Bibliography of readings in farming systems

Material Information

Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
001822822 ( ALEPH )
13012743 ( OCLC )
AJP6828 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
1986 Volume III
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523

One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) practitioners is the difficulty in locating and accessing relevant FSR literature.The expansion of FSR projects and programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports and monographs dealing with particular aspects of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR work makes it difficult, if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research journals. Additionally, much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished manuscripts from the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level practitioners, who by the nature of their workare stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability of these materials can only slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.
As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United StatesAgency for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR documents for theirannotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE)/Development Information Division.
This is the third volume of the bibliography. A fourth volume is scheduled for production. CDIE will catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography series and will be able to provide copies ot all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE documentation center and duplicating services will continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will remain available.
The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies. Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:
FSR/E Bibliography
Department of Sociology
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506
Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are also welcome.

Item number E 046 PN-AAB-723 :)-- Document number
MF $3.24/PC $28.99 Title Microfiche/
Field data collection in the social sciences, Paper Copy prices
Authorss, experiences in Africa and the Middle East
AKearl, B.E.
Institution(s) Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
Serial title
Meeting (Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences, and number, date,
L Beirut, LB) pagination, and
Supplementary 1976, 221p. : En language
nFrench edition: PN-AAC-817
Project number 9310887
Contract/Grant E AID/CSD-2813
Availability Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the
noteL Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA A discussion of research methods practical field procedures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and reconnaissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling; Abstract
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific variables; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enumerators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9) interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning cooperation of respondents; and (11) precoding, and preliminary steps in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication is intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution rather than a comprehensive reference or text.

001 PN-AAT-635 case of herbicides, consumer useable packages. Included is a
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 table of preplant and pre-emergence herbicides for cowpea and maize, a figure illustrating the positive effect of no-tillage
Rural women and high yielding variety rice and live mulch systems on maize yield, and a 32-item bibliogratechnology phy (1 954-83).
Agarwal, Bina
Economic and political weekly, v. 19(13), 1984, p.A-39-A-52:
statistical tables, En 003 PN-AAT-773
Includes references
MF $1.08/PC $6.24
The uncritically accepted assumption that all members of a
farm household have like interests and that benefits and Decision making by livestock / crop small burdens of technological change will be shared equally is holders in the state of Veracruz, Mexico questioned in this paper, which examines some of the implica- Aluja, Andres; McDowell, Robert E. tions of HYV rice technology for women of different socioeco- Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science nomic classes in India. Women in the poorest households are Cornell international agriculture mimeograph, no. 105, Sep of particular importance since many are the primary or sole 1984, i, 44p.: chart, map, statistical tables, En source of family income.
Using data gathered in three principal rice-growing states Prior to a proposed agricultural development progam in the (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Orissa), the author presents Mexican State of Veracruz, 13 farms were surveyed in an effort an empirical analysis of the impact of HYV rice on female labor to identify and quantify factors in farmer decisionmaking. Data in field-related agricultural work. The impact is disaggregated were collected on physical resources, (land, facilities and by type of labor family, permanent, and casual and by farm equipment, cropping), livestock, pasture management (grazing size. While the adoption of HYV rice increases the demand for systems, pastures, quality of forages, supplementary feeding), farm labor (much of it male and female casual labor), it is noted milk output, livestock reproductive performance, animal health, that this increased demand does not benefit women in laborer selected indicators of livestock performance, marketing, labor, households unless real daily wages also increase and unless and economic factors. It was found that the farmers' decisionthe households distribute income and consumption items even- making in regard to both crop and livestock systems was ly. HYV effects on female family labor vary widely by state, rational. Farmers appreciated that to increase animal and milk being the net effect of increased labor needs and family production from modest to high levels would not be supportaprestige (which, with higher income, requires women's with- ble under present marketing conditions. It is concluded that the drawal from manual work). Women in small cultivator government should recognize that farms in Veracruz State are households are likely to increase their labor without enjoying a supplying local needs through low inputs and contribute more compensatory improvement in standard of living, to state and regional food supplies than is generally recognized. A 3-page bibliography (1955-84) is appended.
002 PN-AAT-842
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 004 PN-AAT-774
No-tillage weed control in the tropics MF $1.08/Pc $4.03
Akobundu, 1. Okezie Sodio-economic modelling of farming systems
(Symposium on No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics, Anderson, Jock R.; Dillon, John L.; Hardaker, J. Brian
Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981) University of New England. Dept. of Agricultural Economics
1983, p.32-44 : charts, En and Business Management
No-tillage crop production in the tropics (ACIAR FSR Workshop, Richmond, New South Wales, AU,
Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E. 12-15 May 1985)
Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center 1985, 30p. : En U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Bibliography. p.27-30
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) Tetpso n oeo oieooi oesi S r
Complete proceedings: PN-AA T-842 Tetpso n oeo oieooi oesi S r
9310206 discussed in this non-technical workshop paper. In basic type,
DAN-0000-C-00-01 97-00 models are either descriptive or optimizing; the latter are
defined as those which incorporate an algorithm which directly
Damage to tropical soil structure resulting from conven- generates a solution for a specified function in the model. tional tillage operations can be avoided by a no-tillage tech- Among the variants of these two types, budgeting and mathenique, which reduces soil erosion, soil compaction, and soil matical programming stand out respectively; the latter's relative moisture loss through evapotranspiration. A major problem with advantage in eliminating bias is exemplified during an excursus this technique is weed control. This study discusses specific on the experiences of one of the authors in an FSR program forms of the problem and various means of addressing it. conducted by ICRISAT. Socioeconomic modeling permits deAttention is first given to the problems of controlling vegetation tailed evaluation of the performance of a given farming system in bush fallow and in fallow residue, along with the choice of and identification of its strong and weak points and helps appropriate herbicide. Crop damage caused by animal pests in assess the viability of a proposed technology. Problems inno-tillage systems is briefly noted. A final section discusses volved in the use of socioeconomic models include the difficulty recent advances in controlling weeds chemically, i.e., through of striking a suitable balance between data gathering, model herbicides, and biologically, using mulch (living and dead) from building, and model exploitation, the physical and/or cultural herbacious legumes. Effective transfer of these techniques to remoteness of modelers from farmers (or, by contrast, an farmers, it is noted, will require trained personnel and, in the excessively anthropological approach), and various sins of
FSR Vol iI, 1986 1

omission, of which the most serious is failure to recognize the practices are described to identify recommendation domains. crucial role of female farmers. A concluding section stresses Following a review of the process of preselecting technology the need for greater sensitivity to the ideas and needs of small components, the three cycles of the maize improvement profarmers. A 4-page bibliography (1970-86) is appended. gram are detailed in separate chapters. Highlights include a review of the experimental strategy and management description of exploratory and field trials (e.g., use of herbicides and
nitrogen fertilizers); and integration of results and derivation of
005 PN-AAT-636 recommendations. A final section outlines the completed maize
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 program methodology.
Adoption of agricultural technology:
developments in agro-socio-economic
thought 007 PN-AAU-075
Andrew, Chris; Alvarez, Jose MF $1.08/PC $2.21
Social and economic studies, v.31(3), 1982, p.171-189 : En Farmer field preparation and tillage practices:
The evolution of socioeconomic thought concerning the implications for fertilizer technology research diffusion of agricultural innovations started with a debate about Ashby, Jacqueline A.; De Jong, Gerard the relative importance of social and economic factors in the Sol and tillage research, no.2, 1982, p.331Gea : ill., chart, adoption of hybrid corn and hybrid sorghum in the United statistical tables, En States during the period 1928-1941. Sociologists and economists agreed that an array of factors, varying from one farm and Information from diagnostic research on small farmer decifarming area to another and not well understood, stimulate sionmaking about land preparation and tillage practices can be diffusion; literature on the Green Revolution of the 1960's later integrated into experimental research on the design and evaluadded new dimensions to the debate by considering not only ation of fertilizer technology. Different land preparation and adoption and production aspects, but also a host of other tillage practices used by farmers for cassava production in conditions, e.g., markets, income distribution, and risk. The Cauca department, Colombia, are analyzed to develop a model adoption process favors early adopters with favorable social of farmers' decisionmaking in the choice of tillage techniques. and economic characteristics, while those unable to assume The decision model indicates that manual tillage practices the added production costs and risks associated with poten- which involve only partial field tillage are a response to relativetially higher returns from new technology fall behind. These ly fixed constraints; it may be difficult for farmers facing these new findings, showing that the adoption of Green Revolution constraints to adopt a fertilizer technology which requires full innovations in developing countries relates to the welfare of the field tillage. Variables associated with choice of tillage method entire household and small farm unit, indicate the necessity of are identified and related to implications for experimental formulating technological packages based on socioeconomic evaluation of fertilizer technology and the distribution of beneresearch addressing the farmers' entire decision environment, fits from this research. The findings illustrate that diagnostic (Author abstract, modified) research on the agro-socioeconomic constraints faced by
small farmers can alert researchers to limiting factors which
should be recognized in the design and testing of agricultural
006 PN-AAT-775 technology, so as to facilitate rapid and effective technology
MF $2.16/PC $17.29 adoption. (Author abstract)
Desarrollando tecnologia apropiada para el
agricultor: informe de progreso del programa 008 PN-AAU-891
de Caisan en Panama (Developing appropriate MF $1.08/PC $3.3
technology for the farmer : progress report of Case study of on farm adaptive research at
the program in Caisan, Panama) ia a tu ra develoment rec era
Arauz, Jose Roman; Martinez, Juan Carlos Bida agricultural development project, Nigeria
Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama; International Ashraf, Malik Maize and Wheat Improvement Center; U.S. Agency for Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
International Development. Bureau for Science and p.190-215: charts, statistical tables, En
Technology. Office of Agriculture Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
Serie de estudios especiales, no. 1, Feb 1983, xvi, 11 9p.: ill., farming systems research symposium; farming systems map, statistical tables, Es research and extension : implementation and monitoring
936411101 Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
In an effort to identify and disseminate appropriate technol- Programs
ogy for increasing small farm crop production in Caisdn, Pana- U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for ma, a 3-year research project into improved maize production Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and techniques was undertaken with active farmer participation. Information (Sponsor) This report describes the methodology and results of the 9311282 project, which was conducted jointly by IDIAP and CIMMYT. A
brief description of national characteristics provides the frame- In 1981, the ongoing Bida Agricultural Development Project work for discussions of selecting Cais~n as the research area in Nigeria initiated an on-farm adaptive research (OFAR) (soil, climate, population, and other factors) and of the charac- program to identify major production constraints in the local teristics of the research program. Next, the farmers' cultivation farming systems and develop technologies for dissemination to
2 FSR VoL 11, 1986

local farmers. This case study presents a preliminary descrip- Because it has well-defined borders and an identifiable tion of the program. authority, the village was selected as the most appropriate unit
After describing the project area and the organization of the for farming systems research in Java. This report presents an OFAR program, the report discusses the four cropping systems agroeconomic profile of Pandansari village, focusing on rumiwhich were selected as the program's target domains lowland nant raising. After listing the reasons why Pandansari was rice, upland yam, upland cassava, and upland cereal crops. chosen for study, the report, in brief sections: (1) outlines the System constraints and experimental opportunities are out- village's main climatic, physical, and socioeconomic features; lined. For rice crops, delayed planting, low stand density, and (2) reviews typical cropping systems and animals raised, which iron toxicity reduce output, while the three upland crops suffer include sheep, (water) buffalo, and goat herds, as well as from insect and crop disease. On-farm experiments in seed poultry (chicken, ducks) and rabbits; (3) compares stockpreparation and stand density for rice-based systems are raising households with non-raisers; (4) describes animal mandescribed, as are trials in cowpea, rice sickle, and the pro- agement and productivity; (5) provides an economic assessgram's limited research in upland systems. ment of typical ruminant enterprises and ruminant forage
The program showed the possibility of identifying improve- profiles; and (6) outlines major constraints to animal production ment areas promptly in local farming systems. Planting cow- in the areas of health, nutrition, and husbandry practices peas as a dry season crop was so successful that demand for (housing, working, breeding). Final sections suggest apseed exceeded supply. It was also found that farmers are proaches to on-farm research and identify trials needed on reluctant to offer their fields for trials of radically different crop research stations. management practices. Farm-level agroeconomic data collection was found to be useful in delineating important cropping
systems and farmers' production practices. The major impediment to success was lack of staffing. Oil PN-AAT-776
MF $1.08/PC $5.20
Rapid rural appraisal : the critical first step In
009 PN-AAT-828 a farming systems approach to research
MF $1.08/PC $2.73 Beebe, James
Learning from peasant farmers: some University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Caribbean examples Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture;
Barker, David; Collymore, Jeremy; Spence, Belfour U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
National Council for Geographic Education; University of the Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institutional
West Indies, Kingston Development
(National Council for Geographic Education Annual Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, no.5,
Conference, Ocho Rios, JM, Oct 1983) 1985, 36p. : En
1983, 21 p. : En Bibliography: p.33-36
References: p.20-21 9364099
Examples from two case studies one of Maroon farming in Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) is a critical first step in farming Accompong, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica, the other of small farmers systems research. This report discusses specific methodologiin northern St. Vincent are used to argue the value of small- cal issues and pitfalls facing RRA practitioners, concluding that scale farmers' knowledge and skills for agricultural research. RRA's should: (1) use at least 4 days but no more than 3 The studies revealed the value of traditional agronomic prac- weeks; (2) use a small research team with a good mix of tices and the extent to which farmers use traditional folk technical backgrounds; (3) use short interview guides as memmethods to make accurate judgements about soil fertility and ory aids, emphasize variability rather than homogeneity, look infertility. Also evident was the experimental nature of farmer for opportunities as well as problems, consider the influences decisionmaking e.g., in regard to intercropping and the good of community organizations and groups, and always view effects to which this can lead; this is a key aspect in under- farmer decisionmaking as rational; (4) structure research time standing small-scale farming systems and one on which more to allow for team interaction; (5) use information collected in research is needed in the Caribbean. The studies also showed advance; (6) improve the quality of interview information how and why farmers re-define and re-winterpret technical through careful selection of respondents, use of group interadvice, sometimes improving the advice given. A concluding views, use of strategies other than asking straight questions, section recommends establishing networks of farmers to report correct use of interpreters, and combined interview and direct regularly on ecological problems, such as the incidence of observation; (7) improve the quality of direct observation by pests and changes in rainfall patterns or soil fertility. Agricultur- using cameras and special techniques such as agroecological al planners would collate these reports in order to monitor an transect and field plotting, and identifying key indicators of rural area's agricultural situation. welfare; (8) complete a single team report quickly; and (9)
ensure that results of the report get factored into decisions.
Included are data checklists to remind the RRA team of
010 PN-AAU-697 important issues during the appraisal and a 4-page bibliograMF $1.08/PC $2.21 phy (1970-85)
Village profile for livestock component FSR in
Basuno, Edi; Petheram, R.J.
Institute for Livestock Research
1985, 17p. : statistical tables, En
FSR Vol. III, 1986 3

012 PN-AAT-637 014 PN-AAT-778
MF $1.08/PC $3.25 MF $1.08/PC $2.73
Farming systems approach: some Appropriate methodology for appropriate
unanswered questions technology
Biggs, Stephen D. Bradfield, Stillman
Agricultural administration, v. 18, 1985, p.1 -12 : En American Society of Agronomy (American Society of Agronomy Meeting, Chicago, IL, US, A significant gap in FSR activities is identified in this review Dec 1978)
of FSR's major features. While considerable attention has been Dec 1978, 20p. : En devoted to developing FSR manuals, survey techniques, etc., an analytical framework based on an understanding of the Effective, problem-oriented research to address small farm overall organization of developing countries' agricultural re- needs requires deviations from conventional methods by both search and extension. systems is still lacking. Discussion is behavioral and agricultural scientists. A new methodology in given to the key issues involved in developing such a frame- which researchers set aside traditional scientific paradigms work the necessity of placing on-farm and experimental requiring tight controls is presented. The following are key station research under the same directorship, the importance aspects of this methodology: (1) awareness of the objectives of of recognizing the creative conflict among research disciplines, the small farm system (all of which promote the general and the need to develop communication and evaluation meth- purpose of improving the farm family's defensive position in its ods that unite farmers and researchers, to keep research dealings with outsiders); (2) research which utilizes farmers' flexible, and to maintain commitment to the target group in labor and is conducted under conditions they can maintain; (3) FSR's case, small farmers. (Author abstract, modified) completion of initial social science data collection in 2 weeks or less (using community informants to find out what farmers do and why, discovering farmers' perceptions on farming problems, and gathering community data); (4) involvement by 013 PN-AAT-777 farmers and their spouses in planning feasible, mini-technologMF $1.08/PC $2.99 ical packages for testing. The success of this approach wil depend in part on overcoming research administration conOn-farm research in an integrated agricultural straints, e.g., pressures on research organizations to produce
technology development system : case study tangible results quickly, and on recognizing the fact that profesof triticale for the Himalayan hills sional specialization is rewarded more handsomely than is
Biggs, Stephen D. multidisciplinary work.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture 015 PN-AAN-813
(Regional Workshop on Developing Triticale for the
Himalayan Hills, Mukteshwar, Uttar Pradesh, IN) MF $1.08/PC $6.37
Apr 1979, 19p. + attachments : charts, En Rate and sequence of adoption of improved
936411106 cereal technologies: the case of rainfed
The successful diagnosis of farmers' problems and provi- barley in the Mexican altiplano sion of suitable technologies to address them requires the Byerlee, Derek; De Polanco, Edith H. development of cost-effective methods of research. Some International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center research principles and guidelines which have evolved through 1982, 38p. + appendices: En Working paper no.82/4 experience are here presented. Illustrated through examples 9310840; 936411101 from a program to develop a triticale crop in the Himalayan hills, DAN-0840-G-GS-2031-00 the guidelines are considered applicable to other biological, chemical, and mechanical technologies. The dynamic relation- Studies of farmer adoption of new technology usually focus ships between the five major components of an integrated on the characteristics of farmers rather than on the levels of technology research program, i.e., program justification, on- profitability and risk associated with the technologies themfarm research, implications analysis, policymaking, and on- selves. The latter approach is adopted in this case study of the station research, are described. Methods for conducting an on- technology adoption rate and sequence among barley farmers farm research program are suggested, which inlude initial in Mexico's Altiplano. surveys and other information-gathering activities, diagnosis of Following a review of the study area and data collection farmers' problems, on-farm experiments, and a monitoring and methods, technology characteristics believed to influence farfeedback system. The paper concludes with a list of questions mers' adoption decisions are outlined. Evidence from on-farm to be considered at a regional workshop. experiments is used to rank technology components according
to these characteristics and hence predict the rate and sequence of adoption. Longitudinal farm survey data are then used to examine actual adoption patterns over 10-15 years for five mechanical and three biological technology components and to draw conclusions regarding the effects of interactions among components and the question of adoption of single technologies versus technology packages.
It was found that most farmers have mechanized thek land preparation and harvesting and adopted biochemical technologies, especially in the wetter zones. Factors favoring mechani4 FSR VoL II, 19M

zation were the high cost of hand and animal methods and the 017 PN-AAU-076
availability of rented machinery; topography is a limiting factor, MVF $1.08/PC $1.69
especially where barley is intercropped with maguey. Biochemical components were adopted singly in accordance with their Development of extension programs within rate of return on capital.thcotxofFRadE:heon rvin
It is concluded that small farmers eventually follow the same thcoexofFRadE heon rvin
technology adoption path as large farmers and that technology cropping case in Queensland, Australia packages should be presented in a step-wise sequence, Chamala, S.; Keith, K.J. beginning with the most profitable and adaptable techniques. Farming systems research paper series, no.9, 1986, Research priorities should be based on profitability rather than p.38-50 : charts, En yield increase. Finally, although the private sector has been a Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 major factor in promoting farm mechanization and biochemical farming systems research symposium; farming systems components, the public sector has provided strong incentives research and extension: implementation and monitoring for change by introducing new barley varieties and providing Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha credit, inputs, and favorable pricing policies. Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
016 PN-AAU-339 The importance of early emphasis on extension within the
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) process is argued in this case study of a conservation cropping project in Is anthropology superfluous in farming Queensland, Australia. The paper reviews the lack of planned
systems research? extension in Queensland prior to 1980 and describes a process
Cernea, Michael M.; Guggenheim, Scott E. that was used to identify socioeconomic factors and cropping
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986, practices to help plan extension activities in the region. The
p .504-517 : En process involved: (1) meetings at both field and head offices to
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 clarify goals; (2) a farmer survey using a team approach; (3) a
farming systems research symposium; farming systems survey of extension staff; (4) a workshop to review the data research and extension : implementation and monitoring collected and prepare a strategy; and (5) discussion of priorities Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha and resources at a meeting of regional project leaders and their
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture head office supervisors. The uses of this system in identifying
Programs and overcoming constraints and in improving the cohesiveness
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for of FSR/E are highlighted. A final section discusses the role
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and extension can play in projects in less developed countries. The Information (Sponsor) schema of a revised FSR/E model which gives appropriate
9311282 recognition to extension aspects is presented.
Arguments are presented to refute Norman W. Simmonds'
thesis that anthropology is superfluous in FSR. Appeal is made to researchers' acknowledgements of anthropologists' con- 018 PN-AAT-78 1
tributions to FSR programs at international centers such as the MVF $1.08/PC $1.69
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
- contributions not only to FSR methodology (e.g., farmer- Shortcut methods in information gathering for based, exploratory surveys) but to experimental project design. rural development projects It is further argued that economic factors vital to FSR such as Chambers, Robert farmers' decisionmaking patterns, the relationship between University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies landholding and social structure, and the social organization of (World Bank Agricultural Sector Symposia, Jan 1980) family labor resources fall within the purview of the social and 7 Jan 1980, 24p. : En cultural scientist. Finally, it is noted that anthropology can help FSR: (1) develop methodologies for working with small landhol- Proceedings from a January 1980 symposium, the source of ders; (2) understand the social and cultural reasons for produc- this report, suggest that Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) may tion variations as well as the impact of these factors on present a method of data collection for rural development technology adoption; (3) build on local organizational arrange- projects that is more cost-effective than traditional quick-andments; and (4) use indigenous knowledge to develop appropri- dirty and long-and-dirty methods. Inaccuracies in data can be ate technologies, avoided if researchers use collection methods which are sensitive to each situation and population. While there is neither a correct nor incorrect way of conducting an RRA, each RRA incorporates some of the following: (1) using existing information; (2) learning indigenous technologies and the philosophies behind them; (3) using key agricultural and economic indicators; (4) using teams of social scientists and agricultural scientists to conduct soundings (sondeos) of rural areas; (5) employing local researchers; (6) using direct observation; (7) conducting both formal and informal interviews with key persons and/or groups; and (8) conducting aerial inspection and surveys. Appended are lists of papers on RRA and of papers presented at the symposium.
FSR Vol. it, 1986 5

019 PN-AAT-638 021 PN-AAT-819
MF $1.08/PC $4.16 MF $1.08/PC $2.60
Agricultural re earch for resource poor Thai cropping systems research programs
farmers : the farmer first and last model Chandrapanya, Damkheong Chambers, Robert; Ghildyal, B.P. (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, ID, 18-22
Ford Foundation May 1981)
(National Agricultural Research Project Workshop on 1981, p.203-221 : charts, statistical tables, En
National Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad, Eleventh report of the cropping systems working group
IN, 7-10 Mar 1984) meeting
1984, 25p. + attachments : En International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
The traditional technology transfer model for agricultural Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) research favors resource-rich farmers, whose conditions 936411102 resemble those of research stations. An emerging new research model focuses first to last on the farm family and Rice-based cropping systems research underway at four consists of: a diagnostic appraisal of farmers' needs; generat- sites in Thailand Ubon, Pimai, Kampangphet, and Prae is ing appropriate technology on-farm and with farmers; and briefly outlined. Research is being conducted on: peanut/rice, evaluating the technology in light of its adoption or non- yard long bean/rice, green corn/rice, and mun3bean/rice adoption by farmers. combinations (Ubon); peanuts, glutinous corn, glutinous
Four prototypes of the new model are analyzed: the CIM- corn/mungbean and glutinous corn/peanut, and rice (Pnai); MYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) rice varieties (Kampangphet); and white sesame/rice/soybean. approach to planning technology appropriate to farmers; the mungbean/rice/soybean, and supersweet corn/rice/peanut Sondeo method of rapid appraisal; the ICRAF (International patterns (Prae). Appendices include results of a sociological Crop Research Agricultural Foundation) diagnosis and design survey of farmers' attitudes towards the cropping systems approach to agroforestry; and the CIP (International Potato program, from which a number of recommendations for future Center) farmer-back-to-farmer methodology. The new model research were derived, and 8 tables and graphs presenting can be expanded to meet farmers' needs through five comple- rainfall and agronomic yield data. mentary thrusts: methodological innovations (choosing elements from previous methods); interdisciplinarity (collaboration
among farmers and scientists of different disciplines); suitable
resources (e.g., transportation/funds); rewards (e.g., promo- 022 PN-AAR-852
tion); and training researchers how to learn from farmers. A 23- MF $1.081PC $9A9
item bibliography (1977-83) is appended. Issues in organization and management of
research with a farming systems perspective
020 PN-AAT-818 aimed at technology generation: proceedings
MF $1.08/PC $5.85 of a workshop
Chang, M. Joseph
Cropping systems work in Thailand International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Chandrapanya, Damkheong International Service for National Agricultural Research;
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos, U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
PH, 2-5 Oct 1978) Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
1978, p.121-165 : charts, statistical tables, En (Workshop on Issues in Organization and Management of Seventh report of the cropping systems working group Research with a Farming Systems Perspective Aimed at International Rice Research Institute Technology Generation, The Hague, NL, 27-30 Sep 1983)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for 1984, 75p. : charts, En
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) 936411113; 936411101
936411102 Presented are the proceedings of a 1983 FSR workshop,
Collaborative, on-farm research is being conducted in which was co-sponsored by the International Service for Northeastern (Pimai and Ubon) and Central (Bangpae and Agricultural Research (ISNAR) and the International Maize and Inburi) Thailand in order to develop and test innovative rice- Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Representatives from based cropping systems technologies for rainfed and partially agricultural research and international development organizairrigated areas. The agencies involved include the Rice and tions participated in the deliberations, discussing: (1) recent Technical Divisions of the Department of Agriculture, the views on farming systems; (2) the FSR support activities of the Division of Agricultural Economics of the Ministry of Agriculture World Bank; (3) FSR concepts and implementation at the and Cooperatives, and the Faculties of Agriculture and of Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center in Costa Economics and Business Administration of Kasetsart Universi- Rica (CATIE); (4) FSR experiences in Nigeria; (5) pxectionty. This report describes the cooperative linkages and research oriented FSR at the Agricultural Science and Technology activities at the four sites and presents and analyzes their Institute in Guatemala (ICTA); (6) experiences in FSR manageagronomic and economic results. Described more briefly are ment and organization in Panama; (7) technology generation other research being conducted in the country, the program's and transfer through National Institute for Agiculturall Retraining component, and research plans for FY's 1979-81. search (INIAP) programs in Ecuador, and (8) a framework for Roughly half the document consists of tables documenting organizing and managing national agricultural research proresearch results. grams with a farming systems perspective. A summary of
6 FSR VoL ., 196

participants' discussions between presentations and at working greatest problem to be lack of interdisciplinary cooperation, groups is included. especially with regard to the primacy of the economist's role.
023 PN-AAU-077 025 PN-AAT-639
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 MF $1.08/PC $2.73
Farming systems research : diagnosing the Agricultural extension and farming systems
problems research
Collinson, Michael De Vries, James
1985, p.71-86 : chart, En University of Dar es Salaam. Dept. of Agricultural Education
Research extension farmer : a two way continuum for and Extension
agricultural development (Farming Systems and Farming Systems Research
Cernea, Michael M.; Coulter, John K.; Russell, John F.A. Conference, Arusha, TZ, 14-16 Apr 1981) World Bank AEE working paper, no.81.1, Apr 1981, 20p. : charts, En
The value of FSR in identifying and understanding the Bibliography: p.18-20
problems which influence small farmers' decisionmaking is Countering a seemingly widespread belief that extension discussed in this study, a chapter in a monograph on agricultur- has little if anything to do with FSR, this paper argues for their al research and extension linkages. After outlining some impor- essential complementarity. The author first presents FSR as an tant concepts underpinning the application of FSR as a means integral part of what is called the dialogical model of agricultural of effective problem diagnosis, the study details the FSR extension a participatory, problem-centered approach stressapproach, as well as the sequence of low--cost, rapid methods ing farmers' basic needs, in contrast to the conventional topof problem identification developed by the Internatonal Center down, client-expert method oriented to increasing production for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT). FSR's and goes on to elaborate the mutual benefits of extension-FSR potential for linking research, extension, and farmers in an cooperation in the local-level agricultural development prointeractive continuum of project identification/preparation and cess. The organizational structure of Tanzania's conventional in policy formulation is reviewed. A final section highlights the extension service is then detailed and used to exemplify how, importance of training as the single most urgent prerequisite for with some adjustments, FSR and extension can fit together and effective use of the FSR methodology, strengthen one another within Tanzania's two types of extension systems the general service under the direction of the
Prime Minister's Office and Regional and District Development
024 PN-AAT-782 Directors, and specialized services under various crop and
livestock parastatals. A list of 21 references (1966-80) is
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 provided.
Some issues in CIMMYT's concepts and
procedures for the use of FSR in agricultural
research and planning 026 PN-AAU-330
Collinson, Michael MF $1.08/PC $2.21
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Science Concept and practice of farming systems
and Technology. Office of Agriculture research
Dec 1980, p.21-46 : statistical tables, En Dillon, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.
Farming systems contribution to improved relevancy in (Eastern Africa ACIAR Consultation on Agricultural
agricultural research : concepts and procedures and their Research : Major Agricultural Problems and Research
promotion by CIMMYT in eastern Africa Priorities in the Eastern Africa Region, Nairobi, KE, 19936411101 22 Jul 1983)
1984, p.171-186 : charts, En
The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's Proceedings of the eastern Africa ACIAR consultation on (CIMMYT's) approach to FSR and its experiences and difficul- agricultural research : major agricultural problems and ties with this approach in eastern Africa are herein discussed. research priorties in the eastern Africa region In brief, the CIMMYT approach to FSR which it attempted to Kenya. National Council for Science and Technology introduce in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya during The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 1976-80: uses information on target groups and considers
personnel resources in identifying research priorities and deter- The distinguishing feature of FSR is that it integrates mining the number of groups to be worked with; provides the approaches found disparately in more traditional forms of FSR economist whose perspective on resource allocation is agricultural research. So argues this analysis of FSR theory and congruous with the farmer's a unique role in coordinating practice against charges that FSR is revolutionary or unproven. interdisciplinary research planning; eschews sophisticated After citing examples of FSR in Brazil, the Philippines, and modeling in favor of a low-cost, rapid turnaround approach India, the author defends the need for the FSR approach, which can cover 4 to 10 target groups in the time taken by a arguing that its results, which require only minimal changes in single modeling investigation; and uses a general-to-specific existing farming methods, are more likely to be adopted than problem identification strategy to identify the enterprise(s) the innovations generated by traditional research. Succeeding offering the greatest leverage for positive change within the sections of the report describe FSR methodology and the farming system. In attempting to institutionalize this approach in implications of its interdisciplinary approach for research mannational research services in eastern Africa, CIMMYT found the agement, e.g., integrating on-farm and station-based research
FSR Vol. Ill, 1986 7

and linking research and extension activities. Stress is laid on 028 PN-AAU-699
the key role played in FSR by social scientists, who conduct MF $1.08/PC $2.60
research on factors influencing farmers which cannot be studied by pure scientists. A final section discusses problems Economic analysis within the farming system involved in adopting the FSR approach, the diversity of farming research and technology development systems being identified as the chief of these. methodology: an empirical application in
Central America
Escobar, German
027 PN-AAU-078 Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
MF $1.08/PC $1.56 p.365-384: charts, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
Identification of farmers' production problems farming systems research symposium; farming systems
in Indonesia research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Effendi, Suryatna Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
1985, p.51-62 : chart, En Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Research extension farmer : a two way continuum for Programs
agricultural development U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Cernea, Michael M.; Coutler, John K.; Russell, John F.A. Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and World Bank Information (Sponsor)
Methodologies used for food crop-based FSR in Indonesia
are presented, with emphasis on the important linkage between Agricultural research at CATIE combines an FSR approach research and extension. Onsite research into small farmer with narrowly-focused technology development (TD), and is cropping systems on irrigated lowlands and rainfed uplands complemented at every stage by economic analysis both to was carried out at six sites in western and eastern Java and assess farmers' own economic reasoning and to ensure that Lampung since 1972, and the following methodology has new technologies will increase production while conforming to emerged. area conditions and farmer objectives. A description of CATIE's
Farmer production problems are identified by quick FSR/TD methodology highlights area selection and characagroeconomic profiles (conducted by cropping systems/FSR terization, on-farm experimental trials and supporting biological teams). To develop a land use capability map and provide research, and diffusion of research findings. Presented next is important baseline information for agricultural research, a na- a summary of CATIE's experience, from area selection to tional inventory is taken of natural resources which assesses validation, in developing a weed control and land preparation the edaphological characteristics of land, environmental deter- technology for maize in Costa Rica's Atlantic Region. CATIE's minants of land potential, and present land use. Target areas experience illustrates the role and contribution of economic are then selected for applying integrated research, and dif- analysis within the FSR/TD methodology and demonstrates ferent categories of cropping patterns are designed which take that: (1) economic analysis is a continuous activity during the into account Indonesian farmers' need for low-cost, low-risk research process, and the responsible team member wfl technologies. The flow of agricultural research information integrate the research team from the beginning; (2) results of between source and user is a potential problem area; it is economic analysis must be interpreted according to the agrosuggested that in developing countries, public sector institu- nomic and biologic results; and (3) economic analysis must be tions may disseminate information more efficiently than the farm applied and very simple, as every member of the research weak private sector. In conclusion, two effective ways to team will have to interpret the results. promote development and transfer of new technologies are research coordination and the collection of site-specific descriptive data. 029 PN-AAU-700
MF $1.08/PC $5.07
Adding a food consumption perspective to
farming systems research
Frankenberger, Timothy R.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.518-556: En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and Information (Sponsor)
Methods in which the food consumption concerns of small farmers can be better integrated into each stage of FSR are presented, emphasizing the importance of food consumpion to
8 FSR VoL U, 190

agricultural production. Considered first are production and The history of agricultural research in Senegal is summaconsumption linkages of which FSR teams must be aware if rized to illustrate the evolution of the Francophone approach. they are to understand how a proposed production recommen- Key concepts in most Francophone systems, particularly the dation will affect household consumption seasonality of central relationship between agricultural research and developproduction, crop mix and minor crops, income, the role of ment activities, are elucidated and Belgian contributions to the women in production, crop labor requirements, and market study of farming systems outlined. Variations of the Anprices and their seasonality. Discussion is then given to data glophone farming systems and cropping systems research are collection measures which can be implemented at each stage then described. of the research process (target area selection, diagnostic Comparison of the two approaches reveals, inter alia, a surveys, recommendation domain definition, on-farm research, basic difference in scale and time frame: Francophone methevaluation, and extension) to incorporate consumption per- ods have historically been part of long-term development spectives into FSR, and the kinds of data that can be collected. efforts, while Anglophone research is primarily concerned with In conclusion, recent FSR projects which have attempted to adapting existing research to generate appropriate technology implement such procedures are identified, for farmers.
Two tables and a list of 72 references (1930-84) in English,
French, and Dutch are provided.
030 PN-AAT-640
MF $1.08/PC $3.51
Comparing the results of an informal survey 032 PN-AAT-783
with those of a formal survey :a case study of MF $1.08/PC $2.86
farming systems research / extension (FSR/E) Women and cassava production, an approach
in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya to improving agricultural productivity in rural
Franzel, Steven Zaire
Development Alternatives, Inc. FecLus
1984 17. +2 apendces: satitica tales EnU.N. Food and Agriculture Organization; U.N. Development
Two types of surveys informal and formal used to collect Programme
information for a Farming Systems Research and Extension Nov 1982, 1 9p. : statistical table, En (FSR/E) program in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya, are compared forHihgtsaepsnedotwdnrpojcsimdt their effectiveness and accuracy.Hihihsaepeetdotwdnrpojcsimdt
An overview describes how the FSR/E approach differs promoting agricultural development in the Kwango-Kwilu from more conventional, market-oriented approaches because subregions of Zaire by helping women, the principal crop it integrates the social, economic, and ecological aspects of producers, increase production of the principal food crop: farming systems. The principal advantages of the informal cassava. The report discusses the constraints to cassava survey (e.g., its low cost, rapid turnaround, andi emphasis on production in the two subregions (including the problem posed researcher/farmer teamwork) are then discussed, as are its by the absence of male labor from agriculture, especially from biases (researcher-based sources of inaccuracies). The formal cassava, which is considered a food and therefore a woman's and informal surveys conducted in Middle Kirinyaga are next crop) and the effort made by the projects to help women compared with regard to two criteria: (1) data collection, and (2) increase cassava production through new technologies and proposed research programs based on the results of each new organizational forms. A final section discusses the need to survey. It is concluded that informal surveys are both effective institutionalize specific interventions in regard to cultivation and sufficient for learning about farming systems and planning techniques, afforestation, varietal multiplication, information experimental FSR programs; in this case, the contributions of networking by women under direction of an animatrice, the the formal survey were marginal, relative to its costs. inclusion of more women in the government extension service, working with non-governmental organizations, use of more
adequate tools and storage facilities, and a focusing of agricul031 PN-AAR-638 tural research on women's work and small farming systems.
MF $1.08/PC $5.07
Comparing anglophone and francophone 033 PN-AAT-784
approaches to farming systems research and MF $1.08/PC $3.77
Fresco, Louise Classifying physical environments as a tool in
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural cropping systems research :upland rice in the
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development. Philippines Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture Garrity, Dennis
Farming systems support project networking paper, no. 1, Oct International Rice Research Institute; U.S. Agency for
1984, 31 p. : En International Development. Bureau for Science and
9364099 Technology. Office of Agriculture
Two contrasting approaches to farming systems research (IRRI Saturday Seminar, Los Banos, PH, 24 Jul 1976) and extension the Francophone approach developed in the (Annual Meeting of the Crop Science Society of the former French-speaking colonies, especially in Africa, and the Philippines, 7th, Davao City, PH, 11 May 1976) Anglophone approach more recently evolved at international 24 Jul 1976, 29p. : maps, statistical tables, En agricultural research centers are compared in this study. 936411102
FSR Vol. it, 1986 9

Environmental factors greatly affect the development of 035 PN-AAU-157
cropping patterns in the upland areas of the Philippines where MF $1.08/PC $2.06
rainfed rice is the basic crop. This paper describes an environmental classification system which can reveal predictive infor- Rapid rural appraisal : an overview of mation about the performance of a new cropping pattern. In concepts and application developing the system, researchers collected data on four Gibbs, Christopher J.N. environmental determinants rainfall pattern, slope, soil tex- (International Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal, Khon ture, and soil order (in decreasing order of importance) in Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep 1985) sample upland municipalities and used the data to characterize 1985, 16p. : En the environment at each site. The data were also used to
identify environmental complexes, that is, groups of environ- Based on a review of select items of a growing body of mentally similar sites. literature, this paper presents an overview of Rapid Rural
Appraisal (RRA). Initial sections describe RRA's context and
unique methodological features and review RRA applications in
agriculture, rural development, nutrition, agroforestry, and in
034 PN-AAH-234 special areas such as women in development A final section
MF $1.08/PC $1.69 discusses the concerns raised by the fact that RRA (1) challenges conventional views; (2) has virtues each of which is
Determining superior cropping patterns for a potential pitfall; (3) must be institutionalized within a developsmall farms in a dryland rice environment: ment organization to be successful; (4) may cause unrealistic
test of a methodology expectations due to its popularity; (5) may be used at times
Garrity, Dennis P.; Harwood, Richard R.; et al. when another methodology is more appropriate; and (6) may International Rice Research Institute depend too heavily on indicators which do not adequately
IRRI research paper series, no.33, 1979, 13p. : En represent the phenomenon under study. A concluding section Also in: Agricultural systems, v.6(1980-81), p.269-283 suggests that despite its problems and modest beginnings 936411102 (RRA developed because it requires fewer resources than
AID/DSAN-G-0083 other methods), RRA provides highly distinctive information in a
timely and economical manner. A four-page bibliography
Strategies for increasing farm productivity that focus on (1979-85) is appended. introducing technical changes within a single-crop enterprise
are often rejected by farmers because of unforeseen negative
effects on productivity or resource utilization. Cropping systems
research approaches this problem by determining the effects of 036 PN-AAU-079
potential technical changes on the entire system. This paper MF $1.08/PC $1.95
discusses the methodology for cropping systems research for
dryland rice-based systems in the Philippines. Test patterns Semi-structured interviewing are grown on a portion of each cooperating farm under joint Grandstaff, Somluckrat W.; Grandstaff, Terry B. farmer-research team management. This methodology in- (International Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal, Khon volves the farmer actively in the research process, thus Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep 1985) facilitating early detection of some of the constraints to adop- Sep 1985, 15p. : En tion at the farm level. The potential for increased crop productivity was tested in the Batanga region where the predominant The semi-structured interview, the technique used in concropping pattern involves dryland rice followed by field corn. ducting flexible and informal Rapid Rural Appraisals (RRA's), is Alternative cropping was tested, including: following rice with described. The semi-structured interview uses general quesalternative field crops that may offer advantages over corn; tions which are revised as the interviews proceed. To ensure following rice with two crops to extend cropping further into the overall reliability, the interviews are conducted from at least dry season; and following rice with intercrop patterns to replace three disciplinary perspectives and findings are combined with monoculture corn. Alternative crops included soybean, peanut, those of at least two other data collection methods (triangulamung bean, and cowpea. After 3 years of testing, it was found tion). A sucessful interview requires organization of the rethat adoption of an improved corn variety could increase search team (a limit of four is urged); the establishment of productivity in the dryland rice-corn system studied. Soybean protocols for team member behavior, e.g., no one should and sorghum appeared to be outstanding alternative crops. interrupt anyone else; and careful choice of whom to interview, However, because neither is currently grown in the area, their the interview site, and of whether to interview groups or adoption would represent a substantial change in the system. individuals. A good interviewer is one who: (1) discouages New infrastructural support, markets, and threshers would be outsiders (closes the group); (2) follows social mores; (3) required. Intercropping of corn shows the potential of substan- controls the direction of the conversation; (4) can read between tially raising land productivity, but lack of labor appears to be a the lines of interviewee responses; (4) probes for more detail; potential constraint. Cropping patterns with three crops per and (5) avoids leading questions. The report concludes by year were shown to be feasible and profitable. suggesting that preliminary reports be made from field notes as
soon as possible after the interview in order to avoid any loss or
distortion of facts.
10 FSR VoL Ii, 1996

037 PN-AAT-839 tions, and soil management practices. A final section discusses
MF $1.08/PC $1.04 the implications of these findings for future phosphorus fertilizer research on upland rice.
Energy flows on smallholder farms in the
Ethiopian highlands
Gryseels, Guido; Goe, Michael R. 039 PN-AAT-787
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Technology. Office of Agriculture Crop / livestock interactions as: crop
ILCA bulletin, no.17, Jan 1984, p.2-9 : ill., map, statistical
tables, En production determinants
936411109 Hart, Robert
Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science
Energy flows on smallholder farms in two areas of the (Symposium; Agricultural Policy and Small Farm Sector, Ethiopian highlands are studied in this paper. The overall AAAS Annual Meeting, New York, NY, US, 24-29 May farming system and the resource base (especially human labor 1984) and animal traction) in these areas are described and an outline Comell international agriculture mimeograph, no. 107, May is given of how these resources are used. The use of energy in 1985, p.1-12 : charts, En the household system is then discussed and the prospects for
improvements in energy use in both farm and household The effects of livestock on crop production and key types of systems are assessed. The authors conclude that any major crop/livestock interactions are discussed. Emphasis is on the improvements in present energy use will have to rely on small mixed farms (crop and livestock enterprises) in the Third technologies which are simple, effective, and easily imple- World developing tropics, currently a critical concern of agriculmented and maintained. Energy problems must be seen in the tural researchers. Presented first is a conceptual framework wider perspective of agricultural and ecological development, based on General Systems Theory which can be used to Changes in the overall energy use on smallholder farms will be organize the complex environment in which crops are produced slow unless a proper infrastructure and adequate extension into a set of hierarchical systems. Crop/livestock interactions and technical support services are established. (Author ab- at the ecosystem, farm, and community levels of the systems stract, revised) hierarchy that forms the crop environment are described, with
case studies from Kenya, Costa Rica, and Peru used to
illustrate crop/livestock interactions at the different hierarchical
levels. The role of crop/livestock interactions in the design of
038 PN-AAU-331 appropriate research strategies is briefly discussed.
MF $2.16/PC $14.17
Social relations of land and fertilizer use and
frontier integration : upland rice in the Llanos 040 PN-AAT-785
Orientales of Colombia MF $1.08/PC $1.04
Hansen, Elizabeth D.R. Bean, corn and manioc polyculture cropping
International Center for Tropical Agriculture; International
Fertilizer Development Center; U.S. Agency for system : 1. the effect of interspecific
International Development. Bureau for Science and competition on crop yield
Technology. Office of Agriculture Hart, Robert D.
Dec 1983, iii, 105p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En Turrialba, v.25(3), 1975, p.294-301 : charts, statistical tables, 936411104 En
Farmers' socioeconomic status can affect their ability to Beans, corn, and manioc were planted separately in 3 adopt new agricultural practices and inputs. This report dis- monoculture cropping systems, and together in 3 polyculture cusses the land management and fertilizer practices of upland cropping systems. The polycultures consisted of: (1) a succesrice farmers in the Meta Piedmont of Colombia's Llanos Orien- sion polyculture in which beans, corn, and manioc were planted tales region and suggests that researchers consider socioeco- at the same time and harvested after 9, 18, and 36 weeks nomic differences when designing new agricultural technolo- respectively; (2) a reverse polyculture in which manioc was gies. planted alone and then interplanted with corn after 18 weeks
To develop a broad social framework for research into rice and beans after 27 weeks, and all crops harvested after 36 and phosphorus fertilizers, the report first discusses the impor- weeks; and (3) an intensive polyculture in which 4 bean crops, 2 tance of rice as a crop in Latin America and the social dynamic corn crops, and 1 manioc crop were all interplanted during a 36 by which frontier lands are integrated into commercial agricul- week period. Four treatments consisting of the factorial product tural production. Next, field sites and research methodologies of 2 fertilizer treatments and 2 weeding treatments were are described in detail, followed by a brief social history of rice applied to the 3 monocultures and 3 polycultures and to a farming in the Meta Piedmont which places in context the data natural vegetation cropping system which consisted of invading on farmer types, land management, and fertilizer use. The field weeds. The effect of fertilizer and weeding treatments on the research showed that Meta upland rice production was fully yield of beans, corn, and manioc was not the same in the integrated with national commercial agricultural institutions, monoculture and polyculture cropping systems. Interspecies including agricultural research and technology delivery sys- competition in the succession polyculture resulted in a dynamic tems. However, within the domain of commercial agriculture, interaction between bean and corn yield. When fertilizer was class differences as indicated by area of rice planted exist applied to the polyculture, corn yield increased and bean yield regarding access to appropriate upland rice soils, tenure rela- decreased. (Author abstract, modified)
FSR Vol. Ill, 1986 11

041 PN-AAT-786 trials should be tested on several production units so as to
MF $1.08/PC $1.04 verify their impact on the system and develop an appropriate Bean, corn and manioc polyculture cropping technology. (Author abstract, modified
system: 11. a comparison between the yield
and economic return from monoculture and 043 PN-AAT-642
polyculture cropping systems MF $2.16/PC $22
Hart, Robert D.
Turrialba, v.25(4), 1975, p.377-384 : charts, statistical tables, On-farm agronomic trials in farming systems En research and extension
An experiment in which beans, corn, and manioc were Hildebrand, Peter E.; Poey, Federico
planted in monoculture and polyculture cropping systems was 1985, xvi, 162p. : charts, statistical tables, En described previously in Part I of this report (See PN-AAT-785).
The results from the experiment are used here to compare the Practical guidelines for the design and analysis of on-farm yield and economic return from three monocultures, in which agronomic experiments or field trials are presented in this book. each crop was planted separately, and three polycultures, in which was developed from a workshop given in San Jose, which thcrop were lntersepanated., Itasound tha yie an Costa Rica, in September 1982. An introductory section dewhich the crops were interpanted. It was found that yield and scribes the farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) than from the monocultures. The net economic return from the approach to technology development and outlines the objecsuccession polyculture, which had been designed as an analog tives of on-farm research as well as the different types of onto leaf, stem, and root biomass compartmentalization dung farm trials (exploratory, site-specific, regional, and farmernatural succession, was higher than from the two other polycul- managed) employed therein. Subsequent chapters present, in tures. When the succession polyculture was evaluated by simple, easy to follow steps, the statistical procedures most ture. Wen he sccesio polculurewas valate by often used in conducting these four types of trials, which comparing it with a hypothetical monoculture rotation cropping perforce lack the controlled conditions found at experimental system using the same three crops, the yield and net economic stations; included are new ideas and methods for analyzing the return were 37% and 54% higher, respectively, from the data obtained. A final chapter addresses problems and pracsuccession polyculture than from the monoculture rotation ties in organizing and managing FSR/E programs. cropping system. (Author abstract, modified)
042 PN-AAT-641 044 PN-AAT-820
MF $1.08/PC $2.47 MF $1.08/PC $.78
Vegetations et les resources fourrageres dans Need for long term cropping systems
les systems pastoraux (Vegetation and experiments
fodder resources in pastoral systems) Hoque, M. Zahidul; Pendleton, John W.; Kim, S.C.
Hiernaux, Pierre (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, ID, 18-22
1983, p.113-131 : charts, statistical tables, Fr May 1981)
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa 1981, p.327-331 : En
International Livestock Centre for Africa Eleventh report of the cropping systems working group
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for meeting
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) International Rice Research Institute
936411109 U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
A three-phase plan for studying vegetation and feed re- 936411102 sources in pastoral systems, aimed at identifying the nutritional
constraints to livestock production, is presented. The sug- Crop intensification may be necessary to the survival of gested plan uses environmental data to quantify and analyze subsistence farmers in Asia. Because the validity of intensive the production of forage resources. multiple cropping systems (i.e., effects on the soil, labor utilizaFirst, the descriptive phase uses sampling methodology to tion) is still being questioned, the authors of this report suggest collect data on the environmental parameters in which pastoral that long-term trials be designed and implemented before the systems evolve; surveys of the vegetation (herbaceous and farmers' situation worsens. The objectives of Iog--term tials ligneous associations, floristic composition, and above-ground include identifying soil and crop management methods which biomass) and other ecological variables (e.g., climatic and can be used to ensure high crop yields while protecting the edaphic characteristics, geomorphology, topography, soil pro- environment and developing a data base for future guidance file, and land use) are taken to stratify the environment and the and research programs. A list of recommendations for planrvng forage production within each strata. Next, in the diagnostic and implementing long-term cropping systems trials is prophase, field measurements (either destructive or non-destruc- vided; these include, inter alia, conducting the trials on expertive) are taken of vegetable biomass to identify inadequate feed ment stations rather than in farmers' fields, focusing the resources that constrain animal nutrition and to propose techni- purpose of the trials on the generation of component technolocal solutions or lines of research to address those constraints. gy over time, and using a multidisciplinary approach. Attention Finally, in the experimental phase, the impact of a single is briefly given to the types of experiments to be conducted, variable within a pastoral system or of a single technical experimental design, and the types of data which should be innovation on the functioning of that system is analyzed so that collected and analyzed. An implementation plan for the proan adapted technology can be devised. The results of these posed program is suggested.
12 FSR VoL HI, 1906

045 PN-AAT-788 047 PN-AAT-789
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 MF $1.08/PC $2.47
Potato farming in the Andes: some lessons Testing of technology with small farmers in
from on-farm research in Peru's Mantaro Jinotega, Nicaragua
Valley Icaza G., J.; Lagemann, J.
Horton, Douglas Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center. Dept. of
Agricultural systems, v. 12, 1983, p. 171-184 :chart, map, Crop Production
statistical tables, En 1982, 1 8p. : statistical tables, En
Development programs generally assume that agricultural Bibliography. p. 18
researchers and extensionists are sufficiently knowledgeable Two innovative technologies, one for maize production and about local farming systems and technological alternatives to one for maize-bean production, were evaluated in farmerformulate sound recommendations for farmers. The results of managed trials in three areas in Jinotega, Nicaragua. farming systems research conducted on agronomic constraints Preliminary results, based on agronomic and economic to potato production in highland Peru disprove this assumption: analyses during one planting season, indicate that the recomnuse of the technology recommended most highly (improved mended maize-bean technology is superior to farmers' tradiseed) reduced farmers' net returns, while another technology tional technology (except perhaps in the Suni area, where considered less important (improved pest control) was found to onions as a cash crop produce a higher marginal cost-benefit be highly profitable. The interdisciplinary approach used in this ratio); the opinions of participating farmers confirmed these research which involves surveys, observations, and farm- findings. The maize technology, on the other hand, is not yet level experimentation and which could help identify key prob- ready for diffusion as the variety used is not adapted to humid lems and pre-screen potential solutions in a variety of agricul- areas. The testing approach which emphasized farmer partural development programs is presented, along with re- ticipation in design, execution, and evaluation was very search findings. Included are 6 tables and 16 references successful and strengthened communications among farmers, (1977-83). (Author abstract, modified) extensionists, and researchers.
046 PN-AAU-701 048 PN-AAT-840
MF $1.08/P1C $3.38 MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Subregional issues in the implementation of ILCA bulletin: Animal traction in sub-Saharan
farming systems research and extension Africa
methodology : a case study in Zambia International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
Hudgens, R.E. International Development. Bureau for Science and
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986, Technology. Office of Agriculture
p.51-76: maps, statistical tables, En no. 14, Dec 1981, 1 8p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 936411109
farming systems research symposium; farming systems In sub-Saharan Africa, where agriculture is still about 90% research and extension : implementation and monitoring dependent on manual labor, it appears that increased use of Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha animal power can make a substantial contribution, at low cost,
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture to agricultural development. Animal traction has developed
U.S.ogenyfrItentoaaDvlpet.Braso appreciably in some areas notably Mali, Senegal, and more
USciAenc ao ndtehnaoyn fieehal Deeomn.Brevie and recently Burkina Faso; bioclimatic, traditional, and historical
Sinrmand (Spono)y fieoecnclRve n factors have been most important in determining the use of
9311282 n(Sonor animal traction within limits set by the nature and availability of
9311282cattle in the region, poor adaptation of animal traction equipVarious practical issues have arisen in the implementation ment to farmers' needs, heavy feed requirements, traditional of farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) in the farmer attitudes about livestock, and financial considerations. Central Province of Zambia since Zambia formally established Review of development experience with animal traction shows an FSR/E structure in 1980. This networking report highlights that impacts on labor productivity have been uneven (dependsome of these issues and how they were addressed. Following ing in part on the distribution of area cultivated to subsistence a brief discussion of FSR/E background and institutional and cash crops) and farm income has not in all cases been framework, particularly in the Central Province, twelve proce- increased, as farmers only know how to take real advantage of dural issues confronted by FSR/E in that region are presented implements which relieve their major cultivation problems. under three general headings: (1) zoning and stratification; (2) Even in ecologically suitable areas with sufficient animals, the technology development and testing; and (3) communication transformation of traditional farming systems through animal and people management. The FSR/E effort has been quite traction will be a long and arduous process involving profound successful in addressing the research/ extension linkage, change in farmers' attitudes. A list of 29 references (1965developing short-and long-term research strategies, and 1981) is provided. cooperating with other regional development institutions. Problems remain, however, in several areas: stratification of the
target group within recommendation domains, multidisciplinary
understanding among FSR/E and commodity researchers, and
monitoring rapid farming system changes.
FSR Vol III, 1986 13

049 PN-AAT-643 ing the ARPT-CSRT relationship. It is concluded that as the
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 need for cooperation is recognized, greater efforts on both sides will result in a successful working relationship.
Sociological and anthropological aspects in
preproduction testing and production
programmes involving upland rice 051 PN-AAT-829
Jiggins, Janice; Fresco, Louise MF $1.06/PC $7.02
(Upland Rice Conference, Djakarta, ID, Mar 1985)
Dec 1984, 14p. : En Farm level testing of cropping systems: an
IRRI : proceedings of the Upland rice conference, Djakarta, economic analysis of the multiple cropping March, 1985
International Rice Research Institute project experience
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Kellogg, Earl D.
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) Chiang Mai University. Faculty of Agriculture
936411102 Agricultural economics research report / Multiple Cropping
Project, no.2, 1978, 34p. + attachments : charts,
The use of sociological and anthropological factors in the statistical tables, En FSR approach to technology generation, as exemplified in
upland rice research, is contrasted with the technology genera- Results are presented of an economic analysis of eight ricetion process practiced by international agricultural research based multiple cropping systems field tested in Northern Thaicenters (IARC's). land by Chiang Mai University (CMU). Criteria used included
Whereas IARC researchers analyze potential technologies profitability (net returns calculated twice, by including all costs in detail and apart from users, FSR increases the odds of except land and then by including all costs except labor and finding truly useful technologies by using small, flexible staffs to land), input use (evaluated by cash costs and labor use conduct frequent tests of many possible technologies with criteria), and risk factors (calculated by the standard deviation homogeneous groups of users (recommendation domains), of net returns, the coefficient of the variation of net returns, and The practice of FSR in upland rice research includes: (1) the observed probability of not covering labor, supply, and analyzing the socioeconomic variables of resource access, equipment costs). Time series data, which allow researchers to availability, distribution, and exchange in relation to time and observe the influence of weather and yearly price changes on space as a means of developing suitable diagnostic and net income variation, were also collected, but the ir valicity was breeding criteria matrices; (2) ensuring that tests are represen- seriously questioned; there is need for further work in this area. tative, replicated, and take place in low input environments; (3) Results are given first by individual crops included in the accepting limited results; and (4) using FSR to test not only new CMU program; the outcomes of CMU-supervised participants technologies, but also the limits to technology generation are compared, where possible, to results achieved by noninherent in the behaviors of IARC's and national research project farmers who grew the same crops and also kept systems. If the latter abandoned their institutional isolation, financial records to use as a basis for comparison. Next, the they could actually assist FSR by serving as objective inter- systems used by participants are compared to traditional mediaries between FSR staff and farmers. systems. Stress is laid on the importance to CMU's research
program of farmer management of the systems. Study statistical data are presented in 5 tables and 30 charts.
050 PN-AAU-702
MF $1.08/PC $2.73 052 PN-AAT-79
Relationship between systems research and MF $1.08/PC $1.04
technical component research within national
research organizations: experiences from Rapid labour data collection for secondary
Zambia crops : cocoyam and soybean farming
Kean, S.A. systems in Nigeria
Adaptive Research Planning Team; Zambia. Dept. of Knipscheer, Hendrik C.
Agriculture Public administration and development v.2, 1982, p.265-272:
1985, 21p. : En chart, statistical tables, En
Although institutionalizing FSR into the technical research The great challenge to effective FSR is to find methods of being conducted by national research organizations is impor- systems appraisal that maximize the use of existing information tant for generating and diffusing appropriate technology to while maintaining a certain measure of accuracy (i.e., rapid rural farmers, relationships between FSR and technical research appraisal). This report presents and exemplifies a comparative have encountered a variety of problems. This report outlines method which combines literature study and field survey for general reasons for the poor interaction (e.g., insufficient collecting data on labor use for secondary crops. In the attention to its importance and incorrect donor attitudes toward comparative method, farmers compare foodcrops for which FSR as a replacement for technical research) and exemplifies labor use data are known (via desk research on labor use in the these reasons in a case study of the Government of Zambia's ecological area in which the FSR effort is being conducted) with efforts to coordinate activities between FSR-related Adaptive crops for which the labor requirement is unknown. The labor Research Planning Teams (ARPT's) and Department of Agri- use of the unknown crops can be derived from the farmers' culture Commodity and Specialist Research Teams (CSRT's). rankings. In two case studies in Nigeria, one for cocoyam and After examining why only a modest level of cooperation be- one for soybeans, absolute labor data derived in this manner tween the two was achieved, suggestions are made for improv- corresponded with relative labor data provided by the farmers
14 FSR VOL 114 19W

themselves. The comparative method, therefore, seems to be technologies for rational soil and water management and a quick but reliable method by which generally applicable labor elimination of agricultural production constraints, and the other use data can be obtained. (Author abstract, modified) to transfer technology to farmers via technical assistance, demonstrations, and training. Next, detailed analyses of the
area's physical and socioeconomic characteristics, agricultural
production factors, and local cooperatives and production
053 PN-AAT-644 systems are presented. A 55-item bibliography is included.
MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Livestock production in Central Mali : the
'mouton de case' system of smallholder sheep 055 PN-AAU-332
fattening MF $1.08/PC $1.43
Kolff, H.E.; Wilson, R.T. Conducting on farm research in FSR:
Agricultural systems, v. 16, 1985, p.217-230 : chart, statistical
tables, En making a good idea work
Lightfoot, Clive; Barker, Randolph
The Mouton de Case is a small-scale, stall-fed system of Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986, sheep fattening in West Africa. Most fattened animals are p.445-455 : En males, kept for slaughter at the annual Moslem Feast of the Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 Sacrifice (tabaski), during which 25% of local sheep are farming systems research symposium; farming systems butchered. In an intensive study of Mouton de Case in two research and extension : implementation and monitoring agropastoral subsystems in five villages of Central Mali, more Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha stall-fed sheep were fed on irrigated rice (39%) than on rain- Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture fed millet (24%), both supplemented mainly by cut grass, tree Programs leaves, and some agricultural byproducts. In both systems, U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for each farmer fattened approximately two animals. Average daily Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and gain of the Mouton de Case sheep was 11 7g, almost twice that Information (Sponsor) of field-raised animals (60g). 9311282
Advantages of the Mouton de Case system include increased dietary animal protein, supplementary income, and the To increase the adoption of agricultural technologies develsatisfaction of social and religious values. When owned by oped through FSR, this report suggests a 3-part methodology women, the fattened sheep contributed to their independence incorporating on-farm research and farmer participation. The and social position within the household. Main constraints to first step is to diagnose the existing farming system and its expanding the system appear to be low cash availability, the production constraints by combining a quick interdisciplinary drain on labor if large numbers are kept, and the lack of feed in team survey (the sondeo) with detailed monitoring and measthe dry season if millet is used for fattening. (Author abstract, urement in specific problem areas that offer potential for modified) research. The second phase is to select and design innovations for on-farm investigation using a five-step process in
which farmers and researchers prioritize technical options in
terms of their political impact, potential for adoption, and
054 PN-AAU-080 research costs. The final step is to have farmers conduct onMF $1.08/PC $10.27 farm trials of the innovations (each field trial should include 2030 farmers) while researchers focus on collection and analysis
Diagnostico del Callejon de Huaylas, Peru of data; development of site team research capabilities is a
uso racional de laderas (Diagnosis of Callejon related task. In conclusion, farmer participation in FSR, espede Huaylas, Peru :rational use of slopes) cially in the early phases, is critical to the adoption of new
de Hayls, eru raionl us ofsloes)technologies. Lamenca, Mario Blasco; Gil, Hernan Chaverra; Reinoso,
Jorge Reinoso
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture 056 PN-AAU-333
Publicacion miscelanea / Instituto Interamericano de MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Cooperation para la Agricultura, no.480, 1984, 82p. : ill.,
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es Conceptual tools for RRA in agrarian society
Limpinuntana, Viriya
The region of Callej6n de Huaylas, Peru, on the slopes of (Rapid Rural Appraisal Conference, Khon Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep the Santa River, suffers from low agricultural productivity, 1985) constant soil erosion, and inappropriate use of available water. Sep 1985, 30p. : charts, statistical tables, En This report describes the Project for Agrarian Region IV,
implemented by the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation on The interview tools employed in Rapid Rural Appraisal Agriculture and the Sim6n Bolivar Fund, to reclaim the region's (RRA) allow multidisciplinary teams of researchers to obtain natural resources and improve agricultural productivity by intro- both agronomic and socioeconomic information. This paper ducing soil conservation and contour cultivation techniques. presents methods developed at Khon Kaen University (ThaiThe project's background is first described, followed by an land) to generate on-the-spot questions during the interview outline of the work plan which consists of identifying, charac- and allow researchers to probe for more immediate and deterizing, and analyzing farmers' production systems; establish- tailed information. ing communication among the agencies involved in the project; Conceptual tools discussed include subtopics or checklists, and developing two subprojects one for research into secondary and pre-existing information (gathered from formal
FSR Vol. III, 1986 15

reports, government statistics, and/or maps and aerial photo- Although targetting is a key element of FSR, neither its graphs), on-the-spot mapping, calendars of agricultural activi- methods nor its procedures take sufficient account of the fact ties, labor schedules, activity sequences, logic and decision that farming systems are in constant flux. This paper proposes trees, the six helpers (who, when, what, where, why, how), and a systematic framework for determining the effects of these local terms and folk taxonomy. Examples of each tool are changes on a farming system: (1) the identification of physical, given, as are the strong and weak points of tool development biological, and endogenous and exogenous "o::sea"igand use. The importance of individual tools depends on the determinants of a farming system; (2) determining the nature nature of the RRA research topic and its objectives as well as and sources of change; and (3) measuring the impact of these the experience of the RRA team members. While the tools change processes on the resources, activities, and outputs of presented in this paper deal mostly with agricultural subject the farming system. Recommendations are presented for incormatter, the interdisciplinary approach reveals much about what porating awareness of farming system dynamics into FSR data is important to farmers; for this reason, the tools are potentially collection, classification procedures, diagnosis, recommendauseful for all RRA's in rural areas, not just agricultural ones. tions, and monitoring and evaluation. Included is a 4-page list of references (1976-84).
057 PN-AAT-82 1
MF $1.08/PC $7.15 MF $1.081PC $4M
Technical potential for increased food Health, nutrition and agriculture : linkages in
production in the West African semi-arid farming systems research
tropics Maxwell, Simon
Matlon, Peter J. University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
University of Zimbabwe; International Food Policy Research Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
Institute; U.S. Agency for International Development. 198, Nov 1984, p.32-64: statistical tables, En
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Conference on Accelerating Agricultural Growth in Sub- The high degree of interdependence between health/nutriSaharan Africa, Victoria Falls, ZW, 29 Aug 1 Sep 1983) tion and agriculture, which has significant implications for the 1983, 54p. : statistical tables, En content of FSR programs, is addressed in this study. First, a
References: p.48-54 conceptual framework is presented for analyzing the linkages
936411114 between health/nutrition and agriculture at the level of the
farming household. The next section addresses priodies for
Innovative technologies designed to increase food produc- data requirements (health and nutrition effects on agriculture, tion in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics (WASAT) are agricultural effects on health and nutrition) and data collection examined in this report. Part I describes WASAT's physical by describing a hierarchy of research methods commonly used resource base and traditional farming systems, as well as in FSR and well-suited to a step-by-step analysis of interderelated demographic and social changes. Innovative produc- pendence. A discussion is then presented of the potential for tion technologies in five areas irrigation, other land/water improving the five-step FSR procedure (classification, diagnomanagement, mechanization, crop improvement, and soil fertil- sis, generation of recommendations, implementation, evaluaity management are assessed in Part I1. A summary Part III tion) by incorporating the health and nutrition linkages. A case notes that expanding population in the WASAT is leading to study of colonist farmers in Bolivia illustrates both the above stagnant food crop yields and a steady decline in the region's and the author's conclusion that only through the use of natural agricultural potential and recommends that in the future multidisciplinary and holistic research programs, such as FSR, research should: (1) balance the objectives of immediate can linkages successfully be explored. production gains and resource base conservation; (2) develop
technology packages flexible enough to be used under varying
economic and environmental conditions, while ensuring that 060 PN-AAT-646
the individual components are profitable when used in isolation;
(3) recognize a more disaggregated set of recommendation MF $1.08/PC $3.64
domains based on regional and farm-type criteria; and (4) Role of case studies in farming systems undertake more off-station research using well placed researcher-managed and farmer-managed tests aimed at identi- research fying the key factors causing difference between station and Maxwell, Simon on-farm yields. University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
198, Nov 1984, p.1-31: statistical tables, En
The case study method is examined as a useful and cost058 PN-AAT-645 effective addition to the range of research tools used in
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 multidisciplinary FSR. The author argues that on-farm case studies: (1) allow indepth, detailed analysis of information that
Farming systems research : hitting a moving would be hard to obtain by other means; (2) present an
target opportunity for close collaboration among social scientists,
Maxwell, Simon natural scientists, and farmers; (3) often provide the optimal
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies combination of time, cost, accuracy, and coverage characDiscussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP teristics; and (4) fit properly into a sequence of investigations
199, Nov 1984, p.1-25: charts, En designed to improve classification, diagnosis, and the design of
16 FSR VoL f1, 19

recommendations. Discussed are practical problems of the 063 PN-AAT-791
case study method, including the importance of farm selection MF $1.08/PC $8.19
and representativeness; decisions regarding data requirements
and methods of data collection; three issues associated with Cropping systems and soil classification for the analysis and reporting of data (data will be both formal and agrotechnology development and transfer informal, a case study program generates useful ideas quickly, McIntosh, Jerry L. and research findings must be integrated to make analysis truly Central Research Institute for Agriculture. Cropping Systems interdisciplinary); and the inevitable generation of issues for Research Program further research and the need for follow-up. These practical Jun 1980, 64p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En problems are then addressed in an account of a case study References: p.63-64 program involving six farms in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. A 36-item The development of a cropping systems research program bibliography (1965-84) is included, through its various stages identification of research needs,
site selection, cropping pattern design and testing, pilot production, and implementation through government-sponsored pro061 PN-AAU-187 duction programs is described, and Indonesia's national
cropping systems program is introduced in this context. The
MF $1.08/PC $3.51 monograph then asks how or to what extent cropping systems technology can be transferred between target areas in which
The social scientist in farming systems the biological and sociological determinants differ, and, to
research illustrate, uses the results of trials to transfer agrotechnologies
Maxwell, Simon between the Indramayu (West Java) and Bandarjaya (Central
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies Lampung) research sites in Indonesia. Descriptive data for the Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP sites and comparative data on farmers' yields and economic
199, Nov 1984, p.26-47: charts, En returns from various cropping patterns are described and
presented in tables. Description and data for a successful
The experiences of George, a composite agricultural econo- transfer of technology for gogo rancah seeding of rice on mist, are used to illustrate the different problems which social aerobic soil that will be flooded later from West Java to scientists face within the highly constrained environment of Central Lampung follow. References (1949-79) are provided. FSR. Five potential sources for these conflicts are identified
and discussed personal inadequacies, interdisciplinary communication barriers, poor group dynamics, an inadequate or- 064 PN-AAU-337
ganizational structure, and a struggle for power. Lessons for MF $1.08/PC $7.02
social scientists, their FSR colleagues, and higher level policymakers are drawn. Conflicts, it is concluded, are inherent in Institutionalizing FSR/E : the Indonesian multidisciplinary research and should be taken into account in experience the planning process. McIntosh, Jerry L.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.135-188: charts, map, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
062 PN-AAU-081 farming systems research symposium; farming systems
MF $1.08/PC $1.69 research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Cropping systems to preserve fertility of red Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture yellow podzolic soils in Indonesia Programs
McIntosh, J.L.; Ismail, Inu Gandana; et al. U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Tropical Agriculture Research Center Information (Sponsor)
Tropical agriculture research series, no. 15, Mar 1982, p.297- 9311282
308: chart, statistical tables, En The development in Indonesia of cropping systems research (CSR) and FSR from on-station multiple cropping
Research conducted by Indonesia's Central Research In- experiments in 1970 to an interdisciplinary, systems-oriented stitute for Agriculture, the Soil Research Institute, and A.I.D.'s program currently underway at many sites by the Central Benchmark Soils Project to determine the fertility of In- Research Institute for Food Crops and its six semi-autonomous donesia's red-yellow podzolic soils is reviewed. Initially, re- research entities is described. The first half of the report search focused on the effects of fertilizer, lime, and crop documents changes in research focus within this context of residues on crops grown in traditional mixed cropping and increased organizational complexity from production-orientmonoculture systems; it was later expanded to three new sites, ed research on lowland areas in Java and rainfed upland where different cropping patterns were compared for productiv- transmigration areas in South Sumatra to the current crop/liveity and acceptability to farmers; introduced and traditional stock and upper river watersheds research. A second section patterns were compared wherever possible. The research discusses future research plans. CSR will focus on varietal established the production potential of-red-yellow podzolics improvement, soil conservation and fertility, pest management, under proper management. More specific conclusions are and farm implements to increase farm income, promote uniincluded, as are a brief description of methods of land prepara- form systems trials, and improve the transfer of technology. tion, planting, fertilizing, weeding, and pest management and FSR will focus on tidal swamp, Palawija crop, upland rainfed nine illustrative tables. drought-prone areas and on humid, lowland rice, and upper
FSR Vol. III, 1986 17

river watershed areas. This research will employ the method simplified farmer's pattern with crops randomly planted; (2) an used in recent CSR and will emphasize ex ante analysis of intercropping pattern with the crops in rows but with the same farming systems, field laboratory work, on-site farming systems kinds and proportions of crops; and (3) a sequence of crops research, the development of communication linkages, and growing alone. Results are analyzed in terms of calories related technology transfer. Organizational arrangements for produced and short-and long-term soil ferility. Implications are both CSR and FSR are discussed. Extensive tables and figures that: intercropping is necessary to protect the soil (rice is a are appended. good crop for this purpose); applications of fertilizer and lime
will increase crop yields and residue protection; and the specific management practices suggested in this report can increase
the productivity of tropical upland soils.
065 PN-AAU-082
MF $1.08/PC $1.30
Relationship of the benchmark soils project to 067 PN-AAT-794
the farming systems approach MF $1.08/PC $4.81
McIntosh, Jerry L.
Research extension series / University of Hawaii. College of Farming systems approach to research in
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, no.026, Mar theory and practice 1984, p.97-105 : charts, En Norman, D.; Collinson, M.
Multidisciplinary approach to agrotechnology transfer: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
proceedings of a benchmark soils project / Hawaii 14 Apr 1985, 37p. : charts, En
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
workshop Experience in Southern and Eastern Africa provides the
Uehara, Goro background for this review of FSR theory and practice. The
University of Hawaii at Manoa. College of Tropical Agriculture bulk of the report is devoted to a description and analysis of the
and Human Resources four stages of the FSR process: (1) diagnosis of the local
farming situation and establishment of recommendation doThe application of the technology transfer concepts of mains (homogenous target groups of farmers) on the basis of A.I.D.'s Benchmark Soils Project to farming systems research broadly defined farming systems; (2) technology design (issues could save two to three years of research time and facilitate the treated include leverage in the farming system, the use of nontransfer of appropriate crop or soil management technologies, experimental vs. experimental variables, focusing research on In this paper, a case study of cropping patterns research in destroying a production constraint or exploiting farming system Indramayu, West Java, is used to illustrate three distinct stages flexibility, and single trait vs. package technologies); (3) evaluain technology transfer: (1) technology transfer in; (2) technolo- tion of the technology through researcher managed/farmer gy testing and development in the target area; and (3) imple- implemented tests and farmer managed and implemented mentation and technology transfer out. The use of soil taxono- tests; and (4) wide-scale diffusion of the tested technology my in obtaining adequate site description is highlighted. Six through extension activities, usually organized under the Minisdiagrams and tables define the technology transfer process try of Agriculture. A practical strategy for overcoming bureauand the Indramayu target area. cratic constraints to the extension effort is outlined. The report
concludes by urging that FSR be conducted principally by
regionally-oriented rather than commodity-oriented teams
(while accepting interface between the two) and by suggesting
066 PN-AAT-792 the usefulness of offering career incentives to extension staff
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 for conducting field research. Annexed are brief profiles of FSR Soil fertility implications of cropping patterns in Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. and practices for cassava
McIntosh, Jerry L.; Effendi, Suryatna
1978, p.77-85 : statistical tables, En IDRC-142e 068 PN-AAT-647
Intercropping with cassava : proceedings of an international MF $1.08/PC $2.99
workshop held at Trivandrum, India, 27 Nov 1 Dec 1978
Weber, Edward; Nestel, Barry; Campbell, Marilyn Smallholder cropping system of southeastern International Development Research Centre Nigeria: a diagnostic study
Nweke, Felix I.
Cassava is a highly desirable choice for intercropping be- Agricultural systems, v.7, 1981, p.267-288 : charts, statistical cause it provides both food and economic stability, although, tables, En like any high-yielding crop, it does impoverish the soil. This
report discusses cassava's potential for providing agronomic Interviews with a total of 40 farmers and their families in two stability over time by examining management schemes that will villages are the basis of this diagnosis of the features and promote cassava production but conserve the soil. farming systems research priorities of smallholder cropping
Following a description of exploitative cropping systems systems in southeastern Nigeria. Although smallholders and (continuous cassava, subsistence agriculture) and systematic their wives supplement income through off-farm ernploymen crop management (stable farmers' pattern, improved stable cash problems keep them from hiring labor or purchasing patterns), the report describes field studies conducted in In- planting materials in the amounts needed. Further constbaints donesia to evaluate the productive capacity of tropical upland to production are uneven product demand, the use of seminsoils when cassava is one crop in the cropping pattern. The primitive hand tools, and the practice, made possible by the field studies used eight different soil fertility and management abundance of farm land, of letting land lie fallow for long practices superimposed over three cropping patterns: (1) a periods to protect soil from erosion. Smallholders conskier yam
18 FSR VoL 11, 1986

(Dioscorea sp.) their most prestigious, though not most among project components. This paper, part of a conference nutrititous, crop. But because yam production is intensive both proceedings on agrosystems, outlines the systems approach in in labor and planting materials, farmers also grow various a step-by-step methodology, as follows: (1) define the problem mixtures of rice, maize, and vegetables as insurance against a and objectives of the project; (2) diagnose the current situation failed yam harvest. Albeit reluctantly, they would welcome including a description of the project area (physical, economic, prescriptive research to develop technologies that could lower social, cultural, institutional, political), and the principal their yam planting and production costs, reduce their demand agrosystems; and (3) devise models of optional cultivation for farm labor, extend planting dates, and free them for more systems by outlining basic methodologies, typifying the farmers off-farm employment, who will benefit, and characterizing the proposed changes and
anticipated results. Rational use of natural resources and protection of the environment are considered, as are the needs of the farmer. This approach favors interdisciplinary teamwork 069 PN-AAT-822 and increases the efficiency of selecting appropriate intervenMF $1.08/PC $1.82 tion options.
Crop animal systems research : the
experiences of CARDI
Osuji, P.O.; Parasram, S. 071 PN-AAT-648
(Research on Crop Animal Systems, Turrialba, CR, 4-7 Apr MF $1.08/PC $5.33
1982, p.18-40 : statistical tables, En Breaking new ground : anthropology in
Research on crop animal systems agricultural research; agricultural
Fitzhugh, H.A.; et al. anthropology at the International Potato
Winrock International Center
Complete proceedings: PN-AAM-823 Rhoades, Robert E.
On-farm research in integrated crop-animal systems being International Potato Center; U.S. Agency for International
conducted by the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Devel- Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office opment Institute (CARDI) in the Windward and Leeward Islands of Agriculture in the Eastern Caribbean is reviewed. The first part of the report 1984, ix, 71p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En presents the objectives of the CARDI program, discusses its 936411107 key policy and institutional issues, describes the types of The past, present, and future roles of anthropology in systems being studied, and lists the constraints to animal agricultural research are explored. A brief initial section shows production found in these systems; the latter include poor that until recently anthropology had been excluded from the nutrition, parasitism in animals, an inefficient market structure, lack of transportation and processing facilities, limited pastur- mainstream of agricultural research due to its emphasis on age, lack of breeding stock, and poor management of animals. theory and tribal ethnology and its institutional location in the The second part of the report briefly presents the methodology university structure. After noting the pioneering efforts of interused in the CARDI program and the results of case studies national agricultural research centers, beginning in the early done by its cropping systems group and appraises current 1960's, to include the social sciences in their programs, the research activities. It is noted that the program would have author describes recent inclusion of anthropologists in the been more effective if fewer countries and farmers had been research program of the International Potato Center (CIP). involved, thus permitting a more in-depth study. A set of animal Emphasis is laid on anthropologists' contribution to interdisciproduction alternatives identified during the case studies is plinary research in on-farm potato storage and processing and appended, their role in developing a farmer-back-to-farmer model for
generating improved agricultural technologies. A review of key areas in which anthropology can make a unique contribution to agricultural research e.g., its emphasis on farmers' own 070 PN-AAU-083 perception of the world, its recognition of the importance of the
MIF $1.08/PC $1.43 nonverbal expression of culture, and its stress on social organization leads to a final section outlining future directions for Enfoque de sistema en la formulacion de including anthropology in agricultural research. Appendices
proyectos de desarrollo agricola (Systems include an 88-item bibliography (1871-1984) and three agriculapproach to formulating agricultural tural anthropology studies for interdisciplinary team research.
development projects)
Pinchinat, Antonio M.
ICA serie de ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
eventos tecnicos, no.345, Dec 1984, p.38-48 : chart, Es
Reunion taller sobre investigacion en agrosistemas de
produccion, Tarapoto, 12 15 Junio 1984
Salinas B., Luis; Pinchinat, Antonio M.
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
The systems approach offers an integrated conceptual
framework for formulating agricultural development projects that permits planners to identify basic causal relationships
FSR Vol. III, 1986 19

072 PN-AAU-084 for priority ICRISAT crops (sorghum, millet, chickpea, and
MF $1.08/PC $6.11 pigeonpea). Discussion is also given to efficiency and equity
considerations in allocating research resources, and to the
Criteria for re-appraisal and re-design : intra- need to keep in mind potential long-term impacts on food household and between household aspects supply and nutrition.
of FSRE in three Kenyan agroforestry projects
Rocheleau, Dianne E.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, 1986, p.456- 074 PN-AAT-649
502 : charts, maps, En MF $1.08/PC $2.99
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems Stratification : an approach to cost
research and extension: implementation and monitoring effectiveness for farming systems research Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha and development
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture Shaner, W.W.
Programs Agricultural systems, v. 15, 1984, p.101-123 : En
9311282 References: p. 121-123
The International Council for Research in Agroforestry Farming systems research and development (FSR&D) is a (ICRAF) has adapted the rapid appraisal and technology de- new approach aimed at meeting the needs of farmers with sign procedures of FSR to communal agroforestry applications limited resources in less developed countries. Its cost-effecin Kenya. The three case studies presented here raise several tiveness depends on identifying enough farmers operating issues regarding the development of agricultural technologies under similar conditions who will adopt improved technology. suited to communally owned and/or managed resources. The An important way to accomplish this is by stratifying environfirst two studies depict two sites in Machakos District, where mental and farmers' conditions in order to develop what is both on-farm trials and group activities demonstrated the called a recommendation domain. This paper reports on curimportance of off-farm resources for farm production, the rent stratification efforts, involving: (1) descriptive schemes common use of private property, the role of group labor in farm (classification of farming systems, agricultural growth stages management, the variable effect of individual farm manage- ecological systems approach); (2),saratification by corn ts ment on the community resource base, and the participation of (agroclimatic zones, soil and land classifications, cropping and women in each of the above. Lessons from these two sites are (goliationes, adelan clifation copin and
bein inorpratd ad tste at he hir (Saya whch om- biological environments, farmers' cultivation practices, ecobeing incorporated and tested at the third (Siaya) which corn- nomic and sociocultural conditions); and (3) stratification bines community nurseries, self-help groups (mostly women), strategies used by the Agncultural Science and Technology and on-farm testing, and as such, provides an excellent Institute (IOTA), the Inteational Crops Research Institute for opportunity for developing and testing a variable-scale, par- the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the International Maize & ticipatory research methodology for agroforestry. Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and the International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Topics recommended for future
study include agroclimatic zones, soil classifications, farm
073 PN-AAT-823 households, societal conditions, and mathematical modeling. A
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 40-item bibliography (1967-82) is appended. (Author abstract, modified)
Socioeconomic constraints to agricultural
development in the semi-arid tropics and
ICRISAT's approach 075 PN-AAU-696
Ryan, James G.; Binswanger, Hans P. MF $2.16/PC $14.04
Proceedings of the international symposium on development
and transfer of technology for rainfed agriculture and the Farming systems research: a review
SAT farmer Simmonds, Norman W.
1980, p.57-67 : charts, statistical tables, En World Bank
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid World Bank technical paper, no.43, 1985, xii, 97p. : charts,
Tropics statistical tables, En
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Bibliography: p.88-97
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAQ-782 FSR has become increasingly important as an element of
936411106 the research programs of international agricultural research
centers, national research programs, and development proAgricultural researchers must keep the socioeconomic en- jects with agricultural research components. In this context, as vironments of target and client groups clearly in view. This this volume's foreword explains, it is important to take stock of paper discusses how socioeconomic constraints to agricultural existing experiences wth FSR to assess ongoing trends and development are evaluated at the International Crops Re- future perspectives. search Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Among This report on the state-of-the-art of FSR reviews the the constraints discussed are: (1) variations in population history of the FSR approach and attempts to define its scope, density, resource availability (e.g., land, animals), and infras- in both a broad and a narrow sense. The paper describes tructural support (e.g., marketing, transportation, and credit various on-farm research procedures, reports on experiences systems) in the 48 less developed semiarid, tropical (SAT) accumulated in this area in different international agricultural countries, and regionally within those countries; (2) risk factors, research centers, discusses the contributions of different disciespecially rainfall, in the SAT; and (3) limited market demand plines to FSR and the relation of FSR to agricultural extension,

and raises some wider questions related to FSR perspectives calf cattle production system useable by small farmers. This and the need to carry FSR further in various institutional report describes results of the joint ICTA/CATIE pilot project. settings. Included are nine case studies and a 10-page bibliog- Descriptions and statistical information are provided for socioraphy. (Author abstract, modified) economic aspects of the region and of the improved production
system, including pasturage, infrastructure (barns, corrals, feed troughs), management, sanitation methods, and recordkeep076 PN-AAU-703 ing. Final chapters evaluate the system of reproduction and
milk/calf production in terms of economic profitability, sileage MF $1.08/PC $2.73 management (amount per head of cattle), and construction of Inland fisheries in developing countries : an silos.
opportunity for a farming systems approach
to research and management
Sissoko, M.M.; Malvestuto, S.P.; et al. 078 PN-AAT-796
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986, MF $1.08/PC $1.43
p.297-318 : charts, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 Farming systems under various ecological
farming systems research symposium; farmings systems conditions of Latin America, and the
research and extension : implementation and monitoring improvement of traditional farming with Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture specific preference to the small holders
Programs Soria, Jorge
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Dept. of
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and Cultivation and Tropical Soil
Information (Sponsor) (Expert Consultation on Agricultural Research in Latin
9311282 America, Panama City, PA, 9-14 Jun 1975)
1976, p.113-122: En
The farming systems research and extension (FSR/E)
methodology is appropriate for identifying management strate- The present level of productivity of some basic and export gies for artisanal fisheries in riverine systems, according to this crops in Latin America is compared with productivity under paper. The paper first stresses the importance of inland fisher- higher levels of technology. It is demonstrated that in general, ies as a source of food and income in the developing world, and small producers are efficient in their operations and can be then discusses maximum sustained yield, maximum economic even more efficient given the necessary economic resources yield, and optimum sustained yield (OSY) as fishery manage- and adequate technology for multiple and mixed crops. This is ment concepts, suggesting that FSR/E may provide a model followed by information on research carried out in several for attaining OSY, a concept which incorporates sociological as countries precisely on multiple and mixed cropping systems, well as biological and economic objectives. FSR/E's holistic including the results obtained so far at the Center for Tropical approach recognizes the interdependence between the natural Agriculture Research and Education (CATIE) which seem to and human environments and aims to utilize limited resources prove that greater yields in products and biomass are obtained within the range of private and societal goals. To illustrate how under these systems, and that they make better use of land, the FSR/E approach is appropriate, the report: (1) derives from fertilizers, and energy as well as labor, while being less vulnerathe Niger River production and marketing system a conceptual ble to attack by diseases, pests, and weeds. Finally, emphasis model addressing the biological, economic, household, and is placed on the promising prospects of this type of research market variables of a riverine system; and (2) provides a together with basic research on the tropical system. The description of Mali's Niger River fisheries, focusing on aspects establishment of new programs along these lines is suggested. of the established traditional management system, e.g., fishing (Author abstract, modified) groups, property rights in the fishing zones, reserve zones, and the collective fishing season.
079 PN-AAU-338
MF $1.08/PC $1.69
077 PN-AAT-795
MF $1.08/PC $6.11 Trials and errors : using farming systems research to reach farmers who are often
Descripcion del sistema intensivo de neglected
production de ganado bovino de doble Spring, Anita
proposito ICTA CATIE (Dual purpose cattle: Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
description of an intensive production system, p.84-96 : statistical tables, En
ICTA CATIE) Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
Solano, Romeo farming systems research symposium : farming systems
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector. research and extension: implementation and monitoring
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology; Tropical Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Agriculture Research and Training Center Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Boletin tecnico / Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas, Programs
no.16, Nov 1981, 43p.: ill., charts, statistical tables, Es U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
An area of Escuintla, Guatemala, was chosen as an appro- Information (Sponsor) priate location for testing an improved dual purpose milk and 9311282
FSR Vol. III, 1986 21

Although a large percentage of subsistence farming is 081 PN-AAU-085
conducted by women, agricultural extension and training pro- HF $1.081PC $1.17
grams have traditionally neglected them. This report suggests
that because FSR is farmer-based, it may help researchers to Use of RRA in cross sectional and recognize and nurture women's contributions to overall agricul- longitudinal studies tural productivity. Thomas, David E.; Suphanchamat, Nongluk
In-depth analysis is made of soybean demonstrations and (International Conference on Rural Appraisal, Khon Kaen, farmer trials in Malawi, where 50-70% of all smallholder farm TH, 2-5 Sep 1985) operations are conducted by women, to determine whether the Sep 1985, 9p. : En acceptance of new technologies is gender-related. Farmers
were instructed in soybean cultivation techniques, and the level The Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) can serve as a costof acceptance and effects of the new technology were as- effective way to investigate rural resource management syssessed. Constraints such as poorly adapted seeds and ineffec- teams (RRMS) by acquiring timely, relevant, and useful informative inoculants were not gender-related and affected all far- tion on various components of such systems and on how they mers equally; however, women had poorer crop yields than respond to changes in their environment This paper discusses male farmers due, it is argued, to the lack of agronomic training some of the potential uses of RRA to supplement resourcegiven to women. The soybean project demonstrated: (1) that intensive cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of RRMS. women are agriculturalists and interested in new technologies; RRA is complementary to the potentially inflexible and superfi(2) the importance of interaction between research and exten- cial questionnaire survey because it allows concepts and/or sion, farmer-oriented technical information, and an instruction objectives to be revised during the research process; it also methodology involving demonstrations and corrections; and (3) offers greater flexibility and depth to recordkeeping studies. that further work is needed to include female farmers in Because of the complementarity between RRA and each of agricultural development and training programs and to improve these two methods, RRA can be easily incorporated into the working relationships between female farmers and extension research process and greatly enhance farming systems reagents, search. The potential role for RRA in the four research steps
(i.e., developing a framework; preparing and conducting detailed studies; evaluating results) and the need for pragmatism
080 PN-AAT-797 in research on rural areas are described.
MF $4.32/PC $39.52
Intercropping in tropical smallholder 082 PN-AAT-798
agriculture with special reference to West MF $3.24/PC $27.95
Africa Tropical plant diseases
Steiner, Kurt G. Troc plantd
German Agency for Technical Cooperation Thurston, H. David
Schriftenreihe der GTZ, no. 137, 2nd ed. 1984, 304p. + Ameri Phtpatoll Si
attachments: charts, statistical tables, En 1984, vii, 208p. : ill., En
Includes indexes
Intercropping is a central part of traditional small farming Studies on diseases occurring in specific tropical plants, systems in most parts of West Africa. This report, mainly a stuies osease 1ccum iue tre plnts. review of international literature (including unpublished re- especially those grown below 1000m altitude, are presented m ports), analyzes various aspects of intercropping to assess its this book. Introductory chapters discuss the environmental and potential to help overcome food production constraints. Pro- social nature of tropical agriculture. Specific attention is given vided in turn are: (1) a general description of traditional inter- to the impact which tropical plant disease has on a couniby's cropping systems based on major food crops; (2) a discussion agricultural, economic, and social sectors. For example, when of the agronomic aspects of intercropping systems (the suita- no practical method was discovered for controlling coffee rust bility of intercropping to limited light, water, and nutrient re- Hemileia vastatrix in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the late 1800s, source conditions; possibilities of increasing productivity coffee was abandoned as a major cash crop and was replaced through fertilizer use; and the contributions of intercropping to by tea and rubber. The author identifies the major diseases of yield stability, soil fertility maintenance, and biological plant specific tropical crops, although some important crops such as protection); (3) an analysis of the socioeconomic aspects of forest crops and ornamentals are not included. To aid the intercropping, such as returns to land and labor, distribution of reader in finding information on the identification and control of labor by sex, and risk aversion; and (4) recommendations for pathogens, selected references on plant pathology follow the applied agricultural research and extension programs for the brief introduction given for each crop or group of crops. The promotion of intercropping. Included in the text are 46 tables many agencies and general publications concerned with topiand 50 figures; another 13 tables and 3 figures are appended. cal plant diseases are discussed briefly.
22 FSR VoL 1, 1i6

083 PN-AAU-328 Following a description of the traditional system of maizeMF $2.16/PC $13.91 bean intercropping, an alternative method is described. The alternative system proposes few changes; mainly, it attempts to Alternativa de manejo para el sistema maiz reduce production costs by substituting chicken manure (galfrijol (La Esperanza, Honduras) : description y inaza) for mineral fertilizers. A comparative analysis of the
evaluacion en fincas pequenas (Alternative traditional and other alternative systems such as using highyield, low growing varieties of maize, growing bush beans which management systems for corn and beans (La do not require corn stalks for support, and growing potatoes
Esperanza, Honduras) : description and and broccoli for income is then presented. Preliminary estievaluation of small farms) mates indicate that the proposed cultivation methods produced
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S. a significant increase in farmer income; however, due to
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin political conflict, the evaluation process was not completed.
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informed tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.46, 1984, xv, 105p. 085 PN-AAU-329
charts, map, statistical tables, Es MF $1.08/PC $7.80
5960085 Alternativa de manejo para el sistema tomate
As part of CATIE's project to develop site-specific cultiva- frijol (Matagalpa, Nicaragua) : descripcion y tion systems for improving small farm productivity in Central evaluaclon en fincas pequenas (Alternative America, the main characteristics of an alternative maize-bean cultivation system designed to be incorporated into the management systems for tomatoes and beans traditional maize-bean-potato system of La Esperanza, Hon- (Matagalpa, Nicaragua) : description and duras are herein described. The report focuses on results and evaluation of small farms) evaluations of on-farm trials of the proposed system. Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
First, the traditional farm management and cultivation prac- Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin tices for maize and beans in the high plateau region and America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central technical options for improving them, which center on shorter American Programs distances between plantings and use of Cytrolane for pest/dis- Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical ease control, are described. Next, the recommendation domain de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.51, 1985, vi, 67p.: for the proposed system is outlined, including characteristics of charts, statistical tables, Es the region (geographic and climatic aspects, geology and soils, 5960085 vegetation, available extension services) and of the farmers most likely to benefit. A third chapter analyzes the technical As a substitute for the traditional maize-bean cultivation and economic feasibility of the new technology by comparing system as practiced on small farms in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, a its agronomic/economic indicators with those of the traditional rotation system for tomato-bean cultivation is proposed. After a system. Finally, the experimental research methodology and discussion of the function and importance of the farmer's results are presented. cultivation system, the improved tomato-bean system is described in detail, including the proposed cultivation changes and schedule of activities and labor. The specific area (in terms 084 PN-AAU-327 of recommended climate and rainfall) and the type of farmer
most likely to benefit from tomato-bean cultivation are identiMF $1.08/PC $7.93 fied, and statistical analyses are made of production costs,
Alternativa de manejo para el sistema maiz productivity, farmer income, efficiency, use of productive resources, labor, and operating costs. Finally, a detailed descripfrijol (Valle de Chimaltenango, Guatemala): tion of the study methodology is presented to help agricultural
descripcion y evaluacion en fincas pequenas extensionists and technicians in technical assistance pro(Alternative management systems for corn grams.
and beans (Chimaltenango Valley, Guatemala): description and evaluation of small farms) Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.44, 1985, vi, 68p.:
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
The Chimaltenango Valley of Guatemala is characterized by subsistence-level cultivation of maize and beans, the basic food crops. Crop rotation is not practiced due to the scarcity of land and the need to grow enough maize and beans for food, and many farmers seek off-farm employment to defray nonfood expenses. This study sought to find alternative cultivation methods to increase food production and provide a cash crop.
FSR Vol. III, 1986 23

086 PN-AAU-152 production systems selected for research (e.g., rice/sorghurn).
MF $2.16/PC $19.11 Volume Two of the report (not included here) descrbes proposed alternative technologies, the process of their developCaracterizacion ambiental y de los principales ment, and means for evaluating them. A 33-item bibliography
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas : (1960-1983) is appended.
Chimaltenango, Guatemala (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms: Chimaltenango, 088 PN-AAU-153
Guatemala) MF $2.16/PC $18.20
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S. Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principales
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas de
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central Esteli, Nicaragua (1983) (Environmental
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical characterization and principal systems of
de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.37, Jun 1984, xi, 143p.: cultivation on small farms in Esteli, Nicaragua
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es (1983))
5960083 Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Constraints to the potential of agricultural production sys- Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical tems in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were assessed to define de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.34, 1984, xiii, 129p.: criteria for research into improved technologies for small farms. charts, maps, statistical tables, Es This report describes the area's characteristics, including a A prototype multidisciplinary team consisting of three socioeconomic profile of the population (e.g., age and ethnic experts in crop production, crop protection, and agricultural groups, health and education levels) and of the community economics, respectively studied traditional cultivation pracinfrastructure (e.g., roads, energy and water supplies, commu- tices in Estelf, Nicaragua, in order to develop appropriate nity and support services). Next are descriptions of the area's technologies for increasing small farm productivity. This report climate; soil; hydrological balance; predominant crops and describes results obtained from the team's activities. First, the methods of agricultural production; land tenancy, use, and research area is described, including location, biophysical potential; and economic sectors and labor supply. Final sec- attributes, and socioeconomic characteristics such as agricultions present production records for maize, beans, and pota- tural production and community infrastructure (e.g., credit, toes; an outline of biological constraints to cultivation (weeds, technical assistance, farmers' organization, training). The bulk crop diseases, insect pests, birds); and conclusions from the of the report discusses characteristics of local farms and study. Appended are statistical data and a 59-item bibliography cultivation systems (maize, beans, sorghum); biological con(1959-82). straints on cultivation (weeds, crop diseases, insect pests);
land, capital, and labor resources; cultivation systems arranged
according to chronology and size; constraints on production
087 PN-AAU-698 systems (physical, marketing, transport); and characteristics of
the farmer and the farm family. The survey methodology is
MF $3.24/PC $26.39 briefly outlined.
Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principales
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas : El
Progreso, Panama (Environmental 089 PN-AAU-154
characterization and principal systems of MF $2.16/PC $16.51
cultivation on small farms : El Progreso, Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principales
Panama) sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas : La
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S. Esperanza, Honduras (Environmental
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin characterization and principal systems of
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs cultivation on small farms: La Esperanza,
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical Honduras)
de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.57, 1985, ix, 203p.: Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center-, U.S.
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
5960083 America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
The first phase of a joint CATIE/IDIAP project, designed to Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agrononco Tropical develop improved site-specific cultivation techniques for small de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.41, Apr 1984, x, 123p.: farmers, assessed the ecological and socioeconomic charac- charts, maps, statistical tables, Es teristics of the districts of Progreso and Guarumal, Panama. 5960083 This first of a two-part report describes: (1) the project's
objectives and methodology, including the selection and As the first phase of CATIE's project to increase small farm characterization of the study area; (2) regional characteristics, production in Central America, analyses were made of the including physical, biological, and socioeconomic aspects; (3) socioeconomic characteristics and cultivation systems of La farming systems, such as farm classifications and structure of Esperanza, Honduras. The five chapters in this report present individual and cooperative farms; and (4) the principal farm descriptions of the following: (1) the project's general objec24 FSR VoL II, 1986

tives and methodologies for characterizing the region; (2) economic characteristics and cultivation practices of Tejutla, El general characteristics of the study area, including the geo- Salvador. First, principal geographic and socioeconomic feagraphic location, principal ecological features, and natural tures of the study area are described, including infrastructure, resources; (3) detailed analyses of the predominant crop and population, economic activities, and services related to agricullivestock cultivation practices of small farmers, management ture. Within this general framework, details of the region's practices for crop production systems, and principal technical predominant agricultural production systems and farm manand socioeconomic constraints; (4) socioeconomic aspects, agement practices are presented; emphasis is on characincluding population and labor resources, income, types of teristics including extension, ecological aspects, social and farms (subsistence, semicommercial, commercial, crop-animal economic interest, and potential production of agricultural systems), and support services (e.g., credit, technical and systems selected for research and development of improved marketing services, agrarian reform, farmer organizations); and technical options. Technical and socioeconomic aspects and
(5) details of the systems selected for research: joint limitations of traditional cropping systems are described in maize/beans, potatoes in rotation with maize/beans, and detail: maize/sorghum, monocultures of maize and beans, beans monoculture. A 50-item bibliography (1962-1984) is typical crop diseases and pests, and livestock production appended. systems for cattle, pigs, and poultry. Final chapters describe
the socioeconomic status of small and medium farmers, present conclusions, and offer recommendations for the experi090 PN-AAU-155 mental phase of the project.
MF $3.24/PC $27.30
Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principales 092 PN-AAT-830
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas de MF $1.08/PC $1.56
San Carlos, Costa Rica (1983) (Environmental Anthropology and on-farm research
characterization and principal systems of Tripp, Robert
cultivation on small farms in San Carlos, Costa Human organization, v.44(2), Summer 1985, p.114-124: En Rica (1983)) The recent interest in farming systems research has given
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center rise to a wide variety of strategies for agricultural development. Serie technico. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico There is a growing concern, however, regarding the effectiveTropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.33, 1984, xvii, ness of many of these approaches. This paper describes a set 198p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, Es of procedures called on-farm research (OFR) which take a
CATIE's project to develop appropriate technology for in- farming systems perspective and are designed to be used by creasing small farm production and farmers' income is based national research programs. The anthropological contribution on research at representative farms in Central America. This to strengthening these procedures is emphasized. Particular report presents a characterization of San Carlos, Costa Rica, attention is given to the iterative nature of data collection in with regard to: (1) physical, biological, and socioeconomic OFR and the importance of anthropological fieldwork techcharacteristics of the region, including population, primary niques in the experimental phase. An example of data collecsector production, and support services; (2) size, components, tion during the OFR process is provided through a discussion of interactions, inputs, and outputs of farms in the region; and (3) a research program in northern Ecuador. (Author abstract) principal cultivation practices such as monoculture and combined systems for yucca, pineapple, beans, and maize. A 60item bibliography (1963-1982) is appended. 093 PN-AAU-158
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
091 PN-AAU-156 On-farm trials in northwestern Syria : testing
MF $2.16/PC $19.76 the feasibility of annual forage legumes as grazing and conserved feed
Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principales Tully, Dennis; Thomson, Euan F.; et al.
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas: Research methodology for livestock on-farm trials:
Tejutla, El Salvador (Environmental proceedings of a workshop held at Aleppo, Syria, 25-28
characterization and principal systems of March 1985,
p.209-236 : charts, statistical tables, En, Fr; IDRC-242e
cultivation on small farms: Tejutla, El Nordblom, Thomas L.; Ahmed, Awad El Karim Hamid; Potts,
Salvador) Gordon
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin Areas
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central International Development Research Centre
American Programs U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.35, Jun 1984, xvii, 936411112
141p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, Es In areas of Syria receiving 200-350 mm annual precipita5960083 tion, barley is the main crop and is grown continuously or
As a preliminary part of CATIE's project to improve small alternated with fallow. Only small areas of forage legumes such farmer production and income, this report describes the socio- as vetch Vicia sativa and lathyrus Lathyrus sativus are sown
FSR Vol. III, 1986 25

due to poor yields and high costs of both seed and harvest 095 PN-AAT-650
labor. Two sets of trials were designed to quantify yield MF $1.08/PC $6.11
potentials, costs, and constraints for rotations involving forage legumes either for spring grazing or harvested at maturity to Systems, techniques and tools: conservation provide conserved winter feed. Grazing trials were established farming for small farmers in the humid tropics on 8 farms to compare vetch (1 ha) and lathyrus (1 ha) for Wijewardene, Ray; Waidyanatha, Parakrama lactating ewes. Farmers' flocks were divided into 3 matched Sri Lanka. Dept. of Agriculture; Commonwealth Consultative groups and assigned to 2 forage crops and to a control group Group on Agriculture for the Asia Pacific Region grazing communal pastures. Milk production and ewe live 1984, v, 38p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En weights were measured regularly with farmers' assistance. Complementary rotation trials and surveys were continued in Conservation farming is designed to conserve the natural the area. Harvest trials with 0.5 ha vetch and 0.5 ha lathyrus resources of the fragile soils in tropical (upland) farming zones were established on each of 12 farms. The farmers' labor and thus provide the subsistence farmers who till them with a needs and cost of harvesting were monitored. Nested within low-input, productive, and self-sustaining system. This manual, each harvest trial were rotational plots (0.2 ha) designed to prepared for use by field practitioners, outlines the basic quantify responses of fertilizer treatments on lathyrus, vetch, concepts and techniques of conservation farming. lentils, barley, barley plus nitrogen, and to trace the effects on a After indicating the cause of current soil fragility in tropical barley crop sown the following year. (Author abstract) zones (increased population pressures have greatly decreased fallow time in the traditional shifting cultivation system), the manual lists key production constraints in tropical farming and briefly describes techniques for alleviating them: soil, water, 094 PN-AAT-831 and fertility management, land clearing, and weed control. The
MF $1.08/PC $1.04 effects of 'zero' and 'minimum' tillage systems are contrasted with those of traditional tillage systems and techniques and Technology transfer in no-tillage crop tools of the 'zero' system are described in technical detail.
production in Third World agriculture Fertility regenerating systems in-situ and live mulches, and
Warren, G.F. avenue (alley) cropping with shrubs and trees are also
(Symposium on No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics, extensively reviewed. Briefer consideration is given to pest and Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981) plant disease management in conservation farming and to
1983, p.25-31 : En fuelwood and fodder tree species. A 34-item bibliography
No-tillage crop production in the tropics (1886-1983) is appended.
Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E.
Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for 096 PN-AAT-832
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) HF $1.06/PC $20
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-804
9310206 Providing mulches for no-tillage cropping in
DAN-0000-C-00-01 97-00 the tropics
For developing countries, where low tillage farming meth- Wilson, G.F.; Akapa, K.L
ods are traditionally practiced, the promotion of no-tillage (Symposium on No-tillage Production in the Tropics, farming made possible by low-cost herbicides and application Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981) equipment could yield greater long-term gains than any other 1983, p.51-65 : statistical tables, En innovation. So concludes this report taken from the proceed- No-tillage crop production in the tropics ings of a 1981 symposium on the subject. Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E.
Although scientists do not agree on all of the possible Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center negative and positive implications of no-tillage farming, they U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for concur that it is much less labor and capital intensive than other Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) methods. The key to no-tillage farming is weed control with References: p.63-65 little or no soil disturbance. However, caution must be exer- Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-804 cised to ensure that herbicides are accurately formulated so as 9310206 not to result in crop injury. In Japan, for example, the applica- DAN-0000-00-0197-00 tion problem has been overcome by using granular formula- In the tropics, conventional tillage techniques are often tions in paddy production. Other requirements for a no-tillage incompatible with soil and climate, leading to soil erosion and system discussed in the report include mulching, jab planting rapid yield decline. Despite its effectiveness in protecting the (in order not to disturb the soil and mulch), nitrogen fertilizers, soil, mulching has not yet become a common practice. In and pest control. conventional tillage, mulch has been associated with the introduction of material from a source outside the field. This extremely time-consuming and expensive practice has been limited in the past to high-value crops. The advent of no-tillage techniques, aided by chemical weed control, has made it feasible to provide mulch directly from a previous crop of fallow vegetation. This report presents three alternative methods which would provide a suitable weed-free mulch on the soil surface at planting: crop residue, in-situ mulch, and live mulch. Brief treatment is also given to alley cropping (crops grown in alleys formed by fast growing trees and shrubs) and branch
26 FSR VoL I, 196

mulch. A final section notes the need for further research to ponents having a major impact on the CP's economic performperfect these mulching systems and underscores the need to ance. Objectives for superimposed trials (those which evaluate develop no-tillage equipment for use on a wide scale. component technology) are presented. Issues relating to researcher-managed trials are briefly addressed.
097 PN-AAT-84 1
MF $1.08/PC $2.99 099 PN-AAT-825
MF $1.08/PC $1.69
ILCA bulletin: livestock production in Central Pilot production programs Mail Zandstra, H.G.
Wilson, R.T. (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for Sep 1980)
International Development. Bureau for Science and 1980, p.198-210 : En
Technology. Office of Agriculture Tenth report of the cropping systems working group meeting
no.15, Mar 1982, 23p. : charts, statistical tables, En International Rice Research Institute 936411109 U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Central Mali has two livestock production systems which are Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor) unusual, if not unique, in Sahelian countries a pastoral system 936411102 associated with floodplain grazing and farming in the Niger Pilot crop production programs are often used to determine inundation zone, and an agropastoral system associated with the needed support structure and to delineate the roles to be irrigated rice cropping. This study, based on ILCA research in played by the various participating institutions. This paper the region between 1976 and 1982, characterizes the two briefly describes pilot program activities to: (1) develop systems, changes occurring in them, and the main constraints cropping system recommendations; (2) provide production to greater productivity. The primary resources for livestock credit; (3) determine labor supply and market demand; (4) production in Central Mali (climate, land, and rairifed and develop integrated production plans in order to avoid inputfloodplain pasture vegetation) are first outlined, and livestock supply bottlenecks; and (5) help reduce farmer risk. The paper movement patterns to and from the floodplain zone are de- also explores ways of coordinating the various political and scribed in detail (on the basis of aerial survey data). social institutions involved, e.g., formation of an internal manAgropastoralism is then considered with reference to cattle and agement committee and provision of salary incentives for small ruminant production and nutrition; associated rice and extension staff to perform field visits. The importance of millet cropping systems are described and the potential for monitoring and evaluating the performance during pilot procrop improvement is assessed in light of ILCA cropping re- grams of the recommended cropping pattern is highlighted. A search findings. The pastoral system of the Niger inundation list of issues is identified to better define research needs in zone, as practiced mainly by Fulani herdsmen, is also exam- regard to technology delivery. ined. Finally, ILCA's plans for future research in the two
systems are outlined.
100 PN-AAT-824
098 PN-AAT-799 MF $1.08/PC $.78
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 Multilocation testing
Zandstra, Hubert G.
Design of the on-farm research program (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19
Zandstra, H.G. Sep 1980)
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center 1980, p.170-175 : chart, En (Workshop on Methodological Issues Facing Social Scientists Tenth report of the cropping systems working group meeting
in Applied Crop and Farming Systems Research, MX, 1-3 International Rice Research Institute
Apr 1980) U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
1980, 1Op. : En Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAP-100 936411102
Designing site-specific cropping patterns (CP's) is an inte- Seven procedures for multilocational testing of cropping gral part of on-farm research. This paper discusses various patterns are presented in this report by IRRI's Cropping Syssteps to be considered in designing a CP for a trial site: (1) tems Working Group: (1) identify an extrapolation area using determine the land types to be studied at the site; (2) identify rainfall classification or rainfall records, and soil, irrigation, or the variables that constrain crop production; (3) select CP's to land-use classification maps, where available; (2) within the be studied for each land type; and (4) assign the CP's a selected extrapolation area, identify the location and approximanagement technology and satisfactory performance criteria, mate frequency of occurrence of the land types identified at the The trials should be tested in large (1,000 sq m) plots to allow research site; (3) locate cropping pattern trials in a clustered measurement of labor and time inputs and should be farmer- distribution throughout the desired land type(s) in the extrapolamanaged in order to evaluate farmers' management capability. tion areas; (4) implement researcher-managed trials with farmResearchers should modify the number of land types, CP's, er participation, adhering strictly to the specified cropping and test plots as research proceeds and should collect data pattern; (5) evaluate cropping pattern performance from yield comparing the performance of experimental and traditional data, assuming land and input costs to be those obtained in the CP's. Component technology trials, which are generally man- cropping pattern trials; (6) plot trial results on a map of the area aged by researchers, should be limited to management com- and try to associate poor crop performance in the pattern with
FSR VoL III, 1986 27

soil or land factors; (7) describe conditions for which the pattern latter's familiarity with the recommended pattern and to allow is suitable and formulate these as a recommendation. It is for feedback on problems which may occur during the extensuggested that multilocatiorial testing be conducted in coor- sion phase. A list of six issues to be considered by the Working dination with an extension or production agency to ensure the Group concludes the report.
28 FSR VoL Ifi, 1966

Africa South of Sahara 048 Expenditures 051 Peru 039,045,054,071
Agricultural development 064,070,074 Family farms 019 Peat control 002,094
Agricultural extension Farm income 068,084,085,089 Philippines 033,034
017,023,025,032,067,075,079 Farm management 068 Phosphate fertilizers 038
Agricultural inputs 051 Farmer participation 006 Pilot projects 099
Agricultural management 057 Farmers 003,007,009,011,014,015,021,034 Plant growth 040,041
Agricultural production 026,029,034,088 038,045,047,055,056,059,079 Plant resources 042
Agricultural producivity 054,059,078,079,082 083,086,087,089,091 Podzols 062
Agricultural research Farming systems 058 Potatoes 045,071
020.050,054,069,071,073,078,080 Female labor 001 Problem identification 004,023
Agricultural surveys 017,030,058,088 Fertilizer alternatives 084,096 Problem solving 004,019,023
Agricultural technology Fertilizer technologies 007 Production increases 006,077,084,085
001,005,013,015,028,037,047,049,055,057,067 Fertilizers 040 Rainfall intensity 021
078,083,098 Fishery management 076 Research centers 024,049,064,075
Agrotorestry 072 Food consumption patterns 029 Research collaboration 020,060,064
Alternative technology 083 Food crops 032,059,080,084,085 Research design 056,067,074
Animal breeding 077 Food processing 071 Research management
Animal feeding 053,093 Food production 057,084,085 014,022,026,043,046,050,064
Animal husbandry 003,010,069,097 Food storage 071 Research organizations 022,050,073
Animal nutrition 042 Forage crops 042 Research planning 011,024,030,044,073
Animal traction 037,048 Forage legumes 093 Research priorities 027,073
Anthropology research 092 French speaking Africa 031 Resource allocation 073
Appropriate technology 006,019,045,065,087 Grazing 093 Rice 001,010,021,033,034,038,049,063,068,097
Arid zone 097 Grazing land 097 Rivers 076
Artisanal fisheries 076 Groundnuts 021 Roots 041
Asia 044 Group discussion 061 Ruminants 010
Australia 017 Guatemala 022,077,086 Rural areas 056,081
Barley 093 Health aspects 059 Rural development 018
Beans 021,040,041,047,083,084,085 Health research 059 Semiarid zone 073,097
Biological pest control 002 Herbicides 002,006,094 Senegal 031
Bolivia 060 Honduras 089 Sesame 021
Caribbean 009 Household management 037 Sheep 053
Case studies 009,059,060 Human nutrition 029 Site selection 100
Cash crops 084 Impact assessment 001 Small farms 003,006,007,008,009,010,014,015,
Cassava 007,032,040,041,066 India 001 .016,023,026,029,032,034,037
Cattle 097 Indonesia 010,027,062,063,064,065,066 053,055,067,069,077,078,079,080,
Collective farming 072 Inland fisheries 076 063,084,085,066,087,088,089,090,091,099
Colombia 007,038 Intensive farming 044,057 Small ruminants 097
Commercial farming 038 lntercropping 034,040,066,080 Social change 058
Communal land 072 Interdisciplinary research Social science occupations 026,058,061
Comparative studies 031,052 014,024,026,046,056,058,059,060,061 Socioeconomic aspects
Constraints 011,023,032 International organizations 049 001,004,005,016,030,049,086,089,090,091
Costa Rica 022,039,090 Interpersonal communication 061 Socioeconomic status 038
Costs 018 Interpersonal relations 061 Sociological surveys 021
Crop diseases 082 Interviews 011,036,056 Sociology research 014
Crop production 002,032,038,039,068,086,099 Irrigated farming 027,063 Soil conservation 062,095
Crop rotation 068,083 Kenya 030,039,072 Soil erosion 054
Crop yield 005,040,041,051,057,078 Labor 052 Soil fertility 062,066,095
Crop-animal systems 039,042,053,069,091,093,097 Labor costs 051,068,084 Soil management 054,066
Cropping patterns Labor intensive farming 001,052 Soil research 062
020,021,027,033,034,062,063,066, Labor supply 016 Soil types 065
068,098,099,100 Land resources 016,088 Southern Africa 067
Cropping systems Latin America 078 Statistical analysis 043
010,016,017,027,032,041,044,051, Leeward Islands 069 Stems 041
064,083,085,087,088,089,090 Livestock 003,039,097 Subsistence farming 044,095
Cultivation 095 Maize 006,021,047,083,084 Survey design 030
Cultural anthropology 016,071 Malawi 079 Survey methodology 030,035,036
Dairy cattle 077 Mali 053 Syria 093
Data analysis 043,060 Mathematical models 004 Systems analysis 039
Data collection 011,018,030,043,052,060,081 Mechanized farming 015,048 Systems approach 070
Decision making 003,009,011,016,023 Mexico 003,015 Technical assistance 034
Development project planning 070 Millet 097 Technical cooperation 050
Development research 035 Mixed cropping 078 Technological change 058
Development strategies 031 Mixed farming 039,069 Technological development 023,049,067
Draft animals 048 Monoculture 040,041 Technological innovations 005,057
Dry farming 027,034,093 Mountain soils 045 Technology adoption 005,015,038,046,049,055,079
East Africa 024 ,067 Multiple cropping 040,051,078 Technology assessment 067
Eastern Caribbean 069 National level 050 Technology transfer 063,065,067
Econometrics 004 Natural resource conservation 057 Thailand 020,051
Economic analysis 016,028,051 Natural resource inventories 042 Tilling 002,007,094,095,096
Economic risk 051 Natural resource rehabilitation 054 Tomatoes 085
Ecosystems 039 Nicaragua 047,088 Traditional farming 068,083,085,086
Ecuador 022,092 Nigeria 008,022,052 Traditional technology 009
El Salvador 091 Nutrition improvement 059 Triticale 013
Energy consumption 037 Nutritional status 059 Tropical soils 002,066,095
Energy technology 037 On farm research Tropical zone 073,075,078,082,094,096
English speaking Africa 031 006,008,010,013,014,019,026,043, Upland cropping 013,036,049,066,095
Environmental aspects 033,057,090,091 047,055,075,077,092,093,098 Upland soils 066
Ethiopia 037 Panama 022,087 Varietal research 006
FSR Vol 11, 1986 29

Villages 010 Weeds 002,040,094,095 Women 001,032
Water conservation 095 West Africa 053,057,080 Women in development 032.079
Water management 054 Windward Islands 069 Yams 068
Yield increase 001,041
Zambia 046,050
30 FSR VoL /i, 19M

Adaptive Research Planning Team 050 Grandstaff, Terry B. 036 Osuji, P.O. 069
Agarwal, Bina 001 Gryseels, Guido 037 Parasram, S. 069
Akapa, K.L 096 Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Pendleton, John W. 044
Akobundu, I. Okezie 002 Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and Petheram, R.J. 010
Aluja, Andres 003 Technology 077 Pinchinat, Antonio M. 070
Alvarez, Jose 005 Guggenheim, Scott E. 016 Poey, Federico 043
American Phytopathological Society 082 Hansen, Elizabeth D.R. 038 Rhoades, Robert E. 071
American Society of Agronomy 014 Hart, Robert 039 Rocheleau, Dianne E. 072
Anderson, J.R. 026 Hart, Robert D. 040,041 Ryan, James G. 073
Anderson, Jock R. 004 Harwood, Richard R. 034 Shaner, W.W. 074
Andrew, Chris 005 Hiernaux, Pierre 042 Simmonds, Norman W. 075
Arauz, Jose Roman 006 Hildebrand, Peter E. 043 Sissoko, M.M. 076
Ashby, Jacqueline A. 007 Hoque, M. Zahidul 044 Solano, Romeo 077
Ashraf, Malik 008 Horton, Douglas 045 Soria, Jorge 078
Barker, David 009 Hudgens, R.E. 046 Spring, Anita 079
Barker, Randolph 055 Icaza G., J. 047 Sri Lanka. Dept. of Agriculture 095
Basuno, Edi 010 Institute for Livestock Research 010 Steiner, Kurt G. 080
Beebe, James 011 Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama 006 Suphanchaimat, Nongluk 081
Biggs, Stephen D. 012,013 International Center for Tropical Agriculture 038 Thomas, David E. 081
Binswanger, Hans P. 073 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Thomson, Euan F. 093
Bradfield, Stillman 014 Arid Tropics 013 Thurston, H. David 082
Byerlee, Derek 015 International Fertilizer Development Center 038 Tripp, Robert 092
Central Research Institute for Agriculture. Cropping International Food Policy Research Institute 057 Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Systems Research Program 063 International Livestock Centre for Africa 077,083,084,085,086,087 088,089,090,091
Cernea, Michael M. 016 037,048,097 Dept. of Cultivation and Tropical Soil 078
Chamala, S. 017 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Department of Crop Production 047
Chambers, Robert 018,019 006,015,022,024,067,098 Tully, Dennis 093
Chandrapanya, Damkheong 020,021 International Potato Center 071 U.N. Development Programme 032
Chang, M. Joseph 022 International Rice Research Institute 033,034 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization 032
Chiang Mai University. Faculty of Agriculture 051 International Service for National Agricultural U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau Collinson, M. 067 Research 022 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional
Collinson, Michael 023,024 Ismail, Inu Gandana 062 Office for Central American Programs
Collymore, Jeremy 009 Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 083,084,085,086 087,089,091
Commonwealth Consultative Group on Agriculture for Tropical Agriculture Research Center 062 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
the Asia- Pacific Region 095 Jiggins, Janice 049 Agriculture 006,011,013,022
Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science 003,039 Kean, S.A. 050 024,031,033,037,038,048,057,071,097
De Jong, Gerard 007 Keith, K.J. 017 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
De Polanco, Edith H. 015 Kellogg, Earl D. 051 Rural and Instituional Development 011
De Vries, James 025 Knipscheer, Hendrik C. 052 University of Dares Salaam. Dept. of Agricultural
Development Alternatives, Inc. 030 Kolff, H.E. 053 Education and Extension 025
Dillon, J.L. 026 Lagemann, J. 047 University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Dillon, John L. 004 Lamenca, Mario Blasco 054 Agricultural Sciences 011,031
Effendi, Suryatna 027,066 Lightfoot, Clive 055 University of New England. Dept. of Agricultural
Escobar, German 028 Limpinuntana, Viriya 056 Economics and Business Management 004
Ford Foundation 019 Malvestuto, S.P. 076 University of Sussex. Institute of Development
Frankenberger, Timothy R. 029 Martinez, Juan Carlos 006 Studies 018,058,059,060,061
Franzel, Steven 030 Matlon, Peter J. 057 University of the West Indies, Kingston 009
Fresco, Louise 031,032,049 Maxwell, Simon 058,059,060,061 University of Zimbabwe 057
Garrity, Dennis 033 McDowell, Robert E. 003 Waidyanatha, Parakrama 095
Garrity, Dennis P. 034 McIntosh, J.L. 062 Warren, G.F. 094
German Agency for Technical Cooperation 080 McIntosh, Jerry L. 063,064,065,066 Wijewardene, Ray 095 Ghildyal, B.P. 019 National Council for Geographic Education 009 Wilson, G.F. 096
Gibbs, Christopher J.N. 035 Norman, D. 067 Wilson, R.T. 053,097
Gil, Hernan Chaverra 054 Nweke, Felix I. 068 World Bank 075
Goe, Michael R. 037 Organization of American States. Inter-American Zambia. Dept. of Agriculture 050
Grandstaff, Somluckrat W. 036 Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture 054 Zandstra, H.G. 098,099
Zandstra, Hubert G. 100
FSR Vol. III, 1986 31

A. Send all orders to: AID/DIHF/FSR, 7222 47th Street, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, U.S.A. B. Please note the following definitions in placing your order: UMcrche use s ecurged. S.w papr
1. DOCUMENT NUMBER: Found at the top of each abstract; begins Example: PN-AAJ-875 and .magcost!
with "PN."
2. PRICE: Prices for single paper (PC) and micro- Example: MF $1.08/PC $7.67
fiche (MF) copies of documents are found
directly below the document number.
Microfiche are 105 x 148 mm, 98 frame,
@ 24x reduction.
C. Please note the following categories of customers:
1. A.I.D. employees, A.I.D. contractors overseas, and AID.sponsored organizations overseas may receive microfiche and/or paper copies
of FSR documents free. Employees of A.I.D. contractors in the U.S. may receive free copies only when order is accompanied by A.I.D. project
officer's certification that requested material is relevant to project.
2. Universities, research centers, government offices, and other Institutions located In developing countries may receive free microfiche
copies of up to five titles per ARDA issue. Paper copies of FSR may be purchased at the stated price.
3. All other institutions and individuals may purchase microfiche and/or paper copies of FSR documents at the stated prices. When ordering, include document number.
A. Envoyer les commandes i: AID/DIHF/FSR, 7222 47th Street, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, U.S.A. on ,.es bmWn wco e
de commander des
B. Veuillez tenir compte des definitions suivantes en commandant: mkirochs pow 60it
1. NUMERO DE DOCUMENT: Ce numbro partit au-dessus de Exemple: PN-AAJ-875 sfr dpap r de
chaque resume; commencez avec pos
2. PRIX: Les prix pour des copies en papier Exemple: MF $1.08/PC $7.67
(PC) et/ou en microfiche (MF) paraissent au-dessus de chaque resume.
Les dimensions de la microfiche
sont 105 x 148 mm, 98 feuilles par
fiche, reduction 24x.
C. V6rifier bien les categories suivantes de clients:
1. Des employes d'A.I.D., des entrepreneurs qui traivaillent pour A.I.D. a I'6tranger, et des employs d'agences volontaires a I'6tranger
peuvent recevoirgratuitement les documents d'FSR en papier et/ou en microfiche. Des entrepreneurs qui travaillent pourA.I.D.aux Etats-Unis ne peuvent recevoir gratuitement les documents d'FSR que si la commande est accompagnee par I'assurance du responsable du projet d'A.I.D.que
les documents commandes se rapportent au projet.
2. Des universit6s des centres de recherches, des bureaux de gouvernement, et autres institutions aux pays en vole ded d4veloppement
puevent recevoir gratuitement jusqu' a cinq documents d' FSR en microfiche. On peut acheter les documents en papier au prix donn6.
3. D'autres institutions et individus peuvent acheter les documents d' FSR en papier ou en microfiche au prix donn6 En commandant.
veuillez inclure le num6ro de document.
A. Envie los formularios a: AID/DIHF/FSR, 7222 47th Street, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, U.S.A iSemcomierdeeAos
B. Por favor, verifique las siguientes definiciones al pedir las copias: de las micrc-ha Cosere los cost=s de
1. NUMERO DEL DOCUMENTO: Se encuentra arriba de cada Ejemplo: PN-AAJ-875 pap cnydore.
resumen; se comienza con PN
2. PRECIO: Los precios de las copias indivi- Ejemplo: MF $1.08/PC $7.67
duales en papel (PC) y en microficha (MF) se encuentran abajo
del nimero del documento. Las
medidas de las microfichas son
105 mm x 148 mm, 98cuadro, @
24x reducci6n
C. Por favor, verifique las sigulentes categorias de los solicitantes:
1. Los empleados de A.I.D., los contratistas extranjeros de A.I.D., y las organizaciones extranjeras apolladas por A.I.D. pueden recibir
gratis las copias en microficha y/o en papel de los documentos de FSR. Los empleados de los contratistas de A.I.D. dentro de los E.U. pueden recibir las copias gratis siempre que sus pedidos sean acompanados por una certificacion del dirigente del proyecto de A.I.D. lacual constateque
los documentos son relacionados al proyecto.
2. Las universldades, los centros de Investigaclones, las oficinas de goblerno, y las otras instltuclonesen los passes en desarrollo pueden
reciber gratis hasta cinco copias en microficha de los documentos presentados en FSR Las copias en papel se pueden comprar al precio
3. Todas las demas institutiones y particulares pueden comprar las copias en microficha y/o en papel de los documentos de FSR a los
precios estipulados. Al solicitar, se debe incluir el nOmero del documento y el titulo del documento.
32 Vol. III, 1986

Date of order
Title/office Institution
Room number
Building Street
Postal code
Document number: Paper Copy (PC) Quantity
Microfiche (MF)
r MF
r --------------------------------------I
3. I ] R -II PC
4- 0 0 - 0 0- -- - - - - -- - -*R rF]~n r ar PC ___MFsF
L Title _l. F l- R-EI F-I 1E-1 F
L-----------------------------------------:6. -I D D PC
a MF ___
L Title
00-000-00 F1 cF
18. 0 -00PCS MF
7222 47th Street ENCLOSE NO PAYMENT.
* Title __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Chevy Chase, MD 20815 You will be invoiced later.
SIII 198 ----------------------------------------------I II
Title __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ M_
-------- ---------------------------Send Orders to:
7222 47th Street ENCLOSE NO PAYMENT.
Chevy Chase, MD 20815 You will be Invoiced later.
Vol 111, 1986 33