• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 User guide to citations
 Bibliography
 Subject and geographic index
 Author and institution index
 Ordering instructions
 Order form
 Back Cover






Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053818/00003
 Material Information
Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Physical Description: 4 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Publisher: International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053818
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001822822
oclc - 13012743
notis - AJP6828

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    User guide to citations
        User guide to citations
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Subject and geographic index
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Author and institution index
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Ordering instructions
        Page 50
    Order form
        Page 51
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text







BIBLIOGRAPHY OF

READINGS IN

FARMING SYSTEMS

1987 Volume IV


Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP)


International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523


I








ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The 1987 edition of the Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems is the fourth and final volume in
a series. This effort has been supported through the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), a
cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID) and the University of Florida.

Through a subcontract agreement, Kansas State University was designated as the lead institution for this
and other documentation efforts of the FSSP. Management of the review and selection process has been
outstanding and is gratefully acknowledged. Kansas State University committed resources to the
bibliography series through its Office of International Agricultural Programs; its FSR Documentation Center:
Resources on Developing Countries (a part of Farrell Library); its Department of Sociology; and its USAID
Strengthening Grant Program.

Review of hundreds of articles, reports, and monographs has been part of the selection process for
documents to be included in the bibliographies. Members of the FSSP Technical Committee are to be
congratulated for their commitment to a thorough but time-consuming review process.

Annotation, translation, publication, and distribution of this series has been capably handled through the
Document and Information Handling Facility, sponsored by A.I.D.'s Bureau for Program and Policy
Coordination/ Center for Development Information and Evaluation/ Development Information Division.
Documentation and duplicating services provided by the DIHF will continue beyond the life of the FSSP,
which terminates at the end of this year (1987). This will ensure that documents contained in each volume
of the Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems will remain available into the future.

Representing various institutions and disciplines, and serving in various support capacities, the following
individuals were primarily responsible for publishing the bibliography series:


John Caldwell Steve Kearl
Cornelia Butler Flora James Oxley
Daniel Gait Susan Poats
Martha Gaudreau Donald Shockey
Peter Hildebrand David Thurston
Samuel Johnson Martha Tomecek



Availability: Documents contained in the Bibliography of Readings in Farming
Systems remain free to AID employees, AID contractors overseas, and AID-sponsored
organizations overseas, either in microfiche or in paper copy. Universities, research
centers, government offices, and other institutions located in developing countries are
eligible to receive free microfiche copies of up to five titles per bibliography (paper copies
may be purchased at the stated price). All other institutions and individuals may purchase
microfiche and/or paper copies of the documents at the stated price. Please consult the
"Ordering Instructions" at the back of each volume for further information.

Libraries and Documentation Centers: Complete sets of the bibliographies (Volumes 1,
2, 3, and 4 in English or Volumes 1, 2, and 3 in either French or Spanish are available in
microfiche. For more information (cost, shipping, and handling) contact:

AID/DIHF/FSR
7222 47th Street
Chevy Chase, MD 20815
USA









USER'S GUIDE
TO CITATIONS


Item number 100


PN-AAW-986
MF $1.08/PC $5.72


Title
-- Draught animal power in Africa : priorities
Authors) for development, research and liaison
Starkey, Paul H.
Institutions) -- University of Florida
Meeting F (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
L posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Supplementary Mar 1986, v, 64p. : ill., En
notes) Spanish ed.: PN-AAV-301
Project number C 9311006
Contract/Grant-C AID/DSAN-C-0054
Availability F Also available from: International Council for
noteL Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi

Using experience from Latin America and Asian re-
searchers, this paper discusses the design and testing
of alternatives for producing livestock especially large
ruminants In mixed farm enterprises. Stress is laid on
sedentary mixed farms in which livestock are kept for all
or most of the year within farm boundaries, although
the approaches discussed are meant to apply to, or to
be readily modified to suit, other types of animal produc-
tion systems.


---- Document number

Microfiche/
Paper Copy prices


Serial title
and number, date,
pagination, and
language









Abstract








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


001


PN-AAV-540


MF $1.08/PC $6.37
Study of the role of extension in farming
systems research in Tanzania
Acker, D.G.; Sungusia, D.
Consortium for International Development
Oregon State University
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Africa. Tanzania
Nov 1985, 46p. : charts, map, En
Publication no.112
6210156
AFR-0156-C-00-3033-00
A September 1985 study of the role of extension in
farming systems research (FSR) in Tanzania is sum-
marized. Based primarily on semi-structured interviews
with 10 extension professionals, the study found that
the involvement of extensionists allows FSR to: (1)
reach a wider area by utilizing trained village and dis-
trict level extension personnel; (2) ensure consideration
of the socioeconomic perspective in farm-level diag-
nosis and an adherence to real farmer conditions in
review of technology design; and (3) increase the num-
ber of replications of on-farm trials under close super-
vision and management, while incorporating extension
workers in the process of developing technology. This
paper also includes background information on the Tan-
zania Farming Systems Research project, which spon-
sored the study, a literature review on the role and struc-
ture of extension services relative to agricultural re-
search, recommendations for institutionalizing the FSR
approach in Tanzania (as mandated in a 1983 National
Agricultural Policy directive), and suggestions for further
research. Appendices provide the study questionnaire
and graphically illustrate functional relationships within
FSR.


002


PN-AAW-158
MF $1.08/PC $.26


On farm research into maize : the con-
cept and its implications
Agrawal, B.D.; Sazena, S.C.
Appropriate technology, v.11(4), 1985, p.24-25 : ill.,
chart, En
An on-farm research program was set up in
Bulandshahr and Moradabad, two important maize
growing districts in western Uttar Pradesh, India, to find
out why the improved varieties and techniques
developed through on-station research were not being
adopted by farmers. The same group of researchers
controlled both on-farm and and on-station research,
and as expected, the results of the on-farm trials have


significantly modified station research priorities and
changed recommendations to extension workers. For
example, the farm trials revealed that local varieties
were preferred by farmers because they matured faster
and were more stable under stress than station-
developed varieties; as a result, the best of the local
strains are now being introduced into station breeding
populations, and varieties which mature quickly are
being developed. The trials also helped to establish
guidelines for planting density and fertilizer use. In addi-
tion, the trials quickly showed that soil and climatic con-
ditions at the research station did not represent those
of the Bulandshahr area, so another research program
was established there to help develop better-adapted
varieties.


003


PN-AAW-319
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


From recommendation domains to intra-
household dynamics and back : attempts
at bridging the gender gap
Alberti, Amalia M.
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US,
26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
Feb 1986, 16p., En
9311282

Recommendation domains (RD's), which group
together individual farmers with similar circumstances,
were developed in farming systems research (FSR) as a
methodology for facilitating technology extension. This
paper argues that RD's sensitive to gender issues are
difficult to develop, due to insufficient information on
women's role in agriculture, and if developed, difficult to
implement. The paper: (1) discusses specific
obstacles to identifying gender-sensitive RD's via the
usual methodologies (reviews of secondary data, infor-
mal interviews, exploratory surveys, etc.); (2) proposes
a series of questions to assist researchers in quickly
identifying gender issues relevant to a particular FSR
site (for example: what are the cultural norms regard-
ing women's participation in agriculture?; does participa-
tion vary by social class?; do women specialize in food
production?); and (3) enumerates various deterrents to
utilizing the gender information thus gathered in FSR
projects FSR's tendency to be biased against marginal
farmers (many of whom are women), to be oriented
toward commodity (hence commercial) crops, and to
adapt existing capital-intensive technologies rather than
develop new ones that are affordable to the poor. To


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


truly incorporate gender issues into FSR, it is con-
cluded, the basic unit of analysis must be changed from
the household to the male and female heads within the
household.


004


PN-AAV-924
MF $1.08/PC $.52


Developing pest management strategies
for small farmers based on traditional
knowledge
Altieri, Miguel A.
University of California, San Diego. Dept. of Biology
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985)
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an-
nual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.47-50, En
9310930
For centuries traditional farmers have kept pest
damage within acceptable levels by employing a wide
variety of cultural practices based on local lore and
resources. One such practice is the use of polycul-
tures. Factors involved in pest regulation in polycul-
tures include: increased parasitoid/predator popula-
tions, available alternative prey/hosts for natural
enemies, decreased colonization and reproduction of
pests, feeding inhibition or repellency from non-host
plants, and prevention of movement and emigration.
These elements of natural pest control built into small
farming systems should be examined, so that the valu-
able ones are retained in the course of agricultural mod-
ernization. Thus, traditional knowledge must be con-
sidered to guide changes and attain optimum yields in
regions with low-input agriculture. All development ap-
proaches should be village-based, with emphasis on
self-sufficiency, use of local resources, and indigenous
agricultural regimes. (Author abstract)


005


PN-AAW-159
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Diversification of agricultural landscapes :
a vital element for pest control in sus-
tainable agriculture
Altieri, Miguel A.
Sustainable agriculture and integrated farming systems,
1985, p.166-184 : charts, statistical tables, En
Edens, Thomas C.; Fridgen, Cynthia; Battenfield,
Susan L.


Farmers in developing countries have traditionally
used diverse cropping systems, which control pests bet-
ter than do the monocropping systems typical of U.S.
agriculture today. This paper explores the linkages be-
tween agricultural diversity, arthropod community ecol-
ogy, and the complex factors involved in designing sus-
tainable agroecosystems. Specifically, the paper discus-
ses: (1) the contribution of edges of natural vegetation
to the dynamics of arthropod communities adjacent to
cultivated areas; (2) the comparative ecology of insect
populations in orchards under various successional
stages and management intensities; and (3) the effects
of within-field plant diversity (ie, polycultures,
groundcover, and weed-diverse crop systems) on
arthropod abundance. The paper concludes that the
greatest challenge facing agricultural scientists is to
identify diverse vegetation mixes that provide natural
pest control and are also agronomically acceptable and
economically viable a challenge which may be impos-
sible to meet within the present capital-intensive struc-
ture of agriculture. (Author abstract, modified)


006


PN-AAW-964


MF $1.08/PC $2.47
Insect, weed, and plant disease manage-
ment in multiple cropping systems
Altieri, Miguel A.; Liebman, Matt
Multiple cropping systems, ch.9, 1986, p.183-218: statis-
tical tables, En
Francis, Charles A.

Much evidence suggests that the vegetational diver-
sity involved in multiple cropping (MC) often results in a
significant reduction in insect pest problems as a result
of either crop mixture or ecological mechanisms. This
report reviews the literature on the dynamics of pest,
pathogen, and weed communities in MC systems, with
an emphasis on recent findings. Citing studies from
developing countries, where MC is a way of life for sub-
sistence-level farmers, and studies on monocropping
systems in the United States, the report discusses
hypotheses and related tests concerning the natural
controls that MC provides against insects, as well as
management considerations for MC insect control. Fol-
lowing brief discussions of the effects of MC systems
on plant diseases and nematodes, a section on the ef-
fects of intercropping on weed growth devotes par-
ticular attention to biological factors affecting the inter-
crop/weed balance. A concluding section suggests that
long-term economic and ecological concerns may force
agricultural scientists and U.S. farmers to consider MC
as an alternative to chemical-based agricultural produc-
tion and crop protection. Six pages of references (1929-
84) are included.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


PN-AAV-541


MF $1.08/PC $1.43
Assessing the impact of farming systems
research : framework and problems
Anderson, Jock R.
Agricultural administration, v.20, 1985, p.225-235, En
Farming systems research (FSR) is a feature of the
mandates and programs of several international agricul-
tural research centers and is an accelerating activity
among national research programs. Few attempts have
been made however, to assess its impact, perhaps be-
cause of several difficulties, illustrated herein, inherent
in developing a utility or preference function by which
to assess that impact. The difficulties include the multi-
ple attributes by which agricultural households judge
their achievements and the multiple constraints and
technological relationships under which they operate,
as well as the several challenging tasks of aggregation
(over research projects, target farms, and time) and of
accounting (over individuals and markets). There are,
however, clearly demonstrated advantages in FSR's
role of providing feedback and guidance to research
workers. (Author abstract, modified)


008


PN-AAW-160
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Social ecology of soil erosion in a Colom-
bian farming system
Ashby, Jacqueline A.
International Center for Tropical Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Rural sociology, v.50(3), 1985, p.377-396 : chart, statisti-
cal tables, En
936411104; 9310054
New interest in environmental factors in the sociology
of agriculture has stimulated the development of a "so-
cial ecology" perspective. This paper applies a
socioecological perspective to soil resource degrada-
tion and the implementation of soil conservation policy
in a Colombian farming system. The analysis illustrates
two important themes in social ecology: how interac-
tion between biophysical and social parameters in
agriculture structures farmers' use of natural resources;
and the interpretation of natural resources in terms of
how farmers perceive them. Analysis of the political
economy of the farming system shows how biophysical
and institutional factors create incentives for farmers to
use destructive soil management practices, which are
reflected in norms and values associated with land use
in the farm community and in the farm types which
reflect adaptive strategies for coping with this environ-


ment. The paper concludes that a socioecological
perspective focuses analysis on institutional factors that
cause soil erosion. (Author abstract, modified)


009


PN-AAW-161
MF $1.08/PC $1.95


Economic diversification and risk manage-
ment : constraints to the adoption of
modern rice technologies in the Besut
agricultural development project area
Bailey, Conner
Kajian eckonomi Malaysia, v.19(1), 1982, p.1-15 : statisti-
cal tables, En
The fact that small rice farmers in Malaysia have often
failed to adopt fertilizer-responsive varieties must be
viewed in the light of farmers' broad economic con-
cerns. This study, based on field research in Gong Gun-
cil, Malaysia, shows that farm families engage in a
range of economic activities, i.e., contrary to the as-
sumptions inherent in most agricultural research
projects, they are not full-time rice farmers and not
primarily concerned with maximizing yields from a
single crop. For most, limited farm size necessitates in-
volvement in other agricultural and nonagricultural oc-
cupations. The report reviews the characteristics of
family farms in Gong Guncil, noting the eclectic mix of
traditional and modern rice varieties and techniques
used; the average rice farm size and reasons for it; the
income potential of rice production; alternative income
opportunities, including rubber tapping (the most impor-
tant alternative economic activity); livestock, tobacco,
and fruit production; and non-agricultural sources of in-
come such as marketing, trading, and day labor. Under-
standing the economic diversity and the production con-
straints of Gong Guncil farmers, it is concluded, may en-
courage redirection of research and development ef-
forts away from concentration on single crops and
towards multiple cropping systems and alternative
strategies for increasing rural income.


Vol. IV, 1987


007








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


010


PN-AAW-320
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Farming systems research and extension
in harsh environments : development of a
farmer cooperator approach in Botswana
Baker, D.C.; Norman, D.W.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research and extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.535-555 : statistical
tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The use of farming systems research (FSR)
methodologies in harsh environments is examined in
this case study of the Agricultural Technology Project in
Botswana, with stress on the project's use of farmer
cooperators a limited number of representative
farmers on whose farms research is conducted and
who themselves participate in various research ac-
tivities. After a general discussion of FSR goals in
harsh environments, the report chronicles the develop-
ment of on-farm research in the Botswana project; this
entailed selecting and approving target villages, con-
ducting an exploratory survey, creating a village sample
frame, selecting farmer cooperators, and, after on-farm
research was begun, conducting two surveys to verify
that the villages and farmers chosen were repre-
sentative of the region. A third section outlines the sub-
sequent diagnostic and technology generation activities
carried out under the project and discusses seven
characteristics of the farmer cooperator approach rela-
tive to these activities. The replicability of the Botswana
experience is briefly discussed in conclusion.


011


PN-AAV-925
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Improved sorghum production technology
in northern Nigeria: an assessment
Banta, Thomas A.; Bbuyemusoke, Samm
Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of In-
ternational Programs in Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor)
(Appropriate Technologies for Farmers in Semi-Arid
West Africa Workshop, Ouagadougou, HV, 2-5 Apr
1985)
Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West
Africa, 1985, p.204-217: statistical tables, En
Ohm, Herbert, W.; Nagy, Joseph G.
6980393

The profitability of an improved sorghum production
technology developed in Nigeria and disseminated in
the northern sorghum-growing areas, its effect on farm
income, the level of adoption by farmers, and the
reasons for adoption or non-adoption are examined.
The technology package included improved seed (SK
5912) and recommendations for seed dressing, land
preparation, time of planting, seed rate, interstand spac-
ing, thinning, weeding, and fertilizer. A study con-
ducted 3 years after the end of the extension project
showed that the technology had not been widely
adopted 41% of farmers were using the improved sor-
ghum variety (although always alongside traditional
varieties), but of the recommended practices, only that
regarding seed dressing was in wide use. Gross mar-
gin analysis showed that the practice was profitable per
se, but linear programming revealed that farmers, given
their low resource base, were rational in following in-
digenous methods of sorghum production, which ap-
peared to be relatively more profitable. (The improved
package and indigenous sorghum technology for the
study area are each outlined and compared.) It is con-
cluded that farmers' socioeconomic conditions and
resource base must be considered during technology
development, and that farmers should be incorporated
into the technology development process early on.


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


012


PN-AAV-926
MF $1.08/PC $2.86


Farm experiments on trial
Barker, Randolph; Lightfoot, Clive
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no. 11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.300-321 : statistical
tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Responses to a survey of the staffs of 120 farming
systems research (FSR) projects worldwide are used to
analyze the methodologies used in on-farm field trials,
especially those involving farmer cooperation. An open-
ing section describes the trials themselves in terms of
basic structure and mandate, trial management, re-
search focus, trial design, and level of farmer interac-
tion. Next, key problems and successes that respon-
dents experienced in their farm trials, particularly in rela-
tion to FSR principles, are highlighted. Problems in-
cluded: overambitious designs, lack of physical and
human resources, various problems relating to the sub-
sidization of farmer cooperators, problems with data col-
lection and analysis, a lack of appropriate technology,
and communication difficulties. Factors identified as
contributing to the success of the trials included close
interaction with all actors, flexible designs, clearly
defined responsibilities, and the recognition that good
trials require knowledge of farm-, community-, and na-
tional-level conditions. A concluding section presents
eight propositions to help researchers manage on-farm
trials in a way that accords farmers a major role. A fol-
low-up survey is being conducted to test the relevance
of these propositions. A list of responding projects and
a copy of the survey instrument are appended.


013


PN-AAV-927
MF $1.08/PC $1.04


Resource efficient experimental designs
for on farm research
Barker, T.C.; Francis, C.A.; Krause, G.F.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.403-410, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs


To date, on-farm cropping systems trials have mostly
used experimental designs practically identical to those
used on research stations (the main difference being
fewer treatments and replications) and have lagged (in
comparison to socioeconomic farming systems re-
search) in developing methods for directly involving
farmers. This paper begins by identifying experimental
design criteria needed for on-farm crop research and
by summarizing the utility of four frequently used
designs (i.e., randomized complete block, split plot, lat-
tice, and fractional factorial designs). Next, it discusses
the applicability of two relatively uncommon and "off-the-
shelf' designs augmented and central composite
designs each of which provides at least one unique
benefit. For treatment comparison trials, the aug-
mented design permits flexibility in involving farmers
directly in the definition of treatments. For response es-
timation experiments, the central composite design of-
fers a large reduction in the number of plots required,
and therefore a savings in research and land resources.
Further methodological needs are discussed in con-
clusion.


014


PN-AAV-928
MF $1.08/PC $1.95


Adaptive strategies in peasant agricultural
production
Barlett, Peggy F.
Emory University, Dept. of Anthropology
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
Annual review of anthropology, v.9, 1980, p.545-573, En
9311192
DAN-1192-G-SS-0084-00
The use of anthropological methods in studying
peasant farmer production strategies (PFPS's) is
reviewed. After presenting farmer adaptation as a re-
search framework which integrates the concerns of sub-
stantivist and formalist approaches to research on
PFPS's, the paper delineates two types of environments
that affect PFPS's the natural and the socio-politico-
economic and describes five factors affecting decision-
making at the level of the farm household, widely used
as a unit of analysis: the relationship between popula-
tion density and agricultural intensification, stratification
in farm household access to resources, the influence of
household labor resources, cycles in household resour-
ces and needs, and personality variables. A final sec-
tion reviews two methods used in studying PFPS's -
measuring variables and using cognition-based decision
models and indicates researchers' need to link
relevant production variables to patterns of household
choice. The report concludes that while the holistic ap-
proach of anthropological research has been invaluable


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


to understanding PFPS's, more comprehensive re-
search methods are needed to account for the
response of peasant households to an increasingly com-
plex external environment. A 197-item list of literature
(1945-80) cited in the text is appended.


015


PN-AAV-542


MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Sistemas de production de cultivos :
metodologia de evaluacion dinamica
durante un ano agricola(Systems of cultiva-
tion : methodology of dynamic evaluation
during one agricultural year)
Bejarano, Washington; Cuellar, Miguel
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for
Central American Programs (Sponsor)
May 1981, 26p. : charts, Es
5960083
A system of cultivation may be defined as the whole
range of production-oriented activities, inputs, and tech-
niques which the farmer employs during the agricultural
year. It is this system, along with the physical and
biological characteristics of the area, which determines
the possibilities and limits of local agriculture. The daily
gathering of information on items such as fertilizer ap-
plication, plowing techniques, seeding dates, weeds, in-
sects, soil fertility, and rainfall allows for an unbiased in-
vestigation and the production of analyses useful in solv-
ing production problems. The authors present a
methodology for this data collection process and
reproduce the forms utilized in Panama for this sys-
tematic inventory and diary.


016


PN-AAV-929


MF $1.08/PC $2.99
Agricultural research and extension in
Francophone West Africa : the Senegal ex-
perience
Bingen, R. James; Faye, Jacques
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.70-92: ill., maps, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282


Successful farming systems research (FSR) programs
are the result of a partnership between agricultural re-
searchers, extension workers, and farmers, but often
one or more of these voices is simply not heard. This
paper argues that FSR activities often center around the
agendas of donor agencies and FSR staff, rather than
the needs of farmers, and that the emphasis these inter-
ests place on extension and increased yields often
results in the neglect of agricultural research and farmer
experience. Using the example of the Senegal Institute
for Agricultural Research (ISRA), the paper reviews the
history of agricultural research and extension in
Senegal in terms of institutional development, and dis-
cusses two case studies: first, the contracted research
ISRA has done for SAED (an agency created to develop
the Senegal river valley), which resulted in the subor-
dination of research interests to extension issues; and a
second case in which ISRA's relationship with
SOMIVAC, the development agency for the lower
Casamance region, resulted in more productive
dialogue between extension interests and research
priorities. Given the need for foreign funding of re-
search, the challenge for future FSR design in Senegal
remains to keep the needs of the farmer not the donor
- at the heart of the project.


017


PN-AAW-965


MF $1.08/PC $7.02
Study of farmers intercropping practices
and objectives, and the performance of
maize / cereal patterns, in the upper river
division, 1985
Boughton, Duncan; Senghore, Tom; Langan, Glenn
Mar 1986, [53]p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Findings of a study of farmers' intercropping prac-
tices in The Gambia's Upper River Division, where inter-
cropping is prevalent, are presented. Introductory sec-
tions identify the study's data collection methods (Le.,
farm-level surveys, on-farm experimentation, and litera-
ture review) and detail their implementation. Informa-
tion obtained from seven farm units through the formal
survey is then used to outline existing cropping patterns
and the extent of intercropping in the area. Four inter-
cropping systems were identified, based on the main
crop: maize (maize/late millet and maize/sorghum pat-
terns are diagrammed), groundnut, sorghum, and rice.
While no cases of intercropping with cotton were found,
the possibility of such cases is noted. The report em-
phasizes the special consideration given by farmers to
maize-based cropping systems, due to, inter alia, its
yield stability. To supplement the review of the objec-
tives and rationale for intercropping with an evaluation
of farmer performance, the second half of the paper
presents an agro-economic analysis of two farmer-
managed intercropping trials (maize/milet and


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


maize/sorghum); the study's survey instrument and 26
tables and figures are included. Findings are sum-
marized in a 4-point conclusion.


PN-AAW-966
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Sociocultural factors in multiple cropping
Bradfield, Stillman
Multiple cropping systems, ch.12, 1986, p.267-284, En
Francis, Charles A.
Since 1974, with impetus from legislation requiring
A.I.D. to examine the effects of its programs on the lives
of the people in target areas, and from funding in that
year for social science research in agriculture, social
scientists have been incorporated more fully into multi-
ple cropping research programs. Difficulties in interdis-
ciplinary communication between social and agricultural
scientists have, admittedly, constrained their successful
collaboration; these difficulties affect the definition of
project objectives (should results be measured quantita-
tively or qualitatively?), of appropriate target groups,
and of research methodologies. Nevertheless, this ar-
ticle makes a case for the role of the social scientist in
research oriented toward the small farmer, arguing that
the introduction of superior technologies alone is not
enough to ensure project success; a number of cultural
factors psychological, institutional, and environmental -
should be considered so that agricultural development
can be seen in terms of its social as well as technologi-
cal impact. Specific areas in which social science re-
search is needed are identified to support the argu-
ment. A list of references (1911-84) is included.


PN-AAV-197
MF $8.64/PC $90.22


Techniques for design and analysis of on -
farm experimentation
Caldwell, John; Walecka, Lisette
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Mar 1986, v.p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
FSR/E training units, v.2
9364099
DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00

The second volume of a collection of resources as-
sembled by the Farming Systems Support Project for


training agricultural personnel in farming systems re-
search and extension (FSR/E) methodology, this book
focuses on the effective design and analysis of on-farm
FSR trials. Six units are included, covering the selec-
tion of appropriate testing methods and treatments, trial
design and implementation strategies, the analysis of
trial data, and field level management of FSR trials. Ap-
pended are three supporting documents covering dif-
ferent aspects of trial design, management, and data
analysis: the International Maize and Wheat Improve-
ment Center's "Introduction to Economic Analysis of On-
Farm Experiments Draft Workbook", the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute's "On
Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested Ex-
perimental Procedures," and Hildebrand and Poey's "On
Farm Agronomic Trials in Farming Systems Research
and Extension," which examines the role of trials in tech-
nology development methodology. References,
trainers' notes, and activity handouts are provided as
well.


020


PN-AAW-162
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


Crop livestock systems research in Asia :
design and testing OFR
Calub, Arsenio D.; Roxas, Domingo B.; Carangal, Vir-
gilio R.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Farming systems research paper series paper no.13
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
farming systems research symposium; farming sys-
tems research and extension : food and feed,
1986, p.578-597 : chart, statistical tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

The approach used by the Asian Rice Farming Sys-
tems Network in the design and testing of on-farm re-
search in crop-livestock systems is reported. In recent
years, the Network's methodology has moved incremen-
tally from a cropping systems to a farming systems
focus. After describing the Network's progress in re-
search design, and noting the importance of livestock
and increasing land constraints to smallholder produc-
tion, the report analyzes three current, on-farm trials of
crop-livestock systems in the Philippines, Indonesia,
and Thailand taking both crop and animal production
needs and objectives into consideration, describing re-
search sites (e.g., rainfall patterns), and discussing


018


019


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


methodology. A planning strategy for crop-livestock
systems research is presented in outline form, identify-
ing the system's objectives, socioeconomic research
studies, and biological research components (food
crops, perennial crops, livestock, and mixed crop/live-
stock).


021


PN-AAW-007


MF $1.08/PC $2.60
Rationale and methodology for including
nutritional and dietary assessment in farm-
ing systems research / extension
Campbell, Carolyn E.
Cornell University. Dept. of International Nutrition
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
May 1985, 38p. : charts, En
CRSP working paper, no.85.3E
9311282
AID/DSAN/XII-G-0261; DAN-1155-G-SS-0108-00
A rationale and a three-stage methodology for includ-
ing nutritional and dietary assessments in farming sys-
tems research and extension (FSR/E) is presented.
Reasons for making such assessments include, inter
alia, the importance of nutrition for infant/child health
and education, the unacceptability of income as a
proxy for nutritional status, and the disparity between
the macro- and micro-level impacts of development
projects. The paper also describes the three types of
nutritional tests (biochemical, clinical, and
anthropometric) and the difference between cross-sec-
tional and longitudinal studies in measuring a popula-
tion's nutritional status; outlines methods for assessing
dietary status (the 24-hour recall and food frequency
methods, the study of food habits); and indicates the im-
portance of seasonality for nutrition, especially in arid
lands. The methodology for including these assess-
ments in FSR/E consists of collecting (1) secondary
data, (2) information from community leaders and other
expert contacts, and (3) data from study households. A
discussion of the types of questionnaires to be used in
the household surveys is presented along with
guidelines for writing and conducting the surveys. Spe-
cial attention is given to timing the interview so as not
to interrupt household activities and yet obtain repre-
sentative information. Suggestions are also made for
choosing a research team. A 40-item bibliography
(1857-1984) is appended.


022


PN-AAW-165
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Maitrise du travail du sol en Marais
Poitevin : nouveau point cle de la conduit
des exploitations(Soil treatment in Marais
Poitevin: a new key to farm management)
Capillon, A.; Pellerin, S.
Approche des problems agronomiques en Marais
Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie
regional des exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.219-
228 : ill., charts, statistical tables, Fr
Manchion, Hubert
The results of a survey of soil management practices
in the increasingly cultivated Marais Poitevin area of
France are presented to illustrate the use of a diagnos-
tic technique which matches survey methods to the
techniques practiced. The paper first describes the
local climate and the physical characteristics of the
marais soils. Based on differences in cropping
schedules identified in the survey and reflecting great
variability in the interventions practiced, three types of
soil management techniques are distinguished with
regard to, e.g., in timing of tillage; importance and na-
ture of surface preparation before spring planting; and
weeding, furrowing, and regrowth in the fall. The perfor-
mance of these practices in achieving increased maize
yield is then analyzed. The conclusion emphasizes the
importance of both adequate soil management techni-
ques and of rational organization of the tillage schedule
for maintenance and performance of farming systems,
as well as the need for agronomists to furnish technol-
ogy which responds to constraints specific to a given
type of farming system.


023


PN-AAW-163
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Evolution recent et diversity des exploita-
tions agricoles du Marais Poitevin de Ven-
dee (Recent development and diversity
of farming systems in Marais Poitevin de
Vendee)
Capillon, A.; Tagaux, Marie-Josephe
Aproche des problems agronomiques en Marais
Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie
regional des exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.205-
217 : charts, Fr
Manichon, Hubert
Application of inappropriate agricultural technologies
can be ineffective or even harmful to an existing fanning
system. To avoid this situation, which may be caused
by extrapolation from insufficient sampling, this study
examines the farming systems in the Marais Poitevin de


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Vendee region of France according to their 'functional
types". As defined herein, functional types take into ac-
count not just the farmers' technical or economic
resources, but also such factors as crop combinations
and intensities, level of mechanization, physical charac-
teristics of the soil or land type (e.g., lowlands, drained
or not), and the water management system employed.
Wide-ranging questionnaires given in 1980-81, when
compared with studies through 1960, allow several clas-
sifications and subclassifications of functional types ex-
isting then, called archetypes, and those existing now,
as well as the depiction of trajectories or patterns of
evolution in farming over time. Factors observed in this
analysis include farmer age, years of farm ownership,
capital accumulation, mechanization, and investment in
soil improvement, along with the complementary or
competitive raising of beans and feed crops and of
several types of animals not solely for dairy purposes.
Granting that even all these factors cannot fully explain
the growth or decline of some farms, findings from the
analysis are presented as an aid to organizations in-
volved in regional agricultural development.


024


PN-AAW-1 64


MF $1.08/PC $1.17
Gestion des prairies naturelles en Marais
Poitevin de Vendee : les difficulties d'une
intensification(Management of natural
meadows in Marais Poitevin de Vendee :
the difficulties of one intensification)
Capillon, A.; Taguax, Marie-Josephe
Approche des problems agronomiques en Marais
Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie
regional de exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.229-
237: ill., charts, statistical tables, Fr
Manchion, Hubert

France's Marais de Poitevin de Vendee region has
posed a difficult agricultural problem for years: despite
the introduction of large-scale collective drainage works
about 10 years ago, farmers continue to abandon the
region because of poor development of the grasslands.
An important step in solving this problem is under-
standing the ways in which farmers utilize the natural
prairie (i.e., those areas not served by the drainage
works). All farmers allow grazing on the natural prairie
during the best times of year, but certain farmers rely
on it all year round for feeding their herd. If these
farmers could improve the productivity of the prairie,
they would be able to store feed for the more difficult
times of year, and could thereby increase their herd
size. They face, however, two constraints: (1) the high
cost of the technology needed to intensify grassland
productivity; and (2) lack of compelling impetus (i.e.,
only larger herds require increased fodder production,


but existing low production discourages the building of
large herds). Other farmers in the region (i.e., those
who have benefited from the drainage and use the
natural meadows only when fodder is abundant) are
able to store or buy feed for times of shortage, and
have little motivation to invest in the natural prairie.
Awareness of this situation, the study contends, can be
of great use in designing production systems, especially
for farmers who are constrained to use only natural
prairies.


025


PN-AAW-967


MF $1.08/PC $2.86
Marketing perspective in farming systems
research : attempts of the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development In-
stitute
Chase, Vasantha; George, Calixte
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Oct 1986, 22p. : chart, En
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
CARDI's involvement and experiences in integrating
agricultural marketing concerns into farming systems re-
search (FSR) are described. The introductory section
argues that FSR practitioners should attempt to under-
stand how recommended technologies will perform in
the existing marketing system and how the marketing
system will affect present production systems par-
ticularly in island economies like those in the Eastern
Caribbean. Traditional FSR's inadequate treatment of
the farm as a production/consumption unit and its ten-
dency largely to ignore market variables in the choice
and design of production alternatives is then exposed.
Part three describes CARDI's objective in addressing
production and marketing concerns simultaneously,
and the importance of market studies in creating a sub-
stantial marketing data base which can be used to
focus and guide on-farm trials toward a marketable
product. A case study from St. Lucia demonstrates the
implementation of the FSR marketing perspective. In
conclusion, the importance of on-going, rather than
quick, market studies is stressed to create an iterative
production-marketing linkage.


Vol. IV, 1987


PN-AAW-164









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


026


PN-AAW-321
MF $1.08/PC $1.04


Farming systems research (FSR) applied
to fish production : capture and culture
Chong, Kee-Chai; Ilyas, Sofyan; et al.
Indonesian agricultural research and development
journal, v.7(3&4), 1985, p.35-42 : ill., En
Economic and ecological factors are forcing many of
the world's small-scale fishermen to consider moving
from a capture to a culture orientation, a task which few
are in a position to accomplish easily. Due to the situa-
tional similarities between small-scale agricultural
production systems and fisheries, this paper suggests
that a farming systems research (FSR) approach would
be useful in fish culture development. Two aspects of
the FSR methodology make it particularly beneficial for
helping the myriad of fishermen and fishery methods
which exist: FSR is locale-specific and multi-dimen-
sional. FSR can be used to develop improved (but not
necessarily new) technologies which are consistent with
the desires and circumstances of the target group; intro-
duce new technology as a supplemental or alternative
activity to existing activities; or effect bold changes or
develop new systems. These options are important as
the nature of fisheries changes and better economic
analysis and management methods become requisite.
The development of a competent, multidisciplnary FSR
team, it is concluded, is one of the first steps in guiding
the evolution of the world's fisheries industry.
Guidelines for adapting FSR to the analysis of tropical
fisheries are included.


027


PN-AAW-166


MF $1.08/PC $1.30
Collecting information on rates of work to
evaluate the labour productivity of pos-
sible innovations in OFR / FSP
Collinson, M.P.
Farming systems newsletter, no.24, Jan-Mar 1986, p.4-
13 : charts, statistical tables, En

Eastern and Southern African farmers operating labor
limited systems will use returns to labor at seasonal
peaks as a dominant criterion for evaluating recom-
mended innovations. Researchers need to use the
same criterion in planning and evaluating on-farm ex-
periments. This paper points out some of the problems
involved in using labor data and gives guidance on
sources and methods for collecting rate of work coeffi-
cients for labor on small farms. First, three approaches
to improving productivity during seasonal labor peaks
(i.e., reducing labor requirements, changing the timing
of operations, or increasing labor productivity indirectly,


by increasing yields) are identified, and it is noted that
each approach has its own implications for labor data
requirements. Next, suggestions are given for resolving
three characteristic problems in labor data collection
and use carefully describing the farm operation (e.g.,
planting a bean intercrop) being investigated/modified;
comparing and aggregating data across households of
different age/sex compositions; and dealing with varia-
tions (especially seasonal) in labor coefficients. Lastly,
specific suggestions are made for utilizing five tradition-
al farming systems research methods secondary data
sources, informal farmer surveys, formal surveys (both
frequent- and single-visit), and work study on large trial
plots to obtain labor coefficient information.


028


PN-AAV-543
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Recommendation domains reconsidered
Cornick, Tully R.; Alberti, Amalia M.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research and extension : management
and methodology, [1986], p.236-253 : chart, En
Flora, Cornelia; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review
and Information (Sponsor)
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

Recommendation domains (RD's), the focal point of
farming systems research, are traditionally defined rapid-
ly on the basis of only one or two criteria. It is argued
herein that where a farming system's natural or
socioeconomic conditions (or both) are highly variable,
such a cursory assumption of homogeneity is unwar-
ranted and may foreclose research opportunities spring-
ing from physical or social differences. Pursuing this
reasoning, the paper suggests a refined RD definition,
characterized by explicit examination of the variability of
factors characterizing the target areas and groups and
by a relaxation of the time frame in which RD's are final-
ized. This approach would permit the early conduct of
on-farm field experiments concurrent with an examina-
tion of the factors potentially relevant to RD specifica-
tion. Calling for explicit consideration of subsystem in-
teractions outside the immediate research problem in
order to uncover the complexity of the farming system,
the paper discusses two major factors that should be
considered in developing relevant RD's: (1) the fact
that many small farm systems are distributed across
multiple agroecological zones; and (2) the dynamic na-
ture of farm household composition and relationships


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


(e.g., labor allocation). The effects of these factors on
farmers' cropping patterns, varietal selection, etc., are il-
lustrated with examples from highland Ecuador and
central Philippines.


029


PN-AAW-972
MF $1.08/PC $6.50


Maize on farm research in the District of
Malang
Dahlan, Marsum; Heriyanto; Sunarsedyono; et al.
Malang Research Institute for Food Crops
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
1987, vii, 41p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En
MARIF monograph, no.3
9364099

Appling CIMMYT's approach of on-farm research with
a farming systems perspective, the Malang Research In-
stitute for Food Crops, located in East Java, Indonesia,
has conducted five cycles of research, herein docu-
mented, on the production of non-rice food crops, espe-
cially maize, in the Malang District. Part one sum-
marizes relevant information on crop production sys-
tems, physical and economic circumstances, crop-live-
stock interactions, and maize production practices in
the District. Part two presents a diagnosis of the main
problems associated with maize production (i.e., insect
damage, plant population management, fertilizer
management, and seed quality) and their causes.
Using evidence from the on-farm trials, part three dis-
cusses possible solutions in the areas of plant protec-
tion, plant population, fertilizer management, and variety
trials. Also noted are verification trials conducted on
the consistency of yield responses and net benefits for
the suggested practices. Brief, concluding sections dis-
cuss current research priorities, research methodology,
and foci of upcoming research.


030


PN-AAV-930
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Lugar de la investigation en sistemas de
cultivo en el tratamiento de asuntos del
sorgo como alimento humano(Place of in-
vestigation on cultivation systems in the
subject treatment of sorghum and human
nutrition)
DeWalt, Kathleen M.
University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture
and Natural Resources
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Sorgo en Sistemas de Produccion en America Latina,
Batan, MX, 16-22 Sep 1984)
Sorgo en sistemas de production en America Latina,
1985, p.168-177, Es
Paul, Compton L.; DeWalt, Billie R.
9311254
AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149
Issues relevant to promoting sorghum for human con-
sumption are considered based on an examination of
the use of sorghum in the diet in southern Honduras. A
review of the uses of sorghum in general identifies eight
categories of sorghum-based products, suggesting the
kinds of needs which must be satisfied by varietal re-
search. A survey implemented in southern Honduras
on the consumption of sorghum is described, and the
findings are discussed specifically in terms of sor-
ghum's acceptability and its effects on ascorbic acid
and protein in the diet. The survey showed that: (1) a
great variety of products are derived from sorghum,
many of them equivalent to food prepared with maize
(e.g., tortillas), but in general maize is preferred; (2) lack
of protein is not the limiting factor in the diet in
southern Honduras; and (3) the ascorbic acid provided
by local fruits is adequate. Overall, the paper highlights
the importance of including information on the diet and
nutrition of the rural family in developing and evaluating
agricultural technology.


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


PN-AAX-024
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


032


PN-AAV-931
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


Quantitative model of the livestock system
component of a Bangladesh farm
Dickey, James R.; Jalil, Mirxa A.; Huque, Quazi M.
Emdadul
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.13
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
farming systems symposium; farming systems re-
search and extension : food and feed, Oct 1986,
p.550-577 : statistical tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
To date, little effort has been made in farming sys-
tems research (FSR) to describe quantitative relation-
ships among and between the components of a farming
system. In this study, interrelationships within the live-
stock component on a traditional, totally integrated
Bangladeshi farm are defined by quantifying direct
linkages between animal nutrient sources (on-farm
cropland and off-farm browsing areas) and animal
products (draft power, meat, manure, etc.). On this
farm, the cultivated area provides 87% of animal
nutrients as crop residue and weeds and is almost total-
ly dependent on livestock for draft power. Nutrient
source-animal product linkages are quantified in terms
of dry matter, metabolizable energy, and digestable
protein, and these linkages are combined on each side
to define a seasonal supply and demand balance. The
study also: (1) shows what data are required for quan-
tifying livestock system interrelationships; (2) describes
alternative data collection methods; and (3) suggests
ways of using the results to measure the effects of new
livestock technologies, as well as the effects of crop
technologies on forage supply. Twelve tables and five
figures are included. (Author abstract, modified)


Farming systems in areas of farmer her-
der interaction in semiarid Africa : towards
an appropriate model for investigation
Diop, Mamadou; Livingston, Geoffrey 0.; Campbell,
David J.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.411-427: il., En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The bias in farming systems research (FSR) toward
cropping systems to the relative neglect of livestock sys-
tems is of critical importance in areas such as semiarid
Africa where there is considerable interaction between
farmers and herders. This paper proposes an FSR
model which incorporates the characteristics of both
cropping and livestock systems and reflects the com-
plexity of the interactions between them. The paper
first briefly describes the similarities and differences of
the two systems as found in semiarid Africa. Three key
types of interaction are identified: ecological (livestock
benefit nutritionally from grazing in farming areas, while
farmers have their fields fertilized); trade; and competi-
tion over land use. The suggested model, unlike tradi-
tional FSR, focuses on land use systems rather than
production units (e.g., the farm or the herd) and
analyzes interactions (social, political, economic, and
environmental) over a multi-year period rather than over
the annual cropping cycle. The implications of the
model for research and extension are explored in con-
clusion. One important benefit of the model is that it
would prevent the introduction of interventions which,
by promoting short-term successes in one production
system only, could negatively affect the interactive sys-
tem as a whole over the long-term. A 6-page bibliog-
raphy (1957-85) is included.


Vol. IV, 1987


031








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


033


PN-AAW-008
MF $1.08/PC $.52


Farmers' adaptations to production con-
straints and its implications for agricultural
research : the case of rice production sys-
tems in the Dominican Republic
Doorman, Frans; Perez, Frederico Cuevas
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985)
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an-
nual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.96-99 : charts, statistical
tables, En
Four rice production systems practiced on small
farms in the Dominican Republic are analyzed, and im-
plications are drawn for agricultural research in that
country. These systems are: double cropping, which is
heavily favored by the Dominican government as a
means of achieving self-sufficiency in rice production;
ratooning (a method of producing a crop from tillers
regenerated from the rice stubble after harvesting), the
practice of which the government discourages; and two
marginal systems riso (a kind of second generation
ratoon) and mateo (obtained by allowing seed of the
local tall variety Ingles to germinate in an already estab-
lished crop) which are used only under unfavorable
conditions, when a ratoon or a second crop are not pos-
sible. The paper argues that ratooning is a rational
response to the many infrastructural constraints (e.g.,
water shortages, lack of machinery) faced by small
farmers, and under certain conditions may be more
cost-effective, at both micro and macro levels, than
double cropping. It is recommended that ratooning be
incorporated into national rice research activities.


034 PN-AAW-167
MF $1.08/PC $11.44
Fonctionnement des systems de produc-
tion et utilisation de I'espace dans un vil-
lage du Yatenga : Boukere (Burkina -
Faso) (Functioning of the systems of
production and utilization of space within
the Yatenga village : Boukere (Burkina -
Faso))
Dugue, Marie-Josephe
Burkina Institute for Research in Agronomy and Zoology
International Center for Cooperation in Agronomy
Research for Development. Dept. of Agricultural Sys-
tems
1986, 55p. + 10 annexes : charts, maps, statistical
tables, Fr


Boukere, a small village in Burkina Faso's western
Yatenga Province, is the focus of this farming systems
study, the first in a series of papers examining
Burkinabe farming. The study opens by noting that
Boukere differs in one key regard from other study sites
in Burkina Faso: due to a relatively sparse population,
its land resources have not yet been exploited to
capacity. Subsequent sections of the paper: (1)
describe Boukere's environment (climate, soil, land
forms) and social structure (especially migration pat-
terns); (2) define farming operations in the region (the
primary objective being wet-season production of
cereals for home consumption, followed by that of in-
creasing the animal stock) and delineate the relation-
ships among and between specific farming activities
(e.g., wet-season, dry-season, and winter cropping,
animal husbandry), off-farm production (artisanry, com-
merce), agrarian space, and migratory patterns; (3)
detail the cultural practices utilized for cereal; (4)
develop a typology of Boukere's farming systems,
based on production objectives and subdivided by farm-
ing strategy; (5) trace the evolution of farming systems
in the area from about 1950 to the present, with par-
ticular weight given to the influence of changing environ-
mental factors (especially soil degradation and mid-
season dry periods) and migratory patterns; and finally,
(6) address the capacity of Boukere farming systems to
absorb innovation. The text is supplemented by
numerous tables and graphs. Annexes provide further
data.


035


PN-AAV-932


MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Programs de investigation en produc-
cion (PIP) : una estrategia del INIAP para
Ilegar a los agricultores de menores recur-
sos (Production investigation programs :
an INIAP strategy to reach farmers with
few resources)
Espinosa, Patricio; Moscardi, Edgardo; Palomino, Julio
Ecuador. National Institute of Agricultural Research
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Latin America and the Caribbean. Ecuador (Sponsor)
Oct 1983, 1 p. : charts, Es
Publicacion miscelanea no.45
5180032
Since 1977 Ecuador's National Institute of Agricultural
Research has utilized a strategy of applied, mulitidiscipli-
nary research into farm/livestock production called Los
Programs de Investigacion en Produccion (PIP).
Aimed at developing technologies appropriate to small,
low-resource farmers, PIP essentially complements the
Institute's innovative, on-station research with research
in farmers' fields and with farmer participation; serving


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


also as the Ministry of Agriculture's extension
mechanism, the PIP process involves extensionsists in
the final stages of technology generation. As of 1983,
PIP was being used at 11 locations in Ecuador, includ-
ing areas supporting Ecuador's programs in integrated
rural development. This paper states PIP's objectives
and outlines its methodology in terms of: (1) research
focus and strategies; (2) stages in the technology
development process (descriptive, diagnostic, ex-
perimental, and extension); and (3) specific research
procedures (from definition of recommendation
domains to economic evaluation of technologies). A
final section reviews the accomplishments of PIP to
date.


munications expert be included on an FSR interdiscipli-
nary team.


037

Gender relations and
change : the need for
framework of analysis
Evans, Alison
Jan 1986, 24p., En


PN-AAV-934
MF $1.08/PC $3.25
technological
an integrative


036


PN-AAV-933
MF $1.08/PC $2.34


Communications in FSR team building :
the interdisciplinary research team
Esslinger, Donald L.; McCorkle, Constance M.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.158-175 : ill., En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

A key issue facing farming systems research (FSR) -
communication among members of the interdisciplinary
FSR team is discussed. The paper begins by noting
several communications problems inherent to the re-
search team, e.g., the professional jargon of diverse dis-
ciplines, the tendency of each discipline to define FSR
tasks according to its own methods and models, the
failure of the academic world to reward interdisciplinary
work, and even cultural and socioeconomic differences
among team members. The main section of the paper
suggests means of overcoming these problems. Dis-
cussed in turn are methods for improving communica-
tion in terms of quality (listening skills), frequency
(regular, frequent meetings and semi-formal colloquia),
intensity (retreats, workshops, conferences, and other
forms of informal interaction), and a variety of written
and oral channels, (regular reporting, joint authorship of
articles and joint hands-on activities in the field, informa-
tion sharing, use of translators, and use of visual aids
and of body language). The report concludes that FSR
teams would benefit from exploiting the full range of
communications options available and suggests that,
due to the complex nature of communications, a com-


Farming systems research and extension (FSR/E),
despite its claims to a broad understanding of small
farmers' needs and of the systemic effects of technologi-
cal change on the small farm household, has in practice
failed to adequately consider the impacts of technologi-
cal change on women producers and household mem-
bers. This paper, focusing on the small farm situation
in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests that an alternative
analytic framework is needed to give gender issues ex-
plicit attention within FSR/E. Such a framework should
treat the small farming unit as an interlocking, gendered
system of market production and subsistence economic
and reproductive activities. Key methodological needs
within this framework are to: (1) take into account
household/family forms and composition; (2) explore,
both qualitatively and quantitatively, the degree of
flexibility and substitutability between women's labor
and capital and that of other household members; and
(3) examine, during on-farm FSR/E, the economic role
of household service activities, the strategies used by
women to meet basic household needs, the distribution
of male and female labor over the total production
cycle, and the particular technological and economic
needs of women. Constraints on implementation of
such an FSR/E approach are outlined in a concluding
section.


038


PN-AAW-984
MF $1.08/PC $.65


In the Basse Casamance (Senegal) : from
situation agricole to recommendation
domain (the Djibelor experience)
Fall, Alioune
International Livestock Centre for Africa
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
[1986], [5]p. : maps, En
936411109


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


In order to determine recommendation domains for
the Djibelor area of Senegal's Basse Casamance
region, a farming systems research (FSR) team first
delineated the area into five situations agricoles- a
broad term defined in terms of cropping patterns and
other agricultural factors. Three main criteria were used
to identify the situations agricoles: (1) whether labor is
organized by type of field work or by type of crops; (2)
the use of animal traction; and (3) the lowland
rice/upland crops ratio. A table illustrates the distribu-
tion of these criteria among the situations agricoles; the
potential for developing land preparation technology in
the two situations agricoles in which animal traction is
used is briefly addressed. The conclusion stresses the
importance of sociocultural heterogeneity and physical
environment in conducting FSR in West Africa.


039


PN-AAV-935


MF $1.08/PC $11.31
Economic role of women in a Honduran
peasant community
Fordham, Miriam A.; DeWalt, Billie R.; et al.
University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture
and Natural Resources
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Jun 1985, viii, 80p. : chart, map, statistical tables, En
Socioeconomic constraints to the production, distribu-
tion and consumption of sorghum in southern Hon-
duras, a farming systems approach report, no.3
9311254
AID/DSAN-G-0149

Results are presented of research conducted on
labor, time allocation, and economic roles of women in
three sorghum-producing areas in Honduras in order to
help assess the potential impact on women of changes
in agricultural production. Background information is
presented on anthropological and Marxist theories on
the sexual differentiation of labor; the difficulties in
measuring women's economic contributions, especially
non-market oriented tasks; and family life and labor in
Honduras. Site-specific ethnographic and economic
data are presented and the various strategies by which
women complete household, agricultural, and income-
generating tasks are analyzed based on case studies of
seven women from different household types and
socioeconomic levels. Results show that while most of
the women's time is spent in food preparation and
other household maintenance activities, women also
engage in several income-generating activities, the most
common of which is petty trade of home-produced
foods. The study's results are compared with those of
similar studies in Peru and Burkina Faso, and it is noted


in conclusion that improved design of agricultural re-
search projects will depend on further detailed investiga-
tion of women's economic roles and, specifically, of the
connection between income-generating and household
management activities.


040


PN-AAW-968
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Future perspectives of multiple cropping
Francis, Charles A.
Multiple cropping systems, ch.15, 1986, p.351-370 : ill.,
En
Francis, Charles A.
The agricultural research community is becoming in-
creasingly interested in the potentials offered by multi-
ple cropping, a technology on which most subsistence
farmers in the tropics depend. In light of evidence that
intensive cropping systems are increasing in impor-
tance in much of the world, this article examines: (1)
the biological potentials of a multiple cropping system,
e.g., those achieved through the interactions among
system components (weeds, crops, etc.); (2) the
ecological and environmental consequences of multiple
cropping, such as energy and nutrient cycling; and (3)
the economic and social impact of multiple cropping,
showing, inter alia, that multiple cropping systems
provide income stability and satisfy a range of
climatological, social, and biological variables for low-
resource farmers. Based on the foregoing, an overview
is presented of areas for future research into multiple
cropping. While acknowledging the difficulty of predict-
ing the future global importance of multiple cropping,
especially given the tendency of high technology to
promote monocropping, the article projects ways in
which multiple cropping may be improved (especially in
high-technology applications) to provide a significant
part of the future food supply.


041


PN-AAW-969
MF $1.08/PC $3.12


Land tenure systems and agricultural in-
novations : the case of alley farming in
Nigeria
Francis, Paul
International Livestock Centre for Africa
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Jun 1986, 22p., En
936411109


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Alley farming, the planting of arable crops between
rows of fast-growing, leguminous trees which can
provide fodder or mulch, is a promising alternative to
shifting cultivation, a practice which is being threatened
in Africa by population growth. However, alley farming
requires access to land and the rights to plant, own,
and utilize trees. This paper considers the implications
of land tenure systems in southwest and southeast
Nigeria for the acceptibility and viability of alley farming.
Considerable variation in the rules governing the use
and control of land is seen to exist within and between
the two regions, and any one tenure system may in-
clude a number of categories of land to which different
patterns of use and tenure apply. Broadly speaking,
tenants in the southwest may be disadvantaged as their
rights over hired land do not necessarily include the
right to plant trees. In the southeast, the existence of
communal systems of land ownership and management
on some categories of land undermines the ability to
plant trees and the incentive to invest labor in the main-
tenance of soil fertility. (Author abstract, modified)


042


PN-AAV-535
MF $1.08/PC $3.12


Methodology for conducting reconnais-
sance surveys in Africa
Frankenberger, Timothy R.; Lichte, John L.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Oct 1985, 21p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.10
9364099
Due to the increased emphasis placed on time-effec-
tive diagnostic research techniques in recent farming
systems projects, reconnaissance surveys have come
to play a more critical role in such projects. This paper
identifies the major attributes of reconnaissance surveys
and outlines a stepwise procedure for conducting them.
This procedure is based on the methodology used by
the authors in a recent study in Liberia. Viewed as a
complementary alternative to other informal survey pro-
cedures previously described in the literature, this
presentation will, it is hoped, further the development
and refinement of such techniques. Such fine-tuning
should continue as experience with these techniques ac-
cumulates. Appendices include an 8-page list of the
topics of inquiry in a farming systems reconnaissance
survey for Grand Gedeh, Nimba, and Bong counties in
Liberia. (Author abstract, modified)


043


PN-AAS-248
MF $2.16/PC $25.35


Farming systems research in three coun-
ties in Liberia : a reconnaissance survey in
Grand Gedeh, Nimba, and Bong counties
Frankenberger, Timothy R.; Uchte, John A.; et al.
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Apr 1985, xv, 178p. : statistical tables, En
9364099

A research team comprising an anthropologist, 2
agroeconomists, a soil scientist, and a tree crop re-
searcher conducted a farming system reconnaissance
survey of 19 villages in 3 counties of Liberia. The team
interviewed both husband and wife in 114 farm families,
using a detailed outline. This report presents the major
findings from the survey. The first section of the report
describes the general farming systems characteristics
of the three counties, addressing such topics as access
to land, spatial arrangements of farmers' fields, labor
patterns, cropping patterns (for upland rice, swamp
rice, cassava, sugar cane, groundnut, and tree crops),
animal husbandry, marketing, non-farm income, access
to credit, consumption patterns, community farms, and
government interventions. In the second section, the
same topics are covered, but with respect to each in-
dividual county. The third section identifies crop-
specific and general farming constraints, discusses the
means farmers currently use to cope with these con-
straints, and then presents the survey team's recommen-
dations. (Author abstract, modified)


044


PN-AAV-196


MF $4.32/PC $49.14
Diagnosis in farming systems research
and extension
Franzel, Steve; Odell, Malcolm; et al.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Mar 1986, v.p. : charts, En
9364099
DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00
Presented herein is the first volume of a collection of
resources assembled by the A.I.D. Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP) for use in training agricultural


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


personnel in the farming systems research and exten-
sion (FSR/E) methodology. This volume provides con-
cepts and tools useful in the diagnostic phase of FSR/E.
Nine units are included, covering: (1) the interdiscipli-
nary Interaction of the FSR team; (2) structural and
process models of farming systems; (3) the interaction
of the FSR team with the local farming community; (4)
the development of recommendation domains; (5) data
collection methods; (6) the uses of secondary data and
(7) informal surveys; (8) the advantages and disad-
vantages of formal surveys; and (9) the link between
diagnosis and design in on-farm trials. Although the
units are arranged to provide a coherent training
program, each can also be used independently of the
others. References, trainers' notes, and activity hand-
outs are provided. Appendices include a case study of
on-farm trials in Paraguay, which provides a four-part
practicum for hands-on use by trainees, and Volumes I
and II of FSSP's "Bibliography of Readings in Farming
Systems" (PN-AAR-839, PN-AAU-145).


045


PN-AAW-970
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Farming systems research and extension :
an approach to solving food problems in
Africa
Fresco, Louise 0.; Poats, Susan V.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Food in Sub-Saharan Africa, ch.20, 1986, p.305-331
charts, En
Hansen, Art; McMillan, Della
9364099
The suitability of farming systems research and exten-
sion's (FSR/E) for generating the technology needed to
relieve the stagnation of agricultural development in
Africa is explored. Basic FSR/E concepts and methods
are explained, and the historical development of FSR/E
in Africa is outlined in a discussion which traces the
roots of two, sometimes conflicting, sometimes com-
plementary FSR/E perspectives: Francophone (French
and Belgian initiatives) and Anglophone (contributions
of the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improve-
ment and other international agricultural research
centers). National initiatives in FSR/E and their sources
of donor funding, if applicable, are also described. The
major obstacles facing FSR/E in Africa are then iden-
tified: an insufficiency of shelf technologies, trained per-
sonnel, and infrastructural support; institutional separa-
tion between research and extension; and a tendency
in existing FSR/E programs and projects to neglect
women farmers. A final section explores the possible fu-
ture of FSR/E in Africa.


046


PN-AAV-936
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


New model for technology transference
within FSR/E
Fumagalli, Astolfo; Ortiz, Ramiro; Castillo, Manlio
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.111-122 : ill., En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Guatemala's Institute of Agricultural Science and
Technology (ICTA) has undertaken a new project, in
cooperation with the national crop and livestock exten-
sion services, to generate and transfer appropriate tech-
nology to small family farms. The project is based on a
model known as the Modular System for Technology
Transference, which originated in ICTA experience in
Guatemala's highlands. The opening sections of this
paper describe Guatemala's research and extension sys-
tem, ICTA's development, and its commitment to
promoting both appropriate technology among farmers
and research-extension linkages. The remainder of the
paper is devoted to ICTA's new project, which will effect
a wider diffusion of new technologies by replacing the
farmer education approach of agricultural extension
with the joint participation of farmers, extensionists, and
researchers in technology innovation. Basic features of
the transference effort are outlined, the model for tech-
nology transference described and illustrated, and the
project's implementation strategy detailed with a focus
on the role of rural technology promoters. Essential con-
ditions for the success of interinstitutional projects such
as this are noted in conclusion.


047


PN-AAW-988
MF $1.08/PC $3.90


Process of on farm trial design : the Hon-
duran experience of 1978
Gait, Daniel L.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
27 Sep 1985, iv, 26p. : maps, statistical tables, En


Vol. IV, 1987


047









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


A farming system research (FSR) team's design of a
series of on-farm trials in the Comayagua Valley of Hon-
duras in 1978 is documented. Discussion of the design
process covers, inter alia: "pre-analysis" surveys of the
region; the design and administration of formal and in-
formal farmer surveys; technical design issues, such as
problems in defining the "real" cropping systems being
used in farmer's fields; and political (or institutional)
design issues, centering around relationships between
the FSR team and national commodity researchers.
Detailed discussions of specific design problems en-
countered in each of three recommendation domains
are provided, together with a series of recommenda-
tions on farm sample size, trial replication, plot size,
and the logistics of dividing the FSR team into sub-
teams by domain. Factors cited as key to a successful
design effort include, inter alia, compromise among
members of the FSR team and proper prioritization of
the problems to be solved.


048


PN-AAW-987


MF $1.08/PC $2.99
Farmer participation in farming systems re-
search
Gait, Daniel L.; Mathema, S.B.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
1986, 20p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.15
9364099

Farming systems research (FSR) needs to develop
quicker, more cost-effective methods for including
farmers as co-participants in the research and exten-
sion processes, according to this discussion paper,
which examines issues pertinent to farmer participation
by addressing a series of oft-raised questions about the
role of the farmer in FSR. These questions include: (1)
why has interest in including the farmer in research
decisionmaking increased?; (2) can farmers be viewed
as equal partners in FSR?; (3) do farmers really perform
research?; (4) what can researchers learn from
farmers?; (5) can extensionists work effectively if they
take time to learn from farmers?; (6) is it enough to in-
volve farmers in the design of field trials?; (7) should
farmer participation and agreement be sought at the in-
dividual, the group, the village, or at some higher politi-
cal sub-group level?; (8) do all levels of household
decisionmaking need to be monitored?; and (9) how


does farmer participation affect the roles of formal re-
searchers and extensionists? The paper concludes with
a case study of the development of farmer participation
in FSR in Nepal's Integrated Cereals Project Referen-
ces (1978-86) are included.


049


PN-AAV-544
MF $1.08/PC $4.29


Appropriate technology for smallholders :
some implications of social stratification
for farming systems research
Garrett, Patricia
Cornell University. Dept. of Rural Sociology
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Feb 1984, 29p., En
CRSP working paper, no.84.1E Spanish version: PN-
AAV-578
9311310
AID/DSAN/XII-G-0261
Agricultural technologies have salient socioeconomic
characteristics which make them appropriate or inap-
propriate. This becomes clear when, instead of viewing
smallholders as a homogeneous group, as is usually
done in farming systems research (FSR) literature, we
delineate three strata of smallholders: peasants, petty
commodity producers, and semiproletarians. Concep-
tualizing this stratification on the basis of family labor
power and how its deployment affects the reproduction
(or replacement) of household resources, we find that
technologies aimed at peasant systems, in which
returns to (mostly family) labor are used for subsis-
tence, are not appropriate for petty commodity
producers who use hired labor and who produce for
cash income, or for semiproletarians, who depend most-
ly on income from off-farm labor. The policy implica-
tions of this social stratification for FSR programs are
studied in general and then for each type of
smallholder. A summary of viable FSR objectives for
the three strata, presented in tabular form and
separated into production, marketing, and storage ac-
tivities, concludes the report. A 48-item bibliography
(1956-84) is appended.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


050


PN-AAV-545


MF $1.08/PC $3.12
Some methodological issues in preinter-
vention farming systems research : select-
ing appropriate techniques for data collec-
tion
Garrett, Patricia; Goldstein, Donna
Cornell University. Dept. of Rural Sociology
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
1984, 44p. + attachment: statistical table, En
CRSP working paper, no.84.4E
9311310
Farming systems research currently employs one of
two methodologies at the pre-intervention stage: (1)
rapid diagnostic research, which is practical but unprin-
cipled; and (2) sample surveys, which are principled but
unrealistic. This paper, based on fieldwork in Ecuador,
suggests an alternative approach: different
methodologies should be used for different units of
analysis. Specifically, regional variation can be tapped
by analyzing secondary data, followed by judicious use
of informant interviewing, while socioeconomic variation
can be measured by random surveys with an ap-
propriate questionnaire design. The paper first con-
siders methods of identifying regional variation, discuss-
ing the preparation for and conduct of structured inter-
viewing in subzones which have been identified through
prior analysis of secondary data. Survey research tech-
niques are discussed in the second section, which
begins by considering the universe from which one
might sample and proceeds to the design of question-
naires for specific social strata; this section argues that
survey research allows one to identify with precision
which social strata exist in a subregion. General
methodological issues are analyzed in a concluding sec-
tion which summarizes the strengths and weaknesses
of informant interviewing and survey research, and iden-
tifies some implications for staffing and multidisciplinary
collaboration. A 26-item bibliography (1922-84) is in-
cluded.


051


PN-AAX-025
MF $1.08/PC $4.42


Market interactions of select Baggara tran-
shumants during drought and post
drought periods : the case of south Kor-
dofan, Sudan in 1985
Gillard-Byers, Thomas E.; Azrag, Bakheit A.; Speece,
Mark
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.13
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
farming systems research symposium; farming sys-
tems research and extension : food and feed, Oct
1986, p.652-685 : charts, map, statistical tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

The Baggara transhumants (migratory cattle herders)
of southern Kordofan Province have been the major
source of livestock production in Sudan for many years.
The relative value of livestock and animal products
produced by the Baggara transhumants, however,
varies greatly over time and space as they travel from
one part of the province to the next. This paper studies
the complex relationship of the Baggara transhumants
to the marketplace, using household- and market-level
data collected during 1985, a year of severe drought -
i.e., an extreme case of the seasonal changes in prices
which are the norm for the Baggara. Specifically, the
paper: (1) documents trends in prices at the sub-
regional and regional marketing levels to measure price
differentials for both livestock and non-livestock staple
food commodities; (2) uses this information to describe
the effects of reductions in purchasing power on the
nutritional levels of the typical Baggara household; and
(3) identifies a method and timetable for intervention in
the market to ensure stable prices without increasing
market risk. The study concludes that a 3-year
program providing education in market trends and en-
couraging Baggara transhumants to sell cattle and buy
non-livestock food commodities during the mid dry
season will help protect prices and increase nutritional
levels. Included are a list of references (1963-86), 8
tables, and 10 figures.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


052


PN-AAW-971


MF $1.08/PC $.91
Plant interactions in multiple cropping sys-
tems
Gliessman, Stephen R.
Multiple cropping systems, ch.5, 1986, p.82-95 : ill.,
chart, statistical tables, En
Francis, Charles A.

Understanding interactions among plants in natural
ecosystems can be helpful in designing and managing
multiple cropping systems which conserve resources
and are ecologically balanced. As a guide for research
in this area, this paper proposes the concept of plant in-
terference interactions and adopts a mechanistic ap-
proach to understanding how these interactions func-
tion. Three types of interactions are delineated. (1) A
removal interaction is characterized by one plant's
ability to remove (and utilize) some factor from the en-
vironment, e.g., sunlight, nitrogen, or water, more effi-
ciently than do surrounding plants. (2) An addition reac-
tion occurs when a plants adds something to the en-
vironment, e.g., through the release of allelopathic
chemicals. (3) In contrast to purely additive or removal
interactions, mutualisms (often called symbiosis) can
combine several components of interference. Informa-
tion derived from studies in Tabasco, Mexico, is used to
illustrate plant interactions in the traditional
corn/bean/squash polyculture used throughout
mesoamerica.


053


PN-AAW-009
MF $1.08/PC $.52


Weed control in small farm systems
Hammerton, John L.
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985)
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an-
nual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.133-136 : statistical table,
En
5380099

East Caribbean small farmers spend about 30% of
total crop labor on land preparation and 30% on post-
planting weed control, depending mostly on hand labor,
using cutlasses, hoes, forks, and pulling of weeds. Con-
straints to adopting improved weed control tech-
nologies such as herbicides include limited cash
availability, the practice of mixed- or inter-cropping, and
the complexity of many farm systems. The only her-


bicide used in any quantity is paraquat, which, while in-
effective against many weeds, is economically attrac-
tive. While herbicides can ease the labor of land
preparation and extend the critical period of weed com-
petition, many are susceptible to rain and their species
spectrum is often limited. Under its Farming Systems
Research and Development Project, CARDI is testing in-
tegrated weed control systems for small farmers, focus-
ing on economically and ecologically sound production
environments, into which integrated weed control can
be incorporated with minimal disruption and cost, and
where soil and weather factors present a low risk of
failure. The CARDI program includes component test-
ing and system evaluation both at experimental stations
and on-farm. Basic to the program is a weed control
survey currently underway in several countries. Four
recommendation domains have been identified, based
on the amount of rainfall during both the dry and wet
seasons.


054


PN-AAR-20


MF $1.08/PC $12.09
On farm experimentation : a manual of
suggested experimental procedures
Hammerton, John L; Lauckner, F.B.
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Develop-
ment Office (Sponsor)
Apr 1984, iii, 87p. : ill., charts, En
5380099

Based on experience in the Eastern Caribbean, this
manual provides guidelines in the use of experimental
designs and techniques capable of solving the
problems endemic to on-farm, as distinct from field sta-
tion, research. After briefly defining the terminology
used in on-farm experimentation, the manual discusses
the experimental designs that are particularly useful in
on-farm research. Based on the arrangement of plots
and the allocation of treatments, these designs include
the randomized complete block (the simplest design),
the incomplete block, and the factorial. The designs'
pros and cons and related topics such as replication
and variability are discussed; examples illustrate the use
of each design. The final sections summarize the uni-
que problems encountered in on-farm research (includ-
ing those due to physical, biological, and technical fac-
tors; farmer participation; missing plots or blocks; and
planning, design, management, and data collection re-
quirements) and suggest methods for their resolution.
Appended are an explanation of variance analysis and a
5-item reference list (1957-83).


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


055


PN-AAV-938


MF $1.08/PC $2.73
Management system design and im-
plementation in the CARDI farming sys-
tems research and development project
Hart, Robert D.; Ingle, Marcus D.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.17-37: ill., En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The design and installation of a management system
capable of meeting the multidisciplinary and complex
needs of farming systems research (FSR) projects are
discussed. Section one systematically assesses the
need in FSR to manage: (1) inputs (human and physi-
cal resources, project methodology, financial resources,
technology inputs); (2) the research program (the
analysis-design-evaluation research cycle, the related
yearly review-plan-budget-monitor cycles, and life-of-
project model-building); (3) outputs (alternative tech-
nologies and improved methodologies); and (4) overall
project coordination (the need for a central system is ar-
gued). Section two describes a general FSR project
management system that meets the needs identified in
section one, while section three describes the manage-
ment system of the Caribbean Research and Develop-
ment Institute's (CARDI) FSR project in order to il-
lustrate the characteristics described in section two. A
final section describes an approach to the development
of appropriate management systems and the identifica-
tion of principles that can guide their installation.


056


PN-AAV-939
MF $1.08/PC $.52


Farming systems research : an evolution-
ary approach to implementation
Heinemann, Edward; Biggs, Stephen D.
Journal of agricultural economics, v.36(1), 1985,
p.59-65 : chart, En
Evidence suggests that many farming systems re-
search (FSR) programs have "institutional problems",
that is, difficulties in working effectively with local re-
search institutions. The authors of this paper argue that
these problems are largely the result of the way in
which FSR programs are planned. Too much emphasis
has been attached to developing an FSR methodology
and too little given to understanding the research en-


vironment for which the FSR program is supposedly
designed. An alternative FSR planning approach is
proposed, one which is based on a dialogue between
FSR planners and researchers and which takes explicit
account of the needs, capabilities, and characteristics
of the client research institution. In this way, administra-
tive and institutional issues of implementation are given
consideration from the outset. Such an approach im-
plies that there is no one way to implement FSR
programs. It also implies the need for donors to place
the contribution of FSR into perspective; only with the
active and constructive support of local institutional staff
and farmers can there be self-sustaining, problemsolv-
ing research systems. (Author abstract, modified)


057


*PN-AAU-997
MF $1.08/PC $7.93


Technology and research considerations
in ICRAF's "diagnosis and design" proce-
dures
Huxley, P.A.; Wood, P.J.
International Council for Research in Agroforestry
[1984], 49p. : charts, En
Working paper / International Council for Research in
Agroforestry, no.26
* Also available from: International Council for
Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi,
Kenya
Step-by-step guidelines are presented for the design,
planning, and implementation stages of ICRAF's ap-
proach to developing appropriate agroforestry interven-
tions. Picking up after the pre-diagnosis/diagnosis
stages, which analyze key constraints in a land use sys-
tem and outline the kinds of changes which may be
needed (see "Resources for Agroforestry: Diagnosis
and Design" [PN-AAU-998] and its companion volume
"Guidelines for Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design"),
this paper briefly explains and provides examples for
each of the following 9 steps. The design stage (steps
7-11) identifies possible technologies which could help
to overcome land use constraints ("leverage" points)
and produces a prioritized list of specific technical
proposals for species to be used and management prac-
tices to be tried. The planning stage (steps 12-13) sum-
marizes what can immediately be put into practice while
providing, at the same time, an annotated list of re-
search needs; plans for parallel research and extension
activities are also formulated. Implementation (steps 14-
15) involves preparing specific plans for each of the
proposed technologies regarding objectives, experimen-
tal designs, resource allocation, and methods of data
evaluation. The full procedure concludes with evalua-
tion (step 16). The paper supplements the narrative
with extracts from related writings and with detailed


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


charts to guide the practitioner in the application of the
methodology.


058


PN-AAV-536
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Recognizing structural constraints on im-
plementation of a farming systems ap-
proach within a national agricultural
program : some views from Thailand
Infanger, Craig L.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
[1985], 10p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.9
9364099
The economic and environmental problems constrain-
ing farming systems research (FSR) in the Northeast
Rainfed Agricultural Development Project (NERAD) in
Thailand are analyzed. Major environmental problems
are infertile soils (a fertility classification for Asian soils
is provided) and sparse, erratic rainfall stemming from a
dry monsoon climate. The major economic problems
are a highly risky agricultural situation resulting from
price fluctuations and market volatilty, the negative ef-
fect on farmgate prices of Thailand's trade policies, and
the high cost of credit. Farmer strategy in this situation
is to minimize risk by implementing a low-input, low-out-
put production scheme that focuses first on subsistence
food production and secondly on cropping or off-farm
employment for cash income. Unfortunately, this ration-
al strategy is not endorsed by many agricultural scien-
tists, FSR advocates, or Thai ministry officials. FSR
projects can only succeed, it is concluded, if they work
within the limits of their situation by concentrating on
changes that are biologically feasible, economically vi-
able, and socially acceptable.


059


*PN-AAU-998


MF $4.32/PC $47.84
Resources for agroforestry : diagnosis
and design
International Council for Research in Agroforestry Draft
ed.
Nov 1983, x, 383p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
Working paper / International Counci for Research in
Agroforestry, no.7 Also in: Diagnostic and design
methodology manual series no.2
Also available from: International Council for
Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi,
Kenya
Intended as a resource book to be used in conjunc-
tion with the more skeletal "Guidelines for Agroforestry
Diagnosis and Design", this handbook presents detailed
methodological guidelines, suggested procedures,
analytical tools, and resource materials for use by
agroforestry workers in the field. The book is organized
in three sections which provide: (1) detailed step-by-
step guidelines for each stage in the application of
ICRAF's diagnosis and design (D&D) methodology -
prediagnosis, diagnosis, design, and follow-up planning;
(2) twelve worksheets to facilitate the acquisition and
processing of D&D information (the worksheets provide
a defined set of output targets which give concrete form
and direction to the sequence of interdisciplinary D&D
team activities); and (3) the "heart" of the handbook a
lengthy appendix containing a variety of tools and
materials corresponding to each of the four stages in
agroforestry-oriented D&D, with further step-by-step in-
structions which are either optional or too lengthy for in-
clusion in part one. It is expected that the methodology
will need to be adapted somewhat to fit particular ap-
plications and the needs of the user.


060


Problems
munication
systems


of understanding
at the interface of


PN-AAW-322
MF $1.08/PC $1.95


and com-
knowledge


Jiggins, Janice
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb
1 Mar 1986)
Jan 1986, 13p. + appendix: chart, En

Using examples from Lesotho and northern Zambia,
this paper explores the dichotomy which often exists be-


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


tween the rationality of a farmer and that of a farming
systems researcher or extensionist. Because com-
munication failures are greatest between male re-
searchers and female farmers who are also respon-
sible for household management the paper confines
its analysis to the strategies used by female farmers to
manage seasonal stress. The example from Lesotho il-
lustrates researchers' problems in measuring women's
activities to maintain an adequate fuel supply (a key to
both cropping choices and household food availability),
while that from Zambia underlines the need for re-
searchers to recognize the importance of traditional
local vegetables, which in this case provide certain
dietary benefits not available from modern varieties of
major crops, no matter how abundant. In conclusion,
the paper stresses the importance of methodologies
for: (1) determining key field-household interactions
early on in the diagnostic process; and (2) mutual com-
munication of key concepts across the boundaries of re-
searchers' and female producers' distinct knowledge
systems. Two useful diagnostic instruments are
described: situation analysis based on the critical inci-
dent technique; and peer group workshops.


PN-AAW-169
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Extension's role in adapting and evaluat-
ing new technology for farmers
Johnson S.H. Ill; Kellogg, E.D.
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization
Agricultural extension : a reference manual, 2nd ed.,
1984, p.40-55 : charts, map, statistical tables, En
Swanson, B.E.
The role of extensionists in new approaches to the
development, adaptation, and evaluation of agricultural
technologies are identified in this paper. Problems
which inhibit successful technology adaptation and
evaluation are discussed, and a four-stage approach
designed to alleviate many of these problems is out-
lined: (1) diagnosis of farmers' circumstances and ac-
tions in the target area; (2) planning and design of tech-
nological adaptation; (3) on-farm testing and verifica-
tion; and (4) multi-locational field trials and dissemina-
tion. Specific extension activities in implementing each
of the four stages are identified. A brief concluding sec-
tion on organizational arrangements suggests that na-
tional research and extension departments share staff-
ing, budgetary, and operational responsibilities for on-
farm trials.


062


PN-AAV-546
MF $1.08/PC $1.17


Temporal land resource concerns and
farming systems research : Chiang Mai Val-
ley, northern Thailand
Johnson, Sam H. Ill
Land economics, v.60(2), May 1984, p.202-210 : charts,
statistical tables, En
Farming systems research (FSR), particularly as it is
currently practiced at international agricultural research
centers, concentrates on short-term issues and usually
does not address questions concerning the long-term
sustainability of production increases. The traditional
FSR approach has been depicted as a mathematical
equation in which increased agricultural production
over the short term, the goal of FSR, is dependent on
two variables: farm management and the environment.
This equation, however, ignores the interactions be-
tween the two variables and thus does not include a
mechanism to determine if production increases result-
ing from new management practices are, in fact, sus-
tainable. This point is illustrated with data from an FSR
project to introduce high-yielding varieties (HYV's) of
rice in the Chiang Mai Valley in Northern Thailand. Al-
though the HYV's were successful in the short term,
over the long term they effected marked increases in
soil acidity. This environmental change required
farmers to alter their management techniques (e.g.,
crop rotation, use of fertilizer, labor inputs) and, in turn,
negatively affected farmers' income. It is concluded
that more attention must be paid to the agroecological
dynamics of farming systems, including the long-term ef-
fects of technologies.


063


PN-AAW-973


MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Use of action variables in determining
recommendation domains
Jolly, C.M.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
1986, 11p. : statistical tables, En
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

The use of recommendation domains (RD's) has not
facilitated the transfer of technology in farming systems
research (FSR) as well as originally hoped. This report
explains why and offers an alternative methodology for
identifying RD's. In explaining RD's rather disappointing
results, the report notes that methods previously used


Vol. IV, 1987


061








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


to determine RD's have been subjective and descrip-
tive; farmers have been categorized on the basis of
their use of inputs and other sociological factors rather
than, as is suggested here, on objective, mathematical
analysis of three factors, i.e., output (production level),
measurable inputs, and farming practices. Of these, the
latter two are considered "action variables" because
they can be manipulated to alter the farmers' level of
self-sufficiency. The methodology is illustrated by apply-
ing cluster and discriminant analysis to data from
Senegal's Ziguinchor region on area planted, yield, use
of inputs, cultural practices, food consumption and
marketing, and revenue from off-farm activities. The
results, presented in two tables, show farmers grouped
into four distinct clusters, based on factors including
herbicide use, level of fertilizer use, and labor per area
cultivated. This method, it is concluded, not only allows
researchers to objectively group farmers into RD's, but
permits greater insights into relationships between input
use, cultural practices, and outputs.


064


PN-AAW-974
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Evaluation of technological alternatives for
small farmers in Central America
Jones, Jeffrey R.
Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.9,
1986, p.171-193 : map, statistical tables, En
Jones, Jeffrey R.; Wallace, Ben J.
5960089
In certain farming systems research (FSR) contexts, it
is necessary to conduct on-farm trials of an alternative
technology that is not completely ready for validation.
This occurs in complex, slowly reproducing systems
where the technology being considered will not have
time to mature within the timeframe of the FSR project.
In such cases, the technology must be "evaluated"
rather than "validated," using indirect measures such as
comments by farmers or observations of farm
resources. This paper describes the technology evalua-
tion process used in a mixed animal-crop project imple-
mented by CATIE in Cariari, Costa Rica, and in Com-
ayagua, Honduras. The technologies developed by the
project (e.g., new forage crops) required increased capi-
tal and labor, and it was hypothesized that there could
be conflicting demands on these resources arising from
farmer's alternative goals for their farms and families.
Farmers' goals were determined by using a "paired com-
parison" methodology to analyze the changes in
resource use that would be necessary were the tech-
nologies adopted. The report concludes that: (1) some-
what surprisingly, poorer farmers were more receptive
than wealthier ones to changes requiring financial risk
and sacrifice; and (2) Honduran farmers would much


rather invest in their children's education than in their
farms.


065


PN-AAW-170


MF $1.08/PC $.78
Comparaison d'itneraires techniques : une
method d'experimentation agronomique
en milieu reel(Comparison of technical se-
quences : an approach to agronomic re-
search in the field)
Jouve, Philippe [6]p. : statistical table, Fr, Summaries
in Fr, En, Es

Field experience in Morocco provides the basis for
this analysis of key problems encountered in research
aimed at improving cultivation techniques. These
problems include: (1) the selection of research
priorities and the formulation of prior assumptions in
order to select research themes; (2) the advantages
and disadvantages of pursuing research at an ex-
perimental station and via agricultural surveys aimed at
revealing actual field conditions; (3) the design of experi-
ments comparing technical sequences; and (4) the com-
plementary nature of statistical and agronomic analyses
of the results. The three phases of an experimental
program are summarized. In conclusion, the paper
stresses the importance of developing cultivation techni-
ques that are appropriate to target farmers' resource
levels and of involving extension units early on in the
process of adapting the techniques to local conditions.
(Author abstract, modified)


VoL IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


066


*PN-AAV-682
MF $3.24/PC $28.86


Livestock in mixed farming systems : re-
search methodologies and priorities
Kearl, Steve
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
International Livestock Centre for Africa
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
(Workshop on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems :
Research Methodologies and Priorities, Addis
Ababa, ET, 24-27 Jun 1985)
Jul 1986, vi, 220p. : charts, statistical tables, En
FSSP network report, no.2
9364099
DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00
* Also available from: International Livestock Center for
Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Papers given at a workshop to explore
methodologies and priorities in studying the livestock
component of small farms are presented. Participants
were expected to identify the major constraints in mixed
farming systems, rank them according to their potential
economic importance and amenability to research, and
develop methodological recommendations. Ten papers
are presented, dealing with farming systems research
techniques for, inter alia: alley farming; station work
with draft animals; evaluating on-farm experiments with
livestock in the Ethiopian highlands; dairy systems in
smallholdings in Sudan's Gezira area; mineral require-
ments in animal feeding; socioeconomic methodologies
in studying goat husbandry; and the use of and issues
in on-farm research to improve fodder for agropas-
toralists' livestock in the Nigerian subhumid zone. Also
presented is a paper on correlating the constraints of
the farming and research systems as a prelude to farm-
ing systems research. Summary statements of small
group discussions on on-station and on-farm research
are also included.


Vol. IV, 1987


067


PN-AAW-010


MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Methodologies for conducting on farm
livestock research within mixed farming
systems
Kujawa, Mark A.; Oxley, James W.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
farming systems research symposium; farming sys-
tems research and extension : food and feed,
paper, no.13, Oct 1986, p.532-549, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Methodologies considered important by researchers
in conducting on-farm livestock research (OFLR) are
presented. The areas discussed include: the selection
of the research site and farms; farmer participation and
the use of compensation and incentives; experimental
design (e.g., selection of the livestock sample, control
of environmental effects, replication, and data collection
methods and procedures); and the analysis of research
results (biological, economic, and the use of empirical
data and estimates of acceptability). While these topics
do not represent all the components of OFLR using the
farming systems research approach, they reflect areas
from past experiences which have been emphasized
and well documented. Since OFLR is relatively new, its
methodologies are still developing, and several areas
(e.g., sampling techniques, farmer survey methods, and
site selection) need further development. It is recom-
mended that researchers: modify experimental proce-
dures to fit the particular research environment; limit
OFLR to farmer-managed trials and use measures of ac-
ceptability as test parameters; and provide explicit
descriptions of all methodologies in their published ac-
counts of OFLR. Thirty-two references (1979-86) are
provided.













25








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


068


PN-AAV-940


MF $1.08/PC $1.69
Inclusion of time factors in the design of
on station and on farm trials : a case
study from Kilosa District, Tanzania
Lev, Larry S.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.577-589: ill., map, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
On-farm trials conducted in 12 villages in Tanzania's
Kilosa District are cited as evidence of the importance
of including time factors in farming systems analyses.
An initial section identifies relevant time elements and
criteria for screening proposed innovations, and lists a
variety of short- and long-term time considerations
(noting those commodity researchers are likely to ig-
nore). Described next are the study area's environmen-
tal features, the local agricultural calendar, traditional
farming practices, and the design and implementation
of the on-farm trials, which introduced two new maize
varieties Kito and Staha. Results showed that par-
ticipating farmers unanimously preferred the quick-
maturing Kito over the higher-yielding Staha for various
time-related reasons. (1) Most farmers chose not to
plant maize during the long rains (when Staha produces
best) because they concentrate on cotton and rice at
that time. (2) Planting with Kito during the short rains
permitted farmers to better achieve their main produc-
tion goals hastening their maize harvest to a period
when family supplies are low and market prices are
high, and freeing family labor from February onward
when the rice and cotton crops require much attention.
(3) Farmers felt that Kito's short maturity would allow it
to provide a more stable yield in years when the short
rains are poor.


069


PN-AAW-976


MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Statistical analysis for on farm agronomic
data
Lightfoot, C.
Jul 1985, 18p. : statistical tables, En

To counter the popular belief that statistical analysis
is neither easily understood nor especially useful, this
lecture demonstrates, in a step-by-step manner, its use
in interpreting yield data from an on-farm corn experi-


ment. The paper first demonstrates the meaning of
descriptive statistics, constructing a scatter diagram to
display yield patterns and deriving several measures of
the data: (1) statistical mean, or a measure of the mid-
dle value, which best characterizes data which are not
highly variable; (2) range, the simplest measure of varia-
tion in the data (spread from the lowest to highest
value); and (3) variance, or how closely observations
are grouped around the mean. For interpretation (for
which variance is not always as helpful as it is for statis-
tical tests), use is made of standard deviation (the
square root of the variance), which can be plotted with
the mean for a more complete statistical picture. Statis-
tical analysis is then demonstrated in (1) calculating like-
ly yield outcomes for a given practice at the farmers'
desired level of confidence, and (2) isolating the real ef-
fects of treatments from random chance in the data.
Several assumptions upon which the analyses are
based are noted.


070


PN-AAV-941
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Farmer participation in on farm trials
Lightfoot, Clive
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.525-534 : il., statisti-
cal tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00

Few would deny that farmer participation is man-
datory in quality farming systems research (FSR), but
where on-farm testing is concerned researchers have
often simply transplanted conventional on-station re-
search designs onto farms, hindering meaningful farmer
participation. This paper argues that combining conven-
tional and indigenous research methods exploits farmer
participation in adapting technologies to specific farm
conditions and providing feedback on basic research
needs. Two cases are cited in which farmers have par-
ticipated in on-farm research. In the first, small farmers
in Bangladesh successfully adapted an upland variety
of rice (which had performed poorly in experimental
plots) to lowland flooded conditions; in the second,
Brazilian farmers tested 16 varieties of sweet potatoes,
and their preferences revealed that conventional breed-
ing objectives (e.g., high yield, taste) were inap-
propriate, and that different objectives (vigorous vining,
extended underground storage, and sequential harvest-
ing) and a greater range of types for different strategies


Vol. IV, 1987


PN-AAV-940


PN-AAW-976








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


were demanded. Both examples highlight the difficul-
ties and the potential values of increasing farmer par-
ticipation in on-farm research. Data from the two experi-
ments are appended.


PN-AAU-332
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Conducting on farm research in FSR :
making a good idea work
Lightfoot, Clive; Barker, Randolph
(Farming Systems Research Symposium on Farming
Systems Research and Extension: Implementation
and Monitoring, Manhattan, KS, US, 7-10 Oct 1984)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.9
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming sys-
tems research and extension : implementation and
monitoring, Feb 1986, p.445-455, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review
and Information (Sponsor)
9311282
To increase the adoption of agricultural technologies
developed through farming systems research (FSR),
this report suggests a 3-part methodology incorporating
on-farm research and farmer participation. The first
step is to diagnose the existing farming system and its
production constraints by combining a quick interdis-
ciplinary team survey (the sondeo) with detailed
monitoring and measurement in specific problem areas
that offer potential for research. The second phase is
to select and design innovations for on-farm investiga-
tion using a five-step process in which farmers and re-
searchers prioritize technical options in terms of their
political impact, potential for adoption, and research
costs. The final step is to have farmers conduct on-
farm trials of the innovations (each field trial should in-
clude 20-30 farmers) while researchers focus on collec-
tion and analysis of data; development of site team re-
search capabilities is a related task. In conclusion,
farmer participation in FSR, especially in the early
phases, is critical to the adoption of new technologies.


072


PN-AAW-977
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


071


073


PN-AAV-942
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Gender roles in Caribbean small scale
agriculture
Momsen, Janet Henshall
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(International Conference on Women and Development:
Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Ex-
tension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
Jan 1986, 12p. + 6 attachments : chart, statistical
tables, En


Vol. IV, 1987


Indigenous technology and farming sys-
tems research : agroforestry in the Indian
desert
Mitchie, Barry H.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.11,
1986, p.221-244 : maps, chart, statistical tables, En
Jones, Jeffrey R.; Wallace Ben J.
9311254
DSAN/XII-G-0149

An appreciation of locally developed agricultural prac-
tices is an underlying tenet of farming systems research
(FSR). This case study describes an FSR project con-
ducted in an arid-to-semiarid area in Rajasthan State,
India, whose most significant findings arose not from its
stated focus (pearl millet, pulse, and pest control trials),
but from an anthropological inquiry into indigenous
farming systems. What was discovered was a rainfed
agroforestry system which combined trees, crops,
animal husbandry, and links to fuel and timber con-
cerns. Numerous previous studies (focusing on crops,
crop combinations, and infrastructural development)
had explored the problems of arid land production in
Rajasthan without realizing the potential value of the
agroforestry technology. Such a technology (i.e., one
developed by relatively poor farmers working marginal
lands and utilizing low-cost, locally available inputs)
helps farmers overcome a major problem accompany-
ing agricultural development unequal access to agricul-
tural inputs. The case discussed here shows that the in-
clusion of anthropological methods can help FSR dis-
cover existing systems which may then become targets
of further research aimed at their improvement or
propagation.








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Ester Boserup, in her analysis (1970) of Jamaican
agriculture, posited that the high proportion of women
farmers in Jamaica stemmed from the preservation of
African farming traditions by a population mainly de-
scended from African slaves. This paper analyzes
Boserup's hypothesis using both historical sources and
contemporary field data. Examined from a historical
perspective are women's roles in the "formal" and "infor-
mal" plantation economy and the post-emancipation
division of labor. Current issues which are discussed in-
clude women's economic roles (i.e., as peasant
farmers, and in the agricultural labor force) and the
gender divisions of labor. The paper highlights a grow-
ing conflict in the lives of rural West Indian women (i.e.,
they remain tied to home-based tasks, despite in-
creased educational and non-farm employment oppor-
tunities) and concludes that the efficiency of West In-
dian peasant agriculture, which relies so heavily upon
women, requires the resolution of this conflict.


074


PN-AAV-537


MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Decade of on-farm research in lowland
rice based farming systems : some les-
sons
Morris, Richard A.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Conference on Farming Systems Research, 4th,
Manhattan, KS, US, Oct 1984)
Oct 1984, 27p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.6
9364099

While rice is and must remain the dominant food crop
in tropical Asia, efforts to increase cropping frequency
by growing other species in sequence with rice is a
promising means of increasing both food production
and rural employment. The four sections of this paper:
(1) provide the raison d'etre for on-farm, rice-based
cropping systems research (CSR) in tropical Asia, as
practiced by the International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI); (2) describe the on-farm CSR methods used by
IRRI; (3) summarize agronomic research findings from
three lowland rice environments; and (4) discuss or-
ganizational issues important to on-farm CSR which ap-
pear to require a few years of experience before they
are recognized. The lessons discussed in Section 4
primarily relate to project relationships with farmers, ex-
tensionists, community leaders, and with research sta-
tion-oriented scientists who are responsible for generat-
ing appropriate technology. (Author abstract, modified)


075


PN-AAV-276


MF $1.08/PC $5.07
Technology evaluation, policy change and
farmer adoption in Burkina-Faso
Nagy, Joseph; Ames, Linda L; Ohm, Herbert
Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of In-
ternational Programs in Agriculture
Purdue University. International Education and Research
Purdue University. Farming Systems Unit of the Semi-
Arid Food Grain Research and Development Program
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor)
(Farming Systems Symposium, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-
16 Oct 1985)
Oct 1985, 26p. + attachments : map, statistical tables,
En
French ed.: PN-AAV-277
6980393
AID/AFR-C-1472
Two major constraints to increased agricultural
production in Burkina Faso are poor sol fertility and in-
adequate water retention. This paper presents the
results of field trials and socioeconomic analyses of the
benefits of tied ridges and fertilizer for sorghum crop-
ping. After a researcher-managed trial using commer-
cial fertilizer and tied ridges constructed 30-35 days
after planting resulted in a 195% yield increase over
traditional practices, a series of farmer-managed trials
was conducted in five different villages to compare tradi-
tional practices, tied ridges, low levels of fertilizer, and
combinations of all three, both with and without animal
traction. Linear programming was used to analyze the
technology interventions in a whole farm context Tied
ridges and fertilizer, when used alone, showed good
results (although fertilizer alone carried high risk), but
the combination of the two produced superior yields.
Both technologies showed poor adoption rates,
however, due on the one hand to lack of cash resour-
ces to buy fertilizer and on the other to lack of sufficient
labor to construct and maintain tied ridges. The intro-
duction of mechanical ridge tiers reduced labor, but re-
quired animal traction and still more cash. In short, the
improved technologies are likely to be adopted only by
families with sufficient access to credit and animal trac-
tion.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


076


PN-AAW-171


MF $1.08/PC $1.43
Farming systems research model in Zim-
babwe
Ndimande, B.N.; Avila, M.
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Proceedings of the second monitoring tour : crop live-
stock systems research, Nepal and Indonesia,
[1985], p.126-136 : chart, statistical table, En
936411102
The Farming Systems Research Unit (FSRU) estab-
lished in 1980 within Zimbabwe's Department of
Research and Specialist Services is delineated. An ini-
tial section reviews the Unit's evolution, organizational
structure, objectives, and major programmatic thrusts
and activities. Attention is then turned to crop/livestock
systems research, an FSRU subprogram as of 1984.
Key aspects of such research in general and in the Zim-
babwe model are discussed the design of crop/live-
stock systems research, the structure and function of
the farming system, research team composition and in-
teraction, objectives, and on-farm experimentation with
animals. This model, it is remarked in conclusion, was
developed in accordance with circumstances prevailing
in Zimbabwe, and was left unchanged after a first year
assessment.


077


PN-AAW-978
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Potential role of farmer field days in the
integration of research and extension
programs : the experience of adaptive re-
search planning team in Western
Province, Zambia
Ndiyoi, Mukelabai
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
1986, [21]p. : charts, En
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Close and continuous interaction between research
and extension workers is now seen as a key activity in
the generation and dissemination of appropriate agricul-
tural technologies. This paper argues that farmer field-
days can effectively demonstrate research and exten-
sion activities to farmers, and provide researchers and


extensionists with a needed interaction based on the in-
terests of the farmer. The Adaptive Research Planning
Team in Western Province, Zambia, has sponsored
three farmer field-days; based on this experience, the
paper discusses issues important to the conduct of a
successful field-day: planning the field-day, within the
larger research program and for a single session;
presenting unfamiliar and complex technical and statisti-
cal information to farmers; and leading discussions with
farmers that permit them to share their experience and
articulate specific problems. The paper concludes that,
in addition to being an effective communication tool,
farmer field-days can help refocus program formulation
for greater integration of research and extension efforts
to address specific farmer problems. Appended is a
detailed description of a February 1983 field-day.


078


PN-AAW-011
MF $1.08/PC $3.12


Soil tillage and water conservation in semi-
arid west Africa
Nicou, R.; Charreau, C.
Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of In-
ternational Programs in Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor)
Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid west
Africa, 1985, p.9-32 : charts, statistical tables, En
Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G.
6980393
Root development of annual crops in semiarid West
Africa often suffers due to poor soil conditions and to
erosion and runoff caused by irregular, intense rainfall.
This study surveys the physical properties of West
African soils (which are generally characterized by
sandy-clayey upper horizons) and examines the ad-
vantages of tillage for improving soil properties
(porosity, water retention, and microbial activity) and for
increasing root growth and crop yields. The difficulties
in extending tillage to farmers in semiarid West Africa
are also considered, after which specific tillage and
other water conservation techniques are discussed at
some length. These include tillage with tines, dry deep
plowing, ridging and mounding, the use of tied ridges,
and mulching. It is concluded that no one technique is
universally effective; rather, results depend on a number
of variables, such as climate, soil chemistry, vegetation
and farming practices. Also, socioeconomic factors
(e.g., the expense of motorization needed for deep
plowing, or the amount of hand labor required by tied
ridges) limit the number of workable options. Four
figures and nine tables are included.


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


079


PN-AAV-943
MF $1.08/PC $4.94


Integrating intra-household dynamics into
farming systems projects
Norem, Rosalie Huisinga
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(International Conference on Women and Development:
Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Ex-
tension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
1986, 23p. + appendix : statistical tables, En
9311282
DAN-1282-G-SS-0101-00

As a first step in developing guidelines for the sys-
tematic use of household data in farming systems
projects, a survey was conducted of 17 projects which
had collected household-level data. This preliminary
analysis of survey results identifies: (1) the extent to
which the projects collected and used data on
household members' demographic characteristics, par-
ticipation in activities and decisionmaking, and access
to production resources, as well as on household in-
come, expenditures, benefits from farm production, and
food consumption and nutrition; and (2) the data collec-
tion methods used by the projects (e.g., pre-existing or
project-conducted formal surveys, community inform-
ants, team members' personal knowledge, observation,
and sondeos). The analysis indicates that there is a
wide variation in the kinds of data being collected.
Data are most often collected from heads of
households, a fact which may make it difficult to use
the household as a unit of analysis in some cases. The
need for standardized data collection sensitive enough
to capture information from a variety of respondents is
noted. Appended are a copy of the survey question-
naire and tables identifying the projects surveyed and
presenting findings in statistical form.


080


PN-AAR-868
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Some problems in the implementation of
agricultural research projects with a farm-
ing systems perspective
Norman, David W.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
[1984], 11p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.3
9364099

Design, start-up, and implementation problems in
farming systems research (FSR) projects are discussed
in this report, based on the author's experience in
Botswana. To avoid problems at the design stage, na-
tional, donor, and contract personnel must understand
the nature of FSR and their respective roles in the FSR
project. At the start-up stage, it is essential to set up
suitable administrative procedures and support sys-
tems, ensure interagency linkages within national
programs, and bring together FSR teams and initiate a
relevant and effective work program. During implementa-
tion, the key needs are to produce useful results and to
institutionalize the FSR process within a national setting.
The former depends mostly on the dissemination of im-
proved and farmer-acceptable technologies, the use of
proper data collection and analysis techniques, and the
FSR team's adaptability to unexpected events. The
likelihood of institutionalizing FSR depends on the
project's credibility, the availability of trained and
motivated nationals to continue the work, and the ability
to produce results with a minimum of research resour-
ces. Also required is a conscious effort early on to in-
tegrate the project with other groups and projects
within the country setting.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


081


PN-AAW-012
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Limits of farming systems research and
development : should development ad-
ministrators be interested?
Oasa, Edmund K.; Swanson, Louis E.
Agricultural administration, v.23, 1986, p.1-21, En
9311254
AID/DSAN-G-0149
The assumptions of farming systems research (FSR)
are similar to those of the alternative (or appropriate)
technology movement (ATM), and much of the criticism
of ATM is applicable to FSR as well. ATM and FSR
have tended to ignore macroeconomic and social struc-
tures that limit "bottom-up" development efforts, and
both have therefore accepted, at least implicitly, the prin-
ciple of technological determinism. However, the
simple introduction of alternative technologies is not suf-
ficient to achieve FSR's goal of providing sustained
socioeconomic benefits to small farmers. Technological
advances tend in practice to be uneven in their benefits
to farmers and relatively short-lived in their ability to
provide a comparative advantage to early adopters. As
the experience of the Green Revolution and of agricul-
tural technology development in the United States indi-
cates, commercial commodity and capital markets in-
evitably expropriate much if not all of the value created
by new technologies. In sum, FSR can be a useful re-
search method, but it has serious shortcomings as a
development strategy. Unless FSR can develop market
structures that distribute technological benefits equally,
it, like the Green Revolution, will fail. A 35-item bibliog-
raphy (1971-85) is included.


082


PN-AAW-979
MF $1.08/PC $2.47


Study of farmer's adaptation of upland rice
to rainfed bunded conditions
Ocado, Francisco D.; Jumaday, Antonio D.; et al.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Asia and Near East. Philippines (Sponsor)
Jan 1986, 19p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Working paper / Farming Systems Development
Project, Eastern Visayas, no.3
4920356
Flash flooding during November of 1983 destroyed
much of the lowland rice crop of farmers in
Bangladesh, leaving them short of standard lowland
variety seed supplies (typically IR36 and IR42). To solve
this problem, farmers decided to try the upland rice
variety UPL-Ri5 in their lowland bunded plots. This
study analyzes the results of this experiment in terms of
crop yield and quality. At the conclusion of the tradition-


al lowland growing season in April, farmers generally as-
sessed the performance of the UPL-Ri5 as comparable
with standard lowland varieties. Although the upland
variety produced on the average fewer tillers, all farmers
commented favorably on its panicle exertion and good
head fill, and its maturity period of between three to five
months was comparable with the lowland varieties.
Overall grain yields were comparable as well. These
favorable assessments were supported by continued
use of UPL-Ri5 in lowland bunded conditions, especially
in the driest parts of the parcel due to the variety's
lesser tolerance of waterlogging. A total of 15 charts
and figures are provided.


083


PN-AAW-013


MF $1.08/PC $1.69
Complementary effects of tied ridging and
fertilization with cultivation by hand and
donkey and ox traction
Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G.; Sawadogo, Sibiri
Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of In-
ternational Programs in Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor)
Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West
Africa, 1985, p.61-73 : statistical tables, En
Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G.
6980393
Three farmer-managed trials were conducted on
fields of subsistence farmers in one to five agronomical-
ly diverse villages in Burkina Faso, using combinations
of tied ridges (TR), fertilization, and human and animal
traction to increase production of maize, sorghum, and
millet. Results, which were evaluated in terms of crop
yields and cash and labor needed to produce the crop
in order to determine economic returns from investment
in TR and fertilizers, were as follows. (1) Construction
of TR's can significantly increase cereal crop yields
throughout the Central Plateau. Since the large amount
of labor involved constrains TR construction, the
mechanical tied ridger offers a promising but still un-
tested alternative. (2) Fertilization with minimal
amounts of cotton fertilizer (100 hg/ha) plus 50 kg/a
urea can significantly increase yield. However, sorghum
response to fertilization without TR is variable and risky.
The inconsistent responses to fertilization with VP1,
UV5, and urea compared to the more consistent respon-
ses from cotton fertilizer suggests that more research is
needed to characterize soils for concentrations of a
broad range of nutrient elements essential for crop
growth. Farmers with larger than average land holdings
- and more capital are best able and more likely to
adopt the new technologies.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


084


PN-AAV-944
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Small ruminant production in mixed farm-
ing systems : case studies in research
design
Okali, C.; Knipscheer, H.C.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.428-443 : ill., En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Methodological problems encountered when design-
ing on-farm mixed farming experiments are examined
herein. First, the paper describes two small ruminant
production systems, one in Java, Indonesia, the other in
the humid zone of West Africa, to highlight key features
of small farm systems that should determine the way in
which on-farm research is designed. Second, the ex-
periences of small ruminant research teams working in
these areas, and of other research programs working in
similar farming system contexts, are used to
demonstrate problems in conventional trial designs and
the value of a broader view. Specifically, discussion is
given to four methodological problems which derive
primarily from viewing on-farm research as the trial of
technologies by individual producing units. These
problems concern: (1) identifying the units of produc-
tion which will be the focus of research; (2) collecting
data sufficient for conventional statistical analysis where
small ruminants are a secondary or minor enterprise;
(3) classifying producers for the purposes of sampling
and trials given the variability in producers' livestock,
management, and type and use of labor; and (4) design-
ing on-farm trials to ensure that results can be repli-
cated by farmers. A 38-item list of mainly post-1980
references is appended.


085


PN-AAV-945
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Role of women farmers in the choosing of
species for agroforestry farming systems
in rural areas of Ghana
Owusu-Bempah, Kofi
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(International Conference on Women and Development
: Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and
Extension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
1986, 19p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En
9311282
DAN-1282-G-SS-0101 -00
Choosing species that satisfy food, nutrition, fuel-
wood, and health problems of farm families is an impor-
tant factor in promoting acceptability of an agroforestry
package. Ghanaian farmers have a rich tradition of con-
serving certain trees on their traditional agroforestry
farms in order to provide for basic forest products. This
paper reviews a case study survey conducted to iden-
tify useful local species for an ongoing research and
development program on agroforestry farming systems
in the forest-savannah transitional zone of Ghana.
Analysis of the data showed that women farmers are
better conservators and more resourceful than their
male counterparts. It is recommended that researchers
consider directly involving women, especially during for-
mal and informal surveys for collecting data on
agroforestry species. Traditional subsistence
agroforestry farmers, mostly women, capable of selling
between 45-50% of their surplus products, acknow-
ledged the benefits of agroforestry and suggested the
most useful trees for new agroforestry systems. Briefly
described is a proposal for an on-farm research effort in-
volving some selected species to be conducted jointly
by women and barefootr' agroforesters i.e., agricul-
turist-foresters with basic training who have settled
within a rural farming community as full-time farmers, as
on-farm researchers, and as extension agents who use
local farms to demonstrate agroforestry technology.
(Author abstract, modified)


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


086 PN-AAW-980
MF $1.08/PC $2.21
Research methods for multiple cropping
Parkhurst, Anne M.; Francis, Charles A.
Multiple cropping systems, ch.12, 1986, p.285-316 : ill.,
charts, statistical tables, En
Francis, Charles A.
The development of adequate research methodologies
for multiple cropping systems has been hampered by re-
searchers' tendency to experiment within monocrop sys-
tems. In farming systems research (FSR), this tendency
is further complicated by the need to integrate cultural
and socioeconomic factors related to the farm environ-
ment into agricultural research. This paper discusses at
length the problems involved in designing multicrop ex-
periments by: (1) describing the complexity of multi-
cropping research questions (which involve genetic, cul-
tural, and climatic factors); (2) discussing different
strategies for identifying factors that most constrain
production; (3) establishing research priorities (use of a
matrix to organize information and quantify priorities is
proposed and exemplified); (4) explaining various ex-
periment design options for component research and
evaluation; and (5) treating the role of interdisciplinary
FSR in validating technologies. Examples are used
from both monocrop and multicrop experiment designs.
References (1967-85), seven tables, and seven figures
are included.


PN-AAV-538
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


Introduction a I'approche recherche /
developpement des systems de produc-
tion et a la method de recherche en
milieu paysan (Introduction of the re-
search and development approach to
production systems and a method of re-
search in a rural setting)
Pascal, Fotzo Tagne
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
[1985], 18p. : chart, Fr
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.11
9364099
The recent turn to on-farm research in developing
countries stems from the inability of traditional western
research models to effect improved agricultural produc-
tivity or well-being among poor farmers. This report
describes the objectives of on-farm research, emphasiz-


Vol. IV, 1987


ing its interdisciplinary nature, and describes its 5-stage
process of: problem diagnosis; identification of pos-
sible solutions; on-farm testing, both researcher-
managed and farmer-managed; evaluation of the ac-
ceptability of the technology within the entire farm
household; and transfer of the technology through ex-
tension. Practical guidelines are offered for the selec-
tion of test sites and participating farmers, the design of
the data collection instrument and supervision of data
collection, and data analysis. A final section presents
four ideas which together reinforce the paper's theme
that the multi-faceted aspects of a farmer's situation
(i.e., social, economic, and environmental) require a
comprehensive agricultural research methodology. A
21-item (1976-85) bibliography of French and English
titles is appended.


088


PN-AAW-323
MF $1.08/PC $3.51


Farming systems research at Khon Kaen
University, Thailand
Patanothai, Aran
International Rice Research Institute
Indonesia. Ministry of Public Works. Directorate General
of Water Resources Development. Directorate of
Rivers
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Proceedings of the second monitoring tour : crop live-
stock systems research, Nepal and Indonesia,
[1985], p.88-114 : chart, En
936411102
Agriculture in the undulating lands of northeast
Thailand typically consists of monocropping dryland
rice as a subsistence crop in depression areas and field
crops (cassava, kenaf, and corn) as a cash crop in
upland areas; livestock raising is also an important fea-
ture. The three-stage evolution of a farming systems re-
search (FSR) project begun in 1975 in northeast
Thailand by Khon Kaen University is described in this
paper. (1) In its early stage (1975-80), Khon Kaen
focused on the mini-watershed agroecosystem of the
Korat Triangle to develop discrete cropping patterns for
upland, upper paddy, and lowland paddy areas. A
large number of patterns were tested, initially on the
university farm and/or rented farmers' fields and later by
farmer cooperators. (2) With the limited adoption of
promising cropping patterns, Khon Kaen began in 1981
to expand its FSR approach by studying farmers' actual
practices and to employ the methods and concepts of
human ecology, agroecosystem analysis, and rapid
rural appraisal. (3) With the 1984 inclusion under the
AID-supported Rainfed Farming Systems Research
Project of the animal subsystem, Khon Kaen research


33


087








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


now integrates crop, animal, and social science into full-
scheme FSR.


089 PN-AAV-632
MF $1.08/PC $.65
Livestock component farming systems re-
search in Java : the case for work with
women
Petheram, R.J.; Basuno, Edi
Agricultural administration, v.21, 1986, p.119-127, En

The potential for improving the productivity of
Javanese livestock has been demonstrated under re-
search station conditions, yet little improvement in vil-
lage production has been achieved. Slow progress to
date may be partly associated with practical difficulties
in achieving the degree of farmer contact needed in live-
stock research while working mainly with male stock-
rearers; most male rearers spend daylight hours work-
ing away from home and from their stock, and feel too
busy to become involved in trials of new livestock tech-
nology. One approach to increasing progress in live-
stock development would be to promote research
which involves women rearers or the wives of rearers.
The advantages of involving women in village livestock
research include ease of communication during daylight
working hours; interest (and some training) among
women in nutrition, health, and reproductive physiol-
ogy; and the ability of women to manage animals in
farm trials requiring constant supervision. In some vil-
lages women are already involved in group activities,
which can form a ready basis for communicating ideas
on livestock improvement. A livestock program based
on contact with women rearers may require special ef-
forts to encourage women scientists to work in villages.
(Author abstract, modified)


090


PN-AAV-946
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


Farm trials with madura cattle : supple-
ments for village diets
Petheram, R.J.; Prawirodigdo, Susanto; Prasetyo, Hardi
Research Institute for Animal Production
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
[1985], 13p. : chart, statistical tables, En
9311328

Trials of dietary supplements for cattle in two contrast-
ing villages in Madura, Indonesia proved unsuccessful.
Results showed no significant growth response, regard-
less of treatment regime, although a higher growth rate
was seen in Peltong than in Sopaah village (even in con-


trol animals). Moreover, 4 of the 58 sample animals
died from urea poisoning during the trial, despite the
low levels of urea in the supplements and the careful in-
structions provided to farmers. This article, after essay-
ing several possible explanations for the lack of growth
response and for the large difference in growth rates be-
tween villages, identifies problems not resolved in the
design of the trial itself, including baseline variations
among farmers in the ordinary diet fed, the danger of
urea poisoning among less capable farmers, and difficul-
ties in: controlling the quality of the materials in the sup-
plement (even when mixed, as in this case, at a central
location); controlling the frequency of feeding; and en-
suring that cattle in the control group are not fed supple-
ments. While some of these problems can be
remedied, the problems concerned with achieving
proper control raise serious questions about the validity
of farm trials of this nature. In any case, particular atten-
tion should be given to the selection of participating
farmers.


091


PN-AAW-981
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Land classification for livestock farming
systems research and development in Java
Petheram, R.J.; Thahar, Ashari
Indonesian agricultural research and development jour-
nal, v.7(1&2), 1985, p.11-23 : maps, statistical tables.
En

A means of classifying land use for livestock research
and development is presented. The proposed system
is a hierarchical classification in which land area is
categorized through a step-by-step process based on
three criteria known to influence livestock distribution,
farming systems, or productivity. The criteria altitude,
rainfall, and land use were selected after a literature
review and an analysis of national livestock and land
use data in Java, and were tested in the field in West
Java. The first half of the article justifies the use of these
criteria, and not others, for land classification. The
second half outlines the practical application of the land
classification as a basis for: (1) sampling designs for
livestock-related surveys; (2) selection of sites which
are representative of important land units or systems;
(3) dissemination of research results or development op-
portunities; and (4) planning of regional livestock re-
search and development priorities. A list of 37 referen-
ces (1944-84) is provided; among the six appendices
are altitude and rainfall keys and a definitions of major
land use types.


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


092


PN-AAV-681
MF $2.16/PC $22.75


Animal traction in a farming systems
perspective : a farming systems support
project networkshop
Poats, Susan V.; Lichte, John; et al.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
(Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective Net-
workshop, 1st, Kara, TG, 4-8 Mar 1985)
Mar 1985, 187p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, En
FSSP network report, no.1
9364099
DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00
The proceedings from a March 1985 "networkshop"
on Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective
held in Lama Kara, Togo, are presented. Section one
provides an overview, background, and summary of the
networkshop and outlines its five major themes--animal
feeding, technology management, technology adoption,
on-farm research methodologies, and monitoring and
evaluation. Section two contains background presenta-
tions, including a summary of the systems experience
to date related to livestock, an overview of animal trac-
tion research and extension in Africa, and a presenta-
tion of highlights from a previous animal traction net-
workshop in Swaziland. Section three reports on the
networkshop's field trip to animal traction projects in
the Lama Kara region and presents the country reports
of non-Togolese participants. Section four summarizes
small group discussions on the five major themes, while
section five provides concluding statements, a summary
of the participant evaluation, and an outline of the
year's networking plans, to culminate in a second
workshop in 1986. Appendices include a 30-page bibli-
ography, an inventory of animal traction projects, and a
paper on livestock technologies for mixed farms.
(Author abstract, modified)


093


PN-AAW-172


MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Role of women in household production
systems and rice farming in Nepal
Pradhan, Bina
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems,
Manila, PH, 20-30 Sep 1983)
Women in rice farming : proceedings of a conference
on women in rice farming systems, 1985, p.257-286 :
charts, statistical tables, En
9364111
The economic importance of women as primary
agricultural producers in family farm and household
production systems in rice growing areas of Nepal is
discussed. An initial section analyzes the relative par-
ticipation of women and men, and the variables affect-
ing women's participation, in the three sectors of the
rural economy: family farm enterprises, the local
market economy, and migration for employment. Sec-
tion two presents an analysis, supported by several
statistical charts, of women's role in family rice farming
in terms of the use of fertilizer, labor systems and the
division of labor in agriculture, the cycle of male/female
agricultural work patterns, and the decisionmaking role
of women in agriculture. Sections three and four dis-
cuss, respectively, the impact of new technology on
women and women's access to institutional credit.
Recommendations for improving women's ability to
compete in the market by increasing their access to
technology, credit, and extension conclude the report.


094


PN-AAV-947
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Farm labor by age and sex in
northwestern Syria : implications for two
proposed technologies
Rassam, Andree
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.272-287 : statistical
tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00


Vol. IV, 1987









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


An assessment was made of the potential effects on
household labor of two legume cultivars being con-
sidered for introduction in northwest Syria: (1) lentil cul-
tivars suitable for mechanical harvesting and (2) chick-
pea cultivars resistant to ascochyta blight, and thus
suitable for early sowing. Data were gathered from 47
households from two agroclimatic zones in the Azaz dis-
trict, north of Aleppo; the zones differed mainly in that
one zone had virtually no chickpea production. Informa-
tion was collected from both the husband and wife of
each household regarding the composition of the
household, cropping systems and practices (including
division of labor), livestock activities, harvesting opera-
tions, household income, and attitudes towards the
proposed technologies. It was concluded that women
would be most affected by the new cultivars. The
mechanized harvesting of lentils would displace female
laborers who have little opportunity for non-agricultural
employment. Chickpeas, if added to the cropping sys-
tem, would require more weeding, which is generally a
woman's task. Six tables are appended.


095


PN-AAW-982


MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Getting marketing into farming systems re-
search : a case study from western Sudan
Reeves, Edward B.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.6,
1986, p.99-121 : statistical tables, En
Jones, Jeffery R.; Wallace, Ben J.
9311254

The role of the economic anthropologist in integrating
marketing concerns into farming systems research
(FSR) is discussed. The anthropologist's contribution
lies in an emphasis on direct observation and be-
havioral analysis of farmer strategies for adapting to
macro-level market conditions. How such observation
may contribute to FSR is illustrated using the partial
budget analysis procedure advocated by CIMMYT. Par-
tial budget analysis is a type of marginal economic
analysis which analyzes not the profit or loss to the
farm as a whole, but the net increase or decrease in
farm income resulting from the adoption of a new tech-
nology. The analysis, described herein, consists of: (1)
calculating average net benefits for each agronomic
treatment, estimating variable costs and subtracting
them from gross field benefit to obtain the net benefit;
(2) selecting a recommended treatment using marginal
analysis; and (3) checking the suitability of the recom-
mendation with respect to yield and price variability.
The procedure is critiqued with reference to a case
study of farmer marketing strategies in the el-Obeid


area of Western Sudan. The paper concludes that an
anthropologist's concern with understanding farmer
marketing strategies can tie together the micro-level,
technical concerns of agriculturalists and the macro-
level, institutional concerns of agricultural economists.


096


*PN-AAU-999
MF $1.08/PC $5.20


Women, trees and tenure : implications for
agroforestry research and development
Rocheleau, Dianne E.
International Council for Research in Agroforestry
(International Workshop on Tenure Issues in
Agroforestry, Nairobi, KE, 26-30 May 1985)
1985, 28p. + attachment, En


* Also
Research
Kenya


available from: International Council for
in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi,


Lack of political will and of information on the con-
traints to women's access to productive resources im-
pedes women's potentially large contribution to
agroforestry and social forestry. Focusing on land
tenure as a key information and action point, this report
first identifies differences in men's and women's status -
especially in terms of access to land according to
statutory, civil, and customary law and in land reform
and resettlement programs. The disparity between
women's de jure and de facto rights is also examined.
Next, the male-female division of space (land), time al-
location, labor, expertise, and decisionmaking is
evaluated for its impact on agroforestry and social
forestry projects. Specific courses of action are recom-
mended in regard to agroforestry and social forestry
policy, technology research and development, and
women's participation in rural development. A conclud-
ing note cites larger development programs as a struc-
ture capable of integrating these recommended ap-
proaches and urges that women be allowed to deter-
mine or create the organizations best able to represent
their interests and mediate their participation in
agroforesty and social research efforts.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


097


PN-AAV-949


MF $2.16/PC $15.60
Evaluation des essais en milieu reel sur
les Cultures Associees Mil-Niebe : resul-
tats de la champagne de 1985 (Evaluation
of on farm trials of millet cowpea crop-
ping systems : results from the 1985
season)
Samba, Ly; Deuson, Robert; et al.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Symposium de la Recherche sur Systemes de Produc-
cion Agricole, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Oct 1986, 108p. : ill., charts, map, statistical tables, Fr
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
On-farm trials were conducted on 75 Nigerien farms
in three distinct recommendation domains to test the
performance of improved and traditional varieties of mil-
let under variable conditions. Using a randomized bloc
design, the millet varieties were intercropped with cow-
peas at two density levels with and without fertilizer.
The results show that recommended densities with im-
proved varieties and fertilizer performed best in terms of
yield. When fertilizer was not used, improved millet
varieties planted at the farmers' traditional density level
performed better than with the recommended density.
For cowpeas, there was no pod yield due to a late
season drought, but hay yields at all sites were sig-
nificantly higher with the recommended densities, with
and without fertilizer, than the traditional low density.
Economic analyses were conducted and the following
results were noted: partial budget and dominance
analysis showed the high density, fertilized treatment to
be superior in two of the sites. In the third, where rain-
fall was poor, the treatment with low density, no fer-
tilizer, and improved millet variety was most profitable.
Also, partial budget results were shown to be very sensi-
tive to the price of cowpea hay. (Author abstract,
modified)


098


PN-AAV-547


MF $1.08/PC $2.31
Farming systems research : clarification of
terms and concepts
Sands, Deborah Merrill
Experimental agriculture, v.22, 1986, p.87-104, En
Farming systems research (FSR) has emerged as a
major theme in international agricultural research in the
past decade. However, despite widespread use of the


Vol. IV, 1987


term, its meaning and the types of research objectives,
approaches, activities, and methods to which it applies
remain ambiguous. The lack of precision in concepts
and terms will discredit FSR and jeopardize donor sup-
port. This paper seeks to clarify and define the major
types of research approaches and activities encom-
passed by the general term FSR. Six subspecies of FSR
are distinguished: farming systems analysis; farming
systems adaptive research; farming system component
research; farming systems baseline data analysis; new
farming systems development; and farming systems re-
search and agricultural development. Examples of
each are provided. It is proposed that a new term re-
search with a Farming Systems Perspective (FSP) -
replace FSR as the generic term for research which
uses the farming system as the framework for analysis.
(Author abstract, modified)


099


PN-AAV-548


MF $1.08/PC $1.69
Food consumption analysis and related
parameters for Ouagadougou, Burkina
[Faso]
Sawadogo, Kimseyinga
Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West
Africa, [1985], p.338-350 : statistical tables, En
Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G.
Purdue University
Wealthier urban populations in Burkina Faso show an
increasing preference for imported rice and wheat over
the locally produced cereals (e.g., millet and sorghum)
that form the basis of the traditional rural diet. Through
a series of economic analyses, this paper estimates the
implications of this change in urban food preferences
for domestic grain production. To facilitate analysis, the
report aggregates data gathered weekly from 73 urban
households between 9/82 and 8/83 into monthly statis-
tics and combines the 63 products studied into 5 food
and 1 non-food groups. A Linear Expenditure System
is used to estimate income and price effects on the mar-
ginal budget shares of each item studied. Results show
that both traditional and newer, imported cereals are
very responsive to changes in income and their own
prices, although newer cereals take up a greater mar-
ginal budget share. This suggests that: (1) urban
demand for sorghum is far from decreasing with increas-
ing income (a similar conclusion is expected to prevail
at the rural household level); and (2) urban demand for
sorghum and millet can be increased even further by
lowering cereal prices and transferring income to lower-
income households.








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


100 PN-AAW-986
MF $1.08/PC $5.72
Draught animal power in Africa : priorities
for development, research and liaison
Starkey, Paul H.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Feb 1986, 40p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.14
9364099
Factors important to the successful and appropriate
promotion of animal traction for small farms in Africa
are discussed. Following an overview of the history of
draught animal power in Africa, the paper identifies
preconditions for its success: suitable land and climate;
adequate population density and labor deployment; the
availability of adapted animals and cultivation systems;
a market for produce; sociocultural acceptance; farmer
knowledge; credit; and support services. Discussion of
the implications of these preconditions for policies at
both the national and project levels stresses the need
for a farming systems approach that will identify the
overall profitability of animal traction as well as key limit-
ing factors. The implications for research methodology
are briefly discussed, after which research priorities are
suggested in the areas of: animal breeding, nutrition,
and health; farm equipment; harnessing techniques;
diversification of operations; and social and economic
factors. Finally, the potential roles of national programs,
study tours and workshops, aid agencies, international
research organizations, newsletters, and a draught
animal power network are appraised.


101 PN-AAW-985
MF $1.08/PC $8.97
Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and
Indonesia : implications for animal traction
programs in West Africa
Starkey, Paul H.; Apetofia, Kossivi
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Mar 1986, v, 64p. : ill., En
Network report / Farming Systems Support Project, no.3
9364099
While there are great social, economic, cultural, and
historical differences between Asia and West Africa,
there are many similarities in the farming systems of the
two regions. This paper, prepared by members of the
West African Animal Traction Networkshop Committee
on the basis of their participation in the Second Crop-
Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of
Nepal and Indonesia, reports the lessons African
farmers can learn from their Asian counterparts. These
include, inter alia, that: (1) animal traction can be
profitably used in highly intensive farms of small area,
even when population pressures are high; (2) expensive
metal plows are not required for successful animal trac-
tion; (3) work oxen and milking animals can be effective-
ly zero grazed where free grazing may result in crop
damage; and (4) forage trees can provide a valuable
contribution to the feeding of draft animals and other
ruminants while helping to control erosion and contribut-
ing to fuelwood production. Detailed discussions of
animal traction procedures in Nepal and Indonesia are
included. A 57-item bibliography (1978-86) and 19 il-
lustrations are appended.


102


PN-AAW-173
MF $1.08/PC $3.90


Gender factor and technology options for
Zambia's subsistence farming systems
Sutherland, Alistair J.
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US,
26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
1986, 30p., En


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


The increasing concern in farming systems research
(FSR) with integrating women's interests into the larger
context of rural development warrants focused, empiri-
cal, socioeconomic studies on women's roles in agricul-
ture and an emphasis on the treatment of gender as a
social variable, according to this report. Using FSR as
the framework for in-country comparative studies of
women's contribution to the farming system, the report
examines subsistence agriculture in three of Zambia's
eight provinces to analyze the relationship of gender to
the development of recommendation domains and re-
search priorities. The case studies examine the farming
practices of female-headed households in Luapula,
Lusaka, and, less directly, Western Provinces in com-
parison with male-headed households; the studies high-
light, in particular, the variability of women's roles in
Zambia's subsistence farming. The conclusion sum-
marizes the range of factors that influence gender roles
and outlines four tentative recommendations regarding
the treatment of gender issues in identifying recommen-
dation domains and setting priorities for FSR in Zambia.


103


PN-AAV-539


MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Adaptive research and pre-extension test-
ing : the case of upland rice in West Africa
Tagne P., Fotzo; Spencer, D.S.C.; Sandhu, A.S.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(International Upland Rice Conference, 2nd, Jakarta, ID,
Mar 1985)
Mar 1985, 15p. : statistical table, En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.7
9364099
Difficulties with the direct importing of high-yielding
rice varieties taught researchers from the West African
Rice Development Association (WARDA) an important
lesson: programs to introduce improved rice varieties
must take into account farmers' socioeconomic situa-
tion and must pre-test promising technologies on
farmers' fields. In response, WARDA developed a tech-
nology assessment and transfer (TAT) model which was
implemented at special project sites in Sierra Leone,
Mali, Senegal, and the Ivory Coast. This report: (1)
describes the objectives and methodology of the TAT
program; (2) lists the major constraints to increasing
upland rice production in West Africa, both the general
problems affecting the land (soil erosion and lack of suf-
ficient water and, in some countries, inputs) and the
specific problems affecting paddy yield (poor extension,
mechanization, and credit facilities); and (3) lists the


technologies for upland rice which WARDA has
developed in collaboration with Savannah Research In-
stitute (IDESSA) and is currently subjecting to verifica-
tion trials under TAT. Results of research in four major
rice ecologies (mangrove swamp, deep water/flooded,
upland, and irrigated rice) and issues raised by this
farming systems approach to technology generation in
upland rice-based cropping systems are briefly dis-
cussed.


104


PN-AAW-983


MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Training tropical plant pathologists and
the farming systems approach
Thurston, H. David
(Meeting of the Sociedad Mexicana de Fitipatologia and
the Caribbean Division of the American
Phytopathological Society, Guanjato, MX, 11-14
Sep 1985)
1985, 8p. + 2 attachments, En, Es
Using examples from his personal experience, the
author of this report illustrates how plant pathologists
trained in temperate zones are often ill-prepared to con-
duct research in tropical climes. In addition to a lack of
technical knowledge of tropical ecosystems, many
Western researchers are limited by an inadequate under-
standing of the nature of small farmers and their farm-
ing systems in the tropics. To overcome these difficul-
ties, plant pathologists (and other agricultural scientists)
need to become familiar with the farming systems re-
search (FSR) approach and to consider incorporating
some of its methodology and philosophy into the
design of disease management strategies. The author
argues that researchers must receive special training for
a career in the tropics, covering not only technical sub-
jects, but also the language and cultural and
socioeconomic characteristics of the area in which they
will be working. The positive side of the author's ex-
periences, and the one most beneficial to FSR, is his
belief that gaps in researchers' knowledge can be filled
with the understanding that participating farmers have
of their own situation.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


105


PN-AAW-174
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Intra-household resource allocation con-
straints in the implementation of the
banana coffee development program in
the Kagera region, Tanzania
Tibaijuka, Anna Kajumulo
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul-
ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym-
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research and extension : management
and methodology, paper no.11, Aug 1986, p.288-
298: statistical tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The consequences of having excluded intra-
household variables in designing banana-coffee develop-
ment programs for smallholder farms in Tanzania's
Kagera region are examined. The paper argues that
the programs' socioeconomic benefits have been sig-
nificantly limited by the insecurity of land tenure rights
for women, who, though performing most of work to
maintain the plantations, are denied direct access or
control over these farms by the prevailing patrilineal
land inheritance system derived from customary law.
Tenure insecurity prevents women from fully benefiting
from their labor and from taking an active role in the
development of the plantations; granting land tenure
rights to women is seen as a prerequisite for maximiz-
ing socioeconomic benefits from future research and ex-
tension interventions. Linear programming is used to
analyze the economic costs of the division of labor. It
is established that under a traditional sex-based division
of labor, household incomes are lower than under a
generalized division of labor regime; labor and capital
productivity could improve by 15% and 44%, respective-
ly, if the traditional division of labor were replaced by
the generalized regime. It is strongly recommended
that educational campaigns to promote liberalization of
the division of labor supplement the ongoing, purely
technical interventions. (Author abstract, modified)


106


PN-AAV-948


MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Aspectos metodologicos sobre la tec-
nologia local de production y los proyec-
tos de ajuste tecnologico en el program
DRI en Colombia (Methodological
aspects of local technology production
and technological contract projects in the
DRI program in Colombia)
Torres, Fabio Rodriguez
Colombian Agrarian Reform Institute
(Seminario Taller sobre Sistemas de Produccion, San-
tiago, CL, 30 Jul 3 Aug 1984)
1984, 24p. + 3 annexes : statistical tables, Es
Technology packages recommended to farmers by
the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), the agency
responsible for research and extension within the
government's Integrated Rural Development Program
(DRI), are based not only on research center results,
but also on data concerning farmers' production sys-
tems and the local technology of production. Data on
the latter two factors, gathered through observation and
representative sample questionnaires, are expressed as
a mathematical formula which takes into account physi-
cal factors such as topography, weather and sol type,
other conditions such as diseases and pests, and cul-
tivation practices such as family labor and multiple crop-
ping. The technology packages developed by ICA in-
clude recommendations for such factors as seed
variety, planting date, and fertilizer, pesticide, and her-
bicide use. The packages are subject to continual on-
site testing and adjustment through pilot projects and
studies of the results achieved by individual farmers. Ac-
tual adoption of a package depends not only on test
results, however, but also on the cost and availability of
credit. The process of generating appropriate livestock
technology is similar, but testing is constrained by the
prohibitive cost to individual farmers of raising statistical-
ly significant numbers of livestock. Appended are statis-
tical tables for one region and district.


107 PN-AAP-529
MF $1.08/PC $6.63
Task force report on livestock in mixed
farming systems
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Muttisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Feb 1984, 36p. + appendices, En


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Results are presented of a task force study of the live-
stock component of A.I.D.'s Farming Systems Support
Project. The report discusses: the role and importance
of livestock in integrated farming systems; the training,
orientation, and roles of disciplinary specialists in farm-
ing systems research (FSR) and extension;
methodologies relating to approaches to FSR, project
management, extension, institutionalization, policy,
models, and case studies; and training and communica-
tions needs. Sixteen recommendations are presented
concerning training requirements for U.S. and host
country personnel, appropriate! strategies, research
methodologies, and communication network develop-
ment. A 98-item bibliography (1974-83) is attached.


PN-AAV-534
MF $2.16/PC $18.33


Project handbook : research and exten-
sion (emphasizing farming systems re-
search and extension)
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Feb 1985, v.p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Working draft no.3
9364099
The fruit of over a quarter century of field experience,
this handbook presents guidelines for donor personnel
and contractors involved in agricultural research and ex-
tension (AR/E) projects, with particular emphasis on the
need to give farming systems research and extension
(FSR/E) a rightful but not exclusive place within the
general AR/E process. The handbook is organized
around the typical project process, beginning with a
chapter describing the operational principles of FSR/E
and following with four chapters corresponding to the
four phases of a project's lifecycle development,
design, implementation, and evaluation. While each of
these four chapters is oriented to a specific situation
and is relevant to a specific team or group, each chap-
ter builds on those that precede it; material common to
more than one phase is contained in appendices.
Great emphasis is placed on models, such as the Tech-
nology Innovation Process model, and the need for
host country institutional development is a continuing
theme. A final section provides annotated citations of
four key references.


109


PN-AAR-839
MF $1.08/PC $4.81


Bibliography of readings in farming sys-
tems : 1984, volume 1
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institu-
tional Development (Sponsor)
1984, 34p., En French ed.: PN-AAS-690; Spanish ed.:
PN-AAS-691
9364099
Presented herein is the first in a series of bibliog-
raphies of selected readings in farming systems re-
search (FSR). The bibliography, a product of A.I.D.'s
Farming Systems Support Project, includes complete
bibliographic information for each of its 100 entries,
together with an abstract of the reading and notes on
its availability. Over 24 countries and 50 separate in-
stitutions are represented in this compendium of FSR
thinking garnered from around the globe. Major sub-
jects include agricultural extension, production, and
technology; data collection; mixed farming; multiple
cropping; farm management; tropical agriculture; and
livestock. Emphasis is placed on the role of the small
farmer in FSR activities in semiarid and tropical Africa
and Central America. Subject, geographic, institution,
author, and document number indexes are provided,
together with complete ordering information and an
order blank.


110


PN-AAU-145
MF $1.08/PC $4.68


Bibliography of readings in farming sys-
tems : 1985, volume 2
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institu-
tional Development (Sponsor)
1985, 33p., En
French ed.: PN-AAU-987; Spanish ed.: PN-AAV-301
9364099
A bibliography of select readings in farming systems
research (FSR) is presented. The bibliography, the
second in a series produced by A.I.D.'s Farming Sys-
tems Support Project, contains standard bibliographic


Vol. IV, 1987


108








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


information plus an abstract for 100 citations, together
with a note on the latter's availability. Among the areas
of FSR covered in the bibliography are agricultural sur-
veys, agricultural technology, crop production, cropping
systems, data collection, dryland farming, economic
analysis, family farms, interdisciplinary research, live-
stock, multiple cropping, and research design. Read-
ings are presented on FSR projects on mountains,
savannas, and small farms and in the semiarid and tropi-
cal zones of countries in Africa, Asia, Central America,
and the Eastern Caribbean. Indexes by subject,
geographic area, author, and sponsoring institution are
included, as are document ordering instructions and an
order form.


111 PN-AAV-904
MF $1.08/PC $4.68
Bibliography of readings in farming sys-
tems, 1986 volume III
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institu-
tional Development (Sponsor)
1986, 33p., En
9364099

A selective, annotated bibliography of readings in
farming systems research and extension (FSR/E), the
third in a series produced by A.I.D.'s Farming Systems
Support Project, is presented to help practitioners lo-
cate and access relevant literature in their efforts to es-
tablish and develop national FSR/E programs. In addi-
tion to an abstract and bibliographical data, each of the
100 entries features information on microfilm/paper
copy availability and price. A total of 106 authors, 37 in-
stitutions, and 22 countries are represented. Subjects
covered in the bibliography include, inter alia, animal
husbandry and crop-animal systems, cropping patterns
and systems, data collection, interdisciplinary and on-
farm research, research management and methodol-
ogy, small farms, socioeconomic aspects, and technol-
ogy adoption. Ordering instructions, an order form,
and subject/geographic and author/institution indexes
are provided.


112


PN-AAW-175
MF $1.08/PC $.78


Courants de pensee en matiere de theorie
de la diffusion des innovations(Trends of
thought regarding the theory of innovation
diffusion)
Van Den Ban, A.W.
Economic rurale, no.159, 1984, p.31-36, Fr

An abundant scientific literature shows that technol-
ogy transfer is a complex activity, requiring coordinated
action. In agriculture, the adoption of technological in-
novations often requires not only the dissemination of in-
formation, but also changes in attitudes. This report dis-
cusses some of the conditions which must be satisfied
if rapid agricultural technology transfer is to be success-
ful. Discussed in turn are: the full use of research in
technology transfer; the consequences of technology
adoption; whether individuals or the system itself is at
fault if the process fails; and communication strategies
It is argued that while the adoption of innovations may
increase inequalities in agricultural income and/or
reduce the active farm population, neither is inevitable.
An example from the Netherlands illustrates that good
agricultural extension can increase competitiveness and
market shares and thus slow the decline in farm popula-
tion.


113


PN-AAR-867
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Synopsis : the MARIF maize on farm re-
search programme 1984; development of
an on farm research programme with a
farming systems perspective
Van Santen, C.E.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Oct 1984, (14p.), En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
no.2
9364099

A synopsis of the 1984 maize on-farm research
program at the Malang Research Institute for Food
Crops (MARIF) in eastern Java is presented, summariz-
ing interim results of the informal survey, a round of on-
farm trials implemented in the first dry season, and
proposals for further research (currently being under-
taken). Diagnostic observations on the maize crop


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


revealed spindly development with discolored leaves,
despite intensive management; some interplant competi-
tion; less than optimal application of high quantities of
nitrogen fertilizer; and some use of impure seed.
During the farm trials, farmer seed was compared to cer-
tified MARIF seed, and crops were raised under varying
plant density and timing and quantity of fertilizer applica-
tions. The average trial yield of 3900 kg dry grain per
hectare was at least 25% below the yield potential that
should be obtainable from the varieties selected and the
level of management applied; data suggest that low
yields are caused by fertility problems in the young, dry
volcanic soils. Attached is a reprint of a colleague's let-
ter which comments on the synopsis, thereby
demonstrating the dialogue that can be initiated by net-
working papers.


114 PN-AAW-324
MF $1.08/PC $1.30
How small farm households adapt to risk
Walker, Thomas S.; Jodha, N.S.
Crop insurance for agricultural development, 1986, p.17-
34 : chart, statistical tables, En
Hazell, Peter; Pomareda, Carlos; Valdes, Alberto
To help determine whether a public policy such as
crop insurance would improve farmers' adjustment to
risk and contribute to social welfare, this paper ex-
amines: (1) how well small farmers manage yield risk
without crop insurance and (2) the possible social and
economic costs of farmers' risk management (RM)
measures. First, the paper cites experience from India,
El Salvador, and Tanzania to illustrate two types of tradi-
tional RM routine risk prevention or minimization
(usually adjustments to production and resource use
before and during a production season) and loss
management (e.g., farmer's later responses to lower-
than-expected crop income). Next, a review is made of
the effectiveness of three traditional RM techniques in
stabilizing income: spatial diversification of farm plots,
intercropping, and tenancy arrangements. Lastly, the
possible benefits of crop insurance in reducing the ef-
ficiency costs and adverse-equity impacts of traditional
RM are considered, including greater use of modern in-
puts and greater adoption of modern technology,
stabilizing the income of the landless laborers to whom
farmers frequently shift the burden of RM, and reducing
asset depletion and land fragmentation. The paper con-
cludes that while it may appear that crop insurance
could alleviate some of the adverse effects of traditional
RM methods, available data are insufficient even to
determine if it would be a step in the right direction.


115


PN-AAW-325


MF $1.08/PC $1.43
Women's role in the improvement of rice
farming systems in coastal swamplands
Watson, Greta A.
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
(Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems,
Manila, PH, 20-30 Sep 1983)
Women in rice farming : proceedings of a conference
on women in rice farming systems, 1985, p.187-207 :
map, statistical tables, En
Rice farming systems (RFS) in tidal and coastal
swamplands demand specific methods of labor-inten-
sive cultivation in which women's participation is of
paramount importance. This paper examines RFS in
tidal swamp areas of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and
women's role in their improvement. The tidal and in-
land coastal swamp environments and their agricultural
potential, settlement patterns, general methods of rice
cultivation, and other aspects of the RFS are described
first. Next, an analysis of data from 60 households on
women's labor participation in RFS and in auxiliary ac-
tivities reveals that women provide at least 50% of the
work force in all major aspects of rice cultivation except
land preparation, have primary responsibility for cultivat-
ing vegetables and other secondary crops and for
household management tasks, and participate in market-
ing, fishing, and livestock raising as well. The possible
effects of changes in labor and technology on women's
roles are then considered. It is concluded that to im-
prove women's role in coastal swamp systems, exten-
sion training in rice cultivation, secondary crop produc-
tion, and marketing is essential; women's credit and
labor cooperatives are advisable.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


116


PN-AAP-446
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Institutional assessment for implementing
a systems approach to agricultural re-
search and extension
Waugh, Robert K.; Meiman, J.; McDermott, James K.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
1983, 14p., En
Farming systems and support project working paper,
no.101

Characterization and analysis of existing national
programs and institutions are useful in determining the
potential for implementing a systems approach to
agricultural research and extension. In this paper,
guidelines are presented for inventorying a given
program or institution in such a way as to identify
changes and modifications that might make research
and extension more effective while making maximum
use of existing structures, resources, and other or-
ganizational characteristics. Criteria for assessment
are provided in Part I, which consists of three sets of
questions directed toward determining (a) the general
conditions of an institution and its environment, (b)
management and operational aspects, and (c) the na-
ture of the technological functions and methodologies
of research and extension. Part II provides ideas as to
which institutional elements should be continued and
which should be changed. This section focuses on the
functions of specific types of organizational units in im-
plementing farmer-oriented research and extension.


117 PN-AAW-176
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Socio-cultural effects on the farming sys-
tems research and development approach
Wilson, Kathleen K.; Philipp, Perry F.; Shaner, W.W.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
Agricultural systems, v.19, 1986, p.83-110 : chart, En
9311006
AID/DSAN-C-0054

Lessons learned over the past decade about the
sociocultural aspects of farming systems research and
development (FSR/D) are reviewed. This paper first
describes FSR/D as a concept and as a process, iden-


tifies the presumptions underlying the FSR/D approach,
and provides a basis for viewing FSR/D as a form of
technology with its own cultural attributes (i.e., values,
beliefs, expectations, and rules of behavior). Key areas
where FSR/D differs from more traditional agriculture re-
search and development work are identified. The paper
then explores ways in which FSR/D's inherent cultural
attributes may be in conflict with those of a host
country, using as a framework Hofstede's four dimen-
sions of "national culture" power distance, uncertainty
avoidance, individualism versus collectivity, and mas-
culinity versus femininity. In conclusion, suggestions
are made as to what a team might do to make FSR/D
methodologies compatible with the host culture.
(Author abstract, modified)


118


PN-AAV-951
MF $1.08/PC $2.34


Evaluacion agronomica de ensayos a nivel
de finca(Agronomic evaluation of experi-
ments on the ranch level)
Woolley, Jonathan
University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture
and Natural Resources
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Sorgo en Sistemas de Produccion en America Latina,
Batan, MX, 16-22 Sep 1984)
Sorgo en sistemas de production en America Latina,
1985, p.232-249 : charts, statistical tables, Es
Paul, Compton L; DeWalt, Billie R.
9311254
AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149

Based on the experience of the International Center
for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), guidelines are presented
for the design of experiments to be conducted at the
farm level rather than in the laboratory or at research
stations. Topics include the selection of sites repre-
sentative of the region, data collection and analysis,
and the presentation of research results in concise
form. Difficulties which may be encountered during
analysis are exemplified; emphasis is placed on assess-
ing the relative importance of site-specific differences.
Special cases the presence of an array of variable fac-
tors, the inclusion of sites whose results would bias the
analysis, and the problem of variation between years be-
cause of climatic changes are discussed and resolved.
Six tables and two figures are included.


Vol. IV, 1987








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


119 PN-AAV-952
MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Design and testing of improved livestock
technology for mixed farms
Zandstra, Hubert G.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon-
sor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
(Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective Net-
workshop, 1st, Lama, Kara, TG, 4-8 Mar 1985)
FSSP networking report, no.1
Animal traction in a farming systems perspective, 1986,
p.165-179, En
Poats, S.V.


Using experience from Latin America and Asian re-
searchers, this paper discusses the design and testing
of alternatives for producing livestock especially large
ruminants in mixed farm enterprises. Stress is laid on
sedentary mixed farms in which livestock are kept for all
or most of the year within farm boundaries, although
the approaches discussed are meant to apply to, or to
be readily modified to suit, other types of animal produc-
tion systems. The paper first reviews the interventions
typically used in livestock systems (including cropping
interventions to support livestock production) and then
presents a nine-step procedure for designing alternative
production systems and guidelines for on-farm testing
of the systems. It is concluded that testing of crop-live-
stock systems presents the greatest methodological
challenges to farming systems research, due to the sys-
tems' variability and farmers' concern for their animals.
Ex ante analyses at the design phase may have to
replace part of the research process which in cropping
systems research is realized by cropping pattern trials.


Vol. IV, 1987








SUBJECT AND GEOGRAPHIC INDEX


Abstracts 109, 110
Africa 032, 042, 045, 066, 100
Africa south of Sahara 037
Agricultural areas 038
Agricultural development 058, 073,
081
Agricultural economics 058
Agricultural education 104
Agricultural extension 001, 003,
016, 023, 032, 035, 045, 046,
048, 061 077, 092, 106, 108,
116
Agricultural extension agents 001
Agricultural policy 033, 096, 100,
114
Agricultural prices 051
Agricultural product marketing 025,
051,081,095
Agricultural production 009, 023,
034, 062, 068, 093
Agricultural production manage-
ment 017
Agricultural research 016, 035, 045,
065, 076, 106,108
Agricultural surveys 015, 042, 043,
047, 050
Agricultural technology 011, 049,
061,071,081, 103, 106, 117
Agricultural training 019, 044
Agroforestry 057, 059, 072, 085,
096
Animal feeding 090
Animal husbandry 066, 067, 119
Animal nutrition 090
Animal products 031
Animal traction 075, 092, 100, 101
Anthropologists 095
Anthropology research 014
Appropriate technology 011, 049,
081, 083, 101, 106
Arid zone 072
Arthropods 005
Asia 020
Attitude change 112
Bananas 105
Bangladesh 082
Biological pest control 004, 005,
006
Botswana 010, 080
Burkina Faso 034, 075, 083, 099
Cassava 043
Cattle 031, 090
Cereals 099
Chickpeas 094
Classification 063, 091
Coasts 115
Coffee 105
Colombia 008, 106
Communication processes 036


Communication skills 036, 060
Comparative studies 102
Computer technology 063
Constraints 029
Contractors 108
Costa Rica 064
Cowpeas 097
Crop disease control 006
Crop diseases 104
Crop insurance 114
Crop pests 006
Crop production 014, 078, 082
Crop protection 006
Crop yield 002, 068, 103
Crop-animal systems 020, 032,
076, 107, 119
Cropping patterns 017, 043, 052,
088
Cropping systems 005, 013, 023,
032, 033, 040, 041, 043, 065,
072, 074, 088, 119
Crops 043
Cultivars 011, 094, 113
Cultivated land 022
Cultural environment 117
Cultural identity 117
Dairy cattle 023
Data analysis 118
Data collection 003, 015, 059, 079,
118
Deserts 072
Development organizations 016
Development project design 055,
080, 108
Development project evaluation 108
Development project implementa-
tion 055, 056, 058, 080, 108
Development project management
080
Development strategies 023, 058,
100
Division of labor 039, 073, 093,
094, 096, 105
Dominican Republic 033
Draft animals 031
Dry farming 072
Dry forage 031
Eastern Caribbean 025, 053, 073
Ecological balance 052
Ecology 008
Economic analysis 019, 095, 099
Economic risk 114
Ecosystems 005
Ecuador 035
Environmental aspects 010, 028,
062
Environmental crop threats 058
Erosion 078
Evaluation methodology 007


Experimentation 054
Family farms 009, 014, 037, 079,
093, 105
Farm management 009, 014, 015,
062, 064, 114
Farmer participation 010, 012, 013,
048, 070, 077, 082, 084
Farmers 071
Farming systems 085, 105, 115, 116
Feed supplements 090
Female labor 039, 093, 115
Fertilizers 075, 083
Fish culture 026
Fisheries 026
Fishermen 026
Fishery development 026
Fishing equipment 026
Fishing methods 026
Fishing vessels 026
Food consumption patterns 099
Food crops 029
Food economics 099
Food production 060
Forage crops 024
Forage grasses 023
Forestry 096
France 022, 024
Gambia 017
Ghana 085
Goats 031
Grasslands 024
Guatemala 046
Herbicides 053
Herders 032, 051
Honduras 030, 039, 047, 064
Household management 037, 060,
079
Household surveys 079
Households 037, 094, 105
Human diets 021
Human nutrition 030, 051
Impact assessment 007
Income 099
India 002, 072
Indigenization 056
Indonesia 029, 089, 090, 091, 101,
113, 115
Insects 006
Institutional aspects 016, 056
Integrated pest control 053
Intercropping 006, 017, 052, 074,
097
Interdisciplinary research 018, 036,
059, 086
Interpersonal communication 060
Interviews 050
Jamaica 073
Labor intensive farming 053
Labor productivity 027


Vol. IV, 1987









SUBJECT AND GEOGRAPHIC INDEX


Land ownership 041
Land reclamation 023
Land resources 034
Land tenure 041, 096
Land use 032, 041, 059, 091
Legal aspects 096
Lentils 094
Lesotho 060
Liberia 043
Livestock 023, 031, 032, 051, 066,
067, 089, 091, 092, 106, 107,
119
Lowland cropping 074
Maize 002, 023, 029, 113
Malaysia 009
Management methods 055
Market economy 081
Marketing research 025, 095
Mathematical analysis 063
Mathematical models 007,106
Methodology development 067
Migration 051
Millet 097
Mixed cropping 004, 005, 074, 097
Mixed farming 064, 066, 072, 084,
119
Multiple cropping 004, 006, 018,
040, 052, 074, 086
Nepal 093, 101
Niger 097
Nigeria 011, 041
Nomadic populations 051
Nutrients 031
Nutrition research 021
On farm research 002, 010, 012,
013, 019, 020, 027, 029, 044,
047, 054, 061 067, 068, 070,
071, 074, 084, 086, 087, 090,
097, 103, 106, 113, 118
On farm water management 078
Organizations 116
Pest control 053
Planning 057
Plant physiology 052
Plant science education 104
Plantations 105
Policy analysis 114
Poultry 031
Problem identification 044, 059
Problem solving 036


Procedural development 059
Reference materials 111
Regenerative farming systems 005
Research collaboration 018, 077
Research design 001 013, 016,
019, 028, 038, 044, 047, 054,
059, 065, 084 086, 098, 118,
119
Research management 007, 035,
055, 056, 067, 076, 116
Research methodology 003, 010,
012, 013, 015, 018, 019, 020,
021, 025, 027 028, 038, 048,
050, 054, 060, 063, 065, 066,
067, 070, 071, 074, 079, 086 ,
087, 088, 090, 095, 098, 102,
108, 117, 118, 119
Research organizations 076, 116
Research planning 032, 054, 056,
059
Research priorities 016, 019, 033,
059, 065, 100, 102
Research utilization 007
Rice 009, 033, 043, 074, 082, 088,
093, 103, 115
Risk aversion 114, 117
Rural areas 099
Sampling 050, 118
Scientists 036
Seasonal variations 027, 068
Semiarid zone 032, 072, 078, 083
Senegal 016, 038
Sex roles 039, 073, 093, 094, 096,
102, 105
Site selection 028,118
Small farms 009, 018, 027, 033,
035, 037, 049, 053, 066, 071,
073, 100, 101 114
Small ruminants 084
Social science occupations 018
Social stratification 049
Social structure 117
Social values 117
Socioeconomic aspects 028, 075,
083, 086
Sociology 008
Sociology research 018
Soil conservation 008
Soil erosion 008
Soil management 008, 022


Soil surveys 022
Soil types 022
Sorghum 011, 030, 075
Statistical analysis 019, 044, 069,
118
Statistical data 015, 069
Subsistence farming 009, 075, 102
Sudan 051
Survey design 047
Survey methodology 022, 042, 050,
118
Swamps 024, 115
Symbiosis 052
Syria 094
Systems analysis 031
Tanzania 001 068, 105
Technical assistance 108
Technological change 081
Technology adoption 009, 011,
046, 061, 064, 068, 071, 075,
094,106, 112
Technology transfer 046, 101, 103,
112
Thailand 058, 088
Tilling 078, 083
Time 068
Togo 092
Traditional farming 004, 034, 072
Traditional technology 004
Tropical zone 074, 104
Upland cropping 103
Urban areas 099
Variability 069
Varietal research 002, 082
Villages 034
Water catchment 075, 083
Water conservation 078
Weeds 006, 053
West Africa 078, 101, 103
West Indies 073
Women 003, 037, 073, 089, 102,
105
Women in development 039, 060,
085, 093, 096,115
Women's rights 096
Workshops 092
Zambia 060, 077, 102
Zimbabwe 076


Vol. IV, 1987









AUTHOR AND INSTITUTION INDEX


Acker, D.G. 001
Agrawal, B.D. 002
Alberti, Amalia M. 003, 028
Altieri, Miguel A. 004, 005, 006
Ames, Linda L. 075
Anderson, Jock R. 007
Apetofia, Kossivi 101
Ashby, Jacqueline A. 008
Avila, M. 076
Azrag, Bakheit A. 051
Bailey, Conner 009
Baker, D.C. 010
Banta, Thomas A. 011
Barker, Randolph 012, 071
Barker, T.C. 013
Barlett, Peggy F. 014
Basuno, Edi 089
Bbuyemusoke, Samm 011
Bejarano, Washington 015
Biggs, Stephen D. 056
Bingen, R. James 016
Boughton, Duncan 017
Bradfield, Stillman 018
Burkina Institute for Research in
Agronomy and Zoology 034
Caldwell, John 019
Calub, Arsenio D. 020
Campbell, Carolyn E. 021
Capillon, A. 022, 023, 024
Charreau, C. 078
Chase, Vasantha 025
Chong, Kee-Chai 026
Collinson, M.P. 027
Colombian Agrarian Reform In-
stitute 106
Consortium for International
Development 001
Cornell University. Dept. of Interna-
tional Nutrition 021
Cornell University. Dept. of Rural
Sociology 049, 050
Cornick, Tully R. 028
Cuellar, Miguel 015
Dahlan, Marsum 029
Deuson, Robert 097
DeWalt, Billie R. 039
DeWalt, Kathleen M. 030
Dickey, James R. 031
Diop, Mamadou 032
Doorman, Frans 033
Dugue, Marie-Josephe 034
Ecuador. National Institute of
Agricultural Research 035
Emory University, Dept. of
Anthropology 014
Espinosa, Patricio 035
Esslinger, Donald L. 036
Evans, Alison 037
Fall, Alioune 038


Faye, Jacques 016
Fordham, Miriam A. 039
Francis, C.A. 013
Francis, Charles A. 040, 086
Francis, Paul 041
Frankenberger, Timothy R. 042, 043
Franzel, Steve 044
Fresco, Louise 0. 045
Fumagalli, Astolfo 046
Gait, Daniel L. 047, 048
Garrett, Patricia 049, 050
George, Calixte 025
Gillard-Byers, Thomas E. 051
Gliessman, Stephen R. 052
Goldstein, Donna 050
Hammerton, John L. 053, 054
Hart, Robert D. 055
Heinemann, Edward 056
Heriyanto 029
Huxley, P.A. 057
Ilyas, Sofyan 026
Indonesia. Ministry of Public
Works. Directorate General of
Water Resources Development.
Directorate of Rivers 088
Infanger, Craig L. 058
Ingle, Marcus D. 055
Institute of Agricultural Research of
Panama 015
International Center for Coopera-
tion in Agronomy Research for
Development. Dept. of Agricul-
tural Systems 034
International Center for Tropical
Agriculture 008
International Council for Research
in Agroforestry 057, 059, 096
International Livestock Centre for
Africa 038, 041, 066
International Rice Research In-
stitute 076, 088, 093, 115
Jalil, Mirxa A. 031
Jiggins, Janice 060
Jodha, N.S. 114
Johnson, S.H. III 061
Johnson, Sam H. III 062
Jolly, C.M. 063
Jones, Jeffrey R. 064
Jouve, Philippe 065
Jumaday, Antonio D. 082
Kansas State University. Office of
International Agriculture
Programs 010 ,020, 031, 051,
067, 097, 105
Kearl, Steve 066
Kellogg, E.D. 061
Knipscheer, H.C. 084
Kujawa, Mark A. 067
Lauckner, F.B. 054


Lev, Larry S. 068
Lichte, John 092
Lichte, John A. 043
Lichte, John L 042
Liebman, Matt 006
Ughtfoot, C. 069
Ughtfoot, Clive 012, 070, 071
Livingston, Geoffrey O. 032
Malang Research Institute for Food
Crops 029
Mathema, S.B. 048
McCorkle, Constance M. 036
Meiman, J. 116
Mitchie, Barry H. 072
Momsen, Janet Henshall 073
Morris, Richard A. 074
Moscardi, Edgardo 035
Nagy, Joseph 075
Nagy, Joseph G. 083
Ndimande, B.N. 076
Ndiyoi, Mukelabai 077
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture 076
Nicou, R. 078
Norem, Rosalie Huisinga 079
Norman, D.W. 010
Norman, David W. 080
Oasa, Edmund K 081
Ocado, Francisco D. 082
Odell, Malcolm 044
Ohm, Herbert W. 083
Okali, C. 084
Oregon State University 001
Ortiz, Ramiro 046
Owusu-Bempah, Kofi 085
Oxley, James W. 067
Parkhurst, Anne M. 086
Pascal, Fotzo Tagne 087
Patanothai, Aran 088
Pellerin, S. 022
Perez, Frederico Cuevas 033
Petheram, R.J. 089, 090, 091
Philipp, Perry F. 117
Poats, Susan V. 045, 092
Pradhan, Bina 093
Prawirodigdo, Susanto 090
Purdue University. Farming Sys-
tems Unit of the Semi-Arid
Food Grain Research and
Development Program 075
Purdue University. International
Education and Research 075
Purdue University. School of
Agriculture. Division of Intema-
tional Programs in Agriculture
011,075, 078,083
Rassam, Andree 094
Reeves, Edward B. 095
Research Institute for Animal
Production 090


Vol. IV, 1987








AUTHOR AND INSTITUTION INDEX


Rocheleau, Dianne E. 096
Roxas, Domingo B. 020
Samba, Ly 097
Sands, Deborah Merrill 098
Sawadogo, Kimseyinga 099
Sazena, S.C. 002
Senghore, Tom 017
Spencer, D.S.C. 103
Starkey, Paul H. 100, 101
Sungusia, D. 001
Sutherland, Alistair J. 102
Swanson, Louis E. 081
Tagaux, Marie-Josephe 023
Tagne P., Fotzo 103
Taguax, Marie-Josephe 024
Thahar, Ashari 091
Thurston, H. David 104
Tibaijuka, Anna Kajumulo 105
Torres, Fabio Rodriguez 106
Tropical Agriculture Research and
Training Center 015
U.N. Food and Agriculture Or-
ganization 061
U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Africa.
Office of Regional Affairs 011,
075, 078, 083
Bureau for Africa. Tanzania 001
Bureau for Asia and Near East.
Philippines 082
Bureau for Latin America and


the Caribbean. Ecuador 035
Bureau for Latin America and
the Caribbean. Regional
Development Office 054
Bureau for Latin America and
the Caribbean. Regional Office
for Central American Programs
015
Bureau for Science and Tech-
nology. Office of Agriculture
004, 008, 019, 025, 029, 030,
033, 038, 039, 041, 042 ,043,
044, 045, 047, 048, 049, 050,
053, 058, 063, 066, 072, 074,
076, 077, 080 ,087, 088, 090,
092, 093, 095, 100, 101, 103,
107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113,
115,116, 117, 118, 119
Bureau for Science and Tech-
nology. Office of Multisectoral
Development 019, 044, 047,
048, 066, 080, 092, 100 ,101,
107, 113, 116, 119
Bureau for Science and Tech-
nology. Office of Research and
University Relations 003, 010,
014, 020, 021, 031, 051 ,060,
067, 073, 079, 085, 097, 102,
105
Bureau for Science and Tech-
nology. Office of Rural and


Institutional Development 109,
110, 111
University of California, San Diego.
Dept. of Biology 004
University of Florida 003, 043, 060,
073, 079, 085, 102, 107
University of Florida. Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences
019, 042 ,044, 047, 048, 058,
066, 074, 080, 087, 092, 100,
101, 103, 108, 109, 110, 111,
113, 116, 119
University of Nebraska, Lincoln. In-
stitute of Agriculture and
Natural Resources 030, 039, 118
University of the West Indies, St.
Augustine. Caribbean Agricul-
tural Research and Develop-
ment Institute 025, 053, 054
Van Den Ban, A.W. 112
Van Santen, C.E. 113
Walecka, Lisette 019
Walker, Thomas S. 114
Watson, Greta A. 115
Waugh, Robert K. 116
Wilson, Kathleen K. 117
Wood, P.J. 057
Woolley, Jonathan 118
Zandstra, Hubert G. 119


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