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Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
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 Material Information
Title: Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Physical Description: 4 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Publisher: International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note: Title from cover.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053818
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001822822
oclc - 13012743
notis - AJP6828

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    User's guide to citations
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Order form
        Page 33
Full Text








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF

READINGS IN

FARMING SYSTEMS

1985 Volume II


Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP)


International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523

















PREFACE

One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) practitioners
is the difficulty in locating and accessing relevant FSR literature. The expansion of FSR projects and
programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports and monographs dealing with
particular aspects of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR
literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR
work makes it difficult, if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research
journals. Additionally, much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and
consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished
manuscripts from the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these
characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level prac-
titioners, who by the nature of their work are stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability
of these materials can only slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.

As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a
cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency
for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract
agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the
documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening
Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library
facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR
documents for their annotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective
bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the
bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Centerfor Development Information and Evaluation
(CDIE)/Development Information Division.

This is the second volume of the bibliography. A third volume is currently in production. CDIE will
catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography series and will be able to provide copies of
all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE
documentation center and duplicating services will continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring
that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will remain available.

The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies.
Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:

FSR/E Bibliography
Department of Sociology
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506
USA
Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are
also welcome.







USER'S GUIDE
TO CITATIONS


Item number 046


Title

Authors)

Institution(s)--

Meeting

Supplementary
note(s)

Project number --
Contract/Grant --
Availability
note L


PN-AAB-723
MF $3.24/PC $28.99


Field data collection in the social sciences,
experiences in Africa and the Middle East
Kearl, B.E.
Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
(Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences,
Beirut, LB)
1976, 221p. : En

French edition: PN-AAC-817
9310887
AID/CSD-2813
* Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA
A discussion of research methods practical field proce-
dures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social
scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered
include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and recon-
naissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling;
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using
data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific varia-
bles; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enu-
merators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9)
interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning coopera-
tion of respondents; and (11) preceding, and preliminary steps
in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication
is intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution
rather than a comprehensive reference or text.


-- Document number

Microfiche/
Paper Copy prices



Serial title
and number, date,
pagination, and
language


-- Abstract








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


001 PN-AAS-409
MF $1.08/PC $5.20
Farming systems research programme:
research guidelines and procedures
Ahmadu Bello University. Institute for Agricultural Research
[1984], 38p. : En
The background, procedures, and subprograms of the farm-
ing systems research program at northern Nigeria's Institute for
Agricultural Research (IAR) are examined in this report.
After tracing the evolution of IAR's farming systems re-
search program from the multidisciplinary agricultural research
of the 1920's to the current crop-based, interdisciplinary strate-
gy, the report examines the program's objectives, procedural
guidelines, and structure. The bulk of the paper discusses
technology development efforts conducted within the four IAR
research subprograms: (1) diagnostic studies to identify
agricultural production constraints (the various crop classifica-
tion systems used in northern Nigeria are described); (2) on-
station research to test possible technologies for overcoming
cropping constraints (the advantages of various crop mixtures
are noted); (3) researcher-or farmer-managed farm trials to
apply study results to the farmer's environment; and (4) village-
level studies to identify and correct institutional and social
constraints. On-going projects within each subprogram are
summarized.


003


* PN-AAS-317


Planning and conducting applied agricultural
research
Andrew, Chris O.; Hildebrand, Peter E.
Westview special study, 1982, xii, 94p. : En
* Available only from: Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave.,
Boulder, CO 80301 USA
Applied agricultural research usually focuses on a client's
specific problem and operates under time and resource con-
straints. Stressing the importance of problem identification and
hypothesis formulation, this book proposes a research method-
ology that efficiently utilizes limited resources while maximizing
the likelihood of achieving meaningful results for the client.
A section on research planning first examines the relation-
ship between the scope of a research project, the quantity and
quality of available resources (information, human, physical,
financial), and time constraints. Next, the orientation and focus
of research projects is discussed, including how to specify
researchable problems, formulate hypotheses, and delineate
objectives. A final section, on conducting applied research,
covers experimental and non-experimental data collection,
verification and interpretation of data, and data utilization.
An 89-item bibliography (1934-73) is provided.


004


002


PN-AAS-398


MF $1.08/PC $2.21
Review of insect prevalence in maize (Zea
mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
polycultural systems
Altieri, Miguel Angel; Francis, Charles A.; et al.
Field crops research, v. 1, 1978, p.33-49 : statistical tables,
En
Tropical agro-ecosystems often include two or more crops
arranged in diverse polycultural patterns. Experimental evalua-
tion of the pest situation in polycultural systems was carried out
in several field experiments at the International Center for
Tropical Agriculture with maize and beans in monoculture and
polyculture.
Beans grown as maize/bean polycultures had 26% fewer
Empoasca kraemeri Ross and Moore adults than monoculture
beans. Similarly, the populations of Diabrotica balteata Le
Compte were 45% less in polycultures. Spodoptera frugiperda
(Smith) incidence as cutworm in maize was reduced 14% in
polycultures. Also, these systems had 23% less infestation of
fall armyworm as a whorl feeder.
Date of planting affects pest interactions in these systems.
For example, planting maize 30 and 20 days earlier than beans
reduced leafhoppers on beans by 66% as compared to simul-
taneous planting, and fall armyworm damage on maize was
reduced 88% when beans were planted 20 to 40 days earlier
than the maize.
Diversification of monocultural systems with other crops,
especially non-host plants, seems to be one effective strategy
in tropical pest management. Further research will provide a
basis for incorporating practical pest control schemes into the
most important intercropping systems in the tropics. (Author
abstract)


PN-AAS-151
MF $1.08/PC $2.86


Pour une approche integree du problem de la
stabilisation de la petite exploitation en region
tropical humide (Towards an integrated
approach to the problem of stabilization of
small farms in the humid tropics)
Bailly, C.; Kilian, J.; Simon, B.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.9-31 : Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
An integrated system of interdisciplinary research and ex-
tension is proposed for strengthening small farm production
systems in the humid tropics. Research, it is urged, should first
be directed toward organizing a permanent system for collect-
ing agricultural information in a useful form in order to identify
successful production systems for extension to small farmers.
The process of developing these production systems includes
mapping the physical resources of the region, studying socio-
economic factors, and establishing experimental units (les
unites experimentales) compatible with ecological and socioec-
onomic realities, especially with known constraints. It is noted
that production systems must be practicable and acceptable to
the farmers. The final research phase consists of identifying
technical processes for extension, planning and developing
technological packages, recommending demonstration meth-
ods, identifying logistical support requirements, and anticipat-
ing farmers' needs. A discussion of the socioeconomic analysis
of farm production systems is appended.


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


005


PN-AAS-080
MF $1.08/PC $3.77


Measuring the benefits of subsistence versus
commercial livestock production in Africa
Behnke, Roy, Jr.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.564-592 : charts, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
In seeking ways to improve farmer welfare, farming systems
research projects usually encourage commercialization of
farming activities. This paper addresses the need for a quanti-
tative technique with which to assess the relative benefits of
commercial and subsistence livestock husbandry in Africa,
where the shift from subsistence production to commercial
farming entails a shift from multipurpose animal use to
monohusbandry.
Three methods of measuring the benefits of commercial
and subsistence production are examined: biological and eco-
nomic measures of herd productivity, and measures of the
nutritional status of the population engaged in livestock produc-
tion. Quantitative studies of pastoral vs. commercial production
are used to illustrate the first and second measures; the
measurement of the human nutritional impacts of livestock
development is discussed more hypothetically due to the lack
of relevant quantitative studies. The respective strengths and
weaknesses of each method are noted, as is the fact that the
three methods do not necessarily produce comparable results.
The author concludes that the problems inherent in measuring
farmer/herder benefits, such as the difficulty of determining the
value of subsistence production, also reveal that such meas-
urement whether in terms of productivity, profit, or welfare -
cannot exclude an assessment of farmers' goals and motiva-
tions.
A 46-item bibliography (1969-83) as well as 5 tables and 2
figures are included.


006


First, farm families in Botswana are dispersed physically and
economically in order to take advantage of diverse income
earning opportunities; FSR, however, by focusing on farm
income alone, underestimates the importance of wage employ-
ment in the overall farm household economy. Secondly, the
concept of the individual farm as a discrete entity exaggerates
the farming system's economic isolation and self-sufficiency.
Lastly, typologies which group farmers into theoretically ho-
mogenous target groups ignore the interdependence among
farmers within a community. Traditional farm-centered FSR,
thus, while otherwise useful, obscures farmers' economic
motivations. The authors conclude with several practical steps
for incorporating anthropological field techniques into FSR to
address these shortcomings.
A bibliography of 14 references (1973-82) is provided.


007


PN-AAS-275
MF S2.16/PC $13.00


Exploitation agricole familiale en Afrique
Soudano Sahelienne (Development of family
farms in the Sahel region of Africa)
Benoit-Cattin, Michel; Faye, Jacques
Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation; International
Council of French Language
Techniques vivantes, 1982, 94p. : charts, map, Fr
A multidisciplinary research program sought to develop a
methodology to analyze agricultural production by farm families
in Africa's Sudano-Sahelian zone, a region of alternating dry
and rainy seasons. This report details the research chronologi-
cally, describing the elements and relationships of family farms.
Following a literature review, the research team selected
two villages in Senegal for detailed study. The villages, which
were chosen for their ecosystems as well as their economic
and social structure, were studied with regard to their history,
land use, collective equipment, cooperatives, relations with
neighboring villages, and social structure. Farm activities were
detailed for two rainy seasons and an intervening dry season;
heads of households were interviewed in depth to trace familial
structure and division of labor.
A final chapter defines the family farm, the basic unit of
farming in Africa, thus setting the context for efforts to remove
constraints on technological progress in Sudano-Sahelian agri-
culture. Two bibliographies, totaling 37 items (1964-80), are
appended.


PN-AAS-208
MF $1.08/PC $1.04


FSR and the attempt to understand the goals
and motivations of farmers
Behnke, Roy; Kerven, Carol
Culture and agriculture, v.19, 1983, p.9-16 : En
Farming systems research (FSR) was designed explicitly to
focus on the farming unit in order to identify the values,
rationales, and objectives underlying farmers' behavior. This
paper argues that the analytical units employed in FSR the
farming system, the individual farm, and the recommendation
domain in fact impede the attempt to understand farmers'
economic goals and objectives. Examples from Botswana are
used to illustrate these methodological shortcomings.


VoL II, 1985


006








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


008


PN-AAS-153
MF $1.08/PC $2.34


Methodologie d'etude des systems de
production pour une agriculture paysanne
tropical (Method of studying agricultural
production systems on small tropical farms)
Benoit-Cattin, M.; Tourte, R.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.35-52 : charts, map, Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Based on experience in tropical farming systems in Africa
(Senegal) and South America (Brazil), a method is presented
for coordinating research and development (R&D) with the
farmers' needs to achieve optimum agricultural production on
small farms.
Of primary importance is effective dialogue among re-
searchers, extensionists, and farmers. Development of produc-
tion systems for extension especially requires communication
with and participation by the farmer who is to benefit; research
must be adapted to his geographical and conceptual con-
straints. The R&D process takes place in three areas: the
learning world (basic research and design of on-farm experi-
ments); the controlled world (model farm tests of innovations);
Sand the where agricultural innovations are tested under existing
agrosocioeconomic conditions. It is concluded that, of all the
participants in the R&D process, the farmer is the most
indispensable.


009


* PN-AAS-620
MF $1.08/PC $.91


Survey research in support of cropping
system improvement
Bernsten, R.H.; Nataatmadja, Hidayat
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, p.104-110 : En
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Baseline data collected prior to testing new cropping sys-
tems technologies are often too voluminous, too general, or
inadequate in regard to labor and income factors. This report
describes a problem-focused survey used in West Java, In-
donesia to obviate these problems. Prior to the survey, existing
secondary and experimental data were collected to guide
research site selection and help identify major parameters
affecting the choice of crop pattern. Next, the survey itself was
conducted; it consisted of consulting with agronomists and
farmers to identify current agroclimatic and socioeconomic
constraints to crop production, developing a set of hypotheses
to evaluate the importance and cause of the constraints,
preparing and administering a questionnaire to elicit informa-
tion on farmers' resources and technology, and preparing


Vol. II, 1985


descriptive tables of the overall farming situation. In addition,
experimental data were collected during initial field trials of a
new technology and their economic significance was deter-
mined. Finally, new cropping patterns were designed, tested,
and introduced on a large scale. One year after implementa-
tion, an evaluation survey was conducted to measure their
impact. The importance of carefully planning each stage of
research as regards objectives, activities, and data required is
stressed.


010


PN-AAS-299
MF $3.24/PC $39.65


Manual of instructions for economic
investigators in ICRISAT's village level studies
Binswanger, Hans P.; Jodha, N.S.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
Village level studies series : economics program, v.2, Nov
1978, viii, 134p. + 5 appendices : charts, En
936411106
Instructions for economic investigators conducting village-
level studies in India for the International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics are presented in this manual.
An introductory section provides information on manual use,
village and household selection, interviewing techniques, and
report submission as well as on coding procedures to be
followed in preparing schedules. Subsequent chapters provide
detailed instructions on completing the following types of
schedules: household census; household member; plot and
crop rotation; animal, farm implement, and farm building inven-
tory; cultivation; labor, draft animal, and major machinery
utilization; household transaction; stock inventory; and credit
and debt. These are followed by a coding list to be used in filling
out the schedules.
Appendices include examples of completed worksheets
and schedules and further coding aids.


011 PN-AAS-179
MF $1.08/PC $1.17
Village level studies as a locus for research
and technology adaptation
Binswanger, Hans P.; Ryan, James G.
(International Symposium on Development and Transfer of
Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer,
Patancheru, IN, 28 Aug 1 Sep 1979)
1980, p.121-129 : En
Proceedings of the international symposium on development
and transfer technology for rainfed agriculture and the
SAT farmer
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
Complete proceedings: PN-AAQ-782
936411106
ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India
Proceedings are presented of an 8/28-9/1/79 international
symposium conducted in Patancheru, India, by the Internation-
al Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT) on developing and transferring technology for
rainfed agriculture in the semiarid tropics. The bulk of the
document consists of 33 papers presented at symposium
3


009








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


sessions dealing with the following major areas: ICRISAT
research aimed at developing technology for the semiarid
tropics (5 papers); the transfer of agricultural technology (7
papers) and ICRISAT cooperative programs to facilitate this
transfer (4 papers); research and development issues and
institutions (6 papers); research and development experience
at 9 semiarid locations (India, Maharashtra, Nigeria, Burkina
Faso, Senegal, Sahel, Brazil, Thailand, and the Philippines);
and linkages (2 papers). Discussions held after each of the
aforementioned sessions are summarized. Appended are
French abstracts of English papers and the original texts of
French-language papers.


012


PN-AAS-278
MF $1.08/PC $1.17


Research at benchmark locations : report of
working group 3
Burford, J.R.; Bansal, R.K.; et al.
Jul 1983, p.30-38 : En
ICRISAT farming systems research : a special report
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
936411106
* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India
Relatively little attention has been given in ICRISAT's
Farming Systems Research (FSR) program to the criteria to be
used in selecting benchmark (representative) research sites.
This article discusses the use and concepts of benchmarks in
general and then defines criteria for ICRISAT site selection,
namely, similarity of soils and climate, toposequence (arrange-
ment of soil types), biological parameters (crop pests and
diseases), and sociological aspects; FSR sites should also
serve regions which have been identified by ICRISAT crop
improvement programs. ICRISAT's three primary benchmark
FSR locations (two at Patancheru, India, and one at Sadore in
West Africa) are well chosen; a site in Brazil is also needed. An
experienced consultant may be hired eventually to identify 15
other sites of concern to ICRISAT, and greater intercommuni-
cation among the existing sites is recommended.


013


PN-AAS-085
MF $1.08/PC $4.03


Putting farming systems research data
collection in perspective : practicalities and
realities
Butler, Lorna Michael
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.525-555 : charts, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00


Data collection methods for farming systems research
(FSR) need to be flexible, rigorous, and adaptable to resource
constraints and to correspond to the needs of small-scale farm
families, local extension and research station staff, organiza-
tional decisionmakers, and national leaders. This paper dis-
cusses the data collection requirements of a FSR approach.
The five phases in the FSR problemsolving process, each
requiring the collection of different data, are first described:
legitimization of the FSR approach; research site selection;
problem analysis; solution identification; and extension integra-
tion. Next, data collection is discussed as a tool to facilitate a
systems framework, participation and communication, a learn-
ing laboratory, reliable information, and data for Following an
outline of guidelines to be used in designing appropriate data
collection strategies, the bulk of the paper discusses the
strengths and weaknesses of various methods as they are
applied in the five phases of FSR. A combination of methods is
recommended as the most effective approach.


014


PN-AAN-941
MF S1.08/PC $1.17


Farming systems research : issues in research
strategy and technology design
Byerlee, Derek; Harrington, Larry; Winkelmann, Donald L.
American journal of agricultural economics, v.64(5), Dec
1982, p.897-904 : En
While farming systems research (FSR) holds much promise
for increasing agricultural production in developing countries,
the confusing array of current FSR activities may lead donors
and researchers to become disenchanted with the approach.
This paper presents a strategy to optimize FSR's effectiveness
by narrowing its focus.
First discussed is the need to incorporate a holistic view of
complex farming systems and cost-effective, results-oriented,
on-farm research methods into FSR programs. A strategy
emphasizing only a few research objectives and focusing on
the capabilities of homogenous farmer groups is outlined. Next,
the cost-effectiveness of different types of data collection is
discussed, data collection techniques are reviewed, and a
methodology for selecting farming technologies to be in-
vestigated is outlined. Differences between the proposed FSR
strategy and current farm research are highlighted, and a need
to orient the training of FSR economists toward direct interac-
tion with planners and technical scientists is indicated. A final
section considers the potential accomplishments of a focused
FSR program while urging realistic expectations on the part of
donors and researchers.


015


PN-AAM-859
MF $1.08/PC $12.09


Why farmers plant what they do : a study of
vegetable production technology in Taiwan
Calkins, Peter H.
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center; U.S.
Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Development Support. Office of Agriculture
AVRDC technical bulletin, no.8(78-74), Aug 1978, v, 86p. : En
936411105
To develop a methodology for assessing agricultural devel-
opment plans, a study was conducted in southern Taiwan on


VoL II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


the role of vegetable cropping in overall production patterns
and on how farmers decide what to grow. This report presents
the results.
The primary goal of all farmers surveyed is increasing
profits, followed by having a stable income, increasing produc-
tion per hectare, and reducing labor requirements. The major
constraints on achieving these goals are economic (labor
shortage, high wages) and agronomic (pests, diseases, water).
Cropping system selection is based in the uplands mainly on
water availability (diseases and inadequate roads are major
problems) and in the lowlands on economics (drainage is the
main problem).
Both farm size and location are factors in determining a
cropping pattern. A study of 18 representative farms showed
that: the higher priced vegetable crops have generally replaced
root crops; fall processing tomato is most suitable for upland
farms and fall fresh market tomato for lowlands; and inter-
cropping cauliflower with lima beans is mutually beneficial
agronomically, balances price trends, and stabilizes labor use.
The major motivation of medium and large farmers is to
increase income per hectare; their successful cropping sys-
tems use labor evenly through the year and minimize risk
through diversified cropping. Small farmers strive to maximize
income per hour worked; labor use variability over the year is of
less concern. Non-vegetable farmers have the least successful
cropping pattern, low income, high and uneven use of labor,
and crops that fail. The methodology described here is low-cost
and may be used to pinpoint cropping system weaknesses and
possible improvements in other countries.
The report includes 4 appendices, 32 figures, and a 21-item
bibliography (1961-78).


016


PN-AAS-621
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Croppings systems research in four research
sites in Thailand, 1977
Chandrapanya, Damkheong
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 6th, Kandy, LK,
13-17 Dec 1977)
1978, p.204-231 : charts, En
Sixth report of the croppings systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
Sri Lanka. Department of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Completed and ongoing cropping systems research trials at
four sites in Thailand Pimai, Ubon, Inburi, and Bangpae are
described. For the first three sites, the report describes soil and
climatic conditions, crop patterns and crop management meth-
ods used by researchers, and the economic information
sought. Included are trial results regarding yield, income, total
variable cost, and net income for Pimai and Inburi and descrip-
tions of fertilizer trials at Pimai; trials in relay planting of corn
into rice at Ubon; and agronomic superimposed trials and crop
treatments at Inburi. The crops tested at the three sites were
mungbean, peanut, corn, rice, cowpea, yard long bean, and
cucumber. The final section of the report describes and, where
available, provides the results of a total of 12 trials regarding
aspects such as crop patterns, fertilizers, and herbicides -
conducted at Bangpae both on rice and on crops planted
before rice. Four figures and a data chart are appended.


Vol. II, 1985


017


* PN-AAS-622


MF $1.08/PC $2.47

Rice based cropping systems research in
Thailand
Chandrapanya, Damkheong; Banta, G.R.
(Cropping Sytems Working Group Meeting, 8th, Kathmandu,
NP, 28-31 May 1979)
1979, p.264-282 : statistical tables, En
Eighth report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Experimental methods to be used by Thai institutions in
conducting rice-based cropping systems research at four priori-
ty and representative sites are discussed. At Pimai, inter-
cropping of rice with mungbean, peanut, sesame, and corn is
proposed, each of the latter to be grown before rice for more
efficient use of land and rain. Except for sesame, a like
combination of crops will be grown at Ubon and a double rice
crop and a mix of rice and (ratoon) rice will be added. Expected
yields are calculated for each crop combination. If yields are
less than these figures, the farmer need pay nothing; if yields
equal or exceed expectations, the farmer will pay for fertilizer,
seed, and pesticides. Intercropping of rice with glutinous corn,
yard long bean, peanut, RD 7, and RD 9 is planned for another
Ubon location. Combinations proposed for Kampangphet are
preplanting of glutinous corn, mungbean, and soybean before
rice and of rice before mungbean, peanut, sweet potato.
Proposals for Bangpae include intercropping of mungbean,
soybean, sweet corn, glutinous corn, and sugarcane before rice
and a wide variety of research-managed and superimposed
trials.


018


PN-AAS-081


MF $1.08/PC $4.42

Design and evaluation of new technologies for
adoption by small farmers: an example from
the Philippines
Chapman, James A.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.604-637 : charts, map, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
A set of criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of new
farming systems technologies are proposed in this report,
which also illustrates their use in assessing seven technologies
being developed for small farms in a rice-growing, rainfed area
of Iloilo Province, Philippines.
5


017








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


The evaluation criteria, derived from a review of farming
systems research literature and experience with cropping sys-
tems research in the Philippines, are first briefly described.
They are: (1) resource utilization; (2) contribution to household
objectives; (3) institutional requirements; (4) managerial re-
quirements; (5) agroclimatic requirements; and (6) acceptability
to farmers. Following a description of Iloilo's traditional
cropping systems, the paper uses the proposed criteria to
evaluate the suitability of three existing (developed) and four
notional (undeveloped or poorly developed) rice technologies
for use in Iloilo. Finally, the seven technologies are rated in
terms of their potential effects on existing Iloilo farming sys-
tems and ranked in order of desirability; results are provided in
table form.
Two tables, 12 figures and a 6-item bibliography (1978-83)
are appended.


019


PN-AAS-235
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


Exploratory survey : content, methods and
detailed guidelines for discussions with
farmers
Collinson, M.P.
Farming systems newsletter, no.5, Apr-Jun 1981, p.13-28 :
En
The exploratory survey can provide farming systems re-
searchers with an understanding of the farmer's production
perspective and of major farm management constraints. This
paper explains the content and methods of the exploratory
survey and provides detailed interviewing guidelines.
Stressing the need for interaction between the economist
and the agronomist on the research team, the paper first briefly
describes the information that the survey seeks to discover,
including: the farmer's priorities (as reflected in his/her choice
of farming enterprise, growing period, and use of product);
resource allocation and use; and, based on an appraisal of
system limitations and management problems, the leverage
points at which new techniques can be introduced for system
improvement.
The remainder of the paper discusses the survey methodol-
ogy, which utilizes unstructured interviews with target group
farmers, and provides six sets of interview questions. The first
four sets constitute the initial investigation from which re-
searchers can identify the system's labor allocation profile,
resource constraints, farmers' priorities and decision criteria,
management strategies, leverage points, and levels of return
on cash outlays. The last two sets examine crop and livestock
production methods and their effects on the potential efficiency
of a technology.


020


PN-AAS-154
MF $1.08/PC $3.90


Etude integree de la culture du coton
(Integrated study of cotton cultivation)
Conessa, A.P.; Cozic, P.; et al.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.115-144 : charts, Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
After several years in which cotton harvests in Algeria were
below those expected from results on experimental farms, an
interdisciplinary study was conducted to determine why im-
proved cultivation techniques failed to increase cotton produc-
tion. The analysis was conducted at two levels: at the station
level, where the effect of environmental and technical factors
on cotton production were studied; and at the farm production
level, where socioeconomic factors were examined. A simple
regression formula was devised to analyze soil type, climate,
specific cultivation methods, parasitic damage, and soil acidity
and sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content. Socioeco-
nomic factors included the relationship among inputs (e.g.,
labor, equipment), parasite damage, intercropping, dates of
seeding and harvest, pesticide use (and misuse), and irrigation.
Results show that while the farmers are well acquainted with
cotton cultivation techniques, if the inputs are not available they
first plant dry vegetable crops for home consumption and then
plant cotton crops, but with less than optimum timing. Another
constraint is the low price for cotton paid by the cooperatives.
Higher prices and greater freedom for farmers to choose their
cotton acreage are recommended.


021


PN-AAS-100
MF $1.08/PC $6.63


Agroecosystem analysis
Conway, Gordon R.
University of London. Imperial College of Science and
Technology. Centre for Environmental Technology
ICCET series E: dynamics of environmental systems, no. 1,
1983, 51p. : charts, En
In response to growing demand for a more multidisciplinary
and holistic approach to agricultural research, a procedure for
agroecosystem analysis is described which combines a rigor-
ous framework with sufficient flexibility to foster interdisciplinary
action. This procedure has been tested in several workshops in
Thailand over the past 5 years.
Participants in the analysis begin by defining its objectives
and identifying relevant systems, their boundaries, and
hierarchic arrangement. Pattern analysis follows: a systems
analysis by all the participating disciplines in terms of space,
time, flows, and decisions. These patterns are crucial in deter-
mining the important properties of the agroecosystem being
analyzed, i.e., its productivity, stability, sustainability, and equi-
tability. The outcome of pattern analysis is a set of agreed-upon
key questions for future research or a set of tentative guidelines
for development. The procedure can be applied at any stage of
a project, but is particularly useful at the beginning when data


voL II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


are scarce, and ideally should be repeated regularly. Appended
is a 37-item bibliography (1962-83). (Author abstract, modified)


023


PN-AAS-155
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


022


PN-AAS-088
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Application of farming systems research and
development to an extensive, sedentary
livestock production system in Southern
Kordofan, Sudan
Cook, R.H.; Bunderson, W.T.; et al.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.285-312 : charts, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Since livestock are a part of the agricultural production
systems in most developing countries, they should be included
in farming systems research and development (FSR&D) activi-
ties. This report examines the application of FSR&D to an
extensive, sedentary, livestock production system in the Nuba
Mountain Region of Southern Kordofan, Sudan. After discuss-
ing the basic differences between extensive livestock produc-
tion systems and the agronomic systems on which FSR&D
traditionally focuses (farmers have greater control over land
use and agronomic systems lend themselves to short-term
interventions), the report describes researchers' use of an
operational FSR&D framework in order to stabilize and improve
livestock production in the Nuba Mountain Region. Activities
consisted of augmenting secondary data with reconnaissance
surveys to establish recommendation domains, identify key
crop and livestock production constraints, and design techno-
logical interventions. Constraints identified in the region were
rangeland deterioration, inefficient use of resources, and limit-
ed water availability. Some possible interventions include intro-
ducing forage legumes, conserving native forage, and gather-
ing sorghum crop residues through the use of animal traction.
Four figures are appended.


Essai d'elaboration d'un system maraicher
intensif en zone tropical de basse altitude
(Towards an intensive system of truck farming
in low altitude tropical zones)
Daly, P.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.147-160 : Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Decreases in the traditional cultivation of sugar cane and
bananas in the low-altitude, tropical zone of Martinique has led
in recent years to the cultivation of new crops, especially of
vegetables. This study identifies technical and agrochemical
constraints to this development and assesses the feasibility of
an intensive system of cultivating vegetables for local markets
(truck farming).
Current fruit/vegetable production systems include inter-
cropping bananas and market vegetables (tomato, lettuce,
cucumber, and cabbage); occasional tomato cultivation; and
intercropping sorghum and melon, tomato, watermelon, or
eggplant. Permanent constraints on vegetable production are
soil texture and chemical content, climate, and an environment
favorable to plant disease organisms. Constraints induced by
intensified vegetable cultivation include the development of
plant parasites, reduced soil fertility, breakdown in soil struc-
ture, and the increasing difficulty of maintaining the soil. On the
economic side, vegetable production is high in cost relative to
marketable yield. A discussion of these and related social
factors leads to the conclusion that truck farming currently
operates under significant constraints that are far from being
solved. Appended are agroclimatic data for the north Caribbe-
an coast.


024 PN-AAR-865
MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Towards a framework for pastoral systems
research
de Haan, Cees
International Livestock Centre for Africa
(Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan
Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983)
Aug 1983, p.25-42 : chart, statistical tables, En
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
936411109
ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The complexity of livestock production systems in Sub-
Saharan Africa and the multiple objectives of livestock produc-
ers require the study of whole systems rather than of com-
ponents; the livestock systems research practiced by the
International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) represents
such an approach. This report overviews ILCA's methodology
and highlights some of its results.
Using examples from Mali, Kenya, and Ethiopia, the report
focuses on pastoral systems in arid and semiarid zones, while


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


including linkages with agropastoral cropping systems. The
stages in ILCA's livestock systems research strategy are
outlined and discussed, including description, diagnosis, de-
sign, testing, and extension. Emphasis is placed on the impor-
tance of: sample selection as a tool for improving the cost-
effectiveness of the diagnostic and testing phases; identifica-
tion of improvements during the descriptive and diagnostic
phases using a multidisciplinary team effort; comparison with a
control group under producer's conditions during the crucial
testing phase; and evaluation during the extension phase.
ILCA's future research will focus on developing a systems
methodology for each of the major ecological zones and
improvements for identified constraints and on helping national
research and development agencies to establish their own
livestock research capabilities.
A 16-item bibliography (1973-83) is appended.


PN-AAS-089
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Nutritional strategies and farming systems
research in southern Honduras : the
international sorghum and millet project
(INTSORMIL)
DeWalt, Kathleen M.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.675-688 : En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Nutrition research conducted in 1981 in southern Honduras
as part of a farming systems research program under the
International Sorghum and Millet (INTSORMIL) Project is de-
scribed. The research consisted of administering question-
naires to determine the role of sorghum and other foods in
household food strategies and of collecting anthropometric
data on children under 6 years of age to determine nutritional
status.
Results showed that sorghum, which was eaten at some
time during the year by at least half of the people interviewed, is
an important foodstuff especially among land renters, even
though it is viewed as an insurance food and even though corn
is preferred for color and taste and perhaps for cultural
reasons for giving a feeling of satisfaction. Other important
dietary staples identified by the study were dairy products,
particularly eggs, and chicken. Feeding trials of sorghum con-
ducted during the research indicated poor nutritional value for
children, although the results may have been due to inap-
propriate preparation (raw sorghum mixed with water). Prepara-
tion techniques used elsewhere (e.g., fermentation, in Africa)
suggest that sorghum may be more nutritive with proper
preparation. In response to a suggestion from earlier INTSOR-
MIL research that sorghum-based diets may increase the need
for ascorbic acid, the present research showed that Honduran


diets contain a wide variety of foods, including those rich in
ascorbic acid as well as those (e.g., beans and cowpeas) that
contain the complementary amino acids necessary to make
sorghum a complete protein.


026 PN-AAS-222
MF $1.08/PC $3.25
Fermes de references ovines en Languedoc
Roussillon (Sheep farms in Languedoc
Roussillon)
Dolle, V.
Journee recherche developpement en milieu rural, no.12,
1982, 21p. : charts, Fr
In order to achieve increased sheep production in the
Languedoc Roussillon region of France through the improved
use of forage resources, existing production systems on 54
"reference" farms were analyzed as the first of a
two-stage project. This report describes the research method-
ology (criteria for selecting reference farms, the type of data
collected, and methods of analyzing data) and the use of
research data to characterize three aspects of the sheep
production systems: zootechnical (data on animal numbers,
growth, and food needs), technical (mode of utilization of the
various forages over seasons), and economic (the degree to
which a production system is self-sufficient). Particular atten-
tion was given to analyzing livestock food requirements and
how to best make available resources (forage, cereals, straw)
corresponding to livestock needs, including when such needs
must be met using inputs not produced on the farm. Numerous
diagrams are included to illustrate production system relation-
ships.


PN-AAS-156
MF $1.08/PC $3.51


Systems d'exploitation et encadrement
communitaire : I'exemple des villages de la
vallee du Chancay Perou (Farming systems
and surrounding communities : the example of
villages in the Chancay Valley, Peru)
Dollfus, 0.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.181-207 : charts, Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
The impact of local and global change agents on the
traditional, stable relationship between farm production sys-
tems and community institutions are explored in this case study
of dry mountain farming in Peru's Chancay Valley.
The paper first discusses the Andean environment, describ-
ing production systems at different altitudes. The state of
farming technology and community governance and structure
at about the year 1950 is presented to exemplify a holistic,
apparently stable system; a flashback to the colonial period
highlights the evolution of the system, particularly in relation to
government policy. Discussion of the changes in the Peruvian


Vol. II, 1985


025


027








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


agricultural sector during the 1970's reveals increased diversifi-
cation; these changes are reflected in the heterogeneity of
production in Chancay Valley in the period 1975-80, notably an
increase in cattle head and the trend toward individual, market-
oriented production of fruit trees with a concomitant decrease
in subsistence and feed crop production and the consequent
disintegration of the traditional bond between production sys-
tems and community structure. The conclusion questions
whether community systems can survive in light of this contem-
porary development. Several tables and graphs illustrate the
analysis schematically.


er use. Also, economic studies have been conducted to moni-
tor resource use, evaluate the cropping patterns, and assess
the overall economics of production, and a study of social
aspects has recently been undertaken. Research at the other
sites Paranthan, Bandarawela, Angunukolapelessa, and
Manar is progressing well. A large portion of the article
presents data collected on cropping problems in the fully
irrigated areas covered by the Mahaweli Diversion Scheme as
the basis for a full-fledged cropping program in the future. The
article includes 21 tables and 6 graphs.


028


PN-AAT-01 1
MF $2.16/PC $14.56


Pequenos agricultores III : manual para colets
de dados em sistema de producao em
propriedades agricolas (Small Farmers III :
manual for data collection at the farm level in
farming systems research)
Doraswamy, Gorantla; Vallee, Gilbert Jean A.; Porto,
Everaldo Rocho
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural
Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
EMPRAPA CPATSA documents, no.28, 1984, 123p.:
statistical tables, Pt
A set of precodified questionnaires for collecting socioeco-
nomic data from farmers in the course of farming systems
research (FSR) is presented. The data from the completed
questionnaires can be fed directly into a computer, thus per-
mitting homogeneity and reducing the time required for data
processing and analysis. The data provide the understanding of
the farm situation necessary for developing economically viable
alternatives for improving the living conditions of small and
medium farmers in the semiarid tropics. The document also
describes the socioeconomic data necessary for FSR, outlines
data gathering methods, and provides instructions for filling in
the questionnaires. (Author abstract, modified)


029


PN-AAS-625
MF $1.08/PC $5.72


Sri Lanka cropping systems program
Fernando, G.W.E.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 8th, Kathmandu,
NP, 23-31 May 1979)
1979, p.156-199 : charts, statistical tables, En
Eighth report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Cropping systems research is being conducted in Sri Lanka
at a network of physically and biologically distinct sites, for
each of which specific objectives and methodologies have
been developed within overall research objectives. This article
reviews the progress of research at the individual locations.
Research in tank-fed dry-zone cultivation at Walagambahuwa
and in rainfed lowland paddy tracts at Katupotha has solved the
first order problems and begun to concentrate on component
technology aspects such as cropping pattern, labor, and fertiliz-

Vol. II, 1985


030


PN-AAS-139
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


Analysis of adaptation in a plant breeding
programme
Finlay, K.W.; Wilkinson, G.N.
Australian journal of agricultural research, v.14, 1963, p.742-
754 : charts, En
To measure the adaptation of barley varieties, grain yields
from 277 randomly selected varieties grown in repeated trials at
three sites in South Australia were subjected to linear regres-
sion analysis using a logarithmic scale. The mean yield of all
varieties for each site and season provided a quantitative
grading of the environments, and the analysis identified varie-
ties specifically adapted to good and poor seasons, as well as
those showing general adaptability.
A two-dimensional plot (scatter diagram) was used, with
mean yield and regression coefficient as coordinates for each
variety. Although wide variation was evident in both mean yield
and sensitivity to environment, the variation in sensitivity was
proportionately less among varieties with higher mean yield,
and the varieties with highest mean yield exhibited, within very
narrow limits (regression coefficients close to 0.8), a similar
degree of adaptation to all environments typical of the South
Australian cereal belt. Varieties from particular geographic
regions of the world showed similar types of adaptation.
The phenotypic stability and physiological and morphologi-
cal characteristics of groups of varieties with specific or general
adaptability are discussed in relation to plant introduction and
breeding. (Author abstract, modified)


031


PN-AAS-626
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Opportunities for economic analysis of
component technology at field sites
Flinn, J.C.
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, p.69-96 : charts, statistical tables, En
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The productivity of new agricultural technologies is usually
measured by averaging yields across locations within a re-
search site. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to
gain insight into the stability of a practice or the environment in
which it is relevant. This paper discusses some techniques for
the indepth economic analysis of agronomic trials; while these








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


analyses do not examine the system as a whole, they can be
applied using a pocket calculator and are usually sufficient for
identifying those cropping patterns and treatments which have
a real chance of being adopted.
The article first discusses the use of a pocket calculator in
conducting cumulative distributions analysis of a treatment's
net benefits dealing with variability and with extreme values,
inferring relationships from the distribution data, verifying nor-
mal distribution (and reading probabilities of interest when
distribution is not normal), and working with sparse data and in
testing paired comparisons. The article then addresses the
significance of environment to the performance of a technolo-
gy, introducing an index for ranking site productivity when no
site information is available and discussing the use of regres-
sion techniques to relate observed yields to managed and non-
managed site-related factors.
Nineteen tables and graphs and 19 references (1963-79)
are provided.


032


PN-AAS-183
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Evaluating technical innovations under low -
resource farmer conditions
Flinn, J.C.; Lagemann, J.
Experimental agriculture, v.16, 1980, p.91-101 : En
On-farm evaluation is necessary to test the superiority of
technical innovations developed for low-resource farmers. This
paper presents a procedure for such an evaluation and exem-
plifies its use with a proposed maize production package for
southeastern Nigeria. The evaluation used biologic and eco-
nomic analyses of the technology to help quantify the
biotechnical and management factors that largely determine
crop yields and thus the probability that the technology will
benefit farmers. The evaluation also maintained a close link
with farmers by soliciting their reactions to the technology.
Besides establishing important linkages with farmers and
strengthening dialogue among all concerned parties, this ap-
proach to technology design, it is concluded, also provides a
farmer-managed empirical test of a proposed technology be-
fore it becomes an extension recommendation.


033


PN-AAS-230
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


Identifying farmer target groups in an area:
methodology and procedures
Franzel, Steven
Farming systems newsletter, no.4, Jan-Mar 1981, p.13-25 :
En
Due to the considerable variation within farming systems,
adaptive research to improve small farm production must be
targeted for specific areas and target groups. Using Kenya's
administrative structure in its examples, this paper describes
methods and procedures useful in identifying farmer target
groups in an area. The procedures detailed should be applica-
ble to farming systems research in other countries.
Procedures for collecting background information, prepar-
ing maps, and designing a simple questionnaire focusing on
differences in district farming systems are first outlined. Key
issues to be discussed with the District Agricultural Officer and
appropriate techniques for interviewing field staff and ad-


ministering the questionnaire are next discussed. The paper
concludes with a brief examination of data tabulation, analysis,
and interpretation and of report writing.


034


PN-AAS-231
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Farming systems economics : fitting research
to farmers conditions
Gathee, J.W.
Farming systems newsletter, no.4, Jan-Mar 1981, p.1-10 : En
To bridge the gap between agricultural research recommen-
dations and the needs of the small farmer, a knowledge of the
farmer's production environment is necessary. This paper
shows how the use of farming systems economics has contrib-
uted to research on maize and bean intercropping in Kenya.
Following a series of pre-surveys, on-farm trials were con-
ducted in three bean-growing areas of Kenya to study various
mixed and single cropping systems of maize and beans.
Reported herein are the trial results for the semiarid region of
Machakos (Katumani). Using completely randomized blocks
and taking into account inputs and outputs, and physical,
economic, and social factors, five cropping systems were
tested: a recommended intercrop of maize and beans; two
variations on the traditional system; and monocrops of beans
and maize. The recommended intercropping system was found
to require too much planting labor for the small farmer in this
semiarid area, where timely planting is crucial due to the short
growing period. Since the sole constraint on the adoption of
this promising new technology is labor, the paper recommends
the introduction of a simple, cheap planting device.
Four tables, one figure, and a 9-item reference list (1965-78)
are included.


035


PN-AAR-950
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


Role of a cognitive anthropologist in a farming
systems program that has everything
Gladwin, Christina H.
(Exploratory Workshop on the Role of Anthropologists and
Other Social Scientists in Interdisciplinary Teams
Developing Improved Food Production Technology, Los
Banos, PH, 23-26 Mar 1981)
1982, p.73-92 : charts, En
Report on the exploratory workshop on the role of
anthropologists and other social scientists in
interdisciplinary teams developing improved food
production technology
International Rice Research Institute
936411102
The role of an anthropologist in a farming systems research
(FSR) program is discussed in this paper, which is based on the
author's experience as a member of a socioeconomic team
with the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science and
Technology (ICTA).
The author affirms the need to focus on farmer decision-
making in FSR and the importance of the decision-tree method-
ology introduced by anthrolopogist/agricultural economists for
achieving this purpose. A 2-stage decision model for farmers'
cropping decisions is developed: at the first stage, the farmer
narrows the range of possible crops to a feasible subset that


Vo. II, 1985


034









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


satisfies the minimum conditions; at the second he/she al-
locates the farm land to a crop or crops. Results obtained from
testing this model against actual cropping-choice data gather-
ed in six subregions of the Altiplano are provided, and implica-
tions of these results are discussed in regard to ICTA's specific
commodity programs and its technical design of field trials. The
author's reservations concerning ICTA's survey methods and
its use of anthropologists conclude the text.
A list of 45 references (1971-81) in English and Spanish is
appended.


036


PN-AAS-146
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Using ethnoscientific tools to understand
farmers' plans, goals, decisions
Gladwin, Christina H.; Zabawa, Robert; Zimet, David
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
1984, p.27-40 : charts, En IDRC-189e
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
of technology
International Development Research Centre
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
The ethnoscientific approach to increasing farmer participa-
tion in farming systems research seeks to understand the
system as an insider would. This paper illustrates the use of
ethnoscientific tools with an example of a cropping decision
faced by family farmers in Gadsden County, Florida.
The paper first describes taxonomic analysis, which is the
primary ethnoscientific tool, and presents a taxonomy of shade
tobacco, the major crop grown in Gadsden; the taxonomy
represents the knowledge structure developed by farmers
while growing shade and can be used to determine possible
substitute money crops. Next discussed is the cropping plan or
script a set of mental rules developed over many years and
passed on as the traditional way to do a task and its use, for
farming systems researchers, in revealing insiders' methods.
Gadsden farmers' plans for staked tomatoes and shade tobac-
co are presented. The final tool described is the hierarchical
decision model which can be used in the design and evaluation
of new technologies to represent farmers' decision criteria,
perceived alternatives and constraints, and outcomes; exam-
ples of decision trees are included.


037


PN-AAS-250
MF $3.24/PC $31.59


Multiple cropping in the humid tropics of Asia
Gomez, A.A.; Gomez, K.A.
International Development Research Centre
1983, 248p. : statistical tables, En, Es, Fr IDRC-176e
Abstracts in French and Spanish
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Multiple cropping holds great promise for increasing farm
productivity in the humid tropics of Asia. This booklet, written
primarily for agricultural researchers and rural development
workers and translated from French, summarizes the results of
current research and development efforts in multiple cropping.
The first chapter discusses the use of the multiple cropping
technology in lowland rice and annual and perennial upland
crop production and on hilly land. Following a general discus-


sion of factors related to multiple cropping research, several
chapters describe methodologies for technology generation
and verification, the use of the farm survey (for verification of
field experiments), techniques for varietal improvement, and
the development of a research strategy. The final chapters,
based on experiences with multiple cropping in the Philippines,
discuss the establishment of a national research network for
technology verification and the design and implementation of
pilot and national crop production projects.
Appended is a 295-item bibliography (1938-81).


038


PN-AAS-152
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Sistemas de production actuales y
potenciales para las sabanas de Venezuela
(Actual and potential production systems for
the savannahs of Venezuela)
Gonzalez J., E.; Escobar B., A.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.433-444 : charts, map,
Es
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Results obtained from forestry and commercial crop planta-
tions and from experimental animal production ventures bely
the accepted wisdom that Venezuela's savannahs are marginal
areas with low soil fertility, poor drainage, scarce rainfall, and
hence low production potential. This paper argues that ex-
panded agricultural use of the savannahs, which constitute a
fourth of the national territory, could help to arrest environmen-
tal deterioration elsewhere in Venezuela.
Mismanagement of Venezuela's ecosystem in general has
resulted in pasturage of low nutritive value, low secondary
productivity (meat production per ha), and destruction of for-
ests to provide more pasture land. The present land use
system has been perpetuated by large landholders who raise
herds of beef cattle and by a lack of diagnostic research on
integrated production systems. Such research could lead to
more intensive use of the savannahs; more rational and optimal
exploitation of their climate and space; use of alternative
technologies (e.g., drainage systems); diversification of vegeta-
ble and animal species and products; integrated systems of
vegetable production (rice, peanuts, sorghum, cotton); reduced
fluctuation in labor demand; and a land tenancy different from
the present system. Moreover, further deforestation could be
prevented by using savannahs, where modern cultivation tech-
niques could produce more crops at lower cost than on recently
deforested lands.


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


039


PN-AAR-949
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


Rice insect pest management technology and
its transfer to small scale farmers in the
Philippines
Goodell, G.E.; Kenmore, P.E.; et al.
(Exploratory Workshop on the Role of Anthropologists and
Other Social Scientists in Interdisciplinary Teams
Developing Improved Food Production Technology, Los
Banos, PH, 23-26 Mar 1981)
1982, p.25-41 : Tables, En
Report on the exploratory workshop on the role of
anthropologists and other social scientists in
interdisciplinary teams developing improved food
production technology
International Rice Research Institute
936411102
* IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines
In 1978, an interdisciplinary team from the International Rice
Research Institute began a 2 1/2-year project to test and
improve integrated pest management (IPM) for small farmers in
the Philippines. The project required persuading farmers that
IPM would offer significant benefits and devising ways to help
farmers organize themselves. This paper describes how, by
adopting a participatory, bottom-up approach, the team devel-
oped the technology from an initial Western orientation to its
much changed final form.
The paper discusses the technical requirements of IPM and
the constraints encountered in organizing farmers; the
anthropologist's role as mediator between scientists and far-
mers; modifications in the original IPM technology to which the
interaction among the anthropologist, the farmers, and en-
tomologists led in regard to problem identification, the com-
plexity of the technology, group crop management, and
packaging the technology; and the problems of integrating
social science with quantitative disciplines. Two tables outline,
respectively, changes made during the project in IPM technical
assumptions and in measures of rice-insect pest economic
thresholds from quantitative units to those more familiar to
farmers.


040


PN-AAR-870
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Household studies in pastoral systems
research
Grandin, Barbara E.; Bekure, Solomon
International Livestock Centre for Africa
(Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan
Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983)
Aug 1983, p.263-272 : En
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
936411109
* ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The high mobility of target populations and inaccessibility of
many regions in Sub-Saharan Africa present unique problems
for pastoral systems research, especially in terms of sample
selection and long-term survey work. This paper, based on
workshop proceedings, discusses techniques for household
data collection.
Crop and pastoral production systems are first contrasted
with regard to their effect on the research techniques used; the


importance of household-level data for designing pastoral
system interventions is stressed. Methods for collecting house-
hold data are reviewed, including the use of informal and formal
surveys; the effects on research of enumerators and question-
naires, data types, the frequency of visits, single-and multi-visit
formal surveys, and respondent cooperation and bias are
discussed.
A list of 10 references (1966-82) is included.


041 PN-AAS-082
MF $1.08/PC $1.56
On-farm animal traction research : experience
in Ethiopia with the introduction of the use of
single oxen for crop cultivation
Gryseels, Guido
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.419-430 : ill., En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Inadequate draft power is a major problem in the Ethiopian
highlands, partly because local Zebu oxen are relatively light in
weight and farmers assume that two oxen are always needed
for plowing. This paper reports initial results from farm trials,
conducted by the International Livestock Center for Africa
(ILCA), to evaluate the technical and economic efficiency of
working draft oxen singly, rather than in the traditional pair.
ILCA developed a suitable yoke and harness for single draft
and a modified version of the local wooden plow, conducted
preliminary on-station trials (which indicated that a single ox's
work output was satisfactory if the ox was adequately fed), and
held field days to demonstrate single-ox plowing. Farmers who
volunteered to cooperate in the research were helped to retrain
their oxen to work singly.
Thus far, the farm trials have been inconclusive because all
test farmers, their cultivation time reduced by a government
requirement that they work 1-2 days per week on cooperative
farms and by a religious prohibition of field work for almost 160
days per year, used a mix of single and paired oxen. One
indicative result, however, was that seven farmers in one area
sold their excess oxen to buy crossbred milk cows, increasing
milk production by 400%. The trials did show the need for a
stronger metal skid to work stony soil and that some farmers
had difficulty in supplying adequate nutrition for oxen worked as
singles.


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


042


* PN-AAQ-511


MF $1.08/PC $4.29
Recommendation domains: a framework for
on farm research
Harrington, L.W.; Tripp, Robert
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.02/84, Feb
1984, 27p. : En
936411101
CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico
To provide a framework for on-farm research and to help
identify appropriate target clientele for specific agricultural
improvements, the concept of the recommendation domain a
relatively homogenous group of farmers who are eligible for the
same recommendation has been developed. This paper
describes the concept and its use in agricultural research.
First discussed are the need for domains and their role in
the diagnosis of farm problems; in the design, implementation,
and analysis of on-farm experiments; and in the pooling of on-
farm trial data. Domains and the associated concepts of
research area, farmers' circumstances, and recommendation
are more clearly defined, followed by a discussion of guidelines
for the formation of domains. Domains are formed around
groups of farmers with similar agricultural practices and for
whom researchers see similar improvement opportunities; far-
mers can be grouped according to natural (e.g., climate, soils,
pest incidence) and/or socioeconomic (e.g., farm size, land
tenure) variables. Practical issues and complications that may
arise in the use of domains are discussed, including the size of
Domains, their permanence, and their correspondence to on-
farm experiments.
A 12-item bibliography (1976-82) is appended.


044


PN-AAP-196
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


Integrative agricultural systems research
Hart, Robert D.; Pinchinat, Antonio M.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 5-9 May 1980)
9 May 1980, p.555-565 : En
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Agricultural development requires an understanding of
whole agricultural regions and processes. This report presents
a new integrative agricultural systems research strategy which
analyzes hierarchically-related agricultural systems and gener-
ates models for alternative agroecosystems.
In traditional agricultural research, agricultural units are
studied in isolation and lower-level systems (agroecosystem
components such as crops and animals) receive more atten-
tion than higher ones (agroecosystems, farms, and regions).
The integrative approach requires examination of at least three
hierarchical levels over a 3-or 4-year period. Basic steps
include to: preliminarily characterize the regional system and
important farm systems and agroecosystems and produce
qualitative models; conduct regional studies and farm register
studies using the qualitative models; conduct exploratory and
analytical agroecosystem experiments; carry out component
research (similar to traditional agricultural research); design
and evaluate quantitative models of alternative
agroecosystems; and finally, transfer the new technology.
Systemic agricultural research requires interdisciplinary in-
tegration as well.
The report includes two figures and a 7-item bibliography
(1942-76).


PN-AAP-197 045


MF $1.08/PC $3.77
Guideline for the design of farming systems
projects : a case study from the Eastern
Caribbean
Hart, Robert D.; Calixte, George
Kansas State University; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Latin America and the
Caribbean. Regional Development Office
(Annual Farming Systems Symposium, 3rd, Manhattan, KS,
US, 31 Oct 2 Nov 1983)
2 Nov 1983, 28p. : En
Despite the increasing shift in emphasis in agricultural
research from commodity-oriented research and extension to
farming systems research and development (FSR&D), many of
the general design and implementation procedures needed to
pursue a multidisciplinary FSR&D methodology have not been
developed. This paper presents guidelines for FSR&D project
design drawn from experience in the Eastern Caribbean. Eight
steps in the general design sequence are presented: develop-
ing a design plan; forming a design team; defining a common
conceptual framework, the project objectives, the general
project strategy, and institutional structures; identifying re-
source requirements; and documenting the project design
results. A case study of an FSR&D project implemented by the
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute in
the Eastern Caribbean illustrates the steps.


PN-AAR-422
MF $1.08/PC $.52


Modified stability analysis of farmer managed,
on farm trials
Hildebrand, Peter E.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
Agronomy journal, v.76(2), Mar-Apr 1984, p.271-274 : En
Traditional on-farm research procedures try to minimize
cultural, social, and economic differences in order to focus on
the effects of technological variables. Described herein is a
form of research design and analysis which explicitly incor-
porates variations in farmer management of research trials as
well as in soils and climate, to help agronomists evaluate
responses to treatments and partition farmers into recommen-
dation domains.
Data from unreplicated trials on 14 farms in two southeast-
ern Malawi villages were analyzed to assess the effect of
different materials and technologies under both good and poor
farm management. Mean treatment yields at each location
were used as an index of the total farm environment, and
individual treatment results were regressed on this index. The
design was a 2x2 factorial with two maize (Zea mays L.)
cultivars and two fertilizer treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha).
Results show that, in poorer maize environments, local flint
cultivars were superior to an improved semi-flint composite,
with or without fertilizer. The composite yielded more than local
material with or without fertilizer in better environments. In all


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


cases there was a marked and significant response to fertilizer.
(Author abstract, modified)


046


PN-AAS-220
MF $1.08/PC $2.34


Sondeo: una metodologia multidisciplinaria de
caracterizacion de sistemas de cultivo
desarrollada por el ICTA (Sondeo : a
multidisciplinary methodology developed by
ICTA for the characterization of cultivation
systems)
Hildebrand, Peter E.; Ruano, Sergio
Foletto tecnico, no.21, Nov 1982, 15p. : Es
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology
The sondeo is a multidisciplinary rapid survey technique
developed by the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science
and Technology (ICTA) to provide the information needed to
orient the work of farming systems researchers. A reconnais-
sance survey team, generally comprised of pairs of
socioeconomists and technicians, assesses farmers' con-
straints and technological needs as a basis for agricultural
research. The sondeo team outlines the geographical area of a
homogeneous cultivation system, discovers the common agri-
cultural and socioeconomic conditions among the farmers, and
determines which of these conditions are most significant for
technology generation. Production figures from the first year of
ICTA field research supplement the sondeo team reports with
more quantitative information. Typical activities of a 6-day
sondeo operation are described in detail and the content of the
team members' reports is outlined. The critical role of the
sondeo coordinator is noted.


047


PN-AAS-249
MF $1.08/PC $8.84


Social scientists in agricultural research :
lessons from the Mantaro Valley project, Peru
Horton, Douglas E.
International Development Research Centre
1984, 67p. : ill., charts, En, Es, Fr IDRC-219e
Abstracts in French and Spanish
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
From 1977-1980, the International Potato Center (CIP)
conducted an interdisciplinary on-farm research program in the
Mantaro Valley of highland Peru to identify existing potato
technologies and farming systems that could serve as a basis
for technological innovations. Focusing on the on-farm re-
search methodology used and the primary role played by
anthropologists and sociologists, this paper summarizes proj-
ect results.
Following a description of the CIP's goals and setting, the
project's design, implementation, and research methodology
(including literature review, producer surveys, an ecologic and
agricultural baseline survey, and on-farm potato experiments)
are reviewed. Major empirical results are discussed in relation
to the concepts of the small-scale farmer, the technological
package, improved seed, and technology transfer. A section on
methodological lessons learned describes the difficulties with
on-farm research, the benefits of interdisciplinary research, the


value of informal surveys and simple on-farm trials, the contri-
butions of social scientists, and extrapolation of research
results.
Project accomplishments are several: the CIP now em-
braces on-farm research as an integral part of its research and
technology transfer system; a number of developing-country
professionals have been trained; project-developed on-farm
survey and experimental techniques are now routinely used in
CIP programs; and a rapidly increasing number of national and
international research training programs are adopting the proj-
ect's philosophy and interdisciplinary, farm-level research pro-
cedures.
Appended are a 91-item bibliography (1971-84) with titles in
English, French, and Spanish and a list of project-related
sources. (Author abstract, modified)


048


PN-AAS-623
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Comparison of the economic performance of
cropping pattern trials and farmers' patterns
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos,
Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978)
1978, p.77-90 : statistical tables, En
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The economic performance of a cropping pattern at the
trials stage determines whether the pattern will be recom-
mended to farmers or will be redesigned. As a general rule, a
pattern will be recommended if it increases profitability by 30%;
this figure covers the maximum reduced profitability which can
occur when a pattern is transferred to the farmer plus a margin
to induce adoption. A pattern may also be recommended if its
net profitability covers the cost of materials plus the previous
year's interest (to account for crop risk) or if returns to
resources used on the farm are higher than returns from those
same resources used in the market or for other applications.
Redesigning patterns in order to improve their profitability often
consists of adjusting inputs; comparisons of a pattern's per-
formance across land classes and analyses of its labor require-
ments are useful in determining the appropriate adjustments.
Still requiring further investigation, however, is the tendency of
farmers to apply fewer inputs to and obtain lower yields from
newly adopted cropping patterns a problem for which the 30%
rule compensates but does not explain. Examples from rice
cropping research in the Philippines support the argument;
eight tables provide data from those experiments.


049 PN-AAS-624
MF $1.08/PC $2.86
Economic data collection and analysis for field
trials in cropping systems research
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 6th, Kandy, LK,
13-17 Dec 1977)
1978, p.29-50 : statistical tables, En
Sixth report of the croppings systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
Sri Lanka. Department of Agriculture
936411102
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines


Vol II, 1985


046








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


Guidelines for the collection and early analysis of economic
data on cropping systems trials in farmers' fields are presented
and exemplified in this report. An initial section presents
recommendations regarding: (1) the initial baseline survey it
should be completed in 3 weeks rather than the usual 6
months, it should gather data on a site's physical and socioeco-
nomic characteristics and major cropping patterns from local
people, and it should employ a single coding system for
numbering farmers and fields in case integrated trials are held
in the future; (2) later, specific studies they should be based
on interviews with the original group of farmers and the study
questionnaire should be carefully coded; (3) the cropping
pattern trials themselves a daily log should record quantitative
data on all operations, materials used, power source, and
amount produced; and (4) economic analysis of trial data -
various techniques should be used in view of the variety and
variability of the factors involved. The second section of the
report exemplifies the guidelines with data drawn from a
cropping pattern trial of rice and sorghum in Iliolo. Specifically
included are a review of the daily log and analysis of data on
cropping pattern costs and returns and on labor requirements.
Appended are sheets of trial data.


050


PN-AAS-631
MF $1.08/PC $2.73


Techniques for on farm cropping systems
research
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos,
Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978)
1978, p.17-37 : charts, statistical tables, En
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The design of cropping pattern field trials, including the
superimposed trials used to evaluate the component (or man-
agement) technology used in prior trials, is examined. Initial
sections stress the need to gather and analyze data on the
research site's climate, existing cropping systems and
technologies, research history, and input needs and enumerate
the steps to be taken in designing the research program -
deciding on and describing the landtypes to be studied, identify-
ing production constraints, selecting cropping patterns for each
landtype, assigning each cropping pattern a single component
technology to be tested, and identifying areas in which further
information is needed. The three types of research trials on-
farm research-managed trials, cropping pattern trials, and
superimposed trials are described and guidelines for their
design presented. Due to the commonality of the cropping
pattern treatment used in these three kinds of trials, it is
suggested that the research design tie all of them together. In
particular, it is recommended that the design for superimposed
trials allow an upward approximation of the best management
package for the pattern while discouraging the inclusion of
input levels that have not proven beneficial. Nine tables and
graphs are included.


Vol. II, 1985


051


PN-AAS-619
MF $1.08/PC $1.69


Cropping systems research and development
in Indonesia
Ismail, Inu G.; Effendi, Suryatna
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19
Sep 1980)
1981, p.48-60 : map, statistical tables, En
Tenth report of the croppings systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
Korea. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Office of Rural
Development
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The results of on-farm rice-based cropping systems re-
search conducted by Indonesia's Central Research Institute for
Agriculture (CRIA) in four different agroclimatic environments
are herein summarized. Major findings are, inter alia: (1) in
partially irrigated areas, the growing of directly seeded rice
followed by zero tillage transplanted rice leaves enough soil
moisture to grow a crop of cowpeas; (2) in rainfed lowland
areas, direct seeded rice produced higher yields than did
transplanted rice in both traditional and introduced cropping
patterns; (3) in upland rainfed areas with red-yellow podzolic
soils, five crops can be grown a year by using a continuous
relay cropping and relay intercropping arrangement of upland
rice, corn, cassava, peanut, and ricebean (or cowpea); and (4)
in tidal swamp areas, intercropping corn, upland rice, and
cassava on raised beds and double cropping rice in furrow
beds has proven promising.
Included are five tables summarizing research results.


052


PN-AAS-233
MF $1.08/PC $4.29


Adjustment to climatic variability in self
provisioning societies : some evidence from
India and Tanzania
Jodha, N.S.; Mascarenhas, A.C.
Farming systems newsletter, no.16, Jan-Mar 1984, p.11-43 :
charts, En
Using farm-level data from Tanzania and India, this paper
discusses the strategies used by subsistence farmers to coun-
ter weather-induced agricultural instability.
The study first describes the characteristics of subsistence
societies and discusses farmers' perceptions of climatic varia-
bility. Traditional farming systems have evolved two broad
types of mechanisms to handle drought, adaptations (to long-
term agroclimatic features) and adjustments (to short-term
weather conditions). Adaptations detailed include operational
diversification, flexible resource use, environmental adaptation
(e.g., irrigation), and traditional forms of cooperation to mini-
mize risk during bad years. Once poor weather is evident,
adjustments are undertaken to minimize (e.g., salvage opera-
tions, mid-season operational changes, resource use reduc-
tions) and manage (commitment reduction, resource augmen-
tation, asset/inventory depletion) agricultural risk and loss.
Finally, new technological and institutional options for improv-
ing risk-reducing strategies are discussed, including resource,
crop, and management practice measures. The traditional
crisis-oriented strategies are becoming less effective; the new
technologies, which approach climate not only as a source of

15


BILIGRPH O RADNS N ARIN0S5T1


050


052








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


distress but as a productive resource as well, hold promise for
improving agricultural stability in drought-prone regions.
Nine tables and a 52-item reference list (1967-82) are
included.


PN-AAS-221
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Institutionalising farming systems research in
Zambia
Kean, S.A.; Chibasa, W.M.
[1982], 12p. : En
The process by which a farming systems research (FSR)
methodology was recently institutionalized into the Research
Branch of Zambia's Department of Agriculture is reviewed.
Problem areas in agricultural research in Zambia prior to
1981/82 ineffective program formulation, use of a single-crop
approach, neglect of economic and social factors, and insuffi-
cient on-farm trials are described, as are the options that were
considered for incorporating FSR into the Research Branch
and the decision to establish an Adaptive Research Planning
Team (ARPT). The functions of the ARPT are outlined: to
identify problems relevant to farmers' needs; to test possible
technical solutions by applied and adaptive research at re-
search centers and by on-farm adaptive research; to analyze
farmer response; and to release recommendations for solu-
tions. The organization of the ARPT and its role in the structure
of the Research Branch are described. Linkages between the
ARPT and other organizations are reviewed, and the need for a
flexible approach is emphasized.


PN-AAS-086
MF $1.08/PC $4.03


Impact of wage labor and migration on
livestock and crop production in African
farming systems
Kerven, Carol
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.695-725 : En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The implications of wage outmigration from farming commu-
nities in Africa are often neglected in farming systems research
(FSR). This paper, after reviewing the extent and role of
outmigration in rural Africa and the neglect of outmigration in
FSR literature, presents case studies from Northern Kenya,
Southern Tunisia, Lesotho, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso),
and Botswana to illustrate the variety of interactions among
crop production, livestock systems, and outmigration. These
studies show that outmigration affects many FSR variables,


including techniques and emphasis of production, division of
labor, the opportunity cost of farm labor, capital and manage-
ment, farmers' willingness and ability to adopt innovations, and
the relative attractiveness of crop versus livestock enterprises.
FSR's neglect of migration, it is conjectured, may result from an
assumption that Africa's rural economies are self-supporting
and from a disregard for sociocultural factors. A 69-item
bibliography (1959-83) is appended.


055


PN-AAS-274
MF $1.08/PC $1.17


Evaluation of preliminary farming systems
technologies : zero tillage systems in West
Africa
Knipscheer, H.C.; Menz, K.M.; Verinumbe, I.
Agricultural systems, v. 11, 1983, p.95-103 : statistical tables,
En
Proposing linear programming as a cost-effective tool for
designing and evaluating preliminary farming systems
technologies, this paper illustrates its use in screening zero-
tillage systems for West Africa.
The paper first briefly reviews four zero-tillage systems
(maize-stylo, maize-maize/stylo, maize-maize, and maize/leu-
ceana-maize/leuceana) currently under development for use in
tropical Africa. Next, linear programming is described as partic-
ularly valuable in technology evaluation in that it takes into
account farmers' circumstances (e.g., prices, resources) with-
out incurring the expense of on-farm testing, quantifies the
impact of limiting factors by using shadow prices, and can be
used for simulation. Finally, the results of a linear programming
test of the four zero-tillage systems are presented, showing the
combined no-till, alley-cropping, maize/leuceana system to be
superior and providing strong support for the incorporation of
legumes into no-till systems.
A 17-item bibliography is appended.


056


PN-AAS-147
MF $1.08/PC $1.04


Accenting the farmer's role : Purdue farming
systems unit
Lang, Mahlon G.; Cantrell, Ronald P.
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
1984, p.63-70 : En IDRC-189e
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
of technology
International Development Research Centre
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Farming systems research in countries lacking extensive
data collection and analysis capabilities requires a simplified
and readily-adaptable methodology that optimally allocates
scarce research resources. This article reports on the efforts of
the Purdue Farming Systems Unit (PFSU) to design such a
methodology in Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta).
During the 1982 cropping season the PFSU team collected
four types of socioeconomic data (on village characteristics,
labor, decision making, and field size/yield) and conducted two
types of on-farm trials; the principal findings and research
implications of these studies are summarized. Although the
collection of labor data (used primarily for modeling represent-

VoL It, 1985


053


054








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


ative farms) consumed the bulk of the 1982 research re-
sources, indepth farmer interviews proved to be most helpful in
generating hypotheses that could be tested empirically in future
farmer-managed trials. As a result, the PFSU team reallocated
its resources for the 1983 program, reducing labor data collec-
tion and increasing the use of farmer interviews; empirical data
will continue to be gathered for testing hypotheses. This
reallocation has increased research flexibility, farmer participa-
tion, and the speed and ease of data processing and analysis.


057


PN-AAT-007
MF $3.24/PC $30.94


researcher must farms for observation (i.e., select sites, place
instruments, and demarcate plots) and prepare the farmers and
enumerators. To understand the conditions for plant growth,
tillage and planting operations are observed tillage depth; soil
tilth, compaction, moisture, and fertility; and seed type, amount,
and placement. Yield potential and constraint factors are
determined by analyzing the number of plants, plant size,
heads per plant, drought and pest effects, etc. Finally, posthar-
vest operations are investigated in an attempt to determine
where losses will occur and how large they will be. The second
section uses examples of work in Botswana to illustrate tech-
niques for measuring soil moisture at planting, tillage depth,
plant number, yield-limiting factors, and grain yield.


Modele 3 C : Cameroun Centre Sud -
cacaoculture, ou, Simulation du comportement
agro-economique des petits paysans de la
zone forestiere camerounaise quand ils
choisissent leur system de cultures (Model 3
C : South Central Cameroon cocoa cultivation,
or, Simulation of agro-economical behavior of
small farmers in the Cameroon forests when
they choose their cropping systems)
Leplaideur, A.; Longuepierre, G.; Waguela, A.
Institute for Tropical Agronomical Research; Cameroon.
SODECAO
Dec 1981, 236p. : charts, statistical tables, Fr
* Available only from: Universite Paul Valery, Place de la
Voie, Domitienne, B.P. 5043, 34032 Montpellier, France
Agricultural production units in the forested area of south
central Cameroon are characterized by familial labor, the use of
manual tools, low production of cocoa by men as a cash crop,
and subsistence farming by women. This report presents a
model (environment and organizes farm data in a form suitable
for linear programming. Individual chapters analyze: the struc-
ture of these production units in terms of constraints and
objectives, cultivation systems, and inputs (particularly labor);
the construction of the matrix for Model 3C from research data;
and the model's format, data analysis system, and range
(including limits) of simulations. A concluding section notes that
the model's main usefulness lies in its ability to assess techno-
logical innovations in terms of actual farming conditions and
farmers' acceptance before the innovations are transferred to
extensionists for general distribution. Extensive data tables are
appended.


058 PN-AAS-234
MF $1.08/PC $.65
Research and methodology notes : agronomic
techniques for the diagnosis of farmers'
problems
Lightfoot, Clive
Farming systems newsletter, no. 16, Jan-Mar 1984, p.3-7 : En
Use of agronomic diagnostic techniques in the first year of
farming systems research enables the researcher to describe
existing farming systems, design generate many more techni-
cal options for experimentation. This paper discusses these
diagnostic procedures and provides examples of their use.
The first section generally outlines the techniques used in
diagnosis. Before the ground is prepared for cropping, the


059


PN-AAS-182
MF $1.08/PC $.91


Desarrollo de sub-sistemas de alimentacion de
bovinos a base de rastrojo de frijol (Phaseolus
vulgaris, L.): production de care
(Development of sub-systems for feeding beef
cattle a base of bean crop residues : meat
production)
Lozano, E.; Ruiz, M.E.; Ruiz, A.
Turrialba, v.30(2), Apr-Jun 1980, p.153-159 : charts, Es, En
Abstract in English
Results of an experiment to evaluate the use of common
bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crop residue as a feed for beef
cattle in Costa Rica are herein reported.
The experiment, conducted on 52 young bulls averaging
286 kg live weight and 28 months in age, used a completely
randomized design with two independent variables, crude
protein supplementation and blackstrap molasses supplemen-
tation, each offered at five levels (a combination of 13 treat-
ments). The bean residue was given ad libitum and without any
previous chemical or physical processing. Although the aver-
age dry matter intake of bean residue was negatively related to
both variables, crude protein and molasses intake more than
compensated for the decrease in bean residue intake. Con-
sequently, total dry matter intake was linearly and positively
related to the independent variables. Weight gain was signifi-
cantly influenced by crude protein intake (but not by molasses
intake), and was intimately tied to nitrogen retention.
However, despite the bean residue's favorable nutritional
features, its conversion to beef was poor. The authors con-
clude that, based on current (1980) beef prices in Costa Rica,
bean residue cannot be recommended for use in commercial
beef fattening operations, but may be useful to small farmers in
preventing large weight loss in cattle during the dry months.
Since bean residue has a low protein content, protein supple-
mentation is crucial. (Author abstract, modified)


Vol. II, 1985


057








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


060


PN-AAS-236
MF $1.08/PC $1.04


Desarrollo de sub-sistemas de alimentacion de
bovinos con rastrojo de frijol (Phaseolus
vulgaris, L.): balance metabolico a various
niveles de energia y protein suplementaria
(Development of sub-systems for feeding beef
cattle a base of bean crop residues :
metabolic balance at various levels of energy
and protein supplements)
Lozano, E.; Ruiz, A.; Ruiz, M.E.
Turrialba, v.30, 1980, p.63-70 : charts, Es
Abstract in English
To aid in the development of cattle feeding systems based
on common black bean crop residues, a nitrogen (N) balance
and digestibility study was conducted using 15 yearling bull
calves which were fed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) straw
residue ad libitum and varying amounts of blackstrap molasses
and of a supplement containing 92% crude protein (CP). Bean
straw consumption without either protein or molasses supple-
mentation averaged 1.82 kg per 100 kg of live animal weight
(LW) per day; consumption increased with CP supplementation
and decreased slightly with molasses supplementation. At an
intake of 365 g CP/100 kg LW/day, efficiency of N retention,
based on measurements of intake and excreta, was 33%. At
higher CP levels, efficiency increased when molasses was
absent or fed at low levels, and decreased when high levels of
molasses were fed, possibly due to a laxative effect. Since
60% of the supplementary CP was non-protein in nature (urea),
digestibility increases were attributed to an increased N solubili-
ty in the rumen. It is concluded that evaluation of N sources
should be based on N retention parameters, and that common
bean crop residues are an appropriate roughage feed for
ruminants. (Author abstract, modified)


061 PN-AAS-090
MF $1.08/PC $1.95
Linking animals to household and cropping
systems
Madamba, Joseph C.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.163-177 : En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The small, multi-commodity farming systems characteristic
of Asia and ways to increase the productive role of the livestock
traditionally found in these systems, are discussed. The paper
first examines the potential contribution of livestock in the multi-
commodity farming system and identifies strategies, such as


the fuller use of local crop byproducts, for realizing that
potential. A description of the small-scale integrated family
farm model, recently field-tested by the Bangladesh Agricultur-
al Research Council, and of the role of livestock in that model
yields to a discussion of farmers' need for rational resource
management, and in particular for a mechanism linking them to
both production support and marketing systems. A concluding
discussion of integrated farming as a business focuses on the
advantage of group cooperation by farmers.


062 PN-AAS-087
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Farming systems research networks in
selected countries of Latin America
Mateo, N.; Li-pun, H.H.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.110-137 : statistical tables, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
An agricultural research network is a group of research
organizations which voluntarily join forces to pursue common
research goals. The experience of two such networks the
Andean Crops Network (ACN) and the Animal Production
Systems Network (APSN) in promoting the use of farming
systems research (FSR) methodology in Latin America and the
lessons taught by this experience are examined in this report
After a brief review of the rise of the FSR approach in the
region, the report describes activities of the two networks, both
those they have in common (exchanging information, providing
training and consultancies, and establishing coordinating and
advisory committees) and those which are network-specific
(exchanging germplasm in the case of ACN, developing appro-
priate methodologies in the case of APSN). Achievements of
ACN in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia and of APSN in
Costa Rica, Peru, and Panama are described. Institutional,
educational, and methodological constraints to implementing
FSR in the region are assessed. It is concluded that the
network approach is an effective means of spreading FSR in
Latin America, one that avoids the problems associated with
large-scale, expatriate-based technical assistance ap-
proaches. Appended are 10 tables and a 31-item bibliography
(1969-83).


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


* PN-AAS-627
MF $1.08/PC $.78


tion of cropping patterns trials. Future case studies and socio-
economic research work plans are described.


First survey in cropping system research sites
Mathema, S.B.; Van Der Veen, M.G.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos,
Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978)
1978, p.257-262 : En
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
The large baseline studies used in cropping systems re-
search to collect preliminary data on the research site can be
expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. A faster, less
costly alternative is to collect only the data needed to launch
the research and to identify problems needing further study.
Presented herein is a methodology used at five cropping
systems research sites in Nepal to carry out this first survey.
Three main sources were consulted in gathering information
for the site survey: (1) documentation of previous research
conducted nearby or in the general area; (2) secondary data on
climate, prices, etc., from government agencies; and (3) specif-
ic data on local social, economic, physical, or climatological
factors from interviews with key knowledgeable individuals.
Generally, for each site one week or less was required to
interview an average of 12 farmers (2 from each locality to
cross-check responses) and the local leader. A partial listing
detailing 10 of the areas in which data were collected and the
sources of these data is provided.


064


PN-AAS-628
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Socio-economic research on cropping
systems program in Nepal
Mathema, S.B.; Van Der Veen, M.G.
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, p.139-150 : En
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Results of an initial socioeconomic survey conducted for
Nepal's Integrated Cereals Project's cropping systems pro-
gram are summarized and topics indicated thereby for future
socioeconomic research are identified. The survey, which was
based on interviews with key informants (two knowledgeable
farmers in each village, the village leader, merchants, and
employees of key agricultural institutions), suggests that al-
though more efficient allocation of resources by farmers may
lead to some increase in yields, the most significant gains will
come from the adoption of crops and crop varieties developed
for high yield and intensive cropping, from improved livestock
management, and from the use of chemical pesticides and
fertilizers. Future socioeconomic research will focus on the
economics of crop and livestock production, organization of
labor and power supply, labor and bullock requirements for
crop production, cropping systems, soil fertility, farmers' adjust-
ment to risk, socio-psychological characteristics of rural fami-
lies, farmer variety preference, availability of agricultural credit
and inputs, product marketing and barter practices, and evalua-


Vol. II, 1985


065


PN-AAS-229
MF $1.08/PC $1.43


Breakdown points in the data gathering
process
Matlon, P.J.
Farming systems newsletter, no. 12, Jan-Mar 1983, p.8-18 :
En
Twelve circumstances responsible for breakdown in the
data gathering process are listed in this document; suggestions
are made as to the possible reasons for each type of break-
down and appropriate corrective actions are outlined. Break-
down can occur when a responded: (1) lacks knowledge of the
information in question; (2) incorrectly claims no knowledge or
deliberately provides misleading information; (3) forgets an
event or cannot recall details with accuracy; or (4) misinterprets
a question. Problems may also occur when the enumerator: (5)
asks a question improperly, missing the intent of the question;
(6) does not ask all the questions; (7) misunderstands a
response; or (8) misrecords information on the interview sched-
ule. Additionally, breakdown may result when (9) questions and
responses identify unintended information, due to language
confusion; (10) completed schedules are damaged or lost; (11)
errors are introduced in converting local units of measure into
units required for analysis; or (12) errors are introduced in
transferring data or in initial processing.


nRR


PN-AAS-149
MF $1.08/PC $3.12


Technology evaluation : five case studies from
West Africa
Matlon, Peter J.
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
1984, p.95-118 : ill., En IDRC-189e
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
of technology
International Development Research Centre
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Using case studies from on-farm research conducted by the
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Trop-
ics (ICRISAT) in West Africa, this report examines various
levels of testing, the methodologies used, and the problems
involved in on-farm agricultural technology evaluation.
First identified are six levels of on-farm tests, ranging from
researcher-managed trials to farmer-managed tests; the levels
reflect variations in input provision to farmers, degree of farmer
management and risk, and the types of analyses to be per-
formed and conclusions to be drawn. Then, following a brief
overview of ICRISAT's West African on-farm testing program
and methodologies, the use of the six test levels is illustrated
with five case studies from Burkina Faso and Niger on cere-
al/legume intercropping, fertilizer response, sorghum and millet
varietal improvement, sorghum/cowpea intercropping, and va-
rietal adoption follow-up. A concluding section considers ap-
proaches to reducing the impact of high variance, bias, and
insufficient staffing and supervision in on-farm research.
19


063


063


065


064


066








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


067


PN-AAS-148
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Survey costs and rural economics research
Mclntire, John
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
1984, p.71-82 : statistical tables, En IDRC-189e
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
of technology
International Development Research Centre
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Intensive farming systems research methods emphasize
quantitative data collection and analysis to identify farmers'
constraints and guide research, while extensive methods use
rapid description and educated estimates of farming system
resources to develop a qualitative understanding of the farm-
er's environment and decisionmaking. The differences be-
tween the methods are smaller than the similarities, and there
is scope for combining them to exploit the advantages of both.
This paper analyzes the comparative costs of the two methods
and draws conclusions for the optimal use of research re-
sources.
Capital and operating costs are calculated for each of the
methods, and a model is used to simulate cost-benefit relation-
ships. Factors compared by the model include the size of target
populations necessary to repay research costs and the rapidity
of benefits. The relative returns from investing in research in
high and low potential areas and the effects of farmers'
participation on survey costs are also discussed. The findings
suggest that the high costs of internationally recruited staff are
better spread over large target populations and that standard
questionnaires should be available to researchers in order to
promote data comparability across zones and years. A third
implication that expensive research should be concentrated in
favorable areas is unacceptable because fundamental re-
search is needed in unfavorable areas as well.


068 PN-AAS-263
MF $1.08/PC $1.17
Location specificity problem in farming
systems research
Menz, K.M.; Knipscheer, H.C.
Agricultural systems, v.7, 1981, p.95-103 : En
Farming systems are usually location specific in that they
cannot be implemented satisfactorily over large geographical
areas without modification to local needs. Two cost-effective
strategies for minimizing the location specificity problem in
farming systems research are presented in this essay. The first,
classification schemes, emphasizes the identification of a limit-
ed number of attributes relevant to a potential system (such as
soil type, rainfall, and farmers' goals); the number and type of
parameters chosen will guide the research toward priority
systems. The second approach treats technology design as a
multi-stage process and advocates releasing a technology for
testing in its unfinished stage, allowing farmers and extension
agents to adapt the system to local conditions. These two
methods are interrelated, for the number and type of parame-
ters used in a classification scheme will be in part determined
by the stage of development of the applied technology.
A list of 23 references (1956-79) is appended.


069


PN-AAS-091
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


Aquaculture as a farming system : potentials
and limitations of the FSR approach
Molnar, Joseph J.; Hatch, L. Upton; et al.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.372-391 : chart, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The limitations and potentials of the farming systems re-
search (FSR) approach to aquaculture are explored by examin-
ing aquacultural technology in terms of indigenous knowledge
systems and the unique institutional and infrastructural require-
ments of fish farming. After introductory sections on aquacul-
ture (fish as a source of food, fish production systems, and the
role of aquaculture in development) and on FSR (its origins and
advantages over merely experimental station research), the
article discusses aquaculture as a farming system in terms of
the four stages of FSR application diagnosing the present
system, designing and testing improved systems, and extend-
ing the improvements. The need in cooperative fish farming to
add social organization to technology transfer concerns is
noted. It is concluded that, although FSR is a useful framework
for technology transfer, its application to aquaculture is limited
by the unique water-based nature of aquaculture (although
FSR has been successfully applied at the International Center
for Aquaculture in the Philippines and in other locales) and by
its traditionalist character as opposed to the novelty of aquacul-
ture as a technology. A 43-item bibliography (1972-83) is
appended.


070


PN-AAS-300
MF $2.16/PC $15.86


Guide de I'agent du developpement rural : 1,
milieux physique, human, et agricole (Guide
for agents of rural development : 1, physical,
human and agricultural environment)
Morize, J.; Dutilleul, J.P.; Beaulier, A.
Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation; International
Council of French Language; France. Bureau for
Development of Agricultural Production
Techniques vivantes, 1983, viii, 112p. : ill., Fr
Separating the rural farming environment into three do-
mains of observation and analysis physical surroundings, the
village population, and farming resources and practices this
guide presents a practical approach to assist the agricultural
extensionist in understanding the farming system. The guide
observe and (recognizing the importance of appropriate ques-
tions to the research investigation) poses pertinent questions
about these domains. For instance, consideration of physical

VoL II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


surroundings includes roads, water sources, topography, and
climate; understanding village life requires observation of such
aspects as migrations, village layout, religion, property, recrea-
tion, and participation; and research on local farming covers,
inter alia, soil characteristics and conservation, cropping sys-
tems, the role of animals, crop pests, and harvesting. At the
end of each of the three sections additional questions are
provided to enable the investigator to check his or her under-
standing of the farming environment.


071 PN-AAS-408
MF $1.08/PC $.65
On farm experiments : some experiences
Muriithi, C.N.
(Symposium on Intercropping in the Semi-Arid Areas, 2nd,
Morogoro, TZ, 4--7 Aug 1980)
1980, p.141-145 : En
Intercropping : proceedings of the second symposium on
intercropping in semi-arid areas
International Development Research Centre
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Kenya's largely semiarid Machakos District has two rainy
periods March-May (long rains) and October-December (short
rains). Although it is recommended that farmers plant the long
rains crop by March 1, at that time the short rains crop remains
unharvested and the field unplowed. As part of an effort to
solve this problem, five small farmers were selected to test a
research station finding that long rains maize crop or maize and
Beans intercrop should be relay planted with the short rains
crop of pigeon peas, which mature during the long dry period.
Due to several problems, however, the most important of which
was lack of farmer cooperation, the suggested package was
not verified. The experience taught the need to: survey farmer
cooperators before conducting on-farm trials or, better still,
before developing the technology package; choose as
cooperators farmers who represent the majority of farmers and
who employ methods consonant with the technology to be
tested; allow for dropouts in choosing the number of coopera-
tors and explain to cooperators exactly what is expected of
them; supervise both planting and harvesting very strictly; and
recruit assistants to record labor and other inputs and to
maintain farmer interest when researchers themselves are not
available.


072


PN-AAS-399
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


On farm trials; an overview
Mutsaers, H.J.W.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(On-Farm Experimentation Training Workshop, Nyankpala,
GH, 3-14 Jul 1984)
1984, 20p. : En
936411103
IITA, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
To develop new technologies that are relevant to farmers,
research must be conducted not only at experimental stations,
but on-farm. On-farm research, according to this overview of
the subject, differs from conventional research by using explor-
atory surveys to ensure that new technologies are appropriate
to a given area and farm type, by observing the interaction of
the new technology with the rest of the system, and by


evaluating the series of judgments made by the farmer con-
cerning the technology.
The paper describes three classes of increasingly complex
technology: (1) elementary technologies, which cannot be
broken down into separate elements and can be applied
without additional changes in the farming system; (2) compos-
ite technologies, made up of interdependent variables which
cannot be considered in isolation; and (3) package technolo-
gies, a combination of several technologies designed to op-
timize the synergistic effect of the components. The paper
concludes by discussing design requirements for on-farm trials
related to each of these three classes.


073


PN-AAS-232
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


1982 sorghum research and extension village
approach programme in western Kenya
Njeru, E.S.; Enserink, H.J.
Farming systems newsletter, no.10, Jul-Sep 1982, p.16-27 :
En
Research by the Sorghum and Millets Project in Kenya has
identified early maturing varieties and improved management
methods for sorghum production. This article briefly reviews the
results of a comparative test undertaken during the 1981 long
rains to determine whether a pre-extension trials method or a
village approach was most suitable for extending sorghum
improvements to farmers.
The pre-extension trials method tested eight sorghum varie-
ties and one maize hybrid on 210 farm plots distributed
throughout Western and Nyanza provinces; over 200 extension
agents were trained to supervise the trials and train farmers.
The village approach on the other hand tested only one
sorghum variety within a small area (Angoromo in the Busia
district); to ensure proper plot management farmers received
training and regular follow-up assistance. The pre-extension
trials were found to result in high transportation costs and poor
communication among extension agents and to be labor-
intensive for agents and less effective in generating farmer
discussion about improvements. As a result, the village ap-
proach was chosen for a 1982 extension program to be
delivered to two villages (each with 80-100 farmers) in each of
four districts; in addition, about 300 farmers from Angoromo will
participate for a second year.


074


* PN-AAS-629
MF $1.08/PC $.78


Multidisciplinary approach to development
research the Malaysian experience
Noor, Hashim
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, p.132-137 : En
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Although the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Develop-
ment Institute (MARDI) no longer has a cropping systems
research program per se, MARDI's multidisciplinary approach


Vol. II, 1985


073


074








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


to commodity-specific research could be fruitfully applied to
cropping systems research in other countries.
To facilitate multidisciplinary research, MARDI is organized
into commodity branches, each having research staff from
various disciplines; discipline-oriented branches also exist, but
only to support research undertaken by commodity branches.
Site-specific research is conducted at outreach stations, where
multidiscipinary teams conduct studies in, e.g., breeding, soil
fertility, agronomy, pest control, and water management; new
technologies are then tested on farmers' land and adapted to
suit the particular farming environments of each locality.
Outreach station researchers receive guidance from staff at
MARDI's central research stations and are supported, espe-
cially in research planning, by the work of agricultural econo-
mists and engineers.
The differences between MARDI's research and cropping
systems research lie more in content (types of crops involved)
than in style or approach. In either situation, the multidisciplina-
ry approach must overcome certain inherent problems, particu-
larly those of recruiting a full research team and coordinating
the team effectively.


075


PN-AAT-009
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Sheep and goats, men and women : household
relations and small ruminant development in
Southwest Nigeria
Okali, C.; Sumberg, J.E.
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Science and
Technology. Office of Agriculture
(Conference on Intra-household Processes and Farming
Systems Analysis, Bellagio, IT, 5-9 Mar 1984)
1984, 22p. + attachments : chart, statistical tables, En
936411109
* ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Small ruminants, by virtue of their widespread distribution,
their market and biological potential, and their being owned by
men and women independently, constitute a unique develop-
ment source for West African farmers, but are currently not
integrated with cropping. This paper outlines the rationale for
and describes two contrasting models being developed and
tested in southern Nigeria for improving sheep and goat feed
production alley farming, which is stressed in the southwest
where animals roam freely, and which links crop and livestock
production, and a more specialized system called an intensive
feed garden, which is stressed in the southeast where land is
scarce and animals are confined. The fast-growing leguminous
trees Leucaena leucocephela and Gliricidia sepium are central
to both models. Each model is evaluated in light of the
resources available to either men or women. Household rela-
tions, especially decisionmaking processes related to the use
of browse as fertilizer or feed, are highlighted, as is the
importance of controlling PPR, a rinderpest-related viral dis-
ease which is a principal cause of small ruminant mortality. Five
tables illustrate the analysis.


076


PN-AAS-157
MF $1.08/PC $1.95


Analyse diachronique des systems
maraichers en Guadeloupe (Diachronic
analysis of truck farming in Guadeloupe)
Picard, D.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.287-301 : charts, Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
A diachronic method for determining whether truck farming
(vegetable farming for the local market) is sustainable in
Guadeloupe's Cote sous-le-Vent region is presented. A brief
explanation of the rise of truck farming in this impoverished
area precedes presentation of the method, which consists of
charting crop systems at regular intervals during the growing
season to permit identification of crop changes and determina-
tion of the investment in input factors. To this end, maps were
produced monthly in the Campry region for a 40-ha lot and for
10 small peripheral lots at the time of important modifications;
charts on the latter were supplemented with observations
made every 2-3 weeks. The study showed that the sustainabili-
ty of truck farming in Cote sous-le-Vent depends on a favorable
market price and on the availability of land for crop rotation.
The study also showed that use of the diachronic method is (
particularly suited to but not limited to the study of small
systems in rapid evolution. Seven diagrams illustrate the argu-
ment.


077


PN-AAS-158
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Analyse preliminaire des systems
d'occupation des sols dans I'est de la Grand
Terre de Guadeloupe (Preliminary analysis of
land use systems in eastern Grand Terre,
Guadeloupe)
Picard, D.; Servant, J.; Monestier, P.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA series ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
events tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.307-322: charts, map,
Fr
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
methodology
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Although a variety of reasons, including sugar prices and
labor costs, new strains of crop diseases, and a beef shortage
in the Antilles, have led to a relative shift from sugar cane
cultivation to beef cattle breeding in the eastern part of
Guadeloupe's Grande-Terre region over the last 20 years,
recent irrigation projects have begun to alter this situation by
leading to increased sugar cane yields and the introduction of (
truck farming. This study of changing land use in the region
presents the results of a questionnaire covering: land use on


Vol. II, 1985


076








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


individual farms; crop and livestock practices; and family struc-
ture, other sources of family revenue, and the use of wage
labor. The study revealed that, although cane and livestock
remain the region's basic activities, truck farming (melon in
rainy season and vegetables all year) is on the increase. Those
most likely to abandon cane are farmers over 60 years of age
and farmers with significant acreage devoted to truck farming,
while small landowners have, proportionately, the greatest area
in cane and livestock. Although the shift in relative emphasis
from sugar cane culture to animal breeding has required few
capital resources, progression to a truck farming economy will
require greater investment; however, experience elsewhere
suggests that produce prices are adequate to support this
development.


them to small farmers using a farmer-to-farmer approach is
traced in this paper.
The PPP's strategy to identify potato production con-
straints, develop and test alternative practices by on-farm trials,
and evaluate the tests agronomically, socially, and economical-
ly before disseminating the technology through extension is
briefly described. Meetings held by concerned personnel to
evaluate and improve initial implementation of these efforts are
detailed in relation to program philosophy, administration, data
collection, field practice, training, and extension. The paper's
final sections summarize agronomic and economic evaluations
of the trials and efforts to disseminate trial results. It is stressed
that successful on-farm research requires a logical, step-by-
step approach as well as a thorough understanding of current
farming systems by all participants.


PN-AAS-178
flnf


MF $2.16/PC $18.46
Farming systems in Acosta Puriscal, Costa
Rica
Platen, H. von; Rodriguez P., G.; Lagemann, J.
Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center.
Department of Crop Production
Jun 1982, 146p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Small farmers in Acosta-Puriscal live in the tropical dry-
humid zone of Costa Rica, a hilly region which limits agricultural
production. This study describes the third phase of a research
and development project which included an analysis of farming
systems in Acosta-Puriscal and preliminary tests of technologi-
Scal packages designed to increase agricultural production.
The study first details the research objectives and method-
ology. Seeking to identify principal agronomic practices, labor
use and its limitations, production-influencing factors, and the
fluctuation of cash availability, the farming systems analysis
utilized a multi-visit survey of 69 farmers, direct observations,
and field measurements. Evaluation of the technological pack-
ages was carried out on farmers' test plots. The bulk of the
study is devoted to research results, including discussions of
the region's physico-biological and socioeconomic environ-
ment, historical development, farming systems, land use, crop
and animal husbandry practices and problems, labor use,
production and productivity, storage and marketing, and annual
cash flow. Farmer response to the technological innovations is
outlined. A review of the most serious problems affecting the
farm and state is followed by recommendations for their
resolution and for future research and extension efforts.
The text includes 24 figures and 49 tables; appended are a
50-item bibliography (1939-82; including titles in English and
Spanish) and tables on maize, bean, tobacco, sugar cane, and
coffee production.


079


PN-AAS-181
MF $1.08/PC $2.08


Transfer of technology to small farmers : on-
farm research in the Philippines
Potts, Michael J.; Santos, Amado B. de los; Solimen, Julia A.
Agricultural administration, v. 12, 1983, p.27-42 : En
The evolution of a program of the Philippine Potato Program
(PPP) to employ an International Potato Center model to
develop improved production technologies and to transfer


PN-AAS-083
MF $1.08/PC $3.25


Integrating crops and livestock and livestock
research at IRRI
Price, Edwin; Acebedo, Venancio
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.138-162 : charts, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Recent crop/livestock research conducted by the Interna-
tional Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Solana in the Philip-
pines' Cagayan Province is described in detail, followed by an
analysis of implications for other IRRI livestock-related re-
search.
At Solana, which has a large population of carabao, or water
buffalo, used for draft power, IRRI conducted studies of exist-
ing cropping systems and livestock management practices and
the interrelationships between the two, and came to the
conclusion that the existing draft capacity was insufficient to
increase cropping intensity. This situation left IRRI researchers
with several alternatives, e.g., continuing to test only cropping
technology, or testing livestock technologies that are techni-
cally related (or technically unrelated) to cropping. After outlin-
ing criteria for choosing among these alternatives, the author
concludes that any expansion of IRRI's research to non-crop
enterprises must bear a strong technical relationship to rice.
For example, the breeding of high-yielding rice that small
farmers could use as animal feed could be an appropriate IRRI
research goal. The author suggests, however, that farmers' and
researchers' resources would probably be better spent
developing crop and livestock enterprises independently.


Vol. II, 1985


vvv








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


081 PN-AAS-630
MF $1.08/PC $5.20
Report on preliminary results of cross site
comparisons
Price, Edwin C.; Paris, Thelma R.
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, 37p. : charts, statistical tables, En
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102
* IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Preliminary results are presented of a farm survey conduct-
ed in four agroclimatically diverse Philippine provinces. In each
province, researchers chose communities where substantial
areas of rainfed lowland rice were grown and villages with
diverse soil texture, topography, and access to markets. A
questionnaire administered to 15 farmers per village gathered
information on whole farm characteristics and input/output
data for the locally dominant cropping pattern (identified by an
interview with the village captain), including the influence
thereon of the physical environment. A simple resource flow
model was used to analyze the relationships between cropping
patterns and economic resources (land, cash, family and hired
labor, exchange labor), and a simple production function was
used to estimate the relation between the value of output per
ha and the cost of labor and materials per ha. The analysis
revealed that: (1) the degree of subsistence orientation varies
among farm sites; (2) farming and cropping systems are highly
diversified even in regions of similar rainfall; (3) farmer income
is strongly related to the use of inputs, labor, and materials; (4)
rice double-cropping is practical only when irrigation is possi-
ble; (5) intensity of resource use in rice production depends on
other crop and livestock components of the farming system;
and (6) rice production is mainly governed by subsistence
requirements.


5, sole sorghum 1 year in 8, but intercropping only 1 year in 36.
Intercropping gave yield advantages in a wide range of environ-
mental conditions; there was no significant evidence that
advantages were greater under stress. Possible mechanisms
contributing to this greater yield stability are discussed.
The text includes two tables, seven figures, a 15-item
bibliography (1949-79), and a list of data sources. (Author
abstract, modified)


083


* PN-AAS-209


Decouvrir une agriculture vivriere : guide
d'observation sur le terrain (Guide to
subsistence farming)
Ravignan, Francois de; Barbedette, Loic
Pan-African Institute for Development
1977, 116p. : ill., charts, Fr
* Available only from: G.P. Maisonneuve & Larose, 15, rue
Victor-Cousin, 75005 Paris, France
Aimed at development agents who are not agronomic
specialists, this French-language handbook presents practical
guidelines for observing the subsistence agriculture of small
farmers in rural Africa.
The first part of the handbook provides guidelines, including
sample questions, to assist the agent in meeting the farm family
and conducting field observations on farming systems tech-
niques, cropping patterns, etc. Methods for measuring family
food consumption and use of food preservation techniques and
for calculating yields, land area utilized, and fallow are ex-
plained. The second section discusses data interpretation. Two 4
hypothetical case studies are provided one in which the
farmers in a village do not produce enough to eat and one in
which too much food is produced. The text includes numerous
examples of data collection forms, as well as figures illustrating
the measurement and calculation techniques described.


082


PN-AAS-180
MF $1.08/PC $1.56


Evaluation of yield stability in intercropping :
studies on sorghum / pigeonpea
Rao, M.R.; Willey, R.W.
Experimental agriculture, v.16, 1980, p.105-116 : charts, En
The results of a study to examine the stability of important
sorghum/pigeon pea intercropping combinations and to as-
sess the value of some of the quantitative methods used to
estimate stability in intercropping studies are contained in this
report.
Data from 94 experiments on sorghum/pigeon pea inter-
cropping were examined for evidence that yield stability is
greater with intercropping than with sole cropping. Stability of
sorghum, the major crop, was examined by calculating the
distribution of yields; stability of the overall cropping system
was examined by calculating coefficients of variation, comput-
ing regressions of yield against an environmental index, and
estimating the probability of monetary returns falling below to
have some merit in estimating stability. Estimating the probabili-
ty of crop failures was particularly useful as it more closely
reflected the farmer's attitude to stability and gave the clearest
indication that intercropping can be more stable than sole
cropping. For example, it was found that for a particular year in


084


PN-AAQ-582
MF $1.08/PC $1.82


Farmer back to farmer : a model for
generating acceptable agricultural technology
Rhoades, Robert E.; Booth, Robert H.
International Potato Center; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office
of Agriculture
Agricultural administration, v.11, 1982, p.127-137 : En
Also in: IPC social science department working paper no.
1982-1
9310973; 936411107
* Centro Internacional de la Papa, Apartado 5969, Lima, Peru
Based on the experiences of a postharvest research team
at the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru, a model of
successful interdisciplinary research involving both biological
and social researchers and beginning and ending with the
farmer is outlined as an approach to solving farm-level techno-
logical problems. The model, which is presented in schematic
form, consists of four activities: (1) diagnosis, in which re-
searchers work with farmers to define the problem; (2) interdis-
ciplinary research, both on-station and on-farm, to identify and
develop a potential solution; (3) testing the proposed solution,
first on-station and then on-farm in order to adapt it to farmers'
needs; and (4) evaluation and use of the proposed technology


Vol II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


by the farmers themselves under their own conditions, re-
sources, and management. The value of the model as an
alternative to multidisciplinary approaches (in which several
scientists play specialized but separate roles) is stressed.


085


PN-AAP-037
MF $1.08/PC $4.16


Evaluation of environmental parameters in the
humid tropics for crop scheduling purposes
Riley, James J.
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
AVRDC technical bulletin, no. 12(78-104), Mar 1979, 29p. : En
936411105
Agricultural planners need to know the probabilities of given
weather phenomena occurring during cropping periods to op-
timize crop scheduling. This report presents a methodology
based on data normally recorded at small weather stations to
analyze local environmental variations for crop planning.
The methodology emphasizes environmental parameters
importantio the humid lowland tropics where crop production is
more severely affected by excessive than by insufficient rain-
fall; analysis has been limited to determining production periods
for tomatoes, sweet and white potatoes, soybeans, mung-
beans, and rice. Required climatic data are station latitude,
monthly precipitation, mean monthly temperature, sunshine,
average daily solar radiation, and severe storm frequency.
Additional variables can be included such as population or
intensity of plant pests or diseases, market price fluctuations,
Sor labor availability. Steps in the evaluation process include
tabulation of cropping periods and growth constraints, prepara-
tion of environmental data tables, summation of crop environ-
ment by crop lengths, analysis of boundary conditions for best
planting options, and estimate of optimal cropping periods.
Twenty tables illustrate the methodological steps. An 8-item
bibliography is included (1974-78).


PN-AAS-223
MF $1.08/PC $3.64


Tecnicas basicas de entrevista al realizar
investigation sobre sistemas de cultivos
(Basic interview techniques for use in the
study of cultivation systems)
Ruano, Sergio A.; Calderon, Sandra Patricia
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology
Folleto tecnico, no.18, Mar 1982, 23p. : Es
The only effective way for an agricultural researcher to learn
the conditions under which the farmer works is by two-way
communication in an interview. This paper describes certain
interview techniques, providing theoretical guidelines and prac-
tical examples.
It is noted that interview techniques include not only formu-
lation of the questions but interpretation of the answers.
Preparation for an interview includes acquiring general knowl-
edge of the area and the farmer and his cultivation systems,
and determining the appropriate place, time, and persons to
Interview. The method of introducing oneself to the farmer and
his family is crucial; a direct but friendly and courteous manner
is essential. Four basic rules of interviewing, designed to put


the interviewee at ease, are presented. General methods of
interviewing are outlined, including common mistakes to avoid,
such as use of technical language and too specific questions.
Finally, the sequence of an interview on cropping systems is
outlined; it is suggested that the questions follow the sequence
of the farmer's activities.


087


PN-AAS-237
MF $1.08/PC $.91


Desarrollo de sub sistemas de alimentacion de
bovinos con rastrojo de frijol (Phasoelus
vulgaris, L.): I. disponibilidad, composicion y
consume del rastrojo de frijol (Development
of subsystems for feeding beef cattle a base
of bean crop residues : I. availability,
composition and consumption of bean crop
residues)
Ruiz, M.E.; Olivo, R.; et al.
Turrialba, v.30, 1980, p.49-55 : Es
Abstract in English
In an experiment to determine the production of common
black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) residue under different
cropping systems on Central American small farms, the resi-
due's chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were
determined by laboratory analysis and voluntary intake of the
residue by six yearling steers was measured.
It was found that as a single crop, the residue produced 700-
1,151 kg per ha of dry matter (DM); in multiple cropping (usually
with corn or cassava) the DM output was 527-1,225 kg per ha.
The residue had a low protein (4.1%) and high lignin (17.0%)
content, associated with a 46.0% in vitro digestibility. It was
well dried and could be stored for long periods.
The steers were fed three rations of constant nitrogen
content and varying levels of blackstrap molasses, plus the
bean crop residue. Although the bean residue consisted of
55.2% stems and 44.8% empty pods, the animals preferred the
pods to such an extent that the remaining feed in the trough
consisted of about 8% empty pods and 92% stems, regardless
of the level of supplementary molasses. It is concluded that
black bean residue is well accepted by bovines and could be
used for animal feed in the dry season, at least to maintain body
weight, with small additions of an inexpensive nitrogen source.
(Author abstract, modified)


088


PN-AAT-008
MF $1.08/PC $10.53


Recherche sur les systems de production en
Basse Casamance (Research on production
systems in Lower Casamance)
Sail, Samba; Mulumba, Kamuanga; Posner, Joshua
Senegal. Institute for Agricultural Research. Center for
Agricultural Research of Djibelor
1983, 61p. + 7 annexes : charts, map, statistical tables, Fr
Results of farming systems research conducted in 1982-83
by the Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research in Sene-
gal's Lower Casamance region are described. Five agricultural-
ly distinct zones within the.region are described in terms of
sexual division of labor, the relative importance of different


Vol. II, 1985


086









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


crops, the use of farm equipment and animal traction, and the
traditional practices used to farm the plateau crops (which
predominate) and dry and wet rice. Results are presented of
preliminary trials of four technologies for alleviating production
constraints (especially labor) intensified cropping, crop diver-
sification, recuperation of abandoned land, and cultivation of a
second crop (after rice) with residual soil moisture. A final
chapter discusses the aspects on which research will focus
during the 1983-84 season the use of land and of equipment
(especially animal traction), labor inputs, the ratio of production
to home food consumption, and agricultural income. Recom-
mendations for regional-and area-specific research conclude
the report. Provided are 20 references (1958-82) and 32 tables
and figures.


089


PN-AAS-238
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


Evaluation of new technology on farms :
methodology and some results from two crop
programmes at CIAT
Sanders, J.H.; Lynam, J.K.
Agricultural systems, v.9, 1982, p.97-112 : En
The yield gap between experiment station and farm yields in
the production of food crops in developing countries has been
frequently noted. A principal hypothesis of the authors for the
continuation of this yield gap in bean and cassava crops in
Latin America is that many technologies successful at the
experiment station do not pass a set of reasonable farm-level
criteria. Farm testing is the logical extension of the research
evaluation process once a technology has been identified at
the experiment station and regionally tested for adaptation, and
is especially important in developing countries, where farmers
often lack the information and management experience to
adapt observations to their own farming systems. That re-
search problems at the farm are different from those at the
experiment station or in regional trials, however, is reflected in
distinct design and analysis requirements for farm trials. Using
the evaluation criteria proposed here for farm trials, the authors
were able to identify successful technologies later adopted by
farmers; farm trials and screening criteria for the unsuccessful
technologies provided information on further farm-level re-
search design requirements.
A list of 31 references (1965-1981) and an appendix de-
scribing the methodology of farm testing are included. (Author
abstract, modified)


090


PN-AAS-217
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Selecting and evaluating new technology for
small farmers in the Colombian Andes
Sanders, John H.; Johnson, Dennis V.
Mountain research and development, v.2(3), 1982, p.307-316
: chart, En
The efforts of two projects to select and evaluate improved
food crop technologies oriented toward small farmers in the
Colombian Andes are reviewed in this paper.
Following a brief discussion of regional agricultural charac-
teristics and the two stages in technology development (bor-
rowing-adaptation and plant breeding based on the identifica-
tion of region-specific yield constraints through on-farm test-


ing), the paper compares the experiences of the Caqueza
project (implemented by the International Development Re-
search Centre and the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario),
which concentrated on maize and potato technology, with
those of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture's
(CIAT) project to improve field bean technology. The Caqueza
project focused on intensive regional tests of new technolo-
gies, farm promotion, and evaluation of adoption; it failed to
conduct detailed on-farm trials, instead shifting in its later
stages to economic policy concerns. CIAT's project, which
utilized on-farm testing to identify regional yield constraints,
was more successful in developing new varieties and transfer-
ring them from the experiment station to the farm.
A 29-item reference list (1965-81) in Spanish and English is
included.


091 PN-AAR-386
MF S2.16/PC S19.89
Profiles of men and women smallholder
farmers in the Lilongwe rural development
project, Malawi
Spring, Anita
University of Florida; U.S. Agency for International
Development. Bureau for Africa. Malawi; U.S. Agency for
International Development. Bureau for Program and Policy
Coordination. Office of Women in Development
Mar 1984, ii, 144p. : En
9300300
OTR-0300-C-2081
The results of efforts by A.I.D.'s Women in Agricultural
Development Project to analyze the role of Malawian women in
agriculture and to disaggregate socioeconomic and agronomic
data by sex are presented in this report.
The report first briefly describes the Women in Agricultural
Development Project (1981-83) and its relation to Malawi's
National Rural Development Program. A second chapter dis-
cusses the National Sample Survey of Agriculture conducted in
1980-81, describing the survey instruments, sample, and data
collection and analysis methods and presenting all data disag-
gregated by sex of household head. The third chapter de-
scribes the design and methods of the Lilongwe Rural Develop-
ment Project survey a large, multifaceted, 15-instrument
survey conducted in 1982 by the Women in Agricultural Devel-
opment Project on a subsample from the National Sample
Survey of Agriculture. Data from the Lilongwe survey are
disaggregated by sex of the total sample. Intrahousehold
differences in production, labor with improved methods, and
extension services are discussed. The fourth chapter com-
pares the data from the two surveys, evaluates the concept of
female household heads, and profiles female and male small
farmers in Lilongwe. The report concludes with recommenda-
tions for improving aid to smallholders (particularly those who
are women) and for utilizing the data collection and analysis
methods related herein to enhance future integrated develop-
ment projects.
Two maps, one hundred tables, and a figure are included in
the text. Appended is a 53-item bibliography (1968-83).


1


Vol. II, 1985


089








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


092


PN-AAT-010
MF $1.08/PC $6.11


Dominios de recomendacion para trigo,
cebada y avena en Cochabamba
(Recommendation domains for wheat, barley
and oats in Cochabamba)
Stillwell, Thomas Carroll
Bolivia. Ministry of Rural Affairs and Agriculture. Institute of
Agricultural Technology
[1981], 47p. + attachment: charts, map, Es
A recommendation domain is a group of farms in an
agroclimatic zone which can be covered by identical recom-
mendations due to the similarity of their soils and the agricultur-
al practices employed on them. This bulletin delineates recom-
mendation domains which were developed for cereals in gener-
al and for wheat, barley, and oats in particular in six principal
zones of Cochabamba, Bolivia and are capable of being
transferred to other areas in the region. Economic and institu-
tional factors are included, as well as natural and technological
factors. Important considerations are the relationships of al-
titude to both rainfall and frost. An initial section uses examples
from the research area to illustrate the use of the recommenda-
tion domain concept and indicates factors to be considered in
transferring recommendations regarding weed, insect, and
plant disease control and plant varieties from one zone to
another.


093


PN-AAS-084
MF $1.08/PC $2.21


First experiences with joint managed forage
and grazing trials
Thomson, Euan F.
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
1984, p.234-250 : statistical tables, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
system
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126
9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
Areas (ICARDA) undertook jointly-managed (farmer-scientist),
on-farm forage and grazing trials in northwest Syria (1982/83)
to compare the dry matter yield potential of vetch, peas, and
annual Medicago species; measure the weight gains of lambs
fed on these forages; and assess farmer acceptance of these
crops. This report outlines the program's experimental meth-
ods, technical results, and the reactions of farmer collabora-
tors. Follow-up interviews indicated that the latter: were satis-
fied with the collaboration with ICARDA; prefer to grow vetch
over peas, perhaps because of its greater familiarity or the low
Price of peas; desire to use forage crops for grain production
(because of a shortage of cash to buy seed) and for straw (an
important part of sheep diets during the winter); are convinced


that introducing forage crops would reduce the yield of the
subsequent barley crops; and do not yet want to grow medic.
The experience taught that: (1) increasing the plot size led to
farming conditions that are more realistic and acceptable to
farmers; (2) a recommendations; and (3) plots need to be
properly fenced unless the forage crop is surrounded by a
border of barley. A list of research proposals for the 1983/84
season concludes the report.


094


PN-AAN-812
MF $1.08/PC $5.46


Including dietary concerns in on farm
research : an example from Imbabura, Ecuador
Tripp, Robert
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics working paper, no.82/2, 1982, 38p. : En
9310840; 936411101
* CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico
The inclusion of dietary and nutritional concerns in an on-
farm research program in Ecuador's Imbabura Province is
examined in this report.
After providing background information on the program,
which focuses primarily on maize (the major staple), the report
describes traditional maize varieties and their dietary uses and
shows how this information twice proved helpful in deciding
whether or not to introduce new varieties. Next, data provided
by farmers are analyzed as to the role played by maize, barley
and wheat, potatoes, beans, peas, broad beans, lupine, and
quinoa in farmer diets, and the value of these foods as sources
of energy and protein is assessed. Recommendations are
made for expanding maize production through such means as
crop rotation and intercropping with early-maturing maize. A
final section assesses the relative value of the various methods
used to collect dietary data formal on-farm surveys, qualitative
24-hour recall (for measuring consumption frequency of dif-
ferent foods), and informal questioning and casual observation
(for studying complicated, sensitive, and long-term matters) -
and summarizes the need taught by the program of integrating
dietary and production concerns.


095


PN-AAS-150
MF $1.08/PC $1.30


Accommodation or participation?
Communication problems
Vierich, Helga
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
1984, p.17-26 : En IDRC-189e
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
of technology
International Development Research Centre
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Effective communication between farmers and researchers
and between scientists of different disciplines is critical if
farming systems research is to successfully develop improved
technologies. This paper discusses communication problems
and their implications for research.
Several sources of communication confusion are identified,
including the failure to distinguish between: (1) stereotypical or
group behavior and spontaneous or individual behavior


Vol. II, 1985








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


(stereotypical and group responses can be most pronounced
when two or more ethnic groups are interacting); (2) ideal and
real behavior (farmers' descriptions of their practices may
reflect cultural rules and tradition more than actual behavior);
and (3) folk and scientific explanations (inadequate folk ex-
planations on the part of farmers may lead scientists to ignore
valid traditional practices or to apply scientific explanations
without adequate investigation). Finally, the paper stresses the
importance of understanding the farmers' conceptual frame-
work when designing and conducting farming systems re-
search surveys and briefly describes methods for avoiding
communication problems.


096


PN-AAR-934
MF $1.08/PC $1.17


Climatic approach to transfer of farming
systems technology in the semi-arid tropics
Virmani, S.M.
(International Symposium on Development and Transfer of
Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer,
Patancheru, IN, 28 Aug 1 Sep 1979)
Sep 1979, p.93-101 : charts, map, statistical tables, En
Proceedings of the international symposium on development
and transfer technology for rainfed agriculture and the
SAT farmer
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
936411106
* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India
Crop yields in the dry semiarid tropics are low due to wide
temporal and spatial variations in rainfall. These areas are also
characterized by high climatic water demand, and rainfall
exceeds evapotranspiration only 2 to 4.5 months a year. Due to
geographical diversity in rainfall, soils, and climates, there is a
strong element of location specificity in terms of moisture
environment during the crop growing season.
After a brief description of a climatological approach to
farming systems technology transfer and of techniques em-
ployed for quantification of rainfall distribution and soil-moisture
availability in relation to crop water needs, this paper uses case
studies from Hyderabad and Sholapur, India sites that would
seem to be climatologically and ecologically similar but differ
markedly in rainfall distribution, soil types, and crop water
demand to illustrate the importance of quantifying the mois-
ture environment before attempting to transfer farming systems
technology. (Author abstract, modified)


A methodology used by Brazil's Agricultural and Livestock
Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropics for the economic
and financial evaluation of small farming systems is presented.
The methodology includes analyses of: the existing farming
system (resources, external and internal factors, products): the
food needed by families to survive; the balance between
goods, rights, and obligations in calculating the patrimony of
the farmstead; finances (costs, family needs, income); agricul-
tural production (vegetable crops, animal husbandry, crafts,
and other production); farm economic efficiency; and invest-
ments (non-farm income). This report is designed to reinforce
researchers' and officials' understanding of farming systems
economics, and to develop a dialogue with small farmers. A 28-
item bibliography (1949-82) is appended. (Author abstract,
modified)


098


PN-AAT-O13
MF $2.16/PC $24.96


Pequenos agricultores I : metodos de
pesquisa em sistemas socio-economicos
(Small farming I : methods of socio-economic
research)
Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel; Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo
Williams
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural
Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
EMPRAPA CPATSA documents, no.24, 1984, 213p. : ill.,
charts, Pt
A methodology used by Brazil's Agricultural and Livestock (
Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropics for conducting
socioeconomic systems research at the regional and small
farm levels is described. The methodology includes studying
system components, structure, and function, as well as the
precarious ecological equilibrium which allows small farmers to
survive in the semi-arid tropics. Methods are proposed for
studying actual farm conditions in order to develop proposals to
promote agricultural and regional development. The approach
is based on a global perception of farming systems and
considers the interaction between the farms and regional/na-
tional systems, as well as that between socioeconomic and
ecological aspects. This report is designed to facilitate com-
prehension, dialogue, and exchange of information among
researchers, farmers, and rural development officials. A 197-
item bibliography (1941-83) is appended. (Author abstract,
modified)


097


099


PN-AAT-012
MF $1.08/PC $11.57


Pequenos agricultores II : metodos de
avaliacao economic e financeira (Small
farming II : methods of financial and economic
appraisal)
Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel; Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo
Williams
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural
Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
EMPRAPA CPATSA documents, no.25, Jul 1984, 97p.:
charts, statistical tables, Pt


PN-AAR-866
MF $1.08/PC S2.47


Design and testing procedures in livestock
systems research : an agro-pastoral example
von Kaufmann, R.
International Livestock Centre for Africa
(Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan
Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983)
Aug 1983, p.407-425 : En
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
936411109
* ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Case studies drawn from the International Livestock Centre
for Africa's subhumid livestock systems research (LSR) pro-


VoL II, 1985


098


099








BIBLIOGRAPHY OF READINGS IN FARMING SYSTEMS


gram for sedentary producers in northern Nigeria are used to
illustrate procedures for designing and testing LSR programs.
Issues relevant to designing improved LSR technology
which are discussed and illustrated include complementarity
with the work of other research organizations, policy orienta-
tion, social responsibility, the identification of priority problems
and opportunities, evaluation of present techniques, and set-
ting assumptions about near-term conditions. The problems
inherent in testing improved LSR technology are outlined in
sequence from researcher-managed and executed trials,
through researcher-managed, farmer-executed trials, to farm-
er-managed and executed trials. Among these problems are
sample size and the frequency and duration of data collection.
A final section considers the applicability of LSR to national
agencies, its cost-effectiveness, and, briefly, the link between
LSR and development projects.


100 PN-AAS-177
MF $1.08/PC $5.98
On-farm research methodologies at work :
progress report from Les Cayes, Haiti
Yates, Michael; Martinez, Juan Carlos
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
[1984], 43p. : statistical tables, En
936411101
* CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico
In 1981 the Government of Haiti's Department of Agriculture
and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
instituted an on-farm research program at Les Cayes to gener-
ate improved and appropriate maize technologies for Haitian
farmers and to develop procedures that could be used in a
national on-farm research program. This paper describes the
implementation of the Les Cayes program.
The initial steps in the on-farm research process are first
described assessment of the farmers' circumstances (e.g.,
climate, farming practices, markets), definition of the recom-
mendation domains, and identification of research opportuni-
ties. Next, the paper reviews the implementation of the first,
second, third, and fourth cycles of experiments; for each cycle
the experimental strategies, trial management, integration of
experimental and survey results, and implications for further
research are discussed. The program resulted in two recom-
mendations nitrogen fertilization and an appropriate maize
variety for extension to Les Cayes farmers. Furthermore,
based on a 1983 evaluation of the program, the on-farm
research methodologies used at Les Cayes will be extended to
other regions and target crops in Haiti beginning in early 1985.


Vol. II, 1985










SUBJECT AND GEOGRAPHIC INDEX


Africa 005,083
Africa south of Sahara 040
Agricultural development 014
Agricultural districts 042
Agricultural economics 006,023,035
Agricultural extension 004,008,073
Agricultural extension agents 070,083
Agricultural planning 015
Agricultural product marketing 023
Agricultural production 004,088,094,097
Agricultural production management 015
Agricultural productivity 005,031,077
Agricultural surveys 009,019,046,064,077,081,091
Agricultural technology
001,004,009,018,032,068,072,078,
079,084,089,090
Agrometeorology 085,096
Agronomy 058
Algeria 020
Andean region 027,090
Animal diets 059
Animal feeding 059,060,075,087
Animal husbandry 005,022,024,026,040,099
Animal nutrition 022,026
Animal traction 041,088
Anthropologists 035,039
Anthropology research 006
Applied research 003,033
Appropriate technology 084
Aquaculture 069
Arid zone 024
Asia 037,061
Assimilation (nutrient) 025,060
Barley 030,092
Beans 002,059,060,087
Beef cattle 059,060,077
Biological pest control 002
Bolivia 062,092
Botswana 006
Brazil 097,098
Burkina Faso 056,066
Cameroon 057
Case studies 011
Cattle 087
Central America 087
Change agents 027
Climate 030,081
Climatic soils 096
Colombia 062,090
Commercial farming 005
Communication skills 086
Community participation 039
Computer technology 028
Constraints 088
Costa Rica 059,062,078
Cotton 020
Crop pests 002,039
Crop production 020,023,040,051,054,078,080
Crop wastes 059,060,087
Crop weather protection 052
Crop yield 030,045,082
Crop-animal systems 026,040,061,075,080
Cropping patterns 015,016,048,050,051,081,085
Cropping systems
001,009,016,017,020,023,029,044,
049,051,055,063,064,071,074 076,081,088
Cultivars 030
Data analysis 009,028,049
Data collection 004,009,010,013,028,049,056,063,
065,086
Decision making 035,036
Development project design 043
Development strategies 005
Diet 060,094
Dietary protein 060
Double cropping 017
Dry farming 011,018,029,052,071,093,096
Dry forage 087
Eastern Caribbean 023,043
Economic analysis 006,031,048,049,081,097


Economic studies 010,029
Economic surveys 046
Ecosystems 021,044
Ecuador 062,094
Electronic calculating machines 031
Entomology 039
Ethiopia 041
Family farms 007,054,057,083,088,097
Farm income 054,097
Farm management 007,019,045
Farmers 009,019,033,035,045,084
Farming systems 014,032,052,078,096
Feed supplements 059,060
Feeds 059
Fertilizers 045
Fish culture 069
Food consumption patterns 088,097
Food crops 090
Food preparation 025
Food storage 084
Forage crops 022,026
Forage legumes 093
France 026
Government departments 053
Grazing 026
Grazing land 022,093
Guadeloupe 076,077
Guatemala 035,046
Haiti 100
Herders 040
Hills 078
Honduras 025
Household surveys 040
Households 075
Human nutrition 005
Humid zone 004,037,078,085,099
India 010,052
Indonesia 009,051
Insects 039
Institution building 053
Integrated agricultural production 038,061
Integrated pest control 039
Integrated rural development 091
Intercropping 002,017,034,071,082
Interdisciplinary research
001,021,039,044,046,047,074,084,098
Interpersonal communication 086,095
Interviews 010,065,086
Investment 097
Irrigated farming 029
Kenya 024,033,034,054,071,073
Labor migration 054
Land use 038,077,088
Lesotho 054
Linear programming 055
Livestock 005,022,024,054,061,064,080,099
Maize 002,045,094,100
Malawi 045,091
Malaysia 074
Mali 024
Martinique 023
Mathematical models 044
Mechanized farming 088
Men 075
Mixed cropping 002
Mixed farming 061,075
Monoculture 002,034
Mountains 090
Multiple cropping 002,016,037,051
Natural resource management 022
Nepal 063,064
Networks 011
Niger 066
Nigeria 001,032,075,099
Nitrogen 060
Nutrition 094
Nutrition research 025
Oats 092
Off farm employment 054
Oxen 041


Panama 062
Peru 027,047,062
Philippines 018,037,048,079,081
Pigeon peas 082
Plant breeding 030
Plant genetics 030
Plant morphology 030
Plant physiology 030
Plowing 041
Post harvest food losses 084
Potatoes 047,079,084
Questionnaires 010,028,040,065
Rainfall distribution 096
Rainfall intensity 096
Research centers 001
Research collaboration 062
Research design 033,043,045,050,056,068.072
Research economics 067
Research organizations 011,012,074
Research planning 067
Research productivity 067
Research utilization 089
Rice 017,018,039,051,074,081,088
Rural development 098
Sahel 007
Savannas 038
Seasonal cropping 017
Semiarid zone 011,012,024,028,034,071,096,097,
098
Senegal 007
Sheep 026,093
Simulations 057
Site selection 012
Small farms 004,008,020,025,028.033.034.039.
061,078,081,083,087,090,091,098
Small ruminants 075
Social change 027
Socioeconomic aspects 004.020,028.064.075,098
Sociological surveys 046
Sociology research 064
Soil moisture 096
Soil resources 023
Sorghum 025,073,082
Sri Lanka 029
Stable communities 027
Statistical analysis 031
Subsistence farming 005,052.057.083
Sudan 022
Sugar cane 077
Survey methodology 040,065
Surveys 063
Syria 093
Systems analysis 021,024.044
Systems approach 024,044,099
Taiwan 015
Tanzania 052
Technological development 084
Technology adoption 048,069,072,089
Technology assessment 018
Technology transfer 011,079.092
Thailand 016,017.021
Tilling 041
Traditional farming 027,036.052
Traditional technology 069
Tropical fruits 023
Tropical zone 002,004,008,012.023,037,055.078,
085,090
Tunisia 054
Upland cropping 078,090
Varietal research 030
Vegetable crops 015,076.077
Vegetables 023
Venezuela 038
Villages 007,010
Weather forecasting 085
West Africa 055.066
Wheat 092
Women 075
Women in development 091
Zambia 053

Vol. II, 1985










AUTHOR AND INSTITUTION INDEX


Acebedo, Venancio 080
Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation
007,070
Ahmadu Bello University. Institute for Agricultural
Research 001
Altien, Miguel Angel 002
Andrew, Chris O. 003
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
015,085
Bailly, C. 004
Bansal, R.K. 012
Banta, G.R. 017
Barbedette, Loic 083
Behnke, Roy 006
Behnke, Roy, Jr. 005
Bekure, Solomon 040
Benoit-Cattin, M. 008
Benoit-Cattin, Michel 007
Bernsten, R.H. 009
Binswanger, Hans P. 010,011
Bolivia. Ministry of Rural Affairs and Agriculture.
Institute of Agricultural Technology 092
Booth, Robert H. 084
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for
Agricultural Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
028,097,098
Bunderson, W.T. 022
Burford, J.R. 012
Butler, Lorna Michael 013
Byerlee, Derek 014
Calderon, Sandra Patricia 086
Calixte, George 043
Calkins, Peter H. 015
Cameroon. SODECAO 057
Cantrell, Ronald P. 056
Chandrapanya, Damkheong 016,017
Chapman, James A. 018
Chibasa, W.M. 053
Collinson, M.P. 019
Conessa, A.P. 020
Conway, Gordon R. 021
Cook, R.H. 022
Cozic, P. 020
Daly, P. 023
de Haan, Cees 024
DeWalt, Kathleen M. 025
Dolle, V. 026
Dollfus, 0. 027
Doraswamy, Gorantla 028
Dutilleul, J.P. 070
Effendi, Suryatna 051
Enserink, H.J. 073
Escobar B., A. 038
Faye,Jacques 007
Fernando, G.W.E. 029
Finlay, K.W. 030
Flinn, J.C. 031,032
France. Bureau for Development of Agricultural
Production 070
Francis, Charles A. 002
Franzel, Steven 033
Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo Williams 097,098


Gathee, J.W. 034
Gladwin, Christina H. 035,036
Gomez, A.A. 037
Gomez, K.A. 037
Gonzalez J., E. 038
Goodell, G.E. 039
Grandin, Barbara E. 040
Gryseels, Guido 041
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public
Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and
Technology 086
Harrington, L.W. 042
Harrington, Larry 014
Hart, Robert D. 043,044
Hatch, L. Upton 069
Hildebrand, Peter E. 003,045,046
Horton, Douglas E. 047
Institute for Tropical Agronomical Research 057
International Council of French Language 007,070
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics 010
International Development Research Centre
037,047
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 072
International Livestock Centre for Africa
024,040,075,099
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
042,094,100
International Potato Center 084
Ismail, Inu G. 051
Jodha, N.S. 010,052
Johnson, Dennis V. 090
Kansas State University 043
Kean, S.A. 053
Kenmore, P.E. 039
Kerven, Carol 006,054
Kilian, J. 004
Knipscheer, H.C. 055,068
Lagemann, J. 032
Lang, Mahlon G. 056
Leplaideur, A. 057
Li-pun, H.H. 062
Lightfoot, Clive 058
Longuepierre, G. 057
Lozano, E. 059,060
Lynam, J.K. 089
Madamba, Joseph C. 061
Martinez, Juan Carlos 100
Mascarenhas, A.C. 052
Mateo, N. 062
Mathema, S.B. 063,064
Matlon, P.J. 065
Matlon, Peter J. 066
Mclntire, John 067
Menz, K.M. 055,068
Molnar, Joseph J. 069
Morize, J. 070
Mulumba, Kamuanga 088
Muriithi, C.N. 071
Mutsaers, H.J.W. 072
Nataatmadja, Hidayat 009
Njeru, E.S. 073


Noor, Hashim 074
Okali, C. 075
Olivo, R. 087
Pan-African Institute for Development 083
Paris, Thelma R. 081
Picard, D. 076,077
Pinchinat, Antonio M. 044
Platen, H. von 078
Potts, Michael J. 079
Price, Edwin 080
Price, Edwin C. 081
Rao, M.R. 082
Ravignan, Francois de 083
Rhoades, Robert E. 084
Riley, James J. 085
Rodriguez P., G. 078
Ruano, Sergio 046
Ruano, Sergio A. 086
Ruiz, A. 060
Ruiz, M.E. 059,087
Ryan, James G. 011
Sail, Samba 088
Sanders, J.H. 089
Sanders, John H. 090
Santos, Amado B. de los 079
Senegal. Institute for Agricultural Research. Center
for Agricultural Research of Djibelor 088
Servant, J. 077
Spring, Anita 091
Stillwell, Thomas Carroll 092
Sumberg, J.E. 075
Thomson, Euan F. 093
Tourte, R. 008
Tripp, Robert 042,094
Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center.
Department of Crop Production 078
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
044
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Africa. Malawi 091
Bureau for Development Support. Office of
Agriculture 015
Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Regional Development Office 043
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination. Office
of Women in Development 091
Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Agriculture 075,084
University of Florida 091
University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences 045
University of London. Imperial College of Science and
Technology. Centre for Environmental Technology
021
Vallee, Gilbert Jean A. 028
Van Der Veen, M.G. 063,064
Vierich, Helga 095
Virmani, S.M. 096
Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel 097,098
von Kaufmann, R. 099
Wilkinson, G.N. 030
Willey, R.W. 082


Vol. II, 1985









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of FSR documents free. Employees of A.I.D. contractors in the U.S. may receive free copies only when order is accompanied by A-I.D. project
officer's certification that requested material is relevant to project.
2 Universities, research centers, government offices, and other institutions located in developing countries may receive free microfiche
copies of up to five titles per FSR issue. Paper copies of FSR may be purchased at the stated price.

3 All other institutions and individuals may purchase microfiche and/or paper copies of FSR documents a! ire s:a:ec cces W-.e croe-
ing, include document number.
PLEASE INDICATE YOUR PREFERENCE FOR PAPER OR MICROFICHE COPIES OF FSR DOCUMENTS. SEND NO PAYMENT! WHERE
APPLICABLE, YOU WILL BE BILLED FOR THE APPROPRIATE DOCUMENT COST AND POSTAL CHARGES.

POUR COMMANDER:


Envoyer les commander a: AID/DIHF/FSR, 7222 47th Street. Chevy Chase. MD 20815. USA
Veuillez tenir compete des definitions suivantes en commandant:
1. NUMERO DE DOCUMENT Ce numero parait au-dessus de Exemple: PN-AA-875
chaque resume, commencez avec
"PN "
2. PRIX Les prix pour des copies en paper Exemple MF $1 08/PC $7 67
(PC) et/ou en microfiche (MF) parals-
sent au-dessus de chaque resume
Les dimensions de la microfiche
sont 105 x 148 mm. 98 feuilles par
fiche, reduction 24x


On est bien encourage
de commander des
microliches pour enter
les frais de paper et de
i post!


C Verifier bien les categories suivantes de clients:
1 Des employes d'A.I.D., des entrepreneurs qui traivaillent pour A.I.D. a I'etranger, et des employes d'agences volontaires a I'etranger
peuvent recevoirgratuitement les documents d'FSR en papieret/ou en microfiche. Des entrepreneurs qui travaillent pourA.I.D. auxEtats-Unisne
peuvent recevoir gratuitement les documents d'FSR que si la command est accompagnee par I'assurance du responsible du project d'A.ID. que
les documents commander se rapportent au project.
2 Des universities. des centres de recherches, des bureaux de gouvernement, etd'autres institutions aux pays en voie dedeveloppement
puevent recevoir gratuitement jusqu' a cinq documents d' FSR en microfiche. On peut acheter les documents en paper au pnx onnie.

3 D'autres institutions et individus peuvent acheter les documents d' FSR en paper ou en microfiche a. s'x cs-"e E -^'a
veuiilez inclure Ie numero de document
VEUILLEZ INDIQUER VOTRE PREFERENCE DE FORMAT PAPERR OU MICROFICHE) DES DOCUMENTS D' FSR. PRIERE DE NE PAS EN-
VOYER DE PAIEMENT! ON ENVERRA UNE FACTURE DETAILLANT LES PRIX DES DOCUMENTS ET LES FRAIS DE POSTE.

PARA PEDIR COPIAS:

A. Envie los formularios a: AID/DIHF/FSR, 7222 47th Street. Chevy Chase. MD 20815. US A iSerecomiendael uso
B Por favor, verifique las siguientes definiciones al pedir las copias: de las mcrofichas' Con-
serve los costs de
1. NUMERO DEL DOCUMENTO: Se encuentra arriba de cada Ejemplo: PN-AAJ-875 papelydecoreo!
resume: se comienza con "PN."
2. PRECIO Los precious de las copias indivi- Elemplo MF $1 08/PC S7 67
duales en papel (PC) y en micro-
ficha (MF) se encuentran abajo
del numero del document Las
medidas de las microfichas son
105 mm x 148 mm, 98 cuadro, @
24x reducci6n
C. Por favor, verifique las siguientes categories de los solicitantes:
1 Los empleados de A.I.D., los contratistas extranjeros de A.I.D., y las organizaciones extranjeras apolladas por A.I.D. c.eceeI -ec-c
gratis las copias en microficha y/o en papel de los documents de FSR. Los empleados de los contratistas de A.I.D. dentro de los E.U. pueden
recibir las copias gratis siempre que sus pedidos sean acompanados por unacertificacion del dirigente del proyecto de A.I.D. lacualconstateque
los documents son relacionados al proyecto.
2. Las universidades, los centros de investigaciones, las oficinas de goblerno, y las otras instituciones en los paises en desarrollo pueden
reciber gratis hasta cinco copias en microficha de los documents presentados en FSR Las copias en papel se pueden comprar al precio
estipulado.
3 Todas las demas institutions y particulares pueden comprar las copias en microficha y/o en papel de ,os oocumen:cs ce FSR a os
precious estipulados. Al solicitar, se debe incluir el numero del document y el titulo del document
POR FAVOR, INDIQUE QUAL ES SU PREFERENCIA, QUE SEA OBTENER LAS COPIAS EN PAPEL O EN MICROFICHA DE LOS DOCUMEN-
TOS. NO HAY QUE REMITIR EL PAGO! CUANDO LE CORRESPOND, USTED SERA FACTURADO POR EL COSTO APROPRIADO DE LOS
DOCUMENTS SOLICITADOS MAS EL COSTO DEL CORREO.
32 Vol. II, 1985








ORDER FORM


Date of order

Name
Title/office
Institution
Room number
Building
Street
City
Country
Postal code



Document number: Paper Copy (PC) Quantity
Microfiche (MF)

100-00 -000 Fpc P
MF
Title

r -------------------------------------------
2 -] --- ] I-] -PC
M F
Title

3. -1 [] PC
MF
Title
"3' D 'D D ~- ------- -------

Title _._
-. ---1r- ----------------- --- ---------------


6. F -1 D1 1 R DR PC
MF
Title

---- ---- _--------------------------------------------
6 PC



D00-D D-D pc --
MF
-. L -I Lr--I L--I I- LI L I Eli-
Title
7. --1 I] Pc
MF
Title
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






8. E li- L 00 I D L L L IC
Title


Send Orders to:
AID/DIHF/FSR
7222 47th Street ENCLOSE NO PAYMENT.
Chevy Chase, MD 20815 You will be invoiced later.


Vol. II, 1985




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