICLARM and the Southeast Asian Regional Center for buyers, and marketing channels collected at four marketing Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. The conference's centers of varying size and character, describes major aspects goals were to: (1) provide an overview of current IAA farming of crop and livestock marketing. Part III is an analysis of the practices in selected Asian countries; (2) increase awareness main constraints to agriculture in the area (environmental; of IAA's ability to raise farm income; (3) review available access to seeds, water, and labor; credit and pricing; technical experience and technology; (4) discuss IAA's socioeconomic knowledge; and transport and storage), how farmers presently aspects in order to identify research and development priori- deal with these constraints, and what strategies they could ties; and (5) encourage governments and international donors implement in the future. Eleven appendices provide additional to initiate IAA research and development projects. The report data (on, e.g., harvesting procedures, food preparation, conconsists of 24 papers, 10 of which review broad strategies, d at no esily reieed remain o ntechniques, and problems associated with IAA, such as gumption patterns) not easily reviewed in the man body of the aquaculture in rice fields and irrigation systems; the role of report plus a copy of the survey questionnaire. pesticides and health as constraining factors; and the use of animal wastes in pond management. The other 13 papers were presented as case studies on current IAA practices in Hong 076 PN-AAN-964
Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. A final paper highlights the MF $1.08/PC $5.07
needs for research on both IAA farming systems in general and Art of the informal agricultural survey on the major factors affecting IAA performance energy, Rhoades, Robert E. materials, space, time, and information. Many of the papers are International Potato Center detailed studies, supported by charts, data, pictures, diagrams, Mar 1982, 40p. : En Social Science Dept Training Document and maps; and most are referenced with bibliographies on no.1982-2 sources of information on IAA. A list of the authors and of the conference participants is appended. If properly conducted, informal agricultural surveys can
provide valuable data on local farming ecology and practices. Presented here is a manual on conducting informal surveys of farmers in developing countries.
Instructions are provided for: (1) pre-fieldwork activities,
such as a literature review and the use of aerial photos and maps to delineate the geographical area to be studied; (2) interviewing farmers (approach, warm-up, dialogue, departure, and recording of information); (3) informally organizing data by type of farmer and cropping system; (4) studying agroecological zones through the use of field plotting and transects; (5) initial quantification of data; and (6) writing a summary report of findings. Appended are results of an informal survey conducted
22 VoL 1964

in Canete, Peru, and a guide for an informal survey of a potato ter, weaknesses of the particular cultivation system are delineproducing region, ated and suggestions for development are made. Numerous
case studies (most from Africa or Asia) are provided and a 15page bibliography (1878-1970) is appended.
077 PN-AAP-101
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 079 PN-AAP-653
Manual de actividades de capacitacion en MF $3.24/PC $30.55
servicio (Manual of inservice training
activities) Development of smallholder vegetable
Rosales, Franklin E. production in Kigezi, Uganda
Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales. Programa Scherer, Friede
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria IFO Institute for Economic Research
1980, 12p. : Es IFO forschungsberichte der Afrika-studienstelle, no.23, 1969,
x, 217p. : Bibliography, p.214-217, En
Drawn from the experience of Honduras' Central Agricultur- *IFO-Institut fur Wirtshaftsforschung, Poschingerstrasse 5, al Research Unit, this inservice training manual has six sec- 8000 Munich 86, Federal Republic of Germany tions. The introduction reviews changes in the agricultural
research program (1977-80) and the new structure of the Searching for urgently needed cash crops, smallholders in program. A section on inservice training objectives explains Uganda's Kigezi District accepted in 1951 a government prothat, in general, new technicians in the research program are to posal to produce vegetables of European origin despite unreceive preparation for close contact with the farmer and for favorable marketing conditions, according to this study of the study of integrated systems, and specifically to: analyze and program. identify agricultural production problems; set priorities; conduct After a lengthy introductory section on Kigezi's characfarm trials; communicate with farmers; analyze and transmit teristics and history and on the production, marketing, and technical information; apply basic knowledge; and work as a organizational preconditions for vegetable growing, the team. Next, a section on methodology and organization out- establishment of the Kigezi vegetable growing industry and its lines the training, which continues for 9 months in Comayagua, transformation from a private to a cooperative enterprise is with 75% of time spent in practice, 25% on theory. Practical reviewed. This is followed by descriptions of: extension, cultivaactivities (section 4) are divided into the following: diagnosis; tion, yield, and cost aspects of vegetable production; the farm trials; farm plots; farm assessment; precipitation measure- organization of growers; and present and future marketing ment; and field days. Theoretical activities (section 5) include prospects. A final section reviews the program's effects on the 11 short courses, 10 lectures, 8 workshops, 10 seminars, and Kigezi District as a whole, on the cooperative societies, and on readings and consultation with supervisors. Finally, the evalua- farm returns. The program's positive results, it is concluded, tion of trainee performance is discussed with regard to theory, show that producer interest and dependence on a crop can spoken and written communication, field work, and responsibili- overcome disadvantageous factors; that the African smallty. holder can adapt to new situations relatively quickly if he trusts
the project; and that cooperatives can, under the right conditions, play an important role in marketing.
078 PN-AAP-608
MF $4.32/PC $44.72
Farming systems in the tropics 080 PN-AAL-237
Ruthenberg, Hans MF $4.32/PC $50.96
1971, xiv, 313p. : En Farming systems research and development;
* Oxford University Press, 16-00 Pollitt Dr., Fair Lawn, NJ
07410 USA guidelines for developing countries
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp, P.F.; Schmehl, W.R.
A course consisting of lectures on the characteristics of Consortium for International Development; U.S. Agency for tropical farming systems for undergraduate and graduate stu- International Development. Bureau for Science and dents at Gottingen and Stuttgart-Hohenheim Universities was Technology. Office of Agriculture the basis for this book, intended to familiarize the agricultural Westview special studies in agriculture/aquaculture, Sep development worker with the various types of farming he/she 1981, xiv, 414p. : En will encounter, and with management problems arising in 93110.06 particular farming systems. AID/DSAN-C-0054
Tropical agriculture is discussed from an agroeconomic Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 perspective, with emphasis on farm management aspects and USA particularly on the interactions between technical and economic aspects of farming. An initial chapter covers general charac- Farming systems research and development (FSR&D) is an teristics of tropical farming. Succeeding chapters, organized as approach that is being used increasingly to meet the need for to type and intensity of land use, discuss the following types of greater food production and a better standard of living for cultivation systems: shifting cultivation; semi-permanent; regu- small-scale farmers in developing countries. This book lated ley farming (when grass is allowed to grow for grazing on synthesizes the FSR&D procedures used by national governland that has carried crops); permanent cultivation on rainfed ments and international research centers around the world, land; arable irrigation farming; perennial crops; and grazing emphasizing methodologies that have proved successful in (total nomadism, semi-nomadism, and ranching). In each chap- practice.
Vol. I, 1984 23

The authors describe the characteristics and objectives of 082 PN-AAP-410
FSR&D, then present information on selecting target and MF $4.32/PC $41.21
research areas, problem identification and development of a research base, research design, on-farm research, extending Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 research results, and implementation and training procedures. farming systems research symposium They emphasize that the FSR&D approach requires a clear understanding of farmers and their families, farmers' condi- farming systems in the field tions, and governmental staffing and organizational capabili- Flora, Cornelia B. ties, and in one chapter discuss how to determine whether an Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture FSR&D approach is in a particular country's best interests. Programs Appendices present detailed examples of procedures de- (Farming Systems in the Field, Manhattan, KS, US, 21-23 scribed in the text, covering a variety of countries with different Nov 1982) cropping and livestock systems, environmental conditions, and Farming systems research paper series, no.5, Apr 1983, research and development capabilities. (Author abstract) 311p. :En
* Office of International Agricultural Programs, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA
081 PN-AAL-341 A Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR&E)
MF $2.16/PC $24.18 symposium was held in 11/82 at Kansas State University to examine issues in the application of FSR to development Readings in farming systems research and projects. Twenty papers from the symposium are herein predevelopment sented, all of which focus on issues raised by experience,
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp, P.F.; Schmehl, W.R. rather than theory.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Following an overview of the current state of FSR&E and its
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture potential for the future, indepth case studies of four field Westview special studies in agriculture/aquaculture science experiences (IRRI/Indonesia, CIMMYT/Panarna, ICARand policy, 1982, xiii, 175p. : En DA/Syria, and CATIE/Central America) are presented. The
9311006 next five papers analyze specific problem areas (links to
AID/DSAN-C-0054 farmers and to other research programs/units, cost-effecive* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 ness, transplanting U.S. methodologies, and conceptual errors USA in evaluation). The final ten papers, presented at small group
meetings, address further FSR&E implementation and evaluaFarming systems research and development (FSR&D) tion issues, e.g., in staffing, integrating team participants, views the farm as a system and focuses on how interdependent organizing a delivery system, incorporating nutritional considercomponents under the farm household's control interact with ations, transferring station work to farm conditions, impact physical, biological, and socioeconomic factors outside the evaluation, and in determining the role of energy in farming farmer's control. This monograph contains nine readings pre- systems. These papers make clear the necessity of systematisented before a 1979 workshop by some of the leading cally examining not only the farming system and its internal practitioners in FSR&D. resources, but the containing system as well. Two preconThe first paper categorizes farming systems according to ference background papers on the FSR approach are also their stage of development and resource use, while the second included. conceptualizes FSR&D and raises several methodological issues. Successive papers outline and discuss the FSR&D experience and approaches of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, the International Rice Research 083 PN-AAP-345
Institute, the Agricultural Science and Technology Institute of MF $1.08/PC $4.55
Guatemala, and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Two papers discuss FSR&D as applied Hidden harvest: systems approach to to a small farm in Honduras and cropping systems research in postharvest technology Indonesia, respectively. Stressed are the importance of on- Spurgeon, David farm research, interdisciplinary teamwork, the search for practi- International Development Research Centre cal solutions to farmers' problems, and better use of available 1976, 36p. : En IDRC-062e data. A subject index is included.
It has been estimated that up to one-third of the food produced in developing countries is lost due to inefficient postharvest operations. After delineating various types of postharvest loss (losses in nutritional and economic value, in weight, and in quality and acceptability), the author of this report recommends a systems approach to postharvest losses and identifies the following primary components of the postharvest system: harvesting and threshing; drying and storage; processing; and utilization by the consumer. The interrelatedness of specific problems that may arise within the system is then demonstrated. Next, the Maiduguri Mill Project in Nigeria, which encompasses the entire range of postharvest activities, is described as a model of an orderly, efficient postharvest system.
24 VoL I, 1984

The report concludes with recommendations directed to- lactating women and weaning children are then examined and ward improved recognition and comprehension of postharvest the role of women in the village particularly their virtual problems and increased international cooperation in research exclusion from decisionmaking and communal life is discussand technical guidance. ed; results of a survey examining the responsibilities of husband and wife in the household economy are presented.
Concluding remarks recommend policies and programs designed specifically to improve the health and status of Tanzani084 *PN-AAP-229 an women and children.
PC $2.34
Agricultural productivity gaps: a case study of
male preference in government policy 086 PN-AAN-810
implementation MF $1.08/PC $5.85
Staudt, Kathleen A. Data collection, site selection and farmer
Development and change, v.9, 1978, p.439-457 : En
Microfiche not available paper copy only participation in on-farm experimentation
Tripp, Robert
The weighting of Kenya's agricultural assistance policy International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center towards men at the expense of women bodes ill for the 1982, 29p. + appendix: En Working paper no.82/1 country's agricultural future, according to this case study of the 9310840 role of government in creating and/or perpetuating productivity
gaps between the sexes. The experimentation phase of on-arm research is devoted
A controlled, cross-sectional sampling of farmers at two to designing trials to develop and test new technologies with locations in western Kenya shows that female-managed farms representative farmers. Description of the various types of data have significantly less access to government provision of crop available during this phase and guidelines for organizing their information, training, and loans, than farms managed jointly by collection are herein presented. women and men. This situation obtains even though women A discussion of trial site selection focuses on the imporfarm managers, helped by information and labor inputs from the tance of identifying recommendation domains (relatively hocommunal agricultural groups to which most of them belong, mogenous groups of farmers), cooperating with local extension excel in key criteria crop diversification, farm income-generat- agents, ensuring logistic feasibility, and identifying and commuing orientation, and early adoption of hybrid maize for the nicating with farmer collaborators. A field book for recording innovativeness on which the government focuses its agricultur- various types of data, from data on planting and trial plot (and al assistance efforts. In the long run, however, systematic farmer) characteristics to data on trial results, is described (and government neglect of women will have a negative impact on reproduced in an appendix), and data collection possibilities in women's ability to sustain innovative behavior and hence on other areas (e.g., prices, weather, and farmer adoption of the their agricultural productivity. Failure to redress this structural recommended practice) are discussed. A set of recommendadisadvantage by channeling assistance on the basis of merit tions is appended to each major section of the paper. The rather than sex, it is concluded, will eventually lead to a decline importance of flexibility is noted in conclusion, as is the in the government's ability to raise agricultural productivity, researcher's need to use on-farm experiments to establish a partnership with farmers and extensionists which will benefit
the research.
085 PN-AAP-586
MF $2.16/PC $17.16 087 PN-AAP-310
Women, work, food and nutrition in MF $8.64/PC $100.75
Nyamwigura Village, Mara region, Tanzania Control integrado de plagas en sistemas de
Tobisson, Eva
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre production de cultivos para pequenos
TFNC report, no.548, Jul 1980, viii, 127p. : En agricultores (Integrated pest control in small
farm production systems)
In Tanzania, agricultural policies biased toward cash crops Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; and toward men as the sole agents of change have increased International Regional Organization for Agricultural women's workload, but not their access to the products of farm Sanitation; University of California, Berkeley; U.S. Agency labor. This study, based on extensive fieldwork during 1977-78, for International Development focuses on the effects of such policies on the nutritional status 1979, 3v. : Es of Kurian women and children in the village of Nyamwigura. 5960064
Women's primary role in Tanzanian rural production and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, reproduction, and the neglect of them in development planning, Turrialba, Costa Rica are first discussed. The Kuria people, their land, and traditions
ruling the division of work and of labor returns are then In 1979 the University of California conducted a regional described. The transformation of agriculture during the colonial course in integrated pest control for small farm production period from diversified subsistence production to specialized systems at the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training cultivation of maize as a cash crop is analyzed, as is the Center (CATIE) in Costa Rica. Attending were pest control postindependence villagization program. Both policies, it is experts from eight Central American and Caribbean countries shown, have reinforced the traditional subordination of Tan- Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guazanian women. The combined effects of tradition and of these temala, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti. The contents of the agricultural policies on the diet and health of pregnant and course are herein reported in three volumes.
VoL I, 1984 25

Volume I contains 27 papers on such topics as the concept Introductory papers provide overviews of FSR, its methodolof agroecosystems, socioeconomic restrictions on small farm ogy, and its potential applicability in the United States. Next are cultivation, harvesting, plant growth, vegetable parasites, the two papers describing an FSR application in the Allegheny history of integrated pest control, nematodes, insects, ver- Highlands of West Virginia and a planned application at Arkantebrates, and library research in economic entomology. Volume sas's Booneville Center. Virginia State University's FSR efforts I's 19 papers, cover principles of integrated pest control, in the United States and Ghana are then discussed in a paper pesticide formulation and application, chemical pesticides and focusing on linkages and constraints; an abstract of a paper on environmental health, plant diseases in mixed production sys- research-extension interface in the United States is presented; tems, and pests in cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, cassava, cocoa, and procedures for implementing applied FSR in developing and bananas. Volume III contains national reports on pest countries' national research programs are outlined. The next control for small farming systems in the eight participating four papers examine, respectively, problems involved in intercountries. References follow each paper. disciplinary research; FSR program structure, staffing, and
funding; FSR and national agricultural development; and issues
in FSR evaluation. A final set of papers describes Guatemala's
088 PN-AAP-311 Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), its FSR
MF $2.16/PC $15.34 program, staffing and funding, and linkages with other national, regional, and international institutions. A summary of group
Small farmer cropping systems for Central reports and of a panel discussion on lessons for the future
America: final report conclude the volume.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1979, xii, 101p. : En
5604090 PN-AAP-468
Provides final report (6/75-3/79) on a project implemented
by the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center MF $3.24/PC $28.21
(CATIE) to create a coordinated regional research approach for
improving small farm cropping systems in Central America. Economics and the design of small-farmer
The project's key output was the development of a method- technology
ology or strategy for conducting on-farm research on small Valdes, Alberto; Scobie, Grant M.; Dillon, John L farm cropping systems and its presentation in a procedural (International Conference on Economic Analysis in the guide. Some 115 field experiments were conducted, mostly on- Design of New Technology for Small Farmers, Palrnira, farm, yielding quantifiable and very promising research results CO, US, 26-28 Nov 1975) (the most important of which are indicated in the report), some 1979, xii, 211 p. : En of them ready for validation. In addition, CATIE promoted Iowa State University Press, 112 C Press Offic, South national research programs on cropping systems via training, State Ave., Ames, IA 50010 USA information dissemination, collaborating in field work with national staff, and helping to promote a collaborative research Thirty-nine economists from 11 (mostly Latin American) effort among participating countries. Other project outputs countries attended a conference held in 1975 at the Internaincluded collection of baseline data on small farmers' agronom- tional Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) to explore ways in ic, socioeconomic, and physiobiological environment; an exper- which economists can contribute to the design of new agriculuiment conducted at CATIE headquarters on several cropping tural technologies for small farmers. Proceedings are herein systems commonly used by small farmers; the training of more presented. than 379 Latin American professionals, over 75% of them Provided first are three papers on the methodological Central Americans; the establishment of a documentation aspects of ex ante technology design; the first describes center on tropical cropping systems (a 20-page bibliography several possible analytical approaches while the remaining two from which is appended); and the strengthening of CATIE's offer differing views of the importance of farmers' attitudes professional ties to other international research centers. Central American countries gave strong support to the project, and toward risk. Next, four papers on the design of technology
ntinal mericnttutris aaed itrng alsuprjects of analyze: the roles of biologists and economists in Bongoland (a national institutions collaborated in all aspects of it. fable); design parameters for cattle production in the Colombian Ilanos; technology design in semiarid Northeast Brazil; and
the implications of sharecropping for technology design in that
089 PN-AAP-954 region. The remaining three papers, on the relation between
MF $3.24/PC $25.87 rural development and agricultural technology, respective.
discuss technology adaptation in a Colombian rural developFarming systems research symposium ment project; present a broad structural view of the smallU.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of International farmer technology problem; and examine the implications of
Cooperation and Development rural development programs for technology design.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium, Washington, DC, Several questions are posed for further research: the priority
US, 8-9 December 1980) to be accorded research on small farmer technology, whether
1980, v.p. : En policy and institutional changes are needed if farmers are to
* Office of International Cooperation and Development, benefit from enhanced productivity; influences on small farDepartment of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 USA mers' decisionmaking; and the stability and instability of the
Proceedings of a 12/80 symposium held to acquaint U.S. small farmer resource base. Appended are author and subject Department of Agriculture and A.I.D. agricultural technicians indexes and a 180-item bibliography (1921-77) of English, with key farming systems research (FSR) issues are presented. Spanish, and Portuguese titles.
26 VoL I, 1964

091 PN-AAP-684 types of organizational units in implementing farmer-oriented
MF $1.08/PC $7.93 research and extension.
Caso del ICTA en Guatemala como institucion
dedicada a la generacion y validacion de 093 PN-AAP-955
tecnologia para pequenos agricultores (Case MF $4.32/PC $38.87
of ICTA in Guatemala: an institution dedicated Agricultural systems in Ethiopia
to the generation and validation of technology Westphal, E.
for small farmers) Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops.
Waugh, Robert K. Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography; Haile
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute Selassie I University. College of Agriculture
1980, 47p. : Es Agricultural research reports, no.826, 1975, 278p. : En
* Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation,
The organization and program development of the Institute Agricultural University, P.O. Box 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, for Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), an autono- The Netherlands
mous Guatemalan research institution devoted to small farmers' needs, are reviewed. Based on field research carried out in 1967-1968 and on
The concepts underlying ICTA's establishment and its or- literature studies, this second volume of a series on Ethiopia's ganizational characteristics are outlined, as are the Institute's edible plants provides an integral overview of the country's goals of integrating research and extension, adopting a sys- agricultural systems. teams approach to research, and orienting research toward the Initial chapters outline Ethiopia's geology, topography, farm level in replication of farmer practices and working condi- hydrography, and define its diverse climatic regions. Next, soil tions. Methods for achieving these goals are outlined, and the taxonomy terms of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used steps of ICTA's technology development system are described to describe the soils of seven defined soil regions. Vegetation
- technology generation, agro-socioeconomic adaptation and zones and 16 vegetation types are described, followed by a brief evaluation, validation, and transfer. look at the country's ethnic and linguistic groups. Ethiopian
Farmer participation in the transfer process is described, agriculture is then reviewed at length, with emphasis on the along with the diversification of ICTA's program within the country's 12 agroecological regions and the plants cultivated in various regions of Guatemala, ICTA's training and evaluation them, seed farming systems (mainly cereals, pulses, and oil activities, and its international linkages, crops), the cultivation and use of ensat (a staple crop), shifting
cultivation, and pastoral systems. Where possible, linkages are
made between farmers' regional origins and their farming
systems and products. Finally, Ethiopia's marketing systems,
092 PN-AAP-446 major foods, and nutritional status are described.
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 Tables, photographs, a subject index, an index of scientific
Institutional assessment for implementing a plant names, and 10 detailed maps are included, as are a list of
systemsi aproach t grilturaleearg and crop yields (by kg/ha) and a 166-item bibliography (1540systems approach to agricultural research and 1974).
Waugh, Robert K.; Meiman, J.; McDermott, James K.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development. 094 PN-AAP-228
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Multisectoral Development; U.S. Agency for International Risk, uncertainty, and the subsistence farmer:
Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office
of Agriculture technological innovation and resistance to
Farming systems and support project working paper, no. 101, change in the context of survival
1983, 14p. : En Wharton, Clifton R.
Michigan State University
Characterization and analysis of existing national programs Studies in economic anthropology, no. 7, 1971, p.151-178 and institutions are useful in determining the potential for En implementing a systems approach to agricultural research and
extension. In this paper, guidelines are presented for inventory- A subsistence farmer is one who consumes most of what he ing a given program or institution in such a way as to identify produces, buys few items for his own needs, uses little outside changes and modifications that might make research and labor, employs primitive or traditional farming methods, has a extension more effective while making maximum use of exist- minimum standard of living, and bases his decisionmaking on ing structures, resources, and other organizational charac- survival. The correlation between the prevalence of high levels teristics. of risk and uncertainty among such farmers and their adoption
Criteria for assessment are provided in Part I, which con- of technology is explored in this literature review.
sists of three sets of questions directed toward determining (a) Subsistence farmers' responsiveness to technological the general conditions of an institution and its environment, (b) change is described, along with possible sources of resistance, management and operational aspects, and (c) the nature of the causes of risk, and sources of uncertainty. A model is pretechnological functions and methodologies of research and sented for determining minimum standards of subsistence extension. Part II is meant to provide ideas as to which living at a certain time and how these standards change over institutional elements should be continued and which should be time. Three types of subsistence farms are then identified: changed. This section focuses on the functions of specific where the total product is food; where land and labor are the
Vol. I, 1984 27

major production factors; and where the family lives entirely positions and to ignore the majority of small farmers who from the farm. Following a discussion of the effects of dynamic struggle under less favorable conditions. This state-of-the-art interaction of risk, uncertainty, and subsistence upon techno- paper presents an overview of past R&D efforts and proposes logical innovation, it is concluded that increased profit may be a new R&D strategy to assist the rural poor. less important in a subsistence or barter economy than are After examining limitations of and lessons to be learned increased security and survival, and that quantification of risk from conventional R&D strategies, the author describes the aversion is needed when evaluating technology adoption or agricultural R&D strategy used by institutions in Bangladesh, rejection. Appended is a 91-item bibliography (1948-69). Ethiopia, Mexico, and Colombia which emphasizes participation by small farmers and incorporates animal husbandry as an
integral element. Efforts to build a farming systems research
095 PN-AAP-965 strategy into R&D programs are then examined, using examples from Guatemala and Honduras.
MF $1.08/PC $2.60 The author concludes that any new R&D model should
Nutritional component of farming systems involve research conducted on small farmers' actual fields;
research farmer participation in research and extension; and a major
Whelan, William P. emphasis on cropping and farming systems, experimentation,
RuternWivesity. Candy interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to enhance the Rutgers University. Cook College. International Agricultural quality of life among small farmers and to build material
and Food Program resources into the organizational base, linkages are required
(1983), 18p. : En between local farmer organizations and government bureaucImprovements in crop yield and farmer income achieved racies. Attached is a list of 107 references (1911-1981). through farming systems research (FSR) projects do not in
themselves signify improved household nutrition. Presented
here is a strategy for incorporating nutritional considerations 097 PN-AAP-953
into FSR.
Variables that can provide important nutritional information MF $5.40/PC $51.74
during the FSR design stage are discussed first. The author Proceedings of the international workshop on considers and rejects several possible variables (i.e.,
anthropometric data, dietary intake, income and expenditure intercropping levels), outlining the difficulties of accurately identifying the Willey, R.W.; Garver, Cynthia malnourished using these approaches. Suggested instead is International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Ard the subsistence potential ratio (SPR), the ratio of a household's Tropics ability to feed itself to its need to feed itself. The SPR, useful in (International Workshop on Intercropping, Hyderabad, IN, 10measuring both the source and level of consumption, distin- 13 January 1979) guishes between groups with different nutritional status and 1979, viii, 401p. : En FSR's effects on them, has acceptable levels of accuracy, and ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324 is based upon easily and cheaply obtainable data. A state of the art summary, this 34-paper volume constiNext, consideration is given to ongoing and ex post analysis tutes the proceedings of a 1/79 international workshop on of FSR's nutritional impact. Ongoing analysis is necessary to intercropping hosted by ICRISAT. A workshop paper by an see whether changes in farming systems lead to short-term ICRISAT agronomist introduces the volume. Papers from Sesfood scarcity. Ex post analysis requires a solid theoretical basis sion 1, on agronomy, consist mostly of case studies from India, (e.g., the theory of the household-firm), a longer data collection Brazil, West Africa (Nigeria, Volta), East Africa (Swaziland, cycle, and calculation of income elasticities, and should ad- Kenya, Uganda), and on genotypes. Papers from Session 2, on dress the extent to which FSR benefits large rather than small physiological aspects, treat: leaf canopies and plant light use farmers. Careful ex post analysis can help to identify ex ante (light use efficiency, plant interactions and productivity in cornvariables for future FSR. plex mixtures, canopy development and light interception in
sorghum/pigeonpea intercropping); nutrient interactions and
rooting patterns (interactions below ground, leaf canopy and
096 PN-AAL-956 rooting pattern in pearl millet/groundnut intercropping, nitrogen
MF $2.16/PC $15.99 response in sorghum/pigeonpea intercropping); and nitrogen fixation in sorghum/chickpea intercropping. Three papers on
Participatory approaches to agricultural weeds and pests are drawn from Session 3. Papers from
research and development: a state of the art Session 4, on evaluating intercropping systems, discuss: statispaper tical considerations and experimental designs; yield stability
Whyte, William F. and economics (intercropping in traditional and dryland sysCornell University. Center for International Studies; U.S. teams, stability of pigeonpea/sorghum intercropping); and
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Science operational management (including a paper on seeding and andehnolfogy. nteaofral Development ea n e interculture mechanization requirements in India). Summaries and Technology. Office of Rural Development and of individual and plenary session discussions are provided.
Development Administration Appendices include French translations of abstracts of workSpecial series on agriculture research and extension, o. 1, shop papers and a 20-page, multi-language bibliography
Mayl198, x,111p. :En (1925-80).
Existing research and development (R&D) strategies have
tended to support farmers already in relatively advantageous
28 Vol. I, 1984

098 PN-AAP-098 research management and training, are research methods
MF $1.0/11C $.30 which were developed and adapted for the study of both MF $.08PC $.30 dryland and wetland rice-based cropping systems. Aiming agricultural research at the needs of The manual begins by discussing general concepts: the
farmers definition of cropping systems and of cropping systems reWinkelmann, Donald L.; Moscardi, Edgardo search; and the importance of on-farm research as a means of
(Semnaron oci-ecoomi Asect of griultralfinding improved cropping systems that are acceptable to
(Sesenarc n Devioelooi Counts SfArutial71 farmers. Methods for site selection, site description, design of
Mesayc 1979) oigCunreSatao C,71 cropping patterns, and on-farm testing of such patterns are
y1979)E then described. In the final chapter, ways in which research
1979 9p.: Enresults can be extended to a greater area and to farmers
Efforts of the Economics Program at the International Maize through production programs are discussed. This chapter, less and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) to gear research on detailed than those preceding, is included to emphasize the new technologies to farmers' real production problems and need for researchers to consider the consequences of their decisionmaking processes are reviewed. The key elements of results in production programs and to stress that on-farm the CIMMYT research procedures are: (1) ascertaining the research is beneficial only when farmers adopt recommended circumstances and practices of representative farmers; (2) practices. Details of several research or analytical techniques undertaking on-farm (and sometimes on-station) trials; (3) are provided in appendices focusing on fertilizer rates, weed formulating recommendations and examining their implications control, varietal testing, and cropping pattern monitoring. for prices, markets, etc.; and (4) evaluating the new technologies.
This methodology, the authors note, is directed at fnig 10P-A-7
technologies that farmers (CIMMYT's primary clients) findin us00 PN-A/P50.7
i.e., those which are consistent with farmers' natural and
economic circumstances and which promise improved incomes Caqueza: living rural development with little risk. Thus, the CIMMYT program emphasizes collabo- Zandstra, Hubert G.; Swanberg, Kenneth G.; et al. ration between economists and biological scientists, early International Development Research Centre application of findings, and treatment of a single crop or 1979, 321p. : En IDRC-1 07e mixture, and aims at useful, not necessarily optimal, technolo- *IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9 Canada gies. The process systematically focuses on major constraints
to production, provides for continuing and immediate improve- The Caqueza Project was a rural development effort conments through research and feedback, and counts on individu- ducted in eastern Colombia by the Agricultural Institute (ICA), al farmers to make adjustments in terms of their own special the research and extension arm of the Colombian Ministry of circumstances. Agriculture. This book records the history of the project's first 5
years (1971-76).
Part I describes the evolution of rural development philoso* PN-A M-515 phy in Colombia and outlines ICA's rural development model 099_______PN-AAM-515____________ for the 1970's; specific information on the Caqueza Project is
MF $2.16/P3C $20.41 included. Part 11 describes chronologically the 5-year span of project activities and lessons, while Part IIl analyzes in some
Methodology for on-farm cropping systems depth the, research methodology tested during the project and
research the extent of its adoption by farmers. Part IV examines nonZandstra, Hubert G.; Price, E.C.; et al. technical factors influencing adoption rates, such as risk, credit,
International Rice Research Institute marketing, training, and buffer institutions. A final section
1981, viii, 147p. : En reviews the various evaluations of the project and provides an
IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines overview of the project as a whole.
Although it helped only a small minority of farmers, Caqueza
On-farm cropping systems research seeks to identify a strongly influenced ICA in terms of staff training and research technology, acceptable to farmers, that will increase production policy and is the closest Colombia has come to an open yields and/or cropping intensity while minimizing the detrimen- dialogue among planners, agriculturalists, and farmers, the tal effects of introduced changes. Described herein, for the interaction among whom is the primary focus of the book's benefit of both professional researchers and those active in narrative. A 144-item bibliography (1957-77) is appended.
VOL 1, 1984 29

Africa 046,068,069 Fertilizers 073 Plant protection 073
Agricultural development Fertilizing 002 Population density 050
009,025,031,067,084,085,089,096 Fisheries 002 Post harvest food loss 083
Agricultural economics 009,051,066 Fishes 074 Project evaluation 082
Agricultural education 006 Food analysis 070 Pruetinnairetto 035 03,8
Agricultural extension Food consumption 095 RQnfudsrbtione 060
009,030,072,073,082,086,089,091,092,100 Geochemistry 066 Raingelstrbto 008
Agricultural machinery 045 Goats 059 Rne 0
Agriultralpolcy 05,03,05 Gvermentdeprtmnts023Research centers 019,089 Agriultralpolcy 05,03,05 Gvermentdeprtmnts023Research facilities 025,036,039 Agricultural production Government policies 084 Research management 019,092
003,008,012,014,016,034,042,048 Grain crops 093 Research methodology
055,056,060,063,064 067,069,079 Guatemala 025,032,033,034,035,036,056,081, 014,017,019,024,025,032,046,053,095
Agricultural technology 089,091,096 Research organizations 092
025,027,030,033,034,035,036,040, Herdsmen 008,020 Research priorities; 024,065
041,049,053,054,064, Honduras 005,016,023,029,037,036,077,081,096 Resettlement 059
065,067,071,072,090,091,096,100 Host government departmental coordination 023 Rice 014,042,.048,052,058.074
Agricultural training 023,024,077 Hydrology 068 Rice research 007,051,052,074,099
Agroforestry 061 Indonesia 007,056,059,061 Risk 094
Animal husbandry 001,015,059,061 Insect control 053 Rural development 090,100
Animal nutrition 008,013 Insecticides 052,053 Rural women 085
Animal production 001,002,013,059 Insects 087 Sahel 015,055
Aprpit ehooy027 Institution building 010,037,056 Saint Lucia 063
Aquaculture 002,074 Institutional framework 091,092 Semiri 0a08 900,5
Asia 002,018,042,052,068 Institutions 019,091She 08
Beneit ostanalsis054lntecropin 022061069097Shifting cultivation 050
Beneit ostanalsis054Intecropin 022061069097Small farmers 001,003,009011,013,018,024,031,
Biochemistry 068 Interdisciplinary research 026,032,033,047 032,034,035,036,048,050,060,061,
Brazil 090 International organizations 019 064,065,066,079,080,087,088.090,091.100
Budgeting 018 Interviewing 076 Social sciences 025,027,035.046
Carbohydrates 070 Irrigated land 007,051,058 Socioeconomic factor 003,028,040,075.068
Caribbean 001,021,087 Ivory Coast 051 Socioeconomic surveys 035
Cash crops 085 Kenya 010,047,084 Soil classification 093
Cattle 008 Land tenure 063 Soil fertility 050
Central & West Africa Regional 066 Land use 016,050,063 Sorghum 016.075.097
Central America 028,036,060,061,064,087,088 Linear programming 049 Sri Lanka 070
Child nutrition 085 Linkages 055 Statistical analysis 018
Colombia 090,096,100 Livestock 002,008,013,015,020,047,055,057,075 Subsistence farmng 031,048,094
Cooperatives 079 Maize 012,047,062,097 Sudan 075
Costa Rica 005,036,043 Malnutrition 095 Survey methodolog 004
Crop diseases and pests 016,087 Marketing 067,075,079 Surveys 004,032,046,076
Data analysis 004,046 Maternal child health 085 Systemnsanalysis 017,083
Tanzania 009,010,012,048,065
Data collection methodology 021 Mexico 096 Technical assistance
Data collection 004,009,018,027,034,038,046,086 Middle East 046 0 16,024,025,040,041,044,046,053,
Decision making 011,028,071 Millet 008,075 065,074,075,080.081,096
Development strategy 020,096 Mixed farming 001,002,013,057,061,074 Technical education 077
Discrimination 084 Multiple cropping 003,022,026,036,042,069,097 Technological change 066
Dry farming 039,047,051,058 Nematoda 087 Technology adoption 040,041,054,09.4.100
East Africa 009 Nicaragua 005,036 Technology choice 027
Economic analysis 018,090 Nigeria 045,050,066,067 Technology transfer 030,036.071
Ecosystems 028 Nomads 015,020 Thailand 026
Ecuador 062 Nutrition 005,085,095 Training methods 077
Education, higher 006 Nutritional deficiencies 005,095 Tropical agriculture
Energy 068 Nutritive value 070 003,013,031,040,050,060,068,078,088
Entomology 052 Oilseed crops 093 Tropics 040
Environmental health 087 On farm research 023,027,086,098 Uganda 079
Ethiopia 020,093,096 Organization development 023,025 Universities 006
Evaluation 049 Other West Indies-Eastern Caribbean Regional Vaprietasac 0158
Farm crops 055 001,063 Varietil eseac 042
Farm management Pakistan 096 Vegietae crps03,7
006,009,011,012,018,024,028,029, Panama 054 Villgesal opos07,9
048,049,060,078,084 Participation 086 Waste conversion 002
Farm mechanization 045,051 Pest control 042,052,087 Wee control 042,.073
Farm records 034,086 Pesticides 087 West Africa 051
Farm survey 021 Philippines 049,072 Women in development 084,065
Farmer training 024 Pigeon peas 097 Yield 014.042,.044,097
Farmers 025,040,071 Plant breeding 022,070,073 Zambia 010
Feedstuffs 013 Plant genetics 022,097 Zimbabwe 010
Plant physiology 097
30 VOL 19814

Agricultural Development Council, Inc. 046 Harrington, Larry 027 Rockefeller Foundation 035,057
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute Hart, Robert D. 028,029,030 Rosales, Franklin E. 077
033,035,091 Harwood, Richard R. 031 Rutgers University. Cook College. International
Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops. Hildebrand, Peter E. 032,033,034,035,057 Agricultural and Food Program 095
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Hobgood, Harlan H. 036 Ruthenberg, Hans 078
Geography 093 Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources 037 Sain, Gustavo 054
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 045 Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Saunders, Joseph L. 061 Archibald, K. 001 Program for Agricultural Research 037,038 Scherer, Friede 079
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center 002 Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales. Scobie, Grant M. 090 Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Programs Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria Shaner, Willis W. 080,081
Sciences in Africa 069 077 Shehadeh, Z.H. 074
Bantilan, C. 049 IFO Institute for Economic Research 050,079 Simmons, Emmy B. 067
Barker, Randolph 006 Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania 059 Singh, R. 001
Bathrick, David D. 056 International Agricultural Research Service 037 Staudt, Kathleen A. 084
Bazan, Rufo 036 International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Swanberg, Kenneth G. 100
Beausoleil, Joseph W. 021 Management 074 Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre 085
Beemer, Halsey L. Jr. 073 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Tobisson, Eva 085
Beets, William C. 003 Arid Tropics 039,040,097 Tripp, Robert 086
Bernsten, Richard H. 004 International Development Research Centre Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Burgos, Carlos F. 005 083,100 005,060,064,087,088
Cardoso, Victor H. 062 International Livestock Centre for Africa 008 Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center.
Casey, Frank 006 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Program of Annual Cultivation 043,061
Central Research Institute for Agriculture 007,058 027,041,047,054,062,071,086 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization 018 Chapter, Simon 008 International Potato Center 076 U.S. Agency for International Development 087
Collinson, Michael 009 International Regional Organization for Agricultural Bureau for Asia. Indonesia 059
Collinson, Michael P. 010,011,012 Sanitation 087 Bureau for Development Support. Office of
Consortium for International Development 080 International Rice Research Institute Agriculture 057,064 Consultative Group on International Agricultural 014,042,049,052,053,058,099 Bureau for Development Support. Office of Rural
Research 019 JDevelopment and Development Administration
Reserch019Johnston, T.D. 043 065
Cornell University 044 Kansas State University. Office of International Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination. Office
Cornell University. Center for International Studies Agriculture Programs 082 of Evaluation 036,056
025,096 Kass, D.C. 044 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Cornell University. New York State College of Kaul, R.N. 045 Agriculture 013,080,081,092
Agriculture and Life Sciences 006 Kearl, B.E. 046 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Croon, S.I. 012 Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture 047 Multisectoral Development 092
De Boer, A.J. 013 Kirway, T.N. 048 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
De Datta, Surajit K. 014 Kuhnen, Frithjof 051 Rural Development and Development
Delgado, Christopher L. 015 Labadan, E. 049 Administration 096
DeWalt, Billie R. 016 Lagemann, Johannes 050 U.S. Department of Agriculture. International
DeWalt, Kathleen M. 016 Lang, Harald 051 Agricultural Development Service 031
Diaz, Alvaro 023 Litsinger, J.A. 052,053 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of International
Dillon, John L. 017,018,019 Lumaban, M.D. 053 Cooperation and Development 089
Effendi, Suryatna 058 Martinez, Juan Carlos 054 University of California, Berkeley 087
Egerton College. Department of Economics 047 McCown, R.L. 055 University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture 026
University of East Anglia. School of Development
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands Production McDermott, James K. 056 Studies 070
System Study Programme 020 McDowell, Robert E. 057 University of Florida 068
Everson, Everett 021 McIntosh, J.L. 058 University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Flora, Cornelia B. 082 Meiman, J. 092 Agricultural Sciences 092
Ford Foundation 026 Michigan State University 094 University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture.
Francis, C.A. 022 Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Agricultural Experiment Station 016,075
Frankenberger, Timothy 075 Economics 010,023,024 065,066 University of Kentucky. Department of Anthropology
Gait, Daniel L. 023 Mink, Stephen 059 016,075
Garver, Cynthia 097 Moreno, Raul A. 060,061 University of Kentucky. Department of Sociology
Gilbert, E.H. 024 Moscardi, Edgardo 062,098 016,075
Gomez, K.A. 014 Narendran, Vasantha 063 University of Michigan 015
Gostyla, Lynn 025 Navarro, Luis A. 064 University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Norman, David W. 024,065,066,067 Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and Norman, M.J. 068 Institute 001,021,063
Technology 034 Okigbo, Bede N. 069 Jyole Agricultural Centre 012,048
Techoloy 03 Okgbo Bed N.069Valdes, Alberto 090
Gypmantasiri, Phrek 026 Pain, Adam 070 Waugh, Robert K. 091,092
Haaland, G. 055 Perrin, R.K. 071 Westphal, E. 093
Haile Selassie I University. College of Agriculture Philipp, P.F. 080,081 Wharton, Clifton R. 094
093 Philippines. Ministry of Agriculture. National Science Whelan, William P. 095
Hardaker, J.B. 018 and Technology Authority. Philippine Council for Whyte, William F. 025,096
Agriculture and Resources Research and Wiboonpongse, Aree 026 Development. 072 Willey, R.W. 097
Plucknett, Donald L. 019,073 Winkelmann, Donald L. 071,098
Price, E.C. 099 Winrock International 001
Princeton University. Wilson (Woodrow) School of Winrock International. Livestock Research and Public and International Affairs 059 Training Center 013,059
Pryor, D.H. 066 Zandstra, Hubert G. 099,100
Pullin, S.V. 074
Reeves, Edward B. 075
Rhoades, Robert E. 076
VoL 1, 1984 31

Item No. Item No. Item No06
PD-AAN-228 ............................. 021 PN-AAP-096.................................. 038 PN-AAP-542.................................. 050
PN-AAB-723 ............................. 046 PN-AAP-097.................................. 037 PN-AAP-572.................................. 100
PN-AAB-81 0 ............................. 039 PN-AAP-098.................................. 098 PN-AAP-573.................................. 020
PN-AAE-446 ............................. 071 PN-AAP-099.................................. 033 PN-AAP-574.................................. 012
PN-AAG-025 ............................. 044 PN-AAP-1 00.................................. 027 PN-AAP-575.................................. 045
PN-AAG-274............................. 014 PN-AAP-101.................................. 077 PN-AAP-576 ....................... .......... 070
PN-AAG-866 ............................. 042 PN-AAP-1 02.................................. 058 PN-AAP-586.................................. 085
PN-AAG-895 ............................. 015 PN-AAP-1 03.................................. 049 PN-AAP-595.................................. 016
PN-AAG-951 ............................. 066 PN-AAP-1 04.................................. 063 PN-AAP--608.................................. 078
PN-AAH-977 ............................. 036 PN-AAP-1 05.................................. 004 PN-AAP-617 7................................. 031
PN-AAJ-081 .............................. 053 PN-AAP-1 61.................................. 019 PN-AAP--648.................................. 075
PN-AAJ-1 78 .............................. 056 PN-AAP-228.................................. 094 PN-AAP-652.................................. 003
PN-AAJ-280 .............................. 074 PN-AAP-229.................................. 084 PN-AAP-653.................................. 079
PN-AAJ-522 .............................. 040 PN-AAP-230.................................. 055 PN-AAP-659.................................. 034
PN-AAJ-526............................... 041 PN-AAP-231.................................. 032 PN-AAP--660.................................. 048
PN-AAJ-640 .............................. 025 PN-AAP-232.................................. 011 PN-AAP--683.................................. 018
PN-AAK-049.............................. 024 PN-AAP-233.................................. 017 PN-AAP--684.................................. 091
PN-AAK-475 ............................. 065 PN-AAP-234.................................. 022 PN-AAP-691.................................. 051
PN-AAL-237 .............................. 080 PN-AAP-309.................................. 005 PN-AAP-778.................................. 072
PN-AAL-341.............................. 081 PN-AAP-31 0.................................. 087 PN-AAP-8942.................................. 002
PN-AAL-956 .............................. 096 PN-AAP-311 1................................. 088 PN-AAP-84................................... 073
PN-AAM-515.............................. 099 PN-AAP-312.................................. 060 PN-AAP-902.................................. 052
PN-AAM-528 ............................. 061 PN-AAP-344.................................. 006 PN-AAP-903.................................. 026
PN-AAM-826 ............................. 010 PN-AAP-345.................................. 083 PN-AAP-952.................................. 009
PN-AAM-827............................... 023 PN-AAP-364.................................. 013 PN-AAP-953................................. -097
PN-AAN-023 ............................. 043 PN-AAP-365.................................. 059 PN-AAP-954.................................. 089
PN-AAN-810.............................. 086 PN-AAP-377.................................. 068 PN-AAP-955.................................. 093
PN-AAN-890.............................. 062 PN-AAP-41 0.................................. 082 PN-AAP-965.................................. 095
PN-AAN-964 ............................. 076 PN-AAP-414.................................. 064 PN-AAP-977.................................. 069
PN-AAP-019 9............................. 028 PN-AAP-446.................................. 092 PN-AAP-978.................................. 008
PN-AAP-062 .............................. 030 PN-AAP-468.................................. 090 PN-AAP-980.................................. 007
PN-AAP-094 .............................. 001 PN-AAP-478.................................. 067 PN-AAP-981.................................. 054
PN-AAP-095 ............................. 035 PN-AAP-517.................................. 057 PN-AAQ--008.................................. 047
XN-AAL-341-A ............................. 029
32 Vol. I, 1964

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