Title Page
 User guide to citations
 Subject and geographic index
 Author and institution index
 Ordering instructions
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Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053818/00002
 Material Information
Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Physical Description: 4 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Publisher: International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053818
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001822822
oclc - 13012743
notis - AJP6828

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    User guide to citations
        User's guide to citations
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Subject and geographic index
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Author and institution index
        Page 31
    Ordering instructions
        Page 32
    Order form
        Page 33
Full Text

t,2 9c18/rf




1986 Volume III

l Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP)

International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523



One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) practitioners
is the difficulty in locating and accessing relevant FSR literature.The expansion of FSR projects and
programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports and monographs dealing with
particular aspects of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR
literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR
work makes it difficult, if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research
journals. Additionally, much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and
consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished
manuscripts from the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these
characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level prac-
titioners, who by the nature of their workare stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability
of these materials can only slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.

As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a
cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency
for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract
agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the
documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening
Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library
facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR
documents for theirannotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective
bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the
bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development Information and Evaluation
(CDIE)/Development Information Division.

This is the third volume of the bibliography. A fourth volume is scheduled for production. CDIE will
catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography series and will be able to provide copies ot
all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE
documentation center and duplicating services will continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring
that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will remain available.
The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies.
Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:

FSR/E Bibliography
Department of Sociology
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506
Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are
also welcome.


Item number -- 046






Project number --
Contract/Grant --

MF $3.24/PC $28.99

Field data collection in the social sciences,
experiences in Africa and the Middle East
Kearl, B.E.
Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
(Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences,
Beirut, LB)
1976, 221p.: En

French edition: PN-AAC-817
* Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA
A discussion of research methods practical field proce-
dures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social
scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered
include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and recon-
naissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling;
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using
data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific varia-
bles; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enu-
merators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9)
interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning coopera-
tion of respondents; and (11) preceding, and preliminary steps
in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication
is intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution
rather than a comprehensive reference or text.

----- Document number

Paper Copy prices

Serial title
and number, date,
pagination, and

- Abstract



MF $1.08/PC $1.82

Rural women and high yielding variety rice
Agarwal, Bina
Economic and political weekly, v.19(13), 1984, p.A-39-A-52 :
statistical tables, En
Includes references
The uncritically accepted assumption that all members of a
farm household have like interests and that benefits and
burdens of technological change will be shared equally is
questioned in this paper, which examines some of the implica-
tions of HYV rice technology for women of different socioeco-
nomic classes in India. Women in the poorest households are
of particular importance since many are the primary or sole
source of family income.
Using data gathered in three principal rice-growing states
(Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Orissa), the author presents
an empirical analysis of the impact of HYV rice on female labor
in field-related agricultural work. The impact is disaggregated
by type of labor family, permanent, and casual and by farm
size. While the adoption of HYV rice increases the demand for
farm labor (much of it male and female casual labor), it is noted
that this increased demand does not benefit women in laborer
households unless real daily wages also increase and unless
the households distribute income and consumption items even-
ly. HYV effects on female family labor vary widely by state,
being the net effect of increased labor needs and family
prestige (which, with higher income, requires women's with-
drawal from manual work). Women in small cultivator
households are likely to increase their labor without enjoying a
compensatory improvement in standard of living.

case of herbicides, consumer useable packages. Included is a
table of preplant and pre-emergence herbicides for cowpea
and maize, a figure illustrating the positive effect of no-tillage
and live mulch systems on maize yield, and a 32-item bibliogra-
phy (1954-83).


MF $1.08/PC $6.24

Decision making by livestock / crop small
holders in the state of Veracruz, Mexico
Aluja, Andres; McDowell, Robert E.
Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science
Cornell international agriculture mimeograph, no.105, Sep
1984, i, 44p.: chart, map, statistical tables, En
Prior to a proposed agricultural development program in the
Mexican State of Veracruz, 13 farms were surveyed in an effort
to identify and quantify factors in farmer decisionmaking. Data
were collected on physical resources, (land, facilities and
equipment, cropping), livestock, pasture management (grazing
systems, pastures, quality of forages, supplementary feeding),
milk output, livestock reproductive performance, animal health,
selected indicators of livestock performance, marketing, labor,
and economic factors. It was found that the farmers' decision-
making in regard to both crop and livestock systems was
rational. Farmers appreciated that to increase animal and milk
production from modest to high levels would not be supporta-
ble under present marketing conditions. It is concluded that the
government should recognize that farms in Veracruz State are
supplying local needs through low inputs and contribute more
to state and regional food supplies than is generally recog-
nized. A 3-page bibliography (1955-84) is appended.


MF $1.08/PC $1.82

No-tillage weed control in the tropics
Akobundu, I. Okezie
(Symposium on No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics,
Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981)
1983, p.32-44 : charts, En
No-tillage crop production in the tropics
Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E.
Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AA T-842
Damage to tropical soil structure resulting from conven-
tional tillage operations can be avoided by a no-tillage tech-
nique, which reduces soil erosion, soil compaction, and soil
moisture loss through evapotranspiration. A major problem with
this technique is weed control. This study discusses specific
forms of the problem and various means of addressing it.
Attention is first given to the problems of controlling vegetation
in bush fallow and in fallow residue, along with the choice of
appropriate herbicide. Crop damage caused by animal pests in
no-tillage systems is briefly noted. A final section discusses
recent advances in controlling weeds chemically, i.e., through
herbicides, and biologically, using mulch (living and dead) from
herbacious legumes. Effective transfer of these techniques to
farmers, it is noted, will require trained personnel and, in the


MF $1.08/PC $4.03

Socio-economic modelling of farming systems
Anderson, Jock R.; Dillon, John L.; Hardaker, J. Brian
University of New England. Dept. of Agricultural Economics
and Business Management
(ACIAR FSR Workshop, Richmond, New South Wales, AU,
12-15 May 1985)
1985, 30p. : En
Bibliography: p.27-30
The types of and role of socioeconomic models in FSR are
discussed in this non-technical workshop paper. In basic type,
models are either descriptive or optimizing; the latter are
defined as those which incorporate an algorithm which directly
generates a solution for a specified function in the model.
Among the variants of these two types, budgeting and mathe-
matical programming stand out respectively; the latter's relative
advantage in eliminating bias is exemplified during an excursus
on the experiences of one of the authors in an FSR program
conducted by ICRISAT. Socioeconomic modeling permits de-
tailed evaluation of the performance of a given farming system
and identification of its strong and weak points and helps
assess the viability of a proposed technology. Problems in-
volved in the use of socioeconomic models include the difficulty
of striking a suitable balance between data gathering, model
building, and model exploitation, the physical and/or cultural
remoteness of modelers from farmers (or, by contrast, an
excessively anthropological approach), and various sins of

FSR Vol. III, 1986


omission, of which the most serious is failure to recognize the
crucial role of female farmers. A concluding section stresses
the need for greater sensitivity to the ideas and needs of small
farmers. A 4-page bibliography (1970-86) is appended.


MF $1.08/PC $1.30

practices are described to identify recommendation domains.
Following a review of the process of preselecting technology
components, the three cycles of the maize improvement pro-
gram are detailed in separate chapters. Highlights include a
review of the experimental strategy and management; descrip-
tion of exploratory and field trials (e.g., use of herbicides and
nitrogen fertilizers); and integration of results and derivation of
recommendations. A final section outlines the completed maize
program methodology.

Adoption of agricultural technology:
developments in agro-socio-economic
Andrew, Chris; Alvarez, Jose
Social and economic studies, v.31(3), 1982, p.171-189 : En
The evolution of socioeconomic thought concerning the
diffusion of agricultural innovations started with a debate about
the relative importance of social and economic factors in the
adoption of hybrid corn and hybrid sorghum in the United
States during the period 1928-1941. Sociologists and econo-
mists agreed that an array of factors, varying from one farm and
farming area to another and not well understood, stimulate
diffusion; literature on the Green Revolution of the 1960's later
added new dimensions to the debate by considering not only
adoption and production aspects, but also a host of other
conditions, e.g., markets, income distribution, and risk. The
adoption process favors early adopters with favorable social
and economic characteristics, while those unable to assume
the added production costs and risks associated with poten-
tially higher returns from new technology fall behind. These
new findings, showing that the adoption of Green Revolution
innovations in developing countries relates to the welfare of the
entire household and small farm unit, indicate the necessity of
formulating technological packages based on socioeconomic
research addressing the farmers' entire decision environment.
(Author abstract, modified)


MF $2.16/PC $17.29


MF $1.08/PC $2.21

Farmer field preparation and tillage practices:
implications for fertilizer technology research
Ashby, Jacqueline A.; De Jong, Gerard
Soil and tillage research, no.2, 1982, p.331-346 : ill., chart,
statistical tables, En
Information from diagnostic research on small farmer deci-
sionmaking about land preparation and tillage practices can be
integrated into experimental research on the design and evalu-
ation of fertilizer technology. Different land preparation and
tillage practices used by farmers for cassava production in
Cauca department, Colombia, are analyzed to develop a model
of farmers' decisionmaking in the choice of tillage techniques.
The decision model indicates that manual tillage practices
which involve only partial field tillage are a response to relative-
ly fixed constraints; it may be difficult for farmers facing these
constraints to adopt a fertilizer technology which requires full
field tillage. Variables associated with choice of tillage method
are identified and related to implications for experimental
evaluation of fertilizer technology and the distribution of bene-
fits from this research. The findings illustrate that diagnostic
research on the agro-socioeconomic constraints faced by
small farmers can alert researchers to limiting factors which
should be recognized in the design and testing of agricultural
technology, so as to facilitate rapid and effective technology
adoption. (Author abstract)

Desarrollando tecnologia apropiada para el
agricultor: informed de progress del program
de Caisan en Panama (Developing appropriate
technology for the farmer: progress report of
the program in Caisan, Panama)
Arauz, Jose Roman; Martinez, Juan Carlos
Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama; International
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
Serie de studios especiales, no.1, Feb 1983, xvi, 119p.: ill.,
map, statistical tables, Es
In an effort to identify and disseminate appropriate technol-
ogy for increasing small farm crop production in CaisAn, Pana-
ma, a 3-year research project into improved maize production
techniques was undertaken with active farmer participation.
This report describes the methodology and results of the
project, which was conducted jointly by IDIAP and CIMMYT. A
brief description of national characteristics provides the frame-
work for discussions of selecting CaisAn as the research area
(soil, climate, population, and other factors) and of the charac-
teristics of the research program. Next, the farmers' cultivation


MF $1.08/PC $3.38

Case study of on farm adaptive research at
Bida agricultural development project, Nigeria
Ashraf, Malik
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.190-215: charts, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of Intemational Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
In 1981, the ongoing Bida Agricultural Development Project
in Nigeria initiated an on-farm adaptive research (OFAR)
program to identify major production constraints in the local
farming systems and develop technologies for dissemination to

FSR VoL 111, 19s6





local farmers. This case study presents a preliminary descrip-
tion of the program.
After describing the project area and the organization of the
OFAR program, the report discusses the four cropping systems
which were selected as the program's target domains lowland
rice, upland yam, upland cassava, and upland cereal crops.
System constraints and experimental opportunities are out-
lined. For rice crops, delayed planting, low stand density, and
iron toxicity reduce output, while the three upland crops suffer
from insect and crop disease. On-farm experiments in seed
preparation and stand density for rice-based systems are
described, as are trials in cowpea, rice sickle, and the pro-
gram's limited research in upland systems.
The program showed the possibility of identifying improve-
ment areas promptly in local farming systems. Planting cow-
peas as a dry season crop was so successful that demand for
seed exceeded supply. It was also found that farmers are
reluctant to offer their fields for trials of radically different crop
management practices. Farm-level agroeconomic data collec-
tion was found to be useful in delineating important cropping
systems and farmers' production practices. The major impedi-
ment to success was lack of staffing.


MF $1.08/PC $2.73

Learning from peasant farmers : some
Caribbean examples
Barker, David; Collymore, Jeremy; Spence, Belfour
National Council for Geographic Education; University of the
West Indies, Kingston
(National Council for Geographic Education Annual
Conference, Ocho Rios, JM, Oct 1983)
1983, 21p. : En
References: p.20-21
Examples from two case studies one of Maroon farming in
Accompong, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica, the other of small farmers
in northern St. Vincent are used to argue the value of small-
scale farmers' knowledge and skills for agricultural research.
The studies revealed the value of traditional agronomic prac-
tices and the extent to which farmers use traditional folk
methods to make accurate judgements about soil fertility and
infertility. Also evident was the experimental nature of farmer
decisionmaking e.g., in regard to intercropping and the good
effects to which this can lead; this is a key aspect in under-
standing small-scale farming systems and one on which more
research is needed in the Caribbean. The studies also showed
how and why farmers re-define and re-interpret technical
advice, sometimes improving the advice given. A concluding
section recommends establishing networks of farmers to report
regularly on ecological problems, such as the incidence of
pests and changes in rainfall patterns or soil fertility. Agricultur-
al planners would collate these reports in order to monitor an
area's agricultural situation.


MF $1.08/PC $2.21

Because it has well-defined borders and an identifiable
authority, the village was selected as the most appropriate unit
for farming systems research in Java. This report presents an
agroeconomic profile of Pandansari village, focusing on rumi-
nant raising. After listing the reasons why Pandansari was
chosen for study, the report, in brief sections: (1) outlines the
village's main climatic, physical, and socioeconomic features;
(2) reviews typical cropping systems and animals raised, which
include sheep, (water) buffalo, and goat herds, as well as
poultry (chicken, ducks) and rabbits; (3) compares stock-
raising households with non-raisers; (4) describes animal man-
agement and productivity; (5) provides an economic assess-
ment of typical ruminant enterprises and ruminant forage
profiles; and (6) outlines major constraints to animal production
in the areas of health, nutrition, and husbandry practices
(housing, working, breeding). Final sections suggest ap-
proaches to on-farm research and identify trials needed on
research stations.

011 PN-AAT-776
MF $1.08/PC $5.20
Rapid rural appraisal: the critical first step in
a farming systems approach to research
Beebe, James
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture;
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institutional
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, no.5,
1985, 36p. : En
Bibliography: p.33-36
Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) is a critical first step in farming
systems research. This report discusses specific methodologi-
cal issues and pitfalls facing RRA practitioners, concluding that
RRA's should: (1) use at least 4 days but no more than 3
weeks; (2) use a small research team with a good mix of
technical backgrounds; (3) use short interview guides as mem-
ory aids, emphasize variability rather than homogeneity, look
for opportunities as well as problems, consider the influences
of community organizations and groups, and always view
farmer decisionmaking as rational; (4) structure research time
to allow for team interaction; (5) use information collected in
advance; (6) improve the quality of interview information
through careful selection of respondents, use of group inter-
views, use of strategies other than asking straight questions,
correct use of interpreters, and combined interview and direct
observation; (7) improve the quality of direct observation by
using cameras and special techniques such as agroecological
transect and field plotting, and identifying key indicators of rural
welfare; (8) complete a single team report quickly; and (9)
ensure that results of the report get factored into decisions.
Included are data checklists to remind the RRA team of
important issues during the appraisal and a 4-page bibliogra-
phy (1970-85)

Village profile for livestock component FSR in
Basuno, Edi; Petheram, R.J.
Institute for Livestock Research
1985, 17p. : statistical tables, En

FSR Vol. III, 1986



MF $1.08/PC $3.25

Farming systems approach : some
unanswered questions
Biggs, Stephen D.
Agricultural administration, v.18, 1985, p.1-12 : En
A significant gap in FSR activities is identified in this review
of FSR's major features. While considerable attention has been
devoted to developing FSR manuals, survey techniques, etc.,
an analytical framework based on an understanding of the
overall organization of developing countries' agricultural re-
search and extension systems is still lacking. Discussion is
given to the key issues involved in developing such a frame-
work the necessity of placing on-farm and experimental
station research under the same directorship, the importance
of recognizing the creative conflict among research disciplines,
and the need to develop communication and evaluation meth-
ods that unite farmers and researchers, to keep research
flexible, and to maintain commitment to the target group in
FSR's case, small farmers. (Author abstract, modified)


MF $1.08/PC $2.99

On-farm research in an integrated agricultural
technology development system : case study
of triticale for the Himalayan hills
Biggs, Stephen D.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Regional Workshop on Developing Triticale for the
Himalayan Hills, Mukteshwar, Uttar Pradesh, IN)
Apr 1979, 19p. + attachments : charts, En
The successful diagnosis of farmers' problems and provi-
sion of suitable technologies to address them requires the
development of cost-effective methods of research. Some
research principles and guidelines which have evolved through
experience are here presented. Illustrated through examples
from a program to develop a triticale crop in the Himalayan hills,
the guidelines are considered applicable to other biological,
chemical, and mechanical technologies. The dynamic relation-
ships between the five major components of an integrated
technology research program, i.e., program justification, on-
farm research, implications analysis, policymaking, and on-
station research, are described. Methods for conducting an on-
farm research program are suggested, which include initial
surveys and other information-gathering activities, diagnosis of
farmers' problems, on-farm experiments, and a monitoring and
feedback system. The paper concludes with a list of questions
to be considered at a regional workshop.


MF $1.08/PC $2.73

Appropriate methodology for appropriate
Bradfield, Stillman
American Society of Agronomy
(American Society of Agronomy Meeting, Chicago, IL US,
Dec 1978)
Dec 1978, 20p. : En
Effective, problem-oriented research to address small farm
needs requires deviations from conventional methods by both
behavioral and agricultural scientists. A new methodology in
which researchers set aside traditional scientific paradigms
requiring tight controls is presented. The following are key
aspects of this methodology: (1) awareness of the objectives of
the small farm system (all of which promote the general
purpose of improving the farm family's defensive position in its
dealings with outsiders); (2) research which utilizes farmers'
labor and is conducted under conditions they can maintain; (3)
completion of initial social science data collection in 2 weeks or
less (using community informants to find out what farmers do
and why, discovering farmers' perceptions on farming prob-
lems, and gathering community data); (4) involvement by
farmers and their spouses in planning feasible, mini-technolog-
ical packages for testing. The success of this approach wil
depend in part on overcoming research administration con-
straints, e.g., pressures on research organizations to produce
tangible results quickly, and on recognizing the fact that profes-
sional specialization is rewarded more handsomely than is
multidisciplinary work.


MF $1.08/PC $6.37

Rate and sequence of adoption of improved
cereal technologies: the case of rainfed
barley in the Mexican altiplano
Byerlee, Derek; De Polanco, Edith H.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
1982, 38p. + appendices: En Working paper no.82/4
9310840; 936411101
Studies of farmer adoption of new technology usually focus
on the characteristics of farmers rather than on the levels of
profitability and risk associated with the technologies them-
selves. The latter approach is adopted in this case study of the
technology adoption rate and sequence among barley farmers
in Mexico's Altiplano.
Following a review of the study area and data collection
methods, technology characteristics believed to influence far-
mers' adoption decisions are outlined. Evidence from on-farm
experiments is used to rank technology components according
to these characteristics and hence predict the rate and se-
quence of adoption. Longitudinal farm survey data are then
used to examine actual adoption patterns over 10-15 years for
five mechanical and three biological technology components
and to draw conclusions regarding the effects of interactions
among components and the question of adoption of single
technologies versus technology packages.
It was found that most farmers have mechanized their land
preparation and harvesting and adopted biochemical technolo-
gies, especially in the wetter zones. Factors favoring mechani-

FSR Vol. It 196




zation were the high cost of hand and animal methods and the
availability of rented machinery; topography is a limiting factor,
especially where barley is intercropped with maguey. Biochemi-
cal components were adopted singly in accordance with their
rate of return on capital.
It is concluded that small farmers eventually follow the same
technology adoption path as large farmers and that technology
packages should be presented in a step-wise sequence,
beginning with the most profitable and adaptable techniques.
Research priorities should be based on profitability rather than
yield increase. Finally, although the private sector has been a
major factor in promoting farm mechanization and biochemical
components, the public sector has provided strong incentives
for change by introducing new barley varieties and providing
credit, inputs, and favorable pricing policies.

MF $1.08/PC $1.82

Is anthropology superfluous in farming
systems research?
Cernea, Michael M.; Guggenheim, Scott E.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.504-517 : En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Arguments are presented to refute Norman W. Simmonds'
thesis that anthropology is superfluous in FSR. Appeal is made
to researchers' acknowledgements of anthropologists' con-
tributions to FSR programs at international centers such as the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
- contributions not only to FSR methodology (e.g., farmer-
based, exploratory surveys) but to experimental project design.
It is further argued that economic factors vital to FSR such as
farmers' decisionmaking patterns, the relationship between
landholding and social structure, and the social organization of
family labor resources fall within the purview of the social and
cultural scientist. Finally, it is noted that anthropology can help
FSR: (1) develop methodologies for working with small landhol-
ders; (2) understand the social and cultural reasons for produc-
tion variations as well as the impact of these factors on
technology adoption; (3) build on local organizational arrange-
ments; and (4) use indigenous knowledge to develop appropri-
ate technologies.


MF $1.08/PC $1.69

Development of extension programs within
the context of FSR and E : the conservation
cropping case in Queensland, Australia
Chamala, S.; Keith, K.J.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, 1986,
p.38-50 : charts, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension: implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
The importance of early emphasis on extension within the
farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) process is
argued in this case study of a conservation cropping project in
Queensland, Australia. The paper reviews the lack of planned
extension in Queensland prior to 1980 and describes a process
that was used to identify socioeconomic factors and cropping
practices to help plan extension activities in the region. The
process involved: (1) meetings at both field and head offices to
clarify goals; (2) a farmer survey using a team approach; (3) a
survey of extension staff; (4) a workshop to review the data
collected and prepare a strategy; and (5) discussion of priorities
and resources at a meeting of regional project leaders and their
head office supervisors. The uses of this system in identifying
and overcoming constraints and in improving the cohesiveness
of FSR/E are highlighted. A final section discusses the role
extension can play in projects in less developed countries. The
schema of a revised FSR/E model which gives appropriate
recognition to extension aspects is presented.


MF $1.08/PC $1.69

Shortcut methods in information gathering for
rural development projects
Chambers, Robert
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
(World Bank Agricultural Sector Symposia, Jan 1980)
7 Jan 1980, 24p. : En
Proceedings from a January 1980 symposium, the source of
this report, suggest that Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) may
present a method of data collection for rural development
projects that is more cost-effective than traditional quick-and-
dirty and long-and-dirty methods. Inaccuracies in data can be
avoided if researchers use collection methods which are sensi-
tive to each situation and population. While there is neither a
correct nor incorrect way of conducting an RRA, each RRA
incorporates some of the following: (1) using existing informa-
tion; (2) learning indigenous technologies and the philosophies
behind them; (3) using key agricultural and economic indica-
tors; (4) using teams of social scientists and agricultural scien-
tists to conduct soundings (sondeos) of rural areas; (5) employ-
ing local researchers; (6) using direct observation; (7) conduct-
ing both formal and informal interviews with key persons
and/or groups; and (8) conducting aerial inspection and sur-
veys. Appended are lists of papers on RRA and of papers
presented at the symposium.

FSR Vol. III, 1986




MF $1.08/PC $4.16

Agricultural research for resource poor
farmers : the farmer first and last model
Chambers, Robert; Ghildyal, B.P.
Ford Foundation
(National Agricultural Research Project Workshop on
National Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad,
IN, 7-10 Mar 1984)
1984, 25p. + attachments : En
The traditional technology transfer model for agricultural
research favors resource-rich farmers, whose conditions
resemble those of research stations. An emerging new re-
search model focuses first to last on the farm family and
consists of: a diagnostic appraisal of farmers' needs; generat-
ing appropriate technology on-farm and with farmers; and
evaluating the technology in light of its adoption or non-
adoption by farmers.
Four prototypes of the new model are analyzed: the CIM-
MYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
approach to planning technology appropriate to farmers; the
Sondeo method of rapid appraisal; the ICRAF (International
Crop Research Agricultural Foundation) diagnosis and design
approach to agroforestry; and the CIP (International Potato
Center) farmer-back-to-farmer methodology. The new model
can be expanded to meet farmers' needs through five comple-
mentary thrusts: methodological innovations (choosing ele-
ments from previous methods); interdisciplinarity (collaboration
among farmers and scientists of different disciplines); suitable
resources (e.g., transportation/funds); rewards (e.g., promo-
tion); and training researchers how to learn from farmers. A 23-
item bibliography (1977-83) is appended.


MF $1.08/PC $5.85

Cropping systems work in Thailand
Chandrapanya, Damkheong
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos,
PH, 2-5 Oct 1978)
1978, p.121-165 : charts, statistical tables, En
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Collaborative, on-farm research is being conducted in
Northeastern (Pimai and Ubon) and Central (Bangpae and
Inburi) Thailand in order to develop and test innovative rice-
based cropping systems technologies for rainfed and partially
irrigated areas. The agencies involved include the Rice and
Technical Divisions of the Department of Agriculture, the
Division of Agricultural Economics of the Ministry of Agriculture
and Cooperatives, and the Faculties of Agriculture and of
Economics and Business Administration of Kasetsart Universi-
ty. This report describes the cooperative linkages and research
activities at the four sites and presents and analyzes their
agronomic and economic results. Described more briefly are
other research being conducted in the country, the program's
training component, and research plans for FY's 1979-81.
Roughly half the document consists of tables documenting
research results.

021 PN-AAT-819
MF $1.08/PC $2.60
Thai cropping systems research programs
Chandrapanya, Damkheong
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, ID, 18-22
May 1981)
1981, p.203-221 : charts, statistical tables, En
Eleventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Rice-based cropping systems research underway at four
sites in Thailand Ubon, Pimai, Kampangphet, and Prae is
briefly outlined. Research is being conducted on: peanut/rice,
yard long bean/rice, green com/rice, and mungbean/rice
combinations (Ubon); peanuts, glutinous corn, glutinous
corn/mungbean and glutinous com/peanut, and rice (Pimai);
rice varieties (Kampangphet); and white sesame/rice/soybean,
mungbean/rice/soybean, and supersweet com/rice/peanut
patterns (Prae). Appendices include results of a sociological
survey of farmers' attitudes towards the cropping systems
program, from which a number of recommendations for future
research were derived, and 8 tables and graphs presenting
rainfall and agronomic yield data.


HIF $1.081PC $9A9

Issues in organization and management of
research with a farming systems perspective
aimed at technology generation : proceedings
of a workshop
Chang, M. Joseph
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;
International Service for National Agricultural Research;
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Workshop on Issues in Organization and Management of
Research with a Farming Systems Perspective Aimed at
Technology Generation, The Hague, NL 27-30 Sep 1983)
1984, 75p. : charts, En
936411113; 936411101
Presented are the proceedings of a 1983 FSR workshop,
which was co-sponsored by the International Service for
Agricultural Research (ISNAR) and the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Representatives from
agricultural research and international development organiza-
tions participated in the deliberations, discussing: (1) recent
views on farming systems; (2) the FSR support activities of the
World Bank; (3) FSR concepts and implementation at the
Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center in Costa
Rica (CATIE); (4) FSR experiences in Nigeria; (5) prodction-
oriented FSR at the Agricultural Science and Technology
Institute in Guatemala (ICTA); (6) experiences in FSR manage-
ment and organization in Panama; (7) technology generation
and transfer through National Institute for Agricultural Re-
search (INIAP) programs in Ecuador; and (8) a framework for
organizing and managing national agricultural research pro-
grams with a farming systems perspective. A summary of

FSR Vol. 1J 198


participants' discussions between presentations and at working
groups is included.

023 PN-AAU-077
MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Farming systems research : diagnosing the
Collinson, Michael
1985, p.71-86 : chart, En
Research extension farmer : a two way continuum for
agricultural development
Cernea, Michael M.; Coulter, John K.; Russell, John F.A.
World Bank
The value of FSR in identifying and understanding the
problems which influence small farmers' decisionmaking is
discussed in this study, a chapter in a monograph on agricultur-
al research and extension linkages. After outlining some impor-
tant concepts underpinning the application of FSR as a means
of effective problem diagnosis, the study details the FSR
approach, as well as the sequence of low-cost, rapid methods
of problem identification developed by the Internatonal Center
for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT). FSR's
potential for linking research, extension, and farmers in an
interactive continuum of project identification/preparation and
in policy formulation is reviewed. A final section highlights the
importance of training as the single most urgent prerequisite for
effective use of the FSR methodology.

024 PN-AAT-782
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Some issues in CIMMYT's concepts and
procedures for the use of FSR in agricultural
research and planning
Collinson, Michael
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Science
and Technology. Office of Agriculture
Dec 1980, p.21-46 : statistical tables, En
Farming systems contribution to improved relevancy in
agricultural research : concepts and procedures and their
promotion by CIMMYT in eastern Africa
The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's
(CIMMYT's) approach to FSR and its experiences and difficul-
ties with this approach in eastern Africa are herein discussed.
In brief, the CIMMYT approach to FSR which it attempted to
introduce in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya during
1976-80: uses information on target groups and considers
personnel resources in identifying research priorities and deter-
mining the number of groups to be worked with; provides the
FSR economist whose perspective on resource allocation is
congruous with the farmer's a unique role in coordinating
interdisciplinary research planning; eschews sophisticated
modeling in favor of a low-cost, rapid turnaround approach
which can cover 4 to 10 target groups in the time taken by a
single modeling investigation; and uses a general-to-specific
problem identification strategy to identify the enterprises)
offering the greatest leverage for positive change within the
farming system. In attempting to institutionalize this approach in
national research services in eastern Africa, CIMMYT found the

greatest problem to be lack of interdisciplinary cooperation,
especially with regard to the primacy of the economist's role.


MF $1.08/PC $2.73

Agricultural extension and farming systems
De Vries, James
University of Dar es Salaam. Dept. of Agricultural Education
and Extension
(Farming Systems and Farming Systems Research
Conference, Arusha, TZ, 14-16 Apr 1981)
AEE working paper, no.81.1, Apr 1981, 20p. : charts, En
Bibliography: p.18-20
Countering a seemingly widespread belief that extension
has little if anything to do with FSR, this paper argues for their
essential complementarity. The author first presents FSR as an
integral part of what is called the dialogical model of agricultural
extension a participatory, problem-centered approach stress-
ing farmers' basic needs, in contrast to the conventional top-
down, client-expert method oriented to increasing production -
and goes on to elaborate the mutual benefits of extension-FSR
cooperation in the local-level agricultural development pro-
cess. The organizational structure of Tanzania's conventional
extension service is then detailed and used to exemplify how,
with some adjustments, FSR and extension can fit together and
strengthen one another within Tanzania's two types of exten-
sion systems the general service under the direction of the
Prime Minister's Office and Regional and District Development
Directors, and specialized services under various crop and
livestock parastatals. A list of 21 references (1966-80) is


MF $1.08/PC $2.21

Concept and practice of farming systems
Dillon, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.
(Eastern Africa ACIAR Consultation on Agricultural
Research : Major Agricultural Problems and Research
Priorities in the Eastern Africa Region, Nairobi, KE, 19-
22 Jul 1983)
1984, p.171-186 : charts, En
Proceedings of the eastern Africa ACIAR consultation on
agricultural research : major agricultural problems and
research priorities in the eastern Africa region
Kenya. National Council for Science and Technology
The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
The distinguishing feature of FSR is that it integrates
approaches found disparately in more traditional forms of
agricultural research. So argues this analysis of FSR theory and
practice against charges that FSR is revolutionary or unproven.
After citing examples of FSR in Brazil, the Philippines, and
India, the author defends the need for the FSR approach,
arguing that its results, which require only minimal changes in
existing farming methods, are more likely to be adopted than
the innovations generated by traditional research. Succeeding
sections of the report describe FSR methodology and the
implications of its interdisciplinary approach for research man-
agement, e.g., integrating on-farm and station-based research

FSR Vol. III, 1986


and linking research and extension activities. Stress is laid on
the key role played in FSR by social scientists, who conduct
research on factors influencing farmers which cannot be stud-
ied by pure scientists. A final section discusses problems
involved in adopting the FSR approach, the diversity of farming
systems being identified as the chief of these.


MF $1.08/PC $1.56

Identification of farmers' production problems
in Indonesia
Effendi, Suryatna
1985, p.51-62 : chart, En
Research extension farmer : a two way continuum for
agricultural development
Cernea, Michael M.; Coutler, John K.; Russell, John F.A.
World Bank
Methodologies used for food crop-based FSR in Indonesia
are presented, with emphasis on the important linkage between
research and extension. Onsite research into small farmer
cropping systems on irrigated lowlands and rainfed uplands
was carried out at six sites in western and eastern Java and
Lampung since 1972, and the following methodology has
Farmer production problems are identified by quick
agroeconomic profiles (conducted by cropping systems/FSR
teams). To develop a land use capability map and provide
important baseline information for agricultural research, a na-
tional inventory is taken of natural resources which assesses
the edaphological characteristics of land, environmental deter-
minants of land potential, and present land use. Target areas
are then selected for applying integrated research, and dif-
ferent categories of cropping patterns are designed which take
into account Indonesian farmers' need for low-cost, low-risk
technologies. The flow of agricultural research information
between source and user is a potential problem area; it is
suggested that in developing countries, public sector institu-
tions may disseminate information more efficiently than the
weak private sector. In conclusion, two effective ways to
promote development and transfer of new technologies are
research coordination and the collection of site-specific de-
scriptive data.


MF $1.08/PC $2.60

Economic analysis within the farming system
research and technology development
methodology: an empirical application in
Central America
Escobar, German
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.365-384: charts, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Agricultural research at CATIE combines an FSR approach
with narrowly-focused technology development (TD), and is
complemented at every stage by economic analysis both to
assess farmers' own economic reasoning and to ensure that
new technologies will increase production while conforming to
area conditions and farmer objectives. A description of CATIE's
FSR/TD methodology highlights area selection and charac-
terization, on-farm experimental trials and supporting biological
research, and diffusion of research findings. Presented next is
a summary of CATIE's experience, from area selection to
validation, in developing a weed control and land preparation
technology for maize in Costa Rica's Atlantic Region. CATIE's
experience illustrates the role and contribution of economic
analysis within the FSR/TD methodology and demonstrates
that: (1) economic analysis is a continuous activity during the
research process, and the responsible team member will
integrate the research team from the beginning; (2) results of
economic analysis must be interpreted according to the agro-
nomic and biologic results; and (3) economic analysis must be
farm applied and very simple, as every member of the research
team will have to interpret the results.


MF $1.08/PC $5.07

Adding a food consumption perspective to
farming systems research
Frankenberger, Timothy R.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.518-556: En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Methods in which the food consumption concerns of small
farmers can be better integrated into each stage of FSR are
presented, emphasizing the importance of food consumption to

FSR Vol. I, 1906



agricultural production. Considered first are production and
consumption linkages of which FSR teams must be aware if
they are to understand how a proposed production recommen-
dation will affect household consumption seasonality of
production, crop mix and minor crops, income, the role of
women in production, crop labor requirements, and market
prices and their seasonality. Discussion is then given to data
collection measures which can be implemented at each stage
of the research process (target area selection, diagnostic
surveys, recommendation domain definition, on-farm research,
evaluation, and extension) to incorporate consumption per-
spectives into FSR, and the kinds of data that can be collected.
In conclusion, recent FSR projects which have attempted to
implement such procedures are identified.


MF $1.08/PC $3.51

Comparing the results of an informal survey
with those of a formal survey : a case study of
farming systems research / extension (FSR/E)
in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya
Franzel, Steven
Development Alternatives, Inc.
1984, 17p. + 2 appendices : statistical tables, En
Two types of surveys informal and formal used to collect
information for a Farming Systems Research and Extension
(FSR/E) program in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya, are compared for
their effectiveness and accuracy.
An overview describes how the FSR/E approach differs
from more conventional, market-oriented approaches because
it integrates the social, economic, and ecological aspects of
farming systems. The principal advantages of the informal
survey (e.g., its low cost, rapid turnaround, and emphasis on
researcher/farmer teamwork) are then discussed, as are its
biases (researcher-based sources of inaccuracies). The formal
and informal surveys conducted in Middle Kirinyaga are next
compared with regard to two criteria: (1) data collection, and (2)
proposed research programs based on the results of each
survey. It is concluded that informal surveys are both effective
and sufficient for learning about farming systems and planning
experimental FSR programs; in this case, the contributions of
the formal survey were marginal, relative to its costs.


MF $1.08/PC $5.07

The history of agricultural research in Senegal is summa-
rized to illustrate the evolution of the Francophone approach.
Key concepts in most Francophone systems, particularly the
central relationship between agricultural research and develop-
ment activities, are elucidated and Belgian contributions to the
study of farming systems outlined. Variations of the An-
glophone farming systems and cropping systems research are
then described.
Comparison of the two approaches reveals, inter alia, a
basic difference in scale and time frame: Francophone meth-
ods have historically been part of long-term development
efforts, while Anglophone research is primarily concerned with
adapting existing research to generate appropriate technology
for farmers.
Two tables and a list of 72 references (1930-84) in English,
French, and Dutch are provided.


MF $1.08/PC $2.86

Women and cassava production: an approach
to improving agricultural productivity in rural
Fresco, Louise
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization; U.N. Development
Nov 1982, 19p. : statistical table, En
Highlights are presented of two donor projects aimed at
promoting agricultural development in the Kwango-Kwilu
subregions of Zaire by helping women, the principal crop
producers, increase production of the principal food crop:
cassava. The report discusses the constraints to cassava
production in the two subregions (including the problem posed
by the absence of male labor from agriculture, especially from
cassava, which is considered a food and therefore a woman's
crop) and the effort made by the projects to help women
increase cassava production through new technologies and
new organizational forms. A final section discusses the need to
institutionalize specific interventions in regard to cultivation
techniques, afforestation, varietal multiplication, information
networking by women under direction of an animatrice, the
inclusion of more women in the government extension service,
working with non-governmental organizations, use of more
adequate tools and storage facilities, and a focusing of agricul-
tural research on women's work and small farming systems.

Comparing anglophone and francophone
approaches to farming systems research and
Fresco, Louise
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
Farming systems support project networking paper, no. 1, Oct
1984, 31p. : En
Two contrasting approaches to farming systems research
and extension the Francophone approach developed in the
former French-speaking colonies, especially in Africa, and the
Anglophone approach more recently evolved at international
agricultural research centers are compared in this study.


MF $1.08/PC $3.77

Classifying physical environments as a tool in
cropping systems research : upland rice in the
Garrity, Dennis
International Rice Research Institute; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
(IRRI Saturday Seminar, Los Banos, PH, 24 Jul 1976)
(Annual Meeting of the Crop Science Society of the
Philippines, 7th, Davao City, PH, 11 May 1976)
24 Jul 1976, 29p. : maps, statistical tables, En

FSR Vol. ll, 1986



Environmental factors greatly affect the development of
cropping patterns in the upland areas of the Philippines where
rainfed rice is the basic crop. This paper describes an environ-
mental classification system which can reveal predictive infor-
mation about the performance of a new cropping pattern. In
developing the system, researchers collected data on four
environmental determinants rainfall pattern, slope, soil tex-
ture, and soil order (in decreasing order of importance) in
sample upland municipalities and used the data to characterize
the environment at each site. The data were also used to
identify environmental complexes, that is, groups of environ-
mentally similar sites.


MF $1.08/PC $1.69

Determining superior cropping patterns for
small farms in a dryland rice environment:
test of a methodology
Garrity, Dennis P.; Harwood, Richard R.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
IRRI research paper series, no.33, 1979, 13p. : En
Also in: Agricultural systems, v.6(1980-81), p.269-283
Strategies for increasing farm productivity that focus on
introducing technical changes within a single-crop enterprise
are often rejected by farmers because of unforeseen negative
effects on productivity or resource utilization. Cropping systems
research approaches this problem by determining the effects of
potential technical changes on the entire system. This paper
discusses the methodology for cropping systems research for
dryland rice-based systems in the Philippines. Test patterns
are grown on a portion of each cooperating farm under joint
farmer-research team management. This methodology in-
volves the farmer actively in the research process, thus
facilitating early detection of some of the constraints to adop-
tion at the farm level. The potential for increased crop produc-
tivity was tested in the Batanga region where the predominant
cropping pattern involves dryland rice followed by field corn.
Alternative cropping was tested, including: following rice with
alternative field crops that may offer advantages over corn;
following rice with two crops to extend cropping further into the
dry season; and following rice with intercrop patterns to replace
monoculture corn. Alternative crops included soybean, peanut,
mung bean, and cowpea. After 3 years of testing, it was found
that adoption of an improved corn variety could increase
productivity in the dryland rice-corn system studied. Soybean
and sorghum appeared to be outstanding alternative crops.
However, because neither is currently grown in the area, their
adoption would represent a substantial change in the system.
New infrastructural support, markets, and threshers would be
required. Intercropping of corn shows the potential of substan-
tially raising land productivity, but lack of labor appears to be a
potential constraint. Cropping patterns with three crops per
year were shown to be feasible and profitable.


MF $1.08/PC $2.06

Rapid rural appraisal : an overview of
concepts and application
Gibbs, Christopher J.N.
(International Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal, Khon
Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep 1985)
1985, 16p. : En
Based on a review of select items of a growing body of
literature, this paper presents an overview of Rapid Rural
Appraisal (RRA). Initial sections describe RRA's context and
unique methodological features and review RRA applications in
agriculture, rural development, nutrition, agroforestry, and in
special areas such as women in development A final section
discusses the concerns raised by the fact that RRA- (1)
challenges conventional views; (2) has virtues each of which is
a potential pitfall; (3) must be institutionalized within a develop-
ment organization to be successful; (4) may cause unrealistic
expectations due to its popularity; (5) may be used at times
when another methodology is more appropriate; and (6) may
depend too heavily on indicators which do not adequately
represent the phenomenon under study. A concluding section
suggests that despite its problems and modest beginnings
(RRA developed because it requires fewer resources than
other methods), RRA provides highly distinctive information in a
timely and economical manner. A four-page bibliography
(1979-85) is appended.


MF $1.08/PC $1.95

Semi-structured interviewing
Grandstaff, Somluckrat W.; Grandstaff, Terry B.
(International Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal, Khon
Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep 1985)
Sep 1985, 15p. : En
The semi-structured interview, the technique used in con-
ducting flexible and informal Rapid Rural Appraisals (RRA's), is
described. The semi-structured interview uses general ques-
tions which are revised as the interviews proceed. To ensure
overall reliability, the interviews are conducted from at least
three disciplinary perspectives and findings are combined with
those of at least two other data collection methods (triangula-
tion). A successful interview requires organization of the re-
search team (a limit of four is urged); the establishment of
protocols for team member behavior, e.g., no one should
interrupt anyone else; and careful choice of whom to interview,
the interview site, and of whether to interview groups or
individuals. A good interviewer is one who: (1) discouages
outsiders (closes the group); (2) follows social mores; (3)
controls the direction of the conversation; (4) can read between
the lines of interviewee responses; (4) probes for more detail;
and (5) avoids leading questions. The report concludes by
suggesting that preliminary reports be made from field notes as
soon as possible after the interview in order to avoid any loss or
distortion of facts.

FSR VoL 11, 1996





MF $1.08/PC $1.04

Energy flows on smallholder farms in the
Ethiopian highlands
Gryseels, Guido; Goe, Michael R.
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
ILCA bulletin, no.17, Jan 1984, p.2-9 : ill., map, statistical
tables, En
Energy flows on smallholder farms in two areas of the
Ethiopian highlands are studied in this paper. The overall
farming system and the resource base (especially human labor
and animal traction) in these areas are described and an outline
is given of how these resources are used. The use of energy in
the household system is then discussed and the prospects for
improvements in energy use in both farm and household
systems are assessed. The authors conclude that any major
improvements in present energy use will have to rely on
technologies which are simple, effective, and easily imple-
mented and maintained. Energy problems must be seen in the
wider perspective of agricultural and ecological development.
Changes in the overall energy use on smallholder farms will be
slow unless a proper infrastructure and adequate extension
and technical support services are established. (Author ab-
stract, revised)


MF $2.16/PC $14.17

tions, and soil management practices. A final section discusses
the implications of these findings for future phosphorus fertilizer
research on upland rice.


MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Crop / livestock interactions as : crop
production determinants
Hart, Robert
Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science
(Symposium; Agricultural Policy and Small Farm Sector,
AAAS Annual Meeting, New York, NY, US, 24-29 May
Cornell international agriculture mimeograph, no.107, May
1985, p.1-12 : charts, En
The effects of livestock on crop production and key types of
crop/livestock interactions are discussed. Emphasis is on the
small mixed farms (crop and livestock enterprises) in the Third
World developing tropics, currently a critical concern of agricul-
tural researchers. Presented first is a conceptual framework
based on General Systems Theory which can be used to
organize the complex environment in which crops are produced
into a set of hierarchical systems. Crop/livestock interactions
at the ecosystem, farm, and community levels of the systems
hierarchy that forms the crop environment are described, with
case studies from Kenya, Costa Rica, and Peru used to
illustrate crop/livestock interactions at the different hierarchical
levels. The role of crop/livestock interactions in the design of
appropriate research strategies is briefly discussed.

Social relations of land and fertilizer use and
frontier integration : upland rice in the Llanos
Orientales of Colombia
Hansen, Elizabeth D.R.
International Center for Tropical Agriculture; International
Fertilizer Development Center; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
Dec 1983, iii, 105p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En
Farmers' socioeconomic status can affect their ability to
adopt new agricultural practices and inputs. This report dis-
cusses the land management and fertilizer practices of upland
rice farmers in the Meta Piedmont of Colombia's Llanos Orien-
tales region and suggests that researchers consider socioeco-
nomic differences when designing new agricultural technolo-
To develop a broad social framework for research into rice
and phosphorus fertilizers, the report first discusses the impor-
tance of rice as a crop in Latin America and the social dynamic
by which frontier lands are integrated into commercial agricul-
tural production. Next, field sites and research methodologies
are described in detail, followed by a brief social history of rice
farming in the Meta Piedmont which places in context the data
on farmer types, land management, and fertilizer use. The field
research showed that Meta upland rice production was fully
integrated with national commercial agricultural institutions,
including agricultural research and technology delivery sys-
tems. However, within the domain of commercial agriculture,
class differences as indicated by area of rice planted exist
regarding access to appropriate upland rice soils, tenure rela-


MF $1.08/PC $1.04

Bean, corn and manioc polyculture cropping
system : I. the effect of interspecific
competition on crop yield
Hart, Robert D.
Turrialba, v.25(3), 1975, p.294-301 : charts, statistical tables,
Beans, corn, and manioc were planted separately in 3
monoculture cropping systems, and together in 3 polyculture
cropping systems. The polycultures consisted of: (1) a succes-
sion polyculture in which beans, corn, and manioc were planted
at the same time and harvested after 9, 18, and 36 weeks
respectively; (2) a reverse polyculture in which manioc was
planted alone and then interplanted with corn after 18 weeks
and beans after 27 weeks, and all crops harvested after 36
weeks; and (3) an intensive polyculture in which 4 bean crops, 2
corn crops, and 1 manioc crop were all interplanted during a 36
week period. Four treatments consisting of the factorial product
of 2 fertilizer treatments and 2 weeding treatments were
applied to the 3 monocultures and 3 polycultures and to a
natural vegetation cropping system which consisted of invading
weeds. The effect of fertilizer and weeding treatments on the
yield of beans, corn, and manioc was not the same in the
monoculture and polyculture cropping systems. Interspecies
competition in the succession polyculture resulted in a dynamic
interaction between bean and corn yield. When fertilizer was
applied to the polyculture, corn yield increased and bean yield
decreased. (Author abstract, modified)

FSR Vol. III, 1986


041 PN-AAT-786
MF $1.08/PC $1.04
Bean, corn and manioc polyculture cropping
system : II. a comparison between the yield
and economic return from monoculture and
polyculture cropping systems
Hart, Robert D.
Turrialba, v.25(4), 1975, p.377-384 : charts, statistical tables,
An experiment in which beans, corn, and manioc were
planted in monoculture and polyculture cropping systems was
described previously in Part I of this report (See PN-AAT-785).
The results from the experiment are used here to compare the
yield and economic return from three monocultures, in which
each crop was planted separately, and three polycultures, in
which the crops were interplanted. It was found that yield and
economic return from the polycultures were significantly higher
than from the monocultures. The net economic return from the
succession polyculture, which had been designed as an analog
to leaf, stem, and root biomass compartmentalization during
natural succession, was higher than from the two other polycul-
tures. When the succession polyculture was evaluated by
comparing it with a hypothetical monoculture rotation cropping
system using the same three crops, the yield and net economic
return were 37% and 54% higher, respectively, from the
succession polyculture than from the monoculture rotation
cropping system. (Author abstract, modified)

trials should be tested on several production units so as to
verify their impact on the system and develop an appropriate
technology. (Author abstract, modified)

043 PN-AAT-642
MF $2.16/PC $22.36
On-farm agronomic trials in farming systems
research and extension
Hildebrand, Peter E.; Poey, Federico
1985, xvi, 162p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Practical guidelines for the design and analysis of on-farm
agronomic experiments or field trials are presented in this book,
which was developed from a workshop given in San Jose,
Costa Rica, in September 1982. An introductory section de-
scribes the farming systems research and extension (FSR/E)
approach to technology development and outlines the objec-
tives of on-farm research as well as the different types of on-
farm trials (exploratory, site-specific, regional, and farmer-
managed) employed therein. Subsequent chapters present, in
simple, easy to follow steps, the statistical procedures most
often used in conducting these four types of trials, which
perforce lack the controlled conditions found at experimental
stations; included are new ideas and methods for analyzing the
data obtained. A final chapter addresses problems and prac-
tices in organizing and managing FSR/E programs.


MF $1.08/PC $2.47

Vegetations et les resources fourrageres dans
les systems pastoraux (Vegetation and
fodder resources in pastoral systems)
Hiernaux, Pierre
1983, p.113-131 : charts, statistical tables, Fr
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
International Livestock Centre for Africa
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
A three-phase plan for studying vegetation and feed re-
sources in pastoral systems, aimed at identifying the nutritional
constraints to livestock production, is presented. The sug-
gested plan uses environmental data to quantify and analyze
the production of forage resources.
First, the descriptive phase uses sampling methodology to
collect data on the environmental parameters in which pastoral
systems evolve; surveys of the vegetation (herbaceous and
ligneous associations, floristic composition, and above-ground
biomass) and other ecological variables (e.g., climatic and
edaphic characteristics, geomorphology, topography, soil pro-
file, and land use) are taken to stratify the environment and the
forage production within each strata. Next, in the diagnostic
phase, field measurements (either destructive or non-destruc-
tive) are taken of vegetable biomass to identify inadequate feed
resources that constrain animal nutrition and to propose techni-
cal solutions or lines of research to address those constraints.
Finally, in the experimental phase, the impact of a single
variable within a pastoral system or of a single technical
innovation on the functioning of that system is analyzed so that
an adapted technology can be devised. The results of these


MF $1.08/PC $.78

Need for long term cropping systems
Hoque, M. Zahidul; Pendleton, John W.; Kim, S.C.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 11th, ID, 18-22
May 1981)
1981, p.327-331 : En
Eleventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Crop intensification may be necessary to the survival of
subsistence farmers in Asia. Because the validity of intensive
multiple cropping systems (i.e., effects on the soil, labor utiliza-
tion) is still being questioned, the authors of this report suggest
that long-term trials be designed and implemented before the
farmers' situation worsens. The objectives of long-term trials
include identifying soil and crop management methods which
can be used to ensure high crop yields while protecting the
environment and developing a data base for future guidance
and research programs. A list of recommendations for planning
and implementing long-term cropping systems trials is pro-
vided; these include, inter alia, conducting the trials on experi-
ment stations rather than in farmers' fields, focusing the
purpose of the trials on the generation of component technolo-
gy over time, and using a multidisciplinary approach. Attention
is briefly given to the types of experiments to be conducted,
experimental design, and the types of data which should be
collected and analyzed. An implementation plan for the pro-
posed program is suggested.

FSR VoL Is, 19M6


MF $1.08/PC $1.82


MF $1.08/PC $2.47

Potato farming in the Andes : some lessons
from on-farm research in Peru's Mantaro
Horton, Douglas
Agricultural systems, v.12, 1983, p.171-184 : chart, map,
statistical tables, En
Development programs generally assume that agricultural
researchers and extensionists are sufficiently knowledgeable
about local farming systems and technological alternatives to
formulate sound recommendations for farmers. The results of
farming systems research conducted on agronomic constraints
to potato production in highland Peru disprove this assumption:
use of the technology recommended most highly (improved
seed) reduced farmers' net returns, while another technology
considered less important (improved pest control) was found to
be highly profitable. The interdisciplinary approach used in this
research which involves surveys, observations, and farm-
level experimentation and which could help identify key prob-
lems and pre-screen potential solutions in a variety of agricul-
tural development programs is presented, along with re-
search findings. Included are 6 tables and 16 references
(1977-83). (Author abstract, modified)

Testing of technology with small farmers in
Jinotega, Nicaragua
Icaza G., J.; Lagemann, J.
Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center. Dept. of
Crop Production
1982, 18p. : statistical tables, En
Bibliography: p. 18
Two innovative technologies, one for maize production and
one for maize-bean production, were evaluated in farmer-
managed trials in three areas in Jinotega, Nicaragua.
Preliminary results, based on agronomic and economic
analyses during one planting season, indicate that the recom-
mended maize-bean technology is superior to farmers' tradi-
tional technology (except perhaps in the Suni area, where
onions as a cash crop produce a higher marginal cost-benefit
ratio); the opinions of participating farmers confirmed these
findings. The maize technology, on the other hand, is not yet
ready for diffusion as the variety used is not adapted to humid
areas. The testing approach which emphasized farmer par-
ticipation in design, execution, and evaluation was very
successful and strengthened communications among farmers,
extensionists, and researchers.

MF $1.08/PC $3.38


MF $1.08/PC $2.34

Subregional issues in the implementation of
farming systems research and extension
methodology: a case study in Zambia
Hudgens, R.E.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.51-76: maps, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Various practical issues have arisen in the implementation
of farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) in the
Central Province of Zambia since Zambia formally established
an FSR/E structure in 1980. This networking report highlights
some of these issues and how they were addressed. Following
a brief discussion of FSR/E background and institutional
framework, particularly in the Central Province, twelve proce-
dural issues confronted by FSR/E in that region are presented
under three general headings: (1) zoning and stratification; (2)
technology development and testing; and (3) communication
and people management. The FSR/E effort has been quite
successful in addressing the research/extension linkage,
developing short-and long-term research strategies, and
cooperating with other regional development institutions. Prob-
lems remain, however, in several areas: stratification of the
target group within recommendation domains, multidisciplinary
understanding among FSR/E and commodity researchers, and
monitoring rapid farming system changes.

ILCA bulletin: Animal traction in sub-Saharan
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
no.14, Dec 1981, 18p. : charts, statistical tables, En
In sub-Saharan Africa, where agriculture is still about 90%
dependent on manual labor, it appears that increased use of
animal power can make a substantial contribution, at low cost,
to agricultural development. Animal traction has developed
appreciably in some areas notably Mali, Senegal, and more
recently Burkina Faso; bioclimatic, traditional, and historical
factors have been most important in determining the use of
animal traction within limits set by the nature and availability of
cattle in the region, poor adaptation of animal traction equip-
ment to farmers' needs, heavy feed requirements, traditional
farmer attitudes about livestock, and financial considerations.
Review of development experience with animal traction shows
that impacts on labor productivity have been uneven (depend-
ing in part on the distribution of area cultivated to subsistence
and cash crops) and farm income has not in all cases been
increased, as farmers only know how to take real advantage of
implements which relieve their major cultivation problems.
Even in ecologically suitable areas with sufficient animals, the
transformation of traditional farming systems through animal
traction will be a long and arduous process involving profound
change in farmers' attitudes. A list of 29 references (1965-
1981) is provided.

FSR Vol. III, 1986







MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Sociological and anthropological aspects in
preproduction testing and production
programmes involving upland rice
Jiggins, Janice; Fresco, Louise
(Upland Rice Conference, Djakarta, ID, Mar 1985)
Dec 1984, 14p. : En
IRRI : proceedings of the Upland rice conference, Djakarta,
March, 1985
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
The use of sociological and anthropological factors in the
FSR approach to technology generation, as exemplified in
upland rice research, is contrasted with the technology genera-
tion process practiced by international agricultural research
centers (IARC's).
Whereas IARC researchers analyze potential technologies
in detail and apart from users, FSR increases the odds of
finding truly useful technologies by using small, flexible staffs to
conduct frequent tests of many possible technologies with
homogeneous groups of users (recommendation domains).
The practice of FSR in upland rice research includes: (1)
analyzing the socioeconomic variables of resource access,
availability, distribution, and exchange in relation to time and
space as a means of developing suitable diagnostic and
breeding criteria matrices; (2) ensuring that tests are represen-
tative, replicated, and take place in low input environments; (3)
accepting limited results; and (4) using FSR to test not only new
technologies, but also the limits to technology generation
inherent in the behaviors of IARC's and national research
systems. If the latter abandoned their institutional isolation,
they could actually assist FSR by serving as objective inter-
mediaries between FSR staff and farmers.


MF $1.08/PC $2.73

Relationship between systems research and
technical component research within national
research organizations: experiences from
Kean, S.A.
Adaptive Research Planning Team; Zambia. Dept. of
1985, 21p. : En
Although institutionalizing FSR into the technical research
being conducted by national research organizations is impor-
tant for generating and diffusing appropriate technology to
farmers, relationships between FSR and technical research
have encountered a variety of problems. This report outlines
general reasons for the poor interaction (e.g., insufficient
attention to its importance and incorrect donor attitudes toward
FSR as a replacement for technical research) and exemplifies
these reasons in a case study of the Government of Zambia's
efforts to coordinate activities between FSR-related Adaptive
Research Planning Teams (ARPT's) and Department of Agri-
culture Commodity and Specialist Research Teams (CSRT's).
After examining why only a modest level of cooperation be-
tween the two was achieved, suggestions are made for improv-

ing the ARPT-CSRT relationship. It is concluded that as the
need for cooperation is recognized, greater efforts on both
sides will result in a successful working relationship.

051 PN-AAT-829
MF $1.08/PC $7.02
Farm level testing of cropping systems : an
economic analysis of the multiple cropping
project experience
Kellogg, Earl D.
Chiang Mai University. Faculty of Agriculture
Agricultural economics research report / Multiple Cropping
Project, no.2, 1978, 34p. + attachments : charts,
statistical tables, En
Results are presented of an economic analysis of eight rice-
based multiple cropping systems field tested in Northern Thai-
land by Chiang Mai University (CMU). Criteria used included
profitability (net returns calculated twice, by including all costs
except land and then by including all costs except labor and
land), input use (evaluated by cash costs and labor use
criteria), and risk factors (calculated by the standard deviation
of net returns, the coefficient of the variation of net returns, and
the observed probability of not covering labor, supply, and
equipment costs). Time series data, which allow researchers to
observe the influence of weather and yearly price changes on
net income variation, were also collected, but their validity was
seriously questioned; there is need for further work in this area.
Results are given first by individual crops included in the
CMU program; the outcomes of CMU-supervised participants
are compared, where possible, to results achieved by no-
project farmers who grew the same crops and also kept
financial records to use as a basis for comparison. Next, the
systems used by participants are compared to traditional
systems. Stress is laid on the importance to CMU's research
program of farmer management of the systems. Study statisti-
cal data are presented in 5 tables and 30 charts.

052 PN-AAT-790
MF $1.08/PC $1.04
Rapid labour data collection for secondary
crops : cocoyam and soybean farming
systems in Nigeria
Knipscheer, Hendrik C.
Public administration and development, v.2, 1982, p.265-272:
chart, statistical tables, En
The great challenge to effective FSR is to find methods of
systems appraisal that maximize the use of existing information
while maintaining a certain measure of accuracy (i.e., rapid rural
appraisal). This report presents and exemplifies a comparative
method which combines literature study and field survey for
collecting data on labor use for secondary crops. In the
comparative method, farmers compare foodcrops for which
labor use data are known (via desk research on labor use in the
ecological area in which the FSR effort is being conducted) with
crops for which the labor requirement is unknown. The labor
use of the unknown crops can be derived from the farmers'
rankings. In two case studies in Nigeria, one for cocoyam and
one for soybeans, absolute labor data derived in this manner
corresponded with relative labor data provided by the farmers

FSR Vol I11 19We


themselves. The comparative method, therefore, seems to be
a quick but reliable method by which generally applicable labor
use data can be obtained. (Author abstract, modified)


MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Livestock production in Central Mali: the
'mouton de case' system of smallholder sheep
Kolff, H.E.; Wilson, R.T.
Agricultural systems, v.16, 1985, p.217-230 : chart, statistical
tables, En
The Mouton de Case is a small-scale, stall-fed system of
sheep fattening in West Africa. Most fattened animals are
males, kept for slaughter at the annual Moslem Feast of the
Sacrifice (tabaski), during which 25% of local sheep are
butchered. In an intensive study of Mouton de Case in two
agropastoral subsystems in five villages of Central Mali, more
stall-fed sheep were fed on irrigated rice (39%) than on rain-
fed millet (24%), both supplemented mainly by cut grass, tree
leaves, and some agricultural byproducts. In both systems,
each farmer fattened approximately two animals. Average daily
gain of the Mouton de Case sheep was 117g, almost twice that
of field-raised animals (60g).
Advantages of the Mouton de Case system include in-
creased dietary animal protein, supplementary income, and the
satisfaction of social and religious values. When owned by
women, the fattened sheep contributed to their independence
and social position within the household. Main constraints to
expanding the system appear to be low cash availability, the
drain on labor if large numbers are kept, and the lack of feed in
the dry season if millet is used for fattening. (Author abstract,


MF $1.08/PC $10.27

Diagnostico del Callejon de Huaylas, Peru :
uso racional de laderas (Diagnosis of Callejon
de Huaylas, Peru : rational use of slopes)
Lamenca, Mario Blasco; Gil, Hernan Chaverra; Reinoso,
Jorge Reinoso
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
Publicacion miscelanea / Instituto Interamericano de
Cooperacion para la Agricultura, no.480, 1984, 82p. : ill.,
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
The region of Callej6n de Huaylas, Peru, on the slopes of
the Santa River, suffers from low agricultural productivity,
constant soil erosion, and inappropriate use of available water.
This report describes the Project for Agrarian Region IV,
implemented by the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation on
Agriculture and the Sim6n Bolivar Fund, to reclaim the region's
natural resources and improve agricultural productivity by intro-
ducing soil conservation and contour cultivation techniques.
The project's background is first described, followed by an
outline of the work plan which consists of identifying, charac-
terizing, and analyzing farmers' production systems; establish-
ing communication among the agencies involved in the project;
and developing two subprojects one for research into

technologies for rational soil and water management and
elimination of agricultural production constraints, and the other
to transfer technology to farmers via technical assistance,
demonstrations, and training. Next, detailed analyses of the
area's physical and socioeconomic characteristics, agricultural
production factors, and local cooperatives and production
systems are presented. A 55-item bibliography is included.


MF $1.08/PC $1.43

Conducting on farm research in FSR :
making a good idea work
Lightfoot, Clive; Barker, Randolph
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.445-455 : En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
To increase the adoption of agricultural technologies devel-
oped through FSR, this report suggests a 3-part methodology
incorporating on-farm research and farmer participation. The
first step is to diagnose the existing farming system and its
production constraints by combining a quick interdisciplinary
team survey (the sondeo) with detailed monitoring and meas-
urement in specific problem areas that offer potential for
research. The second phase is to select and design innova-
tions for on-farm investigation using a five-step process in
which farmers and researchers prioritize technical options in
terms of their political impact, potential for adoption, and
research costs. The final step is to have farmers conduct on-
farm trials of the innovations (each field trial should include 20-
30 farmers) while researchers focus on collection and analysis
of data; development of site team research capabilities is a
related task. In conclusion, farmer participation in FSR, espe-
cially in the early phases, is critical to the adoption of new


MF $1.08/PC $3.90

Conceptual tools for RRA in agrarian society
Limpinuntana, Viriya
(Rapid Rural Appraisal Conference, Khon Kaen, TH, 2-5 Sep
Sep 1985, 30p. : charts, statistical tables, En
The interview tools employed in Rapid Rural Appraisal
(RRA) allow multidisciplinary teams of researchers to obtain
both agronomic and socioeconomic information. This paper
presents methods developed at Khon Kaen University (Thai-
land) to generate on-the-spot questions during the interview
and allow researchers to probe for more immediate and de-
tailed information.
Conceptual tools discussed include subtopics or checklists,
secondary and pre-existing information (gathered from formal

FSR Vol. III, 1986


reports, government statistics, and/or maps and aerial photo-
graphs), on-the-spot mapping, calendars of agricultural activi-
ties, labor schedules, activity sequences, logic and decision
trees, the six helpers (who, when, what, where, why, how), and
local terms and folk taxonomy. Examples of each tool are
given, as are the strong and weak points of tool development
and use. The importance of individual tools depends on the
nature of the RRA research topic and its objectives as well as
the experience of the RRA team members. While the tools
presented in this paper deal mostly with agricultural subject
matter, the interdisciplinary approach reveals much about what
is important to farmers; for this reason, the tools are potentially
useful for all RRA's in rural areas, not just agricultural ones.


MF $1.08/PC $7.15

Technical potential for increased food
production in the West African semi-arid
Matlon, Peter J.
University of Zimbabwe; International Food Policy Research
Institute; U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Conference on Accelerating Agricultural Growth in Sub-
Saharan Africa, Victoria Falls, ZW, 29 Aug 1 Sep 1983)
1983, 54p. : statistical tables, En
References: p.48-54
Innovative technologies designed to increase food produc-
tion in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics (WASAT) are
examined in this report. Part I describes WASAT's physical
resource base and traditional farming systems, as well as
related demographic and social changes. Innovative produc-
tion technologies in five areas irrigation, other land/water
management, mechanization, crop improvement, and soil fertil-
ity management are assessed in Part II. A summary Part III
notes that expanding population in the WASAT is leading to
stagnant food crop yields and a steady decline in the region's
natural agricultural potential and recommends that in the future
research should: (1) balance the objectives of immediate
production gains and resource base conservation; (2) develop
technology packages flexible enough to be used under varying
economic and environmental conditions, while ensuring that
the individual components are profitable when used in isolation;
(3) recognize a more disaggregated set of recommendation
domains based on regional and farm-type criteria; and (4)
undertake more off-station research using well placed re-
searcher-managed and farmer-managed tests aimed at identi-
fying the key factors causing difference between station and
on-farm yields.

058 PN-AAT-645
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Farming systems research : hitting a moving
Maxwell, Simon
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
199, Nov 1984, p.1-25: charts, En

Although targeting is a key element of FSR, neither its
methods nor its procedures take sufficient account of the fact
that farming systems are in constant flux. This paper proposes
a systematic framework for determining the effects of these
changes on a farming system: (1) the identification of physical,
biological, and endogenous and exogenous socioeconomic
determinants of a farming system; (2) determining the nature
and sources of change; and (3) measuring the impact of these
change processes on the resources, activities, and outputs of
the farming system. Recommendations are presented for incor-
porating awareness of farming system dynamics into FSR data
collection, classification procedures, diagnosis, recommenda-
tions, and monitoring and evaluation. Included is a 4-page list
of references (1976-84).


MF $1.08/PC $4.55

Health, nutrition and agriculture : linkages in
farming systems research
Maxwell, Simon
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
198, Nov 1984, p.32-64: statistical tables, En
The high degree of interdependence between health/nutri-
tion and agriculture, which has significant implications for the
content of FSR programs, is addressed in this study. First, a
conceptual framework is presented for analyzing the linkages
between health/nutrition and agriculture at the level of the
farming household. The next section addresses priorities for
data requirements (health and nutrition effects on agriculture,
agricultural effects on health and nutrition) and data collection
by describing a hierarchy of research methods commonly used
in FSR and well-suited to a step-by-step analysis of interde-
pendence. A discussion is then presented of the potential for
improving the five-step FSR procedure (classification, diagno-
sis, generation of recommendations, implementation, evalua-
tion) by incorporating the health and nutrition linkages. A case
study of colonist farmers in Bolivia illustrates both the above
and the author's conclusion that only through the use of
multidisciplinary and holistic research programs, such as FSR,
can linkages successfully be explored.


MF $1.08/PC $3.64

Role of case studies in farming systems
Maxwell, Simon
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
198, Nov 1984, p.1-31: statistical tables, En
The case study method is examined as a useful and cost-
effective addition to the range of research tools used in
multidisciplinary FSR. The author argues that on-farm case
studies: (1) allow indepth, detailed analysis of information that
would be hard to obtain by other means; (2) present an
opportunity for close collaboration among social scientists,
natural scientists, and farmers; (3) often provide the optimal
combination of time, cost, accuracy, and coverage charac-
teristics; and (4) fit properly into a sequence of investigations
designed to improve classification, diagnosis, and the design of

FSR VoL II, 19s


recommendations. Discussed are practical problems of the
case study method, including the importance of farm selection
and representativeness; decisions regarding data requirements
and methods of data collection; three issues associated with
the analysis and reporting of data (data will be both formal and
informal, a case study program generates useful ideas quickly,
and research findings must be integrated to make analysis truly
interdisciplinary); and the inevitable generation of issues for
further research and the need for follow-up. These practical
problems are then addressed in an account of a case study
program involving six farms in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. A 36-item
bibliography (1965-84) is included.



MF $1.08/PC $3.51
The social scientist in farming systems
Maxwell, Simon
University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies
Discussion paper / Institute of Development Studies, no.DP
199, Nov 1984, p.26-47: charts, En
The experiences of George, a composite agricultural econo-
mist, are used to illustrate the different problems which social
scientists face within the highly constrained environment of
FSR. Five potential sources for these conflicts are identified
and discussed personal inadequacies, interdisciplinary com-
munication barriers, poor group dynamics, an inadequate or-
ganizational structure, and a struggle for power. Lessons for
social scientists, their FSR colleagues, and higher level pol-
icymakers are drawn. Conflicts, it is concluded, are inherent in
multidisciplinary research and should be taken into account in
the planning process.

062 PN-AAU-081
MF $1.08/PC $1.69
Cropping systems to preserve fertility of red -
yellow podzolic soils in Indonesia
Mclntosh, J.L.; Ismail, Inu Gandana; et al.
Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Tropical Agriculture Research Center
Tropical agriculture research series, no.15, Mar 1982, p.297-
308: chart, statistical tables, En
Research conducted by Indonesia's Central Research In-
stitute for Agriculture, the Soil Research Institute, and A.I.D.'s
Benchmark Soils Project to determine the fertility of In-
donesia's red-yellow podzolic soils is reviewed. Initially, re-
search focused on the effects of fertilizer, lime, and crop
residues on crops grown in traditional mixed cropping and
monoculture systems; it was later expanded to three new sites,
where different cropping patterns were compared for productiv-
ity and acceptability to farmers; introduced and traditional
patterns were compared wherever possible. The research
established the production potential of red-yellow podzolics
under proper management. More specific conclusions are
included, as are a brief description of methods of land prepara-
tion, planting, fertilizing, weeding, and pest management and
nine illustrative tables.


MF $1.08/PC $8.19

Cropping systems and soil classification for
agrotechnology development and transfer
Mclntosh, Jerry L.
Central Research Institute for Agriculture. Cropping Systems
Research Program
Jun 1980, 64p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
References: p.63-64
The development of a cropping systems research program
through its various stages identification of research needs,
site selection, cropping pattern design and testing, pilot produc-
tion, and implementation through government-sponsored pro-
duction programs is described, and Indonesia's national
cropping systems program is introduced in this context. The
monograph then asks how or to what extent cropping systems
technology can be transferred between target areas in which
the biological and sociological determinants differ, and, to
illustrate, uses the results of trials to transfer agrotechnologies
between the Indramayu (West Java) and Bandarjaya (Central
Lampung) research sites in Indonesia. Descriptive data for the
sites and comparative data on farmers' yields and economic
returns from various cropping patterns are described and
presented in tables. Description and data for a successful
transfer of technology for gogo rancah seeding of rice on
aerobic soil that will be flooded later from West Java to
Central Lampung follow. References (1949-79) are provided.


MF $1.08/PC $7.02

Institutionalizing FSR/E : the Indonesian
Mclntosh, Jerry L.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.135-188: charts, map, statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
The development in Indonesia of cropping systems re-
search (CSR) and FSR from on-station multiple cropping
experiments in 1970 to an interdisciplinary, systems-oriented
program currently underway at many sites by the Central
Research Institute for Food Crops and its six semi-autonomous
research entities is described. The first half of the report
documents changes in research focus within this context of
increased organizational complexity from production-orient-
ed research on lowland areas in Java and rainfed upland
transmigration areas in South Sumatra to the current crop/live-
stock and upper river watersheds research. A second section
discusses future research plans. CSR will focus on varietal
improvement, soil conservation and fertility, pest management,
and farm implements to increase farm income, promote uni-
form systems trials, and improve the transfer of technology.
FSR will focus on tidal swamp, Palawija crop, upland rainfed
drought-prone areas and on humid, lowland rice, and upper

FSR Vol. III, 1986




river watershed areas. This research will employ the method
used in recent CSR and will emphasize ex ante analysis of
farming systems, field laboratory work, on-site farming systems
research, the development of communication linkages, and
related technology transfer. Organizational arrangements for
both CSR and FSR are discussed. Extensive tables and figures
are appended.


MF $1.08/PC $1.30

simplified farmer's pattern with crops randomly planted; (2) an
intercropping pattern with the crops in rows but with the same
kinds and proportions of crops; and (3) a sequence of crops
growing alone. Results are analyzed in terms of calories
produced and short-and long-term soil fertility. Implications are
that: intercropping is necessary to protect the soil (rice is a
good crop for this purpose); applications of fertilizer and lime
will increase crop yields and residue protection; and the specif-
ic management practices suggested in this report can increase
the productivity of tropical upland soils.

Relationship of the benchmark soils project to
the farming systems approach
Mclntosh, Jerry L.
Research extension series / University of Hawaii. College of
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, no.026, Mar
1984, p.97-105 : charts, En
Multidisciplinary approach to agrotechnology transfer:
proceedings of a benchmark soils project / Hawaii
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Uehara, Goro
University of Hawaii at Manoa. College of Tropical Agriculture
and Human Resources
The application of the technology transfer concepts of
A.I.D.'s Benchmark Soils Project to farming systems research
could save two to three years of research time and facilitate the
transfer of appropriate crop or soil management technologies.
In this paper, a case study of cropping patterns research in
Indramayu, West Java, is used to illustrate three distinct stages
in technology transfer: (1) technology transfer in; (2) technolo-
gy testing and development in the target area; and (3) imple-
mentation and technology transfer out. The use of soil taxono-
my in obtaining adequate site description is highlighted. Six
diagrams and tables define the technology transfer process
and the Indramayu target area.


MF $1.08/PC $1.30

Soil fertility implications of cropping patterns
and practices for cassava
Mclntosh, Jerry L.; Effendi, Suryatna
1978, p.77-85 : statistical tables, En IDRC-142e
Intercropping with cassava : proceedings of an international
workshop held at Trivandrum, India, 27 Nov 1 Dec 1978
Weber, Edward; Nestel, Barry; Campbell, Marilyn
International Development Research Centre
Cassava is a highly desirable choice for intercropping be-
cause it provides both food and economic stability, although,
like any high-yielding crop, it does impoverish the soil. This
report discusses cassava's potential for providing agronomic
stability over time by examining management schemes that will
promote cassava production but conserve the soil.
Following a description of exploitative cropping systems
(continuous cassava, subsistence agriculture) and systematic
crop management (stable farmers' pattern, improved stable
patterns), the report describes field studies conducted in In-
donesia to evaluate the productive capacity of tropical upland
soils when cassava is one crop in the cropping pattern. The
field studies used eight different soil fertility and management
practices superimposed over three cropping patterns: (1) a



MF $1.08/PC $4.81

Farming systems approach to research in
theory and practice
Norman, D.; Collinson, M.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
14 Apr 1985, 37p.: charts, En
Experience in Southern and Eastern Africa provides the
background for this review of FSR theory and practice. The
bulk of the report is devoted to a description and analysis of the
four stages of the FSR process: (1) diagnosis of the local
farming situation and establishment of recommendation do-
mains (homogenous target groups of farmers) on the basis of
broadly defined farming systems; (2) technology design (issues
treated include leverage in the farming system, the use of non-
experimental vs. experimental variables, focusing research on
destroying a production constraint or exploiting farming system
flexibility, and single trait vs. package technologies); (3) evalua-
tion of the technology through researcher managed/farmer
implemented tests and farmer managed and implemented
tests; and (4) wide-scale diffusion of the tested technology
through extension activities, usually organized under the Minis-
try of Agriculture. A practical strategy for overcoming bureau-
cratic constraints to the extension effort is outlined. The report
concludes by urging that FSR be conducted principally by
regionally-oriented rather than commodity-oriented teams
(while accepting interface between the two) and by suggesting
the usefulness of offering career incentives to extension staff
for conducting field research. Annexed are brief profiles of FSR
in Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia.


MF $1.08/PC $2.99

Smallholder cropping system of southeastern
Nigeria : a diagnostic study
Nweke, Felix I.
Agricultural systems, v.7, 1981, p.267-288 : charts, statistical
tables, En
Interviews with a total of 40 farmers and their families in two
villages are the basis of this diagnosis of the features and
farming systems research priorities of smallholder cropping
systems in southeastern Nigeria. Although smallholders and
their wives supplement income through off-farm employment,
cash problems keep them from hiring labor or purchasing
planting materials in the amounts needed. Further constraints
to production are uneven product demand, the use of semi-
primitive hand tools, and the practice, made possible by the
abundance of farm land, of letting land lie fallow for long
periods to protect soil from erosion. Smallholders consider yam

FSF VoL 111, 196


(Dioscorea sp.) their most prestigious, though not most
nutrititous, crop. But because yam production is intensive both
in labor and planting materials, farmers also grow various
mixtures of rice, maize, and vegetables as insurance against a
failed yam harvest. Albeit reluctantly, they would welcome
prescriptive research to develop technologies that could lower
their yam planting and production costs, reduce their demand
for farm labor, extend planting dates, and free them for more
off-farm employment.


MF $1.08/PC $1.82

Crop animal systems research : the
experiences of CARDI
Osuji, P.O.; Parasram, S.
(Research on Crop Animal Systems, Turrialba, CR, 4-7 Apr
1982, p.18-40 : statistical tables, En
Research on crop animal systems
Fitzhugh, H.A.; et al.
Winrock International
Complete proceedings: PN-AAM-823
On-farm research in integrated crop-animal systems being
conducted by the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Devel-
opment Institute (CARDI) in the Windward and Leeward Islands
in the Eastern Caribbean is reviewed. The first part of the report
presents the objectives of the CARDI program, discusses its
key policy and institutional issues, describes the types of
systems being studied, and lists the constraints to animal
production found in these systems; the latter include poor
nutrition, parasitism in animals, an inefficient market structure,
lack of transportation and processing facilities, limited pastur-
age, lack of breeding stock, and poor management of animals.
The second part of the report briefly presents the methodology
used in the CARDI program and the results of case studies
done by its cropping systems group and appraises current
research activities. It is noted that the program would have
been more effective if fewer countries and farmers had been
involved, thus permitting a more in-depth study. A set of animal
production alternatives identified during the case studies is


MF $1.08/PC $1.43

Enfoque de sistema en la formulacion de
proyectos de desarrollo agricola (Systems
approach to formulating agricultural
development projects)
Pinchinat, Antonio M.
IICA series de ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.345, Dec 1984, p.38-48 : chart, Es
Reunion taller sobre investigation en agrosistemas de
production, Tarapoto, 12 15 Junio 1984
Salinas B., Luis; Pinchinat, Antonio M.
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
The systems approach offers an integrated conceptual
framework for formulating agricultural development projects
that permits planners to identify basic causal relationships

among project components. This paper, part of a conference
proceedings on agrosystems, outlines the systems approach in
a step-by-step methodology, as follows: (1) define the problem
and objectives of the project; (2) diagnose the current situation
including a description of the project area (physical, economic,
social, cultural, institutional, political), and the principal
agrosystems; and (3) devise models of optional cultivation
systems by outlining basic methodologies, typifying the farmers
who will benefit, and characterizing the proposed changes and
anticipated results. Rational use of natural resources and
protection of the environment are considered, as are the needs
of the farmer. This approach favors interdisciplinary teamwork
and increases the efficiency of selecting appropriate interven-
tion options.

071 PN-AAT-648
MF $1.08/PC $5.33
Breaking new ground : anthropology in
agricultural research; agricultural
anthropology at the International Potato
Rhoades, Robert E.
International Potato Center; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office
of Agriculture
1984, ix, 71p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
The past, present, and future roles of anthropology in
agricultural research are explored. A brief initial section shows
that until recently anthropology had been excluded from the
mainstream of agricultural research due to its emphasis on
theory and tribal ethnology and its institutional location in the
university structure. After noting the pioneering efforts of inter-
national agricultural research centers, beginning in the early
1960's, to include the social sciences in their programs, the
author describes recent inclusion of anthropologists in the
research program of the International Potato Center (CIP).
Emphasis is laid on anthropologists' contribution to interdisci-
plinary research in on-farm potato storage and processing and
their role in developing a farmer-back-to-farmer model for
generating improved agricultural technologies. A review of key
areas in which anthropology can make a unique contribution to
agricultural research e.g., its emphasis on farmers' own
perception of the world, its recognition of the importance of the
nonverbal expression of culture, and its stress on social organi-
zation leads to a final section outlining future directions for
including anthropology in agricultural research. Appendices
include an 88-item bibliography (1871-1984) and three agricul-
tural anthropology studies for interdisciplinary team research.

FSR Vol. III, 1986



MF $1.08/PC $6.11

Criteria for re-appraisal and re-design : intra-
household and between household aspects
of FSRE in three Kenyan agroforestry projects
Rocheleau, Dianne E.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, 1986, p.456-
502 : charts, maps, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension: implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
The International Council for Research in Agroforestry
(ICRAF) has adapted the rapid appraisal and technology de-
sign procedures of FSR to communal agroforestry applications
in Kenya. The three case studies presented here raise several
issues regarding the development of agricultural technologies
suited to communally owned and/or managed resources. The
first two studies depict two sites in Machakos District, where
both on-farm trials and group activities demonstrated the
importance of off-farm resources for farm production, the
common use of private property, the role of group labor in farm
management, the variable effect of individual farm manage-
ment on the community resource base, and the participation of
women in each of the above. Lessons from these two sites are
being incorporated and tested at the third (Siaya) which com-
bines community nurseries, self-help groups (mostly women),
and on-farm testing, and as such, provides an excellent
opportunity for developing and testing a variable-scale, par-
ticipatory research methodology for agroforestry.


MF $1.08/PC $1.43

Socioeconomic constraints to agricultural
development in the semi-arid tropics and
ICRISAT's approach
Ryan, James G.; Binswanger, Hans P.
Proceedings of the international symposium on development
and transfer of technology for rainfed agriculture and the
SAT farmer
1980, p.57-67 : charts, statistical tables, En
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAQ-782
Agricultural researchers must keep the socioeconomic en-
vironments of target and client groups clearly in view. This
paper discusses how socioeconomic constraints to agricultural
development are evaluated at the International Crops Re-
search Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Among
the constraints discussed are: (1) variations in population
density, resource availability (e.g., land, animals), and infras-
tructural support (e.g., marketing, transportation, and credit
systems) in the 48 less developed semiarid, tropical (SAT)
countries, and regionally within those countries; (2) risk factors,
especially rainfall, in the SAT; and (3) limited market demand

for priority ICRISAT crops (sorghum, millet, chickpea, and
pigeonpea). Discussion is also given to efficiency and equity
considerations in allocating research resources, and to the
need to keep in mind potential long-term impacts on food
supply and nutrition.


MF $1.08/PC $2.99

Stratification : an approach to cost -
effectiveness for farming systems research
and development
Shaner, W.W.
Agricultural systems, v.15, 1984, p.101-123 : En
References: p. 121-123
Farming systems research and development (FSR&D) is a
new approach aimed at meeting the needs of farmers with
limited resources in less developed countries. Its cost-effec-
tiveness depends on identifying enough farmers operating
under similar conditions who will adopt improved technology.
An important way to accomplish this is by stratifying environ-
mental and farmers' conditions in order to develop what is
called a recommendation domain. This paper reports on cur-
rent stratification efforts, involving: (1) descriptive schemes
(classification of farming systems, agricultural growth stages,
ecological systems approach); (2) stratification by components
(agroclimatic zones, soil and land classifications, cropping and
biological environments, farmers' cultivation practices, eco-
nomic and sociocultural conditions); and (3) stratification
strategies used by the Agricultural Science and Technology
Institute (ICTA), the International Crops Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the International Maize &
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and the International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Topics recommended for future
study include agroclimatic zones, soil classifications, farm
households, societal conditions, and mathematical modeling. A
40-item bibliography (1967-82) is appended. (Author abstract,


MF $2.16/PC $14.04

Farming systems research : a review
Simmonds, Norman W.
World Bank
World Bank technical paper, no.43, 1985, xii, 97p. : charts,
statistical tables, En
Bibliography: p.88-97
FSR has become increasingly important as an element of
the research programs of international agricultural research
centers, national research programs, and development pro-
jects with agricultural research components. In this context, as
this volume's foreword explains, it is important to take stock of
existing experiences wth FSR to assess ongoing trends and
future perspectives.
This report on the state-of-the-art of FSR reviews the
history of the FSR approach and attempts to define its scope,
in both a broad and a narrow sense. The paper describes
various on-farm research procedures, reports on experiences
accumulated in this area in different international agricultural
research centers, discusses the contributions of different disci-
plines to FSR and the relation of FSR to agricultural extension,

FSR Vol III, 19


and raises some wider questions related to FSR perspectives
and the need to carry FSR further in various institutional
settings. Included are nine case studies and a 10-page bibliog-
raphy. (Author abstract, modified)


MF $1.08/PC $2.73

Inland fisheries in developing countries : an
opportunity for a farming systems approach
to research and management
Sissoko, M.M.; Malvestuto, S.P.; et al.
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.297-318 : charts, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium; farming systems
research and extension : implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
The farming systems research and extension (FSR/E)
methodology is appropriate for identifying management strate-
gies for artisanal fisheries in riverine systems, according to this
paper. The paper first stresses the importance of inland fisher-
ies as a source of food and income in the developing world, and
then discusses maximum sustained yield, maximum economic
yield, and optimum sustained yield (OSY) as fishery manage-
ment concepts, suggesting that FSR/E may provide a model
for attaining OSY, a concept which incorporates sociological as
well as biological and economic objectives. FSR/E's holistic
approach recognizes the interdependence between the natural
and human environments and aims to utilize limited resources
within the range of private and societal goals. To illustrate how
the FSR/E approach is appropriate, the report: (1) derives from
the Niger River production and marketing system a conceptual
model addressing the biological, economic, household, and
market variables of a riverine system; and (2) provides a
description of Mali's Niger River fisheries, focusing on aspects
of the established traditional management system, e.g., fishing
groups, property rights in the fishing zones, reserve zones, and
the collective fishing season.


MF $1.08/PC $6.11

Descripcion del sistema intensive de
production de ganado bovino de double
proposito ICTA CATIE (Dual purpose cattle:
description of an intensive production system,
Solano, Romeo
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology; Tropical
Agriculture Research and Training Center
Boletin tecnico / Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas,
no.16, Nov 1981, 43p.: ill., charts, statistical tables, Es
An area of Escuintla, Guatemala, was chosen as an appro-
priate location for testing an improved dual purpose milk and

calf cattle production system useable by small farmers. This
report describes results of the joint ICTA/CATIE pilot project.
Descriptions and statistical information are provided for socio-
economic aspects of the region and of the improved production
system, including pasturage, infrastructure (barns, corrals, feed
troughs), management, sanitation methods, and recordkeep-
ing. Final chapters evaluate the system of reproduction and
milk/calf production in terms of economic profitability, sileage
management (amount per head of cattle), and construction of


MF $1.08/PC $1.43

Farming systems under various ecological
conditions of Latin America, and the
improvement of traditional farming with
specific preference to the small holders
Soria, Jorge
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Dept. of
Cultivation and Tropical Soil
(Expert Consultation on Agricultural Research in Latin
America, Panama City, PA, 9-14 Jun 1975)
1976, p.113-122: En
The present level of productivity of some basic and export
crops in Latin America is compared with productivity under
higher levels of technology. It is demonstrated that in general,
small producers are efficient in their operations and can be
even more efficient given the necessary economic resources
and adequate technology for multiple and mixed crops. This is
followed by information on research carried out in several
countries precisely on multiple and mixed cropping systems,
including the results obtained so far at the Center for Tropical
Agriculture Research and Education (CATIE) which seem to
prove that greater yields in products and biomass are obtained
under these systems, and that they make better use of land,
fertilizers, and energy as well as labor, while being less vulnera-
ble to attack by diseases, pests, and weeds. Finally, emphasis
is placed on the promising prospects of this type of research
together with basic research on the tropical system. The
establishment of new programs along these lines is suggested.
(Author abstract, modified)


MF $1.08/PC $1.69

Trials and errors : using farming systems
research to reach farmers who are often
Spring, Anita
Farming systems research paper series, no.9, Feb 1986,
p.84-96 : statistical tables, En
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984
farming systems research symposium : farming systems
research and extension: implementation and monitoring
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)

FSR Vol. III, 1986


Although a large percentage of subsistence farming is
conducted by women, agricultural extension and training pro-
grams have traditionally neglected them. This report suggests
that because FSR is farmer-based, it may help researchers to
recognize and nurture women's contributions to overall agricul-
tural productivity.
In-depth analysis is made of soybean demonstrations and
farmer trials in Malawi, where 50-70% of all smallholder farm
operations are conducted by women, to determine whether the
acceptance of new technologies is gender-related. Farmers
were instructed in soybean cultivation techniques, and the level
of acceptance and effects of the new technology were as-
sessed. Constraints such as poorly adapted seeds and ineffec-
tive inoculants were not gender-related and affected all far-
mers equally; however, women had poorer crop yields than
male farmers due, it is argued, to the lack of agronomic training
given to women. The soybean project demonstrated: (1) that
women are agriculturalists and interested in new technologies;
(2) the importance of interaction between research and exten-
sion, farmer-oriented technical information, and an instruction
methodology involving demonstrations and corrections; and (3)
that further work is needed to include female farmers in
agricultural development and training programs and to improve
working relationships between female farmers and extension


MF $4.32/PC $39.52

081 PN-AAU-085
MF $1.08/PC $1.17
Use of RRA in cross sectional and
longitudinal studies
Thomas, David E.; Suphanchaimat, Nongluk
(International Conference on Rural Appraisal, Khon Kaen,
TH, 2-5 Sep 1985)
Sep 1985, 9p. : En
The Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) can serve as a cost-
effective way to investigate rural resource management sys-
tems (RRMS) by acquiring timely, relevant, and useful informa-
tion on various components of such systems and on how they
respond to changes in their environment This paper discusses
some of the potential uses of RRA to supplement resource-
intensive cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of RRMS.
RRA is complementary to the potentially inflexible and superfi-
cial questionnaire survey because it allows concepts and/or
objectives to be revised during the research process; it also
offers greater flexibility and depth to recordkeeping studies.
Because of the complementarity between RRA and each of
these two methods, RRA can be easily incorporated into the
research process and greatly enhance farming systems re-
search. The potential role for RRA in the four research steps
(i.e., developing a framework; preparing and conducting de-
tailed studies; evaluating results) and the need for pragmatism
in research on rural areas are described.

Intercropping in tropical smallholder
agriculture with special reference to West
Steiner, Kurt G.
German Agency for Technical Cooperation
Schriftenreihe der GTZ, no.137, 2nd ed. 1984, 304p. +
attachments: charts, statistical tables, En
Intercropping is a central part of traditional small farming
systems in most parts of West Africa. This report, mainly a
review of international literature (including unpublished re-
ports), analyzes various aspects of intercropping to assess its
potential to help overcome food production constraints. Pro-
vided in turn are: (1) a general description of traditional inter-
cropping systems based on major food crops; (2) a discussion
of the agronomic aspects of intercropping systems (the suita-
bility of intercropping to limited light, water, and nutrient re-
source conditions; possibilities of increasing productivity
through fertilizer use; and the contributions of intercropping to
yield stability, soil fertility maintenance, and biological plant
protection); (3) an analysis of the socioeconomic aspects of
intercropping, such as returns to land and labor, distribution of
labor by sex, and risk aversion; and (4) recommendations for
applied agricultural research and extension programs for the
promotion of intercropping. Included in the text are 46 tables
and 50 figures; another 13 tables and 3 figures are appended.


MF $3.24/PC $27.95

Tropical plant diseases
Thurston, H. David
American Phytopathological Society
1984, vii, 208p. : ill., En
Includes indexes
Studies on diseases occurring in specific tropical plants,
especially those grown below 1000m altitude, are presented in
this book. Introductory chapters discuss the environmental and
social nature of tropical agriculture. Specific attention is given
to the impact which tropical plant disease has on a country's
agricultural, economic, and social sectors. For example, when
no practical method was discovered for controlling coffee rust
Hemileia vastatrix in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the late 1800's,
coffee was abandoned as a major cash crop and was replaced
by tea and rubber. The author identifies the major diseases of
specific tropical crops, although some important crops such as
forest crops and ornamentals are not included. To aid the
reader in finding information on the identification and control of
pathogens, selected references on plant pathology follow the
brief introduction given for each crop or group of crops. The
many agencies and general publications concerned with tropi-
cal plant diseases are discussed briefly.

FSR VoL 4 196



MF $2.16/PC $13.91

Alternative de manejo para el sistema maiz -
frijol (La Esperanza, Honduras) : description y
evaluacion en fincas pequenas (Alternative
management systems for corn and beans (La
Esperanza, Honduras) : description and
evaluation of small farms)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.46, 1984, xv, 105p.:
charts, map, statistical tables, Es
As part of CATIE's project to develop site-specific cultiva-
tion systems for improving small farm productivity in Central
America, the main characteristics of an alternative maize-bean
cultivation system designed to be incorporated into the
traditional maize-bean-potato system of La Esperanza, Hon-
duras are herein described. The report focuses on results and
evaluations of on-farm trials of the proposed system.
First, the traditional farm management and cultivation prac-
tices for maize and beans in the high plateau region and
technical options for improving them, which center on shorter
distances between plantings and use of Cytrolane for pest/dis-
ease control, are described. Next, the recommendation domain
for the proposed system is outlined, including characteristics of
the region (geographic and climatic aspects, geology and soils,
vegetation, available extension services) and of the farmers
most likely to benefit. A third chapter analyzes the technical
and economic feasibility of the new technology by comparing
its agronomic/economic indicators with those of the traditional
system. Finally, the experimental research methodology and
results are presented.


MF $1.08/PC $7.93

Alternative de manejo para el sistema maiz -
frijol (Valle de Chimaltenango, Guatemala):
description y evaluacion en fincas pequenas
(Alternative management systems for corn
and beans (Chimaltenango Valley, Guatemala):
description and evaluation of small farms)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.44, 1985, vi, 68p.:
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
The Chimaltenango Valley of Guatemala is characterized by
subsistence-level cultivation of maize and beans, the basic
food crops. Crop rotation is not practiced due to the scarcity of
land and the need to grow enough maize and beans for food,
and many farmers seek off-farm employment to defray non-
food expenses. This study sought to find alternative cultivation
methods to increase food production and provide a cash crop.

Following a description of the traditional system of maize-
bean intercropping, an alternative method is described. The
alternative system proposes few changes; mainly, it attempts to
reduce production costs by substituting chicken manure (gal-
linaza) for mineral fertilizers. A comparative analysis of the
traditional and other alternative systems such as using high-
yield, low growing varieties of maize, growing bush beans which
do not require corn stalks for support, and growing potatoes
and broccoli for income is then presented. Preliminary esti-
mates indicate that the proposed cultivation methods produced
a significant increase in farmer income; however, due to
political conflict, the evaluation process was not completed.


MF $1.08/PC $7.80

Alternative de manejo para el sistema tomate
- frijol (Matagalpa, Nicaragua) : description y
evaluacion en fincas pequenas (Alternative
management systems for tomatoes and beans
(Matagalpa, Nicaragua): description and
evaluation of small farms)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.51, 1985, vi, 67p. :
charts, statistical tables, Es
As a substitute for the traditional maize-bean cultivation
system as practiced on small farms in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, a
rotation system for tomato-bean cultivation is proposed. After a
discussion of the function and importance of the farmer's
cultivation system, the improved tomato-bean system is de-
scribed in detail, including the proposed cultivation changes
and schedule of activities and labor. The specific area (in terms
of recommended climate and rainfall) and the type of farmer
most likely to benefit from tomato-bean cultivation are identi-
fied, and statistical analyses are made of production costs,
productivity, farmer income, efficiency, use of productive re-
sources, labor, and operating costs. Finally, a detailed descrip-
tion of the study methodology is presented to help agricultural
extensionists and technicians in technical assistance pro-

FSR Vol. III, 1986




MF $2.16/PC $19.11

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas :
Chimaltenango, Guatemala (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms: Chimaltenango,
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.37, Jun 1984, xi, 143p. :
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
Constraints to the potential of agricultural production sys-
tems in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were assessed to define
criteria for research into improved technologies for small farms.
This report describes the area's characteristics, including a
socioeconomic profile of the population (e.g., age and ethnic
groups, health and education levels) and of the community
infrastructure (e.g., roads, energy and water supplies, commu-
nity and support services). Next are descriptions of the area's
climate; soil; hydrological balance; predominant crops and
methods of agricultural production; land tenancy, use, and
potential; and economic sectors and labor supply. Final sec-
tions present production records for maize, beans, and pota-
toes; an outline of biological constraints to cultivation (weeds,
crop diseases, insect pests, birds); and conclusions from the
study. Appended are statistical data and a 59-item bibliography


MF $3.24/PC $26.39

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas : El
Progreso, Panama (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms : El Progreso,
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.57, 1985, ix, 203p. :
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
The first phase of a joint CATIE/IDIAP project, designed to
develop improved site-specific cultivation techniques for small
farmers, assessed the ecological and socioeconomic charac-
teristics of the districts of Progreso and Guarumal, Panama.
This first of a two-part report describes: (1) the project's
objectives and methodology, including the selection and
characterization of the study area; (2) regional characteristics,
including physical, biological, and socioeconomic aspects; (3)
farming systems, such as farm classifications and structure of
individual and cooperative farms; and (4) the principal farm

production systems selected for research (e.g., rice/sorghum).
Volume Two of the report (not included here) describes pro-
posed alternative technologies, the process of their develop-
ment, and means for evaluating them. A 33-item bibliography
(1960-1983) is appended.


MF $2.16/PC $18.20

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas de
Esteli, Nicaragua (1983) (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms in Esteli, Nicaragua
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.34, 1984, xiii, 129p.:
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
A prototype multidisciplinary team consisting of three
experts in crop production, crop protection, and agricultural
economics, respectively studied traditional cultivation prac-
tices in Estelf, Nicaragua, in order to develop appropriate
technologies for increasing small farm productivity. This report
describes results obtained from the team's activities. First, the
research area is described, including location, biophysical
attributes, and socioeconomic characteristics such as agricul-
tural production and community infrastructure (e.g., credit,
technical assistance, farmers' organization, training). The bulk
of the report discusses characteristics of local farms and
cultivation systems (maize, beans, sorghum); biological con-
straints on cultivation (weeds, crop diseases, insect pests);
land, capital, and labor resources; cultivation systems arranged
according to chronology and size; constraints on production
systems (physical, marketing, transport); and characteristics of
the farmer and the farm family. The survey methodology is
briefly outlined.


MF $2.16/PC $1651

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas : La
Esperanza, Honduras (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms : La Esperanza,
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.41, Apr 1984, x, 123p.:
charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
As the first phase of CATIE's project to increase small farm
production in Central America, analyses were made of the
socioeconomic characteristics and cultivation systems of La
Esperanza, Honduras. The five chapters in this report present
descriptions of the following: (1) the project's general objec-

FSR VOL I114 1986


tives and methodologies for characterizing the region; (2)
general characteristics of the study area, including the geo-
graphic location, principal ecological features, and natural
resources; (3) detailed analyses of the predominant crop and
livestock cultivation practices of small farmers, management
practices for crop production systems, and principal technical
and socioeconomic constraints; (4) socioeconomic aspects,
including population and labor resources, income, types of
farms (subsistence, semicommercial, commercial, crop-animal
systems), and support services (e.g., credit, technical and
marketing services, agrarian reform, farmer organizations); and
(5) details of the systems selected for research: joint
maize/beans, potatoes in rotation with maize/beans, and
beans monoculture. A 50-item bibliography (1962-1984) is


MF $3.24/PC $27.30

economic characteristics and cultivation practices of Tejutla, El
Salvador. First, principal geographic and socioeconomic fea-
tures of the study area are described, including infrastructure,
population, economic activities, and services related to agricul-
ture. Within this general framework, details of the region's
predominant agricultural production systems and farm man-
agement practices are presented; emphasis is on charac-
teristics including extension, ecological aspects, social and
economic interest, and potential production of agricultural
systems selected for research and development of improved
technical options. Technical and socioeconomic aspects and
limitations of traditional cropping systems are described in
detail: maize/sorghum, monocultures of maize and beans,
typical crop diseases and pests, and livestock production
systems for cattle, pigs, and poultry. Final chapters describe
the socioeconomic status of small and medium farmers, pre-
sent conclusions, and offer recommendations for the experi-
mental phase of the project.

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas de
San Carlos, Costa Rica (1983) (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms in San Carlos, Costa
Rica (1983))
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Serie technico. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico
Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, no.33, 1984, xvii,
198p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
CATIE's project to develop appropriate technology for in-
creasing small farm production and farmers' income is based
on research at representative farms in Central America. This
report presents a characterization of San Carlos, Costa Rica,
with regard to: (1) physical, biological, and socioeconomic
characteristics of the region, including population, primary
sector production, and support services; (2) size, components,
interactions, inputs, and outputs of farms in the region; and (3)
principal cultivation practices such as monoculture and com-
bined systems for yucca, pineapple, beans, and maize. A 60-
item bibliography (1963-1982) is appended.


MF $2.16/PC $19.76

Caracterizacion ambiental y de los principles
sistemas de cultivo en fincas pequenas :
Tejutla, El Salvador (Environmental
characterization and principal systems of
cultivation on small farms : Tejutla, El
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for Central
American Programs
Serie tecnica. Informe tecnico / Centro Agronomico Tropical
de Investigation y Ensenanza, no.35, Jun 1984, xvii,
141p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, Es
As a preliminary part of CATIE's project to improve small
farmer production and income, this report describes the socio-


MF $1.08/PC $1.56

Anthropology and on-farm research
Tripp, Robert
Human organization, v.44(2), Summer 1985, p.114-124 : En
The recent interest in farming systems research has given
rise to a wide variety of strategies for agricultural development.
There is a growing concern, however, regarding the effective-
ness of many of these approaches. This paper describes a set
of procedures called on-farm research (OFR) which take a
farming systems perspective and are designed to be used by
national research programs. The anthropological contribution
to strengthening these procedures is emphasized. Particular
attention is given to the iterative nature of data collection in
OFR and the importance of anthropological fieldwork tech-
niques in the experimental phase. An example of data collec-
tion during the OFR process is provided through a discussion of
a research program in northern Ecuador. (Author abstract)


MF $1.08/PC $3.64

On-farm trials in northwestern Syria : testing
the feasibility of annual forage legumes as
grazing and conserved feed
Tully, Dennis; Thomson, Euan F.; et al.
Research methodology for livestock on-farm trials :
proceedings of a workshop held at Aleppo, Syria, 25-28
March 1985,
p.209-236 : charts, statistical tables, En, Fr; IDRC-242e
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Ahmed, Awad El Karim Hamid; Potts,
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
International Development Research Centre
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
In areas of Syria receiving 200-350 mm annual precipita-
tion, barley is the main crop and is grown continuously or
alternated with fallow. Only small areas of forage legumes such
as vetch Vicia sativa and lathyrus Lathyrus sativus are sown

FSR Vol. III, 1986


due to poor yields and high costs of both seed and harvest
labor. Two sets of trials were designed to quantify yield
potentials, costs, and constraints for rotations involving forage
legumes either for spring grazing or harvested at maturity to
provide conserved winter feed. Grazing trials were established
on 8 farms to compare vetch (1 ha) and lathyrus (1 ha) for
lactating ewes. Farmers' flocks were divided into 3 matched
groups and assigned to 2 forage crops and to a control group
grazing communal pastures. Milk production and ewe live
weights were measured regularly with farmers' assistance.
Complementary rotation trials and surveys were continued in
the area. Harvest trials with 0.5 ha vetch and 0.5 ha lathyrus
were established on each of 12 farms. The farmers' labor
needs and cost of harvesting were monitored. Nested within
each harvest trial were rotational plots (0.2 ha) designed to
quantify responses of fertilizer treatments on lathyrus, vetch,
lentils, barley, barley plus nitrogen, and to trace the effects on a
barley crop sown the following year. (Author abstract)

094 PN-AAT-831
MF $1.08/PC $1.04
Technology transfer in no-tillage crop
production in Third World agriculture
Warren, G.F.
(Symposium on No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics,
Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981)
1983, p.25-31 : En
No-tillage crop production in the tropics
Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E.
Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-804
For developing countries, where low tillage farming meth-
ods are traditionally practiced, the promotion of no-tillage
farming made possible by low-cost herbicides and application
equipment could yield greater long-term gains than any other
innovation. So concludes this report taken from the proceed-
ings of a 1981 symposium on the subject.
Although scientists do not agree on all of the possible
negative and positive implications of no-tillage farming, they
concur that it is much less labor and capital intensive than other
methods. The key to no-tillage farming is weed control with
little or no soil disturbance. However, caution must be exer-
cised to ensure that herbicides are accurately formulated so as
not to result in crop injury. In Japan, for example, the applica-
tion problem has been overcome by using granular formula-
tions in paddy production. Other requirements for a no-tillage
system discussed in the report include mulching, jab planting
(in order not to disturb the soil and mulch), nitrogen fertilizers,
and pest control.


MF $1.08/PC $6.11

Systems, techniques and tools: conservation
farming for small farmers in the humid tropics
Wijewardene, Ray; Waidyanatha, Parakrama
Sri Lanka. Dept. of Agriculture; Commonwealth Consultative
Group on Agriculture for the Asia Pacific Region
1984, v, 38p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
Conservation farming is designed to conserve the natural
resources of the fragile soils in tropical (upland) farming zones
and thus provide the subsistence farmers who till them with a
low-input, productive, and self-sustaining system. This manual,
prepared for use by field practitioners, outlines the basic
concepts and techniques of conservation farming.
After indicating the cause of current soil fragility in tropical
zones (increased population pressures have greatly decreased
fallow time in the traditional shifting cultivation system), the
manual lists key production constraints in tropical farming and
briefly describes techniques for alleviating them: soil, water,
and fertility management, land clearing, and weed control. The
effects of 'zero' and 'minimum' tillage systems are contrasted
with those of traditional tillage systems and techniques and
tools of the 'zero' system are described in technical detail.
Fertility regenerating systems in-situ and live mulches, and
avenue (alley) cropping with shrubs and trees are also
extensively reviewed. Briefer consideration is given to pest and
plant disease management in conservation farming and to
fuelwood and fodder tree species. A 34-item bibliography
(1886-1983) is appended.

MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Providing mulches for no-tillage cropping in
the tropics
Wilson, G.F.; Akapa, K.L
(Symposium on No-tillage Production in the Tropics,
Monrovia, LR, 6-7 Aug 1981)
1983, p.51-65 : statistical tables, En
No-tillage crop production in the tropics
Akobundu, 1.0.; Deutsch, A.E.
Oregon State University. International Plant Protection Center
U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
References: p.63-65
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-804
In the tropics, conventional tillage techniques are often
incompatible with soil and climate, leading to soil erosion and
rapid yield decline. Despite its effectiveness in protecting the
soil, mulching has not yet become a common practice. In
conventional tillage, mulch has been associated with the intro-
duction of material from a source outside the field. This
extremely time-consuming and expensive practice has been
limited in the past to high-value crops. The advent of no-tillage
techniques, aided by chemical weed control, has made it
feasible to provide mulch directly from a previous crop of fallow
vegetation. This report presents three alternative methods
which would provide a suitable weed-free mulch on the soil
surface at planting: crop residue, in-situ mulch, and live mulch.
Brief treatment is also given to alley cropping (crops grown in
alleys formed by fast growing trees and shrubs) and branch

FSR Vo a. II 19



mulch. A final section notes the need for further research to
perfect these mulching systems and underscores the need to
develop no-tillage equipment for use on a wide scale.

MF $1.08/PC $2.99

ILCA bulletin: livestock production in Central
Wilson, R.T.
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
no. 15, Mar 1982, 23p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Central Mali has two livestock production systems which are
unusual, if not unique, in Sahelian countries a pastoral system
associated with floodplain grazing and farming in the Niger
inundation zone, and an agropastoral system associated with
irrigated rice cropping. This study, based on ILCA research in
the region between 1976 and 1982, characterizes the two
systems, changes occurring in them, and the main constraints
to greater productivity. The primary resources for livestock
production in Central Mali (climate, land, and rainfed and
floodplain pasture vegetation) are first outlined, and livestock
movement patterns to and from the floodplain zone are de-
scribed in detail (on the basis of aerial survey data).
Agropastoralism is then considered with reference to cattle and
small ruminant production and nutrition; associated rice and
millet cropping systems are described and the potential for
crop improvement is assessed in light of ILCA cropping re-
search findings. The pastoral system of the Niger inundation
zone, as practiced mainly by Fulani herdsmen, is also exam-
ined. Finally, ILCA's plans for future research in the two
systems are outlined.

098 PN-AAT-799
MF $1.08/PC $1.30
Design of the on-farm research program
Zandstra, H.G.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(Workshop on Methodological Issues Facing Social Scientists
in Applied Crop and Farming Systems Research, MX, 1-3
Apr 1980)
1980, 10p. : En
Complete proceedings: PN-AAP-100
Designing site-specific cropping patterns (CP's) is an inte-
gral part of on-farm research. This paper discusses various
steps to be considered in designing a CP for a trial site: (1)
determine the land types to be studied at the site; (2) identify
the variables that constrain crop production; (3) select CP's to
be studied for each land type; and (4) assign the CP's a
management technology and satisfactory performance criteria.
The trials should be tested in large (1,000 sq m) plots to allow
measurement of labor and time inputs and should be farmer-
managed in order to evaluate farmers' management capability.
Researchers should modify the number of land types, CP's,
and test plots as research proceeds and should collect data
comparing the performance of experimental and traditional
CP's. Component technology trials, which are generally man-
aged by researchers, should be limited to management com-

ponents having a major impact on the CP's economic perform-
ance. Objectives for superimposed trials (those which evaluate
component technology) are presented. Issues relating to re-
searcher-managed trials are briefly addressed.


MF $1.08/PC $1.69

Pilot production programs
Zandstra, H.G.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19
Sep 1980)
1980, p.198-210 : En
Tenth report of the cropping systems working group meeting
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Pilot crop production programs are often used to determine
the needed support structure and to delineate the roles to be
played by the various participating institutions. This paper
briefly describes pilot program activities to: (1) develop
cropping system recommendations; (2) provide production
credit; (3) determine labor supply and market demand; (4)
develop integrated production plans in order to avoid input-
supply bottlenecks; and (5) help reduce farmer risk. The paper
also explores ways of coordinating the various political and
social institutions involved, e.g., formation of an internal man-
agement committee and provision of salary incentives for
extension staff to perform field visits. The importance of
monitoring and evaluating the performance during pilot pro-
grams of the recommended cropping pattern is highlighted. A
list of issues is identified to better define research needs in
regard to technology delivery.


MF $1.08/PC $.78

Multilocation testing
Zandstra, Hubert G.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19
Sep 1980)
1980, p.170-175 : chart, En
Tenth report of the cropping systems working group meeting
International Rice Research Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Seven procedures for multilocational testing of cropping
patterns are presented in this report by IRRI's Cropping Sys-
tems Working Group: (1) identify an extrapolation area using
rainfall classification or rainfall records, and soil, irrigation, or
land-use classification maps, where available; (2) within the
selected extrapolation area, identify the location and approxi-
mate frequency of occurrence of the land types identified at the
research site; (3) locate cropping pattern trials in a clustered
distribution throughout the desired land type(s) in the extrapola-
tion areas; (4) implement researcher-managed trials with farm-
er participation, adhering strictly to the specified cropping
pattern; (5) evaluate cropping pattern performance from yield
data, assuming land and input costs to be those obtained in the
cropping pattern trials; (6) plot trial results on a map of the area
and try to associate poor crop performance in the pattern with

FSR Vol. III, 1986



soil or land factors; (7) describe conditions for which the pattern
is suitable and formulate these as a recommendation. It is
suggested that multilocatioral testing be conducted in coor-
dination with an extension or production agency to ensure the

latter's familiarity with the recommended pattern and to allow
for feedback on problems which may occur during the exten-
sion phase. A list of six issues to be considered by the Working
Group concludes the report.

FSR Vol. III, 1986


Africa South of Sahara 048
Agricultural development 064,070,074
Agricultural extension
Agricultural inputs 051
Agricultural management 057
Agricultural production 026,029,034,088
Agricultural productivity 054,059,078,079,082
Agricultural research
Agricultural surveys 017,030,056,088
Agricultural technology
Agroforestry 072
Alternative technology 083
Animal breeding 077
Animal feeding 053,093
Animal husbandry 003,010,069,097
Animal nutrition 042
Animal traction 037,048
Anthropology research 092
Appropriate technology 006,019,045,065,087
Arid zone 097
Artisanal fisheries 076
Asia 044
Australia 017
Barley 093
Beans 021,040,041,047,083,084,085
Biological pest control 002
Bolivia 060
Caribbean 009
Case studies 009,059,060
Cash crops 084
Cassava 007,032,040,041,066
Cattle 097
Collective farming 072
Colombia 007,038
Commercial farming 038
Communal land 072
Comparative studies 031,052
Constraints 011,023,032
Costa Rica 022,039,090
Costs 018
Crop diseases 082
Crop production 002,032,038,039,068,086,099
Crop rotation 068,083
Crop yield 005,040,041,051,057,078
Crop-animal systems 039,042,053,069,091,093,097
Cropping patterns
Cropping systems
Cultivation 095
Cultural anthropology 016,071
Dairy cattle 077
Data analysis 043,060
Data collection 011,018,030,043,052,060,081
Decision making 003,009,011,016,023
Development project planning 070
Development research 035
Development strategies 031
Draft animals 048
Dry farming 027,034,093
East Africa 024,067
Eastern Caribbean 069
Econometrics 004
Economic analysis 016,028,051
Economic risk 051
Ecosystems 039
Ecuador 022,092
El Salvador 091
Energy consumption 037
Energy technology 037
English speaking Africa 031
Environmental aspects 033,057,090,091
Ethiopia 037

Expenditures 051
Family farms 019
Farm income 068,084,085,089
Farm management 068
Farmer participation 006
Farmers 003,007,009,011,014,015,021,034 ,
Farming systems 058
Female labor 001
Fertilizer alternatives 084,096
Fertilizer technologies 007
Fertilizers 040
Fishery management 076
Food consumption patterns 029
Food crops 032,059,080,084,085
Food processing 071
Food production 057,084,085
Food storage 071
Forage crops 042
Forage legumes 093
French speaking Africa 031
Grazing 093
Grazing land 097
Groundnuts 021
Group discussion 061
Guatemala 022,077,086
Health aspects 059
Health research 059
Herbicides 002,006,094
Honduras 089
Household management 037
Human nutrition 029
Impact assessment 001
India 001
Indonesia 010,027,062,063,064,065,066
Inland fisheries 076
Intensive farming 044,057
Intercropping 034,040,066,080
Interdisciplinary research
International organizations 049
Interpersonal communication 061
Interpersonal relations 061
Interviews 011,036,056
Irrigated farming 027,063
Kenya 030,039,072
Labor 052
Labor costs 051,068,084
Labor intensive farming 001,052
Labor supply 016
Land resources 016,088
Latin America 078
Leeward Islands 069
Livestock 003,039,097
Maize 006,021,047,083,084
Malawi 079
Mali 053
Mathematical models 004
Mechanized farming 015,048
Mexico 003,015
Millet 097
Mixed cropping 078
Mixed farming 039,069
Monoculture 040,041
Mountain soils 045
Multiple cropping 040,051,078
National level 050
Natural resource conservation 057
Natural resource inventories 042
Natural resource rehabilitation 054
Nicaragua 047,088
Nigeria 008,022,052
Nutrition improvement 059
Nutritional status 059
On farm research
Panama 022,087

Peru 039,045,054,071
Pest control 002,094
Philippines 033,034
Phosphate fertilizers 038
Pilot projects 099
Plant growth 040,041
Plant resources 042
Podzols 062
Potatoes 045,071
Problem identification 004,023
Problem solving 004,019,023
Production increases 006,077,084,085
Rainfall intensity 021
Research centers 024,049,064,075
Research collaboration 020,060,064
Research design 056,067,074
Research management
Research organizations 022,050,073
Research planning 011,024,030,044,073
Research priorities 027,073
Resource allocation 073
Rice 001,010,021,033,034,038,049,063,068,097
Rivers 076
Roots 041
Ruminants 010
Rural areas 056,081
Rural development 018
Semiarid zone 073,097
Senegal 031
Sesame 021
Sheep 053
Site selection 100
Small farms 003,006,007,008,009,010,014,015,
Small ruminants 097
Social change 058
Social science occupations 026,058,061
Socioeconomic aspects
Socioeconomic status 038
Sociological surveys 021
Sociology research 014
Soil conservation 062,095
Soil erosion 054
Soil fertility 062,066,095
Soil management 054,066
Soil research 062
Soil types 065
Southern Africa 067
Statistical analysis 043
Stems 041
Subsistence farming 044,095
Survey design 030
Survey methodology 030,035,036
Syria 093
Systems analysis 039
Systems approach 070
Technical assistance 034
Technical cooperation 050
Technological change 058
Technological development 023,049,067
Technological innovations 005,057
Technology adoption 005,015,038,048,049,055,079
Technology assessment 067
Technology transfer 063,065,067
Thailand 020,051
Tilling 002,007,094,095,096
Tomatoes 085
Traditional farming 068,083,085,086
Traditional technology 009
Triticale 013
Tropical soils 002,066,095
Tropical zone 073,075,078,082,094,096
Upland cropping 013,038,049,066,095
Upland soils 066
Varietal research 006

FSR Vol. III, 1986


Villages 010
Water conservation 095
Water management 054

Weeds 002,040,094,095
West Africa 053,057,080
Windward Islands 069

Women 001,032
Women in development 032,079
Yams 068
Yield increase 001,041
Zambia 046,050

FSR VoL /I, 196


Adaptive Research Planning Team 050
Agarwal, Bina 001
Akapa, K.L 096
Akobundu, I. Okezie 002
Aluja, Andres 003
Alvarez, Jose 005
American Phytopathological Society 082
American Society of Agronomy 014
Anderson, J.R. 026
Anderson, Jock R. 004
Andrew, Chris 005
Arauz, Jose Roman 006
Ashby, Jacqueline A. 007
Ashraf, Malik 008
Barker, David 009
Barker, Randolph 055
Basuno,Edi 010
Beebe, James 011
Biggs, Stephen D. 012,013
Binswanger, Hans P. 073
Bradfield, Stillman 014
Byerlee, Derek 015
Central Research Institute for Agriculture. Cropping
Systems Research Program 063
Cernea, Michael M. 016
Chamala, S. 017
Chambers, Robert 018,019
Chandrapanya, Damkheong 020,021
Chang, M. Joseph 022
Chiang Mai University. Faculty of Agriculture 051
Collinson, M. 067
Collinson, Michael 023,024
Collymore, Jeremy 009
Commonwealth Consultative Group on Agriculture for
the Asia Pacific Region 095
Cornell University. Dept. of Animal Science 003,039
De Jong, Gerard 007
De Polanco, Edith H. 015
De Vries, James 025
Development Alternatives, Inc. 030
Dillon, J.L. 026
Dillon, John L. 004
Effendi, Suryatna 027,066
Escobar, German 028
Ford Foundation 019
Frankenberger, Timothy R. 029
Franzel, Steven 030
Fresco, Louise 031,032,049
Garrity, Dennis 033
Garrity, Dennis P. 034
German Agency for Technical Cooperation 080
Ghildyal, B.P. 019
Gibbs, Christopher J.N. 035
Gil, Hernan Chaverra 054
Goe, Michael R. 037
Grandstaff, Somluckrat W. 036

Grandstaff, Terry B. 036
Gryseels, Guido 037
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public
Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and
Technology 077
Guggenheim, Scott E. 016
Hansen, Elizabeth D.R. 038
Hart, Robert 039
Hart, Robert D. 040,041
Harwood, Richard R. 034
Hiernaux, Pierre 042
Hildebrand, Peter E. 043
Hoque, M. Zahidul 044
Horton, Douglas 045
Hudgens, R.E. 046
Icaza G., J. 047
Institute for Livestock Research 010
Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama 006
International Center for Tropical Agriculture 038
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics 013
International Fertilizer Development Center 038
International Food Policy Research Institute 057
International Livestock Centre for Africa
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Potato Center 071
International Rice Research Institute 033,034
International Service for National Agricultural
Research 022
Ismail, Inu Gandana 062
Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Tropical Agriculture Research Center 062
Jiggins, Janice 049
Kean, S.A. 050
Keith, K.J. 017
Kellogg, Earl D. 051
Knipscheer, Hendrik C. 052
Kolff, H.E. 053
Lagemann, J. 047
Lamenca, Mario Blasco 054
Lightfoot, Clive 055
Limpinuntana, Viriya 056
Malvestuto, S.P. 076
Martinez, Juan Carlos 006
Matlon, Peter J. 057
Maxwell, Simon 058,059,060,061
McDowell, Robert E. 003
Mclntosh, J.L. 062
Mclntosh, Jerry L. 063,064,065,066
National Council for Geographic Education 009
Norman, D. 067
Nweke, Felix I. 068
Organization of American States. Inter-American
Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture 054

Osuji, P.O. 069
Parasram, S. 069
Pendleton, John W. 044
Petheram, R.J. 010
Pinchinat, Antonio M. 070
Poey, Federico 043
Rhoades, Robert E. 071
Rocheleau, Dianne E. 072
Ryan, James G. 073
Shaner, W.W. 074
Simmonds, Norman W. 075
Sissoko, M.M. 076
Solano, Romeo 077
Soria, Jorge 078
Spring, Anita 079
Sri Lanka. Dept. of Agriculture 095
Steiner, Kurt G. 080
Suphanchaimat, Nongluk 081
Thomas, David E. 081
Thomson, Euan F. 093
Thurston, H. David 082
Tripp, Robert 092
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
077,083,084,085,086,087 088,089,090,091
Dept. of Cultivation and Tropical Soil 078
Department of Crop Production 047
Tully, Dennis 093
U.N. Development Programme 032
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization 032
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional
Office for Central American Programs
083,084,085,086 087,089,091
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Agriculture 006,011,013,022
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Rural and Instituional Development 011
University of Dar es Salaam. Dept. of Agricultural
Education and Extension 025
University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences 011,031
University of New England. Dept. of Agricultural
Economics and Business Management 004
University of Sussex. Institute of Development
Studies 018,058,059,060,061
University of the West Indies, Kingston 009
University of Zimbabwe 057
Waidyanatha, Parakrama 095
Warren, G.F. 094
Wijewardene, Ray 095
Wilson, G.F. 096
Wilson, R.T. 053,097
World Bank 075
Zambia. Dept. of Agriculture 050
Zandstra, H.G. 098,099
Zandstra, Hubert G. 100

FSR Vol. III, 1986


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Vol. III, 1986

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