• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 User guide to citations
 Bibliography
 Subject and geographic index
 Author and institution index
 Document number index
 Ordering instructions
 Order form






Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053818/00004
 Material Information
Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Physical Description: 4 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Publisher: International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053818
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001822822
oclc - 13012743
notis - AJP6828

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    User guide to citations
        User guide to citations
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Subject and geographic index
        Page 30
    Author and institution index
        Page 31
    Document number index
        Page 32
    Ordering instructions
        Page 33
    Order form
        Page 34
Full Text


a a


BIBLIOGRAPHY OF

READINGS IN

FARMING SYSTEMS

1984 Volume 1


Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP)


International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523











PREFACE

One of the problemsfacing most Farming Systems Research (FSR) practitioners is the difficulty in
locating and accessing relevant FSR literature. The expansion of FSR projects and programs has
greatly increased the number of articles, reports, and monographs dealing with particular aspects
of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR literature is difficult to
catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR work makes it difficult,
if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research journals. Additionally,
much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and consists of trip
reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished manuscripts from
the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these characteristics, the FSR
literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level practitioners, who by the nature of
their work are stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability of these materials can only
slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.

As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a
cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency
for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract
agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the
documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening
Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library
facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR
documents for theirannotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective
bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the
bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development Information and Evaluation
(CDIE)/Development Information Division.

This is the first volume of the bibliography. Subsequent volumes will be published annually
throughout the life of the FSSP. CDIE will catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography
series and will be able to provide copies of all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the
publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE documentation center and duplicating services will
continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring that the documents contained in the FSR
bibliographies will remain available.

The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies.
Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:

Resources on Developing Countries
Libraries
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66505
USA

Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are
also welcome.







USER'S GUIDE
TO CITATIONS


Item number -

Title

Authors)

Institutions)

Meeting -

Supplementary
note(s)

Project number --
Contract/Grant -C


101


PN-AAK-592 I- Document number


M F 3.241PC $28.47


Soybean seed quality and stand establishment; pro-
ceedings
Sinclair, J.B.; Jackobs, J.A.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. College of
Agriculture. International Soybean Program
(Conference on Soybean Seed Quality and Stand Establish-
ment, Colombo, LK, 25-31 Jan 1981)
INTSOY series, no. 22, 1982, xiii, 206 p., En
Published by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Grant DAN-1406-G-00-1015-00
93105600
AID/ta-C-1294


Soybean research has shown that both physical and
biological factors are responsible for reduced seed quality and
vigor, that stand establishment depends on seed quality, and
that seed quality is directly influenced by weather conditions
during seed maturation and harvest and by subsequent storage
conditions. Because knowledge of these facts remains largely
fragmented and is not being communicated to farmers, the In-
ternational Soybean Program (INTSOY) hosted an international
conference in Sri Lanka for research scientists and exten-
sionists to correlate current knowledge on soybean seed quali-
ty and stand establishment, discuss ways to communicate this
knowledge to farmers, and determine future research needs.
The conference proceedings presented in this volume in-
clude: (1) 19 invited papers and abstracts of 13 volunteered
papers on soybean seed maturation, genetic differences in
seeds, the effect of weather, harvesting and planting pro-
cedures, and the role of insects and pathogens; (2) 11 country
reports from various Asian nations; and (3) reports from three
working committees on soybean production, crop protection,
and storage and mechanization
In the plenary sessions, the speakers voiced a number of
proposals on what emerged as a major concern among the
delegates-the importance of seed quality in expanding soy-
bean production in tropical and semi-tropical areas. Pointed out
in particular was the complexity of soybean seed production in
the tropics and semi-tropics due to the high humidity and
temperature levels that prevail throughout the year. Other
themes sounded were the necessity for good seed to make
soybean an economical crop and the nutritional importance of
soybeans.'
All information presented during the conference related to
seed production, technology, and storage and to seed certifica-
tion in tropical and semi-tropical developing countries. Such in-
formation is directly related not only to INTSOY goals, but to
complementary efforts of other international donors such as
the Food and Agriculture Organization's ongoing Regional
Field Food Crops project in North Africa and the Middle East.


To facilitate rapid and accurate processing of your re-
quests for documents from this bibliography, please
observe closely the ordering instructions found on
the page following the index.


SAbstract


Microfiche/
Paper Copy prices



Serial title
and number, date,
pagination, and
language

Publisher


J









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


PN-AAP-094
MF $3.24/PC $31.98


farmers, rural women, government officials, and extension
workers.


Animal production systems in the Eastern
Caribbean
Archibald, K.; Singh, R.
Winrock International; University of the West Indies, St.
Augustine. Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute
Apr 1981, 220p. : En Consultant report no. 7
5380015
In 1981 the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Develop-
ment Institute (CARDI) conducted a survey in order to charac-
terize animal production on small farms in the Eastern Caribbe-
an as to resources, constraints, and productivity level, and to
identify high priority experimental interventions to improve
productivity. Results are herein presented. Seven country re-
ports (St. Kitts-Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia,
St. Vincent, Grenada) are followed by a general characteriza-
tion of animal production systems in the region, and by discus-
sions of economic considerations and of possible interventions
in such areas as animal nutrition and health, genetic improve-
ment, animal husbandry, policy and institutional interventions,
and farm management.
The authors conclude that insufficient policy-level attention
has been given to coordinated parallel development of animal
production and crop production. While pricing policies are the
major constraint on self-sufficient animal production, other
problems (e.g., inadequate processing and marketing facilities
and high-priced imported feed) must also be addressed. Ap-
pended are a list of specific interventions to improve animal
production on small farms and a 35-item bibliography (1975-
81).


002


PN-AAP-842
MF $2.16/PC $19.76


003


PN-AAP-652
MF $2.16/PC $21.84


Multiple cropping and tropical farming
systems
Beets, William C.
1982, xiv, 156p. : Bibliography p.146-152, En
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Well-planned multiple cropping is one of the more feasible
ways of raising agricultural production in the tropics, according
to this review of the subject. After an introductory explanation
of tropical farming systems and multiple cropping, the author
lists the types of multiple cropping systems and gives a history
of the practice. Discussion is then given to: (1) economic and
social factors affecting tropical small farm productivity (levels of
technology and resources, farmer managerial ability and tradi-
tions, agricultural infrastructure, population pressure, farm size
and type, and demand and prices); (2) agro-technical features
of multiple cropping systems (crop and variety selection, plant
population and spatial arrangements, timing, fertilization, irriga-
tion, erosion, crop management, and mechanization); (3) plant
interrelationships and competition; and (4) agro-ecological,
biological, and plant physical aspects (climate, soil, light, water,
micro-climate, and pests and diseases). Techniques for evalu-
ating the productivity of different cropping systems are ana-
lyzed, as are the selection and design of suitable multiple
cropping systems in terms of both natural environment and
human management. A discussion of research issues, includ-
ing a survey of current multiple cropping systems research,
concludes the study. Included are 56 figures and a 135-item
bibliography (1887-1977) of international sources.


Integrated crop-livestock-fish farming
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center
(Symposium-Workshop on Integrated Crop-Livestock-Fish
Farming, Los Banos, PH, 19-24 Nov 1979)
FFTC book series, no. 16, May 1980, 147p.: En
Waste recycling is a key feature of successful integrated
crop-livestock-fish farming in the Republic of China, Malaysia,
Thailand, and several other Asian countries. The 17 papers
included in this volume the proceedings of a 1979 conference
on integrated farming show the complexity of integrated
farming systems in Asia and point out the need to develop
systems that are location-and situation-specific.
The first four papers provide an overview of integrated
systems in general and of systems having, respectively, crops,
fish, or livestock as the major enterprise (prefeasibility studies
for these three types of systems are also presented). The
remaining papers describe specific integrated systems in
Taiwan, the Philippines, Korea, Malaysia, and Japan; included
are discussions of an inland fishery, of complex upland farming,
of an integrated rice mill and farm complex, and of the
utilization of hog wastes through anaerobic fermentation. Sev-
eral issues emerge as important: analysis of the nature and
availability of environmental and socioeconomic resources;
new management skills and technologies for specific locations;
development of a systematic cooperative marketing scheme
through farmers' associations; applied research; and training of


004


PN-AAP-105
MF $1.08/PC $10.79


Design and management of survey research: a
guide for agricultural researchers
Bernsten, Richard H.
1979, ii, 80p. : En
The value of data collected in an agricultural survey de-
pends on following established survey research principles. This
booklet outlines these principles and offers practical sug-
gestions to accommodate a wide array of field problems.
Discussion is given to: conducting pre-survey research to
determine the survey's purpose; focusing the survey's specific
analytical, disciplinary, and data goals; defining the sampling
unit and choosing appropriate sampling methods; choosing
primary data collection strategies (individual, group, and village
interviews, farm recordkeeping); designing, coding, formatting,
and pre-testing the questionnaire or interview questions;
selecting, training, and supervising hired interviewers; gaining
cooperation from villages and farmers; and selecting a data-
analysis system. While one-third of the report is devoted to
detailed instructions on preparing survey data for computer
analysis by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
programs, it also suggests simpler analysis methods tabularr
sheets and sorting strips).


Vol. I, 1984


001


004








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


005


PN-AAP-309
MF $1.08/PC $5.33


Sistemas integrados de cultivos alimenticios
como medio para proveer una dieta adecuada
(Integrated systems of food plant cultivation
as a means of providing an adequate diet)
Burgos, Carlos F.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1978, iii, 37p. : Es
A farming systems research (FSR) program undertaken by
CATIE to upgrade small farm diets in Central America is
described. After briefly defining characteristics of an
agroecosystem, the report describes: CATIE's FSR methodolo-
gy; the relation between farming systems and human nutrition
(especially proteins and energy); some nutritional aspects of
Central American crops (including corn, beans, and rice); and
results of CATIE's surveys of cultivation systems and nutrition
in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. A final section out-
lines a strategy to obtain an adequate diet through crop
diversification and intensification; home gardening of crops
such as corn or rice which can supply the nutritional elements
lacking in the main crop is suggested. Increased livestock
production is suggested as an alternative strategy. The need to
integrate food technology specialists with agricultural research-
ers in the entire research process is stressed. Included are 3
figures, 10 tables, and a 45-item bibliography (1949-78).


006


PN-AAP-344
MF $1.08/PC $12.48


Course in farming systems research: the
Cornell experience
Casey, Frank; Barker, Randolph
Cornell University. New York State College of Agriculture and
Life Sciences
Cornell international agriculture mimeograph, no.93, Jul 1982,
92p. : Bibliography, p.72-92, En
Program in International Agriculture, 252 Roberts Hall,
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 single copy free,
additional copies 25 cents each
The development and content of a new course, entitled
"Farming Systems Research (FSR) in Developing Countries,"
first offered at Cornell University during the Fall 1980 semester,
are herein described.
Section I of this report presents the program of a workshop,
held at Cornell during the summer of 1980, at which faculty and
students examined proposals as to course activities, materials,
organization, and teaching methods. Included in the discussion
are comments pertaining to the philosophy behind the FSR
approach, the nature of inter-and multidisciplinary research,
and procedures for conducting field research. Section II pro-
vides an outline of the course as given in 1980 and summarizes
participants' comments on FSR as a research methodology, as
well as on pedagogical issues and course content and mechan-
ics. Section III provides an updated description of the second
FSR course (Fall 1981), highlighting specific changes from the
original offering, and again including student comments. Read-
ing materials associated with the course are listed in an annex,
which includes 16 pages of references (1951-81) divided into
methodological readings, bibliographic material, and works on
farming systems, cropping systems, and other farm manage-
ment topics.


007


PN-AAP-980
MF $2.16/PC $14.56


Network methodology and cropping system
research in Indonesia
Central Research Institute for Agriculture
(Indonesian Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting,
Bogor, ID, 20-21 Jul 1979)
Jul 1979, v.p. : En
Results in Indonesia of a cropping systems research pro-
gram begun in South and Southeast Asia in 1965 by the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are presented in
this collection of papers given at a 7/79 workshop at In-
donesia's Central Research Institute for Agriculture (CRIA).
After an initial paper sketching the program's history, organi-
zation, and basic activities, a paper describing activities being
undertaken with CRIA to improve the productivity of upland
irrigated and lowland rainfed rice farming in Indonesia is
presented. Discussion focuses on the selection of specific
target areas for research, with attention to selection criteria.
site description, and the collection of biological and economic
data. Simplified methods and guidelines for designing and
testing cropping patterns are presented and are exemplified by
a review of systems designed to assess the relative importance
of inputs, markets, and farmer technological know-how as
production constraints in Indramayu and Lampung. Further
aspects of site specificity and of research in Lampung are
discussed in three appended papers. Other appendices treat
research priorities and economic analyses of simple dispersed
trials.


008


PN-AAP-978
MF $3.24/PC $33.15


Systems research in the arid zones of Mali:
initial results
Chater, Simon
International Livestock Centre for Africa
ILCA systems study, no. 5, Aug 1981, 251p. : En
* ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The two main livestock production systems in Central Mali's
arid zones are the agropastoral and pastoral systems, defined
respectively by the relative domination of agricultural or live-
stock production. This report summarizes 5 years of research
on two subsystems of these systems the rainfed millet
cropping agropastoral system, and the pastoralism associated
with floodplain grazing and farming.
After a short description of Mali's natural resources, the two
subsystems are described in detail. The section on the millet
subsystem covers: labor; 1980 crop yields; the village econo-
my; the production and nutrition of livestock (cattle, sheep, and
goats); and crop agronomy and improvement, with a focus on
cowpea agronomy and millet fertilization. The section on the
pastoral system covers rangeland feed resources, livestock
production and nutrition, and the problematic social-territorial
livestock management framework.
A final section on future research prospects concludes that
the improvements in livestock production systems that are
possible given the Sahel's delicate ecological balance, may,
although slight, be vital for the survival of these economically
important systems. Included are 67 figures, 84 tables, and a 7-
page bibliography (1960-81) citing works in French and English.

VoL I, 1984









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


009


PN-AAP-952
MF $5.40/PC $61.10


Farm management in peasant agriculture
Collinson, Michael
1983, xxvii, 454p. : Bibliography p.433-444, En
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
This book, based primarily on research in Tanzania and
elsewhere in East Africa, describes how farm management
economics can contribute to the development of traditional
African agriculture.
Part I reviews the organization of African peasant agriculture
at both the farm and sector levels and then introduces a cost-
effective, systems-level approach for the application of farm
management economics. The approach evaluates the potential
impact of extension program content on the goals, managerial
task, and resource productivity embodied in existing small-farm
systems. Parts II and III detail methods for implementing this
approach. Part II, on the investigation phase, covers: farm
classification as a prerequisite to investigation and the accura-
cy/cost compromise inherent in survey design; a method of
building representative farm models which includes control of
aggregation bias; detailed descriptions and comparisons of
data collection methods for key attributes; and conclusions for
survey organization and design, based on different data collec-
tion methods. Part III, on planning extension strategy and
content, shows how evaluation criteria important to farmers are
used in interpreting the results of modeling. Based on the
premise that small farmers change their existing systems
relatively slowly, the aim is to produce a series of extension
programs, compatible with farmers' goals, low cash incomes,
and low risk preferences, and with the pressures on their land
and labor resources. Included are 109 tables, 7 figures, and a
12-page bibliography (1928-70).


010


* PN-AAM-826
MF $1.08/PC $8.97


Farming systems research in Eastern Africa:
the experience of CIMMYT and some national
agricultural research services, 1976-81
Collinson, Michael P.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics
MSU international development paper, no.3, 1982, vi, 61p. :
En
6980444
AID/TA-CA-3
* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU
Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing, MI 48824
The experiences of the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in efforts to institute farming
systems research (FSR) in national agricultural research serv-
ices in Eastern and Southern Africa over the period 1976-81
are reported.
The author first examines how CIMMYT introduced FSR into
Africa via demonstrations which provided research administra-
tors with quick and tangible results for evaluating FSR ap-
proaches. A description of FSR procedures focuses on CIM-
MYT's use of the informal survey (a reprint of which is includ-
ed), a pivotal and cost-effective technique for diagnosing the
farming system. Progress in institutionalizing FSR in national
agricultural research services in Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and


Zimbabwe is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on: lessons learned
in modifying a strongly compartmentalized research network in
Kenya and the difficulties junior economists faced in initiating
dialogue with senior technical scientists in Kenya; how the
Kenyan experience was used to help reorganize and strength-
en the agricultural research system in Zambia; and the integral
link between FSR and inservice and short-term training work-
shops.
A concluding section analyzes several issues FSR as a
link between local and national priorities, whether FSR should
or should not be prefocused on a single enterprise (such as
maize), whether developing countries have adequate research
manpower for FSR, and issues pertinent to the further promo-
tion of FSR.


011 PN-AAP-232
MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Low cost approach to understanding small
farmers
Collinson, Michael P.
Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.433-450 : En
A low-cost, farming systems approach developed by the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
for understanding decisionmaking by small farmers is pre-
sented; the method is described as applied to Central Province,
Zambia. Basic elements of the CIMMYT approach grouping
farmers into homogeneous populations on the basis of their
existing farming systems and evaluating local social and eco-
nomic circumstances in order to bring to light farm manage-
ment problems are described. Details are then outlined for
conducting an exploratory survey, i.e., unstructured farmer
interviews, to gain a rapid understanding of farming systems
and farmer decisionmaking patterns, and for a subsequent
formal survey to verify this information, test hypotheses regard-
ing farm management strategies and production techniques, as
well as farmer attitudes toward changes in these areas, and
examine farmers who have already made such changes. Vital
to the entire process is the interaction between biological and
social scientists. Detailed suggestions for an exploratory sur-
vey, as tested in Zambia, are appended.


012


* PN-AAP-574
PC $2.08


Planning an adaptive experimental programme
on maize for farmers of the Ufipa plateau
Collinson, Michael P.; Croon, S.I.; Mkindi, G.I.
Uyole Agricultural Centre
Nov 1980, 16p. : En
* Microfiche not available paper copy only
Results of a diagnostic study of the farming systems of
Tanzania's Ufipa Plateau, together with suggestions for an
experimental research program aimed at helping Ufipa farmers
improve management of their increasingly important maize
crop, are presented.
After describing labor and land use in the plateau's current
farming system, and its major crops, the report examines the
rapid changes both in the system and in the constraints to its
development which have occurred after 1973 as a result of
increasing ox production and the official villagization policy.
Stress is laid on the declining importance of labor-intensive


Vol. I, 1984








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


finger millet cultivation and the correlatively increasing impor-
tance of the November-January labor peak. Maize manage-
ment practices in Ufipa are then quantified, and analysis is
made of the way in which maize management decisions are
influenced by farmer priorities, resource limitations, and haz-
ards such as the uncertainty of rainfall and crop losses due to
insects. The report concludes by proposing an adaptive re-
search program that focuses on testing ways to ease the
November-January labor bottleneck, conducting fertility main-
tenance trials to prolong the use of cleared land, and improving
the reliability of maize storage.


gap between farmers' present yields and the highest potential
yield for their fields after predetermined production factors are
modified? (2) How much of the yield gap can be attributed to
each of the predetermined production factors? (3) What are the
differences in costs and returns? (4) How much of the yield gap
can be profitably recovered? and (5) If the inputs that are most
profitable differ from the actual inputs used by farmers, what
personal, social, institutional, or political factors keep farmers
from using the most profitable levels? The handbook discusses
the selection of study area experimental sites, and factors to be
tested (such as fertilizer, weed control, and insect control).
Sample survey questionnaires are presented and illustrative
analyses are performed on constraint data.


013


PN-AAP-364
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Livestock in farming systems research and
development programs
De Boer, A.J.
Winrock International. Livestock Research and Training
Center; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Farming Systems Workshop, Port of Spain, TD, 26-27 Apr
1979)
(1979), (14p.) : En
The majority of animal products consumed within the
world's tropical belt are produced on small farms, typically as
part of a naturally integrated system of crop/livestock produc-
tion. This report begins by outlining three stages for study of
crop/livestock production before application of a broad-scale
development package: analysis of existing crop/livestock pro-
duction and marketing operations (to explain efficiency
parameters of livestock, the rationale for input levels, and the
mix of livestock products); definition and quantification of
constraints limiting animal production; and on-farm testing of
combinations of livestock enterprises and cropping systems.
Components of the crop/livestock system are then considered.
Discussed in turn are: general measures of efficiency; the
multiple uses of livestock; herd structure variables; animal
inputs into the cropping system; a model of crop-animal
integration in the Caribbean; the construction of feed demand-
supply balances; animal feed requirements; classification and
nutritional value of feed sources; relationship of feeding to
animal genetic qualities; and means of intensifying forage.
Modeling and species considerations are discussed briefly.


014


PN-AAG-274
MF $1.08/PC $8.19


Handbook on the methodology for an
integrated experiment-survey on rice yield
constraints
De Datta, Surajit K.; Gomez, K.A.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
1978, 65p. : En
AID/TA-G-1074
Presented here is a methodology for analyzing constraints
to increased rice production in farmers' fields. The methodolo-
gy, the result of a 4-year multidisciplinary research project to
study rice yield constraints by a team of agronomists, econo-
mists, and statisticians from the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) and by 6 cooperating national teams, will give
researchers answers to the following questions: (1) What is the


015


PN-AAG-895
MF $2.16/PC $25.48


Southern Fulani farming system in Upper
Volta: a model for the integration of crop and
livestock production in the West African
Savannah
Delgado, Christopher L.
University of Michigan
1978, 176p. : En
French edition: PN-AAG-896
AID/REDSO/WA-77-107; AID/AFR-G-1261
This paper provides research results of a study of the
Southern Fulani farming system in south-central Upper Volta.
Following the Sahelian drought of 1974, donor agency and
governmental policy in this area has stressed shifting livestock
production from northern to southern and central regions of the
country in order to lessen dependence on erratic rainfall
patterns. Hypotheses about Fulani society and economic rela-
tions which address this strategy are researched and tested by
the author. Areas examined include: (1) characteristics of the
research site; (2) availability and allocation of labor within an
average household; (3) monthly flow of crop and livestock
outputs from the average household; and (4) a summary profile
of the typical Fulani production unit. The primary conclusion
resulting from this research is that the real potential for
economic growth through integration of crop and livestock
enterprises lies in closer relations between the Fulani and
Mossi tribes. The objective of rural development policy should
be to promote specialization in crops and small stock by the
Mossi, and cattle and small stock by the Fulanis. Recom-
mended policy actions cover 4 major types of interventions: (1)
government actions to bolster the cattle-entrusting system; (2)
creating a rise in relative returns to herdsmen for maintaining
entrusted cattle; (3) actions to move surplus Fulani cattle
manure to uses in Mossi market gardening; and (4) improving
herder access to purchased food grains. A bibliography of
references is provided, along with tables of labor flow data, and
samples of questionnaires used in the study.


VoL I, 1984


015


v








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


016


PN-AAP-595
MF $2.16/PC $13.65


Cropping systems in Pespire, Southern
Honduras, University of Kentucky, INTSORMIL
project: preliminary report number 1
DeWalt, Billie R.; DeWalt, Kathleen M.; et al.
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
Experiment Station; University of Kentucky. Department of
Sociology; University of Kentucky. Department of
Anthropology
1st ed. 1982, 103p. : En
9311254
AID/DSAN-G-0149
Data from interviews with 52 male and 72 female household
heads in three small communities are used to describe
cropping systems, especially for sorghum, in the Pespire region
of southern Honduras and ways they can be improved to help
the country out of its bleak agricultural situation.
After a general introduction to Honduras and to the south-
ern region, the region of greatest sorghum production, variants
of Pespire's two main cropping systems slash and mulch, and
slash and burn (both of which use sorghum and maize, the
region's two main crops) are described, as is the cultivation of
secondary crops and of pasture. The report then indicates
major production constraints in Pespire and some possible
solutions; seed types used in the area are characterized.
The survey showed sorghum to be both a multipurpose and
- due to its drought tolerance an important risk-aversion crop.
Key production constraints were identified as bird predation,
storage losses (especially to C. granaria), locusts, fall army
worm, and the eating of seed before it germinates by ants and
termites. The survey also revealed that wide adoption of
pesticides by farmers augurs well for future technology diffu-
sion efforts.
Two appendices analyze, respectively, the use of sorghum
as a human food and changing land use patterns in Honduras
and Central America; the latter indicates that increased cattle
production is leading to wholesale destruction of forests and a
reduction in arable land. Included are 22 tables and a 42-item
bibliography (1959-82) of English and Spanish titles.


017 PN-AAP-233
MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Economics of systems research
Dillon, John L.
Agricultural systems, v.1, 1976, p.5-22 : En
The systems approach to agriculture, according to this
paper, constitutes a new way of viewing the world one which
no longer sees the world in terms of analyzable and
mechanistically related parts, but as an interacting and purpos-
ive whole. As a corollary, there are important implications for
agricultural research and professional research training. In
particular, the systems approach has an important role to play
in the allocation of research resources because it recognizes
that agricultural research is an instrument for achieving higher-
level goals (i.e., is not only oriented toward production in-
creases) and it provides a framework both for bringing research
alternatives to attention and for their assessment. Use of the
systems approach will allow decisionmakers to choose from a
variety of alternative research projects, based on systems
analysis of their probable outcomes. Moreover, a goal-orient-
ed, systems approach to research management, which has

Vol. I, 1984


come to be known as PPB (Planning, Programming and
Budgeting) is generally more efficient than is the traditional
disciplinary approach. A 39-item bibliography (1967-74) is
appended.


018


PN-AAP-683
MF $2.16/PC $20.02


Farm management research for small farmer
development
Dillon, John L.; Hardaker, J.B.
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization
FAO agricultural services bulletin, no.41, 1980, x, 145 : En
Methods of conducting farm management research geared
to the needs of small farmers in developing countries, particu-
larly those in Asia and the Far East, are presented in this
manual.
After an introductory chapter on the need for and ap-
proaches to farm management research on small farms, meth-
ods of data collection (e.g., farm and village surveys, farm
recording schemes, case studies, and experiments) and simple
data analysis (including tabular analysis, measures of whole
and partial-farm performance, and comparative analyses) are
presented. Succeeding chapters outline methods of planning
and analyzing whole-farm and partial-farm budgets and cover
such topics as activity budgets; farm resource use; farm
programming and systems simulation; farm development bud-
gets; and partial profit, gross margin, partial cash flow, paramet-
ric, and risk budgeting. Procedures for conducting input-output
budget analysis are described (covering estimating benefits
and costs, allowing for capital scarcity, marginal analysis of net
benefits, etc.), followed by an introduction to the use of
production function analysis in farm management research.
The final chapter employs decision theory to analyze risk-laden
decisionmaking by small farmers.
A glossary of farm management research terms and a
subject index are appended; 68 tables and 38 figures illutrate
the text. References are included after individual chapters.


019


PN-AAP-161
MF $3.24/PC $25.61


Farming systems research at the international
agricultural research centers: I analysis by
the TAC review team of farming systems
research at CIAT, IITA, ICRISAT and IRRI; II -
proceedings of the workshop on farming
systems research, Nairobi, May 29-31, 1978
Dillon, John L.; Plucknett, Donald L.; et al.
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(Workshop on Farming Systems Research, Nairobi, KE, 29-
31 May 1978)
Sep 1978, v.p. : En
Farming systems research (FSR) programs at four interna-
tional agricultural research centers the International Center
for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the International Institute for
Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and the Interna-
tional Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are assessed.
After an introduction to FSR concepts, terminology, goals,
and potential benefits, the FSR methodologies employed in








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


national FSR programs in Costa Rica and Senegal are ana-
lyzed, along with general (baseline data analysis) and special
(on-farm and research station) methodological needs. Guide-
lines for an FSR strategy, including a strategy for balancing on-
and off-station work and for cooperation between international
centers and national programs, are proposed. FSR programs at
the four centers are then assessed both as to their structure
and operation and in relation to other center programs. Conclu-
sions and recommendations anent the preceding conclude the
report.
Appendices include individual reports on FSR at the four
centers, and a 10-page, multi-language bibliography (1959-
78). The report also includes proceedings of a May 1978
workshop on FSR held in Nairobi, Kenya, which endorsed the
results of the above study.


PN-AAP-573
MF $1.08/PC $10.14


Annual report to the project: new ways for old
worlds: development and research, a new
approach to the Ethiopian rangelands
development project (third livestock
development project)
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands Production System Study
Programme
Mar 1981, 73p. : En
Development projects must take into account not just
technological feasibilities and national-level aims, but also the
production system to be developed, and the desires of the
society involved. Provided in this paper is a proposal for linking
project implementation to systems research in the Ethiopian
Rangeland Development Project.
Following brief introductory sections in which the author
explains the philosophy underlying the systems research ap-
proach to development, the approach itself is outlined, using as
an example two Ethiopian pastoral societies the wild northern
Afar or Danakil and the Borana husbandmen of the South. The
situation geography and ecology, external pressures, devel-
opment options, leadership, and social units of each society is
described. Also included are (1) study models prepared for the
two societies outlining questions which need to be answered
on nutrition, decisionmaking, herd structure, relationships with
neighboring pastoralists and farmers, market offtake, water
resources, and technical inputs and (2) information on the level
(personnel, specific tasks) at which studies can be initiated. In
conclusion, the author suggests that the methods being pio-
neered in the Ethiopia project may lead the way for complete
reorientation of livestock development projects in Africa.


021 PD-AAN-228
MF $2.16/PC $13.65
Evaluation of the CARDI/USAID small farm
multiple cropping systems research project
Everson, Everett; Beausoleil, Joseph W.; et al.
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
17 Mar-8 Apr 1982, 91p. : En
5380015
Evaluates project to develop recommendations for im-
proved farming systems through farm-based research in the


Eastern Caribbean. Special evaluation covers the period
through 4/8/82 and is based on document review, site visits,
and interviews with project participants.
Although the project's ambitious objectives have not been
fulfilled and many of the expected results not obtained, a sound
infrastructure for farm-level applied research and extension
has emerged, as farming systems research (FSR) has been
readily embraced by farmers and has become the focal point of
participating countries' agricultural research programs. Joint
country/Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Institute (CARDI) teams have been established in 7 countries
and some 25 farmer cooperators selected on each of the
islands. CARDI/FSR staff have become aware of the complex
farming systems in the region, a number of production con-
straints have been discovered, on-farm adaptive problem-
solving research has been initiated, and some observation
trials conducted. Also, various workshops and seminars have
been conducted for research personnel.
Progress has been hampered by a number of implementa-
tion problems, however. The project has been spread too thin,
geographically, to be effective. Interterritorial communication
has been poor and true interdisciplinary interaction among core
CARDI personnel not achieved. Overemphasis on data collec-
tion and detailed analysis, coupled with a lack of flexibility, has
led to a slow cautious approach to field trials. In fact, the project
has collected too much data, too rapidly, about a subsample of
farmers which represents neither a homogenous group nor a
random sample. The project's ad hoc exploratory interventions
(7-15 per country) represent constraints identified through
informal observation, not during the data analysis process.
Thus, to date, project research has added little knowledge
about or had little impact on farming systems.
Included in this evaluation are analyses of crop and animal
production in the Eastern Caribbean and of CARDI's organiza-
tional and functional patterns. Detailed recommendations for
Phase II of the project address these and other issues.


022


PN-AAP-234
MF $1.08/PC $6.63


Development of plant genotypes for multiple
cropping systems
Francis, C.A.
1981, p.179-231 : En
Plant breeding II
Frey, K.J.
Iowa State University Press
The potential for improving multiple cropping systems de-
pends on the researcher's ability to combine genetic advance
with new agronomic techniques. Thus concludes this paper,
which was presented at a plant breeding symposium held at
Iowa State University in 1979.
Emphasis throughout is on intensive cropping systems that
combine two or more crops in the field at the same time.
Species choice and genetic selection are discussed first;
attention is given to the interactions of genotypes in different
cropping systems, and statistical alternatives for comparing
these interactions. Steps in the practical screening and testing
of new cultivars are then outlined: the decision to breed for
intercropping systems; phenotypic traits desirable for inter-
cropping (with respect to photoperiod, temperature sensitivity,
plant morphology, rooting systems, planting density, and early
seedling growth); insect and disease resistance; screening
techniques for breeding; and on-farm testing and technology

VoL 1984


020









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


transfer. The potential productivity of multiple cropping systems
is assessed in terms of competitive ability to use available
resources.
A multidisciplinary research focus and improved graduate
study are recommended to provide the necessary expertise in
genotype development. Comments by symposium panel mem-
bers and a 136-item bibliography are appended.


023


* PN-AAM-827
MF $1.08/PC $7.67


Farming systems research (FSR) in Honduras,
1977-81: a case study
Gait, Daniel L.; Diaz, Alvaro; et al.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics
MSU international development working paper, no. 1, 1982,
49p. : Bibliography, p.48-49, En
5220139
AID/TA-CA-3
* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU
Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing MI 48824
Problems and achievements resulting from the introduction
of farming systems research (FSR) into the national agricultural
research system in Honduras are examined in this study.
After providing a historical overview of agricultural research
in Honduras, the authors discuss the organizational framework
for FSR in the country, focusing primarily on the creation of a
Central Unit for FSR within the Honduran Ministry of Natural
Resource's National Program of Agricultural Research. Next,
implementation of the FSR program is addressed, with particu-
lar attention to: selection of regions, farmers, and specific
problems for on-farm and on-station trials; experiences in
implementing farm trials and farm recordkeeping systems;
research results and efforts to extend FSR to other regions;
and training of Honduran researchers. Key problems e.g., in
introducing FSR to agricultural research personnel, in commu-
nicating among the various entities involved, and in obtaining
sufficient resources are described.
It is concluded that while not all of the program's goals were
realized, a good deal was achieved in modifying research
philosophy and methodology. Recommendations for imple-
menting FSR in other countries are provided. Appended are a
17-item bibliography (1976-81) and comments by FSR re-
searchers.


024


PN-AAK-049
MF $2.16/PC $19.24


Farming systems research: a critical appraisal
Gilbert, E.H.; Norman, David W.; Winch, F.E.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics
MSU rural development paper, no.6, 1980, 147p. : En
French edition: PN-AAN-029
9311006
AID/TA-CA-3
It is increasingly evident that public investment in farming
system research (FSR) over the last 20 years has been
focused on the needs of commercial farmers and professional
researchers rather than on the needs of developing country
small farmers.


Defining farming systems as human and environmental
totalities, the authors of this state-of-the-art study review the
literature on FSR, evaluate current FSR programs, and make
recommendations to make FSR more responsive to small
farmer needs. The political, social, technological, and human
components of a farm system are reviewed, and a framework
and general description are provided for "downstream" FSR.
Unlike "upstream" FSR, which takes place on an institutional
level and seeks to generate prototypes to solve deep-seated
production constraints, "downstream" FSR is directed at gen-
erating, in cooperation with farmers, immediate and site-
specific solutions to their needs. Current "upstream" and
"downstream" programs at the national (e.g., Columbia, Guate-
mala, and Senegal) and international levels (e.g., IRRI and
ICRISAT) are reviewed, as are several issues affecting the
programs' content and focus, including institutional mandates,
linkages among research and implementation agencies,
professional and practical credibility, efficiency and accounta-
bility of research, and constraints of and criteria for improving
FSR approaches. Next, the four stages of FSR methodology
are detailed: target area description and diagnosis; project or
experiment design; testing or implementation; and evaluation
and extension. Problems involved in institutional linkages and
in FSR training programs are also covered. General conclu-
sions and three concerns regarding FSR (conflicts of private
and public interests, gaining sufficient funding, and time to
prove FSR's worth) preface the following recommendations:
direct future FSR work toward cost/benefit analyses in different
ecological zones; develop methodologies to include livestock
and societal, environmental, and distributional impacts; and
establish more operational linkages between FSR activities
and the entire range of agricultural research, planning, and
program implementation.
Appended are descriptions of selected FSR programs and a
155-item bibliography (1902-80).


025


PN-AAJ-640
MF $1.08/PC $6.89


ICTA in Guatemala: the evolution of a new
model for agricultural research and
development
Gostyla, Lynn; Whyte, William F.
Cornell University. Center for International Studies
Special series on agriculture research and extension, 1980,
53p.: En
Spanish edition: PN-AAP-278
9311137
AID/TA-BMA-8
Agricultural research can have no impact upon small far-
mers' cultivation practices unless it addrees farmers' real
problems and defines efficiency in, farmers' terms. Traditional
research and development efforts unilateral flows of initiative
and information directed by national planners, executed by
technicians through commodity programs, and imposed upon
farmers often result in production techniques that are rejected
by small farmers. This report describes the development of
Guatemala's Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology
(ICTA), which is dedicated to a decentralized research method-
ology designed to make research programs responsible for the
adoption of appropriate agricultural techniques by including the
contributions of farmers and social scientists. Under ICTA's
interdisciplinary research program, mainly developed by its
Socio-Economic Unit (SEU), natural and social scientists sur-


Vol I, 1984


024









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


vey farmers to identify homogeneous groups and their produc-
tion constraints. The farmers then record their cultivation
practices, supplying data about annual crop labor/resource
investments. Experimentation with specific treatments, such as
agronomic practices or crop varieties, is based on farmer
information and the results of controlled tests at production
centers. Using the farmers' traditional techniques, an agrono-
mist and farmer test the selected treatments and then apply
them to larger areas at different sites. In the next phase, the
farmer tests the treatments alone; ICTA personnel visit to
record information and conduct evaluations. Problems arose in
the initial implementation of this approach, as technicians
deprecated farmer input and SEU's low-level regional pre-
sence was often erratic. The situation improved as technicians
began to realize the benefits of farmer participation and as SEU
sent adequate personnel into needed areas. The use of leader-
ship farmers to monitor recordkeeping and test sites also has
been helpful. An indication of the obstacles facing those
introducing such innovations is provided in the authors' histo-
ries of ICTA and SEU, including the latter's conflicts with
external and internal proponents of traditional methods and
relations with similar institutions.


PN-AAP-903
MF $3.24/PC $32.76


Interdisciplinary perspective of cropping
systems in the Chiang Mai Valley: key
questions for research
Gypmantasiri, Phrek; Wiboonpongse, Aree; et al.
University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture; Ford
Foundation
Jun 1980, xiv, 238p. : En
The past (1969-80) achievements and future prospects of
the Multiple Cropping Program (MCP), a multidisciplinary re-
search project being conducted by Chiang Mai University in
Northern Thailand's Chiang Mai Valley, are assessed.
Initial chapters describe the Valley's structure (including
water supply, cropping intensity, population, infrastructure, and
villages); dynamics (seasons, cropping patterns, prices and
labor, long-term cropping changes, and crop stresses and
perturbations), and farmer decisionmaking processes (as af-
fected by national policy objectives and local needs and
constraints). Against this background, the performance and
constraints of the MCP systems introduced into the Valley by
the University, together with the productivity, stability, and
durability of these systems, are assessed. A detailed series of
key evaluative questions covering all major areas of the Valley
system is posed. Preliminary answers to these questions
provide a basis for a concluding outline of research priorities
and future directions. It is stressed that the program's compara-
tive advantage lies in its focus on the research questions raised
by the evaluation. The text is illustrated by 96 charts, tables,
and graphs.
A 75-item bibliography (1962-80) and English and Thai
language glossaries of terms are appended.


027


PN-AAP-100
MF $1.08/PC $4.03


Methodological issues facing social scientists
in on-farm/farming systems research
Harrington, Larry
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(Workshop on Methodological Issues Facing Social Scientists
in On-Farm/Farming Systems Research, Mexico City, MX,
1-3 Apr 1980)
17 Nov 1980, 26p. + annex: En
Methodological issues facing social scientists in applied or
on-farm farming systems research (FSR) were discussed at a
4/80 workshop held at CIMMYT. Initial discussions of these
issues, according to this report on the workshop, focused on
the role of the social scientist in FSR and on the usefulness to
farmers, policymakers, and experiment stations of on-farm
FSR, as well as on the latter's cost-effectiveness. Discussion
on the farmer as research client covered the choice of farmer
target groups and the appropriate size of recommendation
domains; whether to focus on a predetermined commodity
rather than the whole farm system (the report recommends the
latter when it is technically feasible and there is little hope for
improvement in the farmer's main crop); and the general
preferability of individual technological components to large
technological packages. Discussion on the advantages and
disadvantages of various data sources and data collection
instruments are summarized, and the wisdom of following the
informal survey with a formal survey and of making observa-
tions in farmers' fields noted. The report's concluding sections
summarize discussions on procedural issues in designing,
testing, and evaluating new technologies including on-farm
testing, prescreening, farmer assessments, and analysis of
economic impacts and on integrating social scientists into
FSR institutes.


028


PN-AAP-019
MF S1.08/PC $3.38


Determinants of agroecosystem structure and
function
Hart, Robert D.
(Agricultural Ecosystems Unifying Concepts, University
Park, PA, US, 12 Aug 1982)
12 Aug 1982, 25p. : En
Agroecosystems are determined by both ecological and
socioeconomic factors. This paper analyzes how these two
types of factors influence farmer decisions in designing and
implementing (controlling) a farm management plan.
Several determinants of farmer decisions are enumerated:
the natural environment, which affects the agroecosystem
either directly (through the availability of energy and material
inputs) or indirectly (by triggering farmer decisions); agricultural
resources (land, labor, capital, management capability, and
farm inputs); the farm household (which mainly affects design
decisions); energy and material flows from other
agroecosystems; and the ongoing performance of the
agroecosystem itself. Specific hypotheses regarding determi-
nant-decision relationships are exemplified from experience in
Central America the relations between temperature and
cropping system selections (a design decision) and between
the onset of the rainy season and selection of the first crop in a
rotation system (a control decision). Concluding sections of the
paper discuss the implications of these issues for farming


VoL I, 1984


026









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


systems research and agricultural modeling, as well as for
agro-and natural ecosystem research. A 22-item bibliography
(1965-82) is appended.


029


* XN-AAL-341-A
MF $2.16/PC $24.18


One farm system in Honduras: a case study in
farm systems research
Hart, Robert D.
1982, p.59-73 : En
Readings in farming system research and development
Colorado State University
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
The conceptualization of a farm system as a set of
subsystems with inputs, outputs, and between-system flows
can be a valuable tool in cropping systems research. Thus
concludes this article, which begins by describing data col-
lected from one farming household in Yojoa, Honduras. Begin-
ning in May 1976, Mr. Aureliano Alvarado, having been select-
ed as a representative farmer, was interviewed weekly over a
one-year period. Quantitative interview data were analyzed and
from them a qualitative model of a farm system, showing
socioeconomic and agro-eco subsystems, their inputs, out-
puts, and between-systems flows of money, materials, energy,
and information, was constructed. This model and the interview
data were then used as guidelines in developing methodologies
for further cropping systems research at Yojoa. The major
findings resulting from this research are described and sug-
gestions for refining the methodology provided.


030


PN-AAP-062
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Using the concept of agroecosystem
determinants to link technology transfer and
technology generation to form a farming
systems research and extension process
Hart, Robert D.
(Role of Crops and Animals in Farming Systems, Columbia,
MO, US, 19-20 May 1983)
May 1983, 15p. : En
While farming systems research (FSR) has made a major
contribution to agricultural extension, there is still a gap be-
tween the information needed for technology transfer and that
produced by most FSR projects. In this paper, the concept of
agroecosystem determinants is proposed as a framework
which can be used to identify the information needed to link
FSR with technology transfer.
The author begins by discussing the nature of
agroecosystems, and their relationships to farm systems and
socioeconomic systems. Farm system decisionmaking is ex-
amined next and it is shown that these decisions are based on
one or more of the following types of agroecosystem determi-
nants: the ecological and socioeconomic environment; agricul-
tural resources; the household; the performance of the existing
agroecosystem; and the flow of materials or energy among
agroecosystems. Identification of these decision determinants,
it is suggested, can be used by FSR workers to implement a
process which links technology generation to technology trans-

Vol. I, 1984


fer, by first identifying the type of farm system and of ecological
and socioeconomic environment where a new technology is
appropriate and then testing its applicability on other farms in
other areas. Technology that passes this final test is then
communicated to all farms in all areas where it is appropriate.


031 PN-AAP-617
MF $2.16/PC $21.97
Small farm development: understanding and
improving farming systems in the humid
tropics
Harwood, Richard R.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. International Agricultural
Development Service
lADS development-oriented literature series, 1979, xiv, 160p.
: En
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Tropical farming systems are interactions of varied but
complementary farm enterprises undertaken with limited re-
sources. This book analyzes ways in which such farming
systems can be used to further agricultural development.
Part one presents an overview of tropical small farms and
their production systems, with explicit attention to the stages
and goals of small farm development and indicators of farmer
well-being. The final chapter in this part the heart of the whole
book suggests a development approach for collaboration
among scientists, extensionists, and farmers to develop and
extend relevant technology to resource-limited farms.
Part two deals in greater depth with critical but often
overlooked factors limiting increased cropping intensity on
small farms and describes existing and/or appropriate methods
of addressing them. Treated in turn are: physical limitations
(water, soil fertility); economic determinants (labor, cash, man-
agement capability); resource requirements of multiple
cropping; animals in mixed-cropping systems; farmyard and
fencerow noncommercial enterprises; soil fertility; efficient re-
source use; and the need for mechanization. Finally, it is
stressed that farmers will only adopt systems that involve
minimum risk and maximum stability.
Lists of sources of farming systems information and termi-
nology; botanical names of crops; and an annotated 58-item
bibliography (1956-79) are appended.


n 9


PN-AAP-231
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Combining disciplines in rapid appraisal: the
Sondeo approach
Hildebrand, Peter E.
Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.423-432 : En
The Sondeo is a multidisciplinary rapid survey technique
developed by the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science
and Technology (ICTA) to provide the information needed to
orient the work of a technology generating team. A reconnais-
sance survey team of 10, equally split between
socioeconomists and technologists, assesses farmer con-
straints and technology needs as a basis for agricultural
research. Quantified information and questionnaires are not
required and the survey lasts only one week. The team
investigates farmer conditions in pairs made up of a social
9


wig









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


scientist and a natural scientist. On each of four days the
pairing changes. Daily post-survey team discussions are re-
garded as essential. Each member of the team prepares a
report and these are finally amalgamated into one joint report.
Experience has shown that combined disciplines can, if well
managed, produce incisive and efficient diagnoses of rural
conditions and needs and educate the participants in mul-
tidisciplinary thinking. (Author abstract, modified)


033


PN-AAP-099
MF $1.08/PC $3.38


Generating technology for traditional farmers:
a multi-disciplinary methodology
Hildebrand, Peter E.
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute
(Conference on Developing Economies in Agrarian Regions:
a Search for Methodology, Bellagio, IT, 4-6 Aug 1976)
Dec 1976, 20p. + appendix: En
The multidisciplinary research methodology of the Guate-
malan Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA),
outlined herein, aims at developing the low-risk technologies
needed by traditional small farmers to increase the production
of basic grains. The methodology has four components. The
first, description and analysis, focuses on informal and formal
agro-economic surveys of targeted groups of farmers having
common cropping systems. Adaptive research, the second
component, consists of two phases an initial period of
experimentation aimed at improving traditional technology in
the short run, and a longer process of refining the improved
traditional technology. The third component consists of testing
and promoting the technology through two types of on-farm
trials farm experiments, financed by ICTA, and farmer tests,
financed by farmers themselves. The fourth component evalu-
ates long-range technology adoption through farm records,
technician reports, comparative trial records, and followup
surveys. A final section of the report describes use of the
methodology in various parts of Guatemala La Maquina on
the Coast, the Department of Jutiapa in the southeast, and
Chimaltenango in the Western Highlands. A discussion of the
role of the social scientist in biological research is appended.


034 PN-AAP-659
MF $1.08/PC $2.86
ICTA farm record project with small farmers:
four years of experience
Hildebrand, Peter E.
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology
Jul 1979, 16p. + attachments : En
The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology's
(ICTA) crop reporting project in Guatemala is reviewed from its
beginning in 1975 as a 3-crop, 40-record project on a 20-ha
agrarian reform plot through its development into a nationwide
34-crop, 583-record project.
In the project, which focuses on keeping crop records (as
opposed to full-farm records) and so minimizing the time
needed for data gathering/analysis and training, data from daily
work sheets kept by farmers and from supplemental sheets
filled out by ICTA personnel are analyzed to provide detailed
tables of inputs, technologies used, crop yields, and prices,


resulting in calculation of gross and net crop incomes Stress is
laid on the importance of close contact between ICTA person-
nel (at first technicians, but later joined by socioeconomic
personnel) and farmers, who are often illiterate, in order to
ensure accurate reporting. After suggesting some improve-
ments for the future, ti e report concludes that the project,
which has shown that crop records yield valuable information
on technology advances, has been made an integral part of the
ICTA program. Demonstration recording forms are included.


PN-AAP-095
MF $1.08/PC $7.41


Incorporating the social sciences into
agricultural research: the formation of a
national farm systems research institute:
report of a five year tour of duty
Hildebrand, Peter E.
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute; Rockefeller
Foundation
Dec 1979, iii, 43p. + 3 appendices : En
Results of a 5-year project aimed at incorporating the social
sciences into the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Technol-
ogy's (ICTA) small farm research program are highlighted in
this consultant's report.
The report describes the development and use of a social
science methodology based on full-scale agro-economic
surveys preceded by preliminary questionnaires (sondeos)
administered to farmers aimed at helping ICTA researchers
focus their work on small farmer needs and problems; stress is
laid on the importance of field activities in La Barranca and
Tecpan. A related farm records project is briefly assessed. The
use of sondeos, the involvement of farmers in technology
development, and the conducting of research under conditions
relevant to farmers enabled the project to increase the speed
and efficiency with which agronomists developed appropriate
technology. However, although the social scientists' practices
were integrated into many ICTA programs, their long-term role
within ICTA is unclear: failure to replace social scientists who
leave the Institute, together with the decentralization of the
social science unit seems to augur a diminishing impact on
ICTA decisions and practices.
A list of 67 project publications, 59 of which are in Spanish,
is appended.


PN-AAH-977
MF $2.16/PC $14.56


Central America: small-farmer cropping
systems
Hobgood, Harlan H.; Bazan, Rufo; et al.
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation
A.I.D. project impact evaluation report, no.14, 1980, 111p.:
En
5960064
Rural development strategies have increasingly focused on
extending modern production technology to improve the low
yields of small farmers who produce most of the world's food
crops. This report evaluates a research project to increase
small-farmer production in Central America by developing


Vol. I, 194


035


036









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


improved cropping practices. The Small Farmer Cropping Sys-
tems Project (SFCS) supported research by the Tropical Agri-
culture Research and Training Center (CATIE) in Costa Rica on
the traditional multicropping systems used by over 4 million
small farmers in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador,
and Guatemala. Although progress was slow in El Salvador and
Guatemala, the project succeeded in implementing on-farm
research and developing area-specific recommendations. The
major shortcoming of the 5-year project was that it concen-
trated on the research process itself rather than on verifying
and disseminating results. Farmer impact was thus limited to
the 75 small farmers on whose farms research was conducted.
Farmers in Nicaragua and Guatemala were active participants,
whereas those in Costa Rica and Honduras remained largely
ignorant of the project and disinterested in adopting alternative
systems. Test farm yields increased in every country but
Guatemala. CATIE's staff, training, and support capabilities
were greatly improved and most national agricultural institu-
tions involved were positively affected. The team concluded
that SFCS is a replicable model capable of significantly improv-
ing the lot of the small farmer. Recommendations for future
projects are: (1) disseminate research results; (2) stress an
interdisciplinary approach; (3) seek the active participation of
farmers; (4) improve SFCS methodology by upgrading farm
selection criteria, clarifying the relationship between on-farm
and central station experiments, and increasing attention to the
non-agronomic aspects of small farm systems; (5) promote
maximum interagency collaboration; and (6) shorten the time
lag between research, verification, and dissemination. Appen-
dices on evaluation methodology, project impact on CATIE,
and CATIE's production data are included, as are reports on
Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica.


037


PN-AAP-097
MF $2.16/PC $16.64


Agricultural research in Honduras
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program
for Agricultural Research; International Agricultural
Research Service; Honduras. Ministry of Natural
Resources
1978, viii, 83p. + 6 appendices : En
Measures to strengthen the Honduran National Program for
Agricultural Research (PNIA) are suggested, based on a review
of agriculture's role in the Honduran economy and an assess-
ment of the existing PNIA program.
The authors found that PNIA was characterized by: (1) a
program largely restricted to station-based varietal testing and
agronomy trials; (2) a network of research stations badly
needing improvement; (3) a serious shortage in trained man-
power; (4) productive but limited linkages with other foreign and
domestic research institutions; and (5) lack of administrative
control over the research budget. Suggestions for strengthen-
ing agricultural research focus on: reorganization of PNIA into
three levels headquarters, central unit, and regional units, the
latter comprised of both farming systems teams and station-
based teams; inclusion of an extensionist on each farming
systems team; full PNIA control over its research budget; a
substantial increase in technical personnel as well as inservice
and advanced degree training requirements; and increased and
strengthened relations with other research and development
institutions. Implementation and funding of these changes are
discussed. Appendices include budgetary and staffing data and
a report on animal production and research.


Vol. I, 1984


038


PN-AAP-096
MF $1.08/PC $3.90


Guia metodologica para conduccion de
ensayos de finca (Guide to methodology for
conducting farm research trials)
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program
for Agricultural Research
1979, 22p. + annex : Es
The current (1979) Honduran National Development Plan
places top priority on the traditional small and medium farmers
who together produce at least 70% of the country's grain.
Experience has shown that research in traditional, as distinct
from modern, commercial agriculture, must take into account
ecological, economic, and technological conditions, as well as
limits and possibilities and hence is preferably conducted on-
farm rather than at experimental stations. This manual provides
a methodological guide for conducting on-farm trials. After an
introductory section on problem identification, treatment is
given in turn to choice of location, arranging the experiment,
site characterization, and data needs at each stage of the
farming process. Included are two appendices, one on evaluat-
ing weeds, the other on evaluating insects and leaf disease
affecting beans, corn, and sorghum.


039


PN-AAB-810
MF $6.48/PC $72.41


International workshop on farming systems
(proceedings)
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Farming Systems, Hyderabad, IN,
1974)
1974, 556p. : En
AID/TA-G-1073
* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324
Nearly every aspect of farming in the semi-arid tropics was
examined at the workshop, and it was felt that only through the
dissemination of information and an integrated systems ap-
proach can farming problems be remedied. Toward that end,
this report includes the papers presented at the workshop and
the discussions following each major group of topics. The first
group, Committee I, covered those subjects related to resource
assessment and utilization of research on farming systems in
the semi-arid tropics. Major attention was given to land, soil,
water, climate, and manpower resources for improving produc-
tion under the rainfed conditions in this seasonally dry area.
Committee II examined the crops and cropping systems re-
search needs for the semi-arid tropics, and Committee III
discussed the socioeconomic problems related to farming
systems research in this area. Finally, Committee IV explored
the question of research at cooperating centers and transfer of
technology. The group evaluated various ways for the interna-
tional institutes to play a productive role in the generation of
location-specific technology and its transfer to the different
agro-climatic and soil regions in the semi-arid tropics.





11


039









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


040


PN-AAJ-522 041
MF $5.40/PC $55.38


Proceedings of the international workshop on
socioeconomic constraints to development of
semi-arid tropical agriculture
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Socioeconomic Constraints to
Development of Semi-arid Tropical Agriculture,
Hyderabad, IN, 1979)
1979, x, 435p. : En
9310786
AID/TA-G-1406
ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324
New technologies cannot be disseminated in developing
countries without an understanding of local socioeconomic
conditions. Such is the view adopted by the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in
sponsoring the International Workshop on Socioeconomic
Constraints to Development of Semi-Arid Tropical Agriculture,
held February 19-23,1979 in Hyderabad, India, the proceedings
of which are presented in this report. The Workshop's primary
aim was to consider ways and means of overcoming the
various socioeconomic constraints to agricultural development
in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) and emphasis was focused on
the role new technologies and/or policies could play in alleviat-
ing development constraints in SAT. The subject matter ses-
sions addressed the analysis of existing farming systems and
practices, socioeconomics of prospective technologies, field
assessment of prospective technologies, issues in foodgrain
marketing, the nature and significance of risk, rural labor
markets, and the economics of improved animal-drawn imple-
ments and mechanization. Among the important observations,
it was noted that larger farmers were earlier and more frequent
adopters of new technology and that lack of capital is a major
constraint to adoption. Research indicates that the sum total of
current agricultural policies reduces farm income so that the
incentive for increasing cereal production is probably nil. One
common recommendation emerging from all sessions was the
need to improve the methodological and empirical bases on
which policy judgements are made. There is a particular need
for data on the importance of risk and uncertainty in determin-
ing farmer behavior in SAT regions as well as on labor
bottlenecks and on the degree to which new technology
constrains labor and affects wage rates. It was also recom-
mended that greater emphasis be placed on understanding the
nature of consumer preferences and that policy initiatives in
foodgrain marketing consider the economic policies of SAT
countries as well as the political situation of both donor and
host government agencies. Appended are texts of papers
presented in French and lists of country papers and of work-
shop participants and observers.


PN-AAJ-526
MF $1.08/PC $10.01


Planning technologies appropriate to farmers:
concepts and procedures
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
1980, 77p. : En
936411101
AID/DSAN-G-0216
* Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo,
Apdo. Postal 6-641, Londres 40, Mexico 6, DF, Mexico
A key reason preventing farmers in developing countries
from adopting fully the technologies recommended to them by
researchers and extensionists is the inappropriateness of the
technologies themselves. This manual was prepared to present
procedures and guidelines to assist agricultural researchers in
formulating technologies truly appropriate to farmer needs and
is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of a
research program aimed at developing appropriate technolo-
gies. Included are descriptions of on-farm and experimental
station research the key research procedures involved and
the government policy context in which research must occur. It
is emphasized that successful research must proceed from
knowledge of the farmer's circumstances, that is, the factors,
both natural (e.g., climate and soils) and socioeconomic (e.g.,
farmers' goals, markets, national policy) that affect farmers'
decisions on crop technologies. Part II describes procedures
for obtaining information on these circumstances, with stress
laid on the need to make the process a true collaboration
between researchers and farmers. Specific procedures de-
tailed are: gathering and analyzing pertinent background data
from government and research reports; conducting an explora-
tory survey, that is, informal interviews with farmers and other
knowledgeable individuals; and conducting a formal survey or
questionnaire. Individual chapters discuss questionnaire devel-
opment, sampling methods, and practical ways to make the
survey truly collaborative. In Part III, methods are discussed for
gleaning from survey results the information pertinent to plan-
ning crop research. In particular, the authors present guidelines
for prescreening a few two or three at most are recom-
mended "best-bet" technologies for research. A final chapter
exemplifies use of these guidelines in two on-farm programs
and one on-station program. The authors note that those who
think researchers should only go to farmers with finished
technologies for demonstration will find this manual less useful
than those who support on-farm research. Graphs, charts, and
a 25-item glossary of terms are included. Short bibliographies
are appended to each chapter.


042


PN-AAG-866
MF $5.40/PC $56.42


Proceedings of the symposium on cropping
systems research and development for the
Asian rice farmer, IRRI, Los Banos,
Philippines, 1976
International Rice Research Institute
(Symposium on Cropping Systems Research and
Development for the Asian Rice Farmer, Los Banos, PH,
1976)
1977, 416p.: En
Funded in part by A.I.D. under CGIAR grant
* IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manilla, Philippines


VoL I, 1984


042









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Contains 25 papers and additional discussions from a
symposium on cropping systems and development for the
Asian rice farmer. The papers present strategies for planning
and implementing cropping systems research programs to
increase farm income and improve the quality of farm life.
Cropping systems research focuses on efforts to increase crop
yields, but also concerns itself with the number of crops grown
each year, with the goal of increasing food production. The
papers are organized into these categories: framework for
cropping systems research and development for the Asian rice
farmer; physical aspects of cropping pattern design; economics
of cropping systems; testing of cropping patterns; component
technology including weed science, insect-pest management,
and varietal requirements; and cropping systems approach to
adaptive research and to production programs.


PN-AAN-023
MF $1.08/PC $5.20


Limiting factor economic evaluation of
cropping systems
Johnston, T.D.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program
of Annual Cultivation
1978, viii, 31p. : En, Es
The cropping systems most likely to improve farm family
income are those which identify that resource which most limits
per ha yields. Since different types of small farmers need
different kinds of farming and cropping systems, such informa-
tion requires a thorough study of the resources, cropping
systems, and farming systems of particular groups of farmers
and of the social, cultural, agroclimatic, or marketing con-
straints which dictate the use or avoidance of particular
cropping systems. While researchers cannot, of course, devel-
op a system for each farmer, farmer groups can be identified by
differences in goals, farming systems, resource mixes, agrocli-
matic characteristics, etc. Awareness of these differences will
enable researchers to design improved systems which make
more efficient use of each group's most limiting resource and
which thus stand a much better chance of being adopted.
In this study, the methodology for conducting such a limited
factor analysis of a small farm is described and exemplified
from a study in Costa Rica. Charts measuring total inputs and
prices against outputs for each of five cropping systems
demonstrate which system produces the highest income for a
particular limited resource. (Author abstract, modified)


044


PN-AAG-025
MF $1.08/PC $9.23


Polyculture cropping systems; review and
analysis
Kass, D.C.
Cornell University
Cornell international agriculture bulletin, no.32, 1978, 72p.:
En
9311194
AID/TA-C-1441
An analysis of the literature indicates that polyculture, or
growing two or more useful plants simultaneously in the same
area, is generally beneficial. The choice of crops and other
environmental variables will determine to a large extent wheth-


er the practice is advantageous in specific situations. In terms
of withdrawal of nutrients from the soil, economic return,
improvement of the nitrogen status of the soil-plant system
when one of the crops is a legume, and greater stability of
yields over time, the benefits of polyculture are clear. With
regard to ease of harvest and other mechanized operations,
polyculture offers some problems but recent research aimed at
reducing these difficulties has been surprisingly successful.
Certain species and combinations of species appear to perform
more successfully in polyculture than do others. Associations
of cotton, groundnuts, and maize-legume combinations are
commonly used and it is the price relationships of these
combinations, rather than the cropping systems themselves,
which appear to be the determining factors. The effects of
climatic change on polyculture have been well documented,
primarily with respect to wet and dry seasons in the tropics
rather than year to year variability in the same cropping season.
The fact that nutritional requirements and physiology of varie-
ties within a single species may vary more than those of
different species has been described in the literature of polycul-
ture. Suggestions for further research are summarized.


045


* PN-AAP-575
PC $4.55


Overview of mechanization problems in a
developing country with special reference to
Nigeria
Kaul, R.N.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers
(American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Summer
Meeting, 1982, Madison, WI, 27-30 Jun 1982)
ASAE paper, no.82-5001, Jun 1982, 35p. : En
* Microfiche not available paper copy only
Farm mechanization problems that occur when developing
countries import agricultural machinery are analyzed in this
-paper, which focuses on problems in Nigeria.
Following background information on the role of farm equip-
ment in general and on different sources of power (manual,
animal, and tractor power), the author identifies and discusses
four problems associated with importation of agricultural ma-
chinery: focus on larger units which often are not economical;
lack of appreciation of local cropping systems and of negative
effects on women (who must increase their labor in order to
harvest and process increased crop outputs); poor perform-
ance of imported equipment; and failure to encourage local
development and manufacture of equipment. Findings from
Nigerian field trials concerning operational constraints on trac-
tors and the performance of crop protection and harvesting
equipment are presented. The author concludes that farming
systems must be balanced in the technologies they employ;
exporters of agricultural machinery should invest in research to
modify their product to suit developing country situations. A 27-
item bibliography (1962-82) is appended.


Vol. 1, 1984


043









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


046


PN-AAB-723
MF $3.24/PC $28.99


Field data collection in the social sciences,
experiences in Africa and the Middle East
Kearl, B.E.
Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
(Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences,
Beirut, LB)
1976, 221p. : En
French edition: PN-AAC-817
9310887
AID/CSD-2813
* Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA
A discussion of research methods practical field proce-
dures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social
scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered
include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and recon-
naissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling;
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using
data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific varia-
bles; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enu-
merators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9)
interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning coopera-
tion of respondents; and (11) preceding, and preliminary steps
in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication
is intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution
rather than a comprehensive reference or text.


048


PN-AAP-660
MF $1.08/PC $6.37


Basis for planning an adaptive research
programme on rice for small farmers in Kyela
Kirway, T.N.
Uyole Agricultural Centre
Uyole Agricultural Centre research report, no.36, Jun 1982,
vi, 42p. : En
Small farm management in Kyela Plain, Tanzania, is the
subject of this study, which was based on interviews with
farmers and village leaders and conducted to provide a knowl-
edge base for farming systems research in the area.
Farming circumstances in Kyela natural, economic, and
institutional are described first, followed by a discussion of
farmers' objectives (primarily subsistence), priorities (staple
foods, such as rice, maize, and bananas), and available re-
sources (land, labor, and capital). Findings in these areas are
then related to farm management practices cropping patterns
and the crop calendar, soil fertility maintenance, and means of
dealing with specific resource limitations such as seasonal
labor shortages. The next section identifies hazards faced by
farmers (floods, delayed rains, pests and disease) and their
strategies for dealing with them, e.g., use of cassava and sweet
potatoes as insurance crops, multiple plantings of major crops,
and early planting. Finally, suggestions are presented for
resolving the labor bottleneck, introducing new cash crops, and
improving rice management. Appended is a 10-item bibliogra-
phy (1952-79).


047


PN-AAQ-008
MF $1.08/PC $6.37


Demonstrations of an interdisciplinary farming
systems approach to planning adaptive
agricultural research programmes
Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture; Egerton College. Department
of Economics; International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center
Apr 1977, iii, 41p. : En Report no. 1
A 1976 project to demonstrate the use of an interdisciplinary
farming systems approach in planning adaptive agricultural
research in Kenya's Siaya District was the initial effort of the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's (CIM-
MYT) Regional Programme in Economics for Eastern Africa.
Results of that planning project are herein presented.
After providing background information on the CIMMYT
program and on procedures to be employed in interdisciplinary
research planning, the report examines farmer circumstances
in the Siaya District, taking into account the area's climatic and
soil conditions, off-farm economic conditions, and land, labor,
capital, and farm management factors. Next, the objectives and
priorities of Siaya farmers (mainly, reliable food supplies) and
the farming system and its development are analyzed, and the
importance of deciding on the future of livestock operations is
noted. A 5-year maize research program, based on an analysis
of key farming systems components (varieties, use of pur-
chased inputs, method of and time of planting, thinning and
weeding), is outlined for Siaya areas receiving less than 1,500
mm annual rainfall. Comments on possible improvements in
the sequence of research procedures in the Kenya context
conclude the report.


049


PN-AAP-103
MF $1.08/PC $4.68


Screening crop innovations in a whole-farm
framework
Labadan, E.; Bantilan, C.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
13 Dec 1980, 26p. + appendices: En
Although researchers frequently use the farmer's field as
the unit of analysis when evaluating crop innovations, since
methodologies for this are readily available, farmers normally
judge new cropping patterns on the basis of their total farm-
household operation. This report presents an example of
whole-farm analysis of alternatives for new cropping systems
at a site in Cagayan Valley in the Philippines.
The new cropping patterns are evaluated for bio-technical
feasibility, profitability, and compatibility with the farming sys-
tem and with the community's socioeconomic infrastructure.
The research site and a 3-component farm planning linear
programming model are described. The components include an
objective function (farmers' goals), a set of alternative activities
(e.g., crop and livestock production), and a set of constraints
(e.g., land, labor, and power availability). Three classes of
innovations are considered: alternative cropping patterns/tech-
nology, institutional credit, and irrigation.
It is concluded that while whole-farm analysis via linear
programming offers considerable analytical power, its field use
is limited by its reliance on computers; simpler analysis meth-
ods must be sought for use at cropping systems sites. In the
example cited, four typical weather occurrences (2 floods, a
drought, and a typhoon) affected the analysis. Future planning
models should account for environmental realities; a sequen-
tially oriented decision model is recommended. A 27-item
bibliography (1961-80) is appended.


Vol I, 1984


049









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


050


PN-AAP-542
MF $4.32/PC $38.48


Traditional African farming systems in Eastern
Nigeria: an analysis of reaction to increasing
population pressure
Lagemann, Johannes
IFO Institute for Economic Research
Afrika-studien, no.98, 1977, xvii, 269p. + attachment: En
* IFO-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Poschingerstrasse 5,
8000 Munich 86, Federal Republic of Germany
To examine changes in land use and farm production as
population pressures increase, this study uses data from three
Eastern Nigerian villages with markedly differing population
densities.
The first section provides a historical review of land use
systems in Eastern Nigeria and discusses emerging problems
related to population growth. The second, treating farm and
household as a unit, analyzes how root crop/oil palm farming
systems have changed in relation to changes in land resources.
Subsections cover: the resource base; the organization of land
use; soil fertility; crop production; yield relationships; the live-
stock economy; the labor economy; and economic returns and
the use of cash income. The analysis shows that farmers react
to declining soil fertility and yields by concentrating production
on small compounds around the house which receive mulch
and manure from household refuse, outlying fields, and land
under fallow, and thus have a much higher yield than do
extensively used fields. Another finding is that off-farm income
increases with population growth. The third and final section
assesses a number of proposed strategies for increasing
productivity, including: combining upland tree cropping with
arable crops; producing wet rice in valley bottoms; and
developing a multistoried cropping system near houses. De-
tailed data and a case study are provided in 13 appendices and
a 19-page bibliography (1910-76) is included.


The author concludes that since irrigated rice farming
requires extensive capital investment, support to rainfed
cropping is indicated when the target is a rapid increase in
production. Included are 9 appendices providing additional
detail and a 17-page bibliography (1935-77), citing works in
French, German, and English.


052


PN-AAP-902
MF $2.16/PC $19.76


Report of a meeting of Asian rice-based
cropping systems entomologists
Litsinger, J.A.
International Rice Research Institute
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, Bogor, ID,
18-22 May 1981)
22 May 1981, 151p. : En
* IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The proceedings of a meeting of entomologists from six
countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka,
Bangladesh), this report focuses on methodological issues
pertinent to insect control research in rice-based cropping
systems.
Presented first is a summary of issues discussed at the
meeting, which describes in detail methodologies for develop-
ing insect control recommendations and testing various
technologies, discusses organizational aspects of cropping
systems research, and concludes by recommending establish-
ment of a collaborative project to evaluate the performance of
economic thresholds as a basis for insecticide applications.
Next, status reports on national programs for entomological
cropping systems research in Thailand, Bangladesh, and In-
donesia are provided, followed by a paper on farmers' pest
control practices at three locations in Yogyakarta Province,
Indonesia. A final paper presents a compilation of data sets
derived from cropping systems sites in three Philippines prov-
inces.


051


PN-AAP-691
MF $3.24/PC $33.28


Economics of rainfed rice cultivation in West
Africa: the case of the Ivory Coast
Lang, Harald; Kuhnen, Frithjof
Socio-economic studies on rural development, no.35, 1979,
xiii, 236p. : Bibliography, p.219-236, En
Although rice may be grown in West Africa as either an
upland rainfed crop or a lowland irrigated crop, development
efforts have emphasized irrigated rice production. This study,
focusing on the Ivory Coast, investigates the conditions under
which rainfed cultivation in permanent arable farming or ley
systems may be more profitable for farmers and feasible on a
macroeconomic level.
First, using data from other West African countries, the
economics of rainfed rice cultivation at the farm level is
analyzed for various cropping methods and different levels of
farm mechanization. Two case studies from the Ivory Coast are
then presented, examining, respectively, the profitability of
traditional and semi-mechanized upland rice production under
favorable climatic conditions in the West Ivory Coast and under
unfavorable conditions in the Central part of the country.
Following this, rainfed and irrigated rice production are com-
pared from a macroeconomic point of view.


053


PN-AAJ-081
MF $1.08/PC $4.03


Methodology for determining insect control
recommendations
Litsinger, J.A.; Lumaban, M.D.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
IRRI research paper series, no.46, 1980, 31p. : En
936411102
AID/DSAN-G-0083
A cropping systems approach has recently emerged as an
effective means of improving insect control a task which,
because of its complexity, high demand on resources, and
location-specific nature, has impeded past efforts to produce
on-farm yields comparable to those obtained at research
stations. This report explains the role of cropping systems
research in insect pest control and outlines a methodology for
determining insect control recommendations.
Cropping systems research entails specifying a given insect
pest control technology by taking into account the cropping
patterns of individual farmers, the geographical and temporal
distribution of pests, environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall,
soil type, landform), cultural practices (e.g., planting, irrigation,
and insecticide application methods), farmers' capabilities


Vol. 1, 1984


052









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


(e.g., resources, beliefs, and customs), and a crop's inherent
yield potential. A four-part methodology for using cropping
systems data, developed in accordance with the requirements
of the Asian Cropping Systems Network of research sites, is
presented. The initial stage, description, entails gathering base-
line economic and biological data on pests known to farmers,
the level of pest control needed, the current status of insect
control, and the kinds and levels of technology farmers are
willing to adopt. Next, several tentative insect control technolo-
gy packages compatible with farmers' resources and capabili-
ties are designed. These packages consist of specific insect
pest control recommendations i.e., lists of insects and the
insecticides effective against them, resistant varieties, and
cultural control methods pertaining to the entire spectrum of
pest problems for each crop within the target area. These
alternative packages are then tested for several years at each
site. Finally, the costs and returns of the alternative packages
are evaluated. The above method, in the authors' opinion, will
allow the development of optimal insect control recommenda-
tions within 2-3 years, is highly objective, is not costly, and can
be carried out by researchers with minimal experience. A 21-
item bibliography (1976-79) is appended.


054 PN-AAP-981
MF $1.08/PC $7.41
Economic returns to institutional innovations
in national agricultural research: on-farm
research in IDIAP, Panama
Martinez, Juan Carlos; Sain, Gustavo
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.04/83, Apr
1983, 53p. : En
The level and speed of farmer adoption of technologies
generated in an on-farm research program undertaken by
Panama's Institute of Agricultural Research (IDIAP) in the
country's Caisan area are used in this report as a means of
assessing the cost-efficiency of the research methodologies
employed in the project.
After a lengthy description of the evaluation methodology,
results are discussed with regard to the adoption of technologi-
cal alternatives; the annual flow of net benefits due to the new
technology (including yield increases and net benefits per unit
of land); and the annual flow of research costs. The benefit-
cost ratio and the social rate of return of the research method-
ologies are then calculated.
Results, which confirm the cost-efficiency of IDIAP's on-
farm methodologies as compared to traditional research sta-
tion methods, show that the lowest rates of return generated by
the on-farm research methodology were 118% and 155%
(depending on the pricing scenario adopted), a figure increas-
ing to between 194% and 255% in the most likely case of a
new flow of social benefits lasting until 1990.
Fourteen tables and a 35-item bibliography (1953-83) are
included.


055


PN-AAP-230
MF $1.08/PC $4.68


Interaction between cultivation and livestock
production in semi-arid Africa
McCown, R.L.; Haaland, G.; De Haan, C.
Ecological studies, v.34, 1979, p.297-332 : En


Low crop yields and a high risk of crop failure have
traditionally led farmers in semiarid Africa to rely on domestic
grazing animals to supplement their food supply. This paper
identifies different types of linkages between cultivation and
livestock production and considers the conditions under which
each linkage is expected to occur.
Two types of linkages are distinguished those that obtain
when agricultural and livestock production are separated (eco-
logical, competitive, and exchange linkages) and those that
obtain when the two are integrated (investment, food, manure,
draft, and fodder linkages). Patterns of cropping/livestock
production linkages are examined in eight summer rainfall,
semiarid African zones (Western Senegal, Bambara and Gour-
ma of Mali, Mossi in Upper Volta, Hausaland in Niger and
Nigeria, Bokoro of Mali, Western Darfur in Chad and Sudan,
Harar in Ethiopia). Finally, evolutionary trends are discussed to
consider what linkages are likely to emerge under different
ecological, political, and economic conditions. Appended is a
43-item bibliography (1939-75).


056


PN-AAJ-178
MF $1.08/PC $7.28


Guatemala: development of the Institute of
Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA)
and its impact on agricultural research and
farm productivity
McDermott, James K.; Bathrick, David D.
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation
A.I.D. project impact evaluation report, no.30, Feb 1982, xiii,
14p. + 5 appendices : En
5200232
In 1975 A.I.D. initiated a project to increase the production
and nutritive quality of basic crops in Guatemala and to develop
the capability of the Institute for Agricultural Science and
Technology (ICTA) to generate and promote the use of im-
proved small farm technology. This report describes the proj-
ect's setting and activities, outlines its impact, and summarizes
its lessons.
Under the ICTA system, new farm-tested seed varieties and
cultural practices acceptable to small farmers were developed
for maize, beans, and sorghum and led to increased yields and
development of a thriving private seed industry. In addition,
ICTA staff increased both quantitatively and qualitatively (al-
though rigid government salary schedules have led to a high
attrition rate among the 10 Guatemalans who received ad-
vanced degrees, threatening ICTA's future progress); benefited
from expatriate help in its research work and organizational
growth; and received dramatic increases in financial support
from the government. ICTA has come to represent a new and
innovative model for agricultural research and is now working
to share its approach with DIGESA, the Ministry of Agriculture's
extension service.
Project experience taught: the benefit of an unconventional
approach to generating acceptable small farmer technologies;
the importance of sustained USAID/G involvement and of
investing simultaneously in human, institutional, and technolog-
ical resources; A.I.D.'s potential for developing agricultural
institutions, its comparative advantage in institution-building
projects, and the need in such projects to provide for an
institution's support after the project ceases; the productivity of
ICTA's linkages to international and U.S. agricultural research
centers; the importance of coordinating technology and sociol-


VoL 1, 1984









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


ogy in small farmer research projects; and the need for special
financial incentives to retain ICTA's advanced degree scien-
tists, special feedback information systems to test technology
results, and flexibility in project implementation.
Appendices treat the evaluation methodology, ICTA's ap-
proach to technology development and farmer acceptance of
it, the role of improved seed, and ICTA's institutional develop-
ment.


057


PN-AAP-517
MF $1.08/PC $9.88


has not matched potential due to the unavailability of water in
partially irrigated areas and the need for additional power for
planting, weeding, and harvesting. The need for a more or-
ganized and concentrated production program is also in-
dicated. In Lampung, good rainfall and distribution make year
round crop production possible despite low inherent soil fertili-
ty, drainage problems, and low pH; limited sources of power
and of markets are currently the main production constraints.
A concluding sketch of future activities notes that CRIA
efforts will focus on developing rainfed agriculture, in particular
on introducing alternative power sources such as animals and
mechanization.


Integrated crop and animal production: making
the most of resources available to small farms
in developing countries
McDowell, Robert E.; Hildebrand, Peter E.
Rockefeller Foundation; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Development Support. Office of
Agriculture
(Bellagio Conference, 18-23 Oct 1978)
Jan 1980, 78p.: En
Training institutions and government agencies need to
become more aware of the integral and essential role played by
animals in small farm systems. So concluded participants at a
10/78 international conference hosted by the Rockefeller
Foundation, working papers from which are herein presented.
An initial paper provides a conceptual framework of the
different types of farming systems in the developing world (by
animal species, dominant crop, main feed resources) as an aid
to understanding various crop-livestock relationships. More
specific information is given in a paper describing levels of
crop-livestock integration within selected systems in Asia,
Latin America, and Africa. Each system is discussed in terms of
the region's physical features, crops and cropping systems,
and the current and possible expanded role of livestock. A case
study of a small farm in the western highlands of Guatemala
leads to a review of the kinds of problems which have inhibited
integrated development of crop and livestock technology: lack
of a holistic view; the dominance of Western models of farm
systems; emphasis on large-scale farms and productivity; and
professional biases (e.g., single commodity stress). Summary
conclusions and recommendations conclude the report.


058


PN-AAP-102
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Cropping systems research activities in
Indonesia
Mclntosh, J.L.; Effendi, Suryatna
International Rice Research Institute; Central Research
Institute for Agriculture
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, Los Banos, PH,
2-5 Oct 1978)
5 Oct 1978, 14p. : En
Cropping systems research conducted 1973-1978 under
the aegis of the Central Research Institute for Agriculture
(CRIA) in two rice-producing regions of Indonesia Indramayu,
an irrigated lowland area, and Central Lampung, a rainfed
upland area is profiled.
The Indramayu region, it was found, shows potential for two
rice crops plus a supplementary legume crop (preferably
soybean) to maintain good soil fertility. Production, however,

Vol. I, 1984


059


PN-AAP-365
MF $1.08/PC $6.63


Prospects for small farm goat production in a
transmigration area of Indonesia: results of a
survey
Mink, Stephen
Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania; Princeton University.
Wilson (Woodrow) School of Public and International
Affairs; Winrock International. Livestock Research and
Training Center; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Asia. Indonesia

Jan 1983, iv, 46p. : En
AID/DSAN/XII-G-0049
Goat husbandry practices were surveyed in two villages with
different agricultural settings in the Way Abung II transmigration
project in the Northern Lampung Province of Sumatra, In-
donesia, in order to determine the potential for goat production
intensification programs in these areas. Results of the survey
are presented.
After briefly recounting the history of the area, the report
describes the agricultural setting; husbandry of goats, cattle,
and chickens; labor use by farm families; crop, livestock, and
input markets; and formal and informal credit sources.
The survey revealed that although Way Abung farmers
clearly prefer to raise cattle, profitability and especially higher
fertility and lower mortality portend a considerable potential for
increasing goat production. Constraints to realizing this poten-
tial poverty and lack of cash resources should be removed
in the next several years as a result of clove, fruit tree, and
rubber plantation production. Currently, however, vaccinating
poultry against Newcastle Disease and increasing the use of
cattle in the slack agricultural season are more appropriate
than are goat projects in the livestock sector. Goat projects
relating to male and female breeding stock and production
credit might be initiated. If so, they should include research
aimed at increasing high quality fodder on small farms.


n0Rn


PN-AAP-312
MF $1.08/PC $5.46


Algunos sistemas de production de cultivos
anuales de pequenos agricultores en el istmo
centroamericano (Various systems of
production of annual crops by small farmers
in Central America)
Moreno, Raul A.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1979, v, 37p. : Es
17


057


059


058


nA0









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


For subsistence farmers, physical and biological factors are
most important in determining the production system (i.e.,
cropping pattern) to be used. This report describes the produc-
tion systems best suited to the various climatic conditions in
Central America.
Precipitation is seen as the most important factor in deter-
mining crop combinations in the region. Cropping patterns are
outlined first for the humid tropics: for regions without a dry
season, those with a short drier period, and those with an
identifiable dry season. Similarly, cropping patterns are outlined
for "humid dry" regions, those with greater fluctuations in
rainfall. In general, small farmers can grow corn, rice, and
cassava in the most humid regions, corn and beans under
intermediate rainfall, and corn and sorghum in the driest
regions. For each region, the sequence of farmers' activities is
outlined by calendar dates.


061 PN-AAM-528
MF $1.08/PC $4.29
Farming system research approach for small
farms of Central America
Moreno, Raul A.; Saunders, Joseph L.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program
of Annual Cultivation
1978, 30p. : En
Three integrated farming systems research projects being
conducted by the Institute for Tropical Resources (CATIE) to
relieve the production constraints facing Central American
small farmers are described.
The report first outlines the goals, strategy, and methodolo-
gy of CATIE's small farmers' cropping systems research proj-
ect, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of technologi-
cal alternatives. Project experiments include testing water and
soil conservation practices in El Salvador and Nicaragua and
using velvet bean as a cover crop in lowland areas.
Similar information is given for the other two projects one
aimed at using crop byproducts to develop an integrated small
farm crop-cattle (milk and beef) production system, and one
designed to counteract deforestation by developing alternative
production systems that combine agricultural and tree crops,
forest plants, and animals. Experiments for the first of these
projects include using maize-bean combinations and sweet
potatoes as cattle food sources; for the second, simultaneous
planting of trees with annual crops and interplanting maize and
common beans between rows of fast-growing tree species. A
brief note on integrating and extrapolating from research re-
sults concludes the report.


062


* PN-AAN-890


MF $1.08/PC $3.77
Creating an on-farm research program in
Ecuador: the case of INIAP's production
research program
Moscardi, Edgardo; Cardoso, Victor H.; et al.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.01/83, Jan
1983, 28p. : En
* International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico


Showing the utility of on-farm research while presenting a
model for the administration and organization of such research
within a larger program, this report describes the evolution of a
new research entity, the Production on Investigation Program
(PIP), within Ecuador's National Institute for Agricultural Re-
search (INIAP).
In 1976 INIAP added to experiment station research and
regional trials on large farms a third research level, centered
directly at the farm level, in order to develop and verify
technologies appropriate for the mass of small farmers produc-
ing basic foods, such as corn, which had declining or static
yields. The essential elements of the research process which
emerged, described in detail in this paper, were: (1) delineation
of recommendation domains; (2) use of exploratory surveys to
identify key farming improvements needed (early maturing
varieties, fertilizing, and weed and insect control); (3) on-farm
variety, multiple-factor, fertilizer-level, and verification trials;
and (4) adjustment of subsequent on-farm and on-station
experimentation in terms of findings. PIP, established in 1979
as a means of institutionalizing the on-farm program, is charac-
terized by personnel especially trained in on-farm research
living on-site and by strong coordination with other INIAP
programs and with extensionists.


063


PN-AAP-104
MF $1.08/PC $4.03


Farming systems in St. Lucia: an
anthropological perspective
Narendran, Vasantha
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
13 May 1981, 18p. + attachments: En
5380015
Small farmers in St. Lucia employ a heterogeneity of
cropping patterns and technologies including multiple
cropping and polyculture, in which four to six crops are planted
in vertical and/or horizontal combinations. Using data from an
island-wide sample of 31 farmers, this report examines St
Lucia's small farming systems with respect to land tenure,
farmer classification, and climate.
First, the island's system of land tenure is analyzed, and it is
shown how tenural arrangements family land, annual leasing,
freeholding, or sharecropping are maximally manipulated by
the farming household. It is noted that the various land tenure
arrangements have evolved due to limited alternatives and
scarce resources (e.g., farm labor, capital, inputs, and farm
management) and that fragmentation of land is not as severe a
problem as in other developing countries. Next, St Lucia's
system of farm agriculture and differences in level of farming by
category of farmer (e.g., commercial, semi-commercial) are
assessed. Crop differences by climatic zone are described;
while various cropping patterns are identified, it is noted that
each farmer in the sample seems to have developed his/her
own unique system. A concluding section identifies key con-
straints on increased food production.


Vol. 194









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


064


* PN-AAP-414
PC $2.86


CATIE's small farmers oriented agricultural
research effort in the Central American
Isthmus
Navarro, Luis A.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Development Support. Office of Agriculture
(Consultation Meeting on Natural Resources Management for
Food and Agricultural Production through Farming
Systems adapted to Ecological and Socio-economic
Conditions of Small Farmers in the Caribbean Region,
Kingston, JA, Jun 1980)
Jun 1980, 22p. : En
5960064
* Microfiche not available
CATIE's small farm research program in Central America -
called the Annual Crops Program is described. After outlining
CATIE's mandate, goals, and action framework, the report
discusses the four stages of the program's research methodol-
ogy description of the current farming system, design and
testing of new technology, validation of the most promising
technologies, and extension of those found optimal. Initial and
yearly activities of the research team are briefly recounted, and
the benefits of multidisciplinary research and of institutional
interaction and cooperation discussed. Findings and results of
the Annual Crops Program are presented, showing changes in
technical and economic indices for on-farm cropping system
experiments in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Sal-
vador. The paper concludes with descriptions of other CATIE
research programs (e.g., the Cattle and Small Farm Animal
Program) and of the types of training CATIE provides.
A bibliography (1976-79) of 24 titles, 16 in Spanish, is
appended.


PN-AAK-475
MF $1.08/PC $4.55


Farming systems approach: relevancy for the
small farmer
Norman, David W.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Development Support. Office of Rural
Development and Development Administration
MSU rural development paper, no.5, 1980, vi, 26p. : En
French edition: PN-AAN-207
9311190
AID/TA-BMA-4
Farming systems research (FSR) is a "bottom-up" or farm-
level approach to the development of small farmer technolo-
gies. This paper defines the basic characteristics of FSR, gives
examples of successful FSR projects, and discusses problems
in implementing FSR.
Conventional agricultural technology development tries to
modify technical farming elements but ignores human factors.
FSR, on the other hand, recognizes and focuses on the
interrelationships between technical and human elements in a
farming system. Its primary aim is to increase productivity in a
way that is acceptable to the farming family. FSR gives the
small farmer, often for the first time, a voice in tailoring research


priorities. Farmers and multidisciplinary teams work together to
design, modify, and improve farming systems in a local area.
Although agricultural scientists for years have disdained
mixed cropping, an FSR project in northern Nigeria showed that
mixed cropping was an efficient strategy for farmers facing land
or labor constraints or uncertain weather. In northern Nigeria, a
FSR cotton project succeeded after farmers rejected a univer-
sity-designed cotton planting technology package because its
labor demands were incompatible with their farming systems.
An FSR project in Southeast Asia led to a dramatic increase in
cropping intensity in only 4 years while in Guatemala an FSR-
revised planting system increased farmers' income by 33%.
However, FSR is still in a developmental stage and faces
numerous problems, including the short supply of researchers
capable of understanding and working with small farmers in
developing countries; the lack of a standard methodology; and
the time demands and expense of its area-specific approach.
To overcome these problems, FSR should: expand its systems
approach to include marketing and off-farm enterprises;
strengthen links to extension agencies in order to reduce time
lags between recommendation and adoption of solutions; and
develop more widely applicable technology packages. Also, if a
working environment more favorable to FSR is to be created,
agricultural institutions and scientists will have to take a more
holistic approach and be more willing to interact with farmers
and extension workers. A list of 28 references (1972-79) is
provided.


066


PN-AAG-951
MF $2.16/PC $18.85


Technical change and the small farmer in
Hausaland, northern Nigeria
Norman, David W.; Pryor, D.H.; Gibbs, C.J.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics
African rural economy program: working paper, no.21, 1979,
141p. : En
6250926
AID/AFR-C-1260
As an indirect recipient of Ford Foundation grant funds in
1964 and of subsequent funding from the Ahmadu Bello
University, the Institute of Agricultural Research and Special
Services has undertaken a four-phase social science research
program to study the economics, profitability, improvement,
and implementation of small farming in Hausaland. Reporting
on only a small portion of this total program, this paper presents
a comparative analysis of the economics of traditional small-
farm agriculture in Sokoto, Zaria, and Bauchi, three areas in
Hausaland; assesses the profitability and relevance of im-
proved technological packages for cotton, sorghum, and
maize; and discusses the implications of the results for re-
search workers and policymakers in Hausaland and in the
Sahelian countries with a similar ecological base. Following a
very brief discussion of the farming system and of Hausaland
proper, the methodology for the selection of villages and farm
families for study is outlined. A description of the method of
data collection is also included in this section. So that study
results are presented in an orderly manner, the next three
sections concern traditional farming in the Hausa region, com-
parative analysis of traditional farming in the Sokoto, Zaria, and
Bauchi areas, and an analysis of improved technology pack-
ages in Daudawa village in the Zaria area. Traditional farming in
Hausa is discussed in terms of land, labor and labor concentra-


Vol. I, 1984


066


065









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


tions, capital, cash production costs, land and labor relation-
ships, cropping systems, and income. The following factors are
applied to the comparison of traditional farming in the three
study areas: effect of population density on farming; effect of
climate on farming; self-sufficiency and incomes among areas;
influence of cattle ownership; the changing family structure;
and influence of access to urban areas. The analysis of
improved technology packages is described by their compati-
bility with technical elements (land types, water), with endoge-
nous factors (return per unit of land, and return per unit of
labor), and with exogenous factors (market accessibility, credit,
fertilizer distribution). Finally, a section containing a summary
and implications for consideration by the policymaker includes
the concluding statement, which is also the premise of this
paper: that sound development of farming systems must build
upon, rather than destroy, the farmer's traditional techniques. A
reference list of 110 entries (1955-1978) and a table of the Gini
coefficient on distribution of land by village are appended to the
paper.


067 PN-AAP-478
MF $3.24/PC $37.57
Farming systems in the Nigerian Savanna:
research and strategies for development
Norman, David W.; Simmons, Emmy B.; Hays, Henry M.
1982, xxiv, 275p. : En
Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Presenting the case for a farming systems approach to
research in developing countries, this book considers the role
of new technology and appropriate development strategies in
improving agricultural production and the welfare of farming
families in the semiarid tropical region of West Africa. The
authors draw extensively on comprehensive studies they and
their associates conducted over an 11-year period in northern
Nigeria. Their discussion of these studies, which focused on
production, consumption, and marketing systems and included
the testing of improved technology packages, is supplemented
by results of research conducted in other parts of semiarid
West Africa. Emphasizing the importance of a proper under-
standing of the technical and human environment in which
farming families operate, they describe the essential charac-
teristics of a farming systems approach and consider methodo-
logical and implementation problems that must be solved if it is
to become a widely accepted development strategy in the
1980's.
Appended are a 20-page bibliography (1951-81) and au-
thor and subject indexes; 41 tables, 16 figures, and 3 maps
illustrate the text. (Author abstract, modified)


068 PN-AAP-377
MF $3.24/PC $37.05
Annual cropping systems in the tropics: an
introduction
Norman, M.J.
University of Florida
1979, x, 276p. : En
* University Presses of FL, 15 N. W. 15th St., Gainesville, FL
32603 USA


A short course was developed in 1971 at the University of
Sydney, Australia, on the basic biological and physical princi-
ples of tropical farming systems. This textbook was developed
from the course to serve as an introduction to annual cropping
systems, particularly in Africa and Asia.
A farming system is first described, with specific reference
to resource patterns and uses, farming system typology, and
tropical climates and soils. Next, background information on
hydrology, energy, biogeochemistry, and socioeconomics in
tropical farming systems is provided. These same four factors
are then discussed with reference to the following specific
types of annual cropping: shifting cultivation, semi-intensive
and intensive rainfed cultivation, and irrigated cultivation. Mixed
systems of annual and perennial crops are viewed from the
same aspects.
The final two chapters describe, respectively, the role of
livestock in annual cropping systems and the elements of
tropical farming systems research: its meaning, objectives, and
components. Included are evaluations of established farming
systems, of environments, and of the transfer of new technolo-
gy. References follow each chapter.


PN-AAP-977
MF $1.08/PC $11.31


Cropping systems and related research in
Africa
Okigbo, Bede N.
Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Sciences in
Africa
Occasional publication series OT, no. 1, Apr 1978, 81p.: En
Published information on African cropping systems and
related topics is synthesized in this report.
After describing Africa's physical characteristics, its farming
and cropping systems, and the crop combinations and spatial
arrangements in traditional African cropping systems, the au-
thor surveys cropping systems and practices in the countries of
West, Central, Southern, East, and North Africa. Research on
African intercropping systems is then reviewed and the advan-
tages and disadvantages of intercropping are summarized.
Guidelines for research on crop combinations, discussions of
its scope, and, briefly, of the need for standardized experimen-
tal techniques and terminology, conclude the report.
The text is illustrated with 44 charts, tables, and maps.
Appendices include lists of cropping system terms, classifica-
tions of African farming systems, and a bibliography of 105
items (1933-77).


PN-AAP-576
MF $1.08/PC $2.47


Nutritional criteria in plant breeding: technical
problems and constraints in relation to Sri
Lanka's plant breeding programme
Pain, Adam
University of East Anglia. School of Development Studies
UEA discussion paper, no.122, Feb 1983, 17p.: En
Plant breeding literature has largely been concerned with
analyzing the products of plant breeding and with redirecting
research from simple yield objectives to broader considerations
such as crop stability and disease and pest resistance, while for
the most part neglecting to examine the use of nutritional


Vol a 1984


069


070










BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


criteria to determine research priorities. This paper, using Sri
Lanka's plant breeding program as an example, explores
nutritional criteria for plant breeding, and, in particular, technical
problems that have frustrated breeders.
The Sri Lanka program shows that strategies for nutritional
improvement encompass far more than just concerns as to the
protein profiles of individual crop species and that issues such
as pricing policies, subsidies, and distribution mechanisms
should inform and direct nutritional programs. Moreover, the
fact that nutritionists have clearly stated that crop protein
values are not below safe levels for human intake should lead
plant breeders to refocus their attention toward carbohydrates
and toward the neglected area of improving the oil content of
food species. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that this is
taking place. Appended is a 23-item bibliography (1966-80).
(Author abstract, modified)


071


PN-AAE-446
MF $1.08/PC $7.28


From agronomic data to farmer
recommendations: an economics training
manual
Perrin, R.K.; Winkelmann, Donald L.; et al.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Information bulletin, no.27, 1976, 52p. : En
AID/TA-G-1083
The quality of recommendations that agronomists make to
farmers depends upon how carefully the agronomist has con-
sidered all of the factors relevant to the farmers' situation and
goals. Some of those factors may not be evident to the
agronomist. This manual shows agronomists how to develop
recommendations suited to the farmer's desire to increase his
average income, avoid risks, and, if possible, avoid investing in
additional capital equipment. A good farm recommendation can
be defined as a choice the farmer himself would make if he had
all of the agronomic information available to the agronomist.
Successful farm recommendations must be based on agro-
nomic data that fit the farmer's agronomic conditions or the
farmer will not obtain the predicted results. Because it is
impossible to conduct experiments on each farm and then
make recommendations tailored to each farm, the agronomist
must define a target group of farmers, conduct experiments
under conditions representative of their farms, and make
recommendations applicable to the entire group. This manual
assumes that farmers think in terms of net benefits as they
make decisions. Illustrative examples of this decision process
are discussed. The two main problems in evaluating agronomic
alternatives in terms of their net benefits are (1) estimating the
relative weights the farmers place on various kinds of goods,
and (2) estimating the effect of uncertainty on farmers' deci-
sions about net benefits. The process of deriving recommenda-
tions is discussed in detail.


072


PN-AAP-778
MF $1.08/PC $9.36


Proceedings: farming systems seminar-
workshop, March 16 -18, 1981, PCARR, Los
Banos, Laguna
Philippines. Ministry of Agriculture. National Science and
Technology Authority. Philippines Council for Agriculture
and Resources Research and Development.
(Farming Systems Seminar-Workshop, Los Banos, PH, 16-
18 Mar 1981)
1981, iii, 68p. : En
To develop a methodology for disseminating farming sys-
tems research (FSR) information to farmers on the use of
technology packages developed by research and agricultural
institutions, an FSR workshop was held in Los Banos, Philip-
pines in 3/81. The workshop's proceedings are presented in
this report.
The report provides, in whole or part, the text of eight
workshop papers on the following FSR topics: Central Luzon
State University's Technology Packaging Project and 1980-81
results of its integrated model farm; the cropping systems
approach employed in the Capiz settlement area; the Farm
Systems Development Corporation's experiences with irriga-
tion-based farming systems; results of the University of the
Philippines at Los Banos's Integrated Rural and Agricultural
Development Program; a review of FSR types and methodolo-
gies; the experiences of the Inter-Asia Cropping Systems
Network; and the Benchmark Soils Project conducted by the
Universities of Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Also included is a
workshop discussion of the role played by social scientists in
developing FSR technology and reports of workshop groups in
the areas of technology generation, verification, and dissemi-
nation.


073


PN-AAP-843
MF $4.32/PC $49.92


Vegetable farming systems in China: report of
the visit of the vegetable farming systems
delegation to China
Plucknett, Donald L.; Beemer, Halsey L. Jr.
Westview special studies in agricultural science and policy,
1981, xi, 386p. : En
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Agricultural modernization in mainland China has focused
on vegetable production, which is carried out largely by hand
and focuses on meeting the needs of city dwellers. This report
presents the findings of a U.S. agricultural team on vegetable
farming systems being used in China's northeast and southeast
regions, the country's two major suburban vegetable producing
areas.
Chapters in Part I treat vegetable production in terms of land
and water resources management, fertilizer (organic and inor-
ganic) production and use, vegetable cropping systems, envi-
ronmental control structures, plant protection, and weed con-
trol. In Part II, discussion is given to research and extension and
to three agricultural support services plant breeding pro-
grams, vegetable seed production and maintenance, and vege-
table storage and preservation. The final section focuses on
the planning, organization, price determination, and marketing
structure of China's urban vegetable supply.


Vol. 1, 1984









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Appended are a description of the institutions visited by the
team, a study of pig raising in China, and several tables of
supporting data.


074


PN-AAJ-280
MF $3.24/PC $34.45


Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming
systems
Pullin, S.V.; Shehadeh, Z.H.
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources
Management
(ICLARM-SEARCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture-
Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, PH, 6-9 Aug 1979)
1980, 265p. : En
ICLARM conference proceedings, no.4
9311050
AID/DSAN-G-0178
Although integrated agriculture aquaculture (IAA) farming
has been practiced in Asia for centuries and offers efficient
resource utilization, reduces risk by diversifying crops, and
provides additional food and income, reliable quantitative pro-
duction and management guidelines have yet to be produced
and disseminated for use as a basis for development programs.
This report on the proceedings of the Fourth International
Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management Conference
(ICLARM 4) addresses this need. The conference was held 6 -
9 August 1979 in Manila, Philippines and was co sponsored
by ICLARM and the Southeast Asian Regional Center for
Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. The conference's
goals were to: (1) provide an overview of current IAA farming
practices in selected Asian countries; (2) increase awareness
of IAA's ability to raise farm income; (3) review available
experience and technology; (4) discuss IAA's socioeconomic
aspects in order to identify research and development priori-
ties; and (5) encourage governments and international donors
to initiate IAA research and development projects. The report
consists of 24 papers, 10 of which review broad strategies,
techniques, and problems associated with IAA, such as
aquaculture in rice fields and irrigation systems; the role of
pesticides and health as constraining factors; and the use of
animal wastes in pond management. The other 13 papers were
presented as case studies on current IAA practices in Hong
Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, the
Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. A final paper highlights the
needs for research on both IAA farming systems in general and
on the major factors affecting IAA performance energy,
materials, space, time, and information. Many of the papers are
detailed studies, supported by charts, data, pictures, diagrams,
and maps; and most are referenced with bibliographies on
sources of information on IAA. A list of the authors and of the
conference participants is appended.


075


PN-AAP-648
MF $2.16/PC $21.45


Socioeconomic constraints to the production,
distribution and consumption of sorghum,
millet and cash crops in North Kordofan,
Sudan: aspects of agricultural production, the
household economy, and marketing
Reeves, Edward B.; Frankenberger, Timothy
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
Experiment Station; University of Kentucky. Department of
Sociology; University of Kentucky. Department of
Anthropology
Farming systems research in North Kordofan, Sudan: report,
no.2, Nov 1982, xi, 151p. : En
9311254
AID/DSAN-G-0149
Its goal to identify socioeconomic constraints impeding
agricultural production and marketing in the el-Obeid area of
Kordofan, Sudan by analyzing relationships between subsist-
ence (sorghum and millet) and cash (primarily groundnuts and
sesame) crops, this is the second of two farming systems
research reports written during the course of field investigation
in 15 villages.
Part I, on household economy and agricultural production,
presents detailed data on crops, land tenure and land use,
cultivation practices, and methods to reduce risk and labor
inputs, using findings from a preliminary survey of 40 farm
households in 3 villages. Part II, based on data on sellers,
buyers, and marketing channels collected at four marketing
centers of varying size and character, describes major aspects
of crop and livestock marketing. Part III is an analysis of the
main constraints to agriculture in the area (environmental;
access to seeds, water, and labor; credit and pricing; technical
knowledge; and transport and storage), how farmers presently
deal with these constraints, and what strategies they could
implement in the future. Eleven appendices provide additional
data (on, e.g., harvesting procedures, food preparation, con-
sumption patterns) not easily reviewed in the main body of the
report plus a copy of the survey questionnaire.


076


PN-AAN-964
MF $1.08/PC $5.07


Art of the informal agricultural survey
Rhoades, Robert E.
International Potato Center
Mar 1982, 40p.: En Social Science Dept Training Document
no. 1982-2
If properly conducted, informal agricultural surveys can
provide valuable data on local farming ecology and practices.
Presented here is a manual on conducting informal surveys of
farmers in developing countries.
Instructions are provided for (1) pre-fieldwork activities,
such as a literature review and the use of aerial photos and
maps to delineate the geographical area to be studied; (2)
interviewing farmers (approach, warm-up, dialogue, departure,
and recording of information); (3) informally organizing data by
type of farmer and cropping system; (4) studying agroecologi-
cal zones through the use of field plotting and transects; (5)
initial quantification of data; and (6) writing a summary report of
findings. Appended are results of an informal survey conducted


VoL 1984


075









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


in Canete, Peru, and a guide for an informal survey of a potato
producing region.


ter, weaknesses of the particular cultivation system are deline-
ated and suggestions for development are made. Numerous
case studies (most from Africa or Asia) are provided and a 15-
page bibliography (1878-1970) is appended.


077


PN-AAP-101
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Manual de actividades de capacitacion en
servicio (Manual of inservice training
activities)
Rosales, Franklin E.
Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales. Program
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria
1980, 12p. : Es
Drawn from the experience of Honduras' Central Agricultur-
al Research Unit, this inservice training manual has six sec-
tions. The introduction reviews changes in the agricultural
research program (1977-80) and the new structure of the
program. A section on inservice training objectives explains
that, in general, new technicians in the research program are to
receive preparation for close contact with the farmer and for
study of integrated systems, and specifically to: analyze and
identify agricultural production problems; set priorities; conduct
farm trials; communicate with farmers; analyze and transmit
technical information; apply basic knowledge; and work as a
team. Next, a section on methodology and organization out-
lines the training, which continues for 9 months in Comayagua,
with 75% of time spent in practice, 25% on theory. Practical
activities (section 4) are divided into the following: diagnosis;
farm trials; farm plots; farm assessment; precipitation measure-
ment; and field days. Theoretical activities (section 5) include
11 short courses, 10 lectures, 8 workshops, 10 seminars, and
readings and consultation with supervisors. Finally, the evalua-
tion of trainee performance is discussed with regard to theory,
spoken and written communication, field work, and responsibili-
ty.


078


PN-AAP-608
MF $4.32/PC $44.72


Farming systems in the tropics
Ruthenberg, Hans
1971, xiv, 313p. : En
* Oxford University Press, 16-00 Pollitt Dr., Fair Lawn, NJ
07410 USA
A course consisting of lectures on the characteristics of
tropical farming systems for undergraduate and graduate stu-
dents at Gottingen and Stuttgart-Hohenheim Universities was
the basis for this book, intended to familiarize the agricultural
development worker with the various types of farming he/she
will encounter, and with management problems arising in
particular farming systems.
Tropical agriculture is discussed from an agroeconomic
perspective, with emphasis on farm management aspects and
particularly on the interactions between technical and econom-
ic aspects of farming. An initial chapter covers general charac-
teristics of tropical farming. Succeeding chapters, organized as
to type and intensity of land use, discuss the following types of
cultivation systems: shifting cultivation; semi-permanent; regu-
lated ley farming (when grass is allowed to grow for grazing on
land that has carried crops); permanent cultivation on rainfed
land; arable irrigation farming; perennial crops; and grazing
(total nomadism, semi-nomadism, and ranching). In each chap-

Vol. I, 1984


079


PN-AAP-653
MF $3.24/PC $30.55


Development of smallholder vegetable
production in Kigezi, Uganda
Scherer, Friede
IFO Institute for Economic Research
IFO forschungsberichte der Afrika-studienstelle, no.23, 1969,
x, 217p. : Bibliography, p.214-217, En
* IFO-Institut fur Wirtshaftsforschung, Poschingerstrasse 5,
8000 Munich 86, Federal Republic of Germany
Searching for urgently needed cash crops, smallholders in
Uganda's Kigezi District accepted in 1951 a government pro-
posal to produce vegetables of European origin despite un-
favorable marketing conditions, according to this study of the
program.
After a lengthy introductory section on Kigezi's charac-
teristics and history and on the production, marketing, and
organizational preconditions for vegetable growing, the
establishment of the Kigezi vegetable growing industry and its
transformation from a private to a cooperative enterprise is
reviewed. This is followed by descriptions of: extension, cultiva-
tion, yield, and cost aspects of vegetable production; the
organization of growers; and present and future marketing
prospects. A final section reviews the program's effects on the
Kigezi District as a whole, on the cooperative societies, and on
farm returns. The program's positive results, it is concluded,
show that producer interest and dependence on a crop can
overcome disadvantageous factors; that the African small-
holder can adapt to new situations relatively quickly if he trusts
the project; and that cooperatives can, under the right condi-
tions, play an important role in marketing.


080


PN-AAL-237
MF $4.32/PC $50.96


Farming systems research and development;
guidelines for developing countries
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp, P.F.; Schmehl, W.R.
Consortium for International Development; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
Westview special studies in agriculture/aquaculture, Sep
1981, xiv, 414p. : En
93110.06
AID/DSAN-C-0054
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Farming systems research and development (FSR&D) is an
approach that is being used increasingly to meet the need for
greater food production and a better standard of living for
small-scale farmers in developing countries. This book
synthesizes the FSR&D procedures used by national govern-
ments and international research centers around the world,
emphasizing methodologies that have proved successful in
practice.









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


The authors describe the characteristics and objectives of
FSR&D, then present information on selecting target and
research areas, problem identification and development of a
research base, research design, on-farm research, extending
research results, and implementation and training procedures.
They emphasize that the FSR&D approach requires a clear
understanding of farmers and their families, farmers' condi-
tions, and governmental staffing and organizational capabili-
ties, and in one chapter discuss how to determine whether an
FSR&D approach is in a particular country's best interests.
Appendices present detailed examples of procedures de-
scribed in the text, covering a variety of countries with different
cropping and livestock systems, environmental conditions, and
research and development capabilities. (Author abstract)


081


PN-AAL-341
MF $2.16/PC $24.18


Readings in farming systems research and
development
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp, P.F.; Schmehl, W.R.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
Westview special studies in agriculture/aquaculture science
and policy, 1982, xiii, 175p. : En
9311006
AID/DSAN-C-0054
* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301
USA
Farming systems research and development (FSR&D)
views the farm as a system and focuses on how interdependent
components under the farm household's control interact with
physical, biological, and socioeconomic factors outside the
farmer's control. This monograph contains nine readings pre-
sented before a 1979 workshop by some of the leading
practitioners in FSR&D.
The first paper categorizes farming systems according to
their stage of development and resource use, while the second
conceptualizes FSR&D and raises several methodological is-
sues. Successive papers outline and discuss the FSR&D
experience and approaches of the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center, the International Rice Research
Institute, the Agricultural Science and Technology Institute of
Guatemala, and the International Crops Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics. Two papers discuss FSR&D as applied
to a small farm in Honduras and cropping systems research in
Indonesia, respectively. Stressed are the importance of on-
farm research, interdisciplinary teamwork, the search for practi-
cal solutions to farmers' problems, and better use of available
data. A subject index is included.


082


PN-AAP-410
MF $4.32/PC $41.21


Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982
farming systems research symposium -
farming systems in the field
Flora, Cornelia B.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
(Farming Systems in the Field, Manhattan, KS, US, 21-23
Nov 1982)
Farming systems research paper series, no.5, Apr 1983,
311p. : En
* Office of International Agricultural Programs, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA
A Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR&E)
symposium was held in 11/82 at Kansas State University to
examine issues in the application of FSR to development
projects. Twenty papers from the symposium are herein pre-
sented, all of which focus on issues raised by experience,
rather than theory.
Following an overview of the current state of FSR&E and its
potential for the future, indepth case studies of four field
experiences (IRRI/Indonesia, CIMMYT/Panama, ICAR-
DA/Syria, and CATIE/Central America) are presented. The
next five papers analyze specific problem areas (links to
farmers and to other research programs/units, cost-effective-
ness, transplanting U.S. methodologies, and conceptual errors
in evaluation). The final ten papers, presented at small group
meetings, address further FSR&E implementation and evalua-
tion issues, e.g., in staffing, integrating team participants,
organizing a delivery system, incorporating nutritional consider-
ations, transferring station work to farm conditions, impact
evaluation, and in determining the role of energy in farming
systems. These papers make clear the necessity of systemati-
cally examining not only the farming system and its internal
resources, but the containing system as well. Two precon-
ference background papers on the FSR approach are also
included.


083


PN-AAP-345
MF $1.08/PC $4.55


Hidden harvest: systems approach to
postharvest technology
Spurgeon, David
International Development Research Centre
1976, 36p. : En IDRC-062e
It has been estimated that up to one-third of the food
produced in developing countries is lost due to inefficient
postharvest operations. After delineating various types of
postharvest loss (losses in nutritional and economic value, in
weight, and in quality and acceptability), the author of this
report recommends a systems approach to postharvest losses
and identifies the following primary components of the posthar-
vest system: harvesting and threshing; drying and storage;
processing; and utilization by the consumer. The interrelated-
ness of specific problems that may arise within the system is
then demonstrated. Next, the Maiduguri Mill Project in Nigeria,
which encompasses the entire range of postharvest activities,
is described as a model of an orderly, efficient postharvest
system.


VoL I, 1984


083









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


The report concludes with recommendations directed to-
ward improved recognition and comprehension of postharvest
problems and increased international cooperation in research
and technical guidance.


084


* PN-AAP-229
PC $2.34


Agricultural productivity gaps: a case study of
male preference in government policy
implementation
Staudt, Kathleen A.
Development and change, v.9, 1978, p.439-457 : En
* Microfiche not available paper copy only
The weighting of Kenya's agricultural assistance policy
towards men at the expense of women bodes ill for the
country's agricultural future, according to this case study of the
role of government in creating and/or perpetuating productivity
gaps between the sexes.
A controlled, cross-sectional sampling of farmers at two
locations in western Kenya shows that female-managed farms
have significantly less access to government provision of crop
information, training, and loans, than farms managed jointly by
women and men. This situation obtains even though women
farm managers, helped by information and labor inputs from the
communal agricultural groups to which most of them belong,
excel in key criteria crop diversification, farm income-generat-
ing orientation, and early adoption of hybrid maize for the
innovativeness on which the government focuses its agricultur-
al assistance efforts. In the long run, however, systematic
government neglect of women will have a negative impact on
women's ability to sustain innovative behavior and hence on
their agricultural productivity. Failure to redress this structural
disadvantage by channeling assistance on the basis of merit
rather than sex, it is concluded, will eventually lead to a decline
in the government's ability to raise agricultural productivity.


lactating women and weaning children are then examined and
the role of women in the village particularly their virtual
exclusion from decisionmaking and communal life is discuss-
ed; results of a survey examining the responsibilities of hus-
band and wife in the household economy are presented.
Concluding remarks recommend policies and programs de-
signed specifically to improve the health and status of Tanzani-
an women and children.


086


PN-AAN-810
MF $1.08/PC $5.85


Data collection, site selection and farmer
participation in on-farm experimentation
Tripp, Robert
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
1982, 29p. + appendix: En Working paper no.82/1
9310840
The experimentation phase of on-farm research is devoted
to designing trials to develop and test new technologies with
representative farmers. Description of the various types of data
available during this phase and guidelines for organizing their
collection are herein presented.
A discussion of trial site selection focuses on the impor-
tance of identifying recommendation domains (relatively ho-
mogenous groups of farmers), cooperating with local extension
agents, ensuring logistic feasibility, and identifying and commu-
nicating with farmer collaborators. A field book for recording
various types of data, from data on planting and trial plot (and
farmer) characteristics to data on trial results, is described (and
reproduced in an appendix), and data collection possibilities in
other areas (e.g., prices, weather, and farmer adoption of the
recommended practice) are discussed. A set of recommenda-
tions is appended to each major section of the paper. The
importance of flexibility is noted in conclusion, as is the
researcher's need to use on-farm experiments to establish a
partnership with farmers and extensionists which will benefit
the research.


085


PN-AAP-586
MF $2.16/PC $17.16


Women, work, food and nutrition in
Nyamwigura Village, Mara region, Tanzania
Tobisson, Eva
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre
TFNC report, no.548, Jul 1980, viii, 127p.: En
In Tanzania, agricultural policies biased toward cash crops
and toward men as the sole agents of change have increased
women's workload, but not their access to the products of farm
labor. This study, based on extensive fieldwork during 1977-78,
focuses on the effects of such policies on the nutritional status
of Kurian women and children in the village of Nyamwigura.
Women's primary role in Tanzanian rural production and
reproduction, and the neglect of them in development planning,
are first discussed. The Kuria people, their land, and traditions
ruling the division of work and of labor returns are then
described. The transformation of agriculture during the colonial
period from diversified subsistence production to specialized
cultivation of maize as a cash crop is analyzed, as is the
postindependence villagization program. Both policies, it is
shown, have reinforced the traditional subordination of Tan-
zanian women. The combined effects of tradition and of these
agricultural policies on the diet and health of pregnant and


087


PN-AAP-310
MF $8.64/PC $100.75


Control integrado de plagas en sistemas de
production de cultivos para pequenos
agricultores (Integrated pest control in small
farm production systems)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center;
International Regional Organization for Agricultural
Sanitation; University of California, Berkeley; U.S. Agency
for International Development
1979, 3v. : Es
5960064
* Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza,
Turrialba, Costa Rica
In 1979 the University of California conducted a regional
course in integrated pest control for small farm production
systems at the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training
Center (CATIE) in Costa Rica. Attending were pest control
experts from eight Central American and Caribbean countries -
Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Gua-
temala, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti. The contents of the
course are herein reported in three volumes.


Vol. I, 1984









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Volume I contains 27 papers on such topics as the concept
of agroecosystems, socioeconomic restrictions on small farm
cultivation, harvesting, plant growth, vegetable parasites, the
history of integrated pest control, nematodes, insects, ver-
tebrates, and library research in economic entomology. Volume
II's 19 papers cover principles of integrated pest control,
pesticide formulation and application, chemical pesticides and
environmental health, plant diseases in mixed production sys-
tems, and pests in cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, cassava, cocoa,
and bananas. Volume III contains national reports on pest
control for small farming systems in the eight participating
countries. References follow each paper.


088 PN-AAP-311
MF $2.16/PC $15.34
Small farmer cropping systems for Central
America: final report
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1979, xii, 101p. : En
5960064
Provides final report (6/75-3/79) on a project implemented
by the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
(CATIE) to create a coordinated regional research approach for
improving small farm cropping systems in Central America.
The project's key output was the development of a method-
ology or strategy for conducting on-farm research on small
farm cropping systems and its presentation in a procedural
guide. Some 115 field experiments were conducted, mostly on-
farm, yielding quantifiable and very promising research results
(the most important of which are indicated in the report), some
of them ready for validation. In addition, CATIE promoted
national research programs on cropping systems via training,
information dissemination, collaborating in field work with na-
tional staff, and helping to promote a collaborative research
effort among participating countries. Other project outputs
included collection of baseline data on small farmers' agronom-
ic, socioeconomic, and physiobiological environment; an exper-
iment conducted at CATIE headquarters on several cropping
systems commonly used by small farmers; the training of more
than 379 Latin American professionals, over 75% of them
Central Americans; the establishment of a documentation
center on tropical cropping systems (a 20-page bibliography
from which is appended); and the strengthening of CATIE's
professional ties to other international research centers. Cen-
tral American countries gave strong support to the project, and
national institutions collaborated in all aspects of it.


089 PN-AAP-954
MF $3.24/PC $25.87
Farming systems research symposium
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of International
Cooperation and Development
(Farming Systems Research Symposium, Washington, DC,
US, 8-9 December 1980)
1980, v.p. : En
* Office of International Cooperation and Development,
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 USA
Proceedings of a 12/80 symposium held to acquaint U.S.
Department of Agriculture and A.I.D. agricultural technicians
with key farming systems research (FSR) issues are presented.


Introductory papers provide overviews of FSR, its methodol-
ogy, and its potential applicability in the United States. Next are
two papers describing an FSR application in the Allegheny
Highlands of West Virginia and a planned application at Arkan-
sas's Booneville Center. Virginia State University's FSR efforts
in the United States and Ghana are then discussed in a paper
focusing on linkages and constraints; an abstract of a paper on
research-extension interface in the United States is presented;
and procedures for implementing applied FSR in developing
countries' national research programs are outlined. The next
four papers examine, respectively, problems involved in inter-
disciplinary research; FSR program structure, staffing, and
funding; FSR and national agricultural development; and issues
in FSR evaluation. A final set of papers describes Guatemala's
Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), its FSR
program, staffing and funding, and linkages with other national,
regional, and international institutions. A summary of group
reports and of a panel discussion on lessons for the future
conclude the volume.


* PN-AAP-468


090


MF $3.24/PC $2821
Economics and the design of small-farmer
technology
Valdes, Alberto; Scobie, Grant M.; Dillon, John L
(International Conference on Economic Analysis in the
Design of New Technology for Small Farmers, Palmira,
CO, US, 26-28 Nov 1975)
1979, xii, 211p. : En
* Iowa State University Press, 112 C Press Office, South
State Ave., Ames, IA 50010 USA
Thirty-nine economists from 11 (mostly Latin American)
countries attended a conference held in 1975 at the Interna-
tional Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) to explore ways in
which economists can contribute to the design of new agriculu-
tural technologies for small farmers. Proceedings are herein
presented.
Provided first are three papers on the methodological
aspects of ex ante technology design; the first describes
several possible analytical approaches while the remaining two
offer differing views of the importance of farmers' attitudes
toward risk. Next, four papers on the design of technology
analyze: the roles of biologists and economists in Bongoland (a
fable); design parameters for cattle production in the Colombi-
an Ilanos; technology design in semiarid Northeast Brazil; and
the implications of sharecropping for technology design in that
region. The remaining three papers, on the relation between
rural development and agricultural technology, respective
discuss technology adaptation in a Colombian rural develop-
ment project; present a broad structural view of the small-
farmer technology problem; and examine the implications of
rural development programs for technology design.
Several questions are posed for further research: the priority
to be accorded research on small farmer technology; whether
policy and institutional changes are needed if farmers are to
benefit from enhanced productivity; influences on small far-
mers' decisionmaking; and the stability and instability of the
small farmer resource base. Appended are author and subject
indexes and a 180-item bibliography (1921-77) of English,
Spanish, and Portuguese titles.


VoL I, 1964








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


091


PN-AAP-684
MF $1.08/PC $7.93


Caso del ICTA en Guatemala como institution
dedicada a la generation y validacion de
tecnologia para pequenos agricultores (Case
of ICTA in Guatemala: an institution dedicated
to the generation and validation of technology
for small farmers)
Waugh, Robert K.
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute
1980, 47p. : Es
The organization and program development of the Institute
for Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), an autono-
mous Guatemalan research institution devoted to small far-
mers' needs, are reviewed.
The concepts underlying ICTA's establishment and its or-
ganizational characteristics are outlined, as are the Institute's
goals of integrating research and extension, adopting a sys-
tems approach to research, and orienting research toward the
farm level in replication of farmer practices and working condi-
tions. Methods for achieving these goals are outlined, and the
steps of ICTA's technology development system are described
- technology generation, agro-socioeconomic adaptation and
evaluation, validation, and transfer.
Farmer participation in the transfer process is described,
along with the diversification of ICTA's program within the
various regions of Guatemala, ICTA's training and evaluation
activities, and its international linkages.


092


PN-AAP-446
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Institutional assessment for implementing a
systems approach to agricultural research and
extension
Waugh, Robert K.; Meiman, J.; McDermott, James K.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Multisectoral Development; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office
of Agriculture
Farming systems and support project working paper, no. 101,
1983, 14p. : En
Characterization and analysis of existing national programs
and institutions are useful in determining the potential for
implementing a systems approach to agricultural research and
extension. In this paper, guidelines are presented for inventory-
ing a given program or institution in such a way as to identify
changes and modifications that might make research and
extension more effective while making maximum use of exist-
ing structures, resources, and other organizational charac-
teristics.
Criteria for assessment are provided in Part I, which con-
sists of three sets of questions directed toward determining (a)
the general conditions of an institution and its environment, (b)
management and operational aspects, and (c) the nature of the
technological functions and methodologies of research and
extension. Part II is meant to provide ideas as to which
institutional elements should be continued and which should be
changed. This section focuses on the functions of specific


types of organizational units in implementing farmer-oriented
research and extension.


093


PN-AAP-955
MF $4.32/PC $38.87


Agricultural systems in Ethiopia
Westphal, E.
Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops.
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography; Haile
Selassie I University. College of Agriculture
Agricultural research reports, no.826, 1975, 278p. : En
* Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation,
Agricultural University, P.O. Box 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen,
The Netherlands
Based on field research carried out in 1967-1968 and on
literature studies, this second volume of a series on Ethiopia's
edible plants provides an integral overview of the country's
agricultural systems.
Initial chapters outline Ethiopia's geology, topography,
hydrography, and define its diverse climatic regions. Next, soil
taxonomy terms of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used
to describe the soils of seven defined soil regions. Vegetation
zones and 16 vegetation types are described, followed by a brief
look at the country's ethnic and linguistic groups. Ethiopian
agriculture is then reviewed at length, with emphasis on the
country's 12 agroecological regions and the plants cultivated in
them, seed farming systems (mainly cereals, pulses, and oil
crops), the cultivation and use of ensat (a staple crop), shifting
cultivation, and pastoral systems. Where possible, linkages are
made between farmers' regional origins and their farming
systems and products. Finally, Ethiopia's marketing systems,
major foods, and nutritional status are described.
Tables, photographs, a subject index, an index of scientific
plant names, and 10 detailed maps are included, as are a list of
crop yields (by kg/ha) and a 166-item bibliography (1540-
1974).


094


PN-AAP-228
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Risk, uncertainty, and the subsistence farmer:
technological innovation and resistance to
change in the context of survival
Wharton, Clifton R.
Michigan State University
Studies in economic anthropology, no.7, 1971, p.151-178 :
En
A subsistence farmer is one who consumes most of what he
produces, buys few items for his own needs, uses little outside
labor, employs primitive or traditional farming methods, has a
minimum standard of living, and bases his decisionmaking on
survival. The correlation between the prevalence of high levels
of risk and uncertainty among such farmers and their adoption
of technology is explored in this literature review.
Subsistence farmers' responsiveness to technological
change is described, along with possible sources of resistance,
causes of risk, and sources of uncertainty. A model is pre-
sented for determining minimum standards of subsistence
living at a certain time and how these standards change over
time. Three types of subsistence farms are then identified:
where the total product is food; where land and labor are the


Vol. I, 1984








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


major production factors; and where the family lives entirely
from the farm. Following a discussion of the effects of dynamic
interaction of risk, uncertainty, and subsistence upon techno-
logical innovation, it is concluded that increased profit may be
less important in a subsistence or barter economy than are
increased security and survival, and that quantification of risk
aversion is needed when evaluating technology adoption or
rejection. Appended is a 91-item bibliography (1948-69).


095


PN-AAP-965
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


Nutritional component of farming systems
research
Whelan, William P.
Rutgers University. Cook College. International Agricultural
and Food Program
(1983), 18p. : En
Improvements in crop yield and farmer income achieved
through farming systems research (FSR) projects do not in
themselves signify improved household nutrition. Presented
here is a strategy for incorporating nutritional considerations
into FSR.
Variables that can provide important nutritional information
during the FSR design stage are discussed first. The author
considers and rejects several possible variables (i.e.,
anthropometric data, dietary intake, income and expenditure
levels), outlining the difficulties of accurately identifying the
malnourished using these approaches. Suggested instead is
the subsistence potential ratio (SPR), the ratio of a household's
ability to feed itself to its need to feed itself. The SPR, useful in
measuring both the source and level of consumption, distin-
guishes between groups with different nutritional status and
FSR's effects on them, has acceptable levels of accuracy, and
is based upon easily and cheaply obtainable data.
Next, consideration is given to ongoing and ex post analysis
of FSR's nutritional impact. Ongoing analysis is necessary to
see whether changes in farming systems lead to short-term
food scarcity. Ex post analysis requires a solid theoretical basis
(e.g., the theory of the household-firm), a longer data collection
cycle, and calculation of income elasticities, and should ad-
dress the extent to which FSR benefits large rather than small
farmers. Careful ex post analysis can help to identify ex ante
variables for future FSR.


096 PN-AAL-956
MF $2.16/PC $15.99
Participatory approaches to agricultural
research and development: a state of the art
paper
Whyte, William F.
Cornell University. Center for International Studies; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Science
and Technology. Office of Rural Development and
Development Administration
Special series on agriculture research and extension, no. 1,
May 1981, x, 111p. : En
931001137
AID/TA-BMA-8
Existing research and development (R&D) strategies have
tended to support farmers already in relatively advantageous


positions and to ignore the majority of small farmers who
struggle under less favorable conditions. This state-of-the-art
paper presents an overview of past R&D efforts and proposes
a new R&D strategy to assist the rural poor.
After examining limitations of and lessons to be learned
from conventional R&D strategies, the author describes the
agricultural R&D strategy used by institutions in Bangladesh,
Ethiopia, Mexico, and Colombia which emphasizes participa-
tion by small farmers and incorporates animal husbandry as an
integral element. Efforts to build a farming systems research
strategy into R&D programs are then examined, using exam-
ples from Guatemala and Honduras.
The author concludes that any new R&D model should
involve research conducted on small farmers' actual fields;
farmer participation in research and extension; and a major
emphasis on cropping and farming systems, experimentation,
and interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to enhance the
quality of life among small farmers and to build material
resources into the organizational base, linkages are required
between local farmer organizations and government bureauc-
racies. Attached is a list of 107 references (1911-1981).


097


PN-AAP-953
MF $5.40/PC $51.74


Proceedings of the international workshop on
intercropping
Willey, R.W.; Garver, Cynthia
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Intercropping, Hyderabad, IN, 10-
13 January 1979)
1979, viii, 401p. : En
* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324
A state of the art summary, this 34-paper volume consti-
tutes the proceedings of a 1/79 international workshop on
intercropping hosted by ICRISAT. A workshop paper by an
ICRISAT agronomist introduces the volume. Papers from Ses-
sion 1, on agronomy, consist mostly of case studies from India,
Brazil, West Africa (Nigeria, Volta), East Africa (Swaziland,
Kenya, Uganda), and on genotypes. Papers from Session 2, on
physiological aspects, treat: leaf canopies and plant light use
(light use efficiency, plant interactions and productivity in com-
plex mixtures, canopy development and light interception in
sorghum/pigeonpea intercropping); nutrient interactions and
rooting patterns (interactions below ground, leaf canopy and
rooting pattern in pearl millet/groundnut intercropping, nitrogen
response in sorghum/pigeonpea intercropping); and nitrogen
fixation in sorghum/chickpea intercropping. Three papers on
weeds and pests are drawn from Session 3. Papers from
Session 4, on evaluating intercropping systems, discuss: statis-
tical considerations and experimental designs; yield stability
and economics (intercropping in traditional and dryland sys-
tems, stability of pigeonpea/sorghum intercropping); and
operational management (including a paper on seeding and
interculture mechanization requirements in India). Summaries
of individual and plenary session discussions are provided.
Appendices include French translations of abstracts of work-
shop papers and a 20-page, multi-language bibliography
(1925-80).


Vol. I, 1984


097









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


098


PN-AAP-098
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Aiming agricultural research at the needs of
farmers
Winkelmann, Donald L.; Moscardi, Edgardo
(Seminar on Socio-economic Aspects of Agricultural
Research in Developing Countries, Santiago, CL, 7-11
May 1979)
1979, 9p. : En
Efforts of the Economics Program at the International Maize
and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) to gear research on
new technologies to farmers' real production problems and
decisionmaking processes are reviewed. The key elements of
the CIMMYT research procedures are: (1) ascertaining the
circumstances and practices of representative farmers; (2)
undertaking on-farm (and sometimes on-station) trials; (3)
formulating recommendations and examining their implications
for prices, markets, etc.; and (4) evaluating the new technolo-
gies.
This methodology, the authors note, is directed at finding
technologies that farmers (CIMMYT's primary clients) will use,
i.e., those which are consistent with farmers' natural and
economic circumstances and which promise improved incomes
with little risk. Thus, the CIMMYT program emphasizes collabo-
ration between economists and biological scientists, early
application of findings, and treatment of a single crop or
mixture, and aims at useful, not necessarily optimal, technolo-
gies. The process systematically focuses on major constraints
to production, provides for continuing and immediate improve-
ments through research and feedback, and counts on individu-
al farmers to make adjustments in terms of their own special
circumstances.


099


PN-AAM-515
MF $2.16/PC $20.41


Methodology for on-farm cropping systems
research
Zandstra, Hubert G.; Price, E.C.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
1981, viii, 147p. : En
* IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines
On-farm cropping systems research seeks to identify a
technology, acceptable to farmers, that will increase production
yields and/or cropping intensity while minimizing the detrimen-
tal effects of introduced changes. Described herein, for the
benefit of both professional researchers and those active in


research management and training, are research methods
which were developed and adapted for the study of both
dryland and wetland rice-based cropping systems.
The manual begins by discussing general concepts: the
definition of cropping systems and of cropping systems re-
search; and the importance of on-farm research as a means of
finding improved cropping systems that are acceptable to
farmers. Methods for site selection, site description, design of
cropping patterns, and on-farm testing of such patterns are
then described. In the final chapter, ways in which research
results can be extended to a greater area and to farmers
through production programs are discussed. This chapter, less
detailed than those preceding, is included to emphasize the
need for researchers to consider the consequences of their
results in production programs and to stress that on-farm
research is beneficial only when farmers adopt recommended
practices. Details of several research or analytical techniques
are provided in appendices focusing on fertilizer rates, weed
control, varietal testing, and cropping pattern monitoring.


100


PN-AAP-572
MF $4.32/PC $40.17


Caqueza: living rural development
Zandstra, Hubert G.; Swanberg, Kenneth G.; et al.
International Development Research Centre
1979, 321p. : En IDRC-107e
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9 Canada
The Caqueza Project was a rural development effort con-
ducted in eastern Colombia by the Agricultural Institute (ICA),
the research and extension arm of the Colombian Ministry of
Agriculture. This book records the history of the project's first 5
years (1971-76).
Part I describes the evolution of rural development philoso-
phy in Colombia and outlines ICA's rural development model
for the 1970's; specific information on the Caqueza Project is
included. Part II describes chronologically the 5-year span of
project activities and lessons, while Part III analyzes in some
depth the, research methodology tested during the project and
the extent of its adoption by farmers. Part IV examines non-
technical factors influencing adoption rates, such as risk, credit,
marketing, training, and buffer institutions. A final section
reviews the various evaluations of the project and provides an
overview of the project as a whole.
Although it helped only a small minority of farmers, Caqueza
strongly influenced ICA in terms of staff training and research
policy and is the closest Colombia has come to an open
dialogue among planners, agriculturalists, and farmers, the
interaction among whom is the primary focus of the book's
narrative. A 144-item bibliography (1957-77) is appended.


Vol. I, 1984











SUBJECT AND GEOGRAPHIC INDEX


Africa 046,068,069
Agricultural development
009,025,031,067,084,085,089,096
Agricultural economics 009,051,066
Agricultural education 006
Agricultural extension
009,030,072,073,082,086,089,091,092,100
Agricultural machinery 045
Agricultural policy 015,073,085
Agricultural production
003,008,012,014,016,034,042,048
,055,056,060,063,064 067,069,079
Agricultural technology
025,027,030,033,034,035,036,040,
041,049,053,054,064,
065,067,071,072,090,091,098,100
Agricultural training 023,024,077
Agroforestry 061
Animal husbandry 001,015,059,061
Animal nutrition 008,013
Animal production 001,002,013,059
Appropriate technology 027
Aquaculture 002,074
Asia 002,018,042,052,068
Benefit cost analysis 054
Biochemistry 068
Brazil 090
Budgeting 018
Carbohydrates 070
Caribbean 001,021,087
Cash crops 085
Cattle 008
Central & West Africa Regional 066
Central America 028,036,060,061,064,087,088
Child nutrition 085
Colombia 090,096,100
Cooperatives 079
Costa Rica 005,036,043
Crop diseases and pests 016,087
Data analysis 004,046
Data collection methodology 021
Data collection 004,009,018,027,034,038,046,086
Decision making 011,028,071
Development strategy 020,096
Discrimination 084
Dry farming 039,047,051,058
East Africa 009
Economic analysis 018,090
Ecosystems 028
Ecuador 062
Education, higher 006
Energy 068
Entomology 052
Environmental health 087
Ethiopia 020,093,096
Evaluation 049
Farm crops 055
Farm management
006,009,011,012,018,024,028,029,
048,049,060,078,084
Farm mechanization 045,051
Farm records 034,086
Farm survey 021
Farmer training 024
Farmers 025,040,071
Feedstuffs 013


Fertilizers 073
Fertilizing 002
Fisheries 002
Fishes 074
Food analysis 070
Food consumption 095
Geochemistry 068
Goats 059
Government departments 023
Government policies 084
Grain crops 093
Guatemala 025,032,033,034,035,036,056,081,
089,091,096
Herdsmen 008,020
Honduras 005,016,023,029,037,038,077,081,096
Host government departmental coordination 023
Hydrology 068
Indonesia 007,058,059,081
Insect control 053
Insecticides 052,053
Insects 087
Institution building 010,037,056
Institutional framework 091,092
Institutions 019,091
Intercropping 022,061,069,097
Interdisciplinary research 026,032,033,047
International organizations 019
Interviewing 076
Irrigated land 007,051,058
Ivory Coast 051
Kenya 010,047,084
Land tenure 063
Land use 016,050,063
Linear programming 049
Linkages 055
Livestock 002,008,013,015,020,047,055,057,075
Maize 012,047,062,097
Malnutrition 095
Marketing 067,075,079
Maternal child health 085
Mexico 096
Middle East 046
Millet 008,075
Mixed farming 001,002,013,057,061,074
Multiple cropping 003,022,026,036,042,069,097
Nematoda 087
Nicaragua 005,036
Nigeria 045,050,066,067
Nomads 015,020
Nutrition 005,085,095
Nutritional deficiencies 005,095
Nutritive value 070
Oilseed crops 093
On farm research 023,027,086,098
Organization development 023,025
Other West Indies-Eastern Caribbean Regional
001,063
Pakistan 096
Panama 054
Participation 086
Pest control 042,052,087
Pesticides 087
Philippines 049,072
Pigeon peas 097
Plant breeding 022,070,073
Plant genetics 022,097
Plant physiology 097


Plant protection 073
Population density 050
Post harvest food loss 083
Project evaluation 082
Project implementation 020,023,082
Questionnaires 035
Rainfall distribution 060
Ranges 008
Research centers 019.089
Research facilities 025,036,039
Research management 019,092
Research methodology
014,017.019,024.025,032.046.053.095
Research organizations 092
Research priorities 024.065
Resettlement 059
Rice 014,042 048,052.058.074
Rice research 007,051.052,074,099
Risk 094
Rural development 090,100
Rural women 085
Sahel 015,055
Saint Lucia 063
Semiarid land 039.040,055
Sheep 008
Shifting cultivation 050
Small farmers 001,003,009,011,013.018,024,031,
032,034,035,036,048,050,060,061,
064,065,066,079,080,087,088,090,091,100
Social sciences 025,027,035,046
Socioeconomic factor 003,028,040,075,068
Socioeconomic surveys 035
Soil classification 093
Soil fertility 050
Sorghum 016,075,097
Sri Lanka 070
Statistical analysis 018
Subsistence farming 031,048,094
Sudan 075
Survey methodology 004
Surveys 004,032,046,076
Systems analysis 017,083
Tanzania 009,010,012,048,085
Technical assistance
016,024,025.040.041,044.046.053.
065,074,075,080,081,096
Technical education 077
Technological change 066
Technology adoption 040,041,054,094,100
Technology choice 027
Technology transfer 030,036.071
Thailand 026
Training methods 077
Tropical agriculture
003,013,031,040,050,060,068,078,088
Tropics 040
Uganda 079
Universities 006
Upper Volta 015
Varietal research 056
Varieties 042
Vegetable crops 073,079
Villages 066.085
Waste conversion 002
Weed control 042,073
West Africa 051
Women in development 084.085
Yield 014,042,044,097
Zambia 010
Zimbabwe 010


VoL 194











AUTHOR AND INSTITUTION INDEX


Agricultural Development Council, Inc. 046
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute
033,035,091
Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops.
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant
Geography 093
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 045
Archibald, K. 001
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center 002
Association for the Advancement of Agricultural
Sciences in Africa 069
Bantilan, C. 049
Barker, Randolph 006
Bathrick, David D. 056
Bazan, Rufo 036
Beausoleil, Joseph W. 021
Beemer, Halsey L. Jr. 073
Beets, William C. 003
Bernsten, Richard H. 004
Burgos, Carlos F. 005
Cardoso, Victor H. 062
Casey, Frank 006
Central Research Institute for Agriculture 007,058
Chater, Simon 008
Collinson, Michael 009
Collinson, Michael P. 010,011,012
Consortium for International Development 080
Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research 019
Cornell University 044
Cornell University. Center for International Studies
025,096
Cornell University. New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences 006
Croon, S.I. 012
DeBoer,A.J. 013
De Datta, Surajit K. 014
Delgado, Christopher L. 015
DeWalt, Billie R. 016
DeWalt, Kathleen M. 016
Diaz, Alvaro 023
Dillon, John L. 017,018,019
Effendi, Suryatna 058
Egerton College. Department of Economics 047
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands Production
System Study Programme 020
Everson, Everett 021
Flora, Cornelia B. 082
Ford Foundation 026
Francis, C.A. 022
Frankenberger, Timothy 075
Gait, Daniel L. 023
Garver, Cynthia 097
Gilbert, E.H. 024
Gomez, K.A. 014
Gostyla, Lynn 025
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public
Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and
Technology 034
Gypmantasiri, Phrek 026
Haaland, G. 055
Haile Selassie I University. College of Agriculture
093
Hardaker, J.B. 018


Harrington, Larry 027
Hart, Robert D. 028,029,030
Harwood, Richard R. 031
Hildebrand, Peter E. 032,033,034,035,057
Hobgood, Harlan H. 036
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources 037
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National
Program for Agricultural Research 037,038
Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales.
Program Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria
077
IFO Institute for Economic Research 050,079
Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania 059
International Agricultural Research Service 037
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources
Management 074
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics 039,040,097
International Development Research Centre
083,100
International Livestock Centre for Africa 008
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
027,041,047,054,062,071,086
International Potato Center 076
International Regional Organization for Agricultural
Sanitation 087
International Rice Research Institute
014,042,049,052,053,058,099
Johnston, T.D. 043
Kansas State University. Office of International
Agriculture Programs 082
Kass, D.C. 044
Kaul, R.N. 045
Kearl, B.E. 046
Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture 047
Kirway, T.N. 048
Kuhnen, Frithjof 051
Labadan, E. 049
Lagemann, Johannes 050
Lang, Harald 051
Litsinger, J.A. 052,053
Lumaban, M.D. 053
Martinez, Juan Carlos 054
McCown, R.L. 055
McDermott, James K. 056
McDowell, Robert E. 057
Mclntosh, J.L. 058
Meiman, J. 092
Michigan State University 094
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics 010,023,024 065,066
Mink, Stephen 059
Moreno, Raul A. 060,061
Moscardi, Edgardo 062,098
Narendran, Vasantha 063
Navarro, Luis A. 064
Norman, David W. 024,065,066,067
Norman, M.J. 068
Okigbo, Bede N. 069
Pain, Adam 070
Perrin, R.K. 071
Philipp, P.F. 080,081
Philippines. Ministry of Agriculture. National Science
and Technology Authority. Philippine Council for
Agriculture and Resources Research and
Development. 072
Plucknett, Donald L. 019,073
Price, E.C. 099
Princeton University. Wilson (Woodrow) School of
Public and International Affairs 059
Pryor, D.H. 066
Pullin, S.V. 074
Reeves, Edward B. 075
Rhoades, Robert E. 076


Rockefeller Foundation 035,057
Rosales, Franklin E. 077
Rutgers University. Cook College. International
Agricultural and Food Program 095
Ruthenberg, Hans 078
Sain, Gustavo 054
Saunders, Joseph L. 061
Scherer, Friede 079
Scobie, Grant M. 090
Shaner, Willis W. 080,081
Shehadeh, Z.H. 074
Simmons, Emmy B. 067
Singh, R. 001
Spurgeon, David 083
Staudt, Kathleen A. 084
Swanberg, Kenneth G. 100
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre 085
Tobisson, Eva 085
Tripp, Robert 086
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
005,060,064,087,088
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center.
Program of Annual Cultivation 043,061
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization 018
U.S. Agency for International Development 087
Bureau for Asia. Indonesia 059
Bureau for Development Support. Office of
Agriculture 057,064
Bureau for Development Support. Office of Rural
Development and Development Administration
065
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination. Office
of Evaluation 036,056
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Agriculture 013,080,081,092
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Multisectoral Development 092
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Rural Development and Development
Administration 096
U.S. Department of Agriculture. International
Agricultural Development Service 031
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of International
Cooperation and Development 089
University of California, Berkeley 087
University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture 026
University of East Anglia. School of Development
Studies 070
University of Florida 068
University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences 092
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture.
Agricultural Experiment Station 016,075
University of Kentucky. Department of Anthropology
016,075
University of Kentucky. Department of Sociology
016,075
University of Michigan 015
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Institute 001,021,063
Ulyole Agricultural Centre 012,048
Valdes, Alberto 090
Waugh, Robert K. 091,092
Westphal, E. 093
Wharton, Clifton R. 094
Whelan, William P. 095
Whyte, William F. 025,096
Wiboonpongse, Aree 026
Willey, R.W. 097
Winkelmann, Donald L. 071,098
Winrock International 001
Winrock International. Livestock Research and
Training Center 013,059
Zandstra, Hubert G. 099,100


Vol. 1, 1984










DOCUMENT NUMBER INDEX


Item No.
PD-AAN-228.............................................021
PN-AAB-723 .............................................046
PN-AAB-810 .............................................039
PN-AAE-446 .............................................071
PN-AAG-025.......................................044
PN-AAG-274.......................................014
PN-AAG-866...........................................042
PN-AAG-895........................................... 015
PN-AAG-951 ............................................066
PN-AAH-977 .............................................036
PN-AAJ-081 ...............................................053
PN-AAJ-178..............................................056
PN-AAJ-280........................................074
PN-AAJ-522..............................................040
PN-AAJ-526........................................041
PN-AAJ-640............................................ 025
PN-AAK-049 ..........................................024
PN-AAK-475.............................................065
PN-AAL-237............................................080
PN-AAL-341 ............................................ 081
PN-AAL-956............................................ 096
PN-AAM-515.......................................099
PN-AAM-528.......................................061
PN-AAM-826.......................................010
PN-AAM-827.......................................023
PN-AAN-023 .............................................043
PN-AAN-810.......................................086
PN-AAN-890.............................................062
PN-AAN-964...........................................076
PN-AAP-019 .............................................028
PN-AAP-062 ...........................................030
PN-AAP-094 ...........................................001
PN-AAP-095 ...........................................035


Item No.
PN-AAP-096 .............................................038
PN-AAP-097 ...........................................037
PN-AAP-098 ...........................................098
PN-AAP-099 ...........................................033
PN-AAP-100 .............................................027
PN-AAP-101 .............................................077
PN-AAP-102 .............................................058
PN-AAP-103 .............................................049
PN-AAP-104 .............................................063
PN-AAP-105 .............................................004
PN-AAP-161 .............................................019
PN-AAP-228 .............................................094
PN-AAP-229 .............................................084
PN-AAP-230 .............................................055
PN-AAP-231 .............................................032
PN-AAP-232 ............................................011
PN-AAP-233 .............................................017
PN-AAP-234 .............................................022
PN-AAP-309 .............................................005
PN-AAP-310 .............................................087
PN-AAP-311 .............................................088
PN-AAP-312 .............................................060
PN-AAP-344 .............................................006
PN-AAP-345 .............................................083
PN-AAP-364 .............................................013
PN-AAP-365 .............................................059
PN-AAP-377 ............................................068
PN-AAP-410 ...........................................082
PN-AAP-414 .............................................064
PN-AAP-446 .............................................092
PN-AAP-468 .............................................090
PN-AAP-478 .............................................067
PN-AAP-517 .............................................057


Item No.
PN-AAP-542 ............................................050
PN-AAP-572 ............................................100
PN-AAP-573 .............................................020
PN-AAP-574 .............................................012
PN-AAP-575 ..............................................045
PN-AAP-576 ..........................................070
PN-AAP-586 ..............................................085
PN-AAP-595 ..........................................016
PN-AAP-608 ..............................................078
PN-AAP-617 ............................................031
PN-AAP-648 ............................................075
PN-AAP-652 ............................................003
PN-AAP-653 ............................................079
PN-AAP-659 .........................................034
PN-AAP-660 .......................... ..........048
PN-AAP-683..............................................018
PN-AAP-684 ..............................................091
PN-AAP-691 ..............................................051
PN-AAP-778 .................. ..........................072
PN-AAP-842.......... ........................ .......002
PN-AAP-843 ............................................073
PN-AAP-902 .........................................052
PN-AAP-903 .. ......................................026
PN-AAP-952 .........................................009
PN-AAP-953 .........................................097
PN-AAP-954 ............................................069
PN-AAP-955 ........................................093
PN-AAP-965........... ..............................095
PN-AAP-977 ...........................................069
PN-AAP-978 ........................................008
PN-AAP-980 .........................................007
PN-AAP-981 .......................................054
PN-AAQ-008.........................................047
XN-AAL-341-A............................... 029


Vol. I, 1984








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Vol. 1, 1984







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